A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.
An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Pathological processes of the LIVER.
Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (1/5406)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (2/5406)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues. (3/5406)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (4/5406)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Variants of ribonuclease inhibitor that resist oxidation. (5/5406)

Human ribonuclease inhibitor (hRI) is a cytosolic protein that protects cells from the adventitious invasion of pancreatic-type ribonucleases. hRI has 32 cysteine residues. The oxidation of these cysteine residues to form disulfide bonds is a rapid, cooperative process that inactivates hRI. The most proximal cysteine residues in native hRI are two pairs that are adjacent in sequence: Cys94 and Cys95, and Cys328 and Cys329. A cystine formed from such adjacent cysteine residues would likely contain a perturbing cis peptide bond within its eight-membered ring, which would disrupt the structure of hRI and could facilitate further oxidation. We find that replacing Cys328 and Cys329 with alanine residues has little effect on the affinity of hRI for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), but increases its resistance to oxidation by 10- to 15-fold. Similar effects are observed for the single variants, C328A hRI and C329A hRI, suggesting that oxidation resistance arises from the inability to form a Cys328-Cys329 disulfide bond. Replacing Cys94 and Cys95 with alanine residues increases oxidation resistance to a lesser extent, and decreases the affinity of hRI for RNase A. The C328A, C329A, and C328A/C329A variants are likely to be more useful than wild-type hRI for inhibiting pancreatic-type ribonucleases in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that replacing adjacent cysteine residues can confer oxidation resistance in a protein.  (+info)

Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori. (6/5406)

Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.  (+info)

The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter. (7/5406)

The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms. In this study we identify amino acid substitutions in region 4 of the RNA polymerase subunit sigma70 that affect Ada-activated transcription at alkA. Substitution to alanine of residues K593, K597, and R603 in sigma70 region 4 results in decreased Ada-dependent binding of RNA polymerase to the alkA promoter in vitro and impairs alkA transcription both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that these residues define a determinant for meAda-sigma70 interaction. In a previous study (P. Landini, J. A. Bown, M. R. Volkert, and S. J. W. Busby, J. Biol. Chem. 273:13307-13312, 1998), we showed that a set of negatively charged amino acids in sigma70 region 4 is involved in meAda-sigma70 interaction at the ada and aidB promoters. However, the alanine substitutions of positively charged residues K593, K597, and R603 do not affect meAda-dependent transcription at ada and aidB. Unlike the sigma70 amino acids involved in the interaction with meAda at the ada and aidB promoters, K593, K597, and R603 are not conserved in sigmaS, an alternative sigma subunit of RNA polymerase mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth. While meAda is able to promote transcription by the sigmaS form of RNA polymerase (EsigmaS) at ada and aidB, it fails to do so at alkA. We propose that meAda can activate transcription at different promoters by contacting distinct determinants in sigma70 region 4 in a manner dependent on the location of the Ada binding site.  (+info)

CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding. (8/5406)

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain.  (+info)

The effects of metabolic inhibitors and ouabain on alanine transport across rabbit ileum, in vitro, have been investigated. Net transport of alanine and Na across short-circuited segments of ileum is virtually abolished by cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate, and ouabain. However, these inhibitors do not markedly depress alanine influx from the mucosal solution, across the brush border, into the intestinal epithelium, and they do not significantly affect the Na dependence of this entry process. The results of this investigation indicate that: (a) the Na dependence of alanine influx does not reflect a mechanism in which the sole function of Na is to link metabolic energy directly to the influx process; and (b) the inhibition of net alanine transport across intestine is, in part, the result of an increased rate coefficient for alanine efflux out of the cell across the brush border. Although these findings do not exclude a direct link between metabolic energy and alanine efflux, the increased ...
1. The metabolism of glutamine and alanine in the lung was studied in rats made septic by a caecal ligation and puncture technique.. 2. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly different in septic rats, but blood pyruvate, lactate, glutamine and alanine concentrations were markedly increased as compared with sham-operated rats. Conversely, blood ketone body and plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in septic rats. Both plasma insulin and plasma glucagon concentrations were markedly elevated in response to sepsis. Sepsis resulted in a negative nitrogen balance.. 3. Sepsis increased the rates of production of glutamine (52.5%, P ,0.001), alanine (38.9%, P ,0.001) and glutamate (48.6%, P ,0.001) by lung slices incubated in vitro.. 4. Sepsis increased lung blood flow by 27.6% (P ,0.05). Blood flow and arteriovenous concentration difference measurement across the lung of septic rats showed an increase in the net exchange rates of glutamine (142.5%, P ,0.001), ...
The focus of this study was the pathways for β-alanine production in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. The major pathway for β-alanine production is the decarboxylation of L-aspartate by L-aspartate-α-decarboxylase (PanD). This enzyme is not essential for the survival for Mtb which implies that an alternative pathway for β-alanine production must exist. We postulated that such a secondary pathway may be based on the oxidation of various polyamines by a polyamine oxidase to give the β-alanine precursor 3-aminopropanal, and therefore set out to find data in support of this hypothesis. Based on sequence homology to the FAD-dependent Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyamine oxidase Fms1, Mtb AofH was identified as a likely candidate. The soluble expression and purification of AofH proved troublesome and lead to the investigation of various techniques to increase protein yield. These methods include fusion to various tags, coexpression with the protein chaperones, ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Hindlimb metabolism in a chronic fetal sheep preparation: fetal autoregulation of alanine uptake. Presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Soc. for Pediatr. Research. 1981 ...
Lower band detected after alanine mutation - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi all, after a serial of alanine mutation on some region of interest of a protein, i noticed substitution of alanine of some amino acid will lead to lower band intensity in western blot. But with higher background band at the lower size. It seems for me theres some degradation of these samples. But i supposed the protein was prepared simultaneously and equally. And the experiment repeated twice wi...
The Alanine Scanning Energetics database (ASEdb) is a searchable database of single alanine mutations in protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, and protein-small molecule interactions for which binding affinities have been experimentally determined. In cases where structures are available, it contains surface areas of the mutated side chain and links to the PDB entries. It is useful for studying the contribution of single amino acids to the energetics of protein interactions, and can be updated by researchers as new data are generated.. ...
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Pathway:Mouse:Alanine and aspartate metabolism KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:Mus musculus:Alanine and aspartate metabolism KEGG]]: Renaming ...
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1L70: Multiple alanine replacements within alpha-helix 126-134 of T4 lysozyme have independent, additive effects on both structure and stability.
Alanine (or aminopropionic acid) is an aliphatic (aromatic-free) amino acid. In the liver, it is easily processed into a glucose source of energy for the body,
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Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human beta alanine TGR7 receptor.
NN Beta Alanine (Nanox) MAISTO PAPILDAS, MILTELIAI 100 PORCIJŲ Vienas kaušelis: 2,5 g Grynasis kiekis: 250 g Sudedamosios dalys: beta alaninas. 100g 1kauš.(2,5g) Energinė vertė 393,1kcal 1647,3kJ 34,3kcal 143,4kJ Baltymai 98,285 g 8,568
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Vezměte 2g - 4g (přibližně 1/2 - 1 odměrka) s dostatečným množstvím vody nebo nápoje 20-30. minut před tréninkem a opět hned po tréninku. Ve dnech bez tréninku podávat 1 dávku 1-2x denně, nejlépe mezi jídly.. ...
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biol ཨེ་ལ་སྐྱུར་རྫས། = སྤྲི་དཀར་མང་པོའི་ནང་མཐོང་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་ལ་བཅོས་མའི་སྦྱོར་སྡེབ་ཀྱིས་ཀྱང་། བཟོ་སྐྲུན་བྱེད་ཐུབ་པའི་ཁ་དོག་མེད་ལ་ཆུའི་ནང་བཞུར་འདྲེས་ཐུབ་པའི་ཨེ་མི་ནོ་ཞེས་པའི་སྐྱུར་རྫས་ཀྱི་རིགས་ཤིག ...
AuxInfo=1/1/N:4,2,3,1,5,6/E:(5,6)/it:im/rA:6nN+CCCOO-/rB:s1;s2;P2;d3;s3;/rC:-1.0717,-.2062,0;-.3572,.2062,0;.3572,-.2062,0;-.3572,1.0312,0;.3572,-1.0312,0;1.0717,.2062,0 ...
2.64G 0.74G 1.50G 6.41G 8G 154G 3.67G 0.81G 0.52G 2.24G 32G 2.21G 3.07G 2.21G 0.11G 2.64G 4.34G 2.83G 1.28G 2.21G 3.07G 3.07G 2.21G 3.48G 1.75G ...
ALA A 144, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ALA ALA A 512, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of novel yeast Rad6 (UBC2) ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mutants constructed by charge-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis. AU - McDonough, Michele M. AU - Sagan, P. AU - Gonda, D. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Ubiquitination of intracellular proteins by the yeast RAD6 (UBC2) ubiquitin-conjugating (E2) enzyme is required for cellular processes as diverse as DNA repair, selective proteolysis, and normal growth. For most RAD6-dependent functions, the relevant in vivo targets, as well as the mechanisms and cofactors that govern RAD6 substrate selectivity, are unknown. We have explored the utility of charge-to-alanine scanning mutagenesis to generate novel RAD6 mutants that are enzymatically competent with respect to unfacilitated (E3-independent) ubiquitination but that are nevertheless severely handicapped with respect to several in vivo functions. Five of the nine mutants we generated show defects in their in vivo functions, but almost all of the most severely affected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - L-alanine absorption in human intestinal Caco-2 cells driven by the proton electrochemical gradient. AU - Thwaites, D T. AU - McEwan, Gordon T.A.. AU - Brown, C D. AU - Hirst, B H. AU - Simmons, N L. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - In human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial layers, L-alanine absorption can be energized by a proton gradient across the brush-border membrane. Acidification of the apical medium, even in Na(+)-free media, is associated with a saturable net transepithelial absorption of L-alanine. L-Alanine transport causes cytosolic acidification consistent with proton/amino acid symport. L-Alanine transport in Na(+)-free media is rheogenic, stimulating an inward short-circuit current in voltage-clamped epithelial monolayers. By measurement of rapid L-alanine influx across the apical membrane, L-alanine-stimulated inward short-circuit current and intracellular acidification in the same cell batch, we estimate L-alanine/proton stoichiometry to be 1:0.62 +/- 0.25 (SD) ...
These data demonstrate that chronic hyperglucagonemia, when accompanied by increases in gluconeogenic precursor availability and adequate circulating concentrations of NEFA, can contribute to the infection-induced increase in glucose production and gluconeogenesis. These data confirm that even in an animal reliant predominantly on gluconeogenesis, combined increases in lactate and alanine uptake by the liver are unable to increase hepatic glucose output. If the substrate-induced suppression of NEFAs is prevented and/or NEFAs are increased, increases in gluconeogenic precursor supply can support an increase in hepatic glucose production.. Chronic hyperglucagonemia markedly enhanced the importance of the liver in disposal of the exogenous alanine. As expected, the uptake of alanine by the liver increased in parallel with the rise in alanine levels. This is reflected in the constancy of net fractional hepatic alanine extraction in the face of increases in blood alanine concentration (6). ...
Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 µmoles/hr cm2, but is inhibited if the NaCl in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline Cl, Tris-Cl, mannitol, LiCl, or KCl. Although alanine influx is strongly dependent upon Na in the mucosal solution, it is uninfluenced by marked reduction of intracellular Na pools. In addition, alanine influx is unaffected by intracellular alanine concentration. Na influx is markedly inhibited by the presence of Li. Evidence is presented that Na transport across the mucosal border cannot be attributed to simple diffusion even though the net flux across this surface is in the direction of the electrochemical potential difference.. ...
Although the stimulatory effect of glucagon on gluconeogenesis has been well demonstrated in certain systems in vitro, this effect has never been established in man. The present study was undertaken, therefore, to determine whether glucagon could stimulate gluconeogenesis from alanine in normal fasting man. Glucagon might stimulate this process by increasing the hepatic alanine uptake and/or by shunting the extracted alanine within the liver into the gluconeogenic pathway. In order to be able to examine these two aspects of gluconeogenesis, we combined the hepatic veinbrachial artery catheterization technic with an isotopic infusion of alanine-14C. Alanine-14C specific activity was measured in whole blood and plasma by use of a rapid chromatographic technic. Since plasma contributed 93 per cent of the alanine extracted by the splanchnic bed with a specific activity three times that of the red blood cells, plasma alanine specific activity was used to study the conversion of alanine to glucose. A ...
Alanine dipeptide is one of the simplest molecules that exhibits some important features common to larger biomolecules. In particular, it has more than one long-lived conformation, which we will identify in this exercise by mapping out its potential energy surface. The conformations of alanine dipeptide are characterized by the dihedral angles of the backbone. Below, we color carbons in green, hydrogens in white, oxygen in red and nitrogen in blue, i.e. the torsional angle $\phi$ is C-N-C-C, while $\psi$ is N-C-C-N along the backbone. ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Alanine/serine/cysteine transporter 2 - Alanine/serine/cysteine transporter subfamily. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Bet alanine can help ward off fatigue leading to more intense and longer training sessions. Many users experience intense vasodilatation/pumps from the very first dose of Beta Alanine as carnosine is a powerful precursor in generating nitric oxide synthase.
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Accepted name: β-alanine pyruvate transaminase. Reaction: L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate = pyruvate + β-alanine. Other name(s): β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; β-alanine-α-alanine transaminase. Systematic name: L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 61461-61-8. References: 1. Hayaishi, O., Nishizuka, Y., Tatibana, M., Takeshita, M. and Kuno, S. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of β-alanine. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 781-790.. 2. Stinson, R.A. and Spencer, M.S. β-Aalanine aminotransferase(s) from a plant source. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1969) 120-127. [PMID: 5762452]. ...
Alanine dipeptide is often studied in theoretical work because it is among the simplest systems to exhibit some of the important features common to biomolecules. It has more than one long-lived conformational state. The relevant angles are the dihedral angles of the backbone, commonly called Φ and Ψ (see figure). In the following scheme, light blue atoms are carbons, white ones are hydrogens, red are oxygens, and blue are nitrogens. So the torsional angle Φ is C-N-C-C and Ψ is N-C-C-N along the backbone ...
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11571PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic peptide 1Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly 1 5 10 15 Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu 20 25 30 Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro 35 40 45 Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly 50 55 60 Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala 65 70 75 80 Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro 85 90 95 Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly 100 105 110 Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val 115 120 125 Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro Gly Pro Ala Gly Ala Pro 130 135 140 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly 145 150 155 160 Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala 165 170 175 Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Pro 180 185 190 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro ...
L-Alanine (C3 H7 NO2) is a non-essential amino acid which may be considered essential under some circumstances. L-Alanine is highly concentrated in muscle tissue. Excess L-Alanine may be broken down into glucose and used as an energy source. L-Alanine can also function as an inhibitory or calming neurotransmitter in th
One of the amino acids found in the structure of the muscle is Beta-alanine. Beta Alanine does not generally contribute to synthesizing proteins
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DNP-β-alanine; CAS Number: 3185-97-5; Synonym: N-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)-β-alanine; Linear Formula: C9H9N3O6; find Sigma-Aldrich-D7129 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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Beta alanine is an amino acid used frequently as a sports supplement. It boosts carnosine synthesis and helps with fatigue and building lean muscle mass
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:93:\FORMATION OF 14C-LABELED ALANINE FROM PYRUVATE DURING SHORT TERM PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN A C4 PLANT\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1974\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:7:\KENNEDY\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\RA\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:2:{i:0;s:10:\KENNEDY RA\;i:1;s:10:\LAETSCH ...
BioAssay record AID 857138 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 9 hr; Dose: Low; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase); Study_ID: 427/7.
BioAssay record AID 852624 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 6 hr; Dose: Low; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase); Study_ID: 408/6.
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Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β -alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has...
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Alanine[edit]. Alanine is produced by the transamination of one molecule of pyruvate using two alternate steps: 1) conversion ... Pyruvate: alanine, valine, and leucine[edit]. Pyruvate, the end result of glycolysis, can feed into both the TCA cycle and ... Alanine and aspartate are synthesized by the transamination of pyruvate and oxaloacetate, respectively. Glutamine is ... Not much is known about the regulation of alanine synthesis. The only definite method is the bacterium's ability to repress ...
