AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Mice, Inbred AKRMoloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Abelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Feline: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).Rauscher Virus: A strain of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS associated with mouse tumors similar to those caused by the FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. It is a replication-competent murine leukemia virus. It can act as a helper virus when complexing with a defective transforming component, RAUSCHER SPLEEN FOCUS-FORMING VIRUS.Retroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Leukemia Virus, Bovine: The type species of DELTARETROVIRUS that causes a form of bovine lymphosarcoma (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS) or persistent lymphocytosis.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mink Cell Focus-Inducing Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS discovered in 1976 by Hartley, Wolford, Old, and Rowe and so named because the viruses originally isolated had the capacity to transform cell foci in mink cell cultures. MCF viruses are generated by recombination with ecotropic murine leukemia viruses including AKR, Friend, Moloney, and Rauscher, causing ERYTHROLEUKEMIA and severe anemia in mice.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Leukemia Virus, Gibbon Ape: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia in the gibbon ape. Natural transmission is by contact.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Creosote: A greasy substance with a smoky odor and burned taste created by high temperature treatment of BEECH and other WOOD; COAL TAR; or resin of the CREOSOTE BUSH. It contains CRESOLS and POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS which are CARCINOGENS. It has been widely used as wood preservative and in PESTICIDES and had former use medicinally in DISINFECTANTS; LAXATIVES; and DERMATOLOGIC AGENTS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.BrazilOxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).

Adoptive immunotherapy of a Gross virus producing lymphoma and a methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma in tolerant rats. (1/181)

Immunological tolerance to Gross virus-specific transplantation antigens in rats given neonatae transfer of donor lymphoid cells beneath the kidney capsule of syngeneic recipient rats. Immune or normal donor cells invariably developed a cell-mediated immune reaction in kidneys of GV-tolerant recipients, presumably against GV antigens present on the surface of recipient lymphoid cells in the kidney. Spleen and lymph node cells from tolerant rats failed to develop a reaction in tolerant recipients, but developed a strong reaction to histoincompatible antigens in the kidneys of semisyngeneic tolerant rats. The immunologically tolerant state in the rats could be broken by adoptive transfer of spleen and lymph node cells from syngeneic rats immunized with GV-induced lymphoma cells. Immunotherapy of a GV-induced and also a GV-infected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma growing in tolerant rats was successful when immune spleen and lymph node cells were administered i.p. 3 days after s.c. inoculation of 2 X 10(7) tumor cells in the case of the lymphoma, and 1 day after inoculation of 5 X 10(6) tumor cells in the case of the fibrosarcoma.  (+info)

Antiretroviral cytolytic T-lymphocyte nonresponsiveness: FasL/Fas-mediated inhibition of CD4(+) and CD8(+) antiviral T cells by viral antigen-positive veto cells. (2/181)

C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice generate type-specific cytolytic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses to an immunodominant Kb-restricted epitope, KSPWFTTL located in the membrane-spanning domain of p15TM of AKR/Gross murine leukemia viruses (MuLV). AKR.H-2(b) congenic mice, although carrying the responder H-2(b) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype, are low responders or nonresponders for AKR/Gross MuLV-specific CTL, apparently due to the presence of inhibitory AKR. H-2(b) cells. Despite their expression of viral antigens and Kb, untreated viable AKR.H-2(b) spleen cells cause dramatic inhibition of the C57BL/6 (B6) antiviral CTL response to in vitro stimulation with AKR/Gross MuLV-induced tumor cells. This inhibition is specific (AKR.H-2(b) modulator spleen cells do not inhibit allogeneic MHC or minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CTL production), dependent on direct contact of AKR.H-2(b) cells in a dose-dependent manner with the responder cell population, and not due to soluble factors. Here, the mechanism of inhibition of the antiviral CTL response is shown to depend on Fas/Fas-ligand interactions, implying an apoptotic effect on B6 responder cells. Although B6.gld (FasL-) responders were as sensitive to inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells as were B6 responders, B6.lpr (Fas-) responders were largely insensitive to inhibition, indicating that the responder cells needed to express Fas. A Fas-Ig fusion protein, when added to the in vitro CTL stimulation cultures, relieved the inhibition caused by the AKR.H-2(b) cells if the primed responders were from either B6 or B6.gld mice, indicating that the inhibitory AKR.H-2(b) cells express FasL. Because of the antigen specificity of the inhibition, these results collectively implicate a FasL/Fas interaction mechanism: viral antigen-positive AKR.H-2(b) cells expressing FasL inhibit antiviral T cells ("veto" them) when the AKR.H-2(b) cells are recognized. Consistent with this model, inhibition by AKR.H-2(b) modulator cells was MHC restricted, and resulted in approximately a 10- to 70-fold decrease in the in vitro expansion of pCTL/CTL. Both CD8(+) CTL and CD4(+) Th responder cells were susceptible to inhibition by FasL+ AKR.H-2(b) inhibitory cells as the basis for inhibition. The CTL response in the presence of inhibitory cells could be restored by several cytokines or agents that have been shown by others to interfere with activation-induced cell death (e.g. , interleukin-2 [IL-2], IL-15, transforming growth factor beta, lipopolysaccharide, 9-cis-retinoic acid) but not others (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha). These results raise the possibility that this type of inhibitory mechanism is generalized as a common strategy for retrovirus infected cells to evade immune T-cell recognition.  (+info)

Definitive evidence that the murine C-type virus inducing locus Akv-1 is viral genetic material. (3/181)

DNA of the AKR mouse contains a set of murine leukemia virus sequences that are not present in DNA of the NIH Swiss mouse. NIH mice partially congenic for the AKR murine-leukemia-virus-inducing locus Akv-1 contain this set of sequences, and, in a three-point cross segregating for Akv-1 on an NIH background, the sequences segregated with Akv-1. It is concluded that the Akv-1 locus contains viral sequences.  (+info)

Mutations of the kissing-loop dimerization sequence influence the site specificity of murine leukemia virus recombination in vivo. (4/181)

The genetic information of retroviruses is retained within a dimeric RNA genome held together by intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions near the 5' ends. Coencapsidation of retrovirus-derived RNA molecules allows frequent template switching of the virus-encoded reverse transcriptase during DNA synthesis in newly infected cells. We have previously shown that template shifts within the 5' leader of murine leukemia viruses occur preferentially within the kissing stem-loop motif, a cis element crucial for in vitro RNA dimer formation. By use of a forced recombination approach based on single-cycle transfer of Akv murine leukemia virus-based vectors harboring defective primer binding site sequences, we now report that modifications of the kissing-loop structure, ranging from a deletion of the entire sequence to introduction of a single point mutation in the loop motif, significantly disturb site specificity of recombination within the highly structured 5' leader region. In addition, we find that an intact kissing-loop sequence favors optimal RNA encapsidation and vector transduction. Our data are consistent with the kissing-loop dimerization model and suggest that a direct intermolecular RNA-RNA interaction, here mediated by palindromic loop sequences within the mature genomic RNA dimer, facilitates hotspot template switching during retroviral cDNA synthesis in vivo.  (+info)

Radioimmunoassay for intact Gross mouse leukemia virus. (5/181)

