A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.
The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

Adoptive immunotherapy of a Gross virus producing lymphoma and a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in tolerant rats. (1/181)

Immunological tolerance to Gross virus-specific transplantation antigens in rats given neonatae transfer of donor lymphoid cells beneath the kidney capsule of syngeneic recipient rats. Immune or normal donor cells invariably developed a cell-mediated immune reaction in kidneys of GV-tolerant recipients, presumably against GV antigens present on the surface of recipient lymphoid cells in the kidney. Spleen and lymph node cells from tolerant rats failed to develop a reaction in tolerant recipients, but developed a strong reaction to histoincompatible antigens in the kidneys of semisyngeneic tolerant rats. The immunologically tolerant state in the rats could be broken by adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells from syngeneic rats immunized with GV-induced lymphoma cells. Immunotherapy of a GV-induced and also a GV-infected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma growing in tolerant rats was successful when immune spleen and lymph node cells were administered i.p. 3 days after s.c. inoculation of 2 X 10(7) tumor cells in the case of the lymphoma, and 1 day after inoculation of 5 X 10(6) tumor cells in the case of the fibrosarcoma.  (+info)

Antiretroviral cytolytic T-lymphocyte nonresponsiveness: FasL/Fas-mediated inhibition of CD4(+) and CD8(+) antiviral T cells by viral antigen-positive veto cells. (2/181)

C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice generate type-specific cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to an immunodominant Kb-restricted epitope, KSPWFTTL located in the membrane-spanning domain of p15TM of AKR/Gross murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). AKR.H-2(b) congenic mice, although carrying the responder H-2(b) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype, are low responders or nonresponders for AKR/Gross MuLV-specific CTL, apparently due to the presence of inhibitory AKR. H-2(b) cells. Despite their expression of viral antigens and Kb, untreated viable AKR.H-2(b) spleen cells cause dramatic inhibition of the C57BL/6 (B6) antiviral CTL response to in vitro stimulation with AKR/Gross MuLV-induced tumor cells. This inhibition is specific (AKR.H-2(b) modulator spleen cells do not inhibit allogeneic MHC or minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CTL production), dependent on direct contact of AKR.H-2(b) cells in a dose-dependent manner with the responder cell population, and not due to soluble factors. Here, the mechanism of inhibition of the antiviral CTL response is shown to depend on Fas/Fas-ligand interactions, implying an apoptotic effect on B6 responder cells. Although B6.gld (FasL-) responders were as sensitive to inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells as were B6 responders, B6.lpr (Fas-) responders were largely insensitive to inhibition, indicating that the responder cells needed to express Fas. A Fas-Ig fusion protein, when added to the in vitro CTL stimulation cultures, relieved the inhibition caused by the AKR.H-2(b) cells if the primed responders were from either B6 or B6.gld mice, indicating that the inhibitory AKR.H-2(b) cells express FasL. Because of the antigen specificity of the inhibition, these results collectively implicate a FasL/Fas interaction mechanism: viral antigen-positive AKR.H-2(b) cells expressing FasL inhibit antiviral T cells ("veto" them) when the AKR.H-2(b) cells are recognized. Consistent with this model, inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells was MHC restricted, and resulted in approximately a 10- to 70-fold decrease in the in vitro expansion of pCTL/CTL. Both CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th responder cells were susceptible to inhibition by FasL+ AKR.H-2(b) inhibitory cells as the basis for inhibition. The CTL response in the presence of inhibitory cells could be restored by several cytokines or agents that have been shown by others to interfere with activation-induced cell death (e.g. , interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-15, transforming growth factor beta, lipopolysaccharide, 9-cis-retinoic acid) but not others (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha). These results raise the possibility that this type of inhibitory mechanism is generalized as a common strategy for retrovirus infected cells to evade immune T-cell recognition.  (+info)

Definitive evidence that the murine C-type virus inducing locus Akv-1 is viral genetic material. (3/181)

DNA of the AKR mouse contains a set of murine leukemia virus sequences that are not present in DNA of the NIH Swiss mouse. NIH mice partially congenic for the AKR murine-leukemia-virus-inducing locus Akv-1 contain this set of sequences, and, in a three-point cross segregating for Akv-1 on an NIH background, the sequences segregated with Akv-1. It is concluded that the Akv-1 locus contains viral sequences.  (+info)

Mutations of the kissing-loop dimerization sequence influence the site specificity of murine leukemia virus recombination in vivo. (4/181)

The genetic information of retroviruses is retained within a dimeric RNA genome held together by intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions near the 5' ends. Coencapsidation of retrovirus-derived RNA molecules allows frequent template switching of the virus-encoded reverse transcriptase during DNA synthesis in newly infected cells. We have previously shown that template shifts within the 5' leader of murine leukemia viruses occur preferentially within the kissing stem-loop motif, a cis element crucial for in vitro RNA dimer formation. By use of a forced recombination approach based on single-cycle transfer of Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors harboring defective primer binding site sequences, we now report that modifications of the kissing-loop structure, ranging from a deletion of the entire sequence to introduction of a single point mutation in the loop motif, significantly disturb site specificity of recombination within the highly structured 5' leader region. In addition, we find that an intact kissing-loop sequence favors optimal RNA encapsidation and vector transduction. Our data are consistent with the kissing-loop dimerization model and suggest that a direct intermolecular RNA-RNA interaction, here mediated by palindromic loop sequences within the mature genomic RNA dimer, facilitates hotspot template switching during retroviral cDNA synthesis in vivo.  (+info)

Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus. (5/181)

A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology.  (+info)

Treatment of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or interferon. (6/181)

AKR mice are genetically destined to develop Gross (RNA) virus-induced lymphatic leukemia. Leukemic AKR mice treated with combination vincristine, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained a 180% increase of life-span. Combination chemotherapy plus immunization with neuraminidase-treated allogeneic (Gross virus-induced) G2G leukemic cells intradermally resulted in 35% of animals surviving beyond 150 days without evidence of the disease. It is significant that allogeneic E2G leukemic cells as immunogen were as effective in prolonging the life-span of the immunized leukemic AKR mice as were syngeneic leukemic thymocytes. Virazole (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), an antiviral compound, alone showed no apparent antitumor effect. However, in experiments in which the clinically diagnosed leukemic AKR mice received a combination of cytoreductive therapy [vincristine plus prednisone or, more effectively, vincristine, Cytoxan plus 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea, followed by Virazole], there was a noticeable reduction of the viral titer, a delay in the reappearance of viable clonogenic cells, and an increase in the survival time for the leukemic AKR mice as compared to those receiving cytoreductive therapy alone. The effectiveness of purified mouse interferon in AKR mice was also examined. The decrease in the viral titer of animals that received interferon treatment was markedly greater than of those receiving a combination of cytoreductive therapy with Virazole or immunotherapy. The administration of mouse interferon had a direct effect on the appearance of the spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. The median life-span of the control animals was 36 weeks, whereas 45% of the AKR mice treated with five doses of 5 X 10(4) units of interferon are still alive at 54 weeks of age. Thus, interferon not only reduces the Gross murine leukemia virus titer in the chronically infected AKR mice but also significantly delays the appearance of the primary lymphoma.  (+info)

The generation and specificity of cytotoxic T cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing AKR/Gross murine leukemia virus antigens. (7/181)

Efforts were made to generate C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{male}G2) bearing AKR/Gross virus antigens. As we were unable to induce significant cytotoxic activity by immunization with up to 10(8) irradiated E{male}G2 cells, even when cells from such primed animals were subsequently restimulated with E{male}G2 cells in vitro, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an aliogeneic, virus-producing AKR leukemic cell line (AKR SL3). Peritoneal exudate cells and, to a lesser degree, spleen cells from these mice showed significant lytic activity toward the immunizing allogeneic tumor but not toward E{male}G2. When spleen cells were harvested from animals {approximately equal to}10 d after injection of AKR SL3 and rechallenged in vitro with either E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1, another tumor that displays AKR/Gross virus antigens, then a vigorous cytotoxic response against E{male}G2 and AKR. H-2(b) SL1 was obtained. Effector cells generated by AKR SL3 priming followed by in vitro stimulation with E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1 lysed only cells of H-2(b) haplotype which were strongly positive for the display of serologically detectable AKR/Gross virus antigens. Thus, AKR SL3 cells were not lysed nor were EL4 cells (H-2(b); but only weakly positive for gp70). Cells not bearing the MuLV antigens tested for, such as P815 mastocytoma cells and spleen cell "blasts" from C57BL/6 and CBA (H-2(k)) mice, were also insusceptible to attack. The cytotoxic effector cells induced bore Thy 1.2 alloantigen and were of the Lyt 1+2+ phenotype. Collectively, these findings are consistent with the conclusion that the cytotoxic T cells raised against E{male}G2 are directed against AKR/Gross virus-associated antigens and are H-2 restricted. It will be of interest to determine the relevance of such effector cells to the known resistance of the C57BL/6 mouse to AKR/Gross virus-induced leukemia.  (+info)

The role of serum factors in the acceleration by Freund's complete adjuvant of the growth of transplanted murine leukemic cells. (8/181)

Attempted nonspecific immunotherapy led to acceleration rather than retardation of tumor growth. Mice given injections of Freund's adjuvant were more susceptible to transplanted syngeneic Gross virus-induced leukemic cells when Freund's complete adjuvant was administered i.p. 0 to 7 days before or 1 day after tumor; thereafter, the adjuvant had no effect. Two serum-mediated phenomeana were demonstrated in vitro: (a) sera from mice immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant and tumor facilitated killing of tumor cells by peritoneal exudate cells from nonimmune mice; (b) sera from all mice with progressive tumor blocked the cytotoxicity of a xenogeneic tumor-specific serum. Certain sera produced both effects. However, sera that either blocked or facilitated tumor killing in vitro had no effect on the growth in vivo of transplanted tumor cells.  (+info)

