Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Alanine Racemase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that reversibly catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine to D-alanine. EC 5.1.1.1.Alanine Dehydrogenase: An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the reversible DEAMINATION of L-ALANINE to PYRUVATE and AMMONIA. The enzyme is needed for growth when ALANINE is the sole CARBON or NITROGEN source. It may also play a role in CELL WALL synthesis because L-ALANINE is an important constituent of the PEPTIDOGLYCAN layer.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Gluconeogenesis: Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.PyruvatesSubstrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Alanine-tRNA Ligase: An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.7.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hyperoxaluria, Primary: A genetic disorder characterized by excretion of large amounts of OXALATES in urine; NEPHROLITHIASIS; NEPHROCALCINOSIS; early onset of RENAL FAILURE; and often a generalized deposit of CALCIUM OXALATE. There are subtypes classified by the enzyme defects in glyoxylate metabolism.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carbon Tetrachloride: A solvent for oils, fats, lacquers, varnishes, rubber waxes, and resins, and a starting material in the manufacturing of organic compounds. Poisoning by inhalation, ingestion or skin absorption is possible and may be fatal. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.GalactosamineUrea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.D-Alanine Transaminase: A PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible transfer of an amino group between D-Alanine and alpha-ketoglutarate to form PYRUVATE and D-GLUTAMATE, respectively. It plays a role in the synthesis of the bacterial CELL WALL. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 2.6.1.10.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Ketoglutaric Acids: A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.GlyoxylatesAmino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Hydroxybutyrates: Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Aminopeptidases: A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Glutamate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.

Carbon 13 NMR study of nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with selected amino acids and of related reactions. (1/5406)

Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to monitor the nonenzymatic reactions of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate with glycine, alanine, valine, serine, and with several other model compounds. Isotopically enriched amino acids were employed so that low concentrations could be utilized while still allowing relatively rapid acquisition of spectral data. The results for alanine and serine are particularly noteworthy in that alanine is deaminated to pyruvate and pyruvate is aminated to alanine, but contrary to the enzymatic reactions of various serine dehydratases wherein serine is converted to pyruvate, the nonenzymatic reaction utilizing serine results in hydroxypruvate rather than pyruvate formation. In the reverse reaction, hydroxypyruvate is aminated to serine but very inefficiently relative to the amination of pyruvate to alanine. The experimental results have been formulated into a proposed reaction mechanism for deamination of amino acids by pyridoxal-P.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (2/5406)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Role of glutamine in human carbohydrate metabolism in kidney and other tissues. (3/5406)

Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more so than that of alanine). The available evidence on the hormonal regulation of glutamine gluconeogenesis in kidney and liver and its alterations under pathological conditions are discussed.  (+info)

Structural determinants of the eosinophil: chemotactic activity of the acidic tetrapeptides of eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis. (4/5406)

The acidic tetrapeptides of ECF-A, Ala/Val-Gly-Ser-Glu, exhibit peak in vitro chemotactic activity for human eosinophils at concentrations of 3 X 10(-8) M to 10(-6) M, and rapidly deactivate eosinophils to homologous and other stimuli at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. The analogue Leu-Gly-Ser-Glu reaches peak activity at 10(-8)M-10(-7)M, while Phe-Gly-Ser-Glu requires 10(-4)M to elicit a peak response. Although inversion of the order of glycine and serine does not alter the eosinophil chemotactic activity of the tetrapeptides, deletion of glycine increases by 10-fold the concentration required for peak chemotactic activity, indicating the critical nature of the spacing between NH2- and COOH-terminal residues. The substituent COOH-terminal tripeptide, which is only marginally chemotactic, irreversibly suppresses eosinophil chemotactic responsiveness at a concentration 10,000-fold higher than concentrations necessary for deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide. The high concentration of tripeptide required for this cell directed effect, which is assumed to be analogous to deactivation, is attributed to the absence of the NH2-terminal residue which would facilitate effective interaction with the eosinophil. A substituent NH2-terminal tripeptide and amides of the NH2-terminal amino acids, which are devoid of chemotactic and deactivating activities, reversibly inhibit the tetrapeptide stimulus in a dose-response fashion. The additional finding that the NH2-terminal tripeptide protects the eosinophil from deactivation by the intact tetrapeptide confirms that the competitive interaction is stimulus specific.  (+info)

Variants of ribonuclease inhibitor that resist oxidation. (5/5406)

