Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Mice, Inbred BALB CExtravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Inbred C57BLVital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Bronchial DiseasesMucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Respiratory Tract DiseasesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Tracheal StenosisTracheal DiseasesPulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeOxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Cortex HormonesRats, Inbred BNUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
University of Oxford Botanic Garden
Regeneration in humans
Through growing patient-specific lung epithelium in vitro, lung tissue expressing the cystic fibrosis phenotype has been ... The graft replaced her left main bronchus, immediately providing a functional airway, and retained its normal appearance and ... It was found that by carefully removing the cells of an entire lung, a "footprint" is left behind that can guide cellular ... Cystic fibrosis is another disease of the lungs, which is highly fatal and genetically linked to a mutation in the CFTR gene. ...
3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6.. ... Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... going to the two lungs. The primary bronchi enter the lungs to become the intrapulmonary bronchi, which give off a set of ... Maina, John N. (2005). The lung air sac system of birds development, structure, and function ; with 6 tables. Berlin: Springer ...
Acute inhalation injury
Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ... Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present ... Permanent damage to the upper respiratory tract, distal airways, and lung parenchyma occurs only if escape from the gas source ... 2007) Breath tests and airway gas exchange. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 20:112-7. Luh SP, Chiang CH. (2007) Acute lung injury/acute ...
Nicod, LP (Jul 2006). "Mechanisms of airway obliteration after lung transplantation". Proceedings of the American Thoracic ... Lung biopsy:risks *^ Hitchens, TK; Ye, Q; Eytan, DF; Janjic, JM; Ahrens, ET; Ho, C (Apr 2011). "19F MRI detection of acute ... Lau, CL; Patterson, GA (Nov 2003). "Current status of lung transplantation". The European Respiratory Journal. Supplement. 47: ... Chronic rejection explains long-term morbidity in most lung-transplant recipients, the median survival roughly 4.7 ...
Al Obaidi AH (July 2007). "Role of airway lactoperoxidase in scavenging of hydrogen peroxide damage in asthma". Ann Thorac Med ... Fischer H (October 2009). "Mechanisms and Function of DUOX in Epithelia of the Lung". Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (10): 2453-65 ... Conner GE, Salathe M, Forteza R (December 2002). "Lactoperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide metabolism in the airway". Am. J. ... Conner GE, Salathe M, Forteza R (December 2002). "Lactoperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide metabolism in the airway". Am. J. ...
Esther CR, Jr; Alexis, NE; Picher, M (2011). "Regulation of airway nucleotides in chronic lung diseases". Sub-cellular ... In the airways of patients with asthma, the expression of adenosine receptors is upregulated. Adenosine receptors affect ... The expression of the adenosine A2A receptor on endothelial cells is upregulated in the early stages of human lung cancer. ... Abnormal levels of ATP and adenosine are present in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The ...
Sleep and breathing
Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep. Elastic and flow resistive properties of the lung do not change ... Upper airway function. Upper airway resistance is expected to be highest during REM sleep because of atonia of the ... Upper airway resistance syndrome. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2010) ... increased activity of upper airway dilating muscles 250%, increased airflow and tidal volume 160% and decreased upper airway ...
Combitube Endotracheal tube Airtraq Laryngeal tube Brodsky, J. B. (11 December 2009). "Lung separation and the difficult airway ... Bronchial blockers are used to achieve lung separation and one lung ventilation as an alternative to double-lumen ... The lung tissue distal to the obstruction will collapse, thus allowing the surgeon's view and access to relevant structures ... off the right or left main bronchus of the lungs in order to be able to achieve a controlled one sided ventilation of the lungs ...
The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways (Fig. 2). In health these airways (starting at the nose or ... Other functions of the lungs. Local defenses. Irritation of nerve endings within the nasal passages or airways, can induce a ... The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or ... Both the lungs and the skin serve as respiratory organs in amphibians. The ventilation of the lungs in amphibians relies on ...
3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6.. ... Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... The airsacs move air uniderectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs. Although bird lungs are smaller than ... going to the two lungs. The primary bronchi enter the lungs to become the intrapulmonary bronchi, which give off a set of ...
The contralateral lung may be hyperinflated. Casts can be visualized within the major airways using computerized axial ... Bronchial casts can sometimes fill the airways of almost an entire lung, and present as an acute, life-threatening emergency. ... When casts are very large with many branches, an abnormal communication or leakage of lymphatic fluid into the airway is often ... If the casts completely obstruct the airway, breath sounds will be decreased and dullness will be present with percussion. With ...
... lung cancer; other bleeding erosions, ulcers, or tumors of the lower airway. Pink sputum - sputum evenly mixed with blood from ... Massive blood - cavitary tuberculosis or tumor such as lung cancer of lung, or lung abscess; bronchiectasis; lung infarction; ... Sputum /'spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and ... It is seen in cases of bronchiectasis, lung abscess, an advanced stage of bronchitis, or acute upper respiratory tract ...
In the airway, mucus is swept by the cilia of epithelial cells, and propelled out of the lungs and into the pharynx, which ... This, in addition to airway narrowing leads to the clogging of the airways, which can be detrimental to health if not treated. ... such as clogged airways due to mucus production, and eventual loss of lung function. Overexpression of MUC5AC alone does not ... Secretion may be stimulated by irritants such as dust and smoke, especially in the airway. Other stimuli are microbes such as ...
Because the lungs develop late in pregnancy, premature infants frequently possess underdeveloped lungs. To improve lung ... More serious cases are treated with continuous positive airway pressure. The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was ... By contrast, in the lungs, the response to hypoxia is vasoconstriction. This is known as hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, or ... Hypoxemia refers to a reduction in PO2 below the normal range, regardless of whether gas exchange is impaired in the lung, CaO2 ...
The respiratory bronchioles are the narrowest airways of the lungs, 0.5 mm across. The bronchi divide many times before ... The main bronchi also known as the primary bronchi, in each lung, which are the left and right bronchus, give rise to secondary ... The bronchioles or bronchioli are the smaller branches of the bronchial airways in the respiratory tract. They include the ... The respiratory bronchioles deliver air to the exchange surfaces of the lungs. They are interrupted by alveoli which are ...
Double-lumen endobronchial tube
2012 Oct PMID 22361488 Campos, JH (February 2010). "Lung isolation techniques for patients with difficult airway". Current ... These allow single-lung ventilation while the other lung is collapsed to make Thoracic surgery easier or possible. This may be ... Relative indications include the collapse of one lung and the selective ventilation of the remaining lung in order to ... one-sided ventilation of either the right or the left lung. There are several conditions that may make one-sided lung ...
"Discovering New Treatments for Lung and Airway Diseases". January 27, 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. "Ahmad Adaya ... In addition, he is exploring the radiobiology of lung cancer combined with chemotherapy, the use of stents to palliate lung ... including airway stenting and endoscopic excision of tumors. He has developed one of the largest Interventional Airway Programs ... "Timely airway stenting improves survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ...
Effects of global warming on human health
... increased risk of lung cancer, mesothelioma and tuberculosis; increased airway hyper-responsiveness; changes in levels of ... They are either caused by a flood or they are worsened by a flood; they include cancer, lung disease and diabetes. Floods have ... "lungs of the Earth". These forests are imperative for producing oxygen through photosynthesis and removing carbon in the ...
Retrometabolic drug design
As the lungs age, there is a gradual increase in the closing capacity (i.e. The small airways begin to collapse at a higher ... The closing capacity (CC) is the volume in the lungs at which its smallest airways, the respiratory bronchioles, collapse. The ... This means that there is normally enough air within the lungs to keep these airways open throughout both inhalation and ... as the small airways may collapse during exhalation, leading to air trapping and atelectasis. Lung volumes Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE ...
Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistances in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction. J Appl Physiol 82: 1531-1541, 1997. ... This fixed relationship holds at the level of the whole lung , isolated lung parenchymal tissue strips, isolated smooth muscle ... Bayliss and Robertson and Hildebrandt demonstrated that frictional stress in lung tissue is dependent upon the amount of lung ... Airway caliber in healthy and asthmatic subjects: effects of bronchial challenge and deep inspirations. J Appl Physiol 91: 506- ...
Surfactant protein A2
Goss KL, Kumar AR, Snyder JM (October 1998). "SP-A2 gene expression in human fetal lung airways". American Journal of ... Mutations in the SFTPA2 gene are found in patients with interstitial lung disease and lung cancer. SFTPA2 mutations also ... but also for maintaining lung health, and normal lung function throughout life. Quantitative and/or qualitative alterations in ... The lung is the main site of SFTPA2 synthesis, but SFTPA2 mRNA expression has also been detected in the trachea, prostate, ...