A radioimmunoassay for intact Gross leukemia virus has been developed using 125I-labeled Gross virus grown in tissue culture and guinea pig antisera to Gross virus grown either in tissue culture or harvested from leukemic C3H(f) mice. Separation of bound from free labeled virus was effected using the double antibody method. The assay can detect fewer than 10(8) virus particles and has been used to measure the viral content of individual organs from inoculated leukemic C3H(f) mice and from Ak mice with spontaneous leukemia. Organs from noninoculated healthy C3H(f) mice crossreacted poorly in the system, virus generally being detectable only in the thymus and spleen and at low concentration. In some of the inoculated C3H(f) leukemic mice the viral content of as little as 0.5 mul of plasma is measurable. That this assay is for intact virus and not for soluble antigens of the viral envelope was proven by the observation that the immunoreactive material of plasma and extracts from thymus and liver of leukemic mice has a buoyant denisty in sucrose of 1.17-1.18 g/ml, corresponding to that of intact virus grown in tissue culture. With this sensitivity it may now be possible to quantitate viral concentrations in tissue and body fluids from the time of inoculation through the development of obvious pathology.  (+info)

Treatment of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or interferon. (6/181)

AKR mice are genetically destined to develop Gross (RNA) virus-induced lymphatic leukemia. Leukemic AKR mice treated with combination vincristine, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), and 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea sustained a 180% increase of life-span. Combination chemotherapy plus immunization with neuraminidase-treated allogeneic (Gross virus-induced) G2G leukemic cells intradermally resulted in 35% of animals surviving beyond 150 days without evidence of the disease. It is significant that allogeneic E2G leukemic cells as immunogen were as effective in prolonging the life-span of the immunized leukemic AKR mice as were syngeneic leukemic thymocytes. Virazole (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), an antiviral compound, alone showed no apparent antitumor effect. However, in experiments in which the clinically diagnosed leukemic AKR mice received a combination of cytoreductive therapy [vincristine plus prednisone or, more effectively, vincristine, Cytoxan plus 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(trans-4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea, followed by Virazole], there was a noticeable reduction of the viral titer, a delay in the reappearance of viable clonogenic cells, and an increase in the survival time for the leukemic AKR mice as compared to those receiving cytoreductive therapy alone. The effectiveness of purified mouse interferon in AKR mice was also examined. The decrease in the viral titer of animals that received interferon treatment was markedly greater than of those receiving a combination of cytoreductive therapy with Virazole or immunotherapy. The administration of mouse interferon had a direct effect on the appearance of the spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. The median life-span of the control animals was 36 weeks, whereas 45% of the AKR mice treated with five doses of 5 X 10(4) units of interferon are still alive at 54 weeks of age. Thus, interferon not only reduces the Gross murine leukemia virus titer in the chronically infected AKR mice but also significantly delays the appearance of the primary lymphoma.  (+info)

The generation and specificity of cytotoxic T cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing AKR/Gross murine leukemia virus antigens. (7/181)

Efforts were made to generate C57BL/6 cytotoxic effector cells to a syngeneic leukemia (E{male}G2) bearing AKR/Gross virus antigens. As we were unable to induce significant cytotoxic activity by immunization with up to 10(8) irradiated E{male}G2 cells, even when cells from such primed animals were subsequently restimulated with E{male}G2 cells in vitro, C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an aliogeneic, virus-producing AKR leukemic cell line (AKR SL3). Peritoneal exudate cells and, to a lesser degree, spleen cells from these mice showed significant lytic activity toward the immunizing allogeneic tumor but not toward E{male}G2. When spleen cells were harvested from animals {approximately equal to}10 d after injection of AKR SL3 and rechallenged in vitro with either E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1, another tumor that displays AKR/Gross virus antigens, then a vigorous cytotoxic response against E{male}G2 and AKR. H-2(b) SL1 was obtained. Effector cells generated by AKR SL3 priming followed by in vitro stimulation with E{male}G2 or AKR.H-2(b) SL1 lysed only cells of H-2(b) haplotype which were strongly positive for the display of serologically detectable AKR/Gross virus antigens. Thus, AKR SL3 cells were not lysed nor were EL4 cells (H-2(b); but only weakly positive for gp70). Cells not bearing the MuLV antigens tested for, such as P815 mastocytoma cells and spleen cell "blasts" from C57BL/6 and CBA (H-2(k)) mice, were also insusceptible to attack. The cytotoxic effector cells induced bore Thy 1.2 alloantigen and were of the Lyt 1+2+ phenotype. Collectively, these findings are consistent with the conclusion that the cytotoxic T cells raised against E{male}G2 are directed against AKR/Gross virus-associated antigens and are H-2 restricted. It will be of interest to determine the relevance of such effector cells to the known resistance of the C57BL/6 mouse to AKR/Gross virus-induced leukemia.  (+info)

The role of serum factors in the acceleration by Freund's complete adjuvant of the growth of transplanted murine leukemic cells. (8/181)

Attempted nonspecific immunotherapy led to acceleration rather than retardation of tumor growth. Mice given injections of Freund's adjuvant were more susceptible to transplanted syngeneic Gross virus-induced leukemic cells when Freund's complete adjuvant was administered i.p. 0 to 7 days before or 1 day after tumor; thereafter, the adjuvant had no effect. Two serum-mediated phenomeana were demonstrated in vitro: (a) sera from mice immunized with Freund's complete adjuvant and tumor facilitated killing of tumor cells by peritoneal exudate cells from nonimmune mice; (b) sera from all mice with progressive tumor blocked the cytotoxicity of a xenogeneic tumor-specific serum. Certain sera produced both effects. However, sera that either blocked or facilitated tumor killing in vitro had no effect on the growth in vivo of transplanted tumor cells.  (+info)