Human ribonuclease inhibitor (hRI) is a cytosolic protein that protects cells from the adventitious invasion of pancreatic-type ribonucleases. hRI has 32 cysteine residues. The oxidation of these cysteine residues to form disulfide bonds is a rapid, cooperative process that inactivates hRI. The most proximal cysteine residues in native hRI are two pairs that are adjacent in sequence: Cys94 and Cys95, and Cys328 and Cys329. A cystine formed from such adjacent cysteine residues would likely contain a perturbing cis peptide bond within its eight-membered ring, which would disrupt the structure of hRI and could facilitate further oxidation. We find that replacing Cys328 and Cys329 with alanine residues has little effect on the affinity of hRI for bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A), but increases its resistance to oxidation by 10- to 15-fold. Similar effects are observed for the single variants, C328A hRI and C329A hRI, suggesting that oxidation resistance arises from the inability to form a Cys328-Cys329 disulfide bond. Replacing Cys94 and Cys95 with alanine residues increases oxidation resistance to a lesser extent, and decreases the affinity of hRI for RNase A. The C328A, C329A, and C328A/C329A variants are likely to be more useful than wild-type hRI for inhibiting pancreatic-type ribonucleases in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that replacing adjacent cysteine residues can confer oxidation resistance in a protein.  (+info)

Multiplex sequence analysis demonstrates the competitive growth advantage of the A-to-G mutants of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori. (6/5406)

Clarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori is due to point mutation within the 23S rRNA. We examined the growth rates of different types of site-directed mutants and demonstrated quantitatively the competitive growth advantage of A-to-G mutants over other types of mutants by a multiplex sequencing assay. The results provide a rational explanation of why A-to-G mutants are predominantly observed among clarithromycin-resistant clinical isolates.  (+info)

The Escherichia coli Ada protein can interact with two distinct determinants in the sigma70 subunit of RNA polymerase according to promoter architecture: identification of the target of Ada activation at the alkA promoter. (7/5406)

The methylated form of the Ada protein (meAda) activates transcription from the Escherichia coli ada, aidB, and alkA promoters with different mechanisms. In this study we identify amino acid substitutions in region 4 of the RNA polymerase subunit sigma70 that affect Ada-activated transcription at alkA. Substitution to alanine of residues K593, K597, and R603 in sigma70 region 4 results in decreased Ada-dependent binding of RNA polymerase to the alkA promoter in vitro and impairs alkA transcription both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that these residues define a determinant for meAda-sigma70 interaction. In a previous study (P. Landini, J. A. Bown, M. R. Volkert, and S. J. W. Busby, J. Biol. Chem. 273:13307-13312, 1998), we showed that a set of negatively charged amino acids in sigma70 region 4 is involved in meAda-sigma70 interaction at the ada and aidB promoters. However, the alanine substitutions of positively charged residues K593, K597, and R603 do not affect meAda-dependent transcription at ada and aidB. Unlike the sigma70 amino acids involved in the interaction with meAda at the ada and aidB promoters, K593, K597, and R603 are not conserved in sigmaS, an alternative sigma subunit of RNA polymerase mainly expressed during the stationary phase of growth. While meAda is able to promote transcription by the sigmaS form of RNA polymerase (EsigmaS) at ada and aidB, it fails to do so at alkA. We propose that meAda can activate transcription at different promoters by contacting distinct determinants in sigma70 region 4 in a manner dependent on the location of the Ada binding site.  (+info)

CPCCOEt, a noncompetitive metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 antagonist, inhibits receptor signaling without affecting glutamate binding. (8/5406)

Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors characterized by a large, extracellular N-terminal domain comprising the glutamate-binding site. In the current study, we examined the pharmacological profile and site of action of the non-amino-acid antagonist 7-hydroxyiminocyclopropan[b]chromen-1a-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (CPCCOEt). CPCCOEt selectively inhibited glutamate-induced increases in intracellular calcium at human mGluR1b (hmGluR1b) with an apparent IC50 of 6.5 microM while having no agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2, -4a, -5a, -7b, and -8a up to 100 microM. Schild analysis indicated that CPCCOEt acts in a noncompetitive manner by decreasing the efficacy of glutamate-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis without affecting the EC50 value or Hill coefficient of glutamate. Similarly, CPCCOEt did not displace [3H]glutamate binding to membranes prepared from mGluR1a-expressing cells. To elucidate the site of action, we systematically exchanged segments and single amino acids between hmGluR1b and the related subtype, hmGluR5a. Substitution of Thr815 and Ala818, located at the extracellular surface of transmembrane segment VII, with the homologous amino acids of hmGluR5a eliminated CPCCOEt inhibition of hmGluR1b. In contrast, introduction of Thr815 and Ala818 at the homologous positions of hmGluR5a conferred complete inhibition by CPCCOEt (IC50 = 6.6 microM), i.e., a gain of function. These data suggest that CPCCOEt represents a novel class of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists inhibiting receptor signaling without affecting ligand binding. We propose that the interaction of CPCCOEt with Thr815 and Ala818 of mGluR1 disrupts receptor activation by inhibiting an intramolecular interaction between the agonist-bound extracellular domain and the transmembrane domain.  (+info)

The effects of metabolic inhibitors and ouabain on alanine transport across rabbit ileum, in vitro, have been investigated. Net transport of alanine and Na across short-circuited segments of ileum is virtually abolished by cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, iodoacetate, and ouabain. However, these inhibitors do not markedly depress alanine influx from the mucosal solution, across the brush border, into the intestinal epithelium, and they do not significantly affect the Na dependence of this entry process. The results of this investigation indicate that: (a) the Na dependence of alanine influx does not reflect a mechanism in which the sole function of Na is to link metabolic energy directly to the influx process; and (b) the inhibition of net alanine transport across intestine is, in part, the result of an increased rate coefficient for alanine efflux out of the cell across the brush border. Although these findings do not exclude a direct link between metabolic energy and alanine efflux, the increased ...