Green, W R.; Nowinski, R C.; and Henney, C S., The generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing akr/gross murine leukemia virus antigens. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 4314 ...
G (gross) and h-2 cell-surface antigens, location on gross leukemia cells by electron microscopy with visually labeled antibody., T Aoki, E A. Boyse, L J. Old, E D. Harven, and H A. Wood. ...
This correspondence was written in response to the comments by Young et al. Following careful evaluation of the relevant dataset, each of the points brought up by Young et al. has been addressed in this response. We anticipate this will clarify our findings regarding ERVmch8, an ecotropic endogenous retrovirus that was shown to have cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression patterns in C57BL/6J mice.
Jolicoeur, Paul and Rassart, Eric and Kozak, Christine et al. (1980) Distribution of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA sequences among mouse chromosomes. Journal of Virology, 33 (3). pp. 1229-1235. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC288660. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:JOLjvir80 ...
These tips will help you educate the community about the superintendents role and golfs many environmental, recreational and economic benefits.
购买我们的重组人AKR1C2蛋白。Ab114785为蛋白片段,在小麦胚芽中生产并经过Western blot, SDS-PAGE, ELISA实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。
Advances in Virology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of virology.
Access the GCSAA media room for logos, news releases, radio broadcasts, fact sheets, photos and more. Contact our communications team for more information.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Rauscher leukaemia virus. AU - Toth, F. D.. AU - Vaczi, L.. AU - Balogh, M.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. N2 - Susceptibility to Rauscher leukemia virus is determined by the 2 genes Rv 1 and Rv 2. Loci Rv 1 and Rv 2 determine the susceptibility to LLV and SFFV, respectively. On locus Rv 1 resistance and on locus Rv 2 susceptibility is dominant. The 2 genes segregate independently of each other. In Rv 2(S/S) and Rv 2(S/r) mice the degree of tumor specific antibody production is determined by the Rv 1 locus. In the case of genotype Rv 1(R/R) Rv 2(S/r), interferon production may be a factor determining resistance.. AB - Susceptibility to Rauscher leukemia virus is determined by the 2 genes Rv 1 and Rv 2. Loci Rv 1 and Rv 2 determine the susceptibility to LLV and SFFV, respectively. On locus Rv 1 resistance and on locus Rv 2 susceptibility is dominant. The 2 genes segregate independently of each other. In Rv 2(S/S) and Rv 2(S/r) mice ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - EVIDENZA DI UN DIFETTO INTRINSECO DELLA REATTIVITA LINFOCITARIA IN TOPI AKR. AU - Collavo, D.. AU - Biasi, G.. AU - Colombatti, A.. AU - Varotto, M.. AU - Fabbris, R.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Like their AKR/J parent, (CBAT6T6 x AKR/J)F 1 mice are carriers of endogenous G MuLV and present a high incidence of spontaneous lymphoma. However, the F 1 hybrids do not present the immunological deficits seen in pre leukemic AKR/J mice since they respond normally to in vitro PHA stimulation and to in vivo LPS immunization. These observations suggest that there is probably no direct relation between the presence of MuLV and immunological impairment. Studies have been carried out to ascertain whether the altered immunological reactivity seen in AKR/J mice is related to factors intrinsic to the immunocompetent cells or to environmental inadequacy. Thus, (CBAT6T6 x AKR/J)F 1 mice were thymectomized, irradiated, reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow and simultaneous transplant of CBAT6T6 ...
Ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X-, and P-MLVs) exist in mice as infectious viruses and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into mouse chromosomes. All three MLV subgroups are linked to leukemogenesis, which involves generation of recombinants with polytropic host range. Although P-MLVs are deemed to be the proximal agents of disease induction, few biologically characterized infectious P-MLVs have been sequenced for comparative analysis. We analyzed the complete genomes of 16 naturally occurring infectious P-MLVs, 12 of which were typed for pathogenic potential. We sought to identify ERV progenitors, recombinational hot spots, and segments that are always replaced, never replaced, or linked to pathogenesis or host range. Each P-MLV has an E-MLV backbone with P- or X-ERV replacements that together cover 100% of the recombinant genomes, with different substitution patterns for X- and P-ERVs. Two segments are always replaced, both coding for envelope (Env) ...
Van Zaane D., Dekker-Michielsen M. J. A., Bloemers H. P. J. Virus - specific precursor polypeptides in cells infected with rauscher leukemia virus : ...
Edwin Jagger dviašmenis skustuvas IECSR su uždarų šukų galvute ir juodmedžio spalvos rankenėle. Skustuvai, skutimosi priemonės internetu.
Čaute všetci. Konečne po niekoľkých mesiacoch som prerobil svoje akvarko. Predtým to vyzeralo tak chaoticky. Mám hu už síce asi 5 mesiacov ale doteraz som ...
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
In a previous study, we showed that MMLV-RT has a strong terminal transferase activity, and that the C-, G-, and T-tailing activities are enhanced by dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP, respectively. In this study, to achieve faster reaction and higher tailing efficiency, we screened other compounds for the ability to enhance the tailing activities of MMLV-RT, and determined the corresponding optimal concentrations. The C-, G-, and T-tailing activities were enhanced by guanine, cytosine, and adenine, respectively, and by derivatives thereof, suggesting a transient Watson-Click base pairing between an enhancer molecule and the nucleotide to be incorporated. In the presence of some additives (GMP and GDP for C-tailing and CMP for G-tailing), the tail length increased continuously, resulting in tail lengths of 7 to 15 (GMP and GDP) or 13 to 22 (CMP) nucleotides. Among the compounds that do not induce continuous addition, adenosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyguanosine mostly enhanced T-, G-, and C-tailings, ...
Mice of the AKR strain have a very high incidence of lymphocytic neoplasms which appear to be caused by a vertically transmitted virus (see reviews by Kaplan, 1967; Moloney, 1962; Furth et al., 1964;...
BioAssay record AID 152712 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration which leads to inhibitory effect on the proliferation of murine leukemia (P388) cells.
G-CSF; Colonystimulating factor 3 (granulocyte); CSF beta; CSF3;Csfg; Filgrastim; GCSA; GCSF; Lenograstim;Macrophage granulocyte inducer 2; MGI 2;Pluripoietin;Anti-Granulocyte stimulatin factor (G-CSF) (human) labelled with biotin antibodies, P09919
1OKA: Structure of chimeric duplex junctions: solution conformation of the retroviral Okazaki-like fragment r(ccca)d(AATGA).d(TCATTTGGG) from Moloney murine leukemia virus.
Blog on AKR1B1 sirna product: The AKR1B1 akr1b1 (Catalog #MBS8234588) is a siRNA produced from Synthetic and is intended for research p...
Major holders of Acadia Realty Trust (AKR) stock. See the latest insider trading data and institutional ownership changes for Acadia Realty Trust (AKR)
Inefficient gene delivery continues to be a primary hurdle facing gene therapy. Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. Remarkably, a single mutation in the protease (PR), G119E, in the MLV gag-pro-pol is responsible for the enhanced stability. Thus, the variant MLV exhibits increased stability with various wild type envelope proteins, including amphotropic, ecotropic, 10A1, and VSV-G. Lastly, saturation mutagenesis at the site of the beneficial mutation identified MLV mutants with infectivity half-lives of ∼24 h at 37°C, nearly a ...
Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic host range, the X-MLVs are also present in the pre-leukemic tissues. We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. AKR40 resembles the active X-ERV Bxv1, while AKR6 has a Bxv1-like backbone with substitutions that alter the long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer and the envelope (env). AKR6 has a modified xenotropic host range, and its Env residue changes all lie outside of the domain that governs the receptor choice. The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. This suggests that AKR6 is
The scanning electron microscope was used to study the budding process of the wild-type Moloney murine leukemia virus and one of its temperature-sensitive mutants, designated ts 3. A considerably larger number of budding particles was observed on TB cells infected with ts 3 at the nonpermissive temperature (39 C) than at the permissive temperature (34 C). No apparent difference was noted between the number of particles on ts 3-infected cells at (34 C) and wild-type-infected cells at 34 or 39 C. Virions were detected at the cell membrane of ts 3-infected cells at 39 C as early as 8 h postinfection. Virion density increased progressively up to 48 h after which no increase was observed. An average of 1,600 virus particles was observed at the cell surface at the peak of virus production. The distribution of these on the cell membrane appeared to be random. The maximum proportion of the cell surface occupied by the viral particles did not exceed 10%. After temperature shift from 39 to 34 C, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein A-coated erythrocyte binding to cell surface antigens. T2 - Application to quantitate retrovirus infectivity in vitro. AU - Fitting, Thomas. AU - Kabat, David. N1 - Funding Information: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research was supported by Grant PCM791372 from the National Science Foundation and in part by Grant CA23032 from the U. S. Public Health Service. T.F. was supported by a predoctoral training grant from the U. S. Public Health Service.. PY - 1981/6. Y1 - 1981/6. N2 - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. AB - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Rat C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum glycoprotein belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins. In this study we have shown the specific binding of 125I-CRP to rat peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C. This binding was dependent upon incubation time, CRP and cell concentrations, and was not inhibited by either phosphorylcholine or human IgG. At 37 degrees C, the surface-bound 125I-CRP was internalized and degraded. The degradation of 125I-CRP was measured by the formation of 125I-labelled trichloroacetic-acid-soluble CRP peptides by either precipitation assays or by h.p.l.c. of the incubation medium using a gel-filtration column. Since chloroquine and leupeptin inhibited CRP degradation, it was concluded that degradation of CRP occurred in the lysosomal compartment of the macrophage. There was an absolute requirement for the presence of bivalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the incubation medium for the binding and degradation of CRP, which could be inhibited by EDTA but not by ...
Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Human, Infection, Somatostatin, Virus, Binding Site, Gene, Leukemia, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Mouse, Murine Leukemia Virus, Somatostatin Receptors, Stomatitis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Cell, Cell Lines, Cholesterol, Complement, Cytoplasm
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
AKR1C3 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 323 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 36.8 kDa.
