Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.PyruvatesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.GalactosamineUrea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.GlyoxylatesAmino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (1/5406)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (2/5406)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues. (3/5406)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (4/5406)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Variants of ribonuclease inhibitor that resist oxidation. (5/5406)

Human ribonuclease inhibitor (hRI) is a cytosolic protein that protects cells from the adventitious invasion of pancreatic-type ribonucleases. hRI has 32 cysteine residues. The oxidation of these cysteine residues to form disulfide bonds is a rapid, cooperative process that inactivates hRI. The most proximal cysteine residues in native hRI are two pairs that are adjacent in sequence: Cys94 and Cys95, and Cys328 and Cys329. A cystine formed from such adjacent cysteine residues would likely contain a perturbing cis peptide bond within its eight-membered ring, which would disrupt the structure of hRI and could facilitate further oxidation. We find that replacing Cys328 and Cys329 with alanine residues has little effect on the affinity of hRI for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), but increases its resistance to oxidation by 10- to 15-fold. Similar effects are observed for the single variants, C328A hRI and C329A hRI, suggesting that oxidation resistance arises from the inability to form a Cys328-Cys329 disulfide bond. Replacing Cys94 and Cys95 with alanine residues increases oxidation resistance to a lesser extent, and decreases the affinity of hRI for RNase A. The C328A, C329A, and C328A/C329A variants are likely to be more useful than wild-type hRI for inhibiting pancreatic-type ribonucleases in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that replacing adjacent cysteine residues can confer oxidation resistance in a protein.  (+info)

Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori. (6/5406)

Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.  (+info)

The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter. (7/5406)

The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms. In this study we identify amino acid substitutions in region 4 of the RNA polymerase subunit sigma70 that affect Ada-activated transcription at alkA. Substitution to alanine of residues K593, K597, and R603 in sigma70 region 4 results in decreased Ada-dependent binding of RNA polymerase to the alkA promoter in vitro and impairs alkA transcription both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that these residues define a determinant for meAda-sigma70 interaction. In a previous study (P. Landini, J. A. Bown, M. R. Volkert, and S. J. W. Busby, J. Biol. Chem. 273:13307-13312, 1998), we showed that a set of negatively charged amino acids in sigma70 region 4 is involved in meAda-sigma70 interaction at the ada and aidB promoters. However, the alanine substitutions of positively charged residues K593, K597, and R603 do not affect meAda-dependent transcription at ada and aidB. Unlike the sigma70 amino acids involved in the interaction with meAda at the ada and aidB promoters, K593, K597, and R603 are not conserved in sigmaS, an alternative sigma subunit of RNA polymerase mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth. While meAda is able to promote transcription by the sigmaS form of RNA polymerase (EsigmaS) at ada and aidB, it fails to do so at alkA. We propose that meAda can activate transcription at different promoters by contacting distinct determinants in sigma70 region 4 in a manner dependent on the location of the Ada binding site.  (+info)

CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding. (8/5406)

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain.  (+info)

*Aspartate transaminase

Serum AST level, serum ALT (alanine transaminase) level, and their ratio (AST/ALT ratio) are commonly measured clinically as ... AST is similar to alanine transaminase (ALT) in that both enzymes are associated with liver parenchymal cells. The difference ... Example reference ranges are shown below: Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT/SGPT) Transaminases PDB: 1AAM​Almo SC, Smith DL, ...

*Protein metabolism

Serine Threonine Asparagine Glutamine Special cases Cysteine Selenocysteine Glycine Proline Hydrophobic side chains Alanine ...

*Alanine

... "alanine scanning", where every position in turn is mutated to alanine. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be ... forming alanine and α-ketoglutarate. The alanine enters the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. The alanine ... Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. Alanine can be synthesized from ... Alterations in the alanine cycle that increase the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are linked to the development ...

*Alanine transaminase

... (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and was ... Alanine transaminase shows a marked diurnal variation.[citation needed] The ratio of ALT to AST (aspartate aminotransferase) ... L-alanine + α-ketoglutarate ⇌ pyruvate + L-glutamate ALT (and all aminotransferases) require the coenzyme pyridoxal phosphate, ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ...

*Alanine scanning

In molecular biology, alanine scanning is a technique used to determine the contribution of a specific residue to the stability ... In addition, alanine scanning is also used to determine which functional motif of Cry4Aa has the mosquitocidal activity. Cry4Aa ... Alanine is used because of its non-bulky, chemically inert, methyl functional group that nevertheless mimics the secondary ... Alanine Scanning was used to determine simultaneously the functional contributions of 19 side chains buried at the interface ...

*Alanine carboxypeptidase

... (EC 3.4.17.6, N-benzoyl-L-alanine-amidohydrolase) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following ... Alanine carboxypeptidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Molecular and Cellular Biology ... Miyagawa, E.; Takahiro, H.; Yoshinobu, M. (1986). "Purification and properties of N-benzoyl-L-alanine amidohydrolase from ... chemical reaction Release of a C-terminal alanine from a peptide or a variety of pteroyl or acyl groups This enzyme is isolated ...

*Alanine aminopeptidase

Watanabe Y, Iwaki-Egawa S, Mizukoshi H, Fujimoto Y (July 1995). "Identification of an alanine aminopeptidase in human maternal ...

*Alanine dehydrogenase

L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, ... alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. T Alanine dehydrogenase contains both a N-terminus and C- ... Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating). Other names in common use include ...

*Beta-Alanine

... β-alanine > taurine ≫ alanine, L-serine > proline). There is evidence that β-alanine supplementation can increase exercise ... The IUPAC name for β-alanine is 3-aminopropanoic acid. Unlike its counterpart α-alanine, β-alanine has no stereocenter. In ... β-Alanine (or beta-alanine) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid, which is an amino acid in which the amino group is at the ... Sources for β-alanine includes pyrimidine catabolism of cytosine and uracil. β-alanine can undergo a transanimation reaction ...

*Alanine racemase

This enzyme is also called L-alanine racemase. This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and D-alanine ... D-alanine Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-alanine, and one product, D-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... The D-alanine produced by alanine racemase is used for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Peptidoglycan is found in the cell walls of ... Alanine racemase can be found in some invertebrates. Bacteria can have one (alr gene) or two alanine racemase genes. Bacterial ...

*Alanine-tRNA ligase

... alanine-transfer RNA ligase, alanine transfer RNA synthetase, alanine tRNA synthetase, alanine translase, alanyl-transfer ... In enzymology, an alanine-tRNA ligase (EC 6.1.1.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + L-alanine + tRNAAla ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:tRNAAla ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use include alanyl- ... Webster GC (1961). "Isolation of an alanine-activating enzyme from pig liver". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 49: 141-152. doi:10.1016 ...

*Alanine-glyoxylate transaminase

Other names in common use include AGT, alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase, alanine-glyoxylic aminotransferase, and L-alanine- ... In enzymology, an alanine-glyoxylate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.44) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + ... Noguchi T, Okuno E, Takada Y, Minatogawa Y, Okai K, Kido R (1978). "Characteristics of hepatic alanine-glyoxylate ... This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism. It employs one ...

*Alanine-oxomalonate transaminase

Other names in common use include alanine-oxomalonate aminotransferase, L-alanine-ketomalonate transaminase, and alanine- ... In enzymology, an alanine-oxomalonate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.47) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:oxomalonate aminotransferase. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and oxomalonate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and aminomalonate. This ...

*Alanine-oxo-acid transaminase

Other names in common use include L-alanine-alpha-keto acid aminotransferase, leucine-alanine transaminase, alanine-keto acid ... In enzymology, an alanine-oxo-acid transaminase (EC 2.6.1.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + a 2 ... Sallach HJ (1956). "Formation of serine from hydroxypyruvate and L-alanine" (PDF). J. Biol. Chem. 223 (2): 1101-1108. Wilson DG ... This enzyme participates in alanine and aspartate metabolism. It employs one cofactor, pyridoxal phosphate. ALTENBERN RA, ...

*Beta-Methylamino-L-alanine

D. (1989). "Neurotoxicity of β -N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and β-N-oxalylamino-L-alanine (BOAA) on cultured cortical ... β-Methylamino-L-alanine, or BMAA, is a non-proteinogenic amino acid produced by cyanobacteria. BMAA is a neurotoxin and its ... BMAA is a derivative of the amino acid alanine with a methylamino group on the side chain. This non-proteinogenic amino acid is ... Karlsson, O. (2011). Distribution and Long-term Effects of the Environmental Neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA): Brain ...

*Beta-Alanine ethyl ester

β-Alanine ethyl ester is the ethyl ester of the non-essential amino acid β-alanine. It would be expected to hydrolyise within ... Part I. Glycine ethyl ester, β-alanine ethyl ester, acetylcholine, and methylbetaine methyl ester". Journal of the Chemical ... the body to form β-alanine. Kodaira, Toshiyuki; Miyake, Hideo; Hayashi, Koichiro; Okamura, Seizo (1965). "The Synthesis and ...

*D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase

In enzymology, a D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase (EC 2.1.2.7) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 5,10- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate:D-alanine 2-hydroxymethyltransferase. This enzyme is ... D-alanine, and H2O, whereas its two products are tetrahydrofolate and 2-methylserine. This enzyme belongs to the family of ... methylenetetrahydrofolate + D-alanine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } tetrahydrofolate + 2-methylserine The 3 ...

*Pantoate-beta-alanine ligase

... beta-alanine ligase (AMP-forming). This enzyme participates in beta-alanine metabolism and pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis. ... In enzymology, a pantoate-beta-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + (R)-pantoate ... Maas WK (1956). "Mechanism of the enzymatic synthesis of pantothenate from beta-alanine and pantoate". Fed. Proc. 15: 305-306. ... and beta-alanine, whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and (R)-pantothenate. This enzyme belongs to the family of ...

*Beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase

Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine and 3-oxopropanoate, whereas its two products are pyruvate and beta-alanine. ... HAYAISHI O, NISHIZUKA Y, TATIBANA M, TAKESHITA M, KUNO S (1961). "Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of beta-alanine". J. Biol ...

*N-acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase

The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-acetyl-beta-alanine amidohydrolase. This enzyme participates in beta-alanine ... beta-alanine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-acetyl-beta-alanine and H2O, whereas its two products are acetate ... In enzymology, a N-acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase (EC 3.5.1.21) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N-acetyl- ... Fujimoto D, Koyama T, Tamiya N (1968). "N-Acetyl-beta-alanine deacetylase in hog kidney". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 167: 407-413 ...

*D-alanine-D-alanine ligase

In enzymology, a D-alanine-D-alanine ligase (EC 6.3.2.4) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2 D-alanine ... D-alanine ligase (ADP-forming). Other names in common use include alanine:alanine ligase (ADP-forming), and alanylalanine ... The N-terminal region of the D-alanine-D-alanine ligase is thought to be involved in substrate binding, while the C-terminus is ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and D-alanine, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and D-alanyl-D-alanine. ...

*3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase

"Synthesis of D-cysteine from 3-chloro-D-alanine and hydrogen sulfide by 3-chloro-D-alanine hydrogen chloride-lyase (deaminating ... Other names in common use include beta-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase, and 3-chloro-D-alanine chloride-lyase (deaminating ... In enzymology, a 3-chloro-D-alanine dehydrochlorinase (EC 4.5.1.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-chloro-D ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-chloro-D-alanine chloride-lyase (deaminating; pyruvate-forming). ...

*Ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase

... ribosomal-protein L-alanine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine Thus, the two ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is acetyl-CoA:ribosomal-protein-L-alanine N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme is also ... In enzymology, a ribosomal-protein-alanine N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.128) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... whereas its two products are CoA and ribosomal-protein N-acetyl-L-alanine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, ...

*N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase

N-acylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, acetylmuramoyl-alanine amidase, N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase, acetylmuramyl-alanine ... Other names in common use include acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, ... In enzymology, a N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase (EC 3.5.1.28) is an enzyme that catalyzes a chemical reaction that cleaves ... Herbold DR, Glaser L (1975). "Interaction of N-acetylmuramic acid L-alanine amidase with cell wall polymers". J. Biol. Chem. ...

