Melitten: Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides: Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.Magainins: A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Alamethicin: A cyclic nonadecapeptide antibiotic that can act as an ionophore and is produced by strains of Trichoderma viride. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Aflatoxin M1: A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Aflatoxins: Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.Aflatoxin B1: A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Sulfinic Acids: Any of the monobasic inorganic or organic acids of sulfur with the general formula RSO(OH). (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Balkan Nephropathy: A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former YUGOSLAVIA, and ROMANIA. It is characterized by a progressive shrinking of the KIDNEYS that is often associated with uroepithelial tumors.Dictionaries, MedicalAminolevulinic Acid: A compound produced from succinyl-CoA and GLYCINE as an intermediate in heme synthesis. It is used as a PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY for actinic KERATOSIS.Protoporphyrins: Porphyrins with four methyl, two vinyl, and two propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Protoporphyrin IX occurs in hemoglobin, myoglobin, and most of the cytochromes.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Porphobilinogen Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of porphobilinogen from two molecules of 5-aminolevulinic acid. EC 4.2.1.24.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Levulinic Acids: Keto acids that are derivatives of 4-oxopentanoic acids (levulinic acid).5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Peptaibols: A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.Amino Alcohols: Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Trichoderma: A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Isocoumarins: Compounds that differ from COUMARINS in having the positions of the ring and ketone oxygens reversed so the keto oxygen is at the 1-position of the molecule.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

The role of proline and glycine in determining the backbone flexibility of a channel-forming peptide. (1/201)

Alamethicin is a helical 20-amino acid voltage-gated channel-forming peptide, which is known to exhibit segmental flexibility in solution along its backbone near alpha-methylalanine (MeA)-10 and Gly-11. In an alpha-helical configuration, MeA at position 10 would normally hydrogen-bond with position 14, but the presence of proline at this position prevents the formation of this interhelical hydrogen bond. To determine whether the presence of proline at position 14 contributes to the flexibility of this helix, two analogs of alamethicin were synthesized, one with proline 14 replaced by alanine and another with both proline 14 and glycine 11 replaced by alanine. The C-termini of these peptides were derivatized with a proxyl nitroxide, and paramagnetic enhancements produced by the nitroxide on the Calpha protons were used to estimate r-6 weighted distances between the nitroxide and the backbone protons. When compared to native alamethicin, the analog lacking proline 14 exhibited similar C-terminal to Calpha proton distances, indicating that substitution of proline alone does not alter the flexibility of this helix; however, the subsequent removal of glycine 11 resulted in a significant increase in the averaged distances between the C- and N-termini. Thus, the G-X-X-P motif found in alamethicin appears to be largely responsible for mediating high-amplitude bending motions that have been observed in the central helical domain of alamethicin in methanol. To determine whether these substitutions alter the channel behavior of alamethicin, the macroscopic and single-channel currents produced by these analogs were compared. Although the substitution of the G-X-X-P motif produces channels with altered characteristics, this motif is not essential to achieve voltage-dependent gating or alamethicin-like behavior.  (+info)

An alamethicin channel in a lipid bilayer: molecular dynamics simulations. (2/201)

We present the results of 2-ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a hexameric bundle of Alm helices in a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer. These simulations explore the dynamic properties of a model of a helix bundle channel in a complete phospholipid bilayer in an aqueous environment. We explore the stability and conformational dynamics of the bundle in a phospholipid bilayer. We also investigate the effect on bundle stability of the ionization state of the ring of Glu18 side chains. If all of the Glu18 side chains are ionised, the bundle is unstable; if none of the Glu18 side chains are ionized, the bundle is stable. pKA calculations suggest that either zero or one ionized Glu18 is present at neutral pH, correlating with the stable form of the helix bundle. The structural and dynamic properties of water in this model channel were examined. As in earlier in vacuo simulations (Breed et al., 1996 .Biophys. J. 70:1643-1661), the dipole moments of water molecules within the pore were aligned antiparallel to the helix dipoles. This contributes to the stability of the helix bundle.  (+info)

Preferential transport of glutathione versus glutathione disulfide in rat liver microsomal vesicles. (3/201)

A bi-directional, saturable transport of glutathione (GSH) was found in rat liver microsomal vesicles. GSH transport could be inhibited by the anion transport blockers flufenamic acid and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid. A part of GSH taken up by the vesicles was metabolized to glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the lumen. Microsomal membrane was virtually nonpermeable toward GSSG; accordingly, GSSG generated in the microsomal lumen could hardly exit. Therefore, GSH transport, contrary to previous assumptions, is preferred in the endoplasmic reticulum, and GSSG entrapped and accumulated in the lumen creates the oxidized state of its redox buffer.  (+info)

Surface binding of alamethicin stabilizes its helical structure: molecular dynamics simulations. (4/201)

Alamethicin is an amphipathic alpha-helical peptide that forms ion channels. An early event in channel formation is believed to be the binding of alamethicin to the surface of a lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to compare the structural and dynamic properties of alamethicin in water and alamethicin bound to the surface of a phosphatidylcholine bilayer. The bilayer surface simulation corresponded to a loosely bound alamethicin molecule that interacted with lipid headgroups but did not penetrate the hydrophobic core of the bilayer. Both simulations started with the peptide molecule in an alpha-helical conformation and lasted 2 ns. In water, the helix started to unfold after approximately 300 ps and by the end of the simulation only the N-terminal region of the peptide remained alpha-helical and the molecule had collapsed into a more compact form. At the surface of the bilayer, loss of helicity was restricted to the C-terminal third of the molecule and the rod-shaped structure of the peptide was retained. In the surface simulation about 10% of the peptide/water H-bonds were replaced by peptide/lipid H-bonds. These simulations suggest that some degree of stabilization of an amphipathic alpha-helix occurs at a bilayer surface even without interactions between hydrophobic side chains and the acyl chain core of the bilayer.  (+info)

C-terminally shortened alamethicin on templates: influence of the linkers on conductances. (5/201)

In order to test the influence of chemical modifications designed to allow covalent coupling of channel-forming peptide motifs into variable sized oligomers, a series of alamethicin derivatives was prepared. The building block encompassing the N-terminal 1-17 residues of alamethicin behaved normally in the conductance assay on planar lipid bilayers, albeit at higher concentration and with a slightly reduced voltage-dependence. A linker Ac-K-OCH(2)C(6)H(4)CH(3)p attached via the epsilon amino group of lysine to the C-terminus of alamethicin(1-17) increased membrane affinity. The latter was further enhanced in a dimer and a tetramer in which alamethicin(1-17) chains were tethered to di- or tetra-lysine linkers, respectively, but macroscopic current-voltage curves displayed much reduced voltage-dependencies and reversed hysteresis. An usual behaviour with high voltage-dependence was restored with the modified dimer of alamethicin(1-17) in which alanine separated the two consecutive lysine residues in the linker. Of special interest was the development of a 'negative resistance' branch in macroscopic current-voltage curves for low concentrations of this dimer with the more flexible linker. Single channel events displayed only one single open state with fast kinetics and whose conductance matches that of the alamethicin heptamer or octamer.  (+info)

A yeast Golgi E-type ATPase with an unusual membrane topology. (6/201)

E-type ATPases are involved in many biological processes such as modulation of neural cell activity, prevention of intravascular thrombosis, and protein glycosylation. In this study, we show that a gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, identified by similarity to that of animal ectoapyrase CD39, codes for a new member of the E-type ATPase family (Apy1p). Overexpression of Apy1p in yeast cells causes an increase in intracellular membrane-bound nucleoside di- and triphosphate hydrolase activity. The activity is highest with ADP as substrate and is stimulated similarly by Ca (2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+). The results also indicate that Apy1p is an integral membrane protein located predominantly in the Golgi compartment. Sequence analysis reveals that Apy1p contains one large NH(2)-terminal hydrophilic apyrase domain, one COOH-terminal hydrophilic domain, and two hydrophobic stretches in the central region of the polypeptide. Although no signal sequence is found at the NH(2)-terminal portion of the protein and no NH(2)-terminal cleavage of the protein is observed, demonstrated by the detection of NH(2)-terminal tagged Apy1p, the NH(2)-terminal domain of Apylp is on the luminal side of the Golgi apparatus, and the COOH-terminal hydrophilic domain binds to the cytoplasmic face of the Golgi membrane. The second hydrophobic stretch of Apy1p is the transmembrane domain. These results indicate that Apylp is a type III transmembrane protein; however, the size of the Apy1p extracytoplasmic NH(2) terminus is much larger than those of other type III transmembrane proteins, suggesting that a novel translocation mechanism is utilized.  (+info)

The ion-channel activity of longibrachins LGA I and LGB II: effects of pro-2/Ala and gln-18/Glu substitutions on the alamethicin voltage-gated membrane channels. (7/201)

Longibrachins LGA I (Ac Aib Ala Aib Ala Aib(5) Ala Gln Aib Val Aib(10) Gly Leu Aib Pro Val(15) Aib Aib Gln Gln Pheol(20), with Aib: alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, pheol: phenylalaninol) and LGB II are two homologous 20-residue long-sequence peptaibols isolated from the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum that differ between them by a Gln-18/Glu substitution. They distinguish from alamethicin by a Pro-2 for Ala replacement, which allowed to examine for the first time with natural Aib-containing analogues, the effect of Pro-2 on the ion-channel properties exhibited by alamethicin. The influence of these structural modifications on the voltage-gated ion-channel forming activity of the peptides in planar lipid bilayers were analysed. The general 'barrel-stave' model of ion-channel activity, already described for alamethicin, was preserved with both longibrachins. The negatively charged LGB II promoted higher oligomerisation levels, which could presumably dilute the repulsive effect of the negative Glu ring near the entrance of the channel and resulted in lower lifetimes of the substates, confirming the strong anchor of the peptide C-terminus at the cis-interface. Reduction of the channel lifetimes was observed for the longibrachins, compared to alamethicin. This argues for a better stabilisation of the channels formed by peptaibols having a proline at position 2, which results in better anchoring of the peptide monomer N-terminus at the trans-bilayer interface. Qualitative assays of the temperature dependence on the neutral longibrachin channel properties demonstrated a high increase of channel lifetimes and a markedly reduced voltage-sensitivity when the temperature was decreased, showing that such conditions may allow to study the channel-forming properties of peptides leading to fast current fluctuations.  (+info)

Voltage-dependent interaction of the peptaibol antibiotic zervamicin II with phospholipid vesicles. (8/201)

The effect of a transmembrane potential on ion channel formation by zervamicin II (ZER-II) was studied in a vesicular model system. The dissipation of diffusion potential caused by addition of ZER-II to small phosphatidylcholine vesicles was monitored using fluorescent (Safranine T) and optical (Oxonol YI) probes. Cis-positive potentials facilitated channel formation, while at cis-negative potentials, ion fluxes were inhibited. A potential-independent behavior of ZER-II was observed at high peptide concentrations, most likely due to its membrane modifying property.  (+info)

*Alamethicin

Explore structures of Alamethicin at the protein data bank Alamethicin in Norine From "A voltage-gated ion channel model ... Alamethicin biosynthesis is hypothesized to be catalyzed by alamethicin synthase, a Nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) first ... Alamethicin product page from Fermentek Rindfleisch, H.; Kleinkauf, H. (1976-03-01). "Biosynthesis of alamethicin". FEBS ... Alamethicin is a channel-forming peptide antibiotic, produced by the fungus Trichoderma viride. It belongs to peptaibol ...

*Peptaibol

The most widely known peptaibol is alamethicin. J. K. Chugh & B. A. Wallace (20 February 2001). "Peptaibols: models for ion ...

*Synthetic ion channels

Gramicidin and alamethicin had been popular starting points for selective modifications. The above diagram illustrates one ... The latter, demonstrated in natural channels such as alamethicin, is rarely encountered in synthetic ion channels. They may be ... "Alamethicin−Leucine Zipper Hybrid Peptide: A Prototype for the Design of Artificial Receptors and Ion Channels". Journal of the ...

*Orientations of Proteins in Membranes database

Marsh, Derek; Jost, Micha; Peggion, Cristina; Toniolo, Claudio (2007). "TOAC spin labels in the backbone of alamethicin: EPR ...

*Amino acid

Both of these amino acids are found in peptidic lantibiotics such as alamethicin. However, in plants, 1-aminocyclopropane-1- ...

*2-Aminoisobutyric acid

It is contained in some antibiotics of fungal origin, e.g. alamethicin and some lantibiotics. It is not one of the ...

*Fungal isolate

Penicillin, cephalosporins, fusafungine, usnic acid, fusidic acid, fumagillin, brefeldin A, verrucarin A, alamethicin, are ...

*Frederic M. Richards

Fox, R.O.; Richards, F.M. (1982). "A voltage-gated ion channel model inferred from the crystal structure of alamethicin at 1.5- ... the ion-channel-forming alamethicin (PDB: 1AMT​) (Fox & Richards 1982), and mutants of ribonuclease S (e.g., PDB: 1RBD​;PDB: ...

*Medicinal fungi

Subsequent discoveries included alamethicin, aphidicolin, brefeldin A, Cephalosporin, cerulenin, citromycin, eupenifeldin, ...

*Fermentek

Anisomycin, Thiolutin, Wortmannin, K252a, Staurosporine, K252C, Bafilomycin, Alamethicin, Leptomycin, A23187, Chelerythrine, ...

*Transporter Classification Database

Family 1.D.3 The Channel-Forming Syringopeptin Family 1.D.4 The Tolaasin Channel-forming Family 1.D.5 The Alamethicin or ...

*List of biomolecules

Aequorin Aflatoxin Agar Alamethicin Alanine Albumins Aldosterone Aleurone Alpha-amanitin Allantoin Allethrin α-Amanatin, see ...

*List of MeSH codes (D04)

... alamethicin MeSH D04.345.566.050 --- amanitins MeSH D04.345.566.075 --- bacitracin MeSH D04.345.566.142 --- capreomycin sulfate ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.644)

... alamethicin MeSH D12.644.641.050 --- amanitins MeSH D12.644.641.075 --- bacitracin MeSH D12.644.641.142 --- capreomycin sulfate ...
Alamethicin forms voltage-gated ion channels that have moderate cation-selectivity. The enhancement of the cation-selectivity by introducing negatively charged residues at positions 7 and 18 has been studied using the tethered homodimers of alamethicin with Q7 and E18 (di-alm-Q7E18) and its analog with E7 and Q18 (di-alm-E7Q18). In the dimeric peptides, monomer peptides are linked at the N-termini by a disulfide bond. Both the peptides formed long lasting ion channels at cis-positive voltages when added to the cis-side membrane. Their long open duration enabled us to obtain current-voltage (I-V(m)) relations and reversal potentials at the single-channel level by applying a voltage ramp during the channel opening. The reversal potentials measured in asymmetric KCl solutions indicated that ionized E7 provided strong cation-selectivity, whereas ionized E18 little influenced the charge selectivity. This was also the case for the macroscopic charge selectivity determined from the reversal potentials obtained
Ag-Sn-phthalocyanine-Ag junctions are shown to exhibit three conductance states. While the junctions are conductive at low bias, their impedance drastically increases above a critical bias. Two-level fluctuations occur at intermediate bias. These characteristics may be used to protect a nanoscale circuit. Further experiments along with calculations reveal that the self-limiting conductance of the junctions is due to reversible changes of the junction geometry ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 2k9b.1. Structure and membrane interactions of the antibiotic peptide dermadistinctin K by multidimensional solution and oriented 15N and 31P solid-state NMR spectroscopy
The natural history of Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent exacerbations interspersed with periods of inactive disease. The goal of therapy should be to...
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Channel replacement therapy, based on synthetic channel-forming peptides (CFPs) with the ability to supersede defective endogenous ion channels, is a novel treatment modality that may augment existing interventions against ...
Provided herein are methods of modulating membrane potential of a cell membrane using self-assembling compounds. Also provided herein are methods of regulating a natural voltage-dependent ion channel in a cell membrane using the self-assembling compounds disclosed herein. Further provided herein are methods of treating, preventing and /or managing a disease that is related to the abnormal membrane potential responses by using the self-assembling compounds disclosed herein ...
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veer = 503.952 cellulose = 503.161 doctored = 503.161 hindustan = 503.161 irrefragable = 503.161 polemic = 503.161 quadruple = 503.161 testy = 503.161 toothpick = 503.161 generalissimo = 502.370 prude = 502.370 rex = 502.370 simplification = 502.370 covey = 501.579 dereliction = 501.579 lesion = 501.579 maidservant = 501.579 meretricious = 501.579 monte = 501.579 parachute = 501.579 phantasmagoria = 501.579 unfasten = 501.579 afeared = 500.788 conjugation = 500.788 dons = 500.788 ducat = 500.788 half-sister = 500.788 importantly = 500.788 largess = 500.788 maestro = 500.788 overall = 500.788 vertebral = 500.788 civilize = 499.997 decry = 499.997 flamboyant = 499.997 keystone = 499.997 obstreperous = 499.997 proselyte = 499.997 reaps = 499.997 rupee = 499.997 despond = 499.205 jj = 499.205 learnedly = 499.205 modish = 499.205 teem = 499.205 vegetative = 499.205 anthropomorphic = 498.414 bookshelves = 498.414 chicanery = 498.414 deteriorate = 498.414 ejection = 498.414 joanne = 498.414 neighbourly ...
peptaibol definition: Noun (plural peptaibols) 1. (biochemistry) Any of a group of oligopeptides, produced by some fungi, that contain α-aminoisobutyric acid and terminate in a hydroxyl group...
Peptaibols: A group of peptides characterized by length of 1-2 dozen residues with a high proportion of them being non-proteinogenic, notably alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and isovaline, and have a C-terminal amino alcohol and N terminal alkyl group. They are found in FUNGI and some are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol.
|p||i|Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes|/i| volumes cover a broad range of topics, including main arrangements of the reconstituted system, namely planar lipid bilayers as well as spherical liposomes. The invited authors present the latest results of their own research groups in this exciting multidisciplinary field.|/p||ul||li|Incorporates contributions from newcomers and established and experienced researchers|/li||li|Explores the planar lipid bilayer systems and spherical liposomes from both theoretical and experimental perspectives|/li||li|Serves as an indispensable source of information for new scientists|/li||/ul|
Snyder et al. [29] concluded from electron density profiles of LPS R60 that its charges are located mainly in two distinct planes which are separated by a distance of 1.1 nm. The outer charged plane corresponds to the negatively charged phosphate groups linked to the heptoses in the core region of the LPS, the inner charged plane to the phosphate groups of the lipid A moiety. Using this model, we calculated the surface potential profiles of aggregates composed of those LPS having heptoses substituted with significant numbers of phosphate groups (LPS Rz, LPS R345, LPS R60) as superpositions of the Gouy-Chapman potential profiles ΨI and ΨO for the inner and the outer plane, respectively:. (Eq.1)ΨGC(x) = ΨI exp (- κ x) + ΨO exp (- κ (x - 1.1 nm)) for x ≥ 1.1 nm. where x is the distance from the inner charged plane and κ is the reciprocal Debye- length [27].. ΨGC at the plane of shear corresponds to the ζ-potential. Using Eq. 1, the distance of the plane of shear d2 can be calculated ...