1. The metabolism of glutamine and alanine in the lung was studied in rats made septic by a caecal ligation and puncture technique.. 2. The blood glucose concentration was not significantly different in septic rats, but blood pyruvate, lactate, glutamine and alanine concentrations were markedly increased as compared with sham-operated rats. Conversely, blood ketone body and plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly decreased in septic rats. Both plasma insulin and plasma glucagon concentrations were markedly elevated in response to sepsis. Sepsis resulted in a negative nitrogen balance.. 3. Sepsis increased the rates of production of glutamine (52.5%, P ,0.001), alanine (38.9%, P ,0.001) and glutamate (48.6%, P ,0.001) by lung slices incubated in vitro.. 4. Sepsis increased lung blood flow by 27.6% (P ,0.05). Blood flow and arteriovenous concentration difference measurement across the lung of septic rats showed an increase in the net exchange rates of glutamine (142.5%, P ,0.001), ...
The focus of this study was the pathways for β-alanine production in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis. The major pathway for β-alanine production is the decarboxylation of L-aspartate by L-aspartate-α-decarboxylase (PanD). This enzyme is not essential for the survival for Mtb which implies that an alternative pathway for β-alanine production must exist. We postulated that such a secondary pathway may be based on the oxidation of various polyamines by a polyamine oxidase to give the β-alanine precursor 3-aminopropanal, and therefore set out to find data in support of this hypothesis. Based on sequence homology to the FAD-dependent Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyamine oxidase Fms1, Mtb AofH was identified as a likely candidate. The soluble expression and purification of AofH proved troublesome and lead to the investigation of various techniques to increase protein yield. These methods include fusion to various tags, coexpression with the protein chaperones, ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Lower band detected after alanine mutation - posted in SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting: Hi all, after a serial of alanine mutation on some region of interest of a protein, i noticed substitution of alanine of some amino acid will lead to lower band intensity in western blot. But with higher background band at the lower size. It seems for me theres some degradation of these samples. But i supposed the protein was prepared simultaneously and equally. And the experiment repeated twice wi...
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Beta Alanine is a formulated supplementary sports food. This tub is full of an amino acid called Beta Alanine. To find out what Beta Alanine does in the body; w
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To know about L Alanine - L-Alanine is non-polar amino acid. L-Alanine synthesized by the muscle cells from lactic acid and plays a vital role as a building block
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1L70: Multiple alanine replacements within alpha-helix 126-134 of T4 lysozyme have independent, additive effects on both structure and stability.
Alanine (or aminopropionic acid) is an aliphatic (aromatic-free) amino acid. In the liver, it is easily processed into a glucose source of energy for the body,
Fast, simple luminescent calcium flux assays using an AequoScreen cell line stably-transfected with human beta alanine TGR7 receptor.
NN Beta Alanine (Nanox) MAISTO PAPILDAS, MILTELIAI 100 PORCIJŲ Vienas kaušelis: 2,5 g Grynasis kiekis: 250 g Sudedamosios dalys: beta alaninas. 100g 1kauš.(2,5g) Energinė vertė 393,1kcal 1647,3kJ 34,3kcal 143,4kJ Baltymai 98,285 g 8,568
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Beta Alanine is a rather popular ingredient used in many pre workout supplements that is responsible for that tingling feeling you get after ingesting it.
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There are many benefits to using supplements, however, I always tell people to use them for what they are intended, that is a supplement, not a replacement.. ...
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biol ཨེ་ལ་སྐྱུར་རྫས། = སྤྲི་དཀར་མང་པོའི་ནང་མཐོང་རྒྱུ་ཡོད་ལ་བཅོས་མའི་སྦྱོར་སྡེབ་ཀྱིས་ཀྱང་། བཟོ་སྐྲུན་བྱེད་ཐུབ་པའི་ཁ་དོག་མེད་ལ་ཆུའི་ནང་བཞུར་འདྲེས་ཐུབ་པའི་ཨེ་མི་ནོ་ཞེས་པའི་སྐྱུར་རྫས་ཀྱི་རིགས་ཤིག ...
2.64G 0.74G 1.50G 6.41G 8G 154G 3.67G 0.81G 0.52G 2.24G 32G 2.21G 3.07G 2.21G 0.11G 2.64G 4.34G 2.83G 1.28G 2.21G 3.07G 3.07G 2.21G 3.48G 1.75G ...
ALA A 144, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ALA ALA A 512, NO DENSITY PRESENT FOR SIDE CHAIN, THE RESIDUE WAS THERFORE MODELED AS ...
These data demonstrate that chronic hyperglucagonemia, when accompanied by increases in gluconeogenic precursor availability and adequate circulating concentrations of NEFA, can contribute to the infection-induced increase in glucose production and gluconeogenesis. These data confirm that even in an animal reliant predominantly on gluconeogenesis, combined increases in lactate and alanine uptake by the liver are unable to increase hepatic glucose output. If the substrate-induced suppression of NEFAs is prevented and/or NEFAs are increased, increases in gluconeogenic precursor supply can support an increase in hepatic glucose production.. Chronic hyperglucagonemia markedly enhanced the importance of the liver in disposal of the exogenous alanine. As expected, the uptake of alanine by the liver increased in parallel with the rise in alanine levels. This is reflected in the constancy of net fractional hepatic alanine extraction in the face of increases in blood alanine concentration (6). ...
Unidirectional influxes of L-alanine and Na from the mucosal solution into the epithelium of in vitro rabbit ileum have been determined. In the presence of 140 mM Na, alanine influx is approximately 2.2 µmoles/hr cm2, but is inhibited if the NaCl in the mucosal solution is replaced by choline Cl, Tris-Cl, mannitol, LiCl, or KCl. Although alanine influx is strongly dependent upon Na in the mucosal solution, it is uninfluenced by marked reduction of intracellular Na pools. In addition, alanine influx is unaffected by intracellular alanine concentration. Na influx is markedly inhibited by the presence of Li. Evidence is presented that Na transport across the mucosal border cannot be attributed to simple diffusion even though the net flux across this surface is in the direction of the electrochemical potential difference.. ...
Alanine dipeptide is one of the simplest molecules that exhibits some important features common to larger biomolecules. In particular, it has more than one long-lived conformation, which we will identify in this exercise by mapping out its potential energy surface. The conformations of alanine dipeptide are characterized by the dihedral angles of the backbone. Below, we color carbons in green, hydrogens in white, oxygen in red and nitrogen in blue, i.e. the torsional angle $\phi$ is C-N-C-C, while $\psi$ is N-C-C-N along the backbone. ...
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The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. Alanine/serine/cysteine transporter 2 - Alanine/serine/cysteine transporter subfamily. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
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Accepted name: β-alanine pyruvate transaminase. Reaction: L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate = pyruvate + β-alanine. Other name(s): β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase; β-alanine-α-alanine transaminase. Systematic name: L-alanine:3-oxopropanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein.. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, GTD, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 61461-61-8. References: 1. Hayaishi, O., Nishizuka, Y., Tatibana, M., Takeshita, M. and Kuno, S. Enzymatic studies on the metabolism of β-alanine. J. Biol. Chem. 236 (1961) 781-790.. 2. Stinson, R.A. and Spencer, M.S. β-Aalanine aminotransferase(s) from a plant source. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1969) 120-127. [PMID: 5762452]. ...
Alanine dipeptide is often studied in theoretical work because it is among the simplest systems to exhibit some of the important features common to biomolecules. It has more than one long-lived conformational state. The relevant angles are the dihedral angles of the backbone, commonly called Φ and Ψ (see figure). In the following scheme, light blue atoms are carbons, white ones are hydrogens, red are oxygens, and blue are nitrogens. So the torsional angle Φ is C-N-C-C and Ψ is N-C-C-N along the backbone ...
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11571PRTArtificial SequenceSynthetic peptide 1Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly 1 5 10 15 Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu 20 25 30 Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Ala Pro 35 40 45 Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly 50 55 60 Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala 65 70 75 80 Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro 85 90 95 Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly 100 105 110 Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val 115 120 125 Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Ile Gly Pro Pro Gly Pro Ala Gly Ala Pro 130 135 140 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro Gly Glu Arg Gly Ala Ala Gly 145 150 155 160 Leu Pro Gly Pro Lys Gly Glu Arg Gly Asp Ala Gly Pro Lys Gly Ala 165 170 175 Asp Gly Ala Pro Gly Lys Asp Gly Val Arg Gly Leu Ala Gly Pro Pro 180 185 190 Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Ala Pro Gly Leu Gln Gly Met Pro ...