*D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase

D-alanine: membrane acceptor ligase, D-alanine-D-alanyl carrier protein ligase, D-alanine-membrane acceptor ligase, and D- ... This enzyme participates in d-alanine metabolism. BADDILEY J, NEUHAUS FC (1960). "The enzymic activation of D-alanine". Biochem ... In enzymology, a D-alanine-poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (EC 6.1.1.13) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + D- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is D-alanine:poly(phosphoribitol) ligase (AMP-forming). Other names in common use ...
The effects of metabolic inhibitors and ouabain on alanine transport across rabbit ileum, in vitro, have been investigated. Net transport of alanine and Na across short-circuited segments of ileum is virtually abolished by cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate, and ouabain. However, these inhibitors do not markedly depress alanine influx from the mucosal solution, across the brush border, into the intestinal epithelium, and they do not significantly affect the Na dependence of this entry process. The results of this investigation indicate that: (a) the Na dependence of alanine influx does not reflect a mechanism in which the sole function of Na is to link metabolic energy directly to the influx process; and (b) the inhibition of net alanine transport across intestine is, in part, the result of an increased rate coefficient for alanine efflux out of the cell across the brush border. Although these findings do not exclude a direct link between metabolic energy and alanine efflux, the increased ...
1. The metabolism of glutamine and alanine in the lung was studied in rats made septic by a caecal ligation and puncture technique.. 2. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly different in septic rats, but blood pyruvate, lactate, glutamine and alanine concentrations were markedly increased as compared with sham-operated rats. Conversely, blood ketone body and plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in septic rats. Both plasma insulin and plasma glucagon concentrations were markedly elevated in response to sepsis. Sepsis resulted in a negative nitrogen balance.. 3. Sepsis increased the rates of production of glutamine (52.5%, P ,0.001), alanine (38.9%, P ,0.001) and glutamate (48.6%, P ,0.001) by lung slices incubated in vitro.. 4. Sepsis increased lung blood flow by 27.6% (P ,0.05). Blood flow and arteriovenous concentration difference measurement across the lung of septic rats showed an increase in the net exchange rates of glutamine (142.5%, P ,0.001), ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
4 Dimension Nutrition Beta Alanine is a high potency muscle performance enhancer with 1,500 mg of the purest source of beta alanine.
A molecular model of alanine, an amino acid produced in the human body as well as obtained through foods such as meat, dairy, eggs, beans, nuts, soy and whole grains. During times of decreased oxygen, muscles produce alanine which is sent to the liver and used to create glucose. Atoms are coloured dark grey (carbon), light grey (hydrogen), red (oxygen) and blue (nitrogen). - Stock Image C017/6199
Beta Alanine list and information including what is Beta Alanine, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Beta Alanine list and information including what is Beta Alanine, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
The overall grade for beta alanine is 2 out of 3 meaning there is some evidence that this supplement does some (not all) of what it claims. Using Beta Alanine may lead to some improvements.
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1L70: Multiple alanine replacements within alpha-helix 126-134 of T4 lysozyme have independent, additive effects on both structure and stability.
Alanine (or aminopropionic acid) is an aliphatic (aromatic-free) amino acid. In the liver, it is easily processed into a glucose source of energy for the body,
I bought both of these products but failed to realize that Purple Wrath also contains Beta Alanine. Would stacking these two, be to much and counter-pr
NN Beta Alanine (Nanox) MAISTO PAPILDAS, MILTELIAI 100 PORCIJŲ Vienas kaušelis: 2,5 g Grynasis kiekis: 250 g Sudedamosios dalys: beta alaninas. 100g 1kauš.(2,5g) Energinė vertė 393,1kcal 1647,3kJ 34,3kcal 143,4kJ Baltymai 98,285 g 8,568
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i just got the Beta Alanine pro and enhanced KRE-Alkalyn supplements from the advertisement that was on myspace and it says u can gain muscle and be
I want to add beta alanine to my supplement stack. I was wondering when i should take it and how much? Should i take it on off days and does it have
Beta Alanine is a rather popular ingredient used in many pre workout supplements that is responsible for that tingling feeling you get after ingesting it.
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MolCore offers CAS No.56253-90-8, L-Phenyl-d5-alanine for your research needs.Find product specific information including MFCD00144664,56253-90-8 MSDS,Price,Custom Synthesis.
2.64G 0.74G 1.50G 6.41G 8G 154G 3.67G 0.81G 0.52G 2.24G 32G 2.21G 3.07G 2.21G 0.11G 2.64G 4.34G 2.83G 1.28G 2.21G 3.07G 3.07G 2.21G 3.48G 1.75G ...
ALA A 144, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ALA ALA A 512, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ...
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood lactate levels are common in the critically ill neonate; however, sometimes they are difficult to interpret. Persistent or recurrent lactic acidemia might point to an inborn error of metabolism, like disturbances of the oxidative phosphorylation. Chronic lactic acidemia results in increased serum alanine levels. Serum alanine levels in newborns with transient lactic acidemia have not yet been studied. OBJECTIVE: We designed a pilot study to evaluate the use of serum alanine levels as an additional metabolic marker to differentiate the transient effect of circulatory failure from a possible mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 10 newborns with transient lactic acidemia after mild dysoxia, and 10 newborns with recurrent lactic acidemia consecutively diagnosed with a disorder in oxidative phosphorylation. RESULTS: No significant serum alanine level elevation was found in transient lactic acidemia. Increased serum alanine was a sensitive marker in ...
These data demonstrate that chronic hyperglucagonemia, when accompanied by increases in gluconeogenic precursor availability and adequate circulating concentrations of NEFA, can contribute to the infection-induced increase in glucose production and gluconeogenesis. These data confirm that even in an animal reliant predominantly on gluconeogenesis, combined increases in lactate and alanine uptake by the liver are unable to increase hepatic glucose output. If the substrate-induced suppression of NEFAs is prevented and/or NEFAs are increased, increases in gluconeogenic precursor supply can support an increase in hepatic glucose production.. Chronic hyperglucagonemia markedly enhanced the importance of the liver in disposal of the exogenous alanine. As expected, the uptake of alanine by the liver increased in parallel with the rise in alanine levels. This is reflected in the constancy of net fractional hepatic alanine extraction in the face of increases in blood alanine concentration (6). ...
The normal pancreatic response to an exogenous glucagon infusion is a biphasic release of insulin. In our study the ability of each component of insulin release to counter the effects of the glucagon on gluconeogenesis and alanine metabolism was assessed by mimicking first- and/or second-phase insulin release with infusions of somatostatin and intraportal insulin. When a fourfold increase in glucagon was brought about in the presence of fixed basal insulin release, there was a large increase in overall glucose production and gluconeogenesis. The increase in the conversion of [14C]alanine into [14C]glucose (169 ± 42%, P , .05) was accompanied by an increase in the fractional extraction of alanine by the liver (FEA 0.32 ± 0.06 to 0.66 ± 0.10, P , .05) and net hepatic alanine uptake (NHAU 2.97 ± 0.45 to 4.61 ± 0.48 μmol kg1 · min1 P , .05). Simulated first-phase insulin release had no effect on the ability of glucagon to increase FEA (0.32 ± 0.03 to 0.66 ± 0.03, P , .05) or NHAU (3.69 ± ...
Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 µmoles/hr cm2, but is inhibited if the NaCl in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline Cl, Tris-Cl, mannitol, LiCl, or KCl. Although alanine influx is strongly dependent upon Na in the mucosal solution, it is uninfluenced by marked reduction of intracellular Na pools. In addition, alanine influx is unaffected by intracellular alanine concentration. Na influx is markedly inhibited by the presence of Li. Evidence is presented that Na transport across the mucosal border cannot be attributed to simple diffusion even though the net flux across this surface is in the direction of the electrochemical potential difference.. ...
Alanine dipeptide is one of the simplest molecules that exhibits some important features common to larger biomolecules. In particular, it has more than one long-lived conformation, which we will identify in this exercise by mapping out its potential energy surface. The conformations of alanine dipeptide are characterized by the dihedral angles of the backbone. Below, we color carbons in green, hydrogens in white, oxygen in red and nitrogen in blue, i.e. the torsional angle $\phi$ is C-N-C-C, while $\psi$ is N-C-C-N along the backbone. ...
We have implemented in the popular molecular-dynamics software GROMACS the possibility to efficiently run Hamiltonian replica exchange simulations using modified force-fields. In standard GROMACS, this can only be done using free-energy perturbation, which is very expensive. Our tool is very promising because of its flexibility. Indeed, one can easily select a portion of a system that would like to accelerate and only touch that portion, thus avoiding undesired effects such as RNA/protein unfolding. Moreover, the number of required replicas scales only with the number of atoms in the selected portion. We benchmark the method on alanine dipeptide and on an RNA tetraloop. Applications to more complicated systems are on the way.. The implementation is integrated with the open source PLUMED package and will be included in a future release of PLUMED. For the moment, you can just contact us and request a copy of the software or get it here.. This work has been accepted for publication on Molecular ...
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I have always told you: If I had the choice I would ALWAYS pick plain baking soda over beta alanine. That it could in fact turn out to be detrimental to add the beta alanine on top of it did however never occur to me.
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How is NR2B(W607) to asparagine or alanine abbreviated? W607A stands for NR2B(W607) to asparagine or alanine. W607A is defined as NR2B(W607) to asparagine or alanine rarely.
Accepted name: β-alanine pyruvate transaminase. Reaction: L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate = pyruvate + β-alanine. Other name(s): β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; β-alanine-α-alanine transaminase. Systematic name: L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 61461-61-8. References: 1. Hayaishi, O., Nishizuka, Y., Tatibana, M., Takeshita, M. and Kuno, S. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of β-alanine. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 781-790.. 2. Stinson, R.A. and Spencer, M.S. β-Aalanine aminotransferase(s) from a plant source. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1969) 120-127. [PMID: 5762452]. ...
Alanine dipeptide is often studied in theoretical work because it is among the simplest systems to exhibit some of the important features common to biomolecules. It has more than one long-lived conformational state. The relevant angles are the dihedral angles of the backbone, commonly called Φ and Ψ (see figure). In the following scheme, light blue atoms are carbons, white ones are hydrogens, red are oxygens, and blue are nitrogens. So the torsional angle Φ is C-N-C-C and Ψ is N-C-C-N along the backbone ...
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11571PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic peptide 1Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly 1 5 10 15 Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu 20 25 30 Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro 35 40 45 Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly 50 55 60 Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala 65 70 75 80 Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro 85 90 95 Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly 100 105 110 Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val 115 120 125 Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro Gly Pro Ala Gly Ala Pro 130 135 140 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly 145 150 155 160 Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala 165 170 175 Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Pro 180 185 190 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro ...
One of the amino acids found in the structure of the muscle is Beta-alanine. Beta Alanine does not generally contribute to synthesizing proteins
Musashi Beta Alanine is a amino acid widely used to support endurance and strength training goals. Bata-alanine is the building block of carnosine, a molecule that acts to buffer acid in muscles. 100% Beta Alanine Lactic acid buffer Building blocks of carnosine Informed Sport Container Size: 120gServing Size: 1.2gServi
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Harlow GR and Halpert JR ф1997) Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of a putative substrate recogni- tion site in human cytochrome P450 3A4 role of residues 210 and 211 in Мavonoid activation and substrate speciВcity.Schwab, J.
Beta alanine is an amino acid used frequently as a sports supplement. It boosts carnosine synthesis and helps with fatigue and building lean muscle mass
My boss just asked me this, and I didnt have a very satisfactory answer: Why, when doing alanine scanning, does one change to alanine instead of glycine? I understand that alanine is sort of a generic, unexciting, Joe Amino Acid; but why isnt glycine just as bland, boring, and unexciting? I mumbled about maybe having a sidechain made alanine a little more generic than glycine, but I couldnt come up with a clear justification. Anyone? Ian -- Ian York (iayork at panix.com) ,http://www.panix.com/~iayork/, -but as he was a York, I am rather inclined to suppose him a very respectable Man. -Jane Austen, The History of England ...
BioAssay record AID 850050 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 9 hr; Dose: Low; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase); Study_ID: 431/7.
BioAssay record AID 860221 submitted by ChEMBL: Open TG-GATES: Regimen: Single; Time: 24 hr; Dose: Low; Route: Gavage | Dataset: Biochemistry; Assay: ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase); Study_ID: 435/8.
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Hyper-beta-alaninemia is a rare metabolic condition that results in elevated plasma and urinary β -alanine levels and is characterized by neurotoxicity, hypotonia, and respiratory distress. It has...
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Available brands for generic Alanine combination with manufacturers details. Click on the desired brand to find out the drug price.
What does Scientific & Educational A stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of A. The Scientific & Educational Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang A means Alanine. by AcronymAndSlang.com