The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways (Fig. 2). In health these airways (starting at the nose or ... while others are synthesized in the lungs and released into the blood when lung tissue is stretched. The lungs activate one ... 3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6. Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; et al. (2010 ... The lungs expand and contract during the breathing cycle, drawing air in and out of the lungs. The volume of air moved in or ...
3.2-3.3 "Lung", "Airway (Bronchiol) System" 66-82. ISBN 978-3-540-25595-6. Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; et al. (2010 ... Avian lungs do not have alveoli as mammalian lungs do. Instead they contain millions of narrow passages known as parabronchi, ... going to the two lungs. The primary bronchi enter the lungs to become the intrapulmonary bronchi, which give off a set of ... Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
A. fumigatus is responsible for a spectrum of lung diseases known as aspergilloses. ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to ... of cases there is considerable extension to the periphery of the lung. Mucoid impaction of the upper and lower airways is a ... Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring. The exact criteria ... ABPA should be suspected in patients with a predisposing lung disease-most commonly asthma or cystic fibrosis- and is often ...
Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the ... It may occur in partial obstruction of a large airway, as in e.g. congenital lobar emphysema, bronchial atresia and mucous ... Breathing allows oxygen (which humans and a lot of other species need for survival) to enter the lungs, from where it can be ... Hyperinflation or hyperaeration is where the lung volume is abnormally increased, with increased filling of the alveoli. This ...
The airways form a number of double tubular chambers within each lung. On inhalation and exhalation air moves through the ... Turtle lungs are attached to the inside of the top of the shell (carapace), with the bottom of the lungs attached (via ... Lung ventilation is accomplished differently in each main reptile group. In squamates, the lungs are ventilated almost ... airways in the same direction, thus creating a unidirectional airflow through the lungs. A similar system is found in birds,[85 ...
Nerve agent - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ailing Thai king's lung infection eases, kidneys still failing: Palace Archived 13 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Channel ... Thai Airways International Building, portrait of King Bhumibol Adulyadej.. Estimates of the post-devaluation (c. 1997-1998) ... along with water in his lungs. He had been in kidney failure for some time and received dialysis. By 9 October, ... King Bhumibol underwent tests that revealed a blood infection and an X-ray found inflammation on his left lung, ...
Airway trauma features: upper airway obstruction, laryngospasm and bronchial occlusion for intubation ... The optional anesthesia delivery system allows the lungs to uptake or excrete nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane and other ... Responds to airway trauma or obstruction: esophageal, nasal and oral intubation, and BVM ventilation and laryngoscopic ...
Actual volume of the lung including the volume of the conducting airway. ... lung. Pneumonectomy. Lobectomy. Wedge resection. Lung transplantation. Decortication of lung. Heart-lung transplant. ... Total lung capacity (TLC). Total lung capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air present in the lungs ... Static lung compliance (Cst). When estimating static lung compliance, volume measurements by the spirometer needs to be ...
Surviving Sepsis Campaign
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
On the left is a diagram of the lungs and airways with an inset showing a detailed cross-section of normal bronchioles and ... Chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pulmonary ... Gross pathology of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking. This close-up of the fixed, cut lung ... For those with very severe disease, surgery is sometimes helpful and may include lung transplantation or lung volume-reduction ...
Obstructive sleep apnea
Automatic positive airway pressure, or automatic positive airway pressure, also known as "Auto CPAP", incorporates pressure ... "Lung. 192 (1): 175-184. doi:10.1007/s00408-013-9511-3. PMC 4216726. PMID 24077936.. ... Surgical treatments to modify airway anatomy, known as sleep surgery, are varied and must be tailored to the specific airway ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is effective for both moderate and severe disease. It is the most common ...
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis
Upper airway, eye and ear disease: *Ears: conductive hearing loss due to auditory tube dysfunction, sensorineural hearing loss ... Lungs: pulmonary nodules (referred to as "coin lesions"), infiltrates (often interpreted as pneumonia), cavitary lesions, ... On rare occasions, thoracoscopic lung biopsy is required. On histopathological examination, a biopsy will show leukocytoclastic ... Plasma exchange is also used in severe cases with damage to the lungs, kidneys, or intestines. ...
When over pressure is released, the patient will exhale passively due to the lungs' elasticity, the exhaled air being released ... Noninvasive methods, such as Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and Non-invasive ventilation, which are adequate for ... The history of mechanical ventilation begins with various versions of what was eventually called the iron lung, a form of ... the latter using an automotive wiper motor to drive the bellows used to inflate the lungs. Electric motors were, however, a ...
Birds' lungs obtain fresh air during both exhalation and inhalation, because the air sacs do all the "pumping" and the lungs ... and they can be identified as the more primitive form of modern bird airways. Sauropods are well known for the amount of air ... which makes the lungs expand to inhale; when these muscles relax, the lungs return to their previous size and shape, and the ... with multiple air sacs and a flow-through lung. Furthermore, an avian system would only need a lung volume of about 600 liters ...
肺炎支原體 - 维基百科，自由的百科全
職業性肺病（英语：Occupational lung disease）. 肺塵病 石棉肺（英语：Asbestosis）. 鋇塵肺（英语：Baritosis）. 鐵釩土纖維化（英语：Bauxite fibrosis）. 鈹肺病（英语：Berylliosis ... Baseman J. B. Interplay between Mycoplasma Surface Proteins, Airway Cells, and the Protean Manifestations of Mycoplasma- ... 養鳥人肺（英语：Bird fancier's lung）. 農民肺（英语：Farmer's lung）. 馬勃菌病（英语：Lycoperdonosis）. ... 阻塞性肺病（英语：obstructive lung disease）. 急性. 急性
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
As the diaphragm and intercostal muscles of the rib cage that support breathing weaken, measures of lung function such as vital ... Invasive ventilation bypasses the nose and mouth (the upper airways) by making a cut in the trachea (tracheostomy) and ... with chewing and swallowing make eating very difficult and increases the risk of choking or of aspirating food into the lungs. ...
Innate immune system
Respiratory airways and lungs. Mucociliary escalator, surfactant, defensins Nasopharynx. Mucus, saliva, lysozyme ... Kobayashi H (2005). "Airway biofilms: implications for pathogenesis and therapy of respiratory tract infections". Treatments in ... lungs, stomach, and intestines. They are named for their resemblance to neuronal dendrites, but dendritic cells are not ...
Mold health issues
Exposure can occur at home, at work or in other settings. It is predicted that about 5% of people have some airway ... "National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. October 1, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2014.. ... People at higher risk for mold allergies are people with chronic lung illnesses, which will result in more severe reactions ... lung and skin infections are also possible. Mycotoxins may or may not be produced by the invading mold. ...
Air bubbles can leave the blood through the lungs. A patient with a right-to-left shunt is vulnerable to embolism from smaller ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ... it is safer to insert with a relatively low risk of uncontrollable bleeding and essentially no risks of damage to the lungs or ...
Common cold - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and airways. In young children, when it ... the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11 (9): 938-43. PMID 17705968. ... This is due to the small size of the airway in children. ... The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : ... The color of the mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (sputum) may vary in color from clear to yellow to green. This ...
A bronchus is a passage or airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs. The first bronchi to branch from ... A bronchopulmonary segment is a division of a lung separated from the rest of the lung by a septum of connective tissue. This ... Initially, there are ten segments in each lung, but during development with the left lung having just two lobes, two pairs of ... "Bronchi, Bronchial Tree & Lungs". nih.gov. Retrieved 18 September 2019.. *^ Shih, Fu-Chieh; Wei-Jing Lee; Hung-Jung Lin (2009- ...
Other forms of sleep apnea are less common. When air is blocked from entering into the lungs, the individual unconsciously ... Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often ... dentists collaborate with sleep physicians at accredited sleep centers and can provide oral appliance therapy and upper airway ...
The fetal urine is critical to the proper development of the lungs by aiding in the expansion of the airways - alveoli, by ... Alveoli are the small sacs in the lungs that exchange oxygen with the blood. If the alveoli, and thereby the lungs, are ... Additionally, the alveolar sacs of the lungs fail to properly develop as a result of the reduced volume of amniotic fluid. ... noting the characteristic appearance of the head and lungs. Up until this time, the condition itself was considered to ...
Non-small cell lung cancer Overexpression is associated with lymph node metastasis, high TNM stage and poor prognosis. ... "Identification of genes expressed by human airway eosinophils after an in vivo allergen challenge". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e67560. ... CASS4 function was linked to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a study by Miao et al. that correlated elevated CASS4 ... Possible correlation with severity of the lung manifestation of the disease (according to GWAS). ...
