Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Acute Lung Injury: A condition of lung damage that is characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates (PULMONARY EDEMA) rich in NEUTROPHILS, and in the absence of clinical HEART FAILURE. This can represent a spectrum of pulmonary lesions, endothelial and epithelial, due to numerous factors (physical, chemical, or biological).Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Lung Diseases, Interstitial: A diverse group of lung diseases that affect the lung parenchyma. They are characterized by an initial inflammation of PULMONARY ALVEOLI that extends to the interstitium and beyond leading to diffuse PULMONARY FIBROSIS. Interstitial lung diseases are classified by their etiology (known or unknown causes), and radiological-pathological features.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Mice, Inbred BALB CExtravascular Lung Water: Water content outside of the lung vasculature. About 80% of a normal lung is made up of water, including intracellular, interstitial, and blood water. Failure to maintain the normal homeostatic fluid exchange between the vascular space and the interstitium of the lungs can result in PULMONARY EDEMA and flooding of the alveolar space.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Inbred C57BLVital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Pulmonary Fibrosis: A process in which normal lung tissues are progressively replaced by FIBROBLASTS and COLLAGEN causing an irreversible loss of the ability to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream via PULMONARY ALVEOLI. Patients show progressive DYSPNEA finally resulting in death.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Small Cell Lung Carcinoma: A form of highly malignant lung cancer that is composed of small ovoid cells (SMALL CELL CARCINOMA).Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Lung Abscess: Solitary or multiple collections of PUS within the lung parenchyma as a result of infection by bacteria, protozoa, or other agents.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury: Lung damage that is caused by the adverse effects of PULMONARY VENTILATOR usage. The high frequency and tidal volumes produced by a mechanical ventilator can cause alveolar disruption and PULMONARY EDEMA.Bronchial DiseasesMucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Farmer's Lung: A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carcinoma, Lewis Lung: A carcinoma discovered by Dr. Margaret R. Lewis of the Wistar Institute in 1951. This tumor originated spontaneously as a carcinoma of the lung of a C57BL mouse. The tumor does not appear to be grossly hemorrhagic and the majority of the tumor tissue is a semifirm homogeneous mass. (From Cancer Chemother Rep 2 1972 Nov;(3)1:325) It is also called 3LL and LLC and is used as a transplantable malignancy.Respiratory Tract DiseasesDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Tracheal StenosisTracheal DiseasesPulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeOxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Blood-Air Barrier: The barrier between capillary blood and alveolar air comprising the alveolar EPITHELIUM and capillary ENDOTHELIUM with their adherent BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPITHELIAL CELL cytoplasm. PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE occurs across this membrane.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Neutrophil Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation of neutrophils in tissues or cells in response to a wide variety of substances released at the sites of inflammatory reactions.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Instillation, Drug: The administration of therapeutic agents drop by drop, as eye drops, ear drops, or nose drops. It is also administered into a body space or cavity through a catheter. It differs from THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION in that the irrigate is removed within minutes, but the instillate is left in place.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Adrenal Cortex HormonesRats, Inbred BNUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein A: An abundant pulmonary surfactant-associated protein that binds to a variety of lung pathogens, resulting in their opsinization. It also stimulates MACROPHAGES to undergo PHAGOCYTOSIS of microorganisms. Surfactant protein A contains a N-terminal collagen-like domain and a C-terminal lectin domain that are characteristic of members of the collectin family of proteins.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
  • Should a disordered airway microbiome prove to be involved in the pathogenesis of disease, it will be of immediate interest to attempt to develop novel therapeutic interventions. (uab.edu)
  • Lal says this is the first unbiased airway microbiome analysis to be done immediately at birth - all the early saline aspirates from the tracheas of the newborns were collected at or within six hours of delivery. (uab.edu)
  • It is also the only infant airway microbiome analysis to be validated at a second medical center. (uab.edu)
  • Further research on the lung microbiome could uncover new, more effective approaches to managing lung infections, according to an Imperial researcher. (medicalxpress.com)
  • An Imperial College London expert has highