Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.VirginiaNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Betaretrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of viruses with either type B or type D morphology. This includes a few exogenous, vertically transmitted and endogenous viruses of mice (type B) and some primate and sheep viruses (type D). MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS, MOUSE is the type species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Complement C1r: A 80-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, existing as a SERINE PROTEASE proenzyme in the intact complement C1 complex. When COMPLEMENT C1Q is bound to antibodies, the changed tertiary structure causes autolytic activation of complement C1r which is cleaved into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), connected by disulfide bonds. The activated C1r serine protease, in turn, activates COMPLEMENT C1S proenzyme by cleaving the Arg426-Ile427 bond. No fragment is released when either C1r or C1s is cleaved.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Complement C1s: A 77-kDa subcomponent of complement C1, encoded by gene C1S, is a SERINE PROTEASE existing as a proenzyme (homodimer) in the intact complement C1 complex. Upon the binding of COMPLEMENT C1Q to antibodies, the activated COMPLEMENT C1R cleaves C1s into two chains, A (heavy) and B (light, the serine protease), linked by disulfide bonds yielding the active C1s. The activated C1s, in turn, cleaves COMPLEMENT C2 and COMPLEMENT C4 to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL C3 CONVERTASE).Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Leukemia, Feline: A neoplastic disease of cats frequently associated with feline leukemia virus infection.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Rats, Gunn: Mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus which is used as a disease model of kernicterus.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).PrimatesCercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Cebidae: A family of New World monkeys in the infraorder PLATYRRHINI, consisting of nine subfamilies: ALOUATTINAE; AOTINAE; Atelinae; Callicebinae; CALLIMICONINAE; CALLITRICHINAE; CEBINAE; Pithecinae; and SAIMIRINAE. They inhabit the forests of South and Central America, comprising the largest family of South American monkeys.Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus: An endogenous GAMMARETROVIRUS from the germ line of mice but isolated from humans. It has close similarity to xenotropic MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Fatigue Syndrome, Chronic: A syndrome characterized by persistent or recurrent fatigue, diffuse musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbances, and subjective cognitive impairment of 6 months duration or longer. Symptoms are not caused by ongoing exertion; are not relieved by rest; and result in a substantial reduction of previous levels of occupational, educational, social, or personal activities. Minor alterations of immune, neuroendocrine, and autonomic function may be associated with this syndrome. There is also considerable overlap between this condition and FIBROMYALGIA. (From Semin Neurol 1998;18(2):237-42; Ann Intern Med 1994 Dec 15;121(12): 953-9)DNA Contamination: The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.Cytosine Deaminase: An enzyme which catalyzes the deamination of CYTOSINE resulting in the formation of URACIL. It can also act on 5-methylcytosine to form THYMIDINE.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

Adoptive immunotherapy of a Gross virus producing lymphoma and a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in tolerant rats. (1/181)

Immunological tolerance to Gross virus-specific transplantation antigens in rats given neonatae transfer of donor lymphoid cells beneath the kidney capsule of syngeneic recipient rats. Immune or normal donor cells invariably developed a cell-mediated immune reaction in kidneys of GV-tolerant recipients, presumably against GV antigens present on the surface of recipient lymphoid cells in the kidney. Spleen and lymph node cells from tolerant rats failed to develop a reaction in tolerant recipients, but developed a strong reaction to histoincompatible antigens in the kidneys of semisyngeneic tolerant rats. The immunologically tolerant state in the rats could be broken by adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells from syngeneic rats immunized with GV-induced lymphoma cells. Immunotherapy of a GV-induced and also a GV-infected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma growing in tolerant rats was successful when immune spleen and lymph node cells were administered i.p. 3 days after s.c. inoculation of 2 X 10(7) tumor cells in the case of the lymphoma, and 1 day after inoculation of 5 X 10(6) tumor cells in the case of the fibrosarcoma.  (+info)

Antiretroviral cytolytic T-lymphocyte nonresponsiveness: FasL/Fas-mediated inhibition of CD4(+) and CD8(+) antiviral T cells by viral antigen-positive veto cells. (2/181)

C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice generate type-specific cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to an immunodominant Kb-restricted epitope, KSPWFTTL located in the membrane-spanning domain of p15TM of AKR/Gross murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). AKR.H-2(b) congenic mice, although carrying the responder H-2(b) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype, are low responders or nonresponders for AKR/Gross MuLV-specific CTL, apparently due to the presence of inhibitory AKR. H-2(b) cells. Despite their expression of viral antigens and Kb, untreated viable AKR.H-2(b) spleen cells cause dramatic inhibition of the C57BL/6 (B6) antiviral CTL response to in vitro stimulation with AKR/Gross MuLV-induced tumor cells. This inhibition is specific (AKR.H-2(b) modulator spleen cells do not inhibit allogeneic MHC or minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CTL production), dependent on direct contact of AKR.H-2(b) cells in a dose-dependent manner with the responder cell population, and not due to soluble factors. Here, the mechanism of inhibition of the antiviral CTL response is shown to depend on Fas/Fas-ligand interactions, implying an apoptotic effect on B6 responder cells. Although B6.gld (FasL-) responders were as sensitive to inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells as were B6 responders, B6.lpr (Fas-) responders were largely insensitive to inhibition, indicating that the responder cells needed to express Fas. A Fas-Ig fusion protein, when added to the in vitro CTL stimulation cultures, relieved the inhibition caused by the AKR.H-2(b) cells if the primed responders were from either B6 or B6.gld mice, indicating that the inhibitory AKR.H-2(b) cells express FasL. Because of the antigen specificity of the inhibition, these results collectively implicate a FasL/Fas interaction mechanism: viral antigen-positive AKR.H-2(b) cells expressing FasL inhibit antiviral T cells ("veto" them) when the AKR.H-2(b) cells are recognized. Consistent with this model, inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells was MHC restricted, and resulted in approximately a 10- to 70-fold decrease in the in vitro expansion of pCTL/CTL. Both CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th responder cells were susceptible to inhibition by FasL+ AKR.H-2(b) inhibitory cells as the basis for inhibition. The CTL response in the presence of inhibitory cells could be restored by several cytokines or agents that have been shown by others to interfere with activation-induced cell death (e.g. , interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-15, transforming growth factor beta, lipopolysaccharide, 9-cis-retinoic acid) but not others (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha). These results raise the possibility that this type of inhibitory mechanism is generalized as a common strategy for retrovirus infected cells to evade immune T-cell recognition.  (+info)

Definitive evidence that the murine C-type virus inducing locus Akv-1 is viral genetic material. (3/181)

DNA of the AKR mouse contains a set of murine leukemia virus sequences that are not present in DNA of the NIH Swiss mouse. NIH mice partially congenic for the AKR murine-leukemia-virus-inducing locus Akv-1 contain this set of sequences, and, in a three-point cross segregating for Akv-1 on an NIH background, the sequences segregated with Akv-1. It is concluded that the Akv-1 locus contains viral sequences.  (+info)

Mutations of the kissing-loop dimerization sequence influence the site specificity of murine leukemia virus recombination in vivo. (4/181)

The genetic information of retroviruses is retained within a dimeric RNA genome held together by intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions near the 5' ends. Coencapsidation of retrovirus-derived RNA molecules allows frequent template switching of the virus-encoded reverse transcriptase during DNA synthesis in newly infected cells. We have previously shown that template shifts within the 5' leader of murine leukemia viruses occur preferentially within the kissing stem-loop motif, a cis element crucial for in vitro RNA dimer formation. By use of a forced recombination approach based on single-cycle transfer of Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors harboring defective primer binding site sequences, we now report that modifications of the kissing-loop structure, ranging from a deletion of the entire sequence to introduction of a single point mutation in the loop motif, significantly disturb site specificity of recombination within the highly structured 5' leader region. In addition, we find that an intact kissing-loop sequence favors optimal RNA encapsidation and vector transduction. Our data are consistent with the kissing-loop dimerization model and suggest that a direct intermolecular RNA-RNA interaction, here mediated by palindromic loop sequences within the mature genomic RNA dimer, facilitates hotspot template switching during retroviral cDNA synthesis in vivo.  (+info)

Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus. (5/181)

A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology.  (+info)

Treatment of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or interferon. (6/181)

AKR mice are genetically destined to develop Gross (RNA) virus-induced lymphatic leukemia. Leukemic AKR mice treated with combination vincristine, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained a 180% increase of life-span. Combination chemotherapy plus immunization with neuraminidase-treated allogeneic (Gross virus-induced) G2G leukemic cells intradermally resulted in 35% of animals surviving beyond 150 days without evidence of the disease. It is significant that allogeneic E2G leukemic cells as immunogen were as effective in prolonging the life-span of the immunized leukemic AKR mice as were syngeneic leukemic thymocytes. Virazole (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), an antiviral compound, alone showed no apparent antitumor effect. However, in experiments in which the clinically diagnosed leukemic AKR mice received a combination of cytoreductive therapy [vincristine plus prednisone or, more effectively, vincristine, Cytoxan plus 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea, followed by Virazole], there was a noticeable reduction of the viral titer, a delay in the reappearance of viable clonogenic cells, and an increase in the survival time for the leukemic AKR mice as compared to those receiving cytoreductive therapy alone. The effectiveness of purified mouse interferon in AKR mice was also examined. The decrease in the viral titer of animals that received interferon treatment was markedly greater than of those receiving a combination of cytoreductive therapy with Virazole or immunotherapy. The administration of mouse interferon had a direct effect on the appearance of the spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. The median life-span of the control animals was 36 weeks, whereas 45% of the AKR mice treated with five doses of 5 X 10(4) units of interferon are still alive at 54 weeks of age. Thus, interferon not only reduces the Gross murine leukemia virus titer in the chronically infected AKR mice but also significantly delays the appearance of the primary lymphoma.  (+info)

The generation and specificity of cytotoxic T cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing AKR/Gross murine leukemia virus antigens. (7/181)

Efforts were made to generate C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{male}G2) bearing AKR/Gross virus antigens. As we were unable to induce significant cytotoxic activity by immunization with up to 10(8) irradiated E{male}G2 cells, even when cells from such primed animals were subsequently restimulated with E{male}G2 cells in vitro, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an aliogeneic, virus-producing AKR leukemic cell line (AKR SL3). Peritoneal exudate cells and, to a lesser degree, spleen cells from these mice showed significant lytic activity toward the immunizing allogeneic tumor but not toward E{male}G2. When spleen cells were harvested from animals {approximately equal to}10 d after injection of AKR SL3 and rechallenged in vitro with either E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1, another tumor that displays AKR/Gross virus antigens, then a vigorous cytotoxic response against E{male}G2 and AKR. H-2(b) SL1 was obtained. Effector cells generated by AKR SL3 priming followed by in vitro stimulation with E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1 lysed only cells of H-2(b) haplotype which were strongly positive for the display of serologically detectable AKR/Gross virus antigens. Thus, AKR SL3 cells were not lysed nor were EL4 cells (H-2(b); but only weakly positive for gp70). Cells not bearing the MuLV antigens tested for, such as P815 mastocytoma cells and spleen cell "blasts" from C57BL/6 and CBA (H-2(k)) mice, were also insusceptible to attack. The cytotoxic effector cells induced bore Thy 1.2 alloantigen and were of the Lyt 1+2+ phenotype. Collectively, these findings are consistent with the conclusion that the cytotoxic T cells raised against E{male}G2 are directed against AKR/Gross virus-associated antigens and are H-2 restricted. It will be of interest to determine the relevance of such effector cells to the known resistance of the C57BL/6 mouse to AKR/Gross virus-induced leukemia.  (+info)

The role of serum factors in the acceleration by Freund's complete adjuvant of the growth of transplanted murine leukemic cells. (8/181)

Attempted nonspecific immunotherapy led to acceleration rather than retardation of tumor growth. Mice given injections of Freund's adjuvant were more susceptible to transplanted syngeneic Gross virus-induced leukemic cells when Freund's complete adjuvant was administered i.p. 0 to 7 days before or 1 day after tumor; thereafter, the adjuvant had no effect. Two serum-mediated phenomeana were demonstrated in vitro: (a) sera from mice immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant and tumor facilitated killing of tumor cells by peritoneal exudate cells from nonimmune mice; (b) sera from all mice with progressive tumor blocked the cytotoxicity of a xenogeneic tumor-specific serum. Certain sera produced both effects. However, sera that either blocked or facilitated tumor killing in vitro had no effect on the growth in vivo of transplanted tumor cells.  (+info)

*William A. Haseltine

Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47: 317-328. Lenz, J; Celander D; Crowther RL; Patarca R; Perkins DW ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. PMC ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...

*Murine leukemia virus

Stoye, JP; Moroni, C; Coffin, JM (1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 (3 ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.225 --- friend murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.300 --- gross ... abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.050 --- akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.225 ... abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.050 --- akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.225 ... leukemia virus, gibbon ape MeSH B04.820.650.375.525 --- leukemia virus, murine MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.020 --- abelson murine ...


Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... In 1977, a transforming retrovirus was isolated from the AKR mouse. This virus was named Akt-8, the "t" representing its ... AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line ... Further inbreeding was undertaken with Ak mice at the Rockefeller Institute in 1936, leading to the designation of the AKR ...


"The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ... HIV-1 Matrix co-localizes with Thy-1 in lipid rafts, the site of virus particle budding from cells, and Thy-1 is incorporated ... It is probably the most abundant glycoprotein of murine thymocytes, with about One million copies per cell covering up to 10-20 ... Thy 1.2 is expressed by most strains of mice, whereas Thy1.1 is expressed by some like AKR/J and PL mouse strains. The 25-kDa ...
Green, W R.; Nowinski, R C.; and Henney, C S., "The generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing akr/gross murine leukemia virus antigens." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 4314 ...
G (gross) and h-2 cell-surface antigens, location on gross leukemia cells by electron microscopy with visually labeled antibody., T Aoki, E A. Boyse, L J. Old, E D. Harven, and H A. Wood. ...
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Advances in Virology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of virology.
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... Designation: antiserum against Ra-MuLV p 30 [NCI HD 539] Application: goat antiserum against the Rauscher Murine Leukemia Virus (Ra-MuLV) p30
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
In a previous study, we showed that MMLV-RT has a strong terminal transferase activity, and that the C-, G-, and T-tailing activities are enhanced by dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP, respectively. In this study, to achieve faster reaction and higher tailing efficiency, we screened other compounds for the ability to enhance the tailing activities of MMLV-RT, and determined the corresponding optimal concentrations. The C-, G-, and T-tailing activities were enhanced by guanine, cytosine, and adenine, respectively, and by derivatives thereof, suggesting a transient Watson-Click base pairing between an enhancer molecule and the nucleotide to be incorporated. In the presence of some additives (GMP and GDP for C-tailing and CMP for G-tailing), the tail length increased continuously, resulting in tail lengths of 7 to 15 (GMP and GDP) or 13 to 22 (CMP) nucleotides. Among the compounds that do not induce continuous addition, adenosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyguanosine mostly enhanced T-, G-, and C-tailings, ...
Mice of the AKR strain have a very high incidence of lymphocytic neoplasms which appear to be caused by a vertically transmitted virus (see reviews by Kaplan, 1967; Moloney, 1962; Furth et al., 1964;...
BioAssay record AID 152712 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration which leads to inhibitory effect on the proliferation of murine leukemia (P388) cells.
G-CSF; Colonystimulating factor 3 (granulocyte); CSF beta; CSF3;Csfg; Filgrastim; GCSA; GCSF; Lenograstim;Macrophage granulocyte inducer 2; MGI 2;Pluripoietin;Anti-Granulocyte stimulatin factor (G-CSF) (human) labelled with biotin antibodies, P09919
1OKA: Structure of chimeric duplex junctions: solution conformation of the retroviral Okazaki-like fragment r(ccca)d(AATGA).d(TCATTTGGG) from Moloney murine leukemia virus.
Blog on AKR1B1 sirna product: The AKR1B1 akr1b1 (Catalog #MBS8234588) is a siRNA produced from Synthetic and is intended for research p...
The sequence relationships betwen AKR ecotropic virus and an AKR-derived "mink cell focus-inducing" (MCF) isolate (AKR MCF 247), between Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MLV) and an M-MLV MCF isolate (M-MLV83), and between AKR and M-MLV were studied by electron microscopic heteroduplex analysis. The MCF-specific sequences were found to map from 1.95 kilobases (kb) to 2.75 kb (+/- 0.15 kb) from the 3 end of the RNAs for both MCF isolates. The major sequence nonhomology regions between AKR and M-MLV lie between 0.9 and 3.5 kb from the 3 end. However, the AKR and M-MLV sequences immediately adjacent to the 1.95- and 2.75-kb junctions with MCF-specific sequences are relatively similar in AKR and M-MLV. Our results suggest that the env gene of MLVs maps from 1 kb to 3 kb from the 3 end of the genomic RNA and that the carboxyl end of the glycoprotein of each MCF strain is similar (or identical) to that of its ecotropic parent. ...
Murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) are retroviruses that play important roles in the study of oncogenes, integration, transcriptional regulation and gene therapy. Mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses are polytropic MuLVs that by definition infect cells from a wide variety of species. Their ability to infect human cells and their utility as gene therapy vectors were not well characterized. To address this issue, primary and immortalized human cells were tested for their ability to be infected by MCF packaged defective vectors as well as replication competent MCF virus. A new packaging cell line, called MPAC, was created to package defective retroviral vectors in virus particles with envelope proteins derived from a Moloney mink cell focus-inducing (Mo-MCF) virus. The cellular tropism of MPAC-packaged retroviral vectors was the same as replication competent MCF viruses. Testing various established cell lines showed some human cell lines could be infected with MPAC-packaged vectors while others cannot. In
Inefficient gene delivery continues to be a primary hurdle facing gene therapy. Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. Remarkably, a single mutation in the protease (PR), G119E, in the MLV gag-pro-pol is responsible for the enhanced stability. Thus, the variant MLV exhibits increased stability with various wild type envelope proteins, including amphotropic, ecotropic, 10A1, and VSV-G. Lastly, saturation mutagenesis at the site of the beneficial mutation identified MLV mutants with infectivity half-lives of ∼24 h at 37°C, nearly a ...
1A6B: NMR structure of the complex between the zinc finger protein NCp10 of Moloney murine leukemia virus and the single-stranded pentanucleotide d(ACGCC): comparison with HIV-NCp7 complexes.
Rat C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum glycoprotein belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins. In this study we have shown the specific binding of 125I-CRP to rat peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C. This binding was dependent upon incubation time, CRP and cell concentrations, and was not inhibited by either phosphorylcholine or human IgG. At 37 degrees C, the surface-bound 125I-CRP was internalized and degraded. The degradation of 125I-CRP was measured by the formation of 125I-labelled trichloroacetic-acid-soluble CRP peptides by either precipitation assays or by h.p.l.c. of the incubation medium using a gel-filtration column. Since chloroquine and leupeptin inhibited CRP degradation, it was concluded that degradation of CRP occurred in the lysosomal compartment of the macrophage. There was an absolute requirement for the presence of bivalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the incubation medium for the binding and degradation of CRP, which could be inhibited by EDTA but not by ...
Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Human, Infection, Somatostatin, Virus, Binding Site, Gene, Leukemia, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Mouse, Murine Leukemia Virus, Somatostatin Receptors, Stomatitis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Cell, Cell Lines, Cholesterol, Complement, Cytoplasm
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
Video articles in JoVE about quantitative trait loci include Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton, Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks, Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA), Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq), A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research, Purification of High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Powdery Mildew for Long-Read Sequencing, A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), The Treadmill Fatigue Test: A Simple, High-throughput Assay of Fatigue-like Behavior for
Chromatin folding and dynamics are critically dependent on nucleosome-nucleosome interactions with important contributions from internucleosome binding of the histone H4 N-terminal tail K16-R23 domain to the surface of the H2A/H2B dimer. The H4 Lys16 plays a pivotal role in this regard. Using in vitro reconstituted 12-mer nucleosome arrays, we have investigated the mechanism of the H4 N-terminal tail in maintaining nucleosome-nucleosome stacking and mediating intra- and inter-array chromatin compaction, with emphasis on the role of K16 and the positive charge region, R17-R23. Analytical ultracentrifugation sedimentation velocity experiments and precipitation assays were employed to analyze effects on chromatin folding and self-association, respectively. Effects on chromatin folding caused by various mutations and modifications at position K16 in the H4 histone were studied. Additionally, using charge-quenching mutations, we characterized the importance of the interaction of the residues within ...
Growth:, Hereditary Factors:, Tissue Culture:, Rickettsia, Virus:, Strains: A(CAL-A) (A/J), AKR, AL(AL/N), BALB/C, C3H, C57BL/6, C57BR, C57L, C58, DBA/2 (212), I, SWISS. ...
Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration0.5Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.2ImmunogenAbelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B tumor cellsBackground Informatio...
Hop on to get the meaning of F-MCFV acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang F-MCFV means... AcronymsAndSlang. The F-MCFV acronym/abbreviation definition. The F-MCFV meaning is Friend Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Virus. The definition of F-MCFV by
So, Rachel Bagni did whats known as a phylogenetic analysis - a tree where you compare the sequences of all the polytropic viruses in green in the gene bank in the data base to the sequences from our patients...And you can see that many of the WPI samples from that original study also contain polytropic sequences. Interestingly, one patient contained whats called a mink cell focus or a modified polytropic virus - much more divergent that some of the other strains ...
Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC ® VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: Analytical methodologies Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
Tumor antigens on the cell surface of thymic lymphoma cells from chemical- and virus-induced lymphomas of C57BL mice and virus-induced tumors of Wistar-Furth rats have been studied with the use of immunofluorescence on viable cells with rat, rabbit, and monkey antisera. In young mice given intrathymic injections of a murine leukemia virus, a new cell surface antigen can be detected as early as 2 to 4 days postinjection in some thymuses. Rat antisera to virus-induced rat thymic lymphoma cells gave a precipitin line in Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis when tested with virus isolated from plasma of tumor-bearing rats or from mouse lymphoma extracts. This reaction is due to the group-specific (internal) antigen of the murine leukemia viruses, since ether treatment of the virus preparations was required to obtain it. The results indicate that both radiation and certain chemicals may "activate" the same leukemia virus, which is endemic in this low leukemia strain.. ...
Here we have studied how an early activation step of Mo-MLV Env proceeds in its three protomeric units: simultaneously in all of them or sequentially in one after the other. We followed the isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide and the subsequent SU release in Env that was triggered in vitro by Ca2+ depletion or in vivo by the receptor on rat XC cells. Our results suggested a sequential activation of the protomers according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3. Thus, in this reaction, the protomers of Env release their SU one after the other, forming asymmetric oligomer intermediates (I-1 and I-2). In contrast, the TM subunits of the isomerized protomers stay noncovalently associated with the partially activated Env. At present, we cannot conclude what controls the sequential protomer activation. One possibility is that it is controlled through sequential receptor interactions. However, a single receptor-protomer interaction might also be sufficient. According to ...
PIM kinases are frequently overexpressed in various hematologic and solid tumors, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and promoting tumor growth.2 In inflammatory disorders, PIM-1 kinase has been shown to mediate interleukin-22 signaling in cell-based and animal models. TP-3654 is an investigational agent and is not approved by the US FDA or any other regulatory authorities.. PIM=proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
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PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
BioAssay record AID 98050 submitted by ChEMBL: in vitro antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) against the murine leukemia L1210 cell.
Aiyer, S., G.V.T. Swapna, N. Malani, J.M. Aramini, W.M. Schneider, M.R. Plumb, R.C. Larue, M. Ghanem, B. Studamire, M. Kvaratskhelia, F.D. Bushman, G.T. Montelione and M.J. Roth. "Altering Murine Leukemia Virus Integration Through Disruption of the Integrase and BET Protein Family Interaction." Nucleic Acids Res. 42:5917-5928. (Books and Publications: Peer Reviewed Article) ...
Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-323 of Human AKR1C1 with an N terminal His tag. Predicted mwt: 39 kDa;
Experimentally introduced defective endogenous proviruses are highly expressed in chickens.: We have previously described the experimental introduction of recom
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Moloney murine leukemia virus glyco-gag facilitates xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus replication through human...Moloney murine leukemia virus glyco-gag facilitates xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus replication through human...

AKV of AKR mice and Emv2 of C57BL mice). Both AKV and Emv2 can spontaneously activate and establish infections (and leukemias) ... Moloney murine leukemia virus glyco-gag facilitates xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus replication through human ... This virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), shares 94% overall sequence similarity with xenotropic and ... Groom HC, Yap MW, Galao RP, Neil SJ, Bishop KN: Susceptibility of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) to ...
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Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic...Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic...

... of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic polytropic MuLVs. , Journal of virology , 6/1/1987 ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... We examined the frequency of occurrence of polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) in the spleens and thymuses of ...
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Table of Contents | Cancer ResearchTable of Contents | Cancer Research

A Discrepancy in XC and Oncogenicity Assays for Murine Leukemia Virus in AKR Mice ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on the Surfaces of Normal Murine ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on Surfaces of Virusproducing Murine ... Differential Neurooncogenicity of Strains of JC Virus, a Human Polyoma Virus, in Newborn Syrian Hamsters ...
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Mechanisms in Interleukin 3 Regulated Growth and Differentiation | SpringerLinkMechanisms in Interleukin 3 Regulated Growth and Differentiation | SpringerLink

Molecular properties of a gag- pol- env+ murine leukemia virus from cultured AKR leukemia cells. J. Virol. 41:626, (1982). ... Mechanisms in neoplasias induced by Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus. II. A high frequency of interleukin-3 dependent cell lines ... Chronic immune stimulating is required for Moloney leukemia virus-induced lymphomas. Nature 209:P407, (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle ... Mast Cell Myeloid Cell Line Fetal Liver Cell Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line These keywords were added by ...
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Similar articles for PubMed (Select 1001891) - PubMed - NCBISimilar articles for PubMed (Select 1001891) - PubMed - NCBI

Genes affecting mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) murine leukemia virus infection and spontaneous lymphoma in AKR F1 hybrids. ... Genetic study of lymphoma induction by Friend murine leukemia virus in crosses involving AKR mice. ... Strain differences in the early development of the thymus-dependent cells: precocity of T lineage cells in AKR mice as compared ...
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A Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with a 40-kDa Molecule on Fetal Thymocytes and Tumor Cells Blocks Proliferation and Stimulates...A Monoclonal Antibody Reactive with a 40-kDa Molecule on Fetal Thymocytes and Tumor Cells Blocks Proliferation and Stimulates...

... murine leukemia virus accelerates the appearance of tumors (3). The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute ... viruses: amplification of murine leukemia virus-related antigens on thymocytes and acceleration of leukemia development in AKR ... Localization of the leukemogenic determinants of SLR3-3, an ecotropic, XC-positive murine leukemia virus of AKR mouse origin. J ... Murine Leukemia viruses with recombinant env genes: a discussion of their role in leukemogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol ...
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Structure of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA in mouse genomes. - Semantic ScholarStructure of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA in mouse genomes. - Semantic Scholar

Those mice from which endogenous ecotropic MuLV of the AKR type have been isolated contained at least one virtually complete ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ... contained MuLV DNAs of genomic length whose restriction endonuclease digestion pattern was characteristic of xenotropic viruses ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ...
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Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus | Cancer ResearchEffects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus | Cancer Research

... and calf thymus DNA-catalyzed reaction of reverse transcriptase from AKR mouse murine leukemia virus (AKR-MLV). This inhibition ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus. Yoshimi Tomita and Tsuguo ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus ... Effects of Adriamycin on the Reverse Transcriptase and the Production of Murine Leukemia Virus ...
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Зарубежные авторы (часть 8) - Литература - Механизмы вирусного онкогенеза - Библиотека доктора - Медкурсор - актуальная медицинаЗарубежные авторы (часть 8) - Литература - Механизмы вирусного онкогенеза - Библиотека доктора - Медкурсор - актуальная медицина

Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus ... ... Kennel S. J. Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus - related glycoproteins from AKR and new Zealand mice. - «J. ... Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... containing 34S RNA of AKR murine leukemia virus. - «Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.», 1977, v. 74, p. 499 - 505. ...
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Genetic Diversity and Evolution of Retroviruses | Springer for Research & DevelopmentGenetic Diversity and Evolution of Retroviruses | Springer for Research & Development

Chromosomal assignment of two endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviruses of AKR/J mouse strains. J Virol 56: 172-175 ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Relative Growth Rate Murine Leukemia Virus Virus Population Rous Sarcoma Virus These keywords ... Rein A (1982) Interference grouping of murine leukemia viruses: A distinct receptor for MCFrecombinant viruses in mouse cells. ... Origin of pathogenic determinants of recombinant murine leukemia viruses: analysis of Bxv-1-related xenotropic viruses from CWD ...
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Table of Contents | Journal of VirologyTable of Contents | Journal of Virology

... the number of copies and in the genomic organization of ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequences in sublines of AKR ... Genetic alterations of RNA leukemia viruses associated with the development of spontaneous thymic leukemia in AKR/J mice. C Y ... Animal Viruses. *. ANIMAL VIRUSES. Construction and Characterization of Viable Deletion Mutants of Simian Virus 40 Lacking ... ANIMAL VIRUSES. Core Particles of Hepatitis B Virus and Ground Squirrel Hepatitis Virus I. Relationship Between Hepatitis B ...
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Germ-line reinsertions of AKR murine leukemia virus genomes in AKV-1 congenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77:4871-4874. [ ... Murine leukemia virus: high frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Science 174:155-156. [ ... Role of APOBEC3 in genetic diversity among endogenous murine leukemia viruses. PLoS Genet 3:e183. [PubMed][CrossRef]. ... Restricted expression of endogenous N-tropic XC-positive leukemia virus in hybrids between G and AKR mice: an effect of the Fv- ...
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Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... McCater J. A. Genetic studies of the ploidy of moloney murine leukemia virus, - «J. Virol.», 1977, v. 22, p. 9 - 15. Mackey J. ... Van Zaane D., Hesselink W. G., Bloemers H. P. J. Identification of Rauscher murine leukemia virus - specific… ... Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and ...
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Detection and cellular localization of enterovirus RNA sequences in spinal cord of patients with ALS | NeurologyDetection and cellular localization of enterovirus RNA sequences in spinal cord of patients with ALS | Neurology

Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J ... normally harmless viruses: an endogenous retrovirus and a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Second, experiments have shown ... 9 The detection of other viral agents such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and mumps virus was always negative on CSF ... There is no evidence yet that the virus we detected is involved somehow in the neuronal death and the course of the disease. ...
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Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47: 317-328. Lenz, J; Celander D; Crowther RL; Patarca R; Perkins DW ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Halls Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. PMC ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...
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Stoye, JP; Moroni, C; Coffin, JM (1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 (3 ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
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AKR murine leukemia virus, immunology, Animals, Antigens, Neoplasm, Antigens, Viral, Antilymphocyte Serum, Cell Membrane, ... Tumor induction by murine sarcoma virus in AKR and C58 mice. Reduction of tumor regression associated with appearance of Gross ... leukemia virus pseudotypes.. 1974 L Chieco-Bianchi et al. Journal of Experimental Medicine cited 0 times ... X. Identification of an IgD-like molecule on the surface of murine splenocytes.. 1974 U Melcher et al. Journal of Experimental ...
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The generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syn by W R. Green, R C. Nowinski et al."The generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syn" by W R. Green, R C. Nowinski et al.

... generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing akr/gross murine leukemia virus ... generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing akr/gross murine leukemia virus ...
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Characterization of a polytropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequence associated with the virus resistance gene Rmcf of DBA/ ... Rmcf is located on Chr 5 close to Hm near the centromeric end (J:7108). Rmcfr protects (AKR x CBA/Ca)F1 and (AKR x DBA/2)F1 ... A mouse gene on chromosome 5 that restricts infectivity of mink cell focus-forming recombinant murine leukemia viruses. J Exp ... This locus controls resistance of cells to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The recessive s ( ...
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Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus-related glycoproteins from cialis coupon AKR and New Zealand mice. Substrate- ... A highly buy generic cialis sensitive one-step immunocapture EIA for the detection of influenza A virus antigen directly in a ...
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Table of Contents | Journal of VirologyTable of Contents | Journal of Virology

... murine leukemia viruses: ecotropic, xenotropic, and MCF-related viral RNAs are detected concurrently in thymus tissues of AKR ... trans-activation of the simian virus 40 enhancer by a pX product of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. S Saito, M Nakamura, K ... Isolation of an integrated provirus of Moloney murine leukemia virus with long terminal repeats in inverted orientation: ... Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. D J McGeoch, M A Dalrymple, A Dolan, D ...
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Age-dependent tolerance to an endogenous tumor-associated antigenAge-dependent tolerance to an endogenous tumor-associated antigen

Freed EO, Risser R. The role of envelope glycoprotein processing in murine leukemia virus infection. J Virol. 1987 Sep;61(9): ... Although expression of MuLV is low in these strains relative to the AKR strain [46], we readily detected gp70 expression in a ... McCubrey J, Risser R. Genetic interactions in the spontaneous production of endogenous murine leukemia virus in low leukemic ... An immunodominant Kb-restricted peptide from the p15E transmembrane protein of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV ...
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Characterization of the 5-terminus of murine leukemia virus rna. by J J. Frank, R G. Dorr et al."Characterization of the 5'-terminus of murine leukemia virus rna." by J J. Frank, R G. Dorr et al.

Radiation:, Bioassays, Techniques:, Rickettsia, Virus:, Strains: AKR. JAX Source. Biochim Biophys Acta 1974; 366:353-7. ... Frank, J J.; Dorr, R G.; and Levy, C C., "Characterization of the 5-terminus of murine leukemia virus rna." (1974). Subject ...
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Discovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesDiscovery of endogenous viruses | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

1972 Xenotropic viruses: murine leukemia viruses associated with NIH Swiss, NZB, and other mouse strains . Science 182, 1151- ... The Akr strain of inbred mice has a high incidence of thymic lymphoma associated with MLV, and it became a favoured model for ... b) Murine mammary tumour virus. Murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is the prototype beta-retrovirus. Breast cancer ... Mareks disease virus [65] and the related turkey virus. REV has also been found in the genome of fowlpox virus [66], a virus ...
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... ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) proviruses become activated in rare cells during embryogenesis. Recognizing influenza in ... reactions following cartilage and bone transplantation in experimental research and in clinical practice In C58 and AKR mice, ...
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  • Kamine I., Buchanan J. Cell - free synthesis of two proteins unique to RNA of transforming virions of Rous sarcoma virus. (
  • Kawai S., Hanafusa H. Recombination between a temperature - sensitive mutant and a deletion mutant of Rous sarcoma virus. (
  • Kopecka H., Hillova J., Hilt M. Effect of restriction endonucleases on infectivity of Rous sarcoma virus DNA. (
  • The transforming proteins of PRCII virus and Rous sarcoma virus form a complex with the same two cellular phosphoproteins. (
  • Polypurine tract adjacent to the U3 region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome provides a cis-acting function. (
  • Quntaka R. V., Bishop J. M., Varmus H. E. Covalently closed circular DNA of avian sarcoma virus: purification from nuclei of infected quail tumor cells and measurement by electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis. (
  • Kawai S. Recovery of avian sarcoma virus from tumots induced by transformation-defective mutants. (
  • Darlix J. L., Bromley P. A., Spahr P. New procedure for the direct analysis of in vitro reverse transcription of Rous sarcoma virus RNA. (
  • I first came across an endogenous factor which functionally complemented env -defective Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) during my doctoral studies in 1966. (
  • The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. (
  • The genetic distance computed between molossinus and AKR is large, nearly 5-10 times the distance between known related populations and strains (e.g. (
  • We will also describe some of the characteristics of the germfree AKR mouse which make it somewhat different from other germfree inbred strains. (
  • Effect of tunicamycin on the synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins and their expression on the cell surface. (
  • The avian erythroblastosis virus erbA oncogene encodes a DNA-binding protein exhibiting distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular localizations. (
  • In one example, the gag gene from Friend Leukemia Virus encodes an H-2D d -restricted CTL target on the leukemia cell line, FBL-3 [ 22 ]. (
  • Thirteen years later, it was shown that the oncogene transduced by this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) (also known as PKB), which harbors an N-terminal regulatory domain (now known as the PH domain) and exhibits a high degree of homology with the kinases PKC and PKA ( 2 - 5 ). (
  • These data effectively exclude the interpretation of consanguinity of AKR and molossinus and support the notion of acquisition of the endogenous virus in AKR by horizontal infection of the molossinus virus. (
  • Normal DBA/2 mouse cells synthesize a glycoprotein which interferes with MCF virus infection. (
  • The specificity of a single rabbit antiserum pool raised against the purified major glycoprotein, gp71, of Friend murine leukemia virus was determined for a variety of virus producing mouse, feline, and gibbon ape cell lines by viable cell membrane immunofluorescence absorption. (
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (
  • Khoury G., May E. Regulation of early and late simian virus 40 transcription: overproduction of early viral RNA in the absence of a functional T-antigen. (
  • Experiments have shown that it is possible to protect against Friend virus infection with several types of vaccines, including attenuated viruses, viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. (
  • Four viral genes independently contribute to attenuation of live influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted reassortant virus vaccines. (
  • A C-terminal domain in the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus pol gene product is not essential for viral replication. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (
  • This was achieved using recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the gag and env genes of FV. (
  • Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins. (
  • Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. (
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (
  • These ERVs affect retrovirus-induced disease in a number of ways, including manipulation of the immune response, inhibition or facilitation of entry or other steps of virus replication, or as participants in the generation of infectious pathogenic viruses. (
  • Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus-encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of phosphonoacetate-resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of cells infected with mutant virus. (
  • Monoclonal antibody to spleen focus-forming virus-encoded gp52 provides a probe for the amino-terminal region of retroviral envelope proteins that confers dual tropism and xenotropism. (
  • Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and duck cells. (
  • Gallis B. M., Eisenman R. N., Dtggelmann H. Synthesis of the precursor to avian RNA tumor virus internal structural proteins early after infection. (
  • Distinctive properties of the hepatitis B virus envelope proteins. (
  • We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). (
  • Charge microheterogeneity of the major capsid protein of polyoma virus. (
  • A high frequency of interleukin-3 dependent cell lines are derived from myeloid and erythroid leukemias. (
  • Although adriamycin and actinomycin D significantly reduced the growth of AKR mouse cells (K3b), the treatment with adriamycin could not inhibit the AKR-MLV production in these cells. (
  • In adriamycin-resistant K3b/Am cells, which were isolated by intermittent treatment of K3b cells with adriamycin, persistence of AKR-MLV was demonstrated. (
  • Indeed, germ-line integration has not yet been described for DNA tumour viruses, although we now know that it occasionally occurs with human herpesvirus 6 [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Kurth R., Bosch V., Bolognesi D. P. Polypeptides of endogenous avian С - type viruses: their detection in the plasma membrane of normal and infected cells. (
  • Salden M. H. L., Bloemendal H. Transplantation of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA in a reticulocyte cell - free system. (
  • Hakomori S., Wyke J. A., Vogt P. K. Glycolipids of chick embryo fibroblasts infected with temperature - sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma viruses. (
  • Lai Ching-Juh, Nathans D. The ВС gene of simian virus 40. (
  • The late spliced 19S and 16S RNAs of simian virus 40 can be synthesized from a common pool of transcripts. (
  • That was the year that Peyton Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology for the isolation of his eponymous virus published in 1911, representing a record 55 year incubation period between reporting a discovery and the award [ 6 ]. (
  • 7 , 8 No virus has ever cultivated from neurologic samples of ALS cases, and no specific immune response to enteroviral infection has been detected so far. (
  • The sexual descent model carries with it a prediction of relative consanguinity of the AKR strain and molossinus , whereas the horizontal infection model does not. (
  • Identification of a cellular cofactor required for infection by feline leukemia virus. (
  • Alizon M, Wain-Hobson S, Montagnier L, Sonigo P (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. (
  • Coffin JM (1986) Genetic variation in AIDS viruses. (
  • Kumar V., Eckner R. J., Bennett M. Mechanism of genetic resistance to immune suppression by friend leukemia virus: the role of marrow - dependent cells. (
  • Genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey. (
  • Natural antibodies directed against murine lymphosarcoma cells. (
  • Mapping and identification of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. (
  • Vaccinia virus-encoded ribonucleotide reductase: sequence conservation of the gene for the small subunit and its amplification in hydroxyurea-resistant mutants. (
  • 2009. Proposed algorithm to investigate latent and occult viruses in vaccine cell substrates by chemical induction. (
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (
  • The DMF10 62.3 mAb stained a number of immortalized murine and human cell lines and, where tested, blocked their proliferation and caused death to varying extents by apoptosis. (
  • Kerr I M., Olshevsky U., Baltimore D. Translation of murine leukemia virus RNA in cell - free systems from animal cells. (
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (
  • Identification of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for origin-dependent DNA synthesis. (