The Airways and Lungs - The Horse
The Airways and Lungs. By the time a horse crosses the finish line in a five-furlong race, has completed a Grand Prix show ... If all the airways in the lung were opened out and laid flat on the ground, they would occupy a total area equivalent to 10 ... When the blood reaches the lungs, the carbon dioxide diffuses out across the membrane and into the airways because the ... The lung is also an important filter. All the blood in circulation passes through the lungs when it comes back in veins from ...
Patent US20070106348 - Method for treating airways in the lung - Google Patents
The treatment is particularly useful in the lungs for treatment of asthma to prevent bronchospasms, increase the airway ... diameter for improved air exchange, and reduce mucus secretions in the lungs. ... stimulation of the lung would preferably increase the resistance to airflow within the lung, constrict airways within the lung ... The lung tissue or airway tissue within the lung may be stimulated by a variety of methods including but not limited to ...
Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJ
Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJ
Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. Br Med J 1975; 3 :678 ... The lack of association between lung cancer and severe airways obstruction requires an explanation. ... The results suggested that simple bronchitis and lung cancer often occur together but that obstructive bronchitis and lung ... Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.. Br Med J 1975; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
Airway & Lungs | Children's National
Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system of about 30,000 children and adults ... Asthma is a chronic, inflammatory disease in which the airways become sensitive to allergens (any substance that triggers an ... RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the lower airways) and pneumonia in babies. ... Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, or chemical irritants. ...
Lungs and Airways
Our topics can help you learn more about lung and airway conditions and treatments. To start, explore these lung and airway ... Learn about your lungs and airways. Healthy lungs allow you to breathe easily, without discomfort or pain. They supply oxygen ... post a link to Lungs and Airways information on Facebook. ... Lung Cancer. *Lung Cancer and Other Lung Problems From Smoking ... post a link to Lungs and Airways information on Twitter. ... Lung Surgery for Lung Cancer. *Lung Transplant for Cystic ...
Chronic Airway Infection | National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)
Management of Airway Stenosis in the Lung Allograft: Bronchoscopy Procedures | SpringerLink
Management of airway complications is an increasingly important field in lung transplantation. While the incidence may be ... Management of Airway Stenosis in the Lung Allograft: Bronchoscopy Procedures. In: Raghu G., Carbone R. (eds) Lung ... Management of airway complications is an increasingly important field in lung transplantation. While the incidence may be ... Pulmonary resection for airway complication after lung transplantation in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report. ...
Airway, Breathing & Lung | Children's Healthcare of Atlanta
Airway, Breathing, and Lung Conditions Childrens Healthcare of Atlanta offers high-quality collaborative care to children with ... We offer a wide range of treatments for children with breathing and digestive disorders that affect the mouth, throat, lungs ... Childrens Healthcare of Atlanta offers high-quality collaborative care to children with a wide range of airway, breathing and ... a wide range of airway, breathing and lung conditions, including pediatric aerodigestive diseases, allergy and immunology, ...
The airways, a novel route for delivering monoclonal antibodies to treat lung tumors. - PubMed - NCBI
The airways, a novel route for delivering monoclonal antibodies to treat lung tumors.. Maillet A1, Guilleminault L, Lemarié E, ... Delivery of aerosolized-mAbs via the airways deserves further evaluation for treating lung cancers. ... Aerosols routinely used to deliver drugs into the lung for treating infectious and inflammatory lung diseases have never been ... Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. The efficacy of current systemic treatments is limited, ...
Overlapping Airway Basal Cell Transcriptome Reprogramming in COPD and Lung Cancer | FDA
... primary site for pathology of smoking induced lung diseases. ... effects of waterpipe and e-cigarettes on small airway ... Overlapping Airway Basal Cell Transcriptome Reprogramming in COPD and Lung Cancer. * Share ... the primary site of pathology for smoking-induced lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. ... Cigarette smoking causes major changes in the biology of the small airway epithelium (SAE), ...
Lung airway cells activate vitamin D, boost immunity - Thaindian News
Lung airway cells activate vitamin D, boost immunity. November 4th, 2008 - 3:08 pm ICT by IANS Tweet. ... "When we put the storage form of vitamin D on the lung airway cells, we saw them convert it to the active form," Hansdottir said ... Vitamin D deficiency associated with lung transplant rejection - Oct 19, 2010. *Scientists create lung tissue from human ... but a new University of Iowa study has found that the activation can also take place in lung airway cells. ...
Finding Lung Cancer Outside the Airways Just Got Easier | MDDI Online
... navigation system significantly improves the diagnostic yield of lung cancer nodules located outside a patients main airways. ... Finding Lung Cancer Outside the Airways Just Got Easier. New data unveiled at the European Respiratory Society International ... Diagnosing solitary lung tumors located outside of a patients main airways has long been a challenge, but evidence is building ... "It has been historically challenging to accurately diagnose solitary lung tumors located outside of the main airways, ...
Lung airways - Stock Image P580/0127 - Science Photo Library
Coloured X-ray of the airways (red) of the lungs (not seen). The trachea (windpipe, upper centre) divides into two main bronchi ... which enter each lung. The bronchi then split further into smaller bronchi and finally bronchioles that terminate at clusters ... Caption: Lung airways. Coloured X-ray of the airways (red) of the lungs (not seen). The trachea (windpipe, upper centre) ... Keywords: airways, anatomy, bronchi, bronchioles, bronchus, coloured, healthy, human body, normal, radiography, respiratory ...
Lung cancer metastases may travel through airways to adjacent or distant lung tissue | EurekAlert! Science News
... may spread through the airways. The putative occurrence of intrapulmonary aerogenous metastasis of lung cancer has staging, ... A new study by researchers in Canada supports the hypothesis that lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, ... Lung cancer metastases may travel through airways to adjacent or distant lung tissue. American Roentgen Ray Society ... Lung cancer metastases may travel through airways to adjacent or distant lung tissue ...
The Airways' Mechanical Stress in Lung Disease: Implications for COPD Pathophysiology and Treatment Evaluation
In fact, stretching of the airways influences lung function and the secretion of airway mediators, which in turn may cause a ... The airway epithelium stretches and relaxes during the normal respiratory cycle, and hyperventilation exaggerates this effect, ... narrative review was to illustrate the current evidence on the importance of mechanical stress in the pathophysiology of lung ... 2. Airways Mechanical Stress in Lung Diseases. The role of mechanical stimuli in airway remodelling has been hypothesized by ...
Upper airway mucus deposition in lung tissue of burn trauma victims
This study examines the localization of an upper airway gland specific mucus, mucin 5B (MUC5B) in lung autopsy tissues of burn- ... injury has shown distal migration of upper airway mucus. ... Upper airway mucus deposition in lung tissue of burn trauma ... This study examines the localization of an upper airway gland specific mucus, mucin 5B (MUC5B) in lung autopsy tissues of burn- ... Autopsy lung tissue from victims of burn injury alone (n = 38) and combined S + B injury (n = 22) were immunostained for MUC5B ...
Airways Inside the Lungs - WellSpan Health Library
Lungs and Airways | Cone Health
Lungs and Airways. Learn about your lungs and airways. Healthy lungs allow you to breathe easily, without discomfort or pain. ... Our topics can help you learn more about lung and airway conditions and treatments. To start, explore these lung and airway ... But some people have problems with their lungs from smoking, disease, or infection. When your lungs are unhealthy, your entire ... When your lungs are healthy, youre more likely to be able to do the activities you love and have a good quality of life. ...
Dissociation of lung function and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. - PubMed - NCBI
Dissociation of lung function and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Lapperre TS1, Snoeck-Stroband ... Dissociation of lung function and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is it a real or statistical ... We aimed to evaluate whether airflow limitation, airway responsiveness, and airway inflammation are separate entities ... Lung Function Lab, C2-P, Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600 2300 RC ...
About Open Airways for Schools | American Lung Association
The American Lung Associations Open Airways For Schools is a school-based curriculum that educates and empowers children ... Your tax-deductible donation funds lung disease and lung cancer research, new treatments, lung health education, and more. ... The American Lung Associations Open Airways For Schools® is a school-based curriculum that educates and empowers children ... 2020 American Lung Association. The American Lung Association is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization. Our Tax ID is: 13‑1632524 ...
Airway/Lung Stent Market Analysis, Growth, Share & Trends
... the rapid rise in aging population and increasing incidence of lung cancer are major factors driving the demand for airway/lung ... Global Airway/Lung Stent Market- Overview High prevalence of tobacco smoking, ... Airway/Lung Stent MarketGlobal Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017 - 2029. ... Global Airway/Lung Stent Market- Market Segmentation. The global airway/lung stent market is segmented on the basis of product ...
Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Acute Lung Injury - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Acute Lung Injury. Lung Injury. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiration Disorders. Infant, Premature, Diseases. ... Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Acute Lung Injury. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Ventilator Induced Lung Injury. VILI. Cytokines. Protective Ventilation. Airway Pressure Release Ventilation. APRV. Breathing ... We will also compare markers of inflammation in the blood and lung to determine if APRV reduces ventilator-induced lung injury ...
Airways Clinical Research Centers Principal Investigators | American Lung Association
The American Lung Association ACRC Network attracts some of the best asthma and COPD investigators nationwide. Meet the ACRC ... Your tax-deductible donation funds lung disease and lung cancer research, new treatments, lung health education, and more. ... Irvin has been the site PI of the Vermont American Lung Association Airways Clinical Research Center (ACRC) from its inception ... 2020 American Lung Association. The American Lung Association is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization. Our Tax ID is: 13‑1632524 ...
Lung mucus gel scaffold prevents nanoparticles from getti... ( Mucus coats our airways' internal su...)
Mucus coats our airways internal surfaces. The viscous gel humidifies...Now as part of a German Research Foundation (DFG)- ... funded study pharm...,Lung,mucus,gel,scaffold,prevents,nanoparticles,from,getting,through,biological,advanced biology ... Lung mucus gel scaffold prevents nanoparticles from getting through. ...Mucus coats our airways internal surfaces. The viscous ... Mucus coats our airways internal surfaces. The viscous gel humidifies the lungs and prevents viruses and other small particles ...
When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs | EurekAlert! Science News
This is the first evidence for the distinct roles of AMs and IMs in liver cell lung metastasis. ... in driving hepatocellular cancer metastasis in the lungs. AMs were found to be recruited by interstitial macrophages (IMs) ... Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs Kanazawa University-led Japanese researchers reveal lung scavenger cells as ... When push comes to shove: Airway cells propel liver cancer spread to lungs. Kanazawa University ...
Support Group - Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Airways | Lung Foundation Australia
Royal Prince Alfred Hospital Airways Support Group meet on the 3rd Thursday of each month at 12pm-1.00pm usually followed by ... Lung Foundation Australia can help connect you to a support group near you. ... For contact details of all groups, please call Lung Foundation Australia - free call on 1800 654 301. ... share practical tips and to help break down the sense of isolation that can often be experienced when living with a lung ...
Biology of the Lungs and Airways - Merck Manuals Consumer Version
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00181125 - Comparison of lung sounds and gas trapping in the study of airway mechanics.
... measurement of lung sounds in animals and humans exposed to cotton dust and provide a valid prediction of peripheral airway ... sounds measured in isolated lungs from male Long-Evans-hooded-rats with past gas trapping experiments in isolated rat lungs. ... Following administration of anesthetic, the heart and lungs we ... Comparison of lung sounds and gas trapping in the study of ... Of particular interest will be studies of tracheal lung sounds in animals exposed to cotton dust in the study of small airway ...
Canine Pneumonia | Inflammation of Dog Airway & Lungs
... and what options are available to manage this type of lung and respiratory condition. ... Pneumonia in Dogs ( Inflammation of Airway & Lungs). Source: PetWave, Updated on August 15, 2016 ... Pneumonia is a serious disease that involves inflammation of the lungs and lower airways. It usually also affects the upper ... The lungs supply blood with oxygen from inhaled air and expel carbon dioxide in exhaled air. Pneumonia can be caused by ...
Epithelial cellsPulmonaryInfectionFibrosisRespiratoryMicrobiomeStent MarketPathogenesisStents2018Lower airwayAllergicTumorsTransplantationChronic airwayMucusComplicationsBronchial airway epithelialContinuous PositiveMiceCancersVivoPathologyAsthmaticHigh airway pressuresMigrationMETHODSHypothesisDisordersAnimal model of airwayPrevalenceStudy of airwayInfectionsResistanceInflammation of the lower airwaysOpen AirwaysBacterialPeripheralComputed TomographyMetastaticNSCLCInfiltrationBronchiMouse lungTumorMechanical VentilationNeutrophilsTransplant recipientsPressure release ventilation
- The profibrotic environment produced by mechanical stress applied to the airway epithelial cells, in the absence of any inflammatory response, demonstrated the role of mechanical stimuli in airway remodelling [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- PG's cancer-specific performance was compared to Docetaxel (DTX), Paclitaxel (PTX), and Doxorubicin (DOX) against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEC). (frontiersin.org)
- In this study, an in vitro model of the airway comprising human primary lung epithelial cells cultured in a microfluidic platform was used to establish a physiologic state and to observe metabolic changes as a function of glucocorticoid exposure. (aspetjournals.org)
- Unbiased analysis of genome-wide gene expression profiles in lung small airway epithelial cells provides a powerful tool to investigate this. (springer.com)
- We demonstrated higher IL1B gene expression in COPD small airway epithelial cells, but not in COPD lung tissue, sputum, and blood. (springer.com)
- We identified IL1B was significantly up-regulated in COPD small airway epithelial cells and propose IL1B as a novel player in airway inflammation in COPD. (springer.com)
- Using a mouse model of lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we performed transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to profile bronchial airway gene expression and found activation of the PI3K and Myc signaling networks in cytologically normal bronchial airway epithelial cells of mice with preneopastic lung SCC lesions, which was reversed by treatment with the PI3K Inhibitor XL-147 and pioglitazone, respectively. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In addition, we identified a key microRNA, mmu-miR-449c-5p, whose suppression significantly up-regulated Myc expression in the normal bronchial airway epithelial cells of mice with early stage SCC lesions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Pulmonary resection for airway complication after lung transplantation in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report. (springer.com)
- In the parent grant, investigators compared the biology of SAE from cigarette smokers, smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and smokers with lung cancer with and without COPD to that of healthy nonsmokers. (fda.gov)
- The multi-center study was conducted at five clinical sites and encompassed 18 single pulmonary nodules (SPNs) lacking an airway path for biopsy. (mddionline.com)
- This aim of the present narrative review was to illustrate the current evidence on the importance of mechanical stress in the pathophysiology of lung diseases with a particular focus on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to discuss how this may influence pharmacological treatment strategies. (hindawi.com)
- This narrative review describes the current evidence on the importance of mechanical stress in the pathophysiology of lung diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and discusses how this can influence treatment selection. (hindawi.com)
- Dissociation of lung function and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined by progressive, irreversible airflow limitation and an inflammatory response of the lungs, usually to cigarette smoke. (nih.gov)
- Dissociation of lung function and airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: is it a real or statistical phenomenon? (nih.gov)
- Intermittent positive pressure ventilation with large tidal volumes and high peak airway pressures can result in pulmonary barotrauma. (nih.gov)
- Persistent pulmonary inflammation, airway mucous metaplasia and migration of multiwalled carbon nanotubes from the lung after subchronic exposure. (cdc.gov)
- These findings demonstrate that MWCNTs cause persistent pulmonary inflammation, can be translocated within the lung by alveolar macrophages, can migrate from the lung to the regional lymph node and can penetrate the cytoplasm of macrophages. (cdc.gov)
- We speculate that the early airway microbiome may prime the developing pulmonary immune system, and dysbiosis in its development may set the stage for subsequent lung disease," the researchers say in their paper in Scientific Reports , one of the Nature Publishing Group journals. (uab.edu)
- Adults and children who had BPD as infants have lungs that failed to develop properly and are more prone to worse lung function, asthma, lung infections and pulmonary hypertension. (uab.edu)
- Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation (CPAM), formerly referred to as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, is a mass of abnormal lung tissue historically described as Stocker type I-III, based on the size of the cysts. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- We appreciate the University of California San Francisco in partnership with the Pulmonary Fibrosis Foundation selecting to host their 20th International Colloquium on Lung and Airway Fibrosis here in Monterey, and we look forward to having you return again many times in the future. (seemonterey.com)
- NF-κB activation is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory lung diseases including asthma, cystic fibrosis, pneumonia, and the acute respiratory distress syndrome, and may have a role in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and environmental lung diseases ( 1 , 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
- These dimensions were compared to those of airways from lobectomy specimens from 72 patients with various degrees of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (ersjournals.com)
- Van Herwaarden CLA (1983), β-adrenoceptor blockade and pulmonary function in patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease. (springer.com)
- We also know these microbial communities are disturbed in common lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is common in smokers, and asthma. (medicalxpress.com)
- We found that Ascaris larval migration causes significant pulmonary damage, including AHR and type 2 inflammatory lung pathology that resembles an extreme form of allergic airway disease. (asm.org)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic and progressive lung disease characterized by a mixture of small airway disease and lung tissue parenchymal destruction. (springer.com)
- Bermuda Hospitals Board and Open Airways are marking World Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Day on Thursday, 18 November with an Open House in the lobby at King Edward VII Memorial Hospital. (bermudahospitals.bm)
- We want to learn how the lung regenerates so that we can stimulate the process in situations where it is insufficient, such as in patients with COPD [chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]. (labroots.com)
- They also hope to apply this knowledge to such other lung conditions as acute respiratory distress syndrome and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, where the alveoli cannot get enough oxygen into the blood. (labroots.com)
- After lung transplantation, pulmonary infiltration was a frequent finding (14 out of 24) exhibiting a higher MTR (24.8% ± 4.5%) compared to well-ventilated lungs (12.3% ± 6.9%, = 0.001) at 8000 Hz off-resonance frequency, 3000° flip angle. (uzh.ch)
- Changes in physiological, functional and structural markers of cystic fibrosis lung disease with treatment of a pulmonary exacerbation. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
- People who have repeated episodes of bleeding into the lungs can develop anemia (low blood count, often causing fatigue) and lung scarring that causes pulmonary fibrosis . (msdmanuals.com)
- H. influenzae pneumonia is more common among adults who have underlying chronic lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis . (msdmanuals.com)
- The lung microbiota (or pulmonary microbial community) is a complex variety of microbes found in the lower respiratory tract particularly on the mucus layer and the epithelial surfaces (the lung microbiome refer to their genomes). (wikipedia.org)
- But some people have problems with their lungs from smoking, disease, or infection. (healthwise.net)
- The Laboratory of Chronic Airway Infection, led by Dr. Kenneth Olivier, focuses on bronchiectasis, a condition that damages the body's ability to clear mucus from the airways and increases risk of severe lung infections by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), which commonly are found in wet environments such as streams, rivers, and marshes. (nih.gov)
- The study also links vitamin D produced in airway cells to activation of two genes that help fight infection. (thaindian.com)
- In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that ventilation at very low lung volumes can also worsen lung injury by repeated opening and closing of airway and alveolar duct units as ventilation occurs from below to above the infection point (Pinf) as determined from the inspiratory pressure-volume curve. (nih.gov)
- Lal and colleagues found decreased Lactobacillus abundance in the airway microbiomes of 10 infants born to mothers who had chorioamnionitis - an infection of the membranes of the placenta and an independent risk factor for BPD - as well as decreased Lactobacillus abundance at birth in the airways of the BPD-predisposed, ELBW infants, as compared to BPD-resistant infants. (uab.edu)
- As with other natural ecosystems, it is likely that it is the diversity of the microbiota in the lungs protects them against infection with harmful miroorganisms. (medicalxpress.com)
- Antibiotics may be prescribed when a true bacterial infection is present or when infection is making existing airway disease worse. (merckvetmanual.com)
- We hypothesize that Ascaris larval migration through the lungs leads to persistent airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and type 2 inflammatory lung pathology despite resolution of infection that resembles allergic airway disease. (asm.org)
- Chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial infection may contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis. (springer.com)
- To determine the relation between lower airway infection and inflammation, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in infants and young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). (bmj.com)
- Lower airway infection shown by BL was associated with a 10% reduction in FEV 0.5 compared with subjects without infection. (bmj.com)
- Independent of either infection status or airway inflammation, those with daily cough had lower lung function than those without respiratory symptoms at the time of BL (mean adjusted FEV 0.5 195 ml and 236 ml respectively). (bmj.com)
- In young children with CF, both respiratory symptoms and airway infection have independent, additive effects on lung function, unrelated to airway inflammation. (bmj.com)
- Children with cystic fibrosis (CF) have structurally normal lungs at birth, 1 but lower airway infection and inflammation may be present from the first weeks of life. (bmj.com)
- 11 While it might be expected that airway infection plays a key role in the relation between lung function and respiratory symptoms, this has not been shown. (bmj.com)
- The present study examined the relation between airway infection and inflammation, respiratory symptoms, and lung function in infants and young children with CF using bronchial lavage (BL) and the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique. (bmj.com)
- These findings raise the possibility that infection and inflammation may progress independently of CFTR activity once cystic fibrosis lung disease is established. (caltech.edu)
- However, P. aeruginosa airway infection persisted. (caltech.edu)
- Community-acquired pneumonia is lung infection that develops in people outside a hospital. (msdmanuals.com)
- The cause is often a viral lung infection or a bacterial infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydophila pneumoniae . (msdmanuals.com)
- Cystic fibrosis is an inherited chronic disease that affects the lungs and digestive system of about 30,000 children and adults in the United States (70,000 worldwide). (childrensnational.org)
- Transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1 ) is implicated in driving fibrosis in the lung, liver and kidney, but a mechanism by which TGF-β 1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of OB remains to be elucidated. (bmj.com)
- Rationale: Previous work indicates that ivacaftor improves cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and lung function in people with cystic fibrosis and G551D-CFTR mutations but does not reduce density of bacteria or markers of inflammation in the airway. (caltech.edu)
- Objectives: To better understand the relationship between CFTR activity, airway microbiology and inflammation, and lung function in subjects with cystic fibrosis and chronic airway infections. (caltech.edu)
- Background Chronic airway fibrosis (CAF) is the most prevalent complication in human lung transplant recipients. (uzh.ch)
- Rationale: Neutrophils are recruited to the airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In adolescents and adults with CF, airway neutrophils actively exocytose the primary granule protease elastase (NE), whose extracellular activity correlates with lung damage. (eur.nl)
- Methods: We measured lung damage using chest computed tomography coupled with the Perth-Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for Cystic Fibrosis scoring system. (eur.nl)
- Lung clearance index is a sensitive, repeatable and practical measure of airways disease in adults with cystic fibrosis. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
- We developed an animal model of lung tumor sensitive to cetuximab by injecting Balb/c Nude mice intratracheally with A431 cells plus 10 mM EDTA and analyzed the distribution, pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy of cetuximab aerosolized into the respiratory tract. (nih.gov)
- New data unveiled at the European Respiratory Society International Congress shows that the Archimedes virtual bronchoscopy navigation system significantly improves the diagnostic yield of lung cancer nodules located outside a patient's main airways. (mddionline.com)
- According to data unveiled this week at the European Respiratory Society International Congress in Paris, Broncus Medical's Archimedes virtual bronchoscopy navigation system helped to more than double the diagnostic yield for nodules with negative bronchus sign or an airway leading to the nodule. (mddionline.com)
- Despite the various challenges in the market such as stringent regulations in approval for lung stent, companies are using innovative technologies to develop advanced stents, for instance, patient-specific stents are being made for respiratory tract support. (bccresearch.com)
- Acute respiratory failure is common in patients with acute lung injury. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Moreover, MV may itself cause additional lung injury (ventilator-induced lung injury, VILI) which could, paradoxically, delay or prevent recovery from respiratory failure in some ALI patients (7;9). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- After lung recruitment to standardize volume history, changes in lung volume (ΔV L ) were assessed at nasal CPAP of 8, 6, 4, and 0 cm H 2 O using calibrated direct current-coupled respiratory inductance plethysmography. (aappublications.org)
- Although a nasal cannula is able to recruit lung volume, it does so at the cost of increased respiratory effort and F io 2 . (aappublications.org)
- Vitamin D is hypothesized to have a beneficial effect on lung function and respiratory infections. (mdpi.com)
- The respiratory system consists of the large and small airways and the lungs. (merckvetmanual.com)
- The respiratory system protects its own delicate airways by warming and humidifying inhaled air and by filtering out particles. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Allows the veterinarian to directly view the upper respiratory tract, guttural pouches, trachea, and upper airways of the lungs. (merckvetmanual.com)
- These have been shown to relax the bronchial smooth muscle, decrease the inflammatory response in the airways, and help the cilia clear mucus from the respiratory tract. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Methylxanthines also decrease the inflammatory response in the airways and help the cilia clear mucus from the respiratory system. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Investigators also described a diffuse, nonneoplastic field of molecular injury throughout the respiratory tract that is attributable to cigarette smoking and susceptibility to smoking-induced lung disease. (aacrjournals.org)
- Indeed, one recent study found lung function in CF infants was not influenced by a history of clinically recognised lower respiratory illness. (bmj.com)
- I predict that researchers will study the use of respiratory probiotics, and the role of the gut-lung microbiome axis in the future," Lal said. (technologynetworks.com)
- It has been proved that spontaneous breathing (SB) with biphasic positive airway pressure (BIPAP) can improve lung aeration in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with controlled mechanical ventilation. (asahq.org)
- The authors hypothesized that SB with BIPAP would attenuate lung injury in acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with pressure-controlled ventilation. (asahq.org)
- The airways are continually exposed to a multitude of microorganisms, some of which are able to persist and even colonize respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
- Should a disordered airway microbiome prove to be involved in the pathogenesis of disease, it will be of immediate interest to attempt to develop novel therapeutic interventions. (uab.edu)
- Lal says this is the first unbiased airway microbiome analysis to be done immediately at birth - all the early saline aspirates from the tracheas of the newborns were collected at or within six hours of delivery. (uab.edu)
- It is also the only infant airway microbiome analysis to be validated at a second medical center. (uab.edu)
- Further research on the lung microbiome could uncover new, more effective approaches to managing lung infections, according to an Imperial researcher. (medicalxpress.com)
- An Imperial College London expert has highlighted the importance of studying lung microorganisms, known as the lung microbiome, in helping us to understand and manage airway infections. (medicalxpress.com)
- Professor William Cookson, from Imperial's National Heart and Lung Institute, spoke to Francesca Davenport about his Nature Reviews Microbiology paper, to explain how further studying the microbiome could help to improve the management of lung infections and avoid problems associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR). (medicalxpress.com)
- How much do we currently know about the lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
- Until recently, scientists incorrectly believed that the lungs and airways were sterile, and so the Human Microbiome Project and similar research ventures almost completely ignored the lungs. (medicalxpress.com)
- Now we know the surfaces of the airways have a resident population of microbes, known as the microbiome, which is similar in density to that of the skin and upper intestines. (medicalxpress.com)
- What are the specific challenges to researching the lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
- How do we develop and maintain a balanced and healthy lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
- A rural lifestyle, for example living on farms, encourages diversity for the microbiome in the lungs as well as the bowel and skin. (medicalxpress.com)
- For five ELBW infants who later developed BPD, the researchers collected periodic airway microbiome samples from birth through 9 weeks and saw extremely similar patterns of change in the microbiomes over time. (technologynetworks.com)
- As for the source of the microbes, Lal and colleagues wrote, "As it is commonly believed that colonization of neonates originates in the birth canal, we were surprised to find that the airway microbiome of vaginally delivered and caesarean section-delivered neonates were similar, which suggests that the microbial DNA in the airways is probably transplacentally derived, consistent with reports that the placenta has a rich microbiome. (technologynetworks.com)
- The report on the global airway/lung stent market offers detailed analysis and forecast on various segments and regions. (bccresearch.com)
- The report used both top-down and bottom-up approaches to estimate the revenue and size of the global airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
- The primary and secondary research was also done in order to identify opportunities in the market and gather information on all the major factors in the airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
- Incremental opportunity in the global airway/lung stent market is also provided as it is considered an important factor in analyzing business opportunities for leading players. (bccresearch.com)
- The information on the leading players in the global airway/lung stent market is also provided. (bccresearch.com)
- The global airway/lung stent market is segmented on the basis of product, end user, material type, and region. (bccresearch.com)
- Region-wise, the global airway/lung stent market is segmented into the Asia Pacific Excluding Japan (APEJ), Europe, Latin America, North America, Japan, and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). (bccresearch.com)
- The report offers a country-wise forecast for each segment based on all the major parameters in the global airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
- The report titled " Airway/Lung Stent Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2017 - 2026" has been added to the comprehensive repository of Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE). (sbwire.com)
- In addition to the market-specific factors, the demand for airway/lung stent market is also growing on account of macroeconomic factors, such as rising disposable income in developing countries, investments in quality healthcare, and favorable reimbursement policies. (sbwire.com)
- A new report titled " Global Airway/Lung Stent Market Industry Development Scenario and Forecast to 2026 " has been included in the enormous research repository of Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) that compiles various facets of the Airway/Lung Stent Market at a global level portraying a holistic analysis of the marketplace along with intelligence on key participants. (imfaceplate.com)
- The report covers an unbiased analysis on various market aspects, emphasizing major trends giving direction to the market, key opportunities paving new growth avenues, key drivers pushing the market's growth and challenges and restraints hindering the market for Airway/Lung Stent Market across the globe. (imfaceplate.com)
- We hypothesized that transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) will enhance our understanding of the field of molecular injury in response to tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer pathogenesis by identifying gene expression differences not interrogated or accurately measured by microarrays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- These findings implicate live airway neutrophils in early CF pathogenesis, which should instruct biomarker development and antiinflammatory therapy in children with CF. (eur.nl)
- Novel biodegradable stents in the treatment of bronchial stenosis after lung transplantation. (springer.com)
- By product, the self-expandable stents segment accounted for the largest share of the lung stents market in 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- By material, the metal stents segment held the largest market share of lung stents market in 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Based on material, the metal stents segment accounted for the largest share of the lung stents market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The large share of this segment can be attributed to their ease of insertion, thinner walls as compared to silicone stents, a lower possibility of dislodgment or migration, and ability to adapt to the twisted airway. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- North America accounted for the largest share of the lung stents market in 2016, followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The presence of a highly developed healthcare system, rising geriatric population, increasing incidence of lung cancer, quick adoption of new and innovative products, and a large number of lung stents manufacturing companies in this region are the major factors responsible for the large share of North America in the global lung stents market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 03/05/2018 -- The global airway lung/stents market is projected to grow at a CAGR of 5.7% during the assessment period 2017-2026 and reach a valuation of over US$ 130 million by 2026. (sbwire.com)
- According to the report, the demand for airway/lung stents is witnessing an increase on account of its lifesaving functionality in case of heart attacks. (sbwire.com)
- These factors are likely to provide an impetus to the growth of the airway/lung stents market during the assessment period. (sbwire.com)
- Metal remains the most sought-after material for airway lung/stents market, and is likely to remain so during the assessment period. (sbwire.com)
- Sugimoto S, Oto T, Toyooka S, Miyoshi S. Kissing-stents technique after living-donor lobar lung transplantation. (springermedizin.de)
- Hence, companies are adopting new technologies such as biodegradable stents, drug-eluting airway stents and 3D printing for the products. (theinsightpartners.com)
- Also, increase in health care infrastructure, need for customized lung stents, and development of biodegradable and drug-eluting lung stents are offering opportunities in the airway/lung stents market growth. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The "Global Airway/Lung Stents Market Analysis to 2027" is a specialized and in-depth study of the medical device industry with a focus on the global market trend. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The report aims to provide an overview of global airway/lung stents market with detailed market segmentation by product, type, material, procedure and end user. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The global airway/lung stents market is expected to witness high growth during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The global airway/lung stents market is segmented on the basis of product, type, material, procedure and end user. (theinsightpartners.com)
- By material, the airway/lung stents market is segmented into metal stents, silicone stents and hybrid stents. (theinsightpartners.com)
- By end user, the airway/lung stents market is segmented into hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers and others. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The airway/lung stents market report provides a detailed overview of the industry including both qualitative and quantitative information. (theinsightpartners.com)
- North America dominated the global airway/lung stents market, the largest share is attributed to the highly developed healthcare system, increasing geriatric population, growing incidence of lung cancer, quick adoption of new and innovative products, and a large number of lung stents manufacturing companies are anticipated to drive the market in the region during the forecast period. (theinsightpartners.com)
- The airway/lung stents market report analyzes factors affecting market from both demand and supply side and further evaluates market dynamics effecting the market during the forecast period i.e., drivers, restraints, opportunities, and future trend. (theinsightpartners.com)
- In obese participants, however, higher 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a better lung function and lower airway inflammation. (mdpi.com)
- Both LFA-1 −/− and ICAM-1 −/− mice developed attenuated AHR in response to IL-33 intranasal challenge, associated with a lower airway inflammation and less lung ILC2 accumulation compared to controls. (frontiersin.org)
- Here, we have assessed the role that different chemokines play in lung allergic inflammation and BHR by blocking their activities in vivo. (rupress.org)
- DCs are necessary and sufficient for induction of allergic airway inflammation. (jci.org)
- In vivo IL-12 treatment reverts exacerbated allergic airway inflammation upon chronic HDM challenge in Batf3 -/- mice, restraining Th2 and Th17 responses without triggering Th1 immunity. (jci.org)
- These results suggest a protective role for lung CD103 + DCs to HDM allergic airway inflammation through the production of IL-12. (jci.org)
- Computed tomography (CT) imaging findings in the lungs in the setting of an acute allergic response and following bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) are not well established. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The airways, a novel route for delivering monoclonal antibodies to treat lung tumors. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosing solitary lung tumors located outside of a patient's main airways has long been a challenge, but evidence is building around a technology designed to improve access to such tumors. (mddionline.com)
- It has been historically challenging to accurately diagnose solitary lung tumors located outside of the main airways, especially when they are small, with diagnosis rates only in the 30% range," said Felix Herth, lead author of the study and chairman of the Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine at Thoraxklinik University of Heidelberg, Germany. (mddionline.com)
- By pre-plotting a path to the nodule that avoids the vasculature and navigating through the lung anatomy with three-dimensional, real-time, fluoroscopic guidance, the Archimedes System demonstrated in this study that it aided in more than doubling the diagnostic yield of these challenging tumors to 77.8%, thereby significantly improving existing guided transbronchial biopsy. (mddionline.com)
- IMs derive from the circulation, and were already known to aid the survival and growth of lung tumors," study first author Takuto Nosaka says. (eurekalert.org)
- These cells represent the major proliferative airway epithelial cell type, share expression of basal cell markers, such as keratin 5 (KRT5), with LUSC tumors, and can give rise to LUSC-like tumors in genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM). (aacrjournals.org)
- Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus. (wikipedia.org)
- Management of airway complications is an increasingly important field in lung transplantation. (springer.com)
- Airway complications and management after lung transplantation: ischemia, dehiscence, stenosis. (springer.com)
- Deleterious effects of telescoped bronchial anastomosis in single and bilateral lung transplantation. (springer.com)
- Herve P, Silbert D, Cerrina J, Simonneau G, Dartevelle P. Impairment of bronchial mucociliary clearance in long-term survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantation. (springer.com)
- De Gracia J, Culebras M, Alvarez A, Catalán E, De la Rosa D, Maestre J, Canela M, Román A. Bronchoscopic balloon dilatation in the management of bronchial stenosis following lung transplantation. (springer.com)
- In: Raghu G., Carbone R. (eds) Lung Transplantation. (springer.com)
- Airway dimensions were measured in lungs obtained from CF patients who had undergone lung transplantation (n=12), lobectomy (n=1), or autopsy (n=4). (ersjournals.com)
- Methods Lung transplantation was performed in 48 mice, applying major or minor histocompatibility mismatches between strains for the induction of CAF. (uzh.ch)
- Meeting presentation: Presented at the 37th annual meeting and scientific sessions of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, San Diego, CA, USA, April 2017. (springermedizin.de)
- Airway complications (ACs) after living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) could have different features from those after cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT). (springermedizin.de)
- We reviewed, retrospectively, data on 163 recipients of lung transplantation, including 83 recipients of LDLLT and 80 recipients of CLT. (springermedizin.de)
- Airway complications after lung transplantation: risk factors, prevention and outcome. (springermedizin.de)
- Impact of anastomotic airway complications after lung transplantation. (springermedizin.de)
- Airway stenoses after lung transplantation: incidence, management, and outcome. (springermedizin.de)
- A decade of living lobar lung transplantation: recipient outcomes. (springermedizin.de)
- Living-donor lobar lung transplantation provides similar survival to cadaveric lung transplantation even for very ill patientsdagger. (springermedizin.de)
- Miyamoto E, Chen-Yoshikawa TF, Higuchi H, Aoyama A, Date H. Stenosis of the segmental bronchus is a characteristic airway complication in living-donor lobar lung transplantation. (springermedizin.de)
- Lung mucus gel scaffold prevents nanoparticles from getti. (bio-medicine.org)
- Mucus coats our airways' internal su. (bio-medicine.org)
- Previously unclear was the extent to which such nanoparticles are able to move through the lungs' mucus. (bio-medicine.org)
- Scientists could not explain why, in inhaled medication development, drug nanoparticles often simply got stuck in the mucus never making it to their target destination inside the lung cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- The mucus inside the lungs is a very special kind of gel. (bio-medicine.org)
- When viewed under the microscope, lung mucus, by comparison, looks more like a sponge, with rigid, thick gel rods separating large pores filled with liquid gel. (bio-medicine.org)
- Experiments using an atomic force microscope as well as other tests are further supporting their hypothesis: As such, iron nanoparticles were able to penetrate the "normal" reference gel but not the lung mucus without any difficulties under the influence of a magnetic field. (bio-medicine.org)
- Subjects can cough up mucus for testing, or clinicians can introduce a fine tube, or bronchoscope, into the airways. (medicalxpress.com)
- Bronchodilators may also help relieve inflammation and clear mucus from the lungs. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Evaluation of mucus production rate and barrier function, along with lung-specific markers, demonstrated that the lungs maintained a differentiated phenotype. (aspetjournals.org)
- The evidence is building that BTPNA under the guidance of our Archimedes System can navigate to and access nodules anywhere in the lung without major complications," said Broncus President Henky Wibowo. (mddionline.com)
- All mice developing CAF also showed signs of acute rejection, whereas none of the lungs showed signs of other post-transplant complications. (uzh.ch)
Bronchial airway epithelial1
- 200 nt) from pooled bronchial airway epithelial cell brushings ( n = 3 patients per pool) obtained during bronchoscopy from healthy never smoker (NS) and current smoker (S) volunteers and smokers with (C) and without (NC) lung cancer undergoing lung nodule resection surgery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A tracheostomy tube was placed in the peritoneal cavity, and IAP levels of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm Hg were applied, using a continuous positive airway pressure system. (biomedsearch.com)
- To determine whether lung volume changes and breathing pattern parameters differ among 3 devices for delivery of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in premature infants. (aappublications.org)
- The use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in premature infants was first described by Gregory et al 1 in 1971. (aappublications.org)
- Spontaneous breathing in any phase of the mechanical ventilator cycle is possible during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), a technique that provides ventilatory support by time-cycled switching between two continuous positive airway pressure levels [ 1 - 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The animal model was produced by injecting a mouse HCC cell line into the veins of mice, which resulted in the growth of small metastatic lung nodules that resembled HCC lung metastasis in humans. (eurekalert.org)
- To address the hypothesis that MWCNTs cause persistent morphologic changes and migrate beyond the lung, C57BL/6J mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 20 or 80 ug MWCNTs (mean dimensions of 4.2 um x 49 nm) or vehicle. (cdc.gov)
- NF-κB activation in lungs of Ad-cIKK1- and Ad-cIKK2-treated mice was confirmed by immunoblots for RelA and EMSA from lung nuclear protein extracts. (jimmunol.org)
- In lung lavage fluid, mice treated with Ad-cIKK1 or Ad-cIKK2 showed elevated concentrations of NF-κB-dependent chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein 2 and KC and increased numbers of neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
- D ) Total lung proteins were isolated from gp130-Fc-treated mice and untreated control mice at day 28 and analyzed by Western blot analysis after immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against GATA-3. (jci.org)
- In order to surpass this developmental barrier, lung organoids were transplanted onto a microporous polymer scaffold into the epididymal fat pad of immunocompromised mice. (biorxiv.org)
- In addition, chronic HDM challenge in Batf3 -/- mice results in increased Th2 and Th17 immune responses and exacerbated airway inflammation. (jci.org)
- By histopathology, Ascaris -infected mice demonstrated early airway remodeling similar to, but more profound than, that in OVA/OVA mice. (asm.org)
- In the classifier, Ppbp (pro-platelet basic protein) was overexpressed 115 fold in the bronchial airways of mice with preneoplastic lung SCC lesions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, little is known about whether the gene-expression biomarkers or classifiers from bronchial airway samples of mice in which NTCU is used to induce SCC recapitulate the molecular lesions found in human patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Furthermore, motility-selected cells demonstrated enhanced lung colonization after intravenous injection in mice, suggesting the possible relevance of a motile phenotype to micrometastatic seeding. (aacrjournals.org)
- Delivery of aerosolized-mAbs via the airways deserves further evaluation for treating lung cancers. (nih.gov)
- Almost 80% of all lung cancers are Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). (frontiersin.org)
- reviewed in ref. 3 ) and potentially hold the keys to preventing and curing lung and other major epithelial cancers and to understanding in vivo epithelial carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
- Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a major category of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), accounting for about 25-30% of total lung cancer cases in the US population. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas. (wikipedia.org)
- We have shown that cetuximab, a chimeric anticancer anti-EGFR mAb, is suitable for airway delivery as it resists the physical constraints of aerosolization, and have evaluated the aerosol delivery of cetuximab in vivo. (nih.gov)
- Although M 3 receptors are responsible for acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction in isolated rat lung, the role of M 1 receptors has not been determined in the rat in vivo. (bmj.com)
- The emergence of microphysiologic epithelial lung models using human cells in a physiologically relevant microenvironment has the potential to be a powerful tool for preclinical drug development and to improve predictive power regarding in vivo drug clearance. (aspetjournals.org)
- Overall, our results demonstrate that this lung airway model has been successfully developed and could interact with other human tissues in vitro to better predict in vivo drug behavior. (aspetjournals.org)
- Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
- Unlike the common thinking of the period that considered airway remodelling to be consequent to the inflammatory milieu of the asthmatic setting, the authors indicated cellular stresses in the constricted airway, combined with a responsive cell population, as a plausible explanation of the mechanically responsive nature of the airway. (hindawi.com)
- P = 0.0282) ( B ). Furthermore, the value of sIL-6R in the airways of asthmatic subjects after allergen challenge correlates positively with the respective sIL-6R of IL-5 ( E ) and IL-13 ( F ) in BALF. (jci.org)
- Moreover, evidence suggests that Notch signaling links embryonic lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
- Herein, we summarized all-recent advances associated with the mechanistic role of Notch signaling in lung development, consequences of aberrant expression or deletion of Notch signaling in linking early-impaired lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling, and all recently investigated potential therapeutic strategies to treat asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
- Lung parenchymal and airway changes on CT imaging following allergen challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage in atopic and asthmatic subjects. (physiciansweekly.com)
High airway pressures1
- it plays a crucial role by producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, affecting the migration of leucocytes in the airway submucosa and lumen and modulating the function of myofibroblasts and airway smooth muscle cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Although leukocyte migration to the airways is the result of a complex series of events, it is in part mediated by their expression of integrins and selectins, involved in the multistep process of diapedesis ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- The development of a platform to isolate more motile cells from heterogeneous basal cell populations in a step-wise manner has potential implications for airway basal cell heterogeneity, airway epithelial cell migration, and modeling metastatic seeding during early LUSC. (aacrjournals.org)
- The migration and activation of leucocytes within the airways may be the consequence of soluble proteins released by resident cells that are activated by various stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
- Reliable information about lung recruitment during nasal CPAP is useful both for the clinical management of infants and for comparison of efficacy of the various methods available for its administration. (aappublications.org)
- Covariance-corrected airway resistance appeared more sensitive than other methods of volume standardization in detecting bronchoconstriction. (clinsci.org)
- A new study by researchers in Canada supports the hypothesis that lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, may spread through the airways. (eurekalert.org)
- We aimed to test the hypothesis that airway caliber increases are lower in subjects with emphysema-predominant (EP) compared with airway-predominant (AP) CT scan subtypes. (sinapse.ac.uk)
- In autoimmune disorders that involve the lungs, a person's immune system mistakenly attacks and damages the person's own lung tissues. (merckmanuals.com)
- In certain airway disorders, breathing becomes difficult because the muscles surrounding the airways constrict. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Autoimmune disorders that affect the lungs also often affect other organs, particularly the kidneys. (msdmanuals.com)
Animal model of airway2
- Previous studies have shown that TGF-β 1 expression is increased in recipients with OB 11 12 13 14 and, in an animal model of airway obliteration, interrupting TGF-β 1 binding to its receptor reduced intraluminal airway matrix deposition. (bmj.com)
- The aim was, using pharmacological tools, to determine the role of NO in an aerosolized LPS-driven animal model of airway inflammation by assessment of ex-NO, neutrophilia, and inflammatory biomarkers, using a nonselective NOS inhibitor, N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME), and a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, N -3 (aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W). (aspetjournals.org)
Study of airway1
- The active form of vitamin D is known to affect the expression of more than 200 genes, so we were interested both in the possible lung-specific production of active vitamin D and in vitamin D-dependent production of proteins that fight infections. (thaindian.com)
- Lung infections are amongst the most important causes of death and disability in the world, but progress in diagnosing and treating them has lagged far behind infections of other organs such as the gut and skin. (medicalxpress.com)
- However, other than the few organisms that commonly cause lung infections, we know surprisingly little about the different bacteria that live there. (medicalxpress.com)
- What are the problems with traditional diagnostics and treatments of lung infections? (medicalxpress.com)
- However, it is important to treat lung infections more quickly than the timeframe allowed by culturing. (medicalxpress.com)
- Chlamydophila pneumoniae is the second most common cause of lung infections in healthy people aged 5 to 35 years. (msdmanuals.com)
- As is conventionally done using this method of nasal CPAP, the amount of airway pressure applied was varied by adjusting the CPAP setting on the ventilator, which varies the resistance at the exhalation valve. (aappublications.org)
- The aim of this study was to measure the airway dimensions of CF patients and to estimate the importance of these dimensions to airway resistance using a computational model. (ersjournals.com)
- 1. The inverse relationship between airway resistance and lung volume contributes to variation in measurement of resistance, as it is difficult to control precisely the lung volume at which resistance is determined each time. (clinsci.org)
- A correction for variation in lung volume was applied to measurement of airway resistance by using analysis of covariance with lung volume as a covariate. (clinsci.org)
- This method provides an assessment in each subject of degree of association between airway resistance and lung volume and uses the individual's unique slope, relating resistance to volume in order to correct resistance to a single lung volume. (clinsci.org)
- The corrected measurement of airway resistance was compared with conventional volume-standardized variables such as specific airway resistance, specific airway conductance and the logarithmic transformation of the latter. (clinsci.org)
- 2. Eight normal male subjects had airway resistance and lung volume measured in a body plethysmograph, a mean of seven measurements being made. (clinsci.org)
- 3. Airway resistance showed only a limited association with lung volume and the slopes relating the two measurements varied between subjects. (clinsci.org)
- 4. Analysis of covariance adequately corrects airway resistance for variations in lung volume but further studies are required to validate its precision and sensitivity. (clinsci.org)
- This phenomenon does not turn out to be vital in a healthy person, however, when the airway resistance is increased as a consequence of another illness course of, the expiration becomes harder than inspiration. (littletel-aviv.com)
Inflammation of the lower airways1
- Open Airways For Schools was developed more than a decade ago by researchers at Columbia University in collaboration with the Lung Association. (lung.org)
- The Open Airways For Schools classroom kits contain easy-to-use teaching materials including a detailed curriculum guide, posters and activity handouts. (lung.org)
- In contrast to the general belief that the airways of an infant are sterile until after birth, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers and colleagues have found that the infant airway is already colonized with bacteria or bacterial DNA when a baby is born - and this is true for infants born as early as 24 weeks gestation. (uab.edu)
- Difficulties arise because lung samples contain many human cells, and the presence of high concentrations of human DNA means special techniques are necessary for the bacterial signals to be seen. (medicalxpress.com)
- Real lung airway geometry for computational purposes was developed using Computed Tomography (CT) scan images of chest. (umsystem.edu)
- Computed tomography scans obtained before and 1 year after ivacaftor treatment revealed that ivacaftor decreased airway mucous plugging. (caltech.edu)
- Four hours after randomization, dynamic computed tomography scans of the lung were obtained in an apical slice and in a juxtadiaphragmatic transverse slice. (biomedcentral.com)
- In a recent computed tomography (CT) study in pigs with oleic-acid-induced lung injury, we observed recruitment of the atelectatic lung and an increased end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) by spontaneous breathing [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Doctors diagnose community-acquired pneumonia by listening to the lungs with a stethoscope and by reading x-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. (msdmanuals.com)
- Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. (wikipedia.org)
- Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is extremely lethal upon metastasis and requires safe and effective systemic therapies to improve a patient's prognosis. (frontiersin.org)
- The high concentrations of exhaled LTB-4 and IL-8 showed the presence of a neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of NSCLC patients and gave a further support to the inflammatory signalling in lung cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
- The trachea (windpipe, upper centre) divides into two main bronchi which enter each lung. (sciencephoto.com)
- In fibrosing mediastinitis, blood vessels or airways (bronchi) may become blocked. (merckmanuals.com)
- When a horse inhales, the air travels down the trachea, which divides into the tubes known as the right and left bronchi, then into the smaller airways called bronchioles in the lungs. (merckvetmanual.com)
- From the CT scans of all 138 subjects, we measured emphysema, lung volumes, and caliber changes in the third and fourth airway generations of two bronchi. (sinapse.ac.uk)
- Aerosolized IgG accumulated durably in the lungs and the tumor, but passed poorly and slowly into the systemic circulation. (nih.gov)
- Aerogenous metastases must be differentiated from multiple synchronous lesions in the spectrum of lung adenocarcinoma, [and] imaging features are helpful in differentiating possible aerogenous spread of tumor. (eurekalert.org)
- Lung metastasis occurs when tumor cells from the liver enter the bloodstream. (eurekalert.org)
- The purpose of this study is to compare airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) to conventional mechanical ventilation (MV) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) to determine if APRV can reduce agitation, delirium, and requirements for sedative medications. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- We will also compare markers of inflammation in the blood and lung to determine if APRV reduces ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), compared to conventional mechanical ventilation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Experimental intra-abdominal hypertension influences airway pressure limits for lung protective mechanical ventilation. (biomedsearch.com)
Pressure release ventilation2
- Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a mode of MV that is designed to reduce patient-ventilator dyssynchrony and VILI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. (biomedcentral.com)