One of the amino acids found in the structure of the muscle is Beta-alanine. Beta Alanine does not generally contribute to synthesizing proteins
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Alanine[edit]. Alanine is produced by the transamination of one molecule of pyruvate using two alternate steps: 1) conversion ... Pyruvate: alanine, valine, and leucine[edit]. Pyruvate, the end result of glycolysis, can feed into both the TCA cycle and ... Alanine and aspartate are synthesized by the transamination of pyruvate and oxaloacetate, respectively. Glutamine is ... Not much is known about the regulation of alanine synthesis. The only definite method is the bacterium's ability to repress ...
58 (1936), 1270-1273 Kendall, E. C.; McKenzie, B. F. (1941). "dl-Alanine". Organic Syntheses. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ...
Ford, Jared H. (1947). "β-Alanine". Org. Synth. 27: 1; Coll. Vol. 3: 34. Anslow, W. K.; King, H.; Orten, J. M.; Hill, R. M. ( ...
p-Nitrophenyl-alanine (1) was converted to its phthalimide by heating with phthalic anhydride, and this was converted to its ... Resolution of para-substituted phenylalanines and synthesis of p-di-(2-chloroethyl)amino-DL-phenyl[?-14C]alanine". Journal of ...
Alanine. *Ammonia, NH3. *Methylamine, CH3NH2. *Ammoniumhydroxide, NH4OH ...
Alanine. 1.436 g. Aspartic acid. 2.200 g. Glutamic acid. 3.610 g. Glycine. 1.583 g. ...
Alanine. 0.662 g. Aspartic acid. 1.368 g. Glutamic acid. 2.885 g. Glycine. 0.708 g. ...
Alanine. 1.027 g. Aspartic acid. 2.911 g. Glutamic acid. 6.810 g. Glycine. 1.469 g. ...
Alanine. 0.509 g. Aspartic acid. 1.222 g. Glutamic acid. 2.393 g. Glycine. 0.650 g. ...
... alanines. Humans express one kynureninase enzyme that is encoded by the KYNU gene located on chromosome 2.[6][7] ...
Alanine. 4.515 g. Aspartic acid. 5.793 g. Glutamic acid. 8.386 g. Glycine. 3.099 g. ...
This reaction, and by extension the glycine cleavage system, is required for photorespiration in C3 plants. The glycine cleavage system takes glycine, which is created from an unwanted byproduct of the Calvin cycle, and converts it to serine which can reenter the cycle. The ammonia generated by the glycine cleavage system, is assimilated by the Glutamine synthetase-Glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycle but costs the cell one ATP and one NADPH. The upside is that one CO2 is produced for every two O2 that are mistakenly taken up by the cell, generating some value in an otherwise energy depleting cycle. Together the proteins involved in these reactions comprise about half the proteins in mitochondria from spinach and pea leaves.[3] The glycine cleavage system is constantly present in the leaves of plants, but in small amounts until they are exposed to light. During peak photosynthesis, the concentration of the glycine cleavage system increases ten-fold.[7] In the anaerobic bacteria, ...
Alanine. 0.161 g. Aspartic acid. 0.417 g. Glutamic acid. 0.312 g. Glycine. 0.124 g. ...
The mitochondrial creatine kinase (CKm) is present in the mitochondrial intermembrane space, where it regenerates phosphocreatine (PCr) from mitochondrially generated ATP and creatine (Cr) imported from the cytosol. Apart from the two mitochondrial CK isoenzyme forms, that is, ubiquitous mtCK (present in non-muscle tissues) and sarcomeric mtCK (present in sarcomeric muscle), there are three cytosolic CK isoforms present in the cytosol, depending on the tissue. Whereas MM-CK is expressed in sarcomeric muscle, that is, skeletal and cardiac muscle, MB-CK is expressed in cardiac muscle, and BB-CK is expressed in smooth muscle and in most non-muscle tissues. Mitochondrial mtCK and cytosolic CK are connected in a so-called PCr/Cr-shuttle or circuit. PCr generated by mtCK in mitochondria is shuttled to cytosolic CK that is coupled to ATP-dependent processes, e.g. ATPases, such as acto-myosin ATPase and calcium ATPase involved in muscle contraction, and sodium/potassium ATPase involved in sodium ...
Alanine. 0.836 g. Aspartic acid. 1.550 g. Glutamic acid. 0.595 g. Glycine. 0.488 g. ...