Green, W R.; Nowinski, R C.; and Henney, C S., "The generation and specificity of cytotoxic t cells raised against syngeneic tumor cells bearing akr/gross murine leukemia virus antigens." (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 4314 ...
G (gross) and h-2 cell-surface antigens, location on gross leukemia cells by electron microscopy with visually labeled antibody., T Aoki, E A. Boyse, L J. Old, E D. Harven, and H A. Wood. ...
This correspondence was written in response to the comments by Young et al. Following careful evaluation of the relevant dataset, each of the points brought up by Young et al. has been addressed in this response. We anticipate this will clarify our findings regarding ERVmch8, an ecotropic endogenous retrovirus that was shown to have cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression patterns in C57BL/6J mice.
Jolicoeur, Paul and Rassart, Eric and Kozak, Christine et al. (1980) Distribution of endogenous murine leukemia virus DNA sequences among mouse chromosomes. Journal of Virology, 33 (3). pp. 1229-1235. ISSN 0022-538X. PMCID PMC288660. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:JOLjvir80 ...
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Advances in Virology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of virology.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inheritance of susceptibility and resistance to Rauscher leukaemia virus. AU - Toth, F. D.. AU - Vaczi, L.. AU - Balogh, M.. PY - 1973/12/1. Y1 - 1973/12/1. N2 - Susceptibility to Rauscher leukemia virus is determined by the 2 genes Rv 1 and Rv 2. Loci Rv 1 and Rv 2 determine the susceptibility to LLV and SFFV, respectively. On locus Rv 1 resistance and on locus Rv 2 susceptibility is dominant. The 2 genes segregate independently of each other. In Rv 2(S/S) and Rv 2(S/r) mice the degree of tumor specific antibody production is determined by the Rv 1 locus. In the case of genotype Rv 1(R/R) Rv 2(S/r), interferon production may be a factor determining resistance.. AB - Susceptibility to Rauscher leukemia virus is determined by the 2 genes Rv 1 and Rv 2. Loci Rv 1 and Rv 2 determine the susceptibility to LLV and SFFV, respectively. On locus Rv 1 resistance and on locus Rv 2 susceptibility is dominant. The 2 genes segregate independently of each other. In Rv 2(S/S) and Rv 2(S/r) mice ...
Ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (E-, X-, and P-MLVs) exist in mice as infectious viruses and endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) inserted into mouse chromosomes. All three MLV subgroups are linked to leukemogenesis, which involves generation of recombinants with polytropic host range. Although P-MLVs are deemed to be the proximal agents of disease induction, few biologically characterized infectious P-MLVs have been sequenced for comparative analysis. We analyzed the complete genomes of 16 naturally occurring infectious P-MLVs, 12 of which were typed for pathogenic potential. We sought to identify ERV progenitors, recombinational hot spots, and segments that are always replaced, never replaced, or linked to pathogenesis or host range. Each P-MLV has an E-MLV backbone with P- or X-ERV replacements that together cover 100% of the recombinant genomes, with different substitution patterns for X- and P-ERVs. Two segments are always replaced, both coding for envelope (Env) ...
The Murine Leukemia Virus (MLV) is a gammaretrovirus that hijack host components of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) for budding. To determine the minimal requirements for ESCRT factors in MLV viral and viral-like particles (VLP) release, an siRNA knockdown screen of ESCRT(-associated) proteins was performed in MLV-producing human cells. We found that MLV VLPs and virions primarily engage the ESCRT-I factor Tsg101 and marginally the ESCRT-associated adaptors Nedd4-1 and Alix to enter the ESCRT pathway. Conversely, the inactivation of ESCRT-II had no impact on VLP and virion egress. By analyzing the effects of individual ESCRT-III knockdowns, VLP and virion release was profoundly inhibited in CHMP2A- and CHMP4B-knockdown cells. In contrast, neither the CHMP2B and CHMP4A isoforms nor CHMP3, CHMP5, and CHMP6 were found to be essential. In case of CHMP1, we unexpectedly observed that the CHMP1A isoform was specifically required for virus budding, but dispensable for VLP release.
In a previous study, we showed that MMLV-RT has a strong terminal transferase activity, and that the C-, G-, and T-tailing activities are enhanced by dGMP, dCMP, and dAMP, respectively. In this study, to achieve faster reaction and higher tailing efficiency, we screened other compounds for the ability to enhance the tailing activities of MMLV-RT, and determined the corresponding optimal concentrations. The C-, G-, and T-tailing activities were enhanced by guanine, cytosine, and adenine, respectively, and by derivatives thereof, suggesting a transient Watson-Click base pairing between an enhancer molecule and the nucleotide to be incorporated. In the presence of some additives (GMP and GDP for C-tailing and CMP for G-tailing), the tail length increased continuously, resulting in tail lengths of 7 to 15 (GMP and GDP) or 13 to 22 (CMP) nucleotides. Among the compounds that do not induce continuous addition, adenosine, deoxycytidine, and deoxyguanosine mostly enhanced T-, G-, and C-tailings, ...
Mice of the AKR strain have a very high incidence of lymphocytic neoplasms which appear to be caused by a vertically transmitted virus (see reviews by Kaplan, 1967; Moloney, 1962; Furth et al., 1964;...
BioAssay record AID 152712 submitted by ChEMBL: Concentration which leads to inhibitory effect on the proliferation of murine leukemia (P388) cells.
G-CSF; Colonystimulating factor 3 (granulocyte); CSF beta; CSF3;Csfg; Filgrastim; GCSA; GCSF; Lenograstim;Macrophage granulocyte inducer 2; MGI 2;Pluripoietin;Anti-Granulocyte stimulatin factor (G-CSF) (human) labelled with biotin antibodies, P09919
1OKA: Structure of chimeric duplex junctions: solution conformation of the retroviral Okazaki-like fragment r(ccca)d(AATGA).d(TCATTTGGG) from Moloney murine leukemia virus.
Blog on AKR1B1 sirna product: The AKR1B1 akr1b1 (Catalog #MBS8234588) is a siRNA produced from Synthetic and is intended for research p...
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Inefficient gene delivery continues to be a primary hurdle facing gene therapy. Viruses offer the highest gene transfer capabilities but are not optimized as therapeutics. Applying directed evolution, we randomly mutated the entire genome of amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) and selected for improved stability and infection at 37°C. After one round of mutagenesis and several rounds of selection, we isolated MLV variants with double the half-life of wild-type MLV. The improved stability of the mutant MLV leads to increased virus production, titer, and infection efficiency. Remarkably, a single mutation in the protease (PR), G119E, in the MLV gag-pro-pol is responsible for the enhanced stability. Thus, the variant MLV exhibits increased stability with various wild type envelope proteins, including amphotropic, ecotropic, 10A1, and VSV-G. Lastly, saturation mutagenesis at the site of the beneficial mutation identified MLV mutants with infectivity half-lives of ∼24 h at 37°C, nearly a ...
Naturally-occurring lymphomagenesis is induced by mouse leukemia viruses (MLVs) carried as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). Replicating the ecotropic MLVs recombines with polytropic (P-ERVs) and xenotropic ERVs (X-ERVs) to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic host range, the X-MLVs are also present in the pre-leukemic tissues. We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. AKR40 resembles the active X-ERV Bxv1, while AKR6 has a Bxv1-like backbone with substitutions that alter the long terminal repeat (LTR) enhancer and the envelope (env). AKR6 has a modified xenotropic host range, and its Env residue changes all lie outside of the domain that governs the receptor choice. The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. This suggests that AKR6 is