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Scientists studying the tiny devices -- called voltage-dependent ion c...Rockefellers Roderick MacKinnon M.D. a Howard Hughes Medical Ins...,MacKinnon,labs,newest,picture,tells,action,potential,story,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Background: Social rejection elicits negative mood, emotional distress and neural activity in networks that are associated with physical pain. However, studies assessing physiological reactions to social rejection are rare and results of these studies were found to be ambiguous. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine and specify physiological effects of social rejection.Methods: Participants (N = 50) were assigned to either a social exclusion or inclusion condition of a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Immediate and delayed physiological (skin conductance level and heart rate) reactions were recorded. In addition, subjects reported levels of affect, emotional states and fundamental needs.Results: Subjects who were socially rejected showed increased heart rates. However, social rejection had no effect on subjects skin conductance levels. Both conditions showed heightened arousal on this measurement. Furthermore, psychological consequences of social rejection indicated the validity of the
We investigated the microstructure of the iron selenide superconductor (K{sub 0.7}Na{sub 0.3})Fe{sub 2−y}Se{sub 2} with a T{sub c} = 32 K and a near 100% Meissner screening volume fraction. Topography and electron transport properties were studied using electron microscopy and ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) techniques. Room temperature STM measurements reliably identify spatial variations of the local electronic properties of this material. The studied crystals consist of continuous regions with significantly different shapes of current-voltage curves reflecting different electronic transport properties of these regions. Fitting of the local current-voltage curves with the Simmons model for metal-dielectric-metal structure confirmed a phase separation in the sample to a metal and semiconducting phases. The observed regions have dimensions in the range of several tenths of a micrometer and indicate a phase separation in the sample. ...
Purchase Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, Volume 9 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123748225, 9780080888651
Definition of H-Bonds in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is H-Bonds? Meaning of H-Bonds as a finance term. What does H-Bonds mean in finance?
MT-ND1 è un gene mitocondriale. Esso è associato alla encefalopatia mitocondriale, acidosi lattica ed episodi di tipo ischemico. Ricercatori dellUniversità di Bologna hanno, nel settembre 2011, scoperto che questo gene ha un comportamento ambivalente, per questo è stato chiamato gene onco-Giano (da Giano); infatti, a bassa espressività codifica per forme tumorali ad alta espressività, invece, blocca lo sviluppo tumorale. Lo studio effettuato su topi ha permesso di comprendere che le mutazioni del DNA mitocondriale o (mtDNA) sono considerate generalmente pro-cancerogene, ma sono anche caratteristiche dei tumori oncocitici che sono per lo più benigni. ^ Ricerca, italiani scoprono lonco-Giano: gene bifronte che soffoca il cancro - Adnkronos Cronaca, Adnkronos/Adnkronos Salute, 27 settembre 2011. ^ G. Gasparre, I. Kurelac; M. Capristo; L. Iommarini; A. Ghelli; C. Ceccarelli; G. Nicoletti; P. Nanni; C. De Giovanni; K. Scotlandi; CM. Betts, A mutation threshold distinguishes the anti- ...
Complete information for MT-ND3 gene (Protein Coding), Mitochondrially Encoded NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit 3, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for MT-ND2 gene (Protein Coding), Mitochondrially Encoded NADH:Ubiquinone Oxidoreductase Core Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Klughammer, B., Benz, B., Betz, M., Thume, M., & Dietz, K. - J. (1992). Reconstitution of vacuolar ion channels into planar lipid bilayers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1104(2), 308-316. doi:10.1016/0005-2736(92)90045- ...
Five Iranian Trichoderma isolates from species T. viride, T. viridescens, T. asperellum, T. longibrachiatum and T. citrinoviride-selected from the Fungal Collection of the Bu Ali Sina University,...
This work describes a phase-transformation pathway of calcium phosphate in the presence of glutamic acid. The route follows the order starting from amorphous calcium phosphate and brushite, then octacalcium phosphate (OCP), and finally hydroxyapatite (HAp). The preferred growth direction of the intermediate OCP and the final HAp phases lies along the c axis. On the basis of our scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and 31P solid-state NMR data, we suggest that the transformation is via the dissolution-reprecipitation process, which is facilitated in the presence of glutamic acid. The effect on the transformation kinetics is rationalized by the disruption of the water layer bound on the crystal surface ...
bcftools call -cO z -r 1 -o LER_ALM_1580_raw_chr1.vcf.gz LER_ALM_1580_raw.bcf bcftools index LER_ALM_1580_raw_chr1.vcf.gz bcftools stats -F /scratch/3/msf/SpeciesForReference/LER_ALM1580/LER_ALM1580.gatk.iteration4.consensus.FINAL.fa -s - LER_ALM_1580_raw_chr1.vcf.gz , LER_ALM_1580_raw_chr1.vcf.gz.stats bcftools view -r 1:461 LER_ALM_1580_raw_chr1.vcf.gz ...

