Ajmaline: An alkaloid found in the root of RAUWOLFIA SERPENTINA, among other plant sources. It is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent that apparently acts by changing the shape and threshold of cardiac action potentials.Rauwolfia: A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.Brugada Syndrome: An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.Secologanin Tryptamine Alkaloids: Compounds formed by condensation of secologanin with tryptamine resulting in a tetrahydro-beta-carboline which is processed further to a number of bioactive compounds. These are especially found in plants of the APOCYNACEAE; LOGANIACEAE; and RUBIACEAE families.Anti-Arrhythmia Agents: Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Bundle-Branch Block: A form of heart block in which the electrical stimulation of HEART VENTRICLES is interrupted at either one of the branches of BUNDLE OF HIS thus preventing the simultaneous depolarization of the two ventricles.

ATP- and glutathione-dependent transport of chemotherapeutic drugs by the multidrug resistance protein MRP1. (1/40)

The present study was performed to investigate the ability of the multidrug resistance protein (MRPI) to transport different cationic substrates in comparison with MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1). Transport studies were performed with isolated membrane vesicles from in vitro selected multidrug resistant cell lines overexpressing MDR1 (A2780AD) or MRP1 (GLC4/Adr) and a MRP1-transfected cell line (S1(MRP)). As substrates we used 3H-labelled derivatives of the hydrophilic monoquaternary cation N-(4',4'-azo-in-pentyl)-21-deoxy-ajmalinium (APDA), the basic drug vincristine and the more hydrophobic basic drug daunorubicin. All three are known MDR1-substrates. MRP1 did not mediate transport of these substrates per se. In the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH), there was an ATP-dependent uptake of vincristine and daunorubicin, but not of APDA, into GLC4/Adr and S1(MRP) membrane vesicles which could be inhibited by the MRP1-inhibitor MK571. ATP- and GSH-dependent transport of daunorubicin and vincristine into GLC4/Adr membrane vesicles was inhibited by the MRP1-specific monoclonal antibody QCRL-3. MRP1-mediated daunorubicin transport rates were dependent on the concentration of GSH and were maximal at concentrations > or = 10 mM. The apparent KM value for GSH was 2.7 mM. Transport of daunorubicin in the presence of 10 mM GSH was inhibited by MK571 with an IC50 of 0.4 microM. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that MRP1 transports vincristine and daunorubicin in an ATP- and GSH-dependent manner. APDA is not a substrate for MRP1.  (+info)

Sudden death in patients and relatives with the syndrome of right bundle branch block, ST segment elevation in the precordial leads V(1)to V(3)and sudden death. (2/40)

BACKGROUND: The syndrome with an electrocardiographic pattern of right bundle branch block, ST segment elevation in leads V(1)to V(3)and sudden death is genetically determined and caused by mutations in the cardiac sodium channel. The inheritance of the disease is autosomal dominant. Sudden death may, however, occur from a variety of causes in relatives and patients with this syndrome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five Flemish families with this syndrome with a total of 334 members were studied. Affected members were recognized by means of a typical electrocardiogram either occurring spontaneously or after the intravenous administration of antiarrhythmic drugs. Sudden deaths in these families were classified as related or not to the syndrome by analysis of the data at the time of the event, mode of inheritance of the disease, and data provided by survivors. Results Of the 25 families with the syndrome, 18 were symptomatic (at least one sudden death related to the syndrome) and seven were asymptomatic (no sudden deaths related to the syndrome). In total, there were 42 sudden cardiac deaths (12% incidence). Twenty-four sudden deaths were related to the syndrome and all occurred in symptomatic families. Eighteen sudden deaths (43% of total sudden deaths) were not related to the syndrome (nine cases) or were of unclear cause (nine cases). Three of them occurred in two asymptomatic families and the remaining 15 in five symptomatic families. Twenty-four of the 50 affected members (47%) suffered (aborted) sudden death and 18 of the 284 unaffected members (6%). This difference in the incidence of sudden death was statistically significant (P<0.0001). Patients with (aborted) sudden death caused by the syndrome were younger than patients with sudden death of other or unclear causes (38+/-4 years vs 59+/-3 years respectively, P=0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In families at high risk of sudden death because of genetically determined diseases, the main cause of sudden death remains the disease. However, almost the half of sudden deaths are caused by unrelated diseases or are of unclear cause. Accurate classification of the causes of sudden death is mandatory for appropriate analysis of the causes of death when designing preventive treatments.  (+info)

Body surface potential mapping in patients with Brugada syndrome: right precordial ST segment variations and reverse changes in left precordial leads. (3/40)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to perform quantitative signal analysis of high-resolution body surface potential mapping (BSPM) recordings to assess its usefulness for the electrocardiographic characterization of patients with Brugada syndrome. The diagnostic value of the QRS integral and of the gradient of the ST segment have not been elucidated in Brugada syndrome. METHODS: In 27 subjects (16 with Brugada syndrome and 11 healthy subjects), 120-lead BSPMs were recorded at baseline and after pharmacological provocation with intravenous administration of ajmaline (1 mg/kg). The recordings were analyzed for two regions outside the positions of the standard ECG leads: the right precordial leads (RPL) on the second and third intercostal space (high RPL) and the left precordial leads (LPL) between the fifth and seventh intercostal space (low LPL). RESULTS: At baseline, in high RPL regions, patients with Brugada syndrome showed more positive QRS integrals (-5+/-8 vs. -16+/-8 mV ms) and a steeper negative ST segment gradient (-0.62+/-0.41 vs. -0.29+/-0.40 mV/s) compared to healthy subjects, P<0.001. In contrast, in low LPL regions, reduced QRS integrals and positive ST segment gradients were observed. These ECG signs were even more pronounced after intravenous ajmaline and showed a better discrimination for patients with Brugada syndrome than differences in RPL or LPL during baseline, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the left precordial leads, patients with Brugada syndrome showed ECG changes which were reversed in relation to the ECG changes observed in right precordial leads. BSPM measurement is a useful tool to improve the understanding of the electrocardiographic changes in the Brugada syndrome.  (+info)

Antiarrhythmic effect of aprindine on several types of ventricular arrhythmias. (4/40)

The antiarrhythmic effect of aprindine was compared with those of lidocaine and propranolol on several ventricular arrhythmias-epinephrine arrhythmias in cats, ouabain arrhythmias in cats and guinea pigs, ischemic ventricular arrhythmias in coronary-ligated Beagle dogs. Antiarrhythmic effects of aprindine and lidocaine were observed both in ouagain and ischemic arrhythmias, but not in epinephrine arrhythmias. While propranolol had a strong antiarrhythmic effect against epinephrine and ouabain arrhythmias, it did not increase sinus beats in ischemic arrhythmias. Marked anti-arrhythmic effects of aprindine in ischemic arrhythmias were observed in dogs using either single intravenous administration (4 mg/kg) or intravenous infusion (200 mug/kg/min, 2 mg/kg). Antiarrhythmic activity of aprindine is considered to be about twice as strong as that of lidocaine, but lidocaine is less toxic in experimental animals.  (+info)

The ajmaline challenge in Brugada syndrome: diagnostic impact, safety, and recommended protocol. (5/40)

AIMS: The diagnostic ECG pattern in Brugada syndrome (BS) can transiently normalize and may be unmasked by sodium channel blockers such as ajmaline. Proarrhythmic effects of the drug have been well documented in the literature. A detailed protocol for the ajmaline challenge in Brugada syndrome has not yet been described. Therefore, we prospectively studied the risks of a standardized ajmaline test. METHODS AND RESULTS: During a period of 60 months, 158 patients underwent the ajmaline test in our institution. Ajmaline was given intravenously in fractions (10mg every two minutes) up to a target dose of 1mg/kg. In 37 patients (23%) the typical coved-type ECG pattern of BS was unmasked. During the test, symptomatic VT appeared in 2 patients (1.3%). In all other patients, the drug challenge did not induce VT if the target dose, QRS prolongation >30%, presence/appearance of the typical ECG, or the occurrence of premature ventricular ectopy were considered as end points of the test. A positive response to ajmaline was induced in 2 of 94 patients (2%) with a normal baseline ECG, who underwent evaluation solely for syncope of unknown origin. CONCLUSION: The ajmaline challenge using a protocol with fractionated drug administration is a safe method to diagnose BS. Because of the potential induction of VT, it should be performed under continuous medical surveillance with advanced life-support facilities. Due to the prognostic importance all patients with aborted sudden death or unexplained syncope without demonstrable structural heart disease and family members of affected individuals should presently undergo drug testing for unmasking BS.  (+info)

Unusual response to the ajmaline test in a patient with Brugada syndrome. (6/40)

We present a Brugada syndrome patient who suffered an aborted sudden death. The ajmaline test (1 mg/kg body weight) induced accentuated alternans ST-segment elevation in V1-V2 without ventricular arrhythmias. It could represent silent ischaemia not detected before, failure of myocardial regions to repolarize in alternate beats due to transmural dispersion of conduction and refractoriness in the right ventricular outflow tract or a rate dependent sodium channel block by ajmaline. We need more studies to know whether this electrocardiographic sign is a risk factor for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in Brugada syndrome patients.  (+info)

Value of electrocardiographic parameters and ajmaline test in the diagnosis of Brugada syndrome caused by SCN5A mutations. (7/40)

BACKGROUND: The Brugada syndrome is an arrhythmogenic disease caused in part by mutations in the cardiac sodium channel gene, SCN5A. The electrocardiographic pattern characteristic of the syndrome is dynamic and is often absent in affected individuals. Sodium channel blockers are effective in unmasking carriers of the disease. However, the value of the test remains controversial. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 147 individuals representing 4 large families with SCN5A mutations. Of these, 104 were determined to be at possible risk for Brugada syndrome and underwent both electrocardiographic and genetic evaluation. Twenty-four individuals displayed an ECG diagnostic of Brugada syndrome at baseline. Of the remaining, 71 received intravenous ajmaline. Of the 35 genetic carriers who received ajmaline, 28 had a positive test and 7 a negative ajmaline test. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the drug challenge were 80% (28:35), 94.4% (34:36), 93.3% (28:30), and 82.9% (34:41), respectively. Penetrance of the disease phenotype increased from 32.7% to 78.6% with the use of sodium channel blockers. In the absence of ST-segment elevation under baseline conditions, a prolonged P-R interval, but not incomplete right bundle-branch block or early repolarization patterns, indicates a high probability of an SCN5A mutation carrier. CONCLUSIONS: In families with Brugada syndrome, the data suggest that ajmaline testing is valuable in the diagnosis of SCN5A carriers. In the absence of ST-segment elevation at baseline, family members with first-degree atrioventricular block should be suspected of carrying the mutation. An ajmaline test is often the key to making the proper diagnosis in these patients.  (+info)

Crystal structure of vinorine synthase, the first representative of the BAHD superfamily. (8/40)

Vinorine synthase is an acetyltransferase that occupies a central role in the biosynthesis of the antiarrhythmic monoterpenoid indole alkaloid ajmaline in the plant Rauvolfia. Vinorine synthase belongs to the benzylalcohol acetyl-, anthocyanin-O-hydroxy-cinnamoyl-, anthranilate-N-hydroxy-cinnamoyl/benzoyl-, deacetylvindoline acetyltransferase (BAHD) enzyme superfamily, members of which are involved in the biosynthesis of several important drugs, such as morphine, Taxol, or vindoline, a precursor of the anti-cancer drugs vincaleucoblastine and vincristine. The x-ray structure of vinorine synthase is described at 2.6-angstrom resolution. Despite low sequence identity, the two-domain structure of vinorine synthase shows surprising similarity with structures of several CoA-dependent acyltransferases such as dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, polyketide-associated protein A5, and carnitine acetyltransferase. All conserved residues typical for the BAHD family are found in domain 1. His160 of the HXXXD motif functions as a general base during catalysis. It is located in the center of the reaction channel at the interface of both domains and is accessible from both sides. The channel runs through the entire molecule, allowing the substrate and co-substrate to bind independently. Asp164 points away from the catalytic site and seems to be of structural rather than catalytic importance. Surprisingly, the DFGWG motif, which is indispensable for the catalyzed reaction and unique to the BAHD family, is located far away from the active site and seems to play only a structural role. Vinorine synthase represents the first solved protein structure of the BAHD superfamily.  (+info)

*Indole alkaloid

Other drugs that affect the cardiovascular system include ajmaline, which is a Class I antiarrhythmic agents, and ajmalicine, ...

*Ajmaline

In both cases, Ajmaline causes the action potential to become longer and ultimately leads to bradycardia. When ajmaline ... Ajmaline also prolongs the QR interval since it can also act as sodium channel blocker, therefore making it take longer for the ... Ajmaline can be found in most species of the Rauvolfia genus as well as Catharanthus roseus. In addition to Southeast Asia, ... Ajmaline was first discovered to lengthen the refractory period of the heart by blocking sodium ion channels, but it has also ...

*Salimuzzaman Siddiqui

Part I. Ajmaline series. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 9. p. 539. Siddiqui, S. and Siddiqui, R.H. (1935). The ... Ajmaline series. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 12. p. 37. Siddiqui, S. (1942). A note on isolation of three new ... He named the newly discovered chemical compound as Ajmaline, after his mentor Hakim Ajmal Khan who was one of the illustrious ... "Value of Electrocardiographic Parameters and Ajmaline Test in the Diagnosis of Brugada Syndrome Caused by SCN5A Mutations". ...

*Vomilenine

... is an intermediate chemical in the biosynthesis of ajmaline. Vomilenine reductase--a novel enzyme catalyzing a ... crucial step in the biosynthesis of the therapeutically applied antiarrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline. ...

*Prajmaline

Hinse C, Stöckigt J (July 2000). "The structure of the ring-opened N beta-propyl-ajmaline (Neo-Gilurytmal) at physiological pH ... Prajmaline is a semi-synthetic propyl derivative of ajmaline, with a higher bioavailability than its predecessor. It acts to ... Sowton E, Sullivan ID, Crick JC (1984). "Acute haemodynamic effects of ajmaline and prajmaline in patients with coronary heart ... is obviously responsible for its better absorption and bioavailability when compared with ajmaline (Gilurytmal)". Die Pharmazie ...

*Vinorine synthase

"Properties of vinorine synthase the Rauwolfia enzyme involved in the formation of the ajmaline skeleton". Z. Naturforsch. C: ...

*Hakim Ajmal Khan

Ajmaline, a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent and Ajmalan a parent hydride, are named after him. After the partition of India ...

*Polyneuridine-aldehyde esterase

... a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of sarpagine/ajmaline type alkaloids". Planta Med. 48 (8): 221-7. doi:10.1055/s-2007-969924. ...

*Strictosidine synthase

Ruppert M, Woll J, Giritch A, Genady E, Ma X, Stockigt J (2005). "Functional expression of an ajmaline pathway-specific ...

*1,2-dihydrovomilenine reductase

"A newly-detected reductase from Rauvolfia closes a gap in the biosynthesis of the antiarrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline". Planta ...

*Rauvolfia serpentina

The major alkaloids are ajmaline, ajmalicine, ajmalimine, deserpidine, indobine, indobinine, reserpine, reserpiline, ...

*C20H26N2O2

The molecular formula C20H26N2O2 (molar mass: 326.4 g/mol) may refer to: Ajmaline Dihydroquinidine Dihydroquinine Epsiprantel ...

*Lorajmine

It is derived from ajmaline, an alkaloid from the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina, by synthetically adding a chloroacetate ...

*Rauvolfia micrantha

Hairy root: ajmaline, ajmalacine, reserpine, reserpiline, sarpagine, and serpentine Root bark: aunamine and neosarpagine Other ... Sudha, C. G.; Obul Reddy, B.; Ravishankar, G. A.; Seeni, S. (2003). "Production of Ajmalicine and Ajmaline in Hairy Root ...

*Ajmalan

Ajmaline itself is named after Hakim Ajmal Khan, a distinguished practitioner of the Unani school of traditional medicine in ... The stereochemistry is the same as that in naturally occurring ajmaline, and corresponds to (2R,3S,5S,7S,15S,16R,20S) using ... The name is derived from ajmaline, an antiarrhythmic alkaloid isolated from the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina which is formally ...

*Acetylajmaline esterase

Ruppert, M.; Woll, J.; Giritch, A.; Genady, E.; Ma, X.; Stöckigt, J. (2005). "Functional expression of an ajmaline pathway- ... acetate This plant enzyme mediates the last stages in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid ajmaline. Polz, L.; Schübel, H.; ... acetylesterase-a specific enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the Rauwolfia alkaloid ajmaline". Z. Naturforsch. C. 42 (4): ... ajmaline + acetate (2) 17-O-acetylnorajmaline + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } norajmaline + ...

*Hellmuth Kleinsorge

... and he could also show the anti-arrhytmic effects of ajmaline. As he did not give his acceptance to the Berlin Wall he had to ...

*Vinorine hydroxylase

Falkenhagen H; Stockligt J (1995). "Enzymatic biosynthesis of vomilenine, a key intermediate of the ajmaline pathway, catalysed ...

*Perakine reductase

H+ The biosynthesis of raucaffrinoline from perakine is a side route of the ajmaline biosynthesis pathway. Sun, L.; Ruppert, M ...

*List of MeSH codes (D03)

... ajmaline MeSH D03.438.473.402.681.077.650 --- prajmaline MeSH D03.438.473.402.681.333 --- ellipticines MeSH D03.438.473.402. ... ajmaline MeSH D03.132.436.681.077.650 --- prajmaline MeSH D03.132.436.681.333 --- ellipticines MeSH D03.132.436.681.444 --- ...

*ATC code C01

C01BA01 Quinidine C01BA02 Procainamide C01BA03 Disopyramide C01BA04 Sparteine C01BA05 Ajmaline C01BA08 Prajmaline C01BA12 ...

*Outline of cardiology

... ajmaline, procainamide, disopyramide) Class Ib - Sodium channels (lidocaine, phenytoin, mexiletine, tocainide) Class Ic - ...

*Brugada syndrome

... such as ajmaline or procainamide, or class 1C, such as flecainide or pilsicainide, antiarrhythmic drugs that block sodium ...
Intravenous ajmaline challenge is used to identify patients with Brugada syndrome if the diagnostic type I ECG pattern is not overt in the basal ECG. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield, safety and side effects of intravenous ajmaline challenge in 236 consecutive patients with syncope of unknown origin, family history of SCD, idiopathic VF or suspicious basal ECG. Methods: In 236 patients (mean age 43 +/- 23 years, 139 males) suspicious of Brugada syndrome intravenous ajmaline was infused with a maximal dose of 1mg/kg body weight within 5-10 minutes under continuous ECG monitoring following the recommendation of the Brugada consensus conference. Criteria for termination of the test were appearance of the diagnostic type I ECG pattern of Brugada syndrome and furthermore an increase of the QRS duration of more than 30%, high degree AV-block or the development of ventricular premature beats or tachycardia. In 66% of the cases the test was performed due to a syncope of unknown ...
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of intravenous flecainide and ajmaline with respect to their ability to induce or accentuate the typical EC..
Listing your company for AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
Listing your company for AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS allows buyers to find your information through our directory pages which appear in the top positions when a search is conducted in Google, Yahoo!, MSN etc ...
The classic finding here is the "j-wave" found in V1->V3 at the end of the QRS complex. The "J-point" is where the QRS ends and the ST segment begins. This EKG is classic for a profoundly positive (>2 mm) J wave (not just J point) with its associated convex-up ST segment, followed by a negative last 1/2 of the T wave, suggestive of a Type I Brugada syndrome. More can be found about the EKG criteria here. Realize the ST segment and J-wave amplitude can be dynamic, so if they are not as prominent as this, a Type I antiarrhythmic can be used to provoke the findings - hence the procainamide, flecainide, or ajmaline challenge tests. ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
A 51 year old man, with a previous history of 15 years of hypertension treated with β blockers, complained of nocturnal and early morning seizures. One year ago, he had a syncope thought to be caused by bradycardia. β Blockers were reduced in a first step, and then discontinued. Serial neurological investigations were normal. Therapeutic challenges using sodium valproate or phenytoin did not had any favourable influence. Glucose metabolism was normal.. Cardiac investigations including carotid sinus massage, recording of late potentials, repetitive 24 hour Holter monitoring, and tilt table testing were normal. At electrophysiological testing, AH interval was 80 ms, and HV interval was 42 ms. Sinus node function and anterograde atrioventricular conduction were normal. Programmed atrial and ventricular stimulation did not induce any sustained arrhythmia. The ajmaline test was negative.. A Reveal Plus implantable loop recorder (Medtronic) was implanted. One month later, at the follow up visit, the ...
La vomilenina reduttasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: 1,2-diidrovomilenina + NADP+ ⇄ vomilenina + NADPH + H+ Lenzima forma parte della via di biosintesi della ajmalina. von Schumann, G., Gao, S. and Stöckigt, J., Vomilenine reductase - a novel enzyme catalyzing a crucial step in the biosynthesis of the therapeutically applied antiarrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline. J, in Bioorg. Med. Chem., vol. 10, 2002, pp. 1913-1918, Entrez PubMed 11937349 ...
La 1,2-diidrovomilenina reduttasi è un enzima appartenente alla classe delle ossidoreduttasi, che catalizza la seguente reazione: 17-O-acetilnorajmalina + NADP+ ⇄ 1,2-diidrovomilenina + NADPH + H+ Lenzima forma parte della via di biosintesi dellajmalina. Gao, S., von Schumann, G. and Stöckigt, J., A newly-detected reductase from Rauvolfia closes a gap in the biosynthesis of the antiarrhythmic alkaloid ajmaline, in Planta Med., vol. 68, 2002, pp. 906-911, Entrez PubMed 12391554 ...
Brugada ECGs have been characterised into three patterns (Figure 1). A type 1 Brugada ECG has coved ST elevation of , 0.2mm followed by a negative T-wave (Figure 1A). A downsloping ST segment from an elevated J point with an STJ/ST80 (80ms after J point) ratio ,1 is found in the Type 1 ECG pattern. The type 2 ECG has a saddleback morphology with high take-off ST elevation followed by a biphasic (Figure 1B) or positive (Figure 1C) T-wave. A type 3 ECG has either a coved or saddleback morphology with J point elevation ,2mm but the terminal portion of ST segment ,1mm. Type 2 and Type 3 patterns can be confused with partial RBBB but measuring the angle between the upslope of the S wave and downslope of the r wave (β in Figure 2) can be helpful with an angle ,58° having a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 87% in those without structural heart disease (12). Pharmacological testing with a class 1C antiarrhythmic such as Ajmaline can unmask the typical ECG, however it is non-diagnostic in up to ...
been used as an anthelmintic, as an antidote against snake bite and bites of other poisonous insects, in diarrhoea, dysentery, cholera and also as an ecbolic. In recent years interest has been stimulated in this drug, because of its well marked hypnotic and sedative properties. It forms the chief if not the only constituent of the various insanity cures which are so widely advertised in the lay press. Its use in the treatment of high blood pressure is of a very recent origin and is the outcome of the pharmacological investigations carried out on this drug. This use may be said to be, still in an experimental stage and hence any record of careful clinical observations, would be valuable in assessing the true value of this drug in the treatment of hyperpicsia.Chemically, the root contains a number of alkaloids. Sen and Bose (1931) found two alkaloids, with different melting points. Siddiqui and Siddiqui (1931) have reported five alkaloids to which they have given names of Ajmaline, Ajmalinine, ...
Alkaloids, Catharanthus, Catharanthus Roseus, Plants, Secretion, Metabolism, Ajmaline, Concentrations, Tissues, Abc Transporters, Arabidopsis, Coa, Diurnal Rhythm, Diurnal Rhythms, Exudates, Flavonoids, Gene, Gene Expression, Genes, Ligases
Dear Doctor, I have been diagnost with an incomplete right bundle branch block. I am 45 and 108 punds. All physical, stress test and blood work is fine. The doctor tells me not to worry. However ...
Supernormal Conduction in the Anomalous Bundles of the Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: An Overlooked Electrophysiologic Property With Potential Clinical Implications. Chiale, Pablo A.; Albino, Ernesto; Garro, Hugo A.; Selva, Horacio; Levi, Ra�l J.; S�nchez, Rub�n A.; Elizari, Marcelo V.; �lvarez, Carlos B. // Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology & Therapeutics;Sep2007, Vol. 12 Issue 3, p181 This article describes several cases of anterograde supernormal conduction (SNC) and one of retrograde in accessory pathway (AP). It has been a basic knowledge that the duration of the anterograde refractory period of AP is the main determinant factor of the ventricular rate and the risk of... ...
Dr. Olshausen responded: Slowing. It means there is a mild slowing of the electrical conduction in a certain part of your |a href="/topics/heart" track_data="{
Introduction: While it has been proposed that T wave inversions (TWI) in the anterior precordial leads can be a normal finding in the ECGs of Afro-Caribbean athletes, it is uncertain whether this holds true for African-Americans. Hypothesis: TWI in the anterior precordial leads can be a non-specific marker of cardiac disease, and as a result, assuming a benign nature for TWI in the anterior leads in African-American athletes may not be appropriate. Methods: To begin to investigate this notion, we evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular death (CVD) in apparently healthy African- Americans with anterior TWI over an 11 year period. We analyzed the ECGs and CV deaths in 5334 ambulatory African Americans (average age 50 years, 8% female, average follow up of 8 years) seen at the Palo Alto VA Health Care system from 1986 until 1997. T waves were coded as inverted in V2, V3, V4 and V5 if TWI were noted to be more than 1 mm below the PR segment. The leads coded as inverted were summed to create a ...
As a result of exhaustive investigation on the subject, some of the genetic basis and pathophysiologic substrate of arrhythmias in BS have been unravelled. Mutations in 4 genes have been linked to BS: SCN5A, encoding for the α-subunit of the cardiac sodium (Na+) channel31 , and resulting in loss of function of the mentioned channel by different mechanisms32 (being responsible for up to 30% of BS cases5) ; glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like gene (GPD1L), which reduce the inward Na+ current by affecting the trafficking of the cardiac Na+ channel to the cell surface33, 34; finally, mutations in genes encoding the α1-(CACNA1C) and β- (CACNB2b) subunits of the L-type cardiac calcium (Ca+2) channel result in a combined Brugada/short QT syndrome35 (it has not been established yet which percentage of BS patients present these three last types of mutations ...
a) Structural studies of the proteins involved in ajmaline (monoterpenoid indole alkaloid) biosynthesis pathway from the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina in collaboration with Prof. Joachim St ckigt, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, ( ...
fQRS was initially reported to be associated with myocardial scar and to improve accuracy of the diagnosis of old myocardial infarction.14,22 The significance of fQRS was then expanded to prediction of cardiac and arrhythmic events in patients with ischemic heart disease and nonischemic cardiomyopathy.16 The existence of fQRS has been evaluated in various heart diseases, and it has been reported that fQRS is related to prognosis,13,28,29 especially to sudden cardiac death.30,31. In patients with BrS, we initially reported that fQRS appeared in the right precordial leads and was associated with VT/VF events in symptomatic patients.10 A prospective study revealed that fQRS was a predictor of prognosis in patients without a previous history of cardiac arrest.11 A paced fQRS32 and the combination of fQRS and early repolarization12,17 were also useful for identifying high-risk patients. The appearance of fQRS was evaluated in the right precordial leads in those studies.. It has been thought that ST ...
As the terminology implies this is a block in the right bundle branch. Does this cause the heart to slow down like we see in some AV blocks? No, because we still have the left bundle working the electrical impulse simply travels down the left side and then spreads across to the right ventricle. Ok, its not as efficient as both bundles working at the same time, but its still enough to make both ventricles contract albeit in a different direction from the norm and with a slight delay. How does this manifest on the ECG? Well, perhaps the most obvious sign is a change in the QRS morphology in the right precordial leads - namely the typical RSR pattern. Why the RSR pattern? Well, its all about vectors. The second R wave is produced by the wave of depolarisation spreading from the left ventricle to the right ventricle i.e. toward the right precordial leads. Anything that moves toward a lead will produce a positive complex. Dont forget that in a normal ECG V1 should be predominantly negative. There ...
Sovaldi is being hailed as breakthrough treatment for the more than 3 million Americans with hepatitis C. But while the pricey prescription pill has given new hope to patients, it has had a detrimental impact on the state budget.
dear mr. Smith, how can I contact you? can I send you my ECG? Im male, 25 years old, Im in Vietnam. I was dianosed to have Brugada type II since 5 years ago, after test with Flecanide. And sice that day, my life is so terrible. There was nothing happen to me but I keep imagining about the death. I want to ask you, is there any case in wrong dianose in history? I really neeed your counsel, please tell me how to send you my ECG. thank you so much, god bless you.. ReplyDelete ...
Very interesting. I read the articles, also. I just have a problem with any recommendation that requires that I be successfully resuscitated from a cardiac arrest caused by a KNOWN entity that I am KNOWN to have and that is KNOWN to cause cardiac arrest before an ICD should be recommended. In this case, it is a fact that around 3% of these people with confirmed Brugada Type 1 are going to arrest. What I really have a problem with is the rather strange assumption that these people are going to be in a place where they can be immediately resuscitated and, even if they are, that the resuscitation attempt will be successful. I really believe there are ethical issues here.. ReplyDelete ...
Clinical By study definition, all patients developed ST elevation in at least one anterior precordial lead during coronary occlusion. No patient developed ST
Veja grátis o arquivo Precordial%20palpation enviado para a disciplina de Propedêutica Clínica Categoria: Anotações - 2 - 959808
An example of bilateral bundle-branch block (RBBB) in the presence of WPW syndrome in which diagnosis was established with the aid of His bundle recordings is presented. Complete RBBB and intermittent block of the superior and inferior divisions of the left bundle branch were coexistent for at least 2 years before complete heart block (trifascicular block) occurred. It was demonstrated that the preexcitation pathway conducted and blocked together with the normal pathways. It is suggested that the anomalous bundle in this case traveled with the normal pathways and that this close relationship is more common than has been suspected.. Retrograde V-A conduction at 1:1 ratio was present during electrical stimulation of the right ventricle and the anomalous bundle was used for retrograde spread of activation from the ventricles to the atria. The retrograde P waves, thus produced, conducted antegrade through the His bundle (reciprocation) but reached the ventricles only when they appeared near the end ...
Prajmaline (Neo-gilurythmal) is a class Ia antiarrhythmic agent which has been available since the 1970s. Class Ia drugs increase the time one action potential lasts in the heart. Prajmaline is a semi-synthetic propyl derivative of ajmaline, with a higher bioavailability than its predecessor. It acts to stop arrhythmias of the heart through a frequency-dependent block of cardiac sodium channels. Prajmaline causes a resting block in the heart. A resting block is the depression of a persons Vmax after a resting period. This effect is seen more in the atrium than the ventricle. The effects of some Class I antiarrhythmics are only seen in a patient who has a normal heart rate (~1 Hz). This is due to the effect of a phenomenon called reverse use dependence. The higher the heart rate, the less effect Prajmaline will have. The drug Prajmaline has been used to treat a number of cardiac disorders. These include: coronary artery disease, angina, paroxysmal tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. ...
Right bundle branch block Differential diagnosis of right bundle branch block / causes of right bundle branch block are : -pulmonary embolism
Brugada syndrome is a disorder characterized by sudden death associated with one of several ECG patterns characterized by incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevations in the anterior precordial leads. See the image below.
Brugada syndrome is a disorder characterized by sudden death associated with one of several ECG patterns characterized by incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevations in the anterior precordial leads. See the image below.
Brugada syndrome is a rare but highly informative condition of susceptibility to potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias that provides an important model for understanding the pathomechanism underlying more common arrhythmia syndromes.22 23 Perhaps the most attractive and well-substantiated hypothesis to explain the cellular basis of Brugada syndrome involves reduced myocardial Na+ current and the resultant imbalance of inward and outward currents particularly in the right ventricular epicardium where disproportionate expression of the transient outward current creates a transmural voltage gradient and dispersion of repolarization.8 24 This hypothesis has been validated by experimental animal models and by computational methods.9 12 The theory helps to explain the characteristic ECG pattern observed in patients with Brugada syndrome, provides a basis for understanding the effects of Na+-channel blocking agents to aggravate this phenotype, and may illustrate mechanisms underlying acquired ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding drug effects on the heart is key to safety pharmacology assessment and anti-arrhythmic therapy development. Here our goal is to demonstrate the ability of computational models to simulate the effect of drug action on the electrical activity of the heart, at the level of the ion-channel, cell, heart and ECG body surface potential. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We use the state-of-the-art mathematical models governing the electrical activity of the heart. A drug model is introduced using an ion channel conductance block for the hERG and fast sodium channels, depending on the IC(50) value and the drug dose. We simulate the ECG measurements at the body surface and compare biomarkers under different drug actions. KEY RESULTS: Introducing a 50% hERG-channel current block results in 8% prolongation of the APD(90) and 6% QT interval prolongation, hERG block does not affect the QRS interval. Introducing 50% fast sodium current block prolongs the QRS and the QT intervals by 12% and
The non-invasive localization of focal heart activity via body surface potential measurements (BSPM) could greatly benefit the understanding and treatment of arrhythmic heart diseases. However, the in vivo validation of source localization algorithms
Right bundle branch block treatment is not always necessary but it can be essential to ensure the condition doesnt exacerbate. Complication and prevention is also available.
Shimizu W., Matsuo K., Takagi M.; Body surface distribution and response to drugs of ST segment elevation in Brugada syndrome: clinical implication of eighty-seven-lead body surface potential mapping and its application to twelve-lead electrocardiograms. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 11 2000:396-404. ...
Looking for information on Brugada Syndrome? Medigest has all you need to know about Brugada Syndrome - Symptoms and Signs, Causes, Treatments and definition
Looking for online definition of precordial in the Medical Dictionary? precordial explanation free. What is precordial? Meaning of precordial medical term. What does precordial mean?
Genetic testing for up to 20 genes that cause Brugada syndrome, an arrhythmia that can cause fainting, seizure-like episodes, or cardiac arrest.
... is a genetic disorder that causes an irregular heartbeat. This rare, but life threatening condition is more common in people of Asian descent.
How do the interpretation rules for ST segment proportionality, concordance and discordance apply to right bundle branch block in patients with chest pain ...
The ECG patterns associated with typical Brugada syndrome were first reported by Martini et al. (17). Subsequent studies showed 3 different types of ECG changes to be associated with Brugada syndrome based on the morphology in V1 and V2 (18). Type-1 ECG is characterized by a ≥2-mm J-point elevation, coved type ST-T segment elevation, and inverted T-wave in leads V1 and V2 (Fig. 1A). Type-2 ECG is characterized by a ≥2-mm J-point elevation, ≥1-mm ST-segment elevation, saddleback ST-T segment, and a positive or biphasic T-wave. Type-3 ECG is the same as type 2, except that the ST-segment elevation is ,1 mm. Among these 3 types of ECGs, only the type 1 is diagnostic of Brugada syndrome. A simple method to document type-1 ECG is to move the V1 lead from the third intercostals space to the second intercostals space. However, the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis established with upward displacement of leads are unknown. Another method is to take an ECG after a large meal (19), ...
Nelwan, SP, Finlay, D, Meij, S and Nugent, CD (2007) Evaluation of Limited and Alternative Lead Sets for the Reconstruction of the 12-Lead ECG and Body Surface Potential Maps. In: Computers in Cardiology 2007, Durham, North Carolina. IEEE. 4 pp. [Conference contribution] Full text not available from this repository. ...
Right bundle branch block and ST segment elevation (RBBB-STE) in the right precordial leads have been reported as a distinct clinical and electrocardiographic syndrome in patients prone to ventricular fibrillation (VF) in the absence of structural he
The most common causes of a right bundle branch block are a previous heart attack, a congenital deformity, cardiovascular disease...
The prevalence varies between 5-50:10.000, largely depending on geographic location. In some southeast Asian countries the disease is considered endemic and believed to be the second cause of death among young men (after car accidents). In these countries Brugada syndrome is believed to underly (in part) the Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome (SUDS). This relation has, however, not been thoroughly investigated and there are almost no epidemiological studies into Brugada syndrome ECGs (apart from Japan). In different Asian countries, different names have been given to SUDS: in the Phillipines it is called bangungut (to rise and moan in sleep) and in Thailand lai tai (death during sleep ...
The prevalence varies between 5-50:10.000, largely depending on geographic location. In some southeast Asian countries the disease is considered endemic and believed to be the second cause of death among young men (after car accidents). In these countries Brugada syndrome is believed to underly (in part) the Sudden Unexpected Death Syndrome (SUDS). This relation has, however, not been thoroughly investigated and there are almost no epidemiological studies into Brugada syndrome ECGs (apart from Japan). In different Asian countries, different names have been given to SUDS: in the Phillipines it is called bangungut (to rise and moan in sleep) and in Thailand lai tai (death during sleep ...
The cellular mechanisms believed to underlie Brugada syndrome evolved on a parallel but separate track from that of the clinical syndrome. The concepts of all-or-none repolarization of the ventricular epicardial action potential and of phase 2 reentry were developed in the early 1990s (25-27). It was on a bus ride to the airport following a meeting of the International Society of Computerized Electrocardiography (ISCE) in Florida that Dr. Antzelevitch, fortuitously seated next to Dr. Phillipe Coumel, expressed surprise that there was apparently no clinical counterpart to phase 2 reentry as a mechanism of arrhythmogenesis. After some discussion, Dr. Coumel suggested that Dr. Antzelevitch contact the Brugada brothers, who had recently described a syndrome with somewhat similar characteristics. The rest, as they say, is history. Drs. Antzelevitch, Pedro, Josep, and Ramon Brugada, Jeffrey Towbin, and Kolawanee Nademanee have worked as a cohesive team since the mid 1990s.. Basic studies conducted ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Circulation Research.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Abstract: The goal of this study was to describe normal electrocardiographic (ECG) patterns and... | Article from Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery March 1, 2011
The main finding of this study is that abnormal ST segment elevation was presented following administration of class Ic drugs in five patients who experienced no previous syncope or ventricular fibrillation. Although the ST segment elevation was similar to that found in the Brugada syndrome, the relation between the ECG changes and the incidence of serious arrhythmias has not yet been sufficiently clarified. The mechanism of ST segment elevation in conjunction with the relevance of sodium channel blocking effects is discussed.. Class Ic drugs are known to be effective for the treatment of various arrhythmias.11 On the other hand, proarrhythmic effects and other adverse effects7 12 have also been reported. Recently, some cases of ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads following administration of class Ic drug were reported by our group5-7 and others.8 9 In recent studies, the mechanisms of ST segment elevation in the Brugada syndrome are thought to derive from the transmural ...
The right bundle branch block mainly affects the terminal portion of the QRS complex, resulting in a second R-wave (referred to as R) in V1-V3 and a broad and deep S-wave in V5-V6. However, right bundle branch block only affects the depolarization of the right ventricle; the left ventricle will be depolarized, which is why infarct criteria for the QRS complex (pathological Q-waves) may be applied in the presence of right bundle branch block.. The right bundle branch block will also cause secondary ST-T changes in lead V1-V3 but these forces are not strong enough to mask ischemic ST-T changes arising from the left ventricle (because it has stronger electrical potentials). The classical ECG changes (and ECG criteria) seen in STE-ACS/STEMI and NSTE-ACS/NSTEMI do apply in presence of right bundle branch block.. To conclude, ECG interpretation of ischemia may proceed as usual in presence of right bundle branch block.. One should also be observant regarding pseudonormalization of T-wave inversions ...
Dromotropic derives from the Greek word "dromos", meaning running, a course, a race. A dromotropic agent is one which affects the conduction speed in the AV node, and subsequently the rate of electrical impulses in the heart. Agents that are dromotropic are often (but not always) inotropic and chronotropic. For instance, parasympathetic stimulation is usually negatively chronotropic and dromotropic, but because the vagus nerve does not innervate ventricular myocardium has no effect on inotropy. Non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers such as verapamil block the slow inward calcium current in cardiac tissues, thereby having a negatively dromotropic, chronotropic and inotropic effect. This (and other) pharmacological effect makes these drugs useful in the treatment of angina pectoris. Conversely, they can lead to symptomatic disturbances in cardiac conduction and bradyarrhythmias, and may aggravate left ventricular failure. Bathmotropic Chronotropic Inotrope Furukawa, Y.; Wallick, D. W.; ...
... (RBBB), a pattern seen on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG), results when normal electrical activity in the His-Purkinje system is interrupted (). The normal sequence of activation is altered dramatically in RBBB, with a r
The Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease characterised by abnormal electrocardiogram findings and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death.
As a discriminating variable, sum ST decrease ^ - 4,000 jjlV#s, cessation minus rest, appeared to provide the best criterion for prediction of single-vs multiple-vessel CAD in patients who achieved angina (Table 2). Retrospective application of this criterion to CAD groups 1 to 3 yielded a sensitivity of 85 percent, a specificity of 70 percent, a positive predictive value of 65 percent and a negative predictive value of 90 percent for the diagnosis of multiple-vessel CAD. Among CAD patients who achieved fatigue as their exercise endpoint, only four of 15 had sum ST decrease ^ - 4,000 ,iV#s (Table 2). Among the normal control tests, three of ten had sum ST integral decrease , - 4,000 ,xV*s (Table 3). It is relevant to note the three normal tests with sum ST decrease ,-4,000 ,xV*s were those with the three highest heart rates (tests la, 4 and 5; Table 3), substantially higher than the average of the normal group (Table 3) and the CAD patient groups (Table 2). These findings underline the ...
Build: Wed Jun 21 18:33:50 EDT 2017 (commit: 4a3b2dc). National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-4874 • 301-435-0888. ...
There is sinus rhythm with first degree AV block. There is ST elevation in II, III, and aVF and reciprocal ST depression in aVL. The computer read inferior MI. As for precordial leads: this is from my files and I dont have all the information, but it is clearly a right sided ECG (QRS in V5, V6 is inverted from QRS in I, aVL) What else do you see? ...
This months EKG contender, Brugada syndrome (BS), is one of those findings that will elude many if not most EPs. This is a relatively new and rare entity, but one that is currently the object of much interest to the erudite cardiologists who study such things. This syndrome is not an expected pickup by ED clinicians, at least not yet, but if youre perceptive enough to spot it, you will certainly look like a star ...
Thanks every one to reply my post Pacemaker & Stress test. Ive gone through the treadmill street test! Think what number I score? A1??? I wish to and I think the doc would give me A1+++ becaus...
MalaCards based summary : Right Bundle Branch Block, also known as right bundle branch block with left posterior fascicular block, is related to heart block, progressive, type ia and rheumatic heart disease. An important gene associated with Right Bundle Branch Block is SCN5A (Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 5), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Activation of cAMP-Dependent PKA and Developmental Biology. The drugs Tolvaptan and Arginine Vasopressin have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. Affiliated tissues include heart, testes and spinal cord, and related phenotype is cardiovascular system ...
Question - Is right bundle branch block related to kidney problem?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, Ask a Cardiac Surgeon
Investigation of anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia requires an accurate record of events including information on timing of drug administration provided by the anaesthetist, as well as timed acute tryptase measurements. Referrals should be made to a centre with the experience and ability to investigate reactions to a range of drug classes/substances including neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) intravenous (i.v.) anaesthetics, antibiotics, opioid analgesics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local anaesthetics, colloids, latex and other agents. About a third of cases are due to allergy to NMBAs. Therefore, investigation should be carried out in a dedicated drug allergy clinic to allow seamless investigation of all suspected drug classes as a single day-case. This will often require skin prick tests, intra-dermal testing and/or drug challenge. Investigation must cover the agents administered, but should also include most other commonly used NMBAs and i.v. anaesthetics. The ...
I have RBBB, and occasional PVCs, sometimes during exercise. Should answer 1 say or you have PVCs with right bundle branch block morphology on EKG?? Could you tell me, are there PVCs with a left and right bbb morphology (and which is visible on the EKG?) The first answer scared me a little bit, to be honest.. Sometimes I have a tachycardia which I cannot explain. It starts with me feeling my heart beating in my throat. It feels like my heart has suddenly shifted 20 cm upwards in my chest and I can feel it beat high in my chest / throat. One time this happened before going to the gym. It started to accelerate to about 160 bpm, then I tried to relax and it went back to about 100 bpm. I refused to give in to anxiety, so I started to work out anyway. However, as soon as I started lifting weights (and thus my heartrate would go up) I would immediately feel it back in my throat. It was so annoying (and still scary) that I gave up working out after 10 mins, because it didnt feel good ...
By Walker, Dennis D Johnson, Monica L; Craig-Gray, Robert W; Loyd, Frank ABSTRACT Introduction: Brugada syndrome describes a subgroup of patients at risk for polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden cardiac death and is likely underdiagnosed among aviators. Case Report: A 40-year-old male pilot presented to the clinic for his physical. He denied any symptoms on initial questioning. Subsequent electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed premature ventricular couplets with ST-segment elevation in V^sub 1^ and V^sub 2^ of the precordial leads with T-wave abnormalities. Discussion: Special care must be taken if ECG demonstrates a Brugada pattern-especially in patients with a history of syncope or a family history of sudden death. Recent studies have confirmed a significant risk reduction in symptomatic patients with type 1 Brugada to as low as 0.8% to 3% with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusion: Symptomatic patients displaying type 1 Brugada ECG (spontaneous ...
Left bundle branch blocks. In left bundle branch block (LBBB) the left ventricle is not directly activated by impulses travelling through the left bundle branch. The right ventricle, however, is still activated as normal by the right bundle branch.. The left ventricle is activated by impulses travelling through the myocardium across the septum. As this occurs more slowly than conduction through the bundle of His the QRS complex becomes widened.. Normally the septum is activated from left to right, which produces small Q waves in the lateral leads. In the presence of LBBB, however, this septal activation is reversed, which eliminates these normal septal Q waves.. The right to left depolarization of the myocardium produces deep S waves in the right praecordial leads (V1-V3) and tall R waves in the lateral leads (I, V5 and V6). It also usually causes left axis deviation. As the ventricles are activated sequentially from right to left, rather than simultaneously, the R wave in the lateral leads is ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) is acknowledged to be responsible for arrhythmogenesis in Brugada syndrome (BrS), but the pathophysiology remains co..