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein A-coated erythrocyte binding to cell surface antigens. T2 - Application to quantitate retrovirus infectivity in vitro. AU - Fitting, Thomas. AU - Kabat, David. PY - 1981/6. Y1 - 1981/6. N2 - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. AB - Fibroblasts infected with murine leukemia virus (MuLV) bind erythrocytes coated with protein A to form rosettes in the presence of MuLV-specific antisera. This method, which is potentially applicable to any retrovirus and susceptible cell, has been specifically adapted as a focus assay for quantitating both ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019472752&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Rat C-reactive protein (CRP) is a serum glycoprotein belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins. In this study we have shown the specific binding of 125I-CRP to rat peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C. This binding was dependent upon incubation time, CRP and cell concentrations, and was not inhibited by either phosphorylcholine or human IgG. At 37 degrees C, the surface-bound 125I-CRP was internalized and degraded. The degradation of 125I-CRP was measured by the formation of 125I-labelled trichloroacetic-acid-soluble CRP peptides by either precipitation assays or by h.p.l.c. of the incubation medium using a gel-filtration column. Since chloroquine and leupeptin inhibited CRP degradation, it was concluded that degradation of CRP occurred in the lysosomal compartment of the macrophage. There was an absolute requirement for the presence of bivalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the incubation medium for the binding and degradation of CRP, which could be inhibited by EDTA but not by ...
Glycoprotein, Glycoproteins, Human, Infection, Somatostatin, Virus, Binding Site, Gene, Leukemia, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Mouse, Murine Leukemia Virus, Somatostatin Receptors, Stomatitis, Vesicular Stomatitis, Cell, Cell Lines, Cholesterol, Complement, Cytoplasm
The growth of a mouse leukemia virus in an established mouse cell line was examined after the line became contaminated with an unidentified Mycoplasma species. The contaminated cultures grew well in small plastic cultures dishes, but they could not be propagated in larger roller bottles unless the growth medium was changed frequently. Cells from Mycoplasma-contaminated and Mycoplasma-free cultures were exposed to 3H-labeled uridine for 24 hr. Culture fluids were harvested 2 or 24 hr after labeling and purified by centrifugation through discontinuous sucrose gradients. Considerably less uridine-3H-labeled virus was recovered from supernatant fluids of Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures than from Mycoplasma-free cultures. Equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose gradients of uridine-3H-labeled material from culture supernatants of contaminated cultures produced 3H peaks at buoyant densities of 1.20 to 1.24 and 1.16 to 1.18 g/ml. Virus titers in culture fluids from Mycoplasma-contaminated cultures were ...
Detailed information about the celline expression of AKR1B1 in REH stained with HPA026425. The antibody showed a Medium level of staining
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
Video articles in JoVE about quantitative trait loci include Quantifying Abdominal Pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, Dissection and Flat-mounting of the Threespine Stickleback Branchial Skeleton, Microinjection for Transgenesis and Genome Editing in Threespine Sticklebacks, Screening for Functional Non-coding Genetic Variants Using Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and DNA-affinity Precipitation Assay (DAPA), Generation of High Quality Chromatin Immunoprecipitation DNA Template for High-throughput Sequencing (ChIP-seq), A Proboscis Extension Response Protocol for Investigating Behavioral Plasticity in Insects: Application to Basic, Biomedical, and Agricultural Research, Purification of High Molecular Weight Genomic DNA from Powdery Mildew for Long-Read Sequencing, A Straightforward Method for Glucosinolate Extraction and Analysis with High-pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), The Treadmill Fatigue Test: A Simple, High-throughput Assay of Fatigue-like Behavior for
Concentration Unitmg/mLConcentration0.5Quantity0.1 mgVolume0.2ImmunogenAbelson murine leukemia virus-induced pre-B tumor cellsBackground Informatio...
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Title:Role of the Microenvironment in Tumourigenesis: Focus on Virus-Induced Tumors. VOLUME: 22 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Maria Vincenza Chiantore, Giorgio Mangino, Maria Simona Zangrillo, Marco Iuliano, Elisabetta Affabris, Gianna Fiorucci and Giovanna Romeo. Affiliation:Dept of Infectious, Parasitic and Immune-mediated Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Oncogenic viruses, inflammatory microenvironment.. Abstract:Tumor microenvironment can differ considerably in various types of tumors in terms of cellular and cytokine networks and molecular drivers. The well known link between inflammation and cancer has recently found a number of genetic and molecular confirmations. In this respect, numerous reports have revealed that infection and chronic inflammation can contribute to cancer development, progression and control. Adhesion molecules, chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines, that enroll leukocytes, are persistently present in cancer microenvironment, thus increasing the ...
So, Rachel Bagni did whats known as a phylogenetic analysis - a tree where you compare the sequences of all the polytropic viruses in green in the gene bank in the data base to the sequences from our patients...And you can see that many of the WPI samples from that original study also contain polytropic sequences. Interestingly, one patient contained whats called a mink cell focus or a modified polytropic virus - much more divergent that some of the other strains ...
Hybrid Moloney/Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (Mo/A-MuLv) ATCC ® VR-1450™ Designation: 4070A envelope strain Application: Analytical methodologies Pharmaceutical and Personal Care
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection and characterization of murine ecotropic recombinant virus in myeloma and hybridoma cells. AU - Deo, Y.. AU - Ghebremariam, H.. AU - Cloyd, M.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Ecotropic recombinant virus (ERV), a relatively new class of murine retrovirus endogenous to mice, is expressed at significant levels by most murine myeloma and hybridoma cells examined. The routine XC, S+L-, mink cell focus-inducing (MCF), and reverse transcriptase (RT) tests are not suitable to detect and quantify the levels of ERV. A serological focus assay, based on specific anti-murine leukemia virus (MuLV) viral envelope (env) antibodies, is required to detect ERV. A more sensitive format of this serological focus assay includes co-cultivation of test article cells with the indicator (Mus dunni) cells. ERV isolated from murine hybridoma cells show a unique pattern of cross-reactivity with anti-MuLV env antibodies and this pattern is clearly distinct from that of ectropic and xenotropic ...
Tumor antigens on the cell surface of thymic lymphoma cells from chemical- and virus-induced lymphomas of C57BL mice and virus-induced tumors of Wistar-Furth rats have been studied with the use of immunofluorescence on viable cells with rat, rabbit, and monkey antisera. In young mice given intrathymic injections of a murine leukemia virus, a new cell surface antigen can be detected as early as 2 to 4 days postinjection in some thymuses. Rat antisera to virus-induced rat thymic lymphoma cells gave a precipitin line in Ouchterlony double diffusion analysis when tested with virus isolated from plasma of tumor-bearing rats or from mouse lymphoma extracts. This reaction is due to the group-specific (internal) antigen of the murine leukemia viruses, since ether treatment of the virus preparations was required to obtain it. The results indicate that both radiation and certain chemicals may "activate" the same leukemia virus, which is endemic in this low leukemia strain.. ...
Here we have studied how an early activation step of Mo-MLV Env proceeds in its three protomeric units: simultaneously in all of them or sequentially in one after the other. We followed the isomerization of the intersubunit disulfide and the subsequent SU release in Env that was triggered in vitro by Ca2+ depletion or in vivo by the receptor on rat XC cells. Our results suggested a sequential activation of the protomers according to the scheme (SU-TM)3 → (SU-TM)2TM → (SU-TM)TM2 → TM3. Thus, in this reaction, the protomers of Env release their SU one after the other, forming asymmetric oligomer intermediates (I-1 and I-2). In contrast, the TM subunits of the isomerized protomers stay noncovalently associated with the partially activated Env. At present, we cannot conclude what controls the sequential protomer activation. One possibility is that it is controlled through sequential receptor interactions. However, a single receptor-protomer interaction might also be sufficient. According to ...
PIM kinases are frequently overexpressed in various hematologic and solid tumors, allowing cancer cells to evade apoptosis and promoting tumor growth.2 In inflammatory disorders, PIM-1 kinase has been shown to mediate interleukin-22 signaling in cell-based and animal models. TP-3654 is an investigational agent and is not approved by the US FDA or any other regulatory authorities.. PIM=proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus.. ...
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Recombinant full length protein, corresponding to amino acids 1-323 of Human AKR1C1 with an N terminal His tag. Predicted mwt: 39 kDa;
Experimentally introduced defective endogenous proviruses are highly expressed in chickens.: We have previously described the experimental introduction of recom
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Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47: 317-328. Lenz, J; Celander D; Crowther RL; Patarca R; Perkins DW ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Hall's Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. PMC ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...
Stoye, JP; Moroni, C; Coffin, JM (1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 (3 ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
... akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.225 --- friend murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.300 --- gross ... abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.050 --- akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.574.807.375.525.225 ... abelson murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.050 --- akr murine leukemia virus MeSH B04.909.777.731.375.525.225 ... leukemia virus, gibbon ape MeSH B04.820.650.375.525 --- leukemia virus, murine MeSH B04.820.650.375.525.020 --- abelson murine ...
Staal SP, Hartley JW, Rowe WP (July 1977). "Isolation of transforming murine leukemia viruses from mice with a high incidence ... In 1977, a transforming retrovirus was isolated from the AKR mouse. This virus was named Akt-8, the "t" representing its ... AKT8 was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma cell line derived from AKR mice by cocultivation with an indicator mink cell line ... Further inbreeding was undertaken with Ak mice at the Rockefeller Institute in 1936, leading to the designation of the AKR ...
"The AKR thymic antigen and its distribution in leukemias and nervous tissue". J. Exp. Med. 120: 413-433. doi:10.1084/jem.120.3. ... HIV-1 Matrix co-localizes with Thy-1 in lipid rafts, the site of virus particle budding from cells, and Thy-1 is incorporated ... It is probably the most abundant glycoprotein of murine thymocytes, with about One million copies per cell covering up to 10-20 ... Thy 1.2 is expressed by most strains of mice, whereas Thy1.1 is expressed by some like AKR/J and PL mouse strains. The 25-kDa ...
... of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic polytropic MuLVs. , Journal of virology , 6/1/1987 ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... Class II polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) of AKR/J mice: possible role in the generation of class I oncogenic ... We examined the frequency of occurrence of polytropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) in the spleens and thymuses of ...
Those mice from which endogenous ecotropic MuLV of the AKR type have been isolated contained at least one virtually complete ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ... contained MuLV DNAs of genomic length whose restriction endonuclease digestion pattern was characteristic of xenotropic viruses ... By using molecularly cloned ecotropic AKR murine leukemia virus (MuLV) DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in ...
Stoye, JP; Moroni, C; Coffin, JM (1991). "Virological events leading to spontaneous AKR thymomas". Journal of Virology. 65 (3 ... The Friend virus (FV) is a strain of murine leukemia virus. The Friend virus has been used for both immunotherapy and vaccines ... The murine leukemia viruses (MLVs or MuLVs) are retroviruses named for their ability to cause cancer in murine (mouse) hosts. ... The murine leukemia viruses are group/type VI retroviruses belonging to the gammaretroviral genus of the Retroviridae family. ...
Genes affecting mink cell focus-inducing (MCF) murine leukemia virus infection and spontaneous lymphoma in AKR F1 hybrids. ... Genetic study of lymphoma induction by Friend murine leukemia virus in crosses involving AKR mice. ... Strain differences in the early development of the thymus-dependent cells: precocity of T lineage cells in AKR mice as compared ...
A Discrepancy in XC and Oncogenicity Assays for Murine Leukemia Virus in AKR Mice ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on the Surfaces of Normal Murine ... Immunofluorescent Analysis of Expression of the RNA Tumor Virus Major Glycoprotein, gp71, on Surfaces of Virusproducing Murine ... Differential Neurooncogenicity of Strains of JC Virus, a Human Polyoma Virus, in Newborn Syrian Hamsters ...
Molecular properties of a gag- pol- env+ murine leukemia virus from cultured AKR leukemia cells. J. Virol. 41:626, (1982). ... Mechanisms in neoplasias induced by Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus. II. A high frequency of interleukin-3 dependent cell lines ... Chronic immune stimulating is required for Moloney leukemia virus-induced lymphomas. Nature 209:P407, (1981).ADSCrossRefGoogle ... Mast Cell Myeloid Cell Line Fetal Liver Cell Avian Myeloblastosis Virus Myeloid Leukemia Cell Line These keywords were added by ...
Mice of the AKR strain are characterized by a high incidence of spontaneous thymic lymphomas occurring after 6 mo of age. ... Murine Leukemia Viruses by Interactions Of Murine Apobec, Human Apobecg, John M. Coffin, David Derse, Alan Rein , 2007 ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ... murine leukemia virus enhancer. T lymphocytes that interact with the Moloney Identification of ETS domain proteins in murine ...
... murine leukemia virus accelerates the appearance of tumors (3). The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute ... viruses: amplification of murine leukemia virus-related antigens on thymocytes and acceleration of leukemia development in AKR ... Localization of the leukemogenic determinants of SLR3-3, an ecotropic, XC-positive murine leukemia virus of AKR mouse origin. J ... Murine Leukemia viruses with recombinant env genes: a discussion of their role in leukemogenesis. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol ...
CD4-CD8+ T lymphocytes mediate AKR/gross murine leukemia virus nonresponsiveness in moderately aged AKR.H-2b:Fv-1b mice. R F ... Expansion of murine T cells bearing a unique T cell receptor beta-chain in Friend virus-induced tumor in situ. M Suzuki, H ... Murine common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CD10 neutral endopeptidase 24.11). Molecular characterization, chromosomal ... Inhibition of basal and tumor necrosis factor-enhanced binding of murine tumor cells to murine endothelium by transforming ...
This locus controls resistance of cells to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The recessive s ( ... Rmcf is located on Chr 5 close to Hm near the centromeric end (J:7108). Rmcfr protects (AKR x CBA/Ca)F1 and (AKR x DBA/2)F1 ... Resistance to infection with two tick-borne viruses, Thogoto virus (J:8273) and Dhori virus (J:27760), is also conferred by Mx1 ... resistance and susceptibility of cells in tissue culture to infection by mink cell focus-forming murine leukemia viruses. The ...
1972 Xenotropic viruses: murine leukemia viruses associated with NIH Swiss, NZB, and other mouse strains . Science 182, 1151- ... The Akr strain of inbred mice has a high incidence of thymic lymphoma associated with MLV, and it became a favoured model for ... b) Murine mammary tumour virus. Murine mammary tumour virus (MMTV) is the prototype beta-retrovirus. Breast cancer ... Mareks disease virus [65] and the related turkey virus. REV has also been found in the genome of fowlpox virus [66], a virus ...
... of Transcription of the AKR Mouse Genome by 5-Iododeoxyuridine with the Activation of an Endogenous Murine Leukemia Virus ... Erythroid Leukemia Induced by Friend Lymphatic Leukemia Virus in T-Cell-depleted Mice ... Enhancement by Caffeine of Neocarzinostatin Cytotoxicity in Murine Leukemia L1210 Cells. Kouichi Tatsumi, Masaro Tashima, ... Facilitated Light Microscopic Cytochemical Diagnosis of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia. Jacob S. Hanker, Wallace W. Ambrose, ...
Chromosomal assignment of two endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviruses of AKR/J mouse strains. J Virol 56: 172-175 ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type Relative Growth Rate Murine Leukemia Virus Virus Population Rous Sarcoma Virus These keywords ... Rein A (1982) Interference grouping of murine leukemia viruses: A distinct receptor for MCFrecombinant viruses in mouse cells. ... Origin of pathogenic determinants of recombinant murine leukemia viruses: analysis of Bxv-1-related xenotropic viruses from CWD ...
Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus ... ... Kennel S. J. Isolation and comparison of murine leukemia virus - related glycoproteins from AKR and new Zealand mice. - «J. ... Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... containing 34S RNA of AKR murine leukemia virus. - «Biochem. biophys. Res. Commun.», 1977, v. 74, p. 499 - 505. ...
... the number of copies and in the genomic organization of ecotropic murine leukemia virus proviral sequences in sublines of AKR ... Genetic alterations of RNA leukemia viruses associated with the development of spontaneous thymic leukemia in AKR/J mice. C Y ... Animal Viruses. *. ANIMAL VIRUSES. Construction and Characterization of Viable Deletion Mutants of Simian Virus 40 Lacking ... ANIMAL VIRUSES. Core Particles of Hepatitis B Virus and Ground Squirrel Hepatitis Virus I. Relationship Between Hepatitis B ...
Murine Leukemia Virus of AKR Origin". Journal of Virology. 47: 317-328. Lenz, J; Celander D; Crowther RL; Patarca R; Perkins DW ... "Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus Halls Island: New Strain of Gibbon Ape Leukemia Virus". Journal of Virology. 29 (1): 395-400. PMC ... "Construction of Recombinant Retroviruses that Express the Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type II and Human T Cell Leukemia Virus ... Coffin, JM; Hageman RC; Maxam AM; Haseltine WA (1978). "Structure of the Genome of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus: A Terminally ...
... murine leukemia viruses: ecotropic, xenotropic, and MCF-related viral RNAs are detected concurrently in thymus tissues of AKR ... trans-activation of the simian virus 40 enhancer by a pX product of human T-cell leukemia virus type I. S Saito, M Nakamura, K ... Isolation of an integrated provirus of Moloney murine leukemia virus with long terminal repeats in inverted orientation: ... Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. D J McGeoch, M A Dalrymple, A Dolan, D ...
The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env-LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67, in AKR, but ... We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. ... describe a novel X-ERV subtype found in the AKR genome, but not in the C57BL/6 reference genome, and identify residues in the ... to generate pathogenic viruses with an altered host range. While most recovered nonecotropic recombinants have a polytropic ...
Infection of central nervous system cells by ecotropic murine leukemia virus in C58 and AKR mice and in in utero-infected CE/J ... normally harmless viruses: an endogenous retrovirus and a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. Second, experiments have shown ... 9 The detection of other viral agents such as herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, and mumps virus was always negative on CSF ... There is no evidence yet that the virus we detected is involved somehow in the neuronal death and the course of the disease. ...
Freed EO, Risser R. The role of envelope glycoprotein processing in murine leukemia virus infection. J Virol. 1987 Sep;61(9): ... Although expression of MuLV is low in these strains relative to the AKR strain [46], we readily detected gp70 expression in a ... McCubrey J, Risser R. Genetic interactions in the spontaneous production of endogenous murine leukemia virus in low leukemic ... An immunodominant Kb-restricted peptide from the p15E transmembrane protein of endogenous ecotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV ...
Purification and serological characterization of the major envelope glycoprotein from AKR murine leukemia virus and its ... McCater J. A. Genetic studies of the ploidy of moloney murine leukemia virus, - «J. Virol.», 1977, v. 22, p. 9 - 15. Mackey J. ... Van Zaane D., Hesselink W. G., Bloemers H. P. J. Identification of Rauscher murine leukemia virus - specific… ... Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and ...
B04 - VIRUSES. ABELSON LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ABELSON MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. AKR VIRUS. AKR MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ... B04 - VIRUSES. ABELSON LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ABELSON MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. AKR VIRUS. AKR MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS. ... GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, MURINE. MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS. GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, PORCINE TRANSMISSIBLE. TRANSMISSIBLE ... GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, MURINE. MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS. GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS, PORCINE TRANSMISSIBLE. TRANSMISSIBLE ...
B04 - Viruses. Erythroblastosis Virus, Avian. Alpharetrovirus. Gross Virus. AKR murine leukemia virus ...
AKR Murine Leukemia Virus. CASH. Cancer And Steroid Hormone [study]. LLC. Lymphocytic Leukemia. ... Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia With Large Pleomorphic Blasts, Abundant Cytoplasm, And Prominent Nucleoli [FAB (Franco-American- ...
Friend murine leukemia virus * Genes * RNA * Maple Syrup Urine Disease * Inbred AKR Mouse ...
  • Murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) are retroviruses that play important roles in the study of oncogenes, integration, transcriptional regulation and gene therapy. (umassmed.edu)
  • The murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-like family of ERVs is a potent source of mutagenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For several reasons the G(IX) antigen (1) has a prominent place in current work on murine leukemia virus (MuLV): In the prototype G(IX+) mouse strain 129, the G(IX) trait is mendelian, and is expressed selectively (though not exclusively) on thymocytes. (rupress.org)
  • Although the 129 mouse produces no demonstrable leukemia virus such as that found in the AKR strain, it was soon realized that G(IX) antigen must in some way be related to MuLV, because productive infection with MuLV is frequently associated with appearance of G(IX) antigen on cells that are genotypically G(IX-), most notably on MuLV-infected rat cells, or cells that belong to other differentiation pathways (1). (rupress.org)
  • Different strains of mice may have different numbers of endogenous retroviruses, and new viruses may arise as the result of recombination of endogenous sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • She explained: "The appellation AKR has now been adopted for the substrains to indicate the derivation of the random-bred colony from AK stock and the subsequent brother × sister breeding at the Rockefeller Institute," in line with the recommendations by the Committee on Standardized Nomenclature for Inbred Strains of Mice ( 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The similarities are so striking as to suggest a common origin of these viruses, which are present in some, but not all, inbred mouse strains. (nova.edu)
  • The virogenes of AKR mice may have been acquired by either: (a) common descent of AKR (and other AKV + strains) from a common ancestor of AKR and molossinus animals, or (b) horizontal germ line infection of the AKR strains by molossinus virus at the strain's inception followed by fixation through inbreeding. (nova.edu)
  • We have examined the polymorphic allozyme (allelic isozyme) genotype of 51 nonvirus-related loci in 17 strains of mice including AKR, C58, BALB/c, Swiss, and molossinus . (nova.edu)
  • The genetic distance computed between molossinus and AKR is large, nearly 5-10 times the distance between known related populations and strains (e.g. (nova.edu)
  • We will also describe some of the characteristics of the germfree AKR mouse which make it somewhat different from other germfree inbred strains. (springer.com)
  • Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • This is corroborated by a Canadian study of comparative ease of handling by strain, which rated AKR/J mice lowest for placidity out of the 21 featured strains. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Like the more commonly used DBA/2J and C57BL/6J strains, AKR/J is prone to becoming obese, as it selects a higher fat diet than strains such as BALB/cJ. (mazeengineers.com)