Detailed information about the celline expression of AKR1B1 in REH stained with HPA026425. The antibody showed a Medium level of staining
TRITON Reagents COBALT 100 ml - Dávkování podle Vašeho výsledku testů Triton ICP-OES, který je určen pro Vaše akvárium.
6 XC is a 6mm cartridge initially developed by modifying a .250 Savage case to optimize for match competition shooting. The 6 XC stands for across the course and was initially a wildcat caliber, but is now commercially available and a popular choice around the world for long range target shooting and hunting.. Show all 6 XC ...
dXyNA (5-D(*(XA)P*(XG)P*(XC)P*(XA)P*(XA)P*(XT)P*(XC)P*(XC)P*(XC)P*(XC)P*(XC)P*(XC)P*(XG)P*(XG)P*(XA)P*(XT)P*(XT)P*(XG)P*(XC)P*T)-3). ...
Goat and rabbit antisera prepared against a purified Rauscher murine leukemia virus glycoprotein (gp69/71) rapidly neutralized spleen focus-forming virus in Rauscher and Friend virus preparations. Absorption studies revealed that most of the neutralizing activity of goat anti-Rauscher virus gp69/71 serum was directed against type- and group-specific determinants. ...
Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. MLV vectors, whereby the last two are transcriptionally restricted to liver- and -catenin/T-cell factor-deregulated cells, respectively. When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. Fusion from the heterologous promoters missing the TATA container towards the MLV TATA container, however, generated vectors which replicated with almost-wild-type kinetics throughout permissive cells while exhibiting negligible or low spread in nonpermissive cells. The genomic balance from the vectors was been shown to be much like that of an identical vector filled ...
Video articles in JoVE about quantitative trait loci include Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton, Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks, Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA), Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq), A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research, Purification of High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Powdery Mildew for Long-Read Sequencing, A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), The Treadmill Fatigue Test: A Simple, High-throughput Assay of Fatigue-like Behavior for
Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration0.5Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.2ImmunogenAbelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B tumor cellsBackground Informatio...
De Volvo XC60 concept car is voorzien van de nieuwe 3,2-liter zescilinder motor die voor deze gelegenheid is omgebouwd voor het gebruik van bio-ethanol.
Title:Role of the Microenvironment in Tumourigenesis: Focus on Virus-Induced Tumors. VOLUME: 22 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Maria Vincenza Chiantore, Giorgio Mangino, Maria Simona Zangrillo, Marco Iuliano, Elisabetta Affabris, Gianna Fiorucci and Giovanna Romeo. Affiliation:Dept of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Oncogenic viruses, inflammatory microenvironment.. Abstract:Tumor microenvironment can differ considerably in various types of tumors in terms of cellular and cytokine networks and molecular drivers. The well known link between inflammation and cancer has recently found a number of genetic and molecular confirmations. In this respect, numerous reports have revealed that infection and chronic inflammation can contribute to cancer development, progression and control. Adhesion molecules, chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines, that enroll leukocytes, are persistently present in cancer microenvironment, thus increasing the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anergy for delayed-type hypersensitivity in preleukemic akr mic1, 2. AU - Burdick, James F.. AU - Williams, G. Melville. N1 - Funding Information: I Received July 3, 1984; accepted November 27, 1984. 2Supported by Public Health Service grant AI-1508l from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, and by Johns Hopkins University Institutional Research Grant RR·05378·l7. 3 Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 600 North Wolfe St., Baltimore, MD 21205. 4 4-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-I-piperazine ethanesulfonic acid. Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1985/5/1. Y1 - 1985/5/1. N2 - A singular anergy for delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in preleukemic AKR mice was discovered. This total anergy for DTH against allogeneic cells, which developed in the AKR mice by 4 to 5 months of age, was not due to an artifact of route of sensitization or of other ...
description of : AKR1B10 , anti AKR1B10 products, AKR1B11 anti-AKR1B12 anti-ALDRLn anti-ARL-1 anti-ARL1 anti-HIS anti-HSI and related products to AKR1B10, AKR1B11, AKR1B12, ALDRLn, ARL-1, ARL1, HIS, HSI
So, Rachel Bagni did whats known as a phylogenetic analysis - a tree where you compare the sequences of all the polytropic viruses in green in the gene bank in the data base to the sequences from our patients...And you can see that many of the WPI samples from that original study also contain polytropic sequences. Interestingly, one patient contained whats called a mink cell focus or a modified polytropic virus - much more divergent that some of the other strains ...
Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC ® VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: Analytical methodologies Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and characterization of murine ecotropic recombinant virus in myeloma and hybridoma cells. AU - Deo, Y.. AU - Ghebremariam, H.. AU - Cloyd, M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Ecotropic recombinant virus (ERV), a relatively new class of murine retrovirus endogenous to mice, is expressed at significant levels by most murine myeloma and hybridoma cells examined. The routine XC, S+L-, mink cell focus-inducing (MCF), and reverse transcriptase (RT) tests are not suitable to detect and quantify the levels of ERV. A serological focus assay, based on specific anti-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) viral envelope (env) antibodies, is required to detect ERV. A more sensitive format of this serological focus assay includes co-cultivation of test article cells with the indicator (Mus dunni) cells. ERV isolated from murine hybridoma cells show a unique pattern of cross-reactivity with anti-MuLV env antibodies and this pattern is clearly distinct from that of ectropic and xenotropic ...
Tumor antigens on the cell surface of thymic lymphoma cells from chemical- and virus-induced lymphomas of C57BL mice and virus-induced tumors of Wistar-Furth rats have been studied with the use of immunofluorescence on viable cells with rat, rabbit, and monkey antisera. In young mice given intrathymic injections of a murine leukemia virus, a new cell surface antigen can be detected as early as 2 to 4 days postinjection in some thymuses. Rat antisera to virus-induced rat thymic lymphoma cells gave a precipitin line in Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis when tested with virus isolated from plasma of tumor-bearing rats or from mouse lymphoma extracts. This reaction is due to the group-specific (internal) antigen of the murine leukemia viruses, since ether treatment of the virus preparations was required to obtain it. The results indicate that both radiation and certain chemicals may activate the same leukemia virus, which is endemic in this low leukemia strain.. ...
Poly(adenylic acid), poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid), and poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) moderately inhibit the synthesis of Moloney murine leukemia virus in cultured JLS-V9 cells. Moreover, they are potent inhibitors of spleen focus formation by Friend murine leukemia virus in mice. Both in cell cultures and in the animal system, the order of inhibitory potency observed is poly(2-O-ethyladenylic acid) , poly(2-O-methyladenylic acid) , poly(adenylic acid). This order is identical with the one we have noted for inhibition of the RNA-directed DNA polymerases of these two viruses. While the molecular basis of inhibition of viral replication is not yet known, our results are compatible with the notion that RNA-directed DNA polymerase may he a drug target in vivo.. ...
Here we have studied how an early activation step of Mo-MLV Env proceeds in its three protomeric units: simultaneously in all of them or sequentially in one after the other. We followed the isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide and the subsequent SU release in Env that was triggered in vitro by Ca2+ depletion or in vivo by the receptor on rat XC cells. Our results suggested a sequential activation of the protomers according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3. Thus, in this reaction, the protomers of Env release their SU one after the other, forming asymmetric oligomer intermediates (I-1 and I-2). In contrast, the TM subunits of the isomerized protomers stay noncovalently associated with the partially activated Env. At present, we cannot conclude what controls the sequential protomer activation. One possibility is that it is controlled through sequential receptor interactions. However, a single receptor-protomer interaction might also be sufficient. According to ...
PIM kinases are frequently overexpressed in various hematologic and solid tumors, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and promoting tumor growth.2 In inflammatory disorders, PIM-1 kinase has been shown to mediate interleukin-22 signaling in cell-based and animal models. TP-3654 is an investigational agent and is not approved by the US FDA or any other regulatory authorities.. PIM=proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
Küünetehniku kursus. Kursuse sisu Teoreetiline väljaõppe: desinfektsioon, sterilisatsioon, võimalikud seadmed, käte anatoomia, küünte ja nahahaigused, käte kosmeetilised probleemid ja hooldused, geelküüned, kangasküüned, akrüülküüned.. Praktiline väljaõppe: kangas-, akrüül- ja geelküünte paigaldamine, hooldus ja eemaldamine, küünte kaunistused, disain.. Nõue: küünetehniku kursusel osalemiseks peab olema läbitud maniküüri kursus.. Kursuse maksumus: 1195 EUR. Õppemaksu saab tasuda osade kaupa maksegraafiku alusel.. Hind sisaldab teooria materjale ja praktilisel osal õppevahendeid.. Hind ei sisalda instrumente!. Vajalikud instrumendid: 45 EUR (küünetangid, küünenahatangid, küüneviilid, küünenahalükkaja, tolmu hari, geelipintsel, akrüüli pintsel, käärid). Õppemaht: 136 akadeemilist tundi (17 õppepäeva). Õppekeel: EST / RUS. Toimumisaeg: vt. koolituskalender. Grupp: 4-8 õpilast. Õppekava: 1. Geelküünte teooria + praktiline väljaõppe, oma ...
Ford told Volvo there would be no new XC90, but Volvo did research secretly, and when Ford sold Volvo to Geely, Volvo took their case to Geely that Volvo not only needed a new XC90, but a totally new and efficient engine-type and a total redo of all its models. Geely approved $11.5 billion for the ambitious project, and the new XC90 is the first fruit of this massive investment. And sales for the new XC90 are far beyond what Volvo expected, boding very well for the new models to come in the next 5 yrs.. ...
Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in /html/typo3/typo3conf/ext/akenzo_lr_country/Classes/Utility/Redirect.php on line 408 ...
If your not confident, buythe parts and bring it to Leeds, I will do it for you. It would be most of the day. If not here goes. 1) you have to be sure thats the problem. 2) How many hours has the
Creative Peptides offers Boc-Lys(For)-OH for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47 (2): 317-328. doi:10.1128/JVI.47.2.317-328.1983. PMC 255263. PMID ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...
Stoye JP, Moroni C, Coffin JM (March 1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 ( ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
over 1300 citations) Hartley, J. W.; Wolford, N. K.; Old, L. J.; Rowe, W. P. (1977). "A new class of murine leukemia virus ... "At least four viral genes contribute to the leukemogenicity of murine retrovirus MCF 247 in AKR mice". Journal of Virology. 53 ... over 800 citations) Lowy, D. R.; Rowe, W. P.; Teich, N.; Hartley, J. W. (1971). "Murine Leukemia Virus: High-Frequency ... over 700 citations) Staal, S. P.; Hartley, J. W.; Rowe, W. P. (1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from ...
... leukemia virus, murine MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.020 - abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.050 - akr murine ... leukemia virus, murine MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.020 - abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.050 - akr ... leukemia virus, murine MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.020 - abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.050 - akr ... leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.225 - friend murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.300 - gross virus MeSH ...
Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... In 1977, a transforming retrovirus was isolated from the AKR mouse. This virus was named Akt-8, the "t" representing its ... "Entrez Gene: AKT1 v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1". Lindhurst MJ, Sapp JC, Teer JK, Johnston JJ, Finn EM, Peters ... AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line ...
Reif AE, Allen JM (1964). "The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120 (3): ... the site of virus particle budding from cells, and Thy-1 is incorporated into virus particles as a result of this process.[ ... It is probably the most abundant glycoprotein of murine thymocytes, with about One million copies per cell covering up to 10-20 ... Thy 1.2 is expressed by most strains of mice, whereas Thy1.1 is expressed by some like AKR/J and PL mouse strains. The 25-kDa ...
Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... The "Ak" in Akt refers to the AKR mouse strain that develops spontaneous thymic lymphomas. The "t" stands for 'thymoma'; the ... the virus activates AKT, which in turn causes the release of calcium. Treating the cells with AKT inhibitors before virus ... AKT is now thought to be the "key" for cell entry by HSV-1 and HSV-2 (herpes virus: oral and genital, respectively). ...
... bearing AKR/Gross virus antigens. As we were unable to induce ... C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{ ... Efforts were made to generate C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{male}G2) bearing AKR/Gross virus ... generation and specificity of cytotoxic T cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing AKR/gross murine leukemia virus ... generation and specificity of cytotoxic T cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing AKR/gross murine leukemia virus ...
... of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic polytropic MuLVs. , Journal of virology , 6/1/1987 ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... We examined the frequency of occurrence of polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) in the spleens and thymuses of ...
Those mice from which endogenous ecotropic MuLV of the AKR type have been isolated contained at least one virtually complete ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ... contained MuLV DNAs of genomic length whose restriction endonuclease digestion pattern was characteristic of xenotropic viruses ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ...
Stoye JP, Moroni C, Coffin JM (March 1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 ( ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
Genetic Mapping of a Murine Leukemia Virus-Inducing Locus of AKR Mice ... Location of the Second Gene Required for Expression of the Leukemia-Associated Mouse Antigen GIX ...
Genes affecting mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) murine leukemia virus infection and spontaneous lymphoma in AKR F1 hybrids. ... Genetic study of lymphoma induction by Friend murine leukemia virus in crosses involving AKR mice. ... Strain differences in the early development of the thymus-dependent cells: precocity of T lineage cells in AKR mice as compared ...
A Discrepancy in XC and Oncogenicity Assays for Murine Leukemia Virus in AKR Mice ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on the Surfaces of Normal Murine ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on Surfaces of Virusproducing Murine ... Differential Neurooncogenicity of Strains of JC Virus, a Human Polyoma Virus, in Newborn Syrian Hamsters ...
Molecular properties of a gag- pol- env+ murine leukemia virus from cultured AKR leukemia cells. J. Virol. 41:626, (1982). ... Mechanisms in neoplasias induced by Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus. II. A high frequency of interleukin-3 dependent cell lines ... Chronic immune stimulating is required for Moloney leukemia virus-induced lymphomas. Nature 209:P407, (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle ... Mast Cell Myeloid Cell Line Fetal Liver Cell Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line These keywords were added by ...
Mice of the AKR strain are characterized by a high incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas occurring after 6 mo of age. ... Murine Leukemia Viruses by Interactions Of Murine Apobec, Human Apobecg, John M. Coffin, David Derse, Alan Rein , 2007 ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ...
... murine leukemia virus accelerates the appearance of tumors (3). The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute ... viruses: amplification of murine leukemia virus-related antigens on thymocytes and acceleration of leukemia development in AKR ... Localization of the leukemogenic determinants of SLR3-3, an ecotropic, XC-positive murine leukemia virus of AKR mouse origin. J ... Murine Leukemia viruses with recombinant env genes: a discussion of their role in leukemogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol ...
CD4-CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate AKR/gross murine leukemia virus nonresponsiveness in moderately aged AKR.H-2b:Fv-1b mice. R F ... Expansion of murine T cells bearing a unique T cell receptor beta-chain in Friend virus-induced tumor in situ. M Suzuki, H ... Murine common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CD10 neutral endopeptidase 24.11). Molecular characterization, chromosomal ... Inhibition of basal and tumor necrosis factor-enhanced binding of murine tumor cells to murine endothelium by transforming ...
This locus controls resistance of cells to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The recessive s ( ... Rmcf is located on Chr 5 close to Hm near the centromeric end (J:7108). Rmcfr protects (AKR x CBA/Ca)F1 and (AKR x DBA/2)F1 ... Resistance to infection with two tick-borne viruses, Thogoto virus (J:8273) and Dhori virus (J:27760), is also conferred by Mx1 ... resistance and susceptibility of cells in tissue culture to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The ...
... strains of mice derived from the progenitor strains AKR/J and DBA/2J.,p,The strain distribution pattern (SDP) for RI strains is ... This locus controls resistance of cells to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The recessive s ( ... Rmcf is located on Chr 5 close to Hm near the centromeric end (J:7108). Rmcfr protects (AKR x CBA/Ca)F1 and (AKR x DBA/2)F1 ... resistance and susceptibility of cells in tissue culture to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The ...
Evidence That the AKR Murine-Leukemia-Virus Genome Is Complete in DNA of the High-Virus AKR Mouse and Incomplete in the DNA of ... Characterization of a New Murine Cellular DNA Polymerase D. M. Livingston, L. E. Serxner, D. J. Howk, J. Hudson, and G. J. ... Transformation of Cultured Mammalian Cells by Viable Herpes Simplex Virus Subtypes 1 and 2 B. Garfinkle and B. R. McAuslan ... Modulation of Cell-Surface Antigens of a Murine Neuroblastoma Richard Akeson and Harvey R. Herschman ...
1972 Xenotropic viruses: murine leukemia viruses associated with NIH Swiss, NZB, and other mouse strains . Science 182, 1151- ... The Akr strain of inbred mice has a high incidence of thymic lymphoma associated with MLV, and it became a favoured model for ... b) Murine mammary tumour virus. Murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is the prototype beta-retrovirus. Breast cancer ... Mareks disease virus [65] and the related turkey virus. REV has also been found in the genome of fowlpox virus [66], a virus ...
... of Transcription of the AKR Mouse Genome by 5-Iododeoxyuridine with the Activation of an Endogenous Murine Leukemia Virus ... Erythroid Leukemia Induced by Friend Lymphatic Leukemia Virus in T-Cell-depleted Mice ... Enhancement by Caffeine of Neocarzinostatin Cytotoxicity in Murine Leukemia L1210 Cells. Kouichi Tatsumi, Masaro Tashima, ... Facilitated Light Microscopic Cytochemical Diagnosis of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Jacob S. Hanker, Wallace W. Ambrose, ...
Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47 (2): 317-328. doi:10.1128/JVI.47.2.317-328.1983. PMC 255263. PMID ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Halls Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. doi: ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...
... the number of copies and in the genomic organization of ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequences in sublines of AKR ... Genetic alterations of RNA leukemia viruses associated with the development of spontaneous thymic leukemia in AKR/J mice. C Y ... Animal Viruses. *. ANIMAL VIRUSES. Construction and Characterization of Viable Deletion Mutants of Simian Virus 40 Lacking ... ANIMAL VIRUSES. Core Particles of Hepatitis B Virus and Ground Squirrel Hepatitis Virus I. Relationship Between Hepatitis B ...
Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus ... ... Kennel S. J. Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus - related glycoproteins from AKR and new Zealand mice. - «J. ... Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... containing 34S RNA of AKR murine leukemia virus. - «Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.», 1977, v. 74, p. 499 - 505. ...
Chromosomal assignment of two endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviruses of AKR/J mouse strains. J Virol 56: 172-175 ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Relative Growth Rate Murine Leukemia Virus Virus Population Rous Sarcoma Virus These keywords ... Rein A (1982) Interference grouping of murine leukemia viruses: A distinct receptor for MCFrecombinant viruses in mouse cells. ... Origin of pathogenic determinants of recombinant murine leukemia viruses: analysis of Bxv-1-related xenotropic viruses from CWD ...
The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but ... We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. ... describe a novel X-ERV subtype found in the AKR genome, but not in the C57BL/6 reference genome, and identify residues in the ... to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic ...
... murine leukemia viruses: ecotropic, xenotropic, and MCF-related viral RNAs are detected concurrently in thymus tissues of AKR ... trans-activation of the simian virus 40 enhancer by a pX product of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. S Saito, M Nakamura, K ... Isolation of an integrated provirus of Moloney murine leukemia virus with long terminal repeats in inverted orientation: ... Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. D J McGeoch, M A Dalrymple, A Dolan, D ...
These RF-fostered AKR mice also show a reduced and delayed lymphoma incidence, a finding consistent with the idea that ... Suppression of endogenous murine leukemia virus by maternal resistance factor. M Melamedoff, M Melamedoff ... M Melamedoff, F Lilly, M L Duran-Reynals; Suppression of endogenous murine leukemia virus by maternal resistance factor.. J Exp ... able to suppress the expression of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). This MRF is demonstrable in crosses ...
Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J ... normally harmless viruses: an endogenous retrovirus and a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Second, experiments have shown ... 9 The detection of other viral agents such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and mumps virus was always negative on CSF ... There is no evidence yet that the virus we detected is involved somehow in the neuronal death and the course of the disease. ...
Freed EO, Risser R. The role of envelope glycoprotein processing in murine leukemia virus infection. J Virol. 1987 Sep;61(9): ... Although expression of MuLV is low in these strains relative to the AKR strain [46], we readily detected gp70 expression in a ... McCubrey J, Risser R. Genetic interactions in the spontaneous production of endogenous murine leukemia virus in low leukemic ... An immunodominant Kb-restricted peptide from the p15E transmembrane protein of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV ...
Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... McCater J. A. Genetic studies of the ploidy of moloney murine leukemia virus, - «J. Virol.», 1977, v. 22, p. 9 - 15. Mackey J. ... Van Zaane D., Hesselink W. G., Bloemers H. P. J. Identification of Rauscher murine leukemia virus - specific… ... Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and ...
B04 - VIRUSES. ABELSON LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ABELSON MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. AKR VIRUS. AKR MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ... B04 - VIRUSES. ABELSON LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ABELSON MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. AKR VIRUS. AKR MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ... GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, MURINE. MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS. GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, PORCINE TRANSMISSIBLE. TRANSMISSIBLE ... GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, MURINE. MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS. GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, PORCINE TRANSMISSIBLE. TRANSMISSIBLE ...
  • Increased responses to lymphokines are diagnostic of preleukemia in Moloney virus inoculated mice. (springer.com)
  • Chronic immune stimulating is required for Moloney leukemia virus-induced lymphomas. (springer.com)
  • mA3) and human APOBEC3G (hA3G) upon Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV). (psu.edu)
  • Identification of proteins encoded by the Gazdar murine sarcoma virus genome by in vitro translation and comparison with Moloney murine sarcoma virus 124. (asm.org)
  • McCater J. A. Genetic studies of the ploidy of moloney murine leukemia virus, - «J. Virol. (medkursor.ru)
  • However, Moloney, Gross, and other virus producing murine cells shared some, but not all, of these gp71 interspecies determinants with the feline and primate cells. (utmb.edu)
  • Moloney, J. B. 1962 The murine leukemia. (springer.com)
  • Insertional mutagenesis with Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) in c-myc and Pim-1 transgenic mice permits the identification of oncogenes that collaborate with the transgenes in lymphomagenesis. (eurekamag.com)
  • Precise identification of endogenous proviruses of NFS/N mice participating in recombination with moloney ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) to generate polytropic MuLVs. (springer.com)
  • A new packaging cell line, called MPAC, was created to package defective retroviral vectors in virus particles with envelope proteins derived from a Moloney mink cell focus-inducing (Mo-MCF) virus. (umassmed.edu)
  • Genetic control of sensitivity to Moloney leukemia virus in mice. (histrecmed.fr)
  • By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in the env region has been identified. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Rmcf is different from and independent of Fv1, a locus that controls susceptibility to infection by ecotropic viruses. (jax.org)
  • Variation in the number of copies and in the genomic organization of ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequences in sublines of AKR mice. (asm.org)
  • Ihle J. N., Lazar B. Natural immunity in mice to the envelope glycoprotein of endogenous ecotropic type С viruses: neutralization of virus infectivity. (medkursor.ru)
  • Chattopadhyay SK, Baroudy BM, Holmes KL, Frederickson TN, Lander MR, Hartley HCM Ill, Hartley JW (1989) Biological and molecular genetic characteristics of a unique MCF virus that is highly leukemogenic in ecotropic virus-negative mice. (springer.com)
  • Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. (mdpi.com)
  • Potential progenitor sequences of mink cell focus-forming (MCF) murine leukemia viruses: ecotropic, xenotropic, and MCF-related viral RNAs are detected concurrently in thymus tissues of AKR mice. (asm.org)
  • Females of the RF and SJL inbred mouse strains transmit to their progeny of both sexes a nonmendelian maternal resistance factor (MRF) able to suppress the expression of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV). (rupress.org)
  • The ecotropic endogenous Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) also encodes TAAs from both gp70 (SU) and p15E (TM) proteins of the env gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Several recent reports have established the biological and molecular genetic similarity between the endogenous AKV virus of strain AKR, and an N-ecotropic endogenous virus found in the genome of feral Japanese mice, Mus musculus molossinus . (nova.edu)
  • Cellular DNA sequences that flank the integrated AKV provirus were analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion of liver DNA from molossinus , AKR, and additional inbred strains that express ecotropic murine leukemia virus. (nova.edu)
  • Molecular Cloning of Infectious Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus AK7 fr" by Hillary D. White, William R. Green et al. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Molecular Cloning of Infectious Ecotropic Murine Leukemia Virus AK7 from an emv-14-positive AKXL-5 Mouse and the Resistance of AK7 to Recognition by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • The AKXL-5 recombinant inbred mouse strain is positive for the endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus emv-14, the only emv present in its germ line. (dartmouth.edu)
  • This clone is novel in that it encodes a variant ecotropic murine leukemia virus that, when expressed in SC.Kb target cells, fails to be recognized efficiently by anti-AKR/Gross virus cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Lymphomas and high-level expression of murine leukemia viruses in CFW mice. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mice of the AKR strain are characterized by a high incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas occurring after 6 mo of age. (psu.edu)
  • AKR mice are genetically predisposed to developing tumors of the thymus and develop thymic lymphomas at high frequency after 5 mo of age ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1986. AKXD recombinant inbred strains: models for studying the molecular genetic basis of murine lymphomas. (jax.org)
  • Rmcf r protects (AKR x CBA/Ca)F1 and (AKR x DBA/2)F1 hybrids from development of spontaneous thymic lymphomas and reduces the incidence of MCF-induced thymic lymphomas (J:7175). (jax.org)
  • Chattopadhyay SK, Cloyd MW, Linemeyer DL, Lander MR, Rands E, Lowy DR (1982) Cellular origin and role of mink cell focus-forming viruses in murine thymic lymphomas. (springer.com)
  • AKR mice are an inbred strain of mice that develop spontaneous T-cell lymphomas between 6 and 12 months of age. (umassmed.edu)
  • 12-25 % of MCF induced early lymphomas of AKR mice show MCF viral integration's near c-myc in an opposite transcriptional orientation. (umassmed.edu)
  • A long time ago, zoologists/animal technicians/etc, noticed that their koalas werent dying from old age or falling out of trees or whatever- Koalas were dying from leukemias, others were getting lymphomas, and others were dying from complications of immunodeficiencies (a big one in koalas is chlamydia). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Since chlamydia is such a big deal in koalas, maybe their leukemias/lymphomas are the result of a different kind of koala-STD, like a koala-EBV or something. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Retroviruses cause leukemias and lymphomas and immunodeficiencies. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Isnt it weird how _LV retroviruses cause leukemias and lymphomas in their respective species, except for humans? (scienceblogs.com)
  • This MRF is demonstrable in crosses with AKR mice by comparing E-MuLV expression in the spleens and thymuses of reciprocal F1 generations. (rupress.org)
  • Neonatal inoculation of E-MuLV-containing spleen extracts gives rise to persistent expression of infectious virus in mice of the MRF- but not the MRF+ strains. (rupress.org)
  • instead, these females become MRF+ and transmit protection against E-MuLV expression to their progeny by AKR and RF males. (rupress.org)
  • The MRF appears to be transmitted to the progeny mainly through the milk, since foster-nursing AKR neonates on RF (but not DBA/2) mothers greatly reduces E-MuLV expression in the progeny. (rupress.org)
  • These RF-fostered AKR mice also show a reduced and delayed lymphoma incidence, a finding consistent with the idea that maternally transmitted resistance to E-MuLV expression is the basis for the classic maternal resistance to lymphomagenesis seen in the progeny of RF mothers. (rupress.org)
  • Murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) are retroviruses that play important roles in the study of oncogenes, integration, transcriptional regulation and gene therapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • The murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-like family of ERVs is a potent source of mutagenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different strains of mice may have different numbers of endogenous retroviruses, and new viruses may arise as the result of recombination of endogenous sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Type C retroviruses, replicating murine leukemia viruses produce a virion containing a spherical nucleocapsid (the viral genome in complex with viral proteins) surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived from the host cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphomagenesis occurs because of the production of endogenous retroviruses ( 2 ) and the intrathymic injection of recombinant (thymotropic) murine leukemia virus accelerates the appearance of tumors ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Conversely, many host genes have been incorporated into large DNA viruses, such as herpesviuses and poxviruses, as well as oncogene-bearing retroviruses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Endogenous genomes were first found in avian alpha-retroviruses, and soon after in murine beta- and gamma-retroviruses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • There is little evidence yet of endogenous versions of delta-retroviruses related to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and bovine leukosis virus. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). (mdpi.com)