Alamethicin - WikipediaAlamethicin - Wikipedia

Explore structures of Alamethicin at the protein data bank Alamethicin in Norine From "A voltage-gated ion channel model ... Alamethicin biosynthesis is hypothesized to be catalyzed by alamethicin synthase, a Nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) first ... Alamethicin product page from Fermentek Rindfleisch, H.; Kleinkauf, H. (1976-03-01). "Biosynthesis of alamethicin". FEBS ... Alamethicin is a channel-forming peptide antibiotic, produced by the fungus Trichoderma viride. It belongs to peptaibol ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alamethicin

Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:...Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B:...

Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... From the properties of lipid membranes containing alamethicin in a wide variety of electrolytes, and from other evidence, it is ... Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin. L. G. M. Gordon, D. A. Haydon ... that alamethicin forms transient pores of some 0.6 nm in diameter and that, for small inorganic ions, these are poorly ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/270/908/433

Effect of α-helical peptides on liposome structure : A comparative study of melittin and alamethicinEffect of α-helical peptides on liposome structure : A comparative study of melittin and alamethicin

... rupture and fuse in response to the addition of both melittin and alamethicin. In the case of alamethicin, but not melittin, ... Effect of α-helical peptides on liposome structure: A comparative study of melittin and alamethicin. Wessman, Per Uppsala ... By means of a competitive binding assay we furthermore show that alamethicin, in line with earlier findings for melittin, ... Melittin, Alamethicin, Magainin, Liposomes, Affinity, Cryo-transmission electron microscopy National Category Physical ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:317781

Voltage-Dependent Pore Formation and Antimicrobial Activity by Alamethicin and Analogues, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10...Voltage-Dependent Pore Formation and Antimicrobial Activity by Alamethicin and Analogues, The Journal of Membrane Biology | 10...

"Voltage-Dependent Pore Formation and Antimicrobial Activity by Alamethicin and Analogues, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on ... Voltage-Dependent Pore Formation and Antimicrobial Activity by Alamethicin and Analogues. Duclohier, H.; Wróblewski, H. ... Voltage-Dependent Pore Formation and Antimicrobial Activity by Alamethicin and Analogues Duclohier, H. ; Wróblewski, H. 2001-11 ... The demonstration of ar- alamethicin [33] was a landmark, from which new struc- tificial membrane excitability developed by ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/voltage-dependent-pore-formation-and-antimicrobial-activity-by-0dlYzwhl0V

gmx-users] alamethicin errorgmx-users] alamethicin error

... Mark Abraham Mark.Abraham at anu.edu.au Tue Nov 6 11:12:45 CET 2007 *Previous message: [gmx-users ...
more infohttps://mailman-1.sys.kth.se/pipermail/gromacs.org_gmx-users/2007-November/030561.html

Analysis and evaluation of channel models: simulations of alamethicin. - Oxford NeuroscienceAnalysis and evaluation of channel models: simulations of alamethicin. - Oxford Neuroscience

In a 20-ns simulation of a hexameric alamethicin bundle, the main motions are those of individual helices, not of the bundle as ... We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a ... shows that water orientation inside the alamethicin channels is sensitive to the algorithms used. In all cases, water ordering ... Alamethicin is an antimicrobial peptide that forms stable channels with well-defined conductance levels. ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/100723

Ion channels of N-terminally linked alamethicin dimers: enhancement of cation-selectivity by substitution of Glu for Gln at...Ion channels of N-terminally linked alamethicin dimers: enhancement of cation-selectivity by substitution of Glu for Gln at...

Alamethicin forms voltage-gated ion channels that have moderate cation-selectivity. The enhancement of the cation-selectivity ... by introducing negatively charged residues at positions 7 and 18 has been studied using the tethered homodimers of alamethicin ... Alamethicin forms voltage-gated ion channels that have moderate cation-selectivity. The enhancement of the cation-selectivity ... Ion channels of N-terminally linked alamethicin dimers: enhancement of cation-selectivity by substitution of Glu for Gln at ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Ion-channels-of-N-terminally-linked-alamethicin-di-Okazaki-Nagaoka/12f1ae9e5992f417a240d613bd0a2e9f0a75dd98

Infrared Spectroscopy as a Probe for the Development of Secondary Structure in the Amino-Terminal Segment of Alamethicin...Infrared Spectroscopy as a Probe for the Development of Secondary Structure in the Amino-Terminal Segment of Alamethicin...

