Akinetic Mutism: A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)Mutism: The inability to generate oral-verbal expression, despite normal comprehension of speech. This may be associated with BRAIN DISEASES or MENTAL DISORDERS. Organic mutism may be associated with damage to the FRONTAL LOBE; BRAIN STEM; THALAMUS; and CEREBELLUM. Selective mutism is a psychological condition that usually affects children characterized by continuous refusal to speak in social situations by a child who is able and willing to speak to selected persons. Kussmal aphasia refers to mutism in psychosis. (From Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994; 62(9):337-44)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Equipment Reuse: Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing: A technique that induces the processing of disturbing memories and experiences, by stimulating neural mechanisms that are similar to those activated during REM sleep. The technique consists of eye movements following side-to-side movements of the index and middle fingers, or the alternate tapping of the hands on the knees. This procedure triggers the processing of information, thus facilitating the connection of neural networks.Pityriasis: A name originally applied to a group of skin diseases characterized by the formation of fine, branny scales, but now used only with a modifier. (Dorland, 27th ed)Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.TennesseeComa: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Cellular Phone: Analog or digital communications device in which the user has a wireless connection from a telephone to a nearby transmitter. It is termed cellular because the service area is divided into multiple "cells." As the user moves from one cell area to another, the call is transferred to the local transmitter.Mobile Applications: Computer programs or software installed on mobile electronic devices which support a wide range of functions and uses which include television, telephone, video, music, word processing, and Internet service.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Diabetic Coma: A state of unconsciousness as a complication of diabetes mellitus. It occurs in cases of extreme HYPERGLYCEMIA or extreme HYPOGLYCEMIA as a complication of INSULIN therapy.Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Encephalopathy, Bovine Spongiform: A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Leydig Cell Tumor: Gonadal interstitial or stromal cell neoplasm composed of only LEYDIG CELLS. These tumors may produce one or more of the steroid hormones such as ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS; and CORTICOSTEROIDS. Clinical symptoms include testicular swelling, GYNECOMASTIA, sexual precocity in children, or virilization (VIRILISM) in females.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cathepsin F: A lysosomal papain-related cysteine proteinase that is expressed in a broad variety of cell types.Cathepsins: A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.Cathepsin W: A cysteine endopeptidase found in NATURAL KILLER CELLS and CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES. It may have a specific function in the mechanism or regulation of cytolytic activity of immune cells.Cathepsin B: A lysosomal cysteine proteinase with a specificity similar to that of PAPAIN. The enzyme is present in a variety of tissues and is important in many physiological and pathological processes. In pathology, cathepsin B has been found to be involved in DEMYELINATION; EMPHYSEMA; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, and NEOPLASM INVASIVENESS.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Famous PersonsPeriodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.VermontNew HampshireJournal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Quackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive: Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.

Aggravation of brainstem symptoms caused by a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm after embolization by Guglielmi detachable coils--case report. (1/22)

An 81-year-old male presented with right oculomotor nerve paresis and left hemiparesis caused by a mass effect of a large superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Endovascular treatment was performed using Guglielmi detachable coils. The patient subsequently suffered aggravation of the mass effect 3 weeks after the embolization. Bilateral vertebral artery occlusion was performed, which decreased the cerebral edema surrounding the aneurysm, but his neurological symptoms did not improve. Parent artery occlusion is recommended as the first choice of treatment for an unclippable large or giant aneurysm causing a mass effect on the brainstem.  (+info)

Residual cerebral activity and behavioural fragments can remain in the persistently vegetative brain. (2/22)

This report identifies evidence of partially functional cerebral regions in catastrophically injured brains. To study five patients in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) with different behavioural features, we employed [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), MRI and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) responses to sensory stimulation. Each patient's brain expressed a unique metabolic pattern. In three of the five patients, co-registered PET/MRI correlate islands of relatively preserved brain metabolism with isolated fragments of behaviour. Two patients had suffered anoxic injuries and demonstrated marked decreases in overall cerebral metabolism to 30-40% of normal. Two other patients with non-anoxic, multifocal brain injuries demonstrated several isolated brain regions with relatively higher metabolic rates, that ranged up to 50-80% of normal. Nevertheless, their global metabolic rates remained <50% of normal. MEG recordings from three PVS patients provide clear evidence for the absence, abnormality or reduction of evoked responses. Despite major abnormalities, however, these data also provide evidence for localized residual activity at the cortical level. Each patient partially preserved restricted sensory representations, as evidenced by slow evoked magnetic fields and gamma band activity. In two patients, these activations correlate with isolated behavioural patterns and metabolic activity. Remaining active regions identified in the three PVS patients with behavioural fragments appear to consist of segregated corticothalamic networks that retain connectivity and partial functional integrity. A single patient who suffered severe injury to the tegmental mesencephalon and paramedian thalamus showed widely preserved cortical metabolism, and a global average metabolic rate of 65% of normal. The relatively high preservation of cortical metabolism in this patient defines the first functional correlate of clinical- pathological reports associating permanent unconsciousness with structural damage to these regions. The specific patterns of preserved metabolic activity identified in these patients do not appear to represent random survivals of a few neuronal islands; rather they reflect novel evidence of the modular nature of individual functional networks that underlie conscious brain function. The variations in cerebral metabolism in chronic PVS patients indicate that some cerebral regions can retain partial function in catastrophically injured brains.  (+info)

Posterior encephalopathy subsequent to cyclosporin A presenting as irreversible abulia. (3/22)

A case of cyclosporin A (Cys A)-induced posterior encephalopathy developed into persistent abulia despite rapid and marked improvement of abnormal T2- and FLAIR MRI hyperintense regions. Diffusion-weighted MRI signal intensity was also high at the onset. This change is atypical in Cys A-induced encephalopathy and was thought to predict poor recovery from the encephalopathy. Persistent abulia was probably due to marked hypoperfusion in the whole cortex including bilateral frontal lobes and basal ganglia as detected by SPECT. Apart from the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier, direct toxicity of Cys A to the brain may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic, irreversible encephalopathy.  (+info)

Leukoencephalopathy induced by tegafur: serial studies of somatosensory evoked potentials and cerebrospinal fluid. (4/22)

A case of leukoencephalopathy induced by tegafur, an antineoplastic derivative of 5-FU, is reported. The patient received 600 mg of tegafur p.o. for 16 days before excision of rectal cancer. After the operation, gait disturbance and mental abnormalities appeared. He became akinetic and mute within a few days following readministration of tegafur. Serial studies of brain CT, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) were made, and myelin basic proteins (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured. The level of MBP was about twice the normal value and the central conduction time (CCT) of SEP was prolonged at admission. The value of MBP and CCT improved with recovery from akinetic mutism.  (+info)

Abulia following penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery with disruption of the anterior cingulate circuit: case report. (5/22)

BACKGROUND: It is common knowledge that the frontal lobes mediate complex human behavior and that damage to these regions can cause executive dysfunction, apathy, disinhibition and personality changes. However, it is less well known that subcortical structures such as the caudate and thalamus are part of functionally segregated fronto-subcortical circuits, that can also alter behavior after injury. CASE PRESENTATION We present a 57 year old woman who suffered penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery causing right basal ganglia injury which resulted in an abulic syndrome. CONCLUSION: Abulia does not result solely from cortical injury but can occur after disruption anywhere in the anterior cingulate circuit--in the case of our patient, most prominently at the right caudate.  (+info)

MRI findings from a case of fulminating adult-onset measles encephalitis. (6/22)

We report a rare case of fulminating adult-onset measles encephalitis. A 34-year-old man developed a comatose state after measles eruptions and ultimately akinetic mutism. Titers of anti-measles IgM antibodies were elevated in both serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 3 months after onset revealed widespread hyperintense lesions in the periventricular white matter and marginal hyperintense lesions in the brainstem on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted images. The marginal lesions in the brainstem are similar to subpial demyelinating lesions seen in postinfectious encephalomyelitis. This case of encephalitis may be related to an autoimmune-mediated process triggered by measles infection.  (+info)

Akinetic mutism after right internal watershed infarction. (7/22)

We describe a 72-year-old man who developed akinetic mutism following a cerebrovascular accident involving his right internal watershed area and responded well to dopaminergic agonists. We discuss this rare condition and the unusual unilateral location of the lesion.  (+info)

Akinetic mutism responsive to bromocriptine following subdural hematoma evacuation in a patient with hydrocephalus. (8/22)

An 11-year-old girl with obstructive hydrocephalus developed akinetic mutism after treatment for hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis by ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting. Bilateral chronic subdural hematomas developed about 2 months after insertion of the VP shunt and were evacuated. Postoperatively, the patient developed akinetic mutism, but her condition improved after administration of bromocriptine. Absence of abnormalities on dopamine transporter single photon emission computed tomography, lack of clinical response to levodopa treatment, and normal homovanillic acid concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid all indicated normal dopamine production. Pressure on the periventricular monoamine projections in the thalamus and hypothalamus without major dopamine deprivation in the striatum may have been the most important factors in the development of akinetic mutism in this patient.  (+info)