  • MGI - Inbred Strains: AKR. (mazeengineers.com)
  • ONLINE] Available at: http://www.informatics.jax.org/inbred_strains/mouse/docs/AKR.shtml. (mazeengineers.com)
  • Distinct phenotypes of obesity-prone AKR/J, DBA2J and C57BL/6J mice compared to control strains. (mazeengineers.com)
  • In addition, to these four strains, Table I includes data for the three relevant partner strains, and for strain AKR, for comparison. (rupress.org)
  • BALB/c, CBA/J, AKR, C3H, DBA/1, DBA/2, NOD, SJL, and 129 strains of mice do not express NK1.1 and NK cells in these mice can be identified as CD3 − CD49b + cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • These, and several other comparative studies, strongly indicated that maedi and visna were caused by strains of the same virus, later named maedi-visna virus (MVV). (rapeutation.com)
  • Experiments have shown that it is possible to protect against Friend virus infection with several types of vaccines, including attenuated viruses, viral proteins, peptides, and recombinant vaccinia vectors expressing the Friend virus gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The AKR murine leukemia viruses do not contain acute transforming oncogenes ( 4 ) and are thought to transform cells as a result of activating cellular proto-oncogenes in the vicinity of viral integration into chromosomal DNA ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Khoury G., May E. Regulation of early and late simian virus 40 transcription: overproduction of early viral RNA in the absence of a functional T-antigen. (medkursor.ru)
  • Four viral genes independently contribute to attenuation of live influenza A/Ann Arbor/6/60 (H2N2) cold-adapted reassortant virus vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Antibodies against synthetic peptides of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D and their capability to neutralize viral infectivity in vitro. (asm.org)
  • A C-terminal domain in the avian sarcoma-leukosis virus pol gene product is not essential for viral replication. (asm.org)
  • Gross, L. 1958 Viral etiology of "spontaneous" mouse leukemia: A review. (springer.com)
  • This indicates that some human cells express a protein on their surface that acts as a receptor for MCF viruses and allows MCF viral entry. (umassmed.edu)
  • After the initial infection, the virus enters life-long latency in hematopoietic and endothelial cells, during which the viral genome is maintained as a low-copy number extrachromosomal plasmid. (prolekare.cz)
  • Under specific conditions, the viral genomes can undergo sporadic reactivation, re-initiating a full replicative cycle, which results in virus production and dissemination. (prolekare.cz)
  • Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression by Tiley LS1, Brown PH, Le SY, Maizel JV, Clements JE, Cullen BR. (rapeutation.com)
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Kamine I., Buchanan J. Cell - free synthesis of two proteins unique to RNA of transforming virions of Rous sarcoma virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • The transforming proteins of PRCII virus and Rous sarcoma virus form a complex with the same two cellular phosphoproteins. (asm.org)
  • Monoclonal antibody to spleen focus-forming virus-encoded gp52 provides a probe for the amino-terminal region of retroviral envelope proteins that confers dual tropism and xenotropism. (asm.org)
  • Identification of a nonvirion protein of Aleutian disease virus: mink with Aleutian disease have antibody to both virion and nonvirion proteins. (asm.org)
  • Distinctive properties of the hepatitis B virus envelope proteins. (asm.org)
  • Naso R. E., Brown R. L. Synthesis and cleavage of Rauscher leukemia virus precursor proteins in synchronized cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Gatehouse D. M., Duesberg P. H. RNA and proteins of the Kirsten sarcomaxenotropic leukemia virus complex propagated in rat and duck cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Gallis B. M., Eisenman R. N., Dtggelmann H. Synthesis of the precursor to avian RNA tumor virus internal structural proteins early after infection. (medkursor.ru)
  • We introduced several mutations disrupting two putative but noncanonical glyco-gag proteins in the leader sequence region in XMRV and found that those mutations did not affect virus release nor susceptibility to the antiviral activity of hA3G (human APOBEC3G). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A subset of chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias results in the fusion of the trithorax‐related protein HRX with a variety of heterologous proteins. (embopress.org)
  • In particular, leukemias with the t(11;19)(q23;p13.3) translocation express HRX-ENL fusion proteins and display features which suggest the malignant transformation of myeloid and/or lymphoid progenitor(s). (embopress.org)
  • This report updates and consolidates all previous U.S. Public Health Service recommendations for the management of health-care personnel (HCP) who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids that might contain hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Avoiding occupational blood exposures is the primary way to prevent transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in health-care settings ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Reduction of tumor regression associated with appearance of Gross leukemia virus pseudotypes. (naver.com)
  • emv-14 is of particular interest because spleen cells expressing emv-14 virus escape recognition by anti-AKR/Gross virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Todos los animales leucémicos expresaban el virus de Gross, detectado por anticuerpos anti-G. Experimentos más recientes con estimulación antigénica crónica sugieren la siguiente secuencia: alorreactividad, autoinmunidad, leucemia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inicialmente se habló de la activación del virus de Gross, luego del oncogenes eran celulares y no virales, se los incriminó de diferentes maneras. (bvsalud.org)
  • The avian erythroblastosis virus erbA oncogene encodes a DNA-binding protein exhibiting distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular localizations. (asm.org)
  • In one example, the gag gene from Friend Leukemia Virus encodes an H-2D d -restricted CTL target on the leukemia cell line, FBL-3 [ 22 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Thirteen years later, it was shown that the oncogene transduced by this virus encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT) (also known as PKB), which harbors an N-terminal regulatory domain (now known as the PH domain) and exhibits a high degree of homology with the kinases PKC and PKA ( 2 - 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Jolicoeur P., Baltimore D. Effect of Fv - 1 geneproduct on proviral DNA formation and integration in cells infected with murine leukemia viruses. (medkursor.ru)
  • The integration flanks of three AKR provirus sequences, Akv-1 , Akv-2 , and a third uncharacterized sequence, were not evident in molossinus cell DNA, which contained at least six different proviral integration fragments. (nova.edu)
  • One tumor contained a proviral enhancer with only 5 bp changes relative to the injected virus. (umassmed.edu)
  • Quntaka R. V., Bishop J. M., Varmus H. E. Covalently closed circular DNA of avian sarcoma virus: purification from nuclei of infected quail tumor cells and measurement by electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis. (medkursor.ru)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate immune cells that show strong cytolytic function against physiologically stressed cells such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are a group of innate immune cells that show spontaneous cytolytic activity against cells under stress such as tumor cells and virus-infected cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evidence for two classes of chromatin-associated Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen. (asm.org)
  • Padgett B. L., Hunt J. M., Walker D. L. Specificity of the tumor - specific transplantation antigen induced by JC virus, a human polyomavirus. (medkursor.ru)
  • A highly buy generic cialis sensitive one-step immunocapture EIA for the detection of influenza A virus antigen directly in a clinical specimen was developed. (buymetformin.site)
  • Electron microscope studies of ultrathin sections from visna virus infected cells demonstrated spherical particles, 70-100 nm in diameter, which were formed by budding from the cell membrane. (rapeutation.com)