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first time i took it i almost called 911. I thought i was allergic to it i was itching and tingling so bad. But then i looked it up and i was like oh its supposed to do that then i went in the gym and had the best workout of my life! Amazing stuff!. ...
Ala*nine (#), n. [Aldehyde + the ending -ine. The -n- is a euphonic insertion.] Chemistry|Chem. A white crystalline base, C3H7NO2,...
Hb=heamoglobin, WBCs= white blood cells, ESR= Erythrocetic sedimentation rate, AST= alanine spartate, ALT= alanine transferase *= ...
山口沙織,丸本朋稔,二井偉暢,河野紘隆,寥紀元,永井陽子,岡田美智代,高橋淳,井上博之,佐々木えりか,藤井浩,岡野慎士,海老瀬速雄,佐藤哲也,須山幹太,岡野栄之,三浦由恵,谷憲三朗.初期化因子搭載レンチウイルスベクターにより誘導された未分化胚細胞腫様コモンマーモセット腫瘍の特性.第4回日本マーモセット研究会大会,愛知, ...
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Pure Beta-alanine is well accepted by the body system of most users. There is though a common experience of tingling, and beta alanine, as a natural substance, may not be safe for all people equally.. Also, if you have pre-existing health conditions, or under certain prescription drugs or herbal supplements, then it will serve you well to seek medical advice before initiating a beta alanine supplementation procedure.. The Beta alanine tingling may not be of serious concern to you, but there are possibilities for adverse effects. When users experience beta alanine tingling, it would normally last about an hour and a half, then goes away on its own, resulting in no cellular or tissue damage.. The short-term paresthesia induced from beta alanine is even seen as a sign that the supplement is working, by some users.. Ideally, most users experience this type of paresthesia when they take an excessive amount of beta alanine in few doses. This is customarily related with single doses of more than 800 ...
Looking for online definition of alanine in the Medical Dictionary? alanine explanation free. What is alanine? Meaning of alanine medical term. What does alanine mean?
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33121PRTHomo sapiens 1Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu Tyr Leu Cys 20220PRTHomo sapiens 2Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu Tyr Leu 20329PRTHomo sapiens 3Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu Tyr Leu Gln Pro Ser Ala Lys Arg Pro Asp Ala 20 25424PRTHomo sapiens 4Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu Tyr Leu Gln Pro Ser Ala 20518PRTHomo sapiens 5Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu618PRTHomo sapiens 6Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr Ala Glu Tyr1 5 10 15Leu Cys713PRTHomo sapiens 7Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser1 5 10819PRTHomo sapiens 8Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr Ala1 5 10 15Glu Tyr Leu931PRTHomo sapiens 9Met Ala Ala Arg Gly Val Ile Ala Pro Val Gly Glu Ser Leu Arg Tyr1 5 10 15Ala Glu Tyr Leu Gln Pro Ser Ala Lys Arg ...
Fetal plasma alanine disposal rate (DR) and decarboxylation rate were measured at 132 +/- 1 days gestation in nine fetal lambs infused with L-[1-14C]alanine via a brachial vein. In five experiments, L-[1-13C]alanine was added to the infusate. Using L-[1-14C]alanine, we found mean DR to be 15.5 +/- 1.8 mumol.min-1 ...
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... is a nonessential amino acid. Almost in all protein-rich products Beta Alanine is contained. Beta alanine is particularly popular among athletes because it can increase endurance.
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alanine: Either of two amino acids, one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich source of L-alanine is silk fibroin, from which...
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The optimal dosing strategy for β-alanine is still being refined. Early research suggested that chronic loading over 6-12 weeks was ideal however; more recent research suggests that shorter 4-8 week periods may produce similar results. Trained individuals may have a better loading response than untrained individuals. A sustained or slow release form of (β-alanine) or splitting the daily dose over two doses (e.g. morning and evening) as well as taking the supplement a meal with a meal can help to maximise uptake into the muscles. After stopping supplementation, it takes ~15 weeks for muscle carnosine levels to return to starting concentrations.. ...
The glucose alanine cycle vs cori cycle. Whats the difference between the two? How do they effect your body? Well, the glucose alanine cycle is...
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SINOGEL Amino Acid Co., Ltd.(China) is located in Huaibei Economic Development Zone,Anhui,China.It is found in June,2008,the registered capital is US$4.65million.The main products are L-Alanine,DL-Alanine and L-Asparitic acid.
3-(1-Naphthyl)-L-alanine 55516-54-6 MSDS report, 3-(1-Naphthyl)-L-alanine MSDS safety technical specifications search, 3-(1-Naphthyl)-L-alanine safety information specifications ect.
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Interaction between dietary ß-alanine and valine supplemented to broilers diet. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
[89 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global and China L-Alanine Market Research by Company, Type & Application 2013-2025 report by HeyReport. Summary L-Alanine is a nonessential a-amino acid and...
The benefits of Beta Alanine are an increased muscle endurance, decreasing of muscle fatigue, an increase in muscular strength, and an energy boost.
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52320-87-3 - MLZCGCGQWWRMMX-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Alanine, N-(((2-chloroethyl)nitrosoamino)carbonyl)-2-methyl- - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
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hip:CGSHiEE_05465 K01775 alanine racemase [EC:5.1.1.1] , (GenBank) alr; alanine racemase (A) MNVKPATAKISSHALKQNLEIIKQKAPNSKIIAVVKANAYGHGVVFVASTLEQNVDCFGV ARLEEALALRSNGITKPILLLEGFFNEQDLPILAVNNIETVVHNHEQLEALKRSNLPSPI KVWLKIDTGMHRLGVALDEVDYFYQELKKLPQIQPHLGFVSHFSRADELESDYTQLQINR FLSATKDKQGERTIAASGGILFWPKSHLECIRPGIIMYGISPTDTIGKEFGLTPVMNLTS SLIAVRHHKQGDPVGYGGIWTSPRDTKIGVVAMGYGDGYPRDVPEGTPVYLNGRLVPIVG RVSMDMLTVDLGADSQDLVGDEVILWGKELPIETVAKFTGILSYELITKLTPRVITEYVD ...
prw:PsycPRwf_0782 K01775 alanine racemase [EC:5.1.1.1] , (GenBank) alanine racemase (A) MRSASIILDSKALTHNLNCVIDTVPDTTKVLAMVKADAYGHGIAHCLPALKDADGLGVAC FTEAQHIRELGWDKILVLIEGVFSETEWQQSIEAQCQSIIHHQDQVQWALNHLPPENSPC RTVWLKLNTGMNRLGFESDELGDVAQSLVDAGYELILTSHFANADAPNHPSNAKQIDTFT QALQQLREQVDPSIKASLCNSAGILNFKACHFDWVRPGIMLYGSSPVEGVSAQMLKLKPV MSFKASLMAIHNIAAGTSVGYGSRFVANRPIVKGIVSIGYGDGYPRVVDGSAWVSVQLAG EHSSYKCPVIGRVAMDMIAIDLTDVPNPKVGSQVMLWGDPELGAPSVDEIAESAHTLGYE LLCRVTQRPLREVL ...
While Alanine is considered a nonessential acid, meaning that it is produced naturally in the body, L-Alanine supplementation can be very important. This is a pure product that comes in powdered form.. ...
Serine 1450 phosphorylation is critical for Akt-induced N-CoR misfolding.A, Serine to alanine substitution at 1450 abrogated Akt-induced N-CoR misfolding. Relat
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule 3-(3-hydroxy-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1h-indol-3-yl)-l-alanine (C11H12N2O4) from the PQR.
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Olimp Beta-Alanine Carno Rush Mega Caps 80 Tabletten Einnahme: 2-4 Kapsel (= 1 Portion) t glich ca 30 Minuten vor dem Training mit viel Fl ssigkeit einne
Curien G, Bastien O, Robert-Genthon M, Cornish-Bowden A, Cárdenas ML, Dumas R; Understanding the regulation of aspartate metabolism using a model based on measured kinetic parameters.; Mol Syst Biol, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC ...