Alanine. 0.170 g. Aspartic acid. 0.325 g. Glutamic acid. 0.761 g. Glycine. 0.158 g. ...
Alanine. 0.799 g. Aspartic acid. 1.261 g. Glutamic acid. 2.259 g. Glycine. 1.636 g. ...
... crosses the protective blood-brain barrier, whereas dopamine itself cannot. Thus, L-DOPA is used to increase dopamine concentrations in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia. This treatment was made practical and proven clinically by George Cotzias and his coworkers, for which they won the 1969 Lasker Prize.[4][5] Once L-DOPA has entered the central nervous system, it is converted into dopamine by the enzyme aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, also known as DOPA decarboxylase. Pyridoxal phosphate (vitamin B6) is a required cofactor in this reaction, and may occasionally be administered along with L-DOPA, usually in the form of pyridoxine.. Besides the central nervous system, L-DOPA is also converted into dopamine from within the peripheral nervous system. Excessive peripheral dopamine signaling causes many of the adverse side effects seen with sole L-DOPA administration. To bypass these effects, it is standard clinical practice to coadminister (with ...
Alanine Ala A MT-TA 5,587-5,655 H Arginine Arg R MT-TR 10,405-10,469 L ...
The D-alanine in peptidoglycans that comprise bacterial cell walls helps its host resist attack by proteolytic enzymes. Several ...
Theanine; Glycine site agonists: β-Fluoro-D-alanine. *ACBD. *ACC (ACPC). *ACPD ...
Agonists: β-Alanine. *β-ABA (BABA). *β-AIBA. *Caesium. *D-Alanine. *D-Serine ...
Inhibitors: β-Alanine. *Bafilomycin A1. *Chicago sky blue 6B. *Evans blue. *GABA ...
... poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries.[28] Carbon monoxide is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, but highly toxic. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobin, which usurps the space in hemoglobin that normally carries oxygen, but is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues. Concentrations as low as 667 ppm may cause up to 50% of the body's hemoglobin to convert to carboxyhemoglobin.[29] A level of 50% carboxyhemoglobin may result in seizure, coma, and fatality. In the United States, the OSHA limits long-term workplace exposure levels above 50 ppm.[30]. The most common symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning may resemble other types of poisonings and infections, including symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, fatigue, and a feeling of weakness. Affected families often believe they are victims of food poisoning. Infants may be irritable and feed poorly. Neurological signs include confusion, ...
Alanine and lactate are major gluconeogenic precursors that enter gluconeogenesis as pyruvate. The high NADH/NAD+ ratio shifts ... The noticeable difference between the two subunits that make up LDH's tertiary structure is the replacement of alanine (in the ...
D-alanine, L-alanine, L-alanine dehydrogenase (Bacillus subtilis), and β-NAD-sodium salt were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St ... Alanine racemase and L-alanine dehydrogenase assay adaptation to 384-well format. The coupled alanine racemase assay of Esaki ... The first assay is based on the Esaki and Walsh reaction where the conversion of D-alanine to L-alanine by alanine racemase is ... The assay was modified by varying the concentrations of alanine racemase, D-alanine, NAD, and L-alanine dehydrogenase in a ...
Recombinant Protein and Alanine racemase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are ... Alanine racemase 1. Alanine racemase 1 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 1 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 1 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 2. Alanine racemase 2 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 2 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 2 Antibody. Catalyzes the ... Alanine racemase 3. Alanine racemase 3 ELISA Kit. Alanine racemase 3 Recombinant. Alanine racemase 3 Antibody. Catalyzes the ...
Huang, XJ, Choi, YK, Im, HS, Yarimaga, O, Yoon, E & Kim, HS 2006, Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine ... Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) detection techniques. Sensors. 2006 Jan 1;6(7):756- ... Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) detection techniques. Xing Jiu Huang, Yang Kyu Choi ... Aspartate aminotransferase (AST/GOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) detection techniques. In: Sensors. 2006 ; Vol. 6, ...
title = "Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis",. abstract = "Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a ... N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... AB - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)- ... Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent ...
Alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT). Glyoxylate reductase: hydroxypyruvate reductase (GR/HPR). Glycolate oxidase (GO). ...
PH1, which is caused by a mutation in the AGXT gene, causing a deficiency of the enzyme alanine:glyoxylate-aminotransferase ( ...
... (abbreviated as Ala or A)[2] is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula CH3CH(NH2)COOH. The L-isomer is one of the 22 ... L-Alanine is second only to leucine in rate of occurrence, accounting for 7.8% of the primary structure in a sample of 1,150 ... Alanine can be manufactured in the body from pyruvate and branched chain amino acids such as valine, leucine, and isoleucine. ... The α-carbon atom of alanine is bound with a methyl group (-CH3), making it one of the simplest α-amino acids with respect to ...