Alanine. *Ammonia, NH3. *Methylamine, CH3NH2. *Ammoniumhydroxide, NH4OH ...
Alanine. 1.436 g. Aspartic acid. 2.200 g. Glutamic acid. 3.610 g. Glycine. 1.583 g. ...
Alanine. 0.662 g. Aspartic acid. 1.368 g. Glutamic acid. 2.885 g. Glycine. 0.708 g. ...
Alanine. 1.027 g. Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. Glutamic acid. 6.810 g. Glycine. 1.469 g. ...
Alanine, glycine, and serine bind to the glutamate substrate site. GDP, AMP, ADP bind to the ATP site.[6] L-serine, L-alanine, ... "Feedback inhibition of fully unadenylylated glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium by glycine, alanine, and serine" ... Other inhibitors/regulators are glycine and alanine. ...
Alanine. 0.509 g. Aspartic acid. 1.222 g. Glutamic acid. 2.393 g. Glycine. 0.650 g. ...
Alanine. 1.528 g. Aspartic acid. 3.662 g. Glutamic acid. 6.269 g. Glycine. 1.611 g. ...
Alanine. Varies. 3.647 g. 4.992 g 8.983 g. 5.252 g. 4.448 g. 5.597 g. 4.609 g. 7.856 g. 7.7 g. 4.343 g. N/A. 6.458 g ...
... alanines. Humans express one kynureninase enzyme that is encoded by the KYNU gene located on chromosome 2.[6][7] ...
Alanine. 0.700 g. Aspartic acid. 1.264 g. Glutamic acid. 1.644 g. Glycine. 0.423 g. ...
Alanine. 4.515 g. Aspartic acid. 5.793 g. Glutamic acid. 8.386 g. Glycine. 3.099 g. ...
This reaction, and by extension the glycine cleavage system, is required for photorespiration in C3 plants. The glycine cleavage system takes glycine, which is created from an unwanted byproduct of the Calvin cycle, and converts it to serine which can reenter the cycle. The ammonia generated by the glycine cleavage system, is assimilated by the Glutamine synthetase-Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycle but costs the cell one ATP and one NADPH. The upside is that one CO2 is produced for every two O2 that are mistakenly taken up by the cell, generating some value in an otherwise energy depleting cycle. Together the proteins involved in these reactions comprise about half the proteins in mitochondria from spinach and pea leaves.[3] The glycine cleavage system is constantly present in the leaves of plants, but in small amounts until they are exposed to light. During peak photosynthesis, the concentration of the glycine cleavage system increases ten-fold.[7] In the anaerobic bacteria, ...
Alanine. 0.161 g. Aspartic acid. 0.417 g. Glutamic acid. 0.312 g. Glycine. 0.124 g. ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
Alanine. 0.836 g. Aspartic acid. 1.550 g. Glutamic acid. 0.595 g. Glycine. 0.488 g. ...
Alanine. 0.170 g. Aspartic acid. 0.325 g. Glutamic acid. 0.761 g. Glycine. 0.158 g. ...
Alanine. 0.799 g. Aspartic acid. 1.261 g. Glutamic acid. 2.259 g. Glycine. 1.636 g. ...
... crosses the protective blood-brain barrier, whereas dopamine itself cannot. Thus, L-DOPA is used to increase dopamine concentrations in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia. This treatment was made practical and proven clinically by George Cotzias and his coworkers, for which they won the 1969 Lasker Prize.[4][5] Once L-DOPA has entered the central nervous system, it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor in this reaction, and may occasionally be administered along with L-DOPA, usually in the form of pyridoxine.. Besides the central nervous system, L-DOPA is also converted into dopamine from within the peripheral nervous system. Excessive peripheral dopamine signaling causes many of the adverse side effects seen with sole L-DOPA administration. To bypass these effects, it is standard clinical practice to coadminister (with ...
... is an oxidase that is the rate-limiting enzyme for controlling the production of melanin. The enzyme is mainly involved in two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis otherwise known as the Raper Mason pathway. Firstly, the hydroxylation of a monophenol and secondly, the conversion of an o-diphenol to the corresponding o-quinone. o-Quinone undergoes several reactions to eventually form melanin.[5] Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme present in plant and animal tissues that catalyzes the production of melanin and other pigments from tyrosine by oxidation. It is found inside melanosomes which are synthesized in the skin melanocytes. In humans, the tyrosinase enzyme is encoded by the TYR gene.[6] ...
Alanine Ala A MT-TA 5,587-5,655 H Arginine Arg R MT-TR 10,405-10,469 L ...
The D-alanine in peptidoglycans that comprise bacterial cell walls helps its host resist attack by proteolytic enzymes. Several ...
Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
Agonists: β-Alanine. *β-ABA (BABA). *β-AIBA. *Caesium. *D-Alanine. *D-Serine ...
Inhibitors: β-Alanine. *Bafilomycin A1. *Chicago sky blue 6B. *Evans blue. *GABA ...
... poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries.[28] Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which usurps the space in hemoglobin that normally carries oxygen, but is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues. Concentrations as low as 667 ppm may cause up to 50% of the body's hemoglobin to convert to carboxyhemoglobin.[29] A level of 50% carboxyhemoglobin may result in seizure, coma, and fatality. In the United States, the OSHA limits long-term workplace exposure levels above 50 ppm.[30]. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may resemble other types of poisonings and infections, including symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, and a feeling of weakness. Affected families often believe they are victims of food poisoning. Infants may be irritable and feed poorly. Neurological signs include confusion, ...
Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts ... The noticeable difference between the two subunits that make up LDH's tertiary structure is the replacement of alanine (in the ...
... is a peptide of nine amino acids (a nonapeptide) in the sequence cysteine-tyrosine-isoleucine-glutamine-asparagine-cysteine-proline-leucine-glycine-amide (Cys - Tyr - Ile - Gln - Asn - Cys - Pro - Leu - Gly - NH2, or CYIQNCPLG-NH2); its C-terminus has been converted to a primary amide and a disulfide bridge joins the cysteine moieties.[116] Oxytocin has a molecular mass of 1007 Da, and one international unit (IU) of oxytocin is the equivalent of about 2 μg of pure peptide. While the structure of oxytocin is highly conserved in placental mammals, a novel structure of oxytocin was recently reported in marmosets, tamarins, and other new world primates. Genomic sequencing of the gene for oxytocin revealed a single in-frame mutation (thymine for cytosine) which results in a single amino acid substitution at the 8-position (proline for leucine).[117] Since this original Lee et al. paper, two other laboratories have confirmed Pro8-OT and documented additional oxytocin structural variants in ...
from alanine (Alanine cycle):. *Alanine transaminase. from glycerol:. *Glycerol kinase. *Glycerol dehydrogenase ...
Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
... (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 22 ... L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 ... Alanine can be manufactured in the body from pyruvate and branched chain amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. ... The α-carbon atom of alanine is bound with a methyl group (-CH3), making it one of the simplest α-amino acids with respect to ...
The complete data for Alanine. General information. Chemical formula: C3H7NO2 Molar mass: 89.1 g·mol−1. Systematic name:. (S)-2 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alanine_(data_page)&oldid=640072093" ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
Mus musculus alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt1) mRNA, complete cds. P. NM_016702.2. Mus musculus alanine-glyoxylate ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. C. reinhardtii. 50.3. 382. NP_495885.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. X. laevis. 66.8. 405. NP_001002331.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * ... Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt). Mouse protein-coding gene Agxt. Represented by 68 ESTs from 15 cDNA libraries. EST ...
... is a D-α-amino acid (CHEBI:16733) D-alanine (CHEBI:15570) is a alanine (CHEBI:16449) D-alanine (CHEBI: ... D-alanine (CHEBI:15570) is enantiomer of L-alanine (CHEBI:16977) D-alanine (CHEBI:15570) is tautomer of D-alanine zwitterion ( ... L-alanine (CHEBI:16977) is enantiomer of D-alanine (CHEBI:15570). D-alanine residue (CHEBI:29949) is substituent group from D- ... β-(2-thienyl)-D-alanine (CHEBI:77819) has functional parent D-alanine (CHEBI:15570). D-alanine derivative (CHEBI:83944) has ...
... is a alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:66916) L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972) is tautomer of L- ... L-alanine (CHEBI:16977) is tautomer of L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972). ... CHEBI:57972 - L-alanine zwitterion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... Zwitterionic form of L-alanine arising from transfer of a proton from the carboxy to the amino group; major species at pH 7.3. ...
Beta-alanine, a variant of natural L-alanine, is not a constituent of proteins but is part of pantothenic acid, vitamin B5. ... Alanine deficiency has been seen in hypoglycemia, and alanine supplementation may be helpful in treating this condition. ... Alanine is an important part of human muscle tissue and is found readily in protein foods, including beef, pork, turkey, and ... Glucose can be made from alanine in the liver or muscles when energy is needed, and thus it may help maintain the blood sugar ...
... alanine: …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich source of L- ... alanine is silk fibroin, from which the amino acid was first isolated in 1879. Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential ... alanine. * In alanine. …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich ... Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for birds and mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from… ...
We supply D-ALANINE (1-13C). More information please visit the website:http://www.creative-peptides.com/product/d-alanine-13c- ...
Other names: «beta»-Aminopropionic acid; Abufene; Alanine, beta-; Propanoic acid, 3-amino-; 3-Aminopropanoic acid; 3- ... Aminopropionic acid; «omega»-Aminopropionic acid; 2-Carboxyethylamine; NSC 7603; Beta-alanine *Information on this page: *Notes ...
An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test helps doctors diagnose problems with the liver, such as hepatitis or liver disease. ... "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 11 Jan. 2019. Web.. 17 Sep. ... Fletcher, J. (2019, January 11). "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ... The liver makes several enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. These enzymes help break down proteins so that the ...
Beta-alanine is an amino acid that is often taken as a sports supplement. It can improve exercise performance and boost overall ... Supplementing with beta-alanine has been shown to elevate carnosine levels in muscles by 80% (. 4. , 5. , 6. , 7. , 8. ). ... Beta-alanine can help increase exercise volume. This could lead to increases in lean body mass - although the evidence is mixed ... Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. Your body uses it to produce carnosine, which helps improve exercise performance. ...
Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. . Plant J. 49, 1108-1121 ( ... Other constitutive alanine aminotransferases catalyse α-ketoglutarate+alanine↔glutamate+pyruvate pathway ubiquitously. Embryo ... Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. *Kazuhiro Sato1. *, Miki Yamane1. *, Nami Yamaji1. *, Hiroyuki ... How to cite this article: Sato, K. et al. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. Nat. Commun. 7:11625 doi: ...
MusclePharm, Beta Alanine 3 Results (showing 1 - 3) Visit Manufacturers Website » How Can Beta-Alanine Boost Exercise ... Brands A-Z MusclePharm Beta Alanine Categories Supplements Amino Acids Beta Alanine Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout ...
If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
Brands A-Z Now Foods Beta Alanine Categories Supplements Amino Acids Beta Alanine Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout ... Now Foods, Beta Alanine 2 Results (showing 1 - 2) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alanine transaminase, SGPT) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and ... The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ...
Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system ... It was learned that the effect is intrinsic to alanine and is not dependent on the chemical form or manufacturing formulation ... The study postulated that the production of one (or more) of the radiation-induced alanine radicals is dependent on the dose ... Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system ...
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found mostly in liver and kidney cells. ALT is released into the blood when the ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found mostly in the cells of the liver and kidney. Much smaller amounts of it are ... The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test is typically used to detect liver injury. It is often ordered in conjunction with ... The function of ALT is to convert alanine, an amino acid found in proteins, into pyruvate, an important intermediate in ...
I have a study that I can send any of you if you want regarding beta-alanine supplementation. Short-duration β-alanine ... Subjects were randomly divided into a supplement (β-alanine group [BA], 4.5 g·d−1 of β-alanine) or placebo (placebo group [P], ... Beta-Alanine. Ask and answer questions, discuss research and applications. Moderators: Ironman, Jungledoc, jethrof, parth, ... Almost everything on line about B-alanine is either on a site that sells it, or a site devoted exclusively to promoting it (and ...
... , Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase, Serum ALT, ALT, SGPT, ... Alanine Aminotransferase. search Alanine Aminotransferase, Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase, Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase ...
Find patient medical information for BETA-ALANINE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, ... B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-am.... See All Names3- ... B-alanine, B-aminopropionic Acid, Beta-alanina, Bêta-Alanine, Beta-alanine Ethyl Ester, Beta-amino Acid, Non-essential Amino ... BETA-ALANINE Side Effects & Safety. Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. Side ...
... ANSWER The alanine aminotransferase test (ALT) is a blood test ...
... beta-alanine and baking soda. Whats interesting is that both are supposed to work in roughly the same way, by counteracting ... In the time-to-exhaustion test, beta-alanine but not baking soda offered an advantage (BAl is beta-alanine, SB is baking soda, ... The beta-alanine protocol was six weeks starting at 4.8 g/day and increasing to 6.4 g/day for the last two weeks; the baking ... Beta-alanine is converted in the body to a substance called carnosine, which works within the muscle cells to keep pH stable. ...
... ,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in ... Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT). 2. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Liquid. 3. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) GPT. 4. Aspartate ...
... β-alanine; Linear Formula: C9H9N3O6; find Sigma-Aldrich-D7129 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar ... DNP-β-alanine; CAS Number: 3185-97-5; Synonym: N-(2,4-Dinitrophenyl)- ...
Fermentation routes to L-alanine are complicated by alanine racemase. Racemic alanine can be prepared by the condensation of ... is so-called alanine scanning, where every position in turn is mutated to alanine. Hydrogenation of alanine give the amino ... forming alanine and α-ketoglutarate. The alanine enters the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. The alanine ... Alanine is an aliphatic amino acid, because the side-chain connected to the α-carbon atom is a methyl group (-CH3); alanine is ...
Redirected from Alanine aminotransferase). Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called ... "Alanine aminotransferase: analyte monograph" (PDF). Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved 7 ... ALT catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-alanine to α-ketoglutarate, the products of this reversible transamination ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ...
Beta-alanine synonyms, Beta-alanine pronunciation, Beta-alanine translation, English dictionary definition of Beta-alanine. n. ... alanine. (redirected from Beta-alanine). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. al·a·nine. (ăl′ə-nēn′). n. ... Beta-alanine - definition of Beta-alanine by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Beta-alanine ... Beta-alanine ([beta]-ALA; 1.. Repeated supramaximal exercise-induced oxidative stress: effect of [beta]-alanine plus creatine ...
Alanine. ALT(Alanine transaminase). ALANINE BIOSYNTHESIS. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid.. Alanine is found in a wide ... GLUCOSE-ALANINE CYCLE (G-A CYCLE). WHAT?. WHEN?. WHO?. WHERE?. HOW?. WHY?. WHAT?. Also known as Cahill cycle or alanine cycle.A ... Alanine is the major amino acid present when muscle (protein) is degraded.. Good sources of alanine include:. Animal sources: ... The alanine then enters the blood stream and is transported to the liver.. Alanine is returned to the liver for gluconeogenesis ...
  • Alanine deficiency has been seen in hypoglycemia, and alanine supplementation may be helpful in treating this condition. (healthy.net)
  • I have a study that I can send any of you if you want regarding beta-alanine supplementation. (exrx.net)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 30 days of β-alanine supplementation in collegiate football players on anaerobic performance measures. (exrx.net)
  • Both oral carnosine and beta-alanine ([beta]-ALA) supplementation have been explored to raise muscle carnosine levels. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Harris, "Influence of oral beta-alanine and L-histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius," Equine Veterinary Journal, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine (CarnosynTM) supplementation in elderly subjects (60-80 years): effects on muscle carnosine content and physical capacity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplementation has been well studied in research and has good results in athletes who are hitting threshold and VO2 power zones. (saris.com)
  • Save the beta-alanine supplementation for times of the year when you are doing explosive training such as plyometrics, short punchy hill repeats, big gear sprints or shorter, more intense races such as crits, time trials or cross. (saris.com)
  • However, the most notable method of increasing beta-alanine is through supplementation. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Only when the body has excess beta-alanine (via supplementation) does it yield elevated muscle carnosine levels. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 1,2,3 Although aerobic power is not improved, there is some data to suggest that anaerobic threshold is improved with beta-alanine supplementation. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Specifically, it has been shown that 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation at a dosage of 4-6.4 grams per day increases carnosine levels in muscle by approximately 60 percent. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplementation does not appear to have a strong effect on endurance performance. (bodybuilding.com)
  • 2 Beta-alanine supplementation began 3 weeks before preseason training camp and continued for an additional nine days during camp. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Studies show that beta alanine supplementation helps to produce the powerful muscle buffer carnosine in the body like nothing else. (netrition.com)
  • Supplementation with Beta-Alanine has been shown to be a precursor that increases the concentration of Carnosine in muscles, decrease fatigue in athletes and increase total muscular work done. (ageforce.com)
  • Increased vascularity and pump is also correlated with Beta Alanine supplementation, as well as flushing of the face and tingling in the extremities. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Don't worry, this is nothing to be alarmed about, and just means that the Beta Alanine is working, and this effect will fade as supplementation occurs regularly. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • The investigation, published ​ ​ in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ​, looked at whether beta-alanine supplementation would improve power output, kilograms lifted, and movement velocity during a circuit of leg exercise tests. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • They found that five weeks of supplementation with 6.4 g per day of beta-alanine led to increases in power output, kilograms lifted, and number of sets executed compared to a placebo group. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • To test the researchers' hypothesis that beta-alanine supplementation would improve power output, kilograms lifted, movement velocity, and lower average power losses, they created a five-week long training program for all participants. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The present study aimed to investigate whether oral β-alanine supplementation could reduce acidosis during high-intensity cycling and thereby affect oxygen uptake kinetics. (springer.com)
  • Exercise-induced acidosis was significantly reduced following β-alanine supplementation compared to placebo, without affecting blood lactate and bicarbonate concentrations. (springer.com)
  • The time delay of the fast component (Td 1 ) of the oxygen uptake kinetics was significantly reduced following β-alanine supplementation compared to placebo, although this did not reduce oxygen deficit. (springer.com)
  • These results indicate that chronic β-alanine supplementation, which presumably increased muscle carnosine content, can attenuate the fall in blood pH during high-intensity exercise. (springer.com)
  • Derave W, Ozdemir MS, Harris RC, Pottier A, Reyngoudt H, Koppo K, Wise JA, Achten E (2007) Beta-alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. (springer.com)
  • β-Alanine is also the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, as a result supplementation with β-alanine increases the concentration of carnosine in muscles. (lookchem.com)
  • Some evidence suggests that beta-alanine may benefit body composition. (healthline.com)
  • As the authors point out, this suggests that beta-alanine may boost performance through entirely different mechanisms (one possibility they mention is that carnosine is an antioxidant). (runnersworld.com)
  • On the other hand, strong evidence suggests that beta-alanine effects anaerobic performance, including power output and fatigue threshold. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Beta-alanine is a popular supplement among athletes and fitness enthusiasts. (healthline.com)
  • Subjects were randomly divided into a supplement (β-alanine group [BA], 4.5 g·d−1 of β-alanine) or placebo (placebo group [P], 4.5 g·d−1 of maltodextrin) group. (exrx.net)
  • ER: Carnosine is an extremely safe compound that's composed of the amino acids beta-alanine and L-histidine and should be on your daily supplement list. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Enter nutrition science and the supplement beta-alanine. (saris.com)
  • When taken as a supplement, alanine is released by the muscles into the bloodstream. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Sustained Release of a Beta-Alanine dietary supplement provides an even supply of beta-alanine to your muscles. (ageforce.com)
  • Beta-Alanine has become a very popular supplement but for those who don't know, your body makes carnosine but cannot make enough to effectively block the buildup of lactic acid. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • If you've taken a pre-workout or energy supplement and have experienced a slight, energizing tingle on your skin, chances are, it's from Beta Alanine. (a1supplements.com)
  • It's also present in meat and fish, but many fitness and endurance athletes supplement with Beta-Alanine to get even more performance enhancing benefits. (a1supplements.com)
  • Because Beta Alanine is such a key performance ingredient, we've included it in the Basic Training Series lineup so you can take it by itself before training, add it to a product that doesn't already include Beta-Alanine, or add more to your current all-in-one pre-workout supplement, like Total War for additional benefits. (a1supplements.com)
  • Adding Beta Alanine from APS to your supplement program means blocking lactic acid, thereby slowing fatigue. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The Australian sports scientist has shown that a daily supplement containing 6 g beta-alanine can help runners reduce their time on the 800 m by almost four seconds. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alanine transaminase, SGPT) - serum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is also called alanine aminotransferase ( ALAT ) and was formerly called serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) or serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and was first characterized in the mid-1950s by Arthur Karmen and colleagues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transamination of pyruvate by alanine transaminase, ALT (also referred to as serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, SGPT). (prezi.com)
  • Other names for alanine amino transferase include serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alanine transaminase or just plain ALT. (livestrong.com)
  • Prolab Beta Alanine Extreme delays muscle fatigue and helps extend high intensity training sessions with a dynamic blend of CarnoSyn beta alanine and the amino acid L-histidine. (netrition.com)
  • ProLab Beta Alanine Extreme gives you a dose of there signature Carnosyn Beta Alanine! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • *Carnosyn® Beta Alanine enhances athletic performance and exercise capacity helping you build more lean muscle mass. (prolab.com)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme contains CarnoSyn beta alanine and L-histidine in precise dosages for maximum effectiveness. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • The firms were accused of infringing NAI's US patent #8,067,381 ​ covering its CarnoSyn beta-alanine product in lawsuits filed in Texas earlier this year along with DNP International, Woodbolt Distribution, Vitaquest International (doing business as Garden State Nutritionals) and F.H.G. Corporation (doing business as Integrity Nutraceuticals). (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • NAI claims that the only licensed distributor of its CarnoSyn beta-alanine product is the distributor Compound Solutions, Inc, but said neither defendant had purchased beta-alanine from Compound Solutions. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Under the terms of the settlement agreement with BPI and Image, both will purchase CarnoSyn beta-alanine from Compound Solutions pursuant to a separate supply agreement between the parties and will receive a license from NAI to its IP rights regarding CarnoSyn. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • We look forward to partnering with these prominent brands who chose to respect NAI's extensive beta-alanine patent rights in return for a long-term business solution to exclusively use NAI's CarnoSyn beta-alanine in their products. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The liver makes several enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The concentrations of several liver enzymes in your blood, including alanine aminotransferase, serve as good indicators of liver damage. (livestrong.com)
  • Nemours Foundation: "Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT). (webmd.com)
  • An ALT test measures the level of alanine aminotransferase, also called ALT or SGPT. (kidshealth.org)
  • Since beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine levels, they help your muscles reduce their acid levels during exercise. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplements increase carnosine, which reduces the acidity in your muscles during high-intensity exercise. (healthline.com)
  • Similarly, 20 men on a comparable cycling test increased their time to exhaustion by 13-14% after four weeks of beta-alanine supplements ( 13 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. (webmd.com)