  • E710.2.3 is a murine thymoma that has been previously described ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • 1. The 1987 paper by Dr. Stephen P. Staal of the Johns Hopkins Oncology Centre, on " Molecular cloning of the akt oncogene and its human homologues AKT1 and AKT2: Amplification of AKTI in a primary human gastric adenocarcinoma " ( 2 ), mentioned "the isolation of a directly transforming retrovirus, AKT8 from a spontaneous thymoma of an AKR mouse. (frontiersin.org)
  • The "thymoma" interpretation for the virus name AKT8 was also noted later as "for AKR Thymoma #8" by Bellacosa et al. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, the "AK" was likely carried from the "AKR" of the mouse name, and the "T" was for the word "thymoma" describing the cellular source of the retrovirus, though it could also remind us of the "transforming" ability of the virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Akt1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that was first discovered as the human homologue of the transforming gene in the AKT-8 oncogenic virus, which was isolated from a spontaneous thymoma in the AKR mouse ( 3 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Immunological and virological mechanisms in retrovirus induced murine leukemogenesis. (springer.com)
  • 12 In this model, the experimental MND occurs because of an interaction between two unrelated, normally harmless viruses: an endogenous retrovirus and a lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. (neurology.org)
  • These ERVs affect retrovirus-induced disease in a number of ways, including manipulation of the immune response, inhibition or facilitation of entry or other steps of virus replication, or as participants in the generation of infectious pathogenic viruses. (springer.com)
  • Cloning of a new murine endogenous retrovirus, MuERV-L, with strong similarity to the human HERV-L element and with a gag coding sequence closely related to the Fv1 restriction gene. (springer.com)
  • The Fv1 virus resistance gene is a coopted endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequence related to the gag gene of the MuERV-L ERV family. (pnas.org)
  • 7 , 8 No virus has ever cultivated from neurologic samples of ALS cases, and no specific immune response to enteroviral infection has been detected so far. (neurology.org)
  • These data effectively exclude the interpretation of consanguinity of AKR and molossinus and support the notion of acquisition of the endogenous virus in AKR by horizontal infection of the molossinus virus. (nova.edu)
  • Identification of a cellular cofactor required for infection by feline leukemia virus. (springer.com)
  • However, since the starting levels of GFI1 in the latter are significantly higher, they remain high despite the virus-induced GFI1 downregulation, preventing the infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Following the downregulation of GFI1 immediately after virus entry, HCMV initiates an EZH2-NDY1/KDM2B-JARID2-JMJD3-dependent program to maintain the low expression of GFI1 throughout the infection cycle. (prolekare.cz)
  • Emotional distress, coping, and adjustment in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. (storysteel.gq)
  • Charge microheterogeneity of the major capsid protein of polyoma virus. (asm.org)
  • Mapping of functional and antigenic domains of the alpha 4 protein of herpes simplex virus 1. (asm.org)
  • The Search by Peptide allows users to locate complexes in the database using an epitope sequence, a specific protein, a specific virus, or a combination of these. (crosstope.com)
  • The AKR6 segment spanning the two substitutions, but not the entire AKR6 env -LTR, exists as an ERV, termed Xmv67 , in AKR, but not in the C57BL/6 mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Genetic evidence for vaccinia virus-encoded DNA polymerase: isolation of phosphonoacetate-resistant enzyme from the cytoplasm of cells infected with mutant virus. (asm.org)
  • The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. (ucsf.edu)
  • A subset of acute leukemias carries translocations of chromosome band 11q23 with reciprocal partners located at 30 or more cytogenetically diverse loci (for a review, see Waring and Cleary, 1997 ). (embopress.org)
  • Alizon M, Wain-Hobson S, Montagnier L, Sonigo P (1986) Genetic variability of the AIDS virus: nucleotide sequence analysis of two isolates from African patients. (springer.com)
  • Genetic diversity of enzootic isolates of vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey. (asm.org)
  • We analyzed two such isolates from the AKR mice to identify their ERV progenitors and to look for evidence of recombination. (mdpi.com)
  • The recognition of the importance of Rous's discovery after such a long delay was largely owing to the cell transformation assay in monolayer culture of chick embryo fibroblasts reported by Temin & Rubin [ 7 ] in 1958 which enabled quantitative experimental studies of virus replication and cell transformation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA. (asm.org)
  • To address this issue, primary and immortalized human cells were tested for their ability to be infected by MCF packaged defective vectors as well as replication competent MCF virus. (umassmed.edu)
  • The cellular tropism of MPAC-packaged retroviral vectors was the same as replication competent MCF viruses. (umassmed.edu)
  • In addition, I show that some human cells fully support MCF virus replication while others either partially or fully restrict MCF virus replication. (umassmed.edu)
  • A replication competent MCF virus containing a bacterial amber suppressor tRNA gene ( supF ) was used to investigate the changes in the enhancer region following injection of MCF containing one enhancer in the LTR. (umassmed.edu)
  • Newborn AKR mice were injected with the supF tagged replication competent virus and observed for signs of leukemia development (ruffled fur, lethargy, and tumor development). (umassmed.edu)
  • Artinghaus R. B. Further characterization of intracellular precursor polyproteins of rauscher leukemia virus. (medkursor.ru)
  • Van Zaane D., Dekker-Michielsen M. J. A., Bloemers H. P. J. Virus - specific precursor polypeptides in cells infected with rauscher leukemia virus : synthesis, identification and processing. (medkursor.ru)
  • Among the latter MLVs are amphotropic viruses (Gr. amphos, "both") that can infect both mouse cells and cells of other animal species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural antibodies directed against murine lymphosarcoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • or amphotropic (wild mouse viruses capable of infecting both mouse and heterologous species cells). (psu.edu)
  • Kerr I M., Olshevsky U., Baltimore D. Translation of murine leukemia virus RNA in cell - free systems from animal cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kryceve C, Vigier P., Barlati S. Transformation - enhancing factor (S) produced by virus - transformed and established cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Kumar V., Eckner R. J., Bennett M. Mechanism of genetic resistance to immune suppression by friend leukemia virus: the role of marrow - dependent cells. (medkursor.ru)
  • Among murine cells examined, Friend gp71 type specificity was shared only with Rauscher virus producing cells, and a group specificity was present for all the murine leukemia virus producing cells tested. (utmb.edu)
  • Immunoferritin electron microscopy localized these gp71 antigenic determinants on both virus and cells membranes. (utmb.edu)
  • Murine cells expressing a HLA molecule are specifically lysed by HLA restricted antiviral human T cells. (histrecmed.fr)
  • Cells with the Fv1 0 (null) allele restrict none of these virus subgroups, and NB-tropic viruses are not restricted by any of these Fv1 alleles. (pnas.org)
  • Although this resistance targets some of the same amino acid residues as the mouse Fv1 gene, the pattern of virus resistance in the pygmy mouse cells does not resemble that attributed to any of the laboratory mouse Fv1 alleles. (pnas.org)
  • Bell R, Lillquist A, Abelson H, McCaffrey R. Chromatographic forms of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase in normal lymphoid cells and in leukemia cells at presentation and relapse. (uchicago.edu)
  • Our data show that gene loss is the predominant mode of inactivation of a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase neomycin phosphotransferase reporter gene ( HSV-TKNeo ) at the two integration sites tested and that this event is significantly reduced in Dnmt1-deficient cells. (asm.org)
  • In fact, murine DC rather than autologous APC have been used to test the function of NKT cells from CML patients 11 . (jove.com)