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Sequences of 11 amino acids belonging to the KPN_00363 protein and KPN_00459 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae MGH 78578 which was previously identified as potentially immunogenic was analyzed via alanine scanning to narrow down the significant amino acid residues within the sequence. Overall design: 26 peptides, two representing the original sequences, 22 peptides with each residue replaced by alanine (or glycin, if the original sequence contained alanine) as well as two related peptides were synthesized on microarrays by JPTs Pepstar Technology. For each microarray, nine replicates for each peptide were spotted. The microarray was seperated into three incubation chambers by the ProPlate 3-well module (Grace Biolabs) to allow for incubation with different antibodies in parallel. For specific interaction rabbit polyclonal IgG to K. pneumoniae (Abcam ab20947) was used, while non-specific binding to the epitope sequences was checked using rabbit polyclonal IgG to E. coli (Abcam ab137967) and S. enterica
Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCIs) have been shown to be an important interaction in molecular recognition. These interactions present characteristics such as the synergistic effect with other interactions e.g. protein-protein interactions, specificity, polyvalency and in some cases requirement of divalent cations. CCIs remain insufficiently documented due to the weakness of such an interaction, which is difficult to probe by classical techniques and study at the molecular level in a monovalent system has not been performed. In order to study the CCI, a peptide based on alanine and lysine has been designed. Carbohydrates have been ligated to this peptide and changes in a-helix and random coil conformations are examined using CD spectroscopy. This system was shown to function as a reporter for CCls through changes in the conformations of the peptide. A second system that will be employed to study eCls is utilising the thiol-thioester exchange reaction. This involves a reaction between ...
We created alleles that were truncated from both the C and N termini. Strains carrying PRP16(136-971) and PRP16(205-971) were not viable, whereas cells carrying the PRP16(136-1021) and PRP16(205-1021) alleles grew at 30° but were temperature sensitive (Figure 2B). Thus, although the C-terminal region of Prp16, from amino acids 972 to 1021, is not essential per se, it becomes important when the N terminus is deleted. This may result from misfolding of the mutant proteins or, alternatively, the segment from amino acids 972-1021 may be functionally redundant to the nonessential N terminus of Prp16.. Missense mutations in motifs I-III: We identified essential amino acids in motifs I-III by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. In motif I (GETGSGKT), residues Gly-373, Glu-374, Thr-375, Gly-376, and Ser-377 could be replaced without affecting the in vivo function of Prp16. However, alanine substitutions at Gly-378, Lys-379, and Thr-380 were lethal (Figure 3A).To establish a structure-function relationship at ...
Active site of A. baumannii alanine racemase. (a) 2Fo− Fc electron-density map of the active site contoured at 1.0σ with isomesh map shown (1.6 Å carve).
The SCOP classification for the Alanine racemase C-terminal domain-like superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Acétylmuramyl Alanyl Isoglutamine; acetylmuramyl alanyl isoglutamine; alanyl isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl; dipeptide, muramyl; isoglutamine, acetylmuramyl alanyl; mur nac l ala d isogln; muramyl dipeptide; mur-nac-l-ala-d-isogln; n acetyl muramyl l alanyl d glutamic alpha amide; n acetylmuramyl l alanyl d isoglutamine; n-acetyl-muramyl-l-alanyl-d-glutamic-alpha-amide; n-acetylmuramyl-l-alanyl-d-isoglutamine. Aide pour diagnostic médical. Méthode automatique dassociations de symptômes pour classifier les plus de 4.000 maladies en quatre langues différentes
1. The metabolism of L-alanine was studied in isolated guinea-pig kidney-cortex tubules. 2. In contrast with previous conclusions of Krebs [(1935) Biochem. J. 29, 1951-1969], glutamine was found to be the main carbon and nitrogenous product of the metabolism of alanine (at 1 and 5 mM). Glutamate and ammonia were only minor products. 3. At neither concentration of alanine was there accumulation of glucose, glycogen, pyruvate, lactate, aspartate or tricarboxylic acid-cycle intermediates. 4. Carbon-balance calculations and the release of 14CO2 from [U-14C]alanine indicate that oxidation of the alanine carbon skeleton occurred at both substrate concentrations. 5. A pathway involving alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase and enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is proposed for the conversion of alanine into glutamine. 6. Strong evidence for this pathway was obtained by: (i) suppressing alanine removal by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of a mutant amino acid-activating domain of surfactin synthetase bearing a serine-to-alanine substitution at the site of carboxylthioester formation. AU - Vollenbroich, Dirk. AU - Kluge, Britta. AU - DSouza, Cletus. AU - Zuber, Peter. AU - Vater, Joachim. PY - 1993/7/5. Y1 - 1993/7/5. N2 - The reactive serine of the TGGHSL thioester binding motif of the first amino acid-activating domain of surfactin synthetase was replaced by alanine using site-directed mutagenesis. The multienzyme from cells of the resulting mutant lost its ability for thioester formation with l-Glu and was therefore inactive in surfactin production. The thiolation reactions catalyzed by the other amino acid-activating domains of surfactin synthetase were not affected by the mutation. The results show that l-Glu is acativated at the first domain of surfactin synthetase, and give further evidence that a serine residue is essential for substrate amino acid activation at the reaction centers of peptide ...
A number of experiments indicate that infection with H. pylori is characterized by elevation of mucosal inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (Crabtree et al., 1994;Gionchetti et al., 1994; Noach et al., 1994) in association with neutrophil-mediated tissue injury (Wallace, 1990; Blaser, 1992). In the present study, rebamipide significantly inhibited (1) theH. pylori-evoked production of IL-8 and expression of IL-8 mRNA in the Kato III cells, (2) the surface expression of CD11b on neutrophils stimulated by either fMLP or CM, and (3) the fMLP- or CM-stimulated neutrophil adherence to the HUVECs.. It has been reported that rebamipide has an oxygen radical-scavenging effects (Yoshikawa et al., 1993), and it prevents gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and diethyldithiocarbamate, which appear to be the conditions that increase oxidative stress in the organs (Takeuchi et al., 1996). Clinically, rebamipide has been tried with some efficacy against the patients with gastritis and/or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis. AU - Priyadarshi, Amit. AU - Lee, Eun Hye. AU - Sung, Min Woo. AU - Nam, Ki Hyun. AU - Lee, Won Ho. AU - Kim, Eunice EunKyeong. AU - Hwang, Kwang Yeon. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. AlaR catalyzes the interconversion between l- and d-alanine, which is important for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This enzyme is common in prokaryotes, but absent in eukaryotes, which makes it an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Here, we report the crystal structures of both the apoenzyme and the d-cycloserine (DCS) complex of AlaR from the pathogenic bacterium Enterococcus faecalis v583, at a resolution of 2.5 Å. DCS is a suicide inhibitor of AlaR and, as such, serves as an antimicrobial agent and has been used to treat tuberculosis and urinary tract ...
Results Blood DHA increased in children supplemented with DHA (0.65%, 95% CI 0.30% to 1.10% for the DHA 250 mg group and 1.15%, 0.87% to 1.43% for the DHA 500 mg group). The odds of more severe versus less severe liver steatosis after treatment was lower in children treated with DHA 250 mg/day (OR = 0.01, 0.002 to 0.11, p ,0.001) and DHA 500 mg/day (OR = 0.04, 0.002 to 0.46, p = 0.01) as compared to placebo but there was no difference between the DHA groups (p = 0.4). Insulin sensitivity index increased and triglycerides decreased to a similar degree in both DHA groups as compared to placebo but there was no effect on alanine transaminase and body mass index.. ...