  • Although you can take supplements of alanine, it is recommended to meet the needs of this amino acid through a balanced diet . (botanical-online.com)
  • The researchers recommended future studies to examine the effects of taking both beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplements during a strength training program, as well as possible interactions or synergistic effects of caffeine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta Alanine a staple ingredient in many pre-workout supplements, and for very good reason, it helps enhance muscular endurance and can improve performance by reducing exhaustion or fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • We thank Dr. John Wise and Natural Alternatives International (San Marcos, CA) for generously providing the β-alanine (CarnoSyn) and placebo supplements. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate , whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine . (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase . (wikipedia.org)
  • The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found mostly in the cells of the liver and kidney. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In the second step, the amino group of the newly-formed glutamate is transferred to pyruvate by an aminotransferase enzyme, regenerating the α-ketoglutarate, and converting the pyruvate to alanine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } pyruvate + NH3 + NADH + H+ The 2 substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine, water, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ because water is 55M and does not change, whereas its 4 products are pyruvate, ammonia, NADH, and hydrogen ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating). (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine transaminase ( ALT ) is a transaminase enzyme ( EC 2.6.1.2 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. (cigna.com)
  • Your body uses the enzyme alanine aminotransferase to transfer amino, or NH2 groups, from one molecule to another. (livestrong.com)
  • Alanine aminotransferase is an enzyme required for the body's proper functioning. (uniprix.com)
  • an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group from alanine to α-ketoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • L -Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 proteins . (princeton.edu)
  • Beta-alanine, a variant of natural L-alanine, is not a constituent of proteins but is part of pantothenic acid, vitamin B5. (healthy.net)
  • one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. (britannica.com)
  • The function of ALT is to convert alanine, an amino acid found in proteins, into pyruvate, an important intermediate in cellular energy production. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The L-isomer of alanine (left-handed) is the one that is incorporated into proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine is also very abundant (over-represented) in low complexity regions of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine is one of the twenty canonical α-amino acids used as building blocks (monomers) for the ribosome-mediated biosynthesis of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not to be confused with regular alanine, beta- alanine is classified as a non-proteinogenic amino acid, as it is not believed to be used in the building of proteins. (bullshido.net)
  • Beta-alanine is a type of amino acid that isn't involved in synthesizing proteins (i.e., building muscle). (bodybuilding.com)
  • Supplementing with beta-alanine has been shown to elevate carnosine levels in muscles by 80% ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine increases carnosine levels, which may have several health benefits. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-Alanine works by increasing muscle carnosine levels, buffering lactic acid that builds up during high-intensity exercise, which can reduce muscle burn and fatigue. (ageforce.com)
  • Beta Alanine increases the carnosine levels inside your muscles. (prolab.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is a precursor to carnosine, and is shown to increase carnosine levels, which increases mucle PH, thus controlling musclar fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • ALT catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-alanine to α-ketoglutarate , the products of this reversible transamination reaction being pyruvate and L-glutamate . (wikipedia.org)
  • Catalyzes the reversible transamination between alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to form pyruvate and glutamate. (abcam.com)
  • Glutamate then transfers the amino group to pyruvate via alanine aminotransferase, forming alanine and a-ketoglutarate. (abcam.com)
  • UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine:d-glutamate (MurD) ligase catalyses the addition of d-glutamate to the nucleotide precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine (UMA). (rcsb.org)
  • one d -alanine transaminase effects the same reaction, but using d -alanine and d -glutamate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Alanine is subsequently transported to the liver, where the amino group is transferred to α-ketoglutarate by alanine transaminase to form glutamate and pyruvate. (jci.org)
  • The amino group, which was transferred from alanine to glutamate, is subsequently converted to urea, and the newly generated pyruvate is converted to glucose. (jci.org)
  • Studies show that beta-alanine helps increase your time to exhaustion (TTE). (healthline.com)
  • Studies also show that beta alanine can sustain lean mass while losing bodyfat. (netrition.com)
  • With 1,500 mg of the purest source of beta alanine 4DN could source, you know you're getting a super potent dose with every serving. (netrition.com)
  • Gentec Beta Alanine is a 100% pure pharmaceutical grade source of beta alanine, which has been HPLC tested and in a highly bio available form. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • However, not all research shows beneficial effects of beta-alanine on physical performance. (webmd.com)
  • After dozens of human lab studies, sports scientists no longer doubt the ergogenic effects of beta-alanine. (anabolicminds.com)
  • So baking soda does seem to affect anaerobic metabolism as expected, but it's beta-alanine that boosts performance most effectively. (runnersworld.com)
  • APS Beta Alanine is an anabolic fuel that helps provide an increase in anaerobic and aerobic enduran. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine provides increased anaerobic power, which is a key factor to help you lift heavier for longer or perform high intensity activity for a sustained period of time. (netrition.com)
  • The α-carbon atom of alanine is bound with a methyl group (-CH 3 ), making it one of the simplest α-amino acids with respect to molecular structure and also resulting in alanine's being classified as an aliphatic amino acid. (princeton.edu)
  • Glucose can be made from alanine in the liver or muscles when energy is needed, and thus it may help maintain the blood sugar level. (healthy.net)
  • In mammals, alanine plays a key role in glucose-alanine cycle between tissues and liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alanine aminotransferase test (ALT) is a blood test that checks for liver damage. (webmd.com)
  • Also known as Cahill cycle or alanine cycle.A series of reactions in which amino groups from the muscle are transported to the liver. (prezi.com)
  • In muscle, pyruvate is converted to alanine, while in liver, alanine is converted to pyruvate. (prezi.com)
  • The alanine then enters the blood stream and is transported to the liver. (prezi.com)
  • Alanine is returned to the liver for gluconeogenesis. (prezi.com)
  • Within the liver, alanine is converted back to pyruvate by deamination. (prezi.com)
  • The amino group transported from the muscle to the liver in the form of alanine, is converted to urea in the urea cycle and excreted. (prezi.com)
  • The key feature of the cycle is that in 1 molecule, alanine, peripheral tissue exports pyruvate and ammonia to the liver, where the carbon skeleton is recycled and most nitrogen eliminated. (prezi.com)
  • High levels of alanine aminotransferase usually indicate a damaged liver. (livestrong.com)
  • Most of the activity of alanine aminotransferase takes place in your liver. (livestrong.com)
  • Nonessential, being available from dietary sources, it plays a key role in the glucose-alanine cycle between tissues and liver. (abcam.com)
  • The alanine is passed into the blood and transported to the liver. (abcam.com)
  • A reverse of the alanine aminotransferase reaction takes place in liver. (abcam.com)
  • However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. (bullshido.net)
  • Levels of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) did not differ between the naltrexone and placebo group at baseline or at 1 month of treatment, nor did the percentage of individuals with levels out of the normal range: 3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine is the rate-limiting precursor of carnosine, which is claimed to decrease fatigue in athletes. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In your muscles, histidine levels are normally high and beta-alanine levels low, which limits the production of carnosine ( 1 , 4 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta alanine floods the muscles with the specialized amino acid carnosine to work as a buffer against lactic acid buildup helping to allow higher intensity for a longer period of time before fatigue sets in. (netrition.com)
  • Beta Alanine floods the muscles with the specialized amino acid carnosine to work as a buffer against lactic acid buildup. (prolab.com)
  • Beta Alanine helps increase the amount of work your muscles and body can do and offsets fatigue so you can train harder, longer. (a1supplements.com)
  • High amounts of carnosine are boosted by the use of beta-alanine in the muscles and can reduce lactic acid build-up, allowing you to train longer and harder - this can mean more workout endurance and more strength. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • If you are going to experiment with taking beta-alanine, research recommends doses of 3.2-6.4 grams per day for up to 12 weeks. (saris.com)
  • Two grams of L-alanine is normally consumed roughly half an hour before working out. (aminoz.com.au)
  • college football players ingested 4.5 grams of beta-alanine or placebo for 30 days. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Mix 2 grams (1/2 teaspoon) of Beta Alanine in water and consume 20 minutes before exercise. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Alanine (abbreviated as Ala or A ) [ 2 ] is an α- amino acid with the chemical formula CH 3 CH(NH 2 )COOH. (princeton.edu)
  • Alanine is a nonessential amino acid , meaning it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained directly through the diet. (princeton.edu)
  • An especially rich source of L-alanine is silk fibroin, from which the amino acid was first isolated in 1879. (britannica.com)
  • Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid. (healthline.com)