The complete data for Alanine. General information. Chemical formula: C3H7NO2 Molar mass: 89.1 g·mol−1. Systematic name:. (S)-2 ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Alanine_(data_page)&oldid=640072093" ...
Other names in common use include beta-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase, and beta-alanine-alpha-alanine transaminase. This ... L-alanine + 3-oxopropanoate ⇌. {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons }. pyruvate + beta-alanine. Thus, the two substrates of this ... In enzymology, a beta-alanine-pyruvate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.18) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
Mus musculus alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt1) mRNA, complete cds. P. NM_016702.2. Mus musculus alanine-glyoxylate ... alanine-glyoxylate transaminase. C. reinhardtii. 50.3. 382. NP_495885.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * Protein ... alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase. X. laevis. 66.8. 405. NP_001002331.1 * Conserved domains (CDD) * * Gene summary * * ... Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (Agxt). Mouse protein-coding gene Agxt. Represented by 68 ESTs from 15 cDNA libraries. EST ...
... is a alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:66916) L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972) is tautomer of L- ... L-alanine (CHEBI:16977) is tautomer of L-alanine zwitterion (CHEBI:57972). ... CHEBI:57972 - L-alanine zwitterion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... Zwitterionic form of L-alanine arising from transfer of a proton from the carboxy to the amino group; major species at pH 7.3. ...
... alanine: …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich source of L- ... alanine is silk fibroin, from which the amino acid was first isolated in 1879. Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential ... alanine. * In alanine. …one of which, L-alanine, or alpha-alanine (α-alanine), is a constituent of proteins. An especially rich ... Alanine is one of several so-called nonessential amino acids for birds and mammals; i.e., they can synthesize it from… ...
... is conjugate acid of 3-sulfino-L-alanine(1−) (CHEBI:61085) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine(1−) (CHEBI:61085) is conjugate base of 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345). 3-sulfino-L-alanine residue ( ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) is a S-substituted L-cysteine (CHEBI:47910) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) is a ... 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) 3-sulfino-L-alanine (CHEBI:16345) has role ...
We supply D-ALANINE (1-13C). More information please visit the website:http://www.creative-peptides.com/product/d-alanine-13c- ...
Other names: «beta»-Aminopropionic acid; Abufene; Alanine, beta-; Propanoic acid, 3-amino-; 3-Aminopropanoic acid; 3- ... Aminopropionic acid; «omega»-Aminopropionic acid; 2-Carboxyethylamine; NSC 7603; Beta-alanine *Information on this page: *Notes ...
... "alanine scanning", where every position in turn is mutated to alanine. Alanine is a nonessential amino acid, meaning it can be ... forming alanine and α-ketoglutarate. The alanine enters the bloodstream, and is transported to the liver. The alanine ... Alanine is found in a wide variety of foods, but is particularly concentrated in meats. Alanine can be synthesized from ... Alterations in the alanine cycle that increase the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are linked to the development ...
An alanine aminotransferase (ALT) test helps doctors diagnose problems with the liver, such as hepatitis or liver disease. ... "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 11 Jan. 2019. Web.. 17 Sep. ... Fletcher, J. (2019, January 11). "What is an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) blood test?." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ... The liver makes several enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. These enzymes help break down proteins so that the ...
Alanine aminotransferase catalyses the breakdown of alanine after hypoxia in Arabidopsis thaliana. . Plant J. 49, 1108-1121 ( ... Other constitutive alanine aminotransferases catalyse α-ketoglutarate+alanine↔glutamate+pyruvate pathway ubiquitously. Embryo ... Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. *Kazuhiro Sato1. *, Miki Yamane1. *, Nami Yamaji1. *, Hiroyuki ... How to cite this article: Sato, K. et al. Alanine aminotransferase controls seed dormancy in barley. Nat. Commun. 7:11625 doi: ...
... *Formula: C18H32N6O7 ...
MusclePharm, Beta Alanine 3 Results (showing 1 - 3) Visit Manufacturers Website » How Can Beta-Alanine Boost Exercise ... Brands A-Z MusclePharm Beta Alanine Categories Supplements Amino Acids Beta Alanine Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout ...
If you would like to schedule an appointment with one of our nationally ranked specialists or Primary Care physicians please click or call 800-881-7385.. ...
Brands A-Z Now Foods Beta Alanine Categories Supplements Amino Acids Beta Alanine Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout ... Now Foods, Beta Alanine 2 Results (showing 1 - 2) Visit Manufacturers Website » ...
L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, ... alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. T Alanine dehydrogenase contains both a N-terminus and C- ... Alanine dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.1) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L-alanine + H2O + NAD+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-alanine:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating). Other names in common use include ...