Infrared Spectroscopy as a Probe for the Development of Secondary Structure in the Amino-Terminal Segment of Alamethicin ... Interest in the stereochemistry of Aib containing peptides, stems from the fact that alamethicin [7,8] and the related ... Here, we report the results of an infrared spectroscopic study of synthetic alamethicin fragments and demonstrate the ... Infrared Spectroscopy as a Probe for the Development of Secondary Structure in the Amino-Terminal Segment of Alamethicin. In: ...
more infohttp://eprints.iisc.ac.in/3181/

Products in LKT Labs on Thomas ScientificProducts in LKT Labs on Thomas Scientific

Alamethicin LKT Labs. Alamethicin is a peptabiol peptide initially produced by species of Trichoderma. Alamethicin is an ...
more infohttp://www.thomassci.com/nav/manufacturer/lktlabs/0

Glossary of Pharmacology Stubs related terms, short phrases and..."Glossary of Pharmacology Stubs" related terms, short phrases and...

Alamethicin. *Alamethicin is a peptide.. *Alamethicin is a well-studied channel-forming peptide that has a prototypical ... ALAMETHICIN. ALBENDAZOLE. ALFUZOSIN. ALKYLATING AGENT. ALLOPURINOL. ALPHA HYDROXY ACID. ALPHA BLOCKER. AMIDRINE. AMILORIDE. ... In this model alamethicin helices associate to form a bundle with a central lumen, like a barrel made of helical peptides as ...
more infohttp://keywen.com/en/GLOSSARY_OF_PHARMACOLOGY_STUBS

Cell Biology | A.G. Scientific, Inc. | Cell biology trendsCell Biology | A.G. Scientific, Inc. | Cell biology trends

Alamethicin. A-1286. Options. 5 mg $160.15. 10 mg $288.72. 50 mg $664.59. ...
more infohttps://www.agscientific.com/cell-biology.html

Antibiotics

- Astral ScientificAntibiotics - Astral Scientific

Alamethicin. A-1286-5mg. $353.00 AG Scientific. CAS NUMBER = 27061-78-5 ...
more infohttps://astralscientific.com.au/collections/antibiotics

Study of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore (Patent) | DOepatentsStudy of polymer molecules and conformations with a nanopore (Patent) | DOepatents

Alamethicin. A rich model for channel behavior journal, January 1984 * Hall, J. E.; Vodyanoy, I.; Balasubramanian, T. M. ... "Reversed" alamethicin conductance in lipid bilayers journal, April 1991 * Taylor, R. J.; de Levie, R. ...
more infohttps://www.osti.gov/doepatents/biblio/1171692

Open PhysicsOpen Physics

Biophysical changes induced by cholesterol on phosphatidylcholine artificial biomembranes containing alamethicin oligomers. ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/phys.2006.4.issue-2/issue-files/phys.2006.4.issue-2.xml

Nanion Technologies - Products - Vesicle Prep ProNanion Technologies - Products - Vesicle Prep Pro

Alamethicin - Bilayer Recordings Port-a-Patch and Vesicle Prep Pro data and applications:. Data were kindly provided by M. ... reveals multiple non-equidistant conductance levels due to formation of alamethicin oligomers in the bilayer. Alamethicin ... Bilayer recordings: Alamethicin single channel conductances. Recordings from a GUV prepared bilayer in 85 mM KCl at -140 mV. ... 2006 - High-resolution electrophysiology on a chip: Transient dynamics of alamethicin channel formation Port-a-Patch and ...
more infohttps://www.nanion.de/zh/products/vesicle-prep-pro.html

Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria | Protocol ...Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria | Protocol ...

जे.सी.-1 की विशिष्टता और सूजन संकेतों 1 सुक्ष्ममापी CCCP और 5 ग्राम / एमएल alamethicin (माइक्रोबियल विष) के साथ परीक्षण किया ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/4131/-mitochondria-?language=Hindi

Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria | Protocol ...Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria | Protocol ...

MtPTP aktivasyonu takiben, 1 mM EGTA, 1 uM CCCP ve 5 ug / ml alamethicin ile sırasıyla Fura FF, JC-1 ve şişme sinyallerin ... JC-1 Özgünlük ve şişme sinyaller 1 uM CCCP ve 5 mg / ml alamethicin (mikrobiyal toksin) ile test edildi. ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/4131/mitokondri-zole-fare-heart-geirgenlii-gei-gzenek-ama-multi-parametre?language=Turkish

à la | definition of à la by Medical dictionaryà la | definition of à la by Medical dictionary

alamethicin. American Laryngological Association. American Lung Association. delta-aminolevulinic acid, see there. Association ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/%C3%83+la

Aminolevulinic acid 1 | definition of aminolevulinic acid 1 by Medical dictionaryAminolevulinic acid 1 | definition of aminolevulinic acid 1 by Medical dictionary

alamethicin. American Laryngological Association. American Lung Association. delta-aminolevulinic acid, see there. Association ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/aminolevulinic+acid+1