  • alanine is the simplest α-amino acid after glycine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtained through the diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because transamination reactions are readily reversible and pyruvate is present in all cells, alanine can be easily formed and thus has close links to metabolic pathways such as glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racemic alanine can be prepared by the condensation of acetaldehyde with ammonium chloride in the presence of sodium cyanide by the Strecker reaction, or by the ammonolysis of 2-bromopropanoic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid. (webmd.com)
  • Alanine is a nonessential amino acid. (prezi.com)
  • Alanine is the major amino acid present when muscle (protein) is degraded. (prezi.com)
  • A panel of variants with alanine substitutions in the small loop of anthrax toxin protective antigen domain 4 was created to determine individual amino acid residues critical for interactions with the cellular receptor and with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 14B7. (mendeley.com)
  • Alanine aminotransferase degrades the amino acid alanine into fuel for your cells. (livestrong.com)
  • β-Methylamino- L -alanine , or BMAA , is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized in the body. (saris.com)
  • Alanine is a nonessential amino acid , one of the most abundant in food. (botanical-online.com)
  • Alanine is an amino acid that promotes immunity for its stimulating action on antibodies , so its deficit can help make easier to get infections. (botanical-online.com)
  • Precision Engineered Beta-Alanine tablet is a non-essential amino acid and is the only naturally occurring beta-amino acid. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Analytical grade (AR) L-Alanine and Tartaric acid was taken in equimolar ratio. (hindawi.com)
  • Promotional nonessential amino acid beta alanine powder ! (alibaba.com)
  • L-alanine is a dispensable amino acid found in high concentrations in most muscle tissue. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Beta-alanine is an amino acid found within skeletal muscle. (bodybuilding.com)
  • PrimaForce Beta Alanine uses the purest form of the amino acid, Bet-Alanine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine is a non-essential amino acid that is used by muscle cells to synthesize Carnosine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine ( B-Alanine or BAM) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid. (ageforce.com)
  • Beta Alanine is a staple in most pre workout formulas, and is a non essential amino acid which results in the increased synthesis of carnosine, delaying fatigue and allowing you to train longer and harder every session. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that because of sustained glycemic actions, bedtime administration of the glucagon-releasing amino acid alanine or the epinephrine-simulating β 2 -adrenergic agonist terbutaline more effectively prevents nocturnal hypoglycemia than a conventional bedtime snack, we studied 15 patients with 1DDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS In patients with 1DDM given an evening dose of NPH insulin, a conventional bedtime snack exerts an inconsistent glycemic effect only during the first half of the night, and bedtime administration of the glucagon-releasing amino acid alanine or the epinephrine- simulating β 2 -adrenergic agonist terbutaline more effectively prevents nocturnal hypoglycemia than a conventional bedtime snack. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme blocks the buildup of lactic acid by increasing the synthesis of muscle carnosine. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-Alanine increases carnosine production, blocking lactic acid and thereby allowing for more intense training. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Study participants supplemented with the non-essential amino acid beta-alanine experienced increased power output compared to a placebo group, according to a study by researchers in Spain. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Organization and expression of the Escherichia coli K-12 dad operon encoding the smaller subunit of D-amino acid dehydrogenase and the catabolic alanine racemase. (wikigenes.org)
  • Beta-alanine is a non-essential amino acid, meaning the body can make it on its own. (a1supplements.com)
  • Ingredient Info: Beta Alanine is a naturally occurring version of the amino acid 'alanine' studied for its ability to enhance muscular endurance and reduce exhaustion. (a1supplements.com)
  • Beta-Alanine increases your training threshold is increased because it blocks the buildup of lactic acid. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • If you know how beta-alanine works, which is by buffering lactic acid, that's not so surprising. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The oral ingestion of β-alanine, the rate-limiting precursor in carnosine synthesis, has been shown to elevate the muscle carnosine content. (springer.com)
  • Beta-alanine improves athletic performance by reducing fatigue, increasing endurance and boosting performance in high-intensity exercises. (healthline.com)
  • For older adults, beta-alanine can help increase muscle endurance ( 16 ). (healthline.com)
  • No need to take beta-alanine if you are in an endurance training cycle or enjoying some lower intensity tour riding. (saris.com)
  • Because of its ability to stabilise blood sugar levels during exercise, alanine can help athletes with their endurance at competitive intensities. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Designed for endurance, team, and strength athletes, these Beta-Alanine tablets are formulated to help enhance both high-intensity training and Beta-Alanine is one of the precursors to carnosine, which is actually the molecule of interest in reducing fatigue. (ageforce.com)
  • Redcon1 Beta Alanine - Promotes Muscular Endurance, Supports Training Intensity, Reduce Muscular Fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • Imporve musclar endurance for your wrokout with Beta-Alanine. (a1supplements.com)
  • Beta-Alanine will increase your training endurance which means you can train harder and longer. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Fermentation routes to L-alanine are complicated by alanine racemase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloning of alanine racemase genes from Pseudomonas fluorescens strains and oligomerization states of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli. (wikigenes.org)
  • Identification of the dadX gene coding for the predominant isozyme of alanine racemase in Escherichia coli K12. (wikigenes.org)
  • Alanine/Histidine/Lysine Polypeptide Copper HCl is a copper derivative of a peptide derivedfrom alanine, histidine, and lysine. (ewg.org)
  • Its main function is to aid in the synthesis of carnosine, a dipeptide that is made up of the two amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. (saris.com)
  • The amount of carnosine that can be formed is dependent on the amount of beta-alanine-not histidine-within the cell. (bodybuilding.com)
  • ANSI Xtreme Shock Elite Powder is a Beta-Alanine/Kre-Alkalyn/N.O. pump amplifier! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Optimum Nutrition Beta-Alanine Powder has been formulated to boost your intramuscular buffering syst. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Get a 1.6 Gram dosage with every 1/2 a Teaspoon of Beta Alanine Powder! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine Powder is pure, flavorless Beta Alanine with no fillers or additives. (prolab.com)
  • Mix one scoop of Beta Alanine Powder with a glass (200-250ml) of water or your favorite beverage. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • They were randomly assigned to the two experimental groups-14 completed the study taking beta-alanine while 12 completed it with the placebo. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Subjects were supplemented orally for 4 weeks with 4.8 g/day placebo or β-alanine. (springer.com)
  • Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase , and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include AlaDH, L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this process occur simultaneously, it is known as glucose-alanine cycle. (prezi.com)
  • This pathway is termed the glucose-alanine cycle. (prezi.com)
  • The glucose-alanine cycle occurs in skeletal muscle to eliminate nitrogen while replenishing (renewing) the energy supply for muscle. (prezi.com)
  • In order to determine whether the glucose-alanine cycle regulates rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation in humans, we applied positional isotopomer NMR tracer analysis (PINTA) to assess rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation and pyruvate carboxylase flux in healthy volunteers following both an overnight (12 hours) and a 60-hour fast. (jci.org)
  • Taken together, these studies demonstrate that 60 hours of starvation induce marked reductions in rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, which in turn can be attributed to reduced rates of glucose-alanine cycling, and reveal a heretofore undescribed role for glucose-alanine in the regulation of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation in humans. (jci.org)
  • The glucose-alanine (Cahill) cycle is critical for regenerating glucose. (jci.org)
  • The methyl group of alanine is non-reactive and is thus almost never directly involved in protein function. (princeton.edu)
  • Alanine is an important part of human muscle tissue and is found readily in protein foods, including beef, pork, turkey, and cheese as well as wheat germ, oats, yogurt, and avocado. (healthy.net)
  • The methyl side-chain of alanine is non-reactive and is therefore hardly ever directly involved in protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model the selection of monomers (i.e. amino acids) for ribosomal protein synthesis is rather limited to those Alanine derivatives that are suitable for building α-helix or β-sheet secondary structural elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine aids the body during intense aerobic activity, when muscle protein is used to help produce energy. (aminoz.com.au)
  • As I couldnt find anything about in the search we might as use this thread also as a location to discuss all aspects of beta alanine. (bullshido.net)
  • Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. (webmd.com)
  • Linac x-ray and direct gamma irradiation sources were used in this study to irradiate simple polycrystalline alanine- in-glass (AiG) dosimeters with low-doses, typical for medical therapy, and high-doses, typical for syringes' sterilization processe, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • The results indicated that the de-amination of L-alanine is the main reaction to form the "stable" radical and the AiG-dosimeter gives comparable sensitivity for both low and high radiation doses. (scirp.org)
  • This linear response and the well-known doses' cumulative characteristics of alanine are in favor of the use of this simple dosimeter in ample medical applications, particularly the conventional radiotherapy treatment per patient. (scirp.org)