Alanine racemase elisa and antibodyAlanine racemase elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Alanine racemase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alanine racemase 1. Alanine racemase 1 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 1 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 1 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 2. Alanine racemase 2 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 2 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 2 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 3. Alanine racemase 3 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 3 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 3 Antibody. Catalyzes the ...
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Peginterferon-Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels |...Peginterferon-Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels |...

Peginterferon-Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels ... Background: About 25% of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have persistently normal alanine ... Peginterferon-Based Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients with Normal Alanine Aminotransferase Levels. ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/716984/peginterferon-based-therapy-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-patients-normal

New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against...New Classes of Alanine Racemase Inhibitors Identified by High-Throughput Screening Show Antimicrobial Activity against...

D-alanine, L-alanine, L-alanine dehydrogenase (Bacillus subtilis), and β-NAD-sodium salt were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St ... Alanine racemase and L-alanine dehydrogenase assay adaptation to 384-well format. The coupled alanine racemase assay of Esaki ... The first assay is based on the Esaki and Walsh reaction where the conversion of D-alanine to L-alanine by alanine racemase is ... The assay was modified by varying the concentrations of alanine racemase, D-alanine, NAD, and L-alanine dehydrogenase in a ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3102704/?lang=en-ca

Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis<...Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis<...

title = "Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis",. abstract = "Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a ... N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... AB - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent ...
more infohttps://koreauniv.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/structural-insights-into-the-alanine-racemase-from-enterococcus-f

Dicerna Expands Lead GalXC™ Development Program to Encompass All Forms of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH) and Reveals New...Dicerna Expands Lead GalXC™ Development Program to Encompass All Forms of Primary Hyperoxaluria (PH) and Reveals New...

PH1, which is caused by a mutation in the AGXT gene, causing a deficiency of the enzyme alanine:glyoxylate-aminotransferase ( ...
more infohttp://www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/2017/07/17/8579658.htm

AlanineAlanine

... (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 22 ... L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 ... Alanine can be manufactured in the body from pyruvate and branched chain amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. ... The α-carbon atom of alanine is bound with a methyl group (-CH3), making it one of the simplest α-amino acids with respect to ...
more infohttp://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Alanine.html

Alanine (data page) - WikipediaAlanine (data page) - Wikipedia

The complete data for Alanine. General information. Chemical formula: C3H7NO2 Molar mass: 89.1 g·mol−1. Systematic name:. (S)-2 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alanine_(data_page)&oldid=640072093" ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanine_

β-Alanineβ-Alanine

Other names: «beta»-Aminopropionic acid; Abufene; Alanine, beta-; Propanoic acid, 3-amino-; 3-Aminopropanoic acid; 3- ... Aminopropionic acid; «omega»-Aminopropionic acid; 2-Carboxyethylamine; NSC 7603; Beta-alanine *Information on this page: *Notes ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=C107959

Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt)Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt)

Mus musculus alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt1) mRNA, complete cds. P. NM_016702.2. Mus musculus alanine-glyoxylate ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. C. reinhardtii. 50.3. 382. NP_495885.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. X. laevis. 66.8. 405. NP_001002331.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * ... Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt). Mouse protein-coding gene Agxt. Represented by 68 ESTs from 15 cDNA libraries. EST ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/UniGene/clust.cgi?ORG=Mm&CID=7457

D-ALANINE (1-13C)D-ALANINE (1-13C)

We supply D-ALANINE (1-13C). More information please visit the website:http://www.creative-peptides.com/product/d-alanine-13c- ...
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L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972)L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972)

... is a alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:66916) L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972) is tautomer of L- ... L-alanine (CHEBI:16977) is tautomer of L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972). ... CHEBI:57972 - L-alanine zwitterion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... Zwitterionic form of L-alanine arising from transfer of a proton from the carboxy to the amino group; major species at pH 7.3. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:57972

Alanine Aminotransferase, FluidAlanine Aminotransferase, Fluid

If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
more infohttps://www.nationwidechildrens.org/specialties/laboratory-services/lab-test-directory/alt-fluid

Alpha alanine | chemical compound | Britannica.comAlpha alanine | chemical compound | Britannica.com

... alanine: …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich source of L- ... alanine is silk fibroin, from which the amino acid was first isolated in 1879. Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential ... alanine. * In alanine. …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich ... Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for birds and mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from… ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/alpha-alanine

3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345)3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345)

... is conjugate acid of 3-sulfino-L-alanine(1−) (CHEBI:61085) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine(1−) (CHEBI:61085) is conjugate base of 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345). 3-sulfino-L-alanine residue ( ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) is a S-substituted L-cysteine (CHEBI:47910) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) is a ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) has role ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=16345

Alanine transaminase - WikipediaAlanine transaminase - Wikipedia

Redirected from Alanine aminotransferase). Alanine transaminase (ALT) is a transaminase enzyme (EC 2.6.1.2). It is also called ... "Alanine aminotransferase: analyte monograph" (PDF). Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved 7 ... ALT catalyzes the transfer of an amino group from L-alanine to α-ketoglutarate, the products of this reversible transamination ... It catalyzes the two parts of the alanine cycle. Serum ALT level, serum AST (aspartate transaminase) level, and their ratio ( ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alanine_aminotransferase

L-Alanine - iHerb.comL-Alanine - iHerb.com

iHerb.com © Copyright 1997-2018 iHerb Inc. All rights reserved. iHerb® is a registered trademark of iHerb, Inc. Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. and the iHerb.com Trusted Brands. Healthy Rewards. Logo are trademarks of iHerb, Inc. *Disclaimer: Statements made, or products sold through this website, have not been evaluated by the United States Food and Drug Administration. They are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Read More » ...
more infohttps://www.iherb.com/c/l-alanine

alanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3] - Protein - NCBIalanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3] - Protein - NCBI

alanine racemase [Frankia sp. CcI3]. * This record was replaced or removed. The sequence YP_479735 is 100% identical to WP_ ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/86739335