Browsing  by Author Qian, ShuoBrowsing by Author "Qian, Shuo"

... reports the studies of the structure and mechanism of peptide-induced membrane pores by antimicrobial peptide alamethicin and ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/browse?value=Qian%2C+Shuo&type=author

Stankowski S[au] - PubMed - NCBIStankowski S[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Voltage-dependent pore activity of the peptide alamethicin correlated with incorporation in the membrane: salt and cholesterol ... Thermodynamic analysis of incorporation and aggregation in a membrane: application to the pore-forming peptide alamethicin. ... Incorporation kinetics in a membrane, studied with the pore-forming peptide alamethicin. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Stankowski+S%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Model of peptide interactions with the lipid membrane c | Open-iModel of peptide interactions with the lipid membrane c | Open-i

For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer conformation but ... For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer conformation but ... Bottom Line: For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer ... Bottom Line: For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3475706_pone.0047745.g006&req=4

Peptaibols
     Summary Report | CureHunterPeptaibols Summary Report | CureHunter

Atroviridins; Emerimicin; Emerimicins; Trichorzianines; Alamethicins; Antiamoebins; Chrysospermins; Culicinins; Zervamicins. ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD054848-Peptaibols.do

Systematic characterization of the murine mitochondrial proteome using functionally validated cardiac mitochondria.  - PubMed -...Systematic characterization of the murine mitochondrial proteome using functionally validated cardiac mitochondria. - PubMed -...

At the end, alamethicin, a non-specific membrane permeabilizing agent (Ala; 5 μg/ml), was added to induce complete dissipation ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18348319
  • Alamethicin is a channel-forming peptide antibiotic, produced by the fungus Trichoderma viride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alamethicin biosynthesis is hypothesized to be catalyzed by alamethicin synthase, a Nonribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) first isolated in 1975. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are several sequences of the alamethicin peptide accepted, evidence suggests these all follow the general NRPS mechanism with small variations at select amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alamethicin is a peptabiol peptide initially produced by species of Trichoderma. (thomassci.com)
  • For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer conformation but that a number of lipids are involved in the peptide anchoring.These lipids display reduced dynamics.Our study supports previous studies showing that alamethicin adopts a transmembrane arrangement without significant disturbance of the surrounding lipids, while novicidin forms toroidal pores at high concentrations leading to more extensive membrane disturbance. (nih.gov)
  • For two AMPs, alamethicin and novicidin, we observe that the majority of the lipids remain in a planar bilayer conformation but that a number of lipids are involved in the peptide anchoring. (nih.gov)
  • This article is concerned primarily with the mechanism of the potential-dependent conductance induced in artificial lipid membranes by the cyclic polypeptide antibiotic alamethicin. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • From the properties of lipid membranes containing alamethicin in a wide variety of electrolytes, and from other evidence, it is concluded that the polypeptide reacts to the electric field more probably because it has a large dipole moment than because it binds ions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By means of a competitive binding assay we furthermore show that alamethicin, in line with earlier findings for melittin, possess high affinity for positively curved lipid surfaces. (diva-portal.org)
  • The demonstration of ar- alamethicin was a landmark, from which new struc- tificial membrane excitability developed by planar lipid tural studies sprang also allowing the formulation of hy- bilayers doped with alamethicin indeed struck the potheses on the voltage-dependent membrane insertion minds of many a biophysicist, including electrophysiolo- and the architecture of the oligomeric channel. (deepdyve.com)
  • Alamethicin forms barrel-stave channels without significant perturbation of the lipid (d), while novicidin creates toroidal pores in the lipids (e). (nih.gov)
  • Alamethicin adopts transmembrane conformations (Fig. 6d) and novicidin uses the lipids to form toroidal pores with the lipid (Fig. 6e). (nih.gov)
  • We have used extended molecular dynamics simulations of alamethicin bundles consisting of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 helices in a palmitoyl-oleolyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer to evaluate and analyze channel models and to link the models to the experimentally measured conductance levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A detailed comparison of simulations using different methods to treat long-range electrostatic interactions (a twin range cutoff, Particle Mesh Ewald, and a twin range cutoff combined with a reaction field correction) shows that water orientation inside the alamethicin channels is sensitive to the algorithms used. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Ion channels of N-terminally linked alamethicin dimers: enhancement of cation-selectivity by substitution of Glu for Gln at position 7. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Okazaki2007IonCO, title={Ion channels of N-terminally linked alamethicin dimers: enhancement of cation-selectivity by substitution of Glu for Gln at position 7. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Analysis and evaluation of channel models: simulations of alamethicin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report the results of an infrared spectroscopic study of synthetic alamethicin fragments and demonstrate the development of a $3_{10}$ helical structure at the amino-terminus of the antibiotic. (iisc.ac.in)