Bundle branches are clusters of pathways that carry electrical impulses to different parts of your heart. A bundle branch block is a delay or obstruction in one of the pathways. These can keep your heart from pumping normally. Many blocks are caused by heart disease, some are there at birth. If the condition is serious, a pacemaker may be prescribed.   The key bundle is the bundle of His, the him in question being the discoverer, Wilhelm His, Jr. This bundle distributes the electrical impulse from the AV node to each ventricle, where it branches into the left and right bundle branches.
Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice.
List of 46 causes for Ear blister and Precordial ache and Upper abdominal rash, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Bezzina C.R., Barc J., Mizusawa Y., Remme C.A., Gourraud J.B., Simonet F., Verkerk A.O., Schwartz P.J., Crotti L., Dagradi F., et al. (2013). Common variants at SCN5A-SCN10A and HEY2 are associated with Brugada syndrome, a rare disease with high risk of sudden cardiac death. Nat Genet 45: 1044-1049. PubMed: 23872634 (TP A16) ...
Looking for online definition of bundle branch block, bilateral in the Medical Dictionary? bundle branch block, bilateral explanation free. What is bundle branch block, bilateral? Meaning of bundle branch block, bilateral medical term. What does bundle branch block, bilateral mean?
Definition of bundle branch block, complete in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is bundle branch block, complete? Meaning of bundle branch block, complete as a legal term. What does bundle branch block, complete mean in law?
For recommendations on alternative therapy for patients with antibiotic allergies, please consult the Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Program. In cases where an antibiotic is needed to treat infection but there is risk for IgE-mediated reaction, drug desensitization can be attempted. Generally, patients with suspected drug allergy should be evaluated by an allergist, who can assist with testing and possible drug challenge. ...
Brugada syndrome (BrS) is among the more common familial arrhythmia syndromes, with an estimated prevalence of 1 to 5 per 10 000 persons. It is characterized by a right ventricular conduction delay, dynamic or persistent ST-segment elevations in the precordial leads V1-3 , and an elevated risk of syncope and sudden cardiac death in young adults without structural heart disease... ...
A right ventricular (RV) myocardial infarction (MI) may yield precordial ST-segment elevation (STE). Accordingly, combined inferior and precordial STE may be produced during an inferior-RV MI. Such an electrocardiographic picture may be mistakenly regarded as showing wrapped left anterior descending artery (LADA) occlusion or double vessel occlusion. We present a patient with inferior-RV MI and STE in the inferior, all precordial and right chest leads, in whom the diffuse precordial STE was probably mistakenly regarded as showing anterior MI. However, the STE resolution in V1-V2 and late R wave in V1, which were combined with a recanalized RV branch, favored the RV origin of this STE. Furthermore, the LADA was patent when V3-V6 showed severe ischemia, while its lesion was angiographically stable. Thus its simultaneous occlusion was unlikely. The late R wave in V1 indicates RV transmural conduction delay;as highlighted herein, it is diagnostic of a RV myocardial infarction. (Cardiol J 2010; 17, ...
It was decided that the changes were due to Brugada-like pattern due to Na channel blockaid from flecanide in the setting of recent poor PO intake, nausea and vomiting. Elevated troponin was due to recent ablation. The nausea and vomiting were attributed to dabigatran, which the patient had not tolerated well in the past (she had previously had such GI symptoms). The patient was admitted to telemetry, her Na was replaced with IV fluids, flecainide was discontinued. Metoprolol was started, dabigatran discontinued, and rivaroxaban was started. ECG returned to baseline - incomplete RBBB was still present. Serial troponins remained stable at a low but elevated level. The patient had an uneventful hospital stay. ...
In present, prolongation of ventricular repolarization is the only known specific ECG criterion for Long QT syndrome (LQTS). Several ECG patterns which could help to identify different gene-specific variants of LQTS inside population of affected people have been described as well. So far their diagnostic value is still under discussion. Research for elaborating additional noninvasive diagnostic criteria is relevant. The study aims at evaluation of features of ventricular depolarization (VD) and repolarization (VR) in patients with LQT1 and LQT2 by analyzing the body surface mapping potential distributions of QRS and ST-T. Patients and methods: The body surface potential mapping (BSPM) was carried out in 27 children (mean age 12.1 2.8) with congenital LQTS (16 girls and 11 boys). The family history, course of disease, results of clinical tests and genetic analysis (13 pts) were used for determining of LQTS types. The LQT1 was found in 10 genetically tested pts; and LQT2 was found in another 3 ...
You are working in TCC when EMS arrives, bagging an unresponsive elderly-appearing female. They report that they were called to a nursing home for unresponsiveness, and found the patient on the floor. On their arrival, she was minimally responsive to noxious stimuli and had a heart rate of 36 on the monitor. She received atropine 0.5 mg x 3 prehospital with minimal response. Her blood pressure is 80/60. To identify if there is heart block, you get an EKG demonstrating marked sinus bradycardia with a 1st degree AV block and possible ST elevation in the inferior and precordial leads (see below): ...
Puteri & Daniel akhirnya sudah berumahtangga dan dikurniakan seorang anak, Qayyum. Jee & Kak Tim pula akan melangsungkan perkahwinan mereka dengan pilihan masing-masing, tetapi tidak mengetahui bahawa pasangan mereka adalah bekas kekasih Jee & Kak Tim. Puteri lah yang terpaksa meleraikan pergaduhan mereka. Tanpa pengetahuan Puteri, Daniel sebenarnya mengidap penyakit Brugada Syndrome. Dia berkeras ingin merahsiakan penyakitnya dari pengetahuan keluarga kerana khuatir mereka akan risau. Banyak perkara yang mencurigakan berlaku kepada Daniel seperti tiba-tiba pengsan dan berhenti kerja sehinggakan Puteri syak bahawa Daniel curang di belakangnya. Pada hari Majlis Sambutan Hari Raya di sekolah Qayyum, Daniel telah jatuh pengsan dan dibawakan ke hospital ...
OBJECTIVES: The PRELUDE (PRogrammed ELectrical stimUlation preDictive valuE) prospective registry was designed to assess the predictive accuracy of sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VTs/VF) inducibility and to identify additional predictors of arrhythmic events in Brugada syndrome patients without history of VT/VF.. BACKGROUND: Brugada syndrome is a genetic disease associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Even though its value has been questioned, inducibility of VTs/VF is widely used to select candidates to receive a prophylactic implantable defibrillator, and its accuracy has never been addressed in prospective studies with homogeneous enrolling criteria.. METHODS: Patients with a spontaneous or drug-induced type I electrocardiogram (ECG) and without history of cardiac arrest were enrolled. The registry included 308 consecutive individuals (247 men, 80%; median age 44 years, range 18 to 72 years). Programmed electrical stimulation was performed at ...
Examination of patients includes routine testing like electrocardiogram (ECG), sequential ECGs, exercise testing, invasive electrophysiological stimulation, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, intravenous drug challenge for identification/exclusion of eg Brugada syndrome. Examples are patients with Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, familial atrial fibrillation, WPW-syndrome, arrhythmias due to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Blood samples are taken for further molecular genetic screening. ...
CPX-351, a drug therapy for acute myeloid leukemia, has been raised by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA, to orphan drug status. Now with seven years market exclusivity in the U.S, Celator Pharmaceuticals will continue through to phase 2 clinical trials.. According to medcitynews.com, its goals involve a fund of $5 million, and $2.57m of this target has been raised through equity, options and securities so far.. Understand how governments are collaborating to improve the orphan drugs challenges, learn the strategic solutions, and discover the trends of technology investments at the World Orphan Drugs Congress USA 2012.. The congress speakers consist of business and scientific industry leaders from North America and beyond. Register now, and meet decision-makers from big pharma, early stage and mid stage biotechs, government and regulatory bodies.. ...
We report a 12-year-old boy who presented with incomplete right ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos and headache. Initial CT and MRI revealed a mass in the right cavernous sinus. During tumour work-up, CT i
Electrocardiogram on admission depicting 1 mm ST segment elevation in lateral leads with associated right bundle branch block and ventricular beats in couplet
Ischemic heart disease is the single most frequent cause of death in. the world today. Electrocardiogram (ECG) exercise testing is a common. tool for diagnosing this disease. With the ECG exercise test one can. compare the recording of the electrical activity in the heart during. exercise and rest. A shift between the rest and exercise recording in. the segment of the heartbeat called the ST segment is used both for. diagnosing ischemia, and as input to cardiac computation methods.. Body surface potential mappings (BSPM) are ECG recordings at a greater. number of locations on the torso, and provides better detection and. localisation properties than the traditional 12-lead ECG. In BSPM and ECG,. noise and drift from various sources are recorded in addition to the. signal propagating from the heart. A model for this is:. BSPM=signal+noise+drift.. Before accurate measurements of the ST segments in a BSPM. can be made, the noise and drift in the recording must be reduced. while keeping the signal ...
Characterized by fainting, bundle branch block sometimes makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently through the circulatory system.
Background: Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has growing prevalence, especially in postmenopausal females. Heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) is a combination of Panchakarma and allied therapies used by Ayurveda physicians for chronic heart failure patients. This observational study was done to evaluate HFRT in HFrEF-affected postmenopausal females. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2015 and December 2017 at a Madhavbaug Hospital in Khopoli, India. The data of HFrEF patients who were administered HFRT twice over 7 days in hospital were considered. VO2 max, distance covered on 6-min walk test (6MWT), weight, body mass index (BMI), abdominal girth, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were compared to day 1 and 90 of HFRT. Results: Twenty females were enrolled with a mean age of 64.2 ± 4.38 years. There was a significant improvement in mean VO2 max (12.30 ± 2.12 vs. 13.45 ± 2.10, P , 0.05) and mean distance covered after 6MWT (319.5 ± ...
During a complete bundle branch block, many ectopic pacemakers in the ventricles may take over the action of the SA node. The EKG may show which of the following ...
During a complete bundle branch block, many ectopic pacemakers in the ventricles may take over the action of the SA node. The EKG may show which of the following ...
Learn all about precordial catch syndrome, a form of chest pain most commonly experienced by young people. We look at the symptoms, causes, and treatments.

AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS manufacturing companiesAJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS manufacturing companies

We are sorry, there are no companies found in " AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS" Listing your company for AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS ... AJMALINE - PHYTOCHEMICALS manufacturers and suppliers. Search. Search by Drug Name, Company, CAS, Chem formula, IUPAC Name, ...
more infohttp://www.poulvet.com/bulk_drugs/product_companies_india.php?sclid=8593&prefix=C

Management of patients with a Brugada ECG patternManagement of patients with a Brugada ECG pattern

... ajmaline, procainamide, dispyramide, propafenone and pilsicainide have been used to unmask BS16-18. The current recommendations ...
more infohttps://www.escardio.org/Journals/E-Journal-of-Cardiology-Practice/Volume-7/Management-of-patients-with-a-Brugada-ECG-pattern

Brugada Syndrome - ECGpediaBrugada Syndrome - ECGpedia

... either spontaneously or provoked by fever or sodium channel blockers like ajmaline, procainimde or flecainide) life style ...
more infohttp://en.ecgpedia.org/wiki/Brugada_Syndrome

Brugada Syndrome - ECGpediaBrugada Syndrome - ECGpedia

... either spontaneously or provoked by fever or sodium channel blockers like ajmaline, procainimde or flecainide) life style ...
more infohttp://en.ecgpedia.org/index.php?title=Brugada_syndrome

Rauvolfia serpentina,rauwolfia,sarpagandha herb | Pioneer HerbalRauvolfia serpentina,rauwolfia,sarpagandha herb | Pioneer Herbal

... the more important being two chemical classes known as the ajmaline and the serpentine group. The quantity of the total ...
more infohttp://www.pioneerherbal.com/rauwolfia-serpentina/

Ajmaline - WikipediaAjmaline - Wikipedia

In both cases, Ajmaline causes the action potential to become longer and ultimately leads to bradycardia. When ajmaline ... Ajmaline also prolongs the QR interval since it can also act as sodium channel blocker, therefore making it take longer for the ... Ajmaline can be found in most species of the Rauvolfia genus as well as Catharanthus roseus. In addition to Southeast Asia, ... Ajmaline was first discovered to lengthen the refractory period of the heart by blocking sodium ion channels, but it has also ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ajmaline

AjmalineAjmaline

... ; Ritmos; 5H-6,10:11,12a-Dimethanoindolo[3,2-b]quinolizine, ajmalan-17,21-diol deriv.; NSC 15627 ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=4360-12-7

Ajmaline - Drugs.comAjmaline - Drugs.com

A list of US medications equivalent to Ajmaline is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Ajmaline is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/ajmaline.html

Accelerated idioventricular rhythm during ajmaline test: a case report.Accelerated idioventricular rhythm during ajmaline test: a case report.

... Author(s): Sorgente, A.; Yazaki, Y.; Capulzini, L.; ... We present an unusual transient pro-arrhythmic effect of ajmaline in a patient with resuscitated cardiac arrest and a left ... possible physio-pathological explanation for this new pro-arrhythmic effect linked to administration of intravenous ajmaline. ...
more infohttp://repository.ubn.ru.nl/handle/2066/87846

Flecainide/Ajmaline Test | Heart Rhythm ClinicFlecainide/Ajmaline Test | Heart Rhythm Clinic

What is a ajmaline challenge?. Ajmaline is a drug known as a sodium channel blocker. It is routinely used by doctors to prevent ... Is the ajmaline challenge safe?. Yes, the ajmaline challenge is safe. However, as with any procedure, there are potential risks ... Why do I need a ajmaline challenge?. Your doctor has advised you to undergo a ajmaline challenge to exclude Brugada syndrome. ... Ajmaline is used by doctors in this test as it blocks the faulty sodium channels and unmasks ECG changes in those patients who ...
more infohttp://heartrhythmclinic.com/treatments-procedures/flecainideajmaline-test/

Drug-Induced Brugada Syndrome in Children | JACC: Journal of the American College of CardiologyDrug-Induced Brugada Syndrome in Children | JACC: Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Ajmaline challenge. Ajmaline (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously over a 5-min period to unmask the diagnostic ECG pattern ... Ajmaline challenge. From 1992 to 2013, a total of 169 individuals ≤12 years of age underwent an ajmaline challenge for ... Among them, ajmaline challenge revealed a Brugada ECG type 1 in 40 children (24%). ECG parameters before and after ajmaline ... Ajmaline challenge. Ajmaline challenge is an established tool to unmask the diagnostic Brugada ECG pattern in patients with ...
more infohttp://www.onlinejacc.org/content/63/21/2272?ijkey=c5af9f4a788fa59edf46513e2499cc6f5e22d6e6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Salimuzzaman Siddiqui - WikipediaSalimuzzaman Siddiqui - Wikipedia

Part I. Ajmaline series. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 9. p. 539. Siddiqui, S. and Siddiqui, R.H. (1935). The ... Ajmaline series. Journal of the Indian Chemical Society. 12. p. 37. Siddiqui, S. (1942). A note on isolation of three new ... He named the newly discovered chemical compound as Ajmaline, after his mentor Hakim Ajmal Khan who was one of the illustrious ... "Value of Electrocardiographic Parameters and Ajmaline Test in the Diagnosis of Brugada Syndrome Caused by SCN5A Mutations". ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salimuzzaman_Siddiqui

Lamotrigine - WikipediaLamotrigine - Wikipedia

Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side-effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lamotrigine

Domperidone - WikipediaDomperidone - Wikipedia

The hormone prolactin stimulates lactation (production of breast milk). Dopamine, released by the hypothalamus stops the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation (that is, it is a galactogogue). In some nations, including Australia, domperidone is used off-label, based on uncertain and anecdotal evidence of its usefulness, as a therapy for mothers who are having difficulty breastfeeding.[24][25] In the United States, domperidone is not approved for this or any other use.[26][27] A study called the EMPOWER trial was designed to assess the effectiveness and safety of domperidone in assisting mothers of preterm babies to supply breast milk for their infants.[28] The study randomized 90 mothers of preterm babies to receive either domperidone 10 mg orally three times daily for 28 days (Group A) or placebo 10 mg orally three times daily for 14 days followed by domperidone ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domperidone

CRYs Research | c-r-y.org.ukCRY's Research | c-r-y.org.uk

Ajmaline test Q&A with Dr Michael Papadakis. Dr Michael Papadakis answers some of your questions about their recent research ... Characterization of early repolarization during ajmaline provocation and exercise tolerance testing. Bastiaenen, R., Raju, H., ... "Characterization of early repolarization during ajmaline provocation and exercise tolerance testing." Heart Rhythm October 2012 ... death to the CRY Centre for Inherited Cardiac Conditions at St Georges Hospital would they always/usually have the ajmaline ...
more infohttps://www.c-r-y.org.uk/research/crys-contribution-to-research/

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit:...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Synthesis of Bisindole Alkaloids from the Apocynaceae Which Contain a Macroline or Sarpagine Unit:...

The monomeric units belong to the sarpagine, ajmaline, macroline, vobasine, and pleiocarpamine series. An up-to-date discussion ... The monomeric units belong to the sarpagine, ajmaline, macroline, vobasine, and pleiocarpamine series. An up-to-date discussion ... Keywords: Alstonia genus; Apocynaceae family; sarpagine; macroline; ajmaline; bisindole alkaloids; biomimetic synthesis; ... ajmaline; bisindole alkaloids; biomimetic synthesis; partial and total synthesis; enantiospecific and regiospecific synthesis ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/11/1525

Browsing  by TitleBrowsing by Title

EXPLORATORY STUDIES IN THE TOTAL SYNTHESIS OF AJMALINE  SANDERS, JAMES MILTON (1966) ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/browse?rpp=60&sort_by=1&type=title&etal=-1&starts_with=I&order=ASC

Pediazole Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.comPediazole Advanced Patient Information - Drugs.com

Detailed drug Information for Pediazole. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/cons/pediazole.html

Zolmitriptan (Oral Route) Precautions - Mayo ClinicZolmitriptan (Oral Route) Precautions - Mayo Clinic

Check with your doctor if you used this medicine and your migraine did not go away, or if your migraine got worse or started occurring more often. This medicine may increase your risk of having abnormal heart rhythm, heart attack, angina, or stroke. This is more likely to occur if you or a family member already has heart disease, if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or if you smoke. Call your doctor right away if you have any symptoms of a heart problem, such as chest pain or discomfort, an uneven heartbeat, nausea or vomiting, pain or discomfort in the shoulders, arms, jaw, back, or neck, shortness of breath, or sweating. Call your doctor right away if you have any symptoms of a stroke, such as confusion, difficulty with speaking, double vision, headaches, an inability to move the arms, legs, or facial muscles, an inability to speak, or slow speech. Check with your doctor right away if you have chest discomfort, jaw or neck tightness after taking this medicine. Also, tell your doctor if ...
more infohttp://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/zolmitriptan-oral-route/precautions/drg-20066780?p=1

Haloperidol (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo ClinicHaloperidol (Oral Route) Description and Brand Names - Mayo Clinic

This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS depressants (medicines that make you drowsy or less alert). Some examples of CNS depressants are antihistamines or medicine for allergies or colds, sedatives, tranquilizers, or sleeping medicine, prescription pain medicine or narcotics, medicine for seizures or barbiturates, muscle relaxants, or anesthetics, including some dental anesthetics. Check with your doctor before taking any of the above while you are using this medicine. This medicine may cause some people to become dizzy, drowsy, or may cause trouble with thinking or controlling body movements, which may lead to falls, fractures or other injuries. Even if you take haloperidol at bedtime, you may feel drowsy or less alert on arising. Make sure you know how you react to this medicine before you drive, use machines, or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are dizzy or not alert. Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting may occur, especially when you get up from a ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/haloperidol-oral-route/description/drg-20064173?p=1

Conotoxin - WikipediaConotoxin - Wikipedia

Omega, delta and kappa families of conotoxins have a knottin or inhibitor cystine knot scaffold. The knottin scaffold is a very special disulfide-through-disulfide knot, in which the III-VI disulfide bond crosses the macrocycle formed by two other disulfide bonds (I-IV and II-V) and the interconnecting backbone segments, where I-VI indicates the six cysteine residues starting from the N-terminus. The cysteine arrangements are the same for omega, delta and kappa families, even though omega conotoxins are calcium channel blockers, whereas delta conotoxins delay the inactivation of sodium channels, and kappa conotoxins are potassium channel blockers.[7] ...
more infohttp://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2F%25CE%259C-Conotoxin

View the content page [c]View the content page [c]

Lamotrigine is a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs.[60] This may suppress the release of glutamate and aspartate, two of the dominant excitatory neurotransmitters in the CNS.[61] It is generally accepted to be a member of the sodium channel blocking class of antiepileptic drugs,[62] but it could have additional actions, since it has a broader spectrum of action than other sodium channel antiepileptic drugs such as phenytoin and is effective in the treatment of the depressed phase of bipolar disorder, whereas other sodium channel-blocking antiepileptic drugs are not, possibly on account of its sigma receptor activity. In addition, lamotrigine shares few side effects with other, unrelated anticonvulsants known to inhibit sodium channels, which further emphasises its unique properties.[63] It is a triazine derivate that inhibits voltage-sensitive sodium channels, leading to stabilization of neuronal membranes. It also blocks L-, N-, and P-type calcium channels and ...
more infohttp://www.let.rug.nl/~gosse/termpedia2/termpedia.php?language=dutch_general&density=7&link_color=000000&termpedia_system=perl_db&url=http%3A%2F%2Fen.wikipedia.org%2Fwiki%2FLamotrigine

Alkaloids | Alcaloide | Productos naturalesAlkaloids | Alcaloide | Productos naturales

ajmaline, yohimbine,. reserpine,. Corynanthe type. mitragynine,[126][127]. alkaloids[120]. group strychnine and. Tryptophan ( ... Ajmaline. Atropine, scopolamine, hyoscyamine. Caffeine. Codeine. Colchicine. Emetine. Ergot alkaloids. Morphine. Nicotine. ...
more infohttps://es.scribd.com/document/269198194/Alkaloids
  • Ajmaline (also known by trade names Gilurytmal, Ritmos, and Aritmina) is an alkaloid that is class Ia antiarrhythmic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • While 86 alkaloids have been discovered throughout Rauvolfia vomitoria, ajmaline is mainly isolated from the stem bark and roots of the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an afflicted person who was induced with ajmaline, the electrocardiogram would show the characteristic pattern of the syndrome where the ST segment is abnormally elevated above the baseline. (wikipedia.org)
  • We discuss the clinical presentation and the possible physio-pathological explanation for this new pro-arrhythmic effect linked to administration of intravenous ajmaline. (ru.nl)
  • It is common to experience a metallic taste in your mouth during the administration of the ajmaline. (heartrhythmclinic.com)
  • Ajmaline was first discovered to lengthen the refractory period of the heart by blocking sodium ion channels, but it has also been noted that it is also able to interfere with the hERG (human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene) potassium ion channel. (wikipedia.org)