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) | Lab Tests OnlineAlanine Aminotransferase (ALT) | Lab Tests Online

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found mostly in liver and kidney cells. ALT is released into the blood when the ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme found mostly in the cells of the liver and kidney. Much smaller amounts of it are ... The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test is typically used to detect liver injury. It is often ordered in conjunction with ... The function of ALT is to convert alanine, an amino acid found in proteins, into pyruvate, an important intermediate in ...
more infohttps://labtestsonline.org/tests/alanine-aminotransferase-alt

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test: Uses and resultsAlanine aminotransferase (ALT) test: Uses and results

An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test helps doctors diagnose problems with the liver, such as hepatitis or liver disease. ... "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 11 Jan. 2019. Web.. 17 Sep. ... Fletcher, J. (2019, January 11). "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ... The liver makes several enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. These enzymes help break down proteins so that the ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/324159.php

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) | CignaAlanine Aminotransferase (ALT) | Cigna

Covers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test to measure the amount of ALT enzyme in the blood. Explains why test is done and how ... Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT). Skip to the navigation Test Overview. An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the ... The alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test is done to:. *Identify liver disease, especially cirrhosis and hepatitis caused by ... An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test measures the amount of this enzyme in the blood. Results are usually available within 12 ...
more infohttps://www.cigna.com/individuals-families/health-wellness/hw/medical-tests/alanine-aminotransferase-hw20645

Baking Soda and Beta-Alanine | Runners WorldBaking Soda and Beta-Alanine | Runner's World

... beta-alanine and baking soda. Whats interesting is that both are supposed to work in roughly the same way, by counteracting ... In the time-to-exhaustion test, beta-alanine but not baking soda offered an advantage (BAl is beta-alanine, SB is baking soda, ... The beta-alanine protocol was six weeks starting at 4.8 g/day and increasing to 6.4 g/day for the last two weeks; the baking ... Beta-alanine is converted in the body to a substance called carnosine, which works within the muscle cells to keep pH stable. ...
more infohttps://www.runnersworld.com/nutrition-weight-loss/a20788495/baking-soda-and-beta-alanine/

DL-AlanineDL-Alanine

Browse fuzing.com to find DL-Alanine sellers, suppliers, wholesalers, companies, manufacturers, exporters, factories. ... DL-Alanine. You May Also Be Interested In: dl alanine white powder, an import food additive. ...
more infohttps://www.fuzing.com/DL-Alanine/l/fa0ff08c-14f0-e02e-155f-b729fe088ce7

Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley | Nature CommunicationsAlanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley | Nature Communications

Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. . Plant J. 49, 1108-1121 ( ... Other constitutive alanine aminotransferases catalyse α-ketoglutarate+alanine↔glutamate+pyruvate pathway ubiquitously. Embryo ... Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. *Kazuhiro Sato1. *, Miki Yamane1. *, Nami Yamaji1. *, Hiroyuki ... How to cite this article: Sato, K. et al. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. Nat. Commun. 7:11625 doi: ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms11625?error=cookies_not_supported&code=e78138dd-8e97-4b29-a78e-6dd1e5b954eb
  • Below are the list of possible Alanine racemase products. (mybiosource.com)
  • Racemic alanine can be prepared by the condensation of acetaldehyde with ammonium chloride in the presence of sodium cyanide by the Strecker reaction, or by the ammonolysis of 2-bromopropanoic acid: Alanine is broken down by oxidative deamination, the inverse reaction of the reductive amination reaction described above, catalyzed by the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methyl group of alanine is non-reactive and is thus almost never directly involved in protein function. (princeton.edu)
  • The methyl side-chain of alanine is non-reactive and is therefore hardly ever directly involved in protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alanine then enters the blood stream and is transported to the liver. (prezi.com)
  • Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. (webmd.com)
  • Beta-alanine is converted in the body to a substance called carnosine, which works within the muscle cells to keep pH stable. (runnersworld.com)
  • A new study in the European Journal of Applied Physiology , from researchers at Victoria University in Australia, takes a look at two commonly used performance aids: beta-alanine and baking soda. (runnersworld.com)
  • Alanine is most commonly produced by reductive amination of pyruvate, a two-step process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, they used a fairly complicated double-crossover design to test the results of beta-alanine and baking soda, both alone and together, with eight recreationally active volunteers. (runnersworld.com)
  • But under these particular conditions, beta-alanine certainly looks like a better bet than baking soda. (runnersworld.com)
  • It is predominantly through ingesting the dipeptide carnosine that we ingest most of our beta-alanine, as the two other dipeptides are not found nearly as plentiful in our typical coniferous diet. (bullshido.net)
  • However, obtaining beta-alanine through these dipeptides is not the only way, as our bodies can synthesize it in the liver from the catabolism of pyrimidine nucleotides which are broken down into uracil and thymine and then metabolized into beta-alanine and B-aminoisobutyrate. (bullshido.net)
  • Below is a list of the benefits from beta-alanine, supported by peer-reviewed university research, published in reputable science journals. (bullshido.net)
  • So how can beta-alanine help us overcome this drop in pH that limits exercise performance? (bullshido.net)
  • To understand how beta-alanine works to fight the drop in pH within our muscle, you must first understand how carnosine works. (bullshido.net)
  • Beta-alanine is used for improving athletic performance and exercise capacity, building lean muscle mass, and improving physical functioning in the elderly. (webmd.com)
  • Some research shows that taking beta-alanine modestly improves some measures of physical performance, especially during high-intensity exercise and strength training . (webmd.com)
  • However, not all research shows beneficial effects of beta-alanine on physical performance. (webmd.com)
  • Most research has used a specific beta-alanine product (CarnoSyn, Natural Alternatives International). (webmd.com)
  • Early research suggests that taking beta-alanine is less effective than the drug veralipride at reducing hot flashes in menopausal women. (webmd.com)
  • More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of beta-alanine for this use. (webmd.com)
  • Beta-alanine is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately for a short time. (webmd.com)
  • Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. (webmd.com)
  • There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking beta-alanine if you are pregnant or breast -feeding. (webmd.com)
  • Gentec Beta Alanine is a 100% pure pharmaceutical grade source of beta alanine, which has been HPLC tested and in a highly bio available form. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Increased vascularity and pump is also correlated with Beta Alanine supplementation, as well as flushing of the face and tingling in the extremities. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Mix 2 grams (1/2 teaspoon) of Beta Alanine in water and consume 20 minutes before exercise. (australiansportsnutrition.com.au)
  • Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. (princeton.edu)