The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ... Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alanine transaminase, SGPT) - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and ... The alanine transaminase (ALT) blood test measures the level of the enzyme ALT in the blood. ...
Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system ... It was learned that the effect is intrinsic to alanine and is not dependent on the chemical form or manufacturing formulation ... The study postulated that the production of one (or more) of the radiation-induced alanine radicals is dependent on the dose ... Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system ...
  • Beta-alanine supplements might also improve physical performance and delay muscle fatigue in older adults. (webmd.com)
  • The researchers recommended future studies to examine the effects of taking both beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplements during a strength training program, as well as possible interactions or synergistic effects of caffeine. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Beta Alanine a staple ingredient in many pre-workout supplements, and for very good reason, it helps enhance muscular endurance and can improve performance by reducing exhaustion or fatigue. (a1supplements.com)
  • We thank Dr. John Wise and Natural Alternatives International (San Marcos, CA) for generously providing the β-alanine (CarnoSyn) and placebo supplements. (springer.com)
  • The methyl group of alanine is non-reactive and is thus almost never directly involved in protein function. (princeton.edu)
  • The methyl side-chain of alanine is non-reactive and is therefore hardly ever directly involved in protein function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine aids the body during intense aerobic activity, when muscle protein is used to help produce energy. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Side effects have not been reported with moderate doses of beta-alanine. (webmd.com)
  • Linac x-ray and direct gamma irradiation sources were used in this study to irradiate simple polycrystalline alanine- in-glass (AiG) dosimeters with low-doses, typical for medical therapy, and high-doses, typical for syringes' sterilization processe, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • The results indicated that the de-amination of L-alanine is the main reaction to form the "stable" radical and the AiG-dosimeter gives comparable sensitivity for both low and high radiation doses. (scirp.org)
  • This linear response and the well-known doses' cumulative characteristics of alanine are in favor of the use of this simple dosimeter in ample medical applications, particularly the conventional radiotherapy treatment per patient. (scirp.org)
  • Paresthesia is a mild sensation of prickling, numbness or burning in the skin that appears when doses of beta-alanine greater than 10 mg per kg are taken and resolves one hour after intake. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Other names in common use include AlaDH, L-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-linked alanine dehydrogenase, alpha-alanine dehydrogenase, NAD+-dependent alanine dehydrogenase, alanine oxidoreductase, and NADH-dependent alanine dehydrogenase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alanine/Histidine/Lysine Polypeptide Copper HCl is a copper derivative of a peptide derivedfrom alanine, histidine, and lysine. (ewg.org)
  • When this process occur simultaneously, it is known as glucose-alanine cycle. (prezi.com)
  • This pathway is termed the glucose-alanine cycle. (prezi.com)
  • When taken as a supplement, alanine is released by the muscles into the bloodstream. (aminoz.com.au)
  • Check standards are used by the NIST Ionizing Radiation Division to monitor the performance of the alanine dosimetry system that is central to its high-dose transfer dosimetry service. (nist.gov)
  • A few years ago, check-standard measurement deviations unveiled a previously unknown rate effect for the alanine dosimetry system. (nist.gov)
  • That the rate effect only becomes significant above 5 kGy likely contributed to it only recently being discovered despite decades of research in alanine dosimetry. (nist.gov)
  • R. B. Hayes, "Concerns Regarding Recent NIST Publications on Alanine Dosimetry. (scirp.org)
  • B. Ciesielski, K. Schultka, A. Kobierska, R. Nowak and Z. Peimel-Stuglik, "In Vivo Alanine/EPR Dosimetry in Daily Clinical Practice: A Feasibility Study," International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, Vol. 56, No. 3, 2003, pp. 899-905. (scirp.org)
  • Bruker BioSpin, "Alanine Dosimetry," 2012. (scirp.org)
  • It was learned that the effect is intrinsic to alanine and is not dependent on the chemical form or manufacturing formulation of the alanine dosimeter. (nist.gov)
  • M. Morsy, "Simple EPR/Alanine Dosimeter for Medical Application," Open Journal of Radiology , Vol. 2 No. 4, 2012, pp. 120-125. (scirp.org)
  • A. M. Al-Karmi and M. A. Morsy, "EPR of Gamma-Irradiated Polycrystalline Alanine-In-Glass Dosimeter," Radiation Measurements, Vol. 43, No. 7, 2008, pp. 13151318. (scirp.org)
  • M. A. Morsy, "An Adaptable EPR/Alanine Dosimeter in Radiotherapy Dose Range," EPRBioDose 2010 International Conference, Mandelieu-La-Napoule, 10-14 October 2010, pp. 102-109. (scirp.org)