  • Paresthesia is a mild sensation of prickling, numbness or burning in the skin that appears when doses of beta-alanine greater than 10 mg per kg are taken and resolves one hour after intake. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • In 2000, the American Association for Clinical Chemistry determined that the appropriate terminology for AST and ALT are aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value is often used along with the results of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) test to obtain the AST to ALT ratio. (cigna.com)
  • This article explains everything you need to know about beta-alanine. (healthline.com)
  • What Is Beta-Alanine? (healthline.com)
  • For this reason, beta-alanine specifically helps performance during high-intensity and short-duration exercise lasting one to several minutes. (healthline.com)
  • However, there's no consistent evidence that beta-alanine improves strength ( 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ). (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine is most effective in exercises lasting one to several minutes. (healthline.com)
  • It's possible that beta-alanine improves body composition by increasing training volume and promoting muscle growth. (healthline.com)
  • Beta-alanine can help increase exercise volume. (healthline.com)
  • How Can Beta-Alanine Boost Exercise Performance? (iherb.com)
  • Beta-alanine is used for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking beta-alanine modestly improves some measures of physical performance, especially during high-intensity exercise and strength training . (webmd.com)
  • Other research shows that a specific product containing beta-alanine, creatine monohydrate, arginine , alpha-ketoisocaproate, and leucine (NO-Shotgun) might increase fat-free mass and strength in men participating in resistance training. (webmd.com)
  • Most research has used a specific beta-alanine product (CarnoSyn, Natural Alternatives International). (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that taking beta-alanine is less effective than the drug veralipride at reducing hot flashes in menopausal women. (webmd.com)
  • More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of beta-alanine for this use. (webmd.com)
  • Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. (webmd.com)
  • There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking beta-alanine if you are pregnant or breast -feeding. (webmd.com)
  • A new study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology , from researchers at Victoria University in Australia, takes a look at two commonly used performance aids: beta-alanine and baking soda. (runnersworld.com)
  • Beta-alanine is converted in the body to a substance called carnosine, which works within the muscle cells to keep pH stable. (runnersworld.com)
  • In the study, they used a fairly complicated double-crossover design to test the results of beta-alanine and baking soda, both alone and together, with eight recreationally active volunteers. (runnersworld.com)
  • But under these particular conditions, beta-alanine certainly looks like a better bet than baking soda. (runnersworld.com)
  • NAI) has expanded its commitment to CarnoSyn, a studied, patent-protected beta-alanine ingredient for supporting an increase in muscle carnosine and athletic performance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Beta-alanine has been getting quite a bit of attention in the cycling world lately and for good reason. (saris.com)
  • That's where beta-alanine comes into play! (saris.com)
  • Because beta-alanine is part of the carnosine dipeptide complex, supplementing with it can increase internal stores of carnosine and with that comes an increase in buffering capacity leading to more normal levels of muscle pH. (saris.com)
  • Beta-alanine supports muscle health. (hollandandbarrett.com)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme also supports prolonged stamina and can help reduce muscle soreness both during and after training allowing for faster recovery time between sets and between workouts. (netrition.com)
  • The greatest natural dietary sources of beta-alanine are believed to be obtained through ingesting the beta-alanine containing dipeptides: carnosine, anserine and balenine, rather than directly ingesting beta-alanine. (bullshido.net)
  • It is predominantly through ingesting the dipeptide carnosine that we ingest most of our beta-alanine, as the two other dipeptides are not found nearly as plentiful in our typical coniferous diet. (bullshido.net)
  • Below is a list of the benefits from beta-alanine, supported by peer-reviewed university research, published in reputable science journals. (bullshido.net)
  • So how can beta-alanine help us overcome this drop in pH that limits exercise performance? (bullshido.net)
  • To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. (bullshido.net)
  • Checking the fine print, you might read beta-alanine . (bodybuilding.com)
  • It's not available in abundance in the foods we consume, but the body can create its own beta-alanine. (bodybuilding.com)
  • There are three primary ways to produce beta-alanine: the breakdown of carnosine, the conversion of L-alanine to pyruvate, or through digestion. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Hence, the main rationale to supplementing with beta-alanine is to increase the concentrations of carnosine in muscle tissue. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Compared to creatine, however, beta-alanine does not seem to improve maximal strength. (bodybuilding.com)
  • This Beta Alanine by Pr. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • 4 Dimension Nutrition Beta Alanine at Netrition.com. (netrition.com)
  • 4 Dimension Nutrition Beta Alanine is a high potency muscle performance enhancer that is going to deliver far beyond your expectations. (netrition.com)
  • Experience the effects of 4DN Beta Alanine today and get ready to rocket your performance to superior levels. (netrition.com)
  • Time released Beta-Alanine? (anabolicminds.com)
  • I know we have some fine Beta-Alanine products promoted here at AM like Carnage, Incarnate. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Personally, I won't be buying it anyway, just inquiring as it may make sense to space out the Beta-Alanine product of choice more throughout the day. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Any proof that there is ANY benefit to time releasing Beta Alanine? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Unless there is an independent study citing the benefits of time releasing Beta Alanine, I call BS! (anabolicminds.com)
  • It was one of the first beta alanine products out. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Beta Alanine Extreme - Research Driven Results! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta-alanine dosage of 6.4 g in eight capsules was determined by looking at previous studies on the ingredient. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The results also confirmed a secondary hypothesis, as the beta-alanine group accomplished a greater training load and more kilograms lifted, while no velocity differences were recorded between the groups. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • "The increase produced in the number of sets completed in the BA group may be related to the pH regulation capacity of beta-alanine," ​ they wrote. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta-alanine may cause a tingling feeling on the skin. (a1supplements.com)
  • Add to Total War for a higher amount of Beta-Alanine prior to high-intensity training. (a1supplements.com)
  • APS Beta Alanine allows you to push through every workout by providing the fuel to extinguish immediate muscle burnout. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine raises the lactate threshold, which is typically the limiting factor when you work-out. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Beta Alanine will block the burn and let you get more out of your training sessions! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • But are these effects so strong and specific that beta-alanine actually boost performance during competitions? (anabolicminds.com)
  • One of these publications appeared in August 2013 in the International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism and describes a study in which he gave well-trained rowers 6-7 g beta-alanine daily. (anabolicminds.com)
  • These subjects were also given 6-7 g beta-alanine for a period of four weeks. (anabolicminds.com)
  • To be precise: 80 mg beta-alanine per kg bodyweight per day. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The positive effect of beta-alanine was particularly noticeable during the second half of this distance, Ducker discovered. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Beta alanine is a staple in my workouts. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Natural Alternatives International (NAI) has settled its patent infringement case vs BPI Sports and Image Sports (trading as Image Nutrition) over their use of sports nutrition ingredient beta-alanine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The net result is that pyruvate and ammonia are converted to alanine, consuming one reducing equivalent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to determine whether this reduction in alanine turnover was responsible for the reduced rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, we infused unlabeled alanine into another subgroup of 60-hour fasted subjects to increase rates of alanine turnover, similar to what was measured after a 12-hour fast, and found that this perturbation increased rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation. (jci.org)
  • report on their use of an innovative stable isotope tracer method to show that skeletal muscle-derived alanine becomes rate controlling for hepatic mitochondrial oxidation and, in turn, for glucose production during prolonged fasting. (jci.org)
  • Degradation of alanine forms a molecule called pyruvate. (livestrong.com)
  • β-Alanine is formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil (D449990) and carnosine. (lookchem.com)
  • Alanine is broken down by oxidative deamination, the inverse reaction of the reductive amination reaction described above, catalyzed by the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This reaction is catalyzed by alanine transaminase, ALT. (prezi.com)
  • Catalyzes the attachment of alanine to tRNA(Ala) in a two-step reaction: alanine is first activated by ATP to form Ala-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of tRNA(Ala). Also edits incorrectly charged Ser-tRNA(Ala) and Gly-tRNA(Ala) via its editing domain. (uniprot.org)
  • Here we isolate the major seed dormancy gene qsd1 from wild barley, which encodes an alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT). (nature.com)
  • We have identified a gene that defines a major dormancy trait in wild ancestral forms of barley and show that it encodes alanine aminotransferase, which has not previously been linked with dormancy in plants. (nature.com)
  • Mutant analysis shows that alanine racemases from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli are dimeric. (wikigenes.org)