  • Lack of motor function (but not paralysis) Lack of speech Apathy Slowness Disinhibition Akinetic mutism can be caused by a variety of things. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akinetic mutism was first described in 1941 as a mental state where patients lack the ability to move or speak. (wikipedia.org)
  • This state of akinetic mutism varies in intensity, but it is distinguished by drowsiness, lack of motivation, hyper-somnolence, and reduction in spontaneous verbal and motor actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, we suggest that atomoxetine can be a useful therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic akinetic mutism. (medigoo.com)
  • Akinetic mutism is a medical term describing patients tending neither to move (akinesia) nor speak (mutism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders of diminished motivation (DDM)--including apathy, abulia , and akinetic mutism--are characterized by impairment in goal-directed behavior, thought, and emotion. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Por otra parte, las emociones negativas, por lo general son motivo para caer en la tristeza, desesperanza, falta de deseos por obtener mejores logros, por realizar lo mejor posible sus actividades por interesantes y placenteras que sean, lo se ha denominado abulia o en algunos casos, melancolia, terminos hoy en desuso por la falta de evidencias cientificas. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Abulia falls in the middle of the spectrum of diminished motivation, with apathy being less extreme and akinetic mutism being more extreme than abulia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most experts agreed that abulia is clinically distinct from depression, akinetic mutism, and alexithymia . (wikipedia.org)
  • This is known as abulia or akinetic mutism in extreme cases. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Other terms often used to describe this syndrome include abulia, akinetic mutism, athymhormia and autoactivation deficit (see online supplementary table 1 for proposed diagnostic criteria). (bmj.com)
  • Although not fully elucidated, the pathophysiology of abulia, apathy, and akinetic mutism is thought to be related to multiple neurotransmitters--especially dopamine--involved in the cortico-striatalpallidal-thalamic network. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1 The patient exhibited cortical ribboning, dementia, akinetic mutism, and hyperreflexia, which led to the diagnosis. (jaoa.org)
  • Here, we study focal brain lesions that disrupt volition, causing akinetic mutism ( n = 28), or disrupt agency, causing alien limb syndrome ( n = 50), to better localize these processes in the human brain. (pnas.org)
  • Dr. Darby and team used a cutting-edge neuroimaging technique called lesion network mapping to study the brains of people with two neurological conditions: akinetic mutism and alien limb syndrome. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • akinetic mutism - Also known as a persistent vegetative state. (neurolaw.com)
  • This is an appraisal of the varied clinical presentation and the neural substrate for akinetic mutism following stroke. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This patient followed an atypical clinical course: 16 months had passed before she developed akinetic mutism, and periodic sharp waves had not been detected on EEG after 2 years in spite of her akinetic mutism. (nih.gov)
  • Disabilities arising from TBI that have a direct impact on functioning and rehabilitative potential can be broadly classified into four main categories: decreased level of consciousness (LOC), and neuropsychiatric, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral sequelae.5-8 Decreased level of consciousness refers to a diverse range of clinical states including coma, vegetative states, akinetic mutism, and locked-in states. (bcmj.org)
  • Within days, clinical condition declined, progressing to mutism, lack of interaction, anorexia, immobility and was treated with different combinations of antidepressants and antipsychotics, with the hypothesis of major depression. (scielo.br)
  • The classical variety manifests as quadriplegia, lower cranial nerve paralysis, and mutism with preservation of vertical gaze and, most notably, intact consciousness indicated by abilities to communicate via eye movements. (hindawi.com)
  • Akinetic mutism is a medical term describing patients tending neither to move (akinesia) nor speak (mutism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Another cause of both akinesia and mutism is ablation of the cingulate gyrus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curran and Lang ( 26 ) placed akinetic mutism at the extreme end of the hydrocephalus-parkinsonian spectrum identifying the pathogenetic mechanism in a combination of severe bradykinesia/akinesia plus compromise of the ascending reticular activating system, such as the monoaminergic projection fibers from the brainstem in regions adjacent to the third ventricle that may be impaired when rapid ventricle dilatation occurs. (ispn.guide)
  • Akinetic mutism is a symptom during the final stages of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (a rare degenerative brain disease) and can help diagnose patients with this disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new study reported that zolpidem, a drug normally used to treat insomnia, temporarily improved brain function in a patient suffering from akinetic mutism, a condition in which the person is alert but cannot speak or move. (news-medical.net)
  • Akinetic mutism was first described in 1941 as a mental state where patients lack the ability to move or speak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with akinetic mutism are not paralyzed, but lack the will to move. (wikipedia.org)
  • Akinetic mutism varies across all patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of treatments for akinetic mutism have been documented, but treatments vary between patients and cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with CJD usually become akinetic mutism within approximately 6 months. (springer.com)
  • Muteness or mutism (from Latin mutus, meaning 'silent') is an inability to speak, often caused by a speech disorder, hearing loss, or surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective mutism previously known as "elective mutism" is an anxiety disorder very common among young children, characterized by the inability to speak in certain situations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lesion locations causing akinetic mutism all fell within one network, defined by connectivity to the anterior cingulate cortex. (pnas.org)
  • Hearing mutism is an obsolete term used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century for specific language impairment . (rug.nl)
  • It can be caused by illness of the child, illness in utero, mutism of the parents or guardians, the general disorders of the muscles, the shyness of the child, and certain genetic disorders, among other causes. (rug.nl)