  • All three of the host range subgroups of the MLVs exist as infectious viruses and as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), which are germline DNA copies acquired during past virus infections [ 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 2008. Human RNA "rumor" viruses: the search for novel human retroviruses in chronic disease. (asmscience.org)
  • A paradigm for virus-host coevolution: sequential counter-adaptations between endogenous and exogenous retroviruses. (springer.com)
  • This includes what must be the most significant transmissible disease of humans in recent times, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which is caused by the retroviruses Human Immunodeficiency Virus Types 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Efforts were made to generate C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{male}G2) bearing AKR/Gross virus antigens. (rupress.org)
  • When spleen cells were harvested from animals {approximately equal to}10 d after injection of AKR SL3 and rechallenged in vitro with either E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1, another tumor that displays AKR/Gross virus antigens, then a vigorous cytotoxic response against E{male}G2 and AKR. (rupress.org)
  • Effector cells generated by AKR SL3 priming followed by in vitro stimulation with E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1 lysed only cells of H-2(b) haplotype which were strongly positive for the display of serologically detectable AKR/Gross virus antigens. (rupress.org)
  • Collectively, these findings are consistent with the conclusion that the cytotoxic T cells raised against E{male}G2 are directed against AKR/Gross virus-associated antigens and are H-2 restricted. (rupress.org)
  • Monoclonal antibodies against baboon endogenous virus and against host cell antigens. (asm.org)
  • Changes in expression of murine leukemia virus antigens and production of xenotropic virus in the late preleukemic period tadalafilo in AKR mice. (onearcane.info)
  • Relationships between H-2 and viral antigens in murine oncornavirus-induced tumors. (histrecmed.fr)
  • Assessment of reactivities of natural antibodies to endogenous RNA tumor virus envelope antigens and virus-induced cell surface antigens. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Shain B, Holt CA, Lilly F. Lack of specificity for viral and H-2 antigens by anomalous T killer cells generated in murine leukocyte cultures. (uchicago.edu)
  • Immature particles are released from the cell with the help of cellular "ESCRT" machines [23] and then mature as they separate PR viral polyproteins in the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments have shown that it is possible to protect against Friend virus infection with several types of vaccines, including attenuated viruses, viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Khoury G., May E. Regulation of early and late simian virus 40 transcription: overproduction of early viral RNA in the absence of a functional T-antigen. (medkursor.ru)
  • Four viral genes independently contribute to attenuation of live influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted reassortant virus vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies against synthetic peptides of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D and their capability to neutralize viral infectivity in vitro. (asm.org)
  • A C-terminal domain in the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus pol gene product is not essential for viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Gross, L. 1958 Viral etiology of "spontaneous" mouse leukemia: A review. (springer.com)
  • This indicates that some human cells express a protein on their surface that acts as a receptor for MCF viruses and allows MCF viral entry. (umassmed.edu)
  • All domestic cats have the RD-114 viral genome, and several feline cell lines produce RD-114-related viruses ( 2 , 6 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The specificity of a single rabbit antiserum pool raised against the purified major glycoprotein, gp71, of Friend murine leukemia virus was determined for a variety of virus producing mouse, feline, and gibbon ape cell lines by viable cell membrane immunofluorescence absorption. (utmb.edu)
  • The prototype for such virus resistance factors is the Fv1 gene, discovered 40 years ago in studies on resistance to Friend murine leukemia virus (MLV) ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Polypurine tract adjacent to the U3 region of the Rous sarcoma virus genome provides a cis-acting function. (asm.org)
  • Khoury G., Carter B. J., Ferdinand F. Genome localization of simian virus 40 RNA species. (medkursor.ru)
  • These data indicate that the recombinant X-MLVs that can be generated during lymphomagenesis, describe a novel X-ERV subtype found in the AKR genome, but not in the C57BL/6 reference genome, and identify residues in the envelope C-terminus that may influence the host range. (mdpi.com)
  • Characterization of the cell type-specific determinant in the genome of minute virus of mice. (asm.org)
  • Detection and cloning of human DNA sequences related to the mouse mammary tumor virus genome. (asmscience.org)
  • The virus integrates into the cellular genome and inserts its DNA near or within genes, which leads to various outcomes: (i) The insertion site is too far away from a protooncogene and thus does not activate it. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunological tolerance to RNA tumor virus genome expressions: significance of tolerance and prenatal expressions in embryogenesis and tumerogenesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Encrypted proteins are trafficked to the plasma membrane, where they are combined into progeny virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The transforming proteins of PRCII virus and Rous sarcoma virus form a complex with the same two cellular phosphoproteins. (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody to spleen focus-forming virus-encoded gp52 provides a probe for the amino-terminal region of retroviral envelope proteins that confers dual tropism and xenotropism. (asm.org)
  • Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins. (asm.org)
  • Kamine I., Buchanan J. Cell - free synthesis of two proteins unique to RNA of transforming virions of Rous sarcoma virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • Distinctive properties of the hepatitis B virus envelope proteins. (asm.org)
  • Naso R. E., Brown R. L. Synthesis and cleavage of Rauscher leukemia virus precursor proteins in synchronized cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and duck cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Gallis B. M., Eisenman R. N., Dtggelmann H. Synthesis of the precursor to avian RNA tumor virus internal structural proteins early after infection. (medkursor.ru)
  • We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A subset of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias results in the fusion of the trithorax‐related protein HRX with a variety of heterologous proteins. (embopress.org)
  • In particular, leukemias with the t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) translocation express HRX-ENL fusion proteins and display features which suggest the malignant transformation of myeloid and/or lymphoid progenitor(s). (embopress.org)
  • This locus controls resistance and susceptibility of cells in tissue culture to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. (jax.org)
  • Mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) viruses are polytropic MuLVs that by definition infect cells from a wide variety of species. (umassmed.edu)
  • As we were unable to induce significant cytotoxic activity by immunization with up to 10(8) irradiated E{male}G2 cells, even when cells from such primed animals were subsequently restimulated with E{male}G2 cells in vitro, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an aliogeneic, virus-producing AKR leukemic cell line (AKR SL3). (rupress.org)
  • The in vitro host ranges of class I and class II polytropic viruses were clearly distinguishable. (docphin.com)
  • Examination of the in vitro host range of several isolates suggested that the predominant polytropic viruses initially identified in the thymus (2 to 3 months of age) were class II polytropic viruses. (docphin.com)
  • Interleukin 3 promotes the in vitro proliferation of murine pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. (springer.com)
  • In vitro processing of insulin for recognition by murine T cells results in the generation of A chains with free CysSH. (jimmunol.org)
  • Characterization of nerve growth factor-dependent herpes simplex virus latency in neurons in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Darlix J. L., Bromley P. A., Spahr P. New procedure for the direct analysis of in vitro reverse transcription of Rous sarcoma virus RNA. (medkursor.ru)
  • 1971. Murine leukemia virus: high frequency activation in vitro by 5-iododeoxyuridine and 5-bromodeoxyuridine. (asmscience.org)
  • Going back 10 years, it is further mentioned that the initial isolate of the virus strain T-8 was from "an in vitro thymoma cell line, AKT-8, from a spontaneously lymphomatous AKR/J mouse" ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • T cells from naive mice suppress the in vitro cytotoxic response against endogenous Gross virus induced tumor cells. (histrecmed.fr)
  • Thirty-one tumors DNA were analyzed for the presence of supF tagged virus and rearrangement of the c-myc locus. (umassmed.edu)
  • This is one of 20 cryopreserved recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice derived from the progenitor strains AKR/J and DBA/2J. (jax.org)
  • We have examined the polymorphic allozyme (allelic isozyme) genotype of 51 nonvirus-related loci in 17 strains of mice including AKR, C58, BALB/c, Swiss, and molossinus . (nova.edu)
  • She explained: "The appellation AKR has now been adopted for the substrains to indicate the derivation of the random-bred colony from AK stock and the subsequent brother × sister breeding at the Rockefeller Institute," in line with the recommendations by the Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • BALB/c, CBA/J, AKR, C3H, DBA/1, DBA/2, NOD, SJL, and 129 strains of mice do not express NK1.1 and NK cells in these mice can be identified as CD3 − CD49b + cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strain differences in the early development of the thymus-dependent cells: precocity of T lineage cells in AKR mice as compared to those in C3H mice. (nih.gov)
  • The sexual descent model carries with it a prediction of relative consanguinity of the AKR strain and molossinus , whereas the horizontal infection model does not. (nova.edu)
  • 2. The name AKR for the mouse strain was specifically explained by Dr. Clara J. Lynch of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research in a 1954 paper " The R.I.L. strain of mice: its relation to the leukemic AK strain and AKR substrains " ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • AKR/J mice are an inbred, albino strain of mouse model that is frequently used in cancer research, due to their very strong propensity to develop leukemia. (mazeengineers.com)
  • The original AKR mouse strain was descended from mice sold by a dealer Philadelphia, USA, sometime in the 1920s. (mazeengineers.com)
  • These mice were bred by Furth in the late 1920s/early 1930s to become a strain with a high incidence of leukemia. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Use of AKR/J has spread globally, and it is now the eighth most commonly used mouse strain. (mazeengineers.com)
  • The AKR/J strain is albino, and so its fur is completely white. (mazeengineers.com)
  • One study describes the AKR/J strain as aggressive. (mazeengineers.com)
  • [3] This is corroborated by a Canadian study [4] of comparative ease of handling by strain, which rated AKR/J mice lowest for placidity out of the 21 featured strains. (mazeengineers.com)
  • The most notable health characteristic of the AKR/J strain is its very high incidence of lymphatic leukemia (60-90%, higher in females). (mazeengineers.com)
  • 000648 - AKR/J. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.jax.org/strain/000648. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related gammaretrovirus (XMRV) has been recently associated with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. (psu.edu)
  • Although virtually all infectious MuLVs encode glyco-gag, XMRV (xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus) lacks the classical gPr80 Gag sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tanaka H. Precursor - product relationship between nonglycosylated polypeptides of A and В particles of mouse mammary tumor virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • Expression of mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen mRNA in the thymus correlates with kinetics of self-reactive T-cell loss. (springer.com)
  • B cells are essential for murine mammary tumor virus transmission, but not for presentation of endogenous superantigens. (springer.com)
  • Golovkina TV, Piazzon I, Nepomnaschy I, Buggiano V, de Olano Vela M, Ross SR. Generation of a tumorigenic milk-borne mouse mammary tumor virus by recombination between endogenous and exogenous viruses. (uchicago.edu)
  • Golovkina TV, Prakash O, Ross SR. Endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus Mtv-17 is involved in Mtv-2-induced tumorigenesis in GR mice. (uchicago.edu)
  • Early clonality and high-frequency proviral integration into the c-myc locus in AKR leukemias. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic alterations of RNA leukemia viruses associated with the development of spontaneous thymic leukemia in AKR/J mice. (asm.org)
  • The integration flanks of three AKR provirus sequences, Akv-1 , Akv-2 , and a third uncharacterized sequence, were not evident in molossinus cell DNA, which contained at least six different proviral integration fragments. (nova.edu)
  • Here, we determined the entire nucleotide sequences of RD-114-related viruses isolated from CRFK cells and a vaccine manufactured using CRFK cells. (asm.org)
  • however, there has been no information about the entire nucleotide sequences of the RD-114-related viruses produced from CRFK cells and contaminated vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Ihle J. N., Denny T. P., Bolognesi D. P. Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its reactivity with autogenous immune sera from mice. (medkursor.ru)
  • Normal DBA/2 mouse cells synthesize a glycoprotein which interferes with MCF virus infection. (springer.com)
  • Quntaka R. V., Bishop J. M., Varmus H. E. Covalently closed circular DNA of avian sarcoma virus: purification from nuclei of infected quail tumor cells and measurement by electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis. (medkursor.ru)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that show strong cytolytic function against physiologically stressed cells such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate immune cells that show spontaneous cytolytic activity against cells under stress such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • It will be of interest to determine the relevance of such effector cells to the known resistance of the C57BL/6 mouse to AKR/Gross virus-induced leukemia. (rupress.org)
  • Reduction of tumor regression associated with appearance of Gross leukemia virus pseudotypes. (naver.com)
  • emv-14 is of particular interest because spleen cells expressing emv-14 virus escape recognition by anti-AKR/Gross virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • I first came across an endogenous factor which functionally complemented env -defective Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) during my doctoral studies in 1966. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Kawai S., Hanafusa H. Recombination between a temperature - sensitive mutant and a deletion mutant of Rous sarcoma virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kopecka H., Hillova J., Hilt M. Effect of restriction endonucleases on infectivity of Rous sarcoma virus DNA. (medkursor.ru)
  • Hakomori S., Wyke J. A., Vogt P. K. Glycolipids of chick embryo fibroblasts infected with temperature - sensitive mutants of avian sarcoma viruses. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kawai S. Recovery of avian sarcoma virus from tumots induced by transformation-defective mutants. (medkursor.ru)
  • Tumor induction by murine sarcoma virus in AKR and C58 mice. (naver.com)
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • All polytropic viruses (five isolates) analyzed from 3- to 4-week-old mice were recovered from spleen cells and were class II polytropic MuLVs. (docphin.com)
  • Natural antibodies directed against murine lymphosarcoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • or amphotropic (wild mouse viruses capable of infecting both mouse and heterologous species cells). (psu.edu)
  • However, it was not detected on adult murine thymocytes, splenocytes, or bone marrow cells or on splenic LPS-activated B cells or Con A-activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus-encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of phosphonoacetate-resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of cells infected with mutant virus. (asm.org)
  • Jolicoeur P., Baltimore D. Effect of Fv - 1 geneproduct on proviral DNA formation and integration in cells infected with murine leukemia viruses. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kerr I M., Olshevsky U., Baltimore D. Translation of murine leukemia virus RNA in cell - free systems from animal cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kryceve C, Vigier P., Barlati S. Transformation - enhancing factor (S) produced by virus - transformed and established cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kumar V., Eckner R. J., Bennett M. Mechanism of genetic resistance to immune suppression by friend leukemia virus: the role of marrow - dependent cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kurth R., Bosch V., Bolognesi D. P. Polypeptides of endogenous avian С - type viruses: their detection in the plasma membrane of normal and infected cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Van Zaane D., Dekker-Michielsen M. J. A., Bloemers H. P. J. Virus - specific precursor polypeptides in cells infected with rauscher leukemia virus : synthesis, identification and processing. (medkursor.ru)
  • Among murine cells examined, Friend gp71 type specificity was shared only with Rauscher virus producing cells, and a group specificity was present for all the murine leukemia virus producing cells tested. (utmb.edu)
  • Friend and Rauscher murine leukemia virus infected cells shared interspecies crossreactivity with feline leukemia and gibbon ape lymphoma virus producing cells. (utmb.edu)
  • Immunoferritin electron microscopy localized these gp71 antigenic determinants on both virus and cells membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • To address this issue, primary and immortalized human cells were tested for their ability to be infected by MCF packaged defective vectors as well as replication competent MCF virus. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, I show that some human cells fully support MCF virus replication while others either partially or fully restrict MCF virus replication. (umassmed.edu)
  • RD-114 virus is a retrovirus isolated in 1971 from a human tumor cell line (RD-114 cells) derived from a human rhabdomyosarcoma after passage through fetal cats ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • reported that a widely used feline cell line, Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells ( 3 ), produced a retrovirus which interfered with the authentic RD-114 virus and was antigenically related to the virus ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • therefore, the RD-114-related virus derived from CRFK cells was designated CrLE virus. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone of the RD-114-related virus produced from CRFK cells and compared it with the original RD-114 virus. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, we characterized an RD-114-related virus contained in a vaccine manufactured using CRFK cells. (asm.org)
  • Murine cells expressing a HLA molecule are specifically lysed by HLA restricted antiviral human T cells. (histrecmed.fr)
  • The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • Cells with the Fv1 0 (null) allele restrict none of these virus subgroups, and NB-tropic viruses are not restricted by any of these Fv1 alleles. (pnas.org)
  • Although this resistance targets some of the same amino acid residues as the mouse Fv1 gene, the pattern of virus resistance in the pygmy mouse cells does not resemble that attributed to any of the laboratory mouse Fv1 alleles. (pnas.org)
  • Immortalized cells or enriched primary hematopoietic stem cells transduced with HRX-ENL induced myeloid leukemias in syngeneic and SCID recipients. (embopress.org)
  • Bell R, Lillquist A, Abelson H, McCaffrey R. Chromatographic forms of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in normal lymphoid cells and in leukemia cells at presentation and relapse. (uchicago.edu)
  • Kohno M., Tanaka H. Characterization of an RNA - directed DNA polymerase found in association with murine intracytoplasmic A - Particles. (medkursor.ru)
  • Effect of tunicamycin on the synthesis of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins and their expression on the cell surface. (asm.org)
  • Kennel S. J. Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus - related glycoproteins from AKR and new Zealand mice. (medkursor.ru)
  • Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus-related glycoproteins from cialis coupon AKR and New Zealand mice. (buymetformin.site)
  • Artinghaus R. B. Further characterization of intracellular precursor polyproteins of rauscher leukemia virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env -LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67 , in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. (mdpi.com)
  • [1] Like the more commonly used DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains, AKR/J is prone to becoming obese, as it selects a higher fat diet than strains such as BALB/cJ. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Distinct phenotypes of obesity-prone AKR/J, DBA2J and C57BL/6J mice compared to control strains. (mazeengineers.com)
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymic lymphoma cell line with an immature phenotype (CD4 − CD8 − ) that proliferates in response to thymocytes or PMA when cultured at low density and proliferates spontaneously when grown at high density. (jimmunol.org)
  • E710.2.3 is a cloned murine CD4 − CD8 − thymic T lymphoma cell line. (jimmunol.org)
  • Spontaneous anti-lymphoma reaction of preleukaemic AKR mice is a non T cell killing. (histrecmed.fr)
  • Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic polytropic MuLVs. (docphin.com)
  • We examined the frequency of occurrence of polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) in the spleens and thymuses of preleukemic AKR/J mice from 1 week to 6 months of age and analyzed the genomic RNAs of several polytropic isolates by RNase T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting. (docphin.com)
  • In contrast to previous studies which have identified class I polytropic MuLVs in AKR/J mice, fingerprint analysis of polytropic MuLVs from both young (3- to 4-week-old) and older (5- to 6-month-old) preleukemic mice indicated that a large proportion of viruses at both ages were class II polytropic MuLVs. (docphin.com)
  • In older preleukemic mice, five of seven isolates were class II polytropic MuLVs and two were class I polytropic viruses. (docphin.com)
  • The avian erythroblastosis virus erbA oncogene encodes a DNA-binding protein exhibiting distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular localizations. (asm.org)
  • In one example, the gag gene from Friend Leukemia Virus encodes an H-2D d -restricted CTL target on the leukemia cell line, FBL-3 [ 22 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thirteen years later, it was shown that the oncogene transduced by this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) (also known as PKB), which harbors an N-terminal regulatory domain (now known as the PH domain) and exhibits a high degree of homology with the kinases PKC and PKA ( 2 - 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • There are two subclasses of P-ERVs, the polytropic murine viruses ( Pmvs ) and modified polytropic murine viruses ( Mpmvs ) [ 11 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • and Teah, B. A. 1965 Spontaneous leukemia in germfree AK mice. (springer.com)
  • 1. The 1987 paper by Dr. Stephen P. Staal of the Johns Hopkins Oncology Centre, on " Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: Amplification of AKTI in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma " ( 2 ), mentioned "the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8 from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evidence for two classes of chromatin-associated Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen. (asm.org)
  • Padgett B. L., Hunt J. M., Walker D. L. Specificity of the tumor - specific transplantation antigen induced by JC virus, a human polyomavirus. (medkursor.ru)
  • A highly buy generic cialis sensitive one-step immunocapture EIA for the detection of influenza A virus antigen directly in a clinical specimen was developed. (buymetformin.site)
  • The late spliced 19S and 16S RNAs of simian virus 40 can be synthesized from a common pool of transcripts. (asm.org)
  • Lai Ching-Juh, Nathans D. The ВС gene of simian virus 40. (medkursor.ru)
  • Immunological and virological mechanisms in retrovirus induced murine leukemogenesis. (springer.com)
  • 12 In this model, the experimental MND occurs because of an interaction between two unrelated, normally harmless viruses: an endogenous retrovirus and a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. (neurology.org)
  • Therefore, the "AK" was likely carried from the "AKR" of the mouse name, and the "T" was for the word "thymoma" describing the cellular source of the retrovirus, though it could also remind us of the "transforming" ability of the virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • These ERVs affect retrovirus-induced disease in a number of ways, including manipulation of the immune response, inhibition or facilitation of entry or other steps of virus replication, or as participants in the generation of infectious pathogenic viruses. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of a new murine endogenous retrovirus, MuERV-L, with strong similarity to the human HERV-L element and with a gag coding sequence closely related to the Fv1 restriction gene. (springer.com)
  • Recently, we found that several commercial pet vaccines were contaminated with an infectious endogenous retrovirus, RD-114-related virus. (asm.org)
  • Subsequent studies revealed that the virus was an endogenous retrovirus of feline origin but not a human exogenous retrovirus ( 6 , 8 , 13 ). (asm.org)
  • The Fv1 virus resistance gene is a coopted endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequence related to the gag gene of the MuERV-L ERV family. (pnas.org)
  • MLVs include both exogenous and endogenous viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomes of exogenous and endogenous murine leukemia viruses have been fully sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Charge microheterogeneity of the major capsid protein of polyoma virus. (asm.org)
  • Mapping of functional and antigenic domains of the alpha 4 protein of herpes simplex virus 1. (asm.org)
  • The Search by Peptide allows users to locate complexes in the database using an epitope sequence, a specific protein, a specific virus, or a combination of these. (crosstope.com)
  • Salden M. H. L., Bloemendal H. Transplantation of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA in a reticulocyte cell - free system. (medkursor.ru)
  • Evidence for the Horizontal Acquisition of Murine AKR Virogenes by Rec" by Stephen J. O'Brien, Janet L. Moore et al. (nova.edu)
  • The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV + strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by molossinus virus at the strain's inception followed by fixation through inbreeding. (nova.edu)
  • Identification of a cellular cofactor required for infection by feline leukemia virus. (springer.com)
  • Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. (ucsf.edu)
  • 7 , 8 No virus has ever cultivated from neurologic samples of ALS cases, and no specific immune response to enteroviral infection has been detected so far. (neurology.org)
  • These data effectively exclude the interpretation of consanguinity of AKR and molossinus and support the notion of acquisition of the endogenous virus in AKR by horizontal infection of the molossinus virus. (nova.edu)
  • A high frequency of interleukin-3 dependent cell lines are derived from myeloid and erythroid leukemias. (springer.com)
  • The DMF10 62.3 mAb stained a number of immortalized murine and human cell lines and, where tested, blocked their proliferation and caused death to varying extents by apoptosis. (jimmunol.org)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cell numbers, distribution, shape, and regional variation throughout the murine hippocampal formation from the adult brain Allen Reference Atlas. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 2009. Proposed algorithm to investigate latent and occult viruses in vaccine cell substrates by chemical induction. (asmscience.org)
  • However, it has also illustrated the potential dangers involved, with 2 out of 10 patients developing T cell leukemia as a consequence of the treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first retro viruses were identified as cell free oncogenic factors in chickens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An influenza a virus specific and HLA DRw8 restricted T cell clone cross reacting with a transcomplementation product of the HLA DR2 and DR4 haplotypes. (histrecmed.fr)
  • Since HRX ‐associated leukemias often express markers of both lymphoid and myeloid lineages, it is possible that HRX translocations may occur at the level of a multipotent hematopoietic progenitor or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), leading to the disruption of normal genetic programs for terminal differentiation. (embopress.org)
  • Characterization of the 5'-terminus of murine leukemia virus rna. (jax.org)
  • Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • Molecular cloning of cDNA for murine interleukin-3. (springer.com)
  • Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. (asm.org)
  • The cellular tropism of MPAC-packaged retroviral vectors was the same as replication competent MCF viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • A replication competent MCF virus containing a bacterial amber suppressor tRNA gene ( supF ) was used to investigate the changes in the enhancer region following injection of MCF containing one enhancer in the LTR. (umassmed.edu)
  • Newborn AKR mice were injected with the supF tagged replication competent virus and observed for signs of leukemia development (ruffled fur, lethargy, and tumor development). (umassmed.edu)
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymoma that has been previously described ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The "thymoma" interpretation for the virus name AKT8 was also noted later as "for AKR Thymoma #8" by Bellacosa et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • and Furth, J. 1944 The role of thymus, spleen, and gonads in the development of leukemia in a high-leukemia stock of mice. (springer.com)
  • Structure of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA in mouse genomes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It was isolated from a thymic tumor from an AKR/J mouse that was explanted and cultured in PMA-containing medium. (jimmunol.org)
  • The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. (nova.edu)
  • We will also describe some of the characteristics of the germfree AKR mouse which make it somewhat different from other germfree inbred strains. (springer.com)
  • ONLINE] Available at: http://www.informatics.jax.org/inbred_strains/mouse/docs/AKR.shtml. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Three major Fv1 resistance alleles have been identified in laboratory mice, and they target virus capsid genes to produce characteristic patterns of resistance to mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs). (pnas.org)
  • Three of these alleles, termed Fv1 n , Fv1 b , and Fv1 nr , produce characteristic patterns of resistance to subgroups of mouse-tropic viruses that are designated N-, B-, or NR-tropic. (pnas.org)
  • This suggests that the enhancers need only a few specific base changes relative to the injected virus to accelerate leukemogenesis. (umassmed.edu)
  • This cleavage is essential for the Env incorporation into virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subset of acute leukemias carries translocations of chromosome band 11q23 with reciprocal partners located at 30 or more cytogenetically diverse loci (for a review, see Waring and Cleary, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • Alizon M, Wain-Hobson S, Montagnier L, Sonigo P (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. (springer.com)
  • We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey. (asm.org)
  • X. Identification of an IgD-like molecule on the surface of murine splenocytes. (naver.com)
  • Many of the E-MLV ERVs (E-ERVs, termed Emvs ) [ 9 ] and some of the X-ERVs ( Xmvs ) are capable of producing an infectious virus [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • None of the infectious P-MLVs derive directly from Pmvs or Mpmvs , although these P-ERVs can contribute to the generation of intersubgroup recombinant viruses that have the distinctive P-MLV host range [ 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Most ERVs are defective for production of infectious virus. (springer.com)
  • Recently, we found that some live vaccines for dogs and cats contained infectious RD-114-related viruses ( 10 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • An infectious molecular clone of the original RD-114 virus, termed pSc3c, was kindly provided by Roger Reeves (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD) through Massimo Palmarini (Glasgow University, Glasgow, United Kingdom). (asm.org)
  • Fv1 was cloned and identified as a coopted ERV sequence that is related to the gag gene of MuERV-L ( 3 , 4 ), a Class III (spumavirus-related) ERV transposit family that is transpositionally active in mice but has no known infectious virus counterparts. (pnas.org)
  • The effect of chemical carcinogens on leukemia induction by oncornavirus has been evaluated in mice. (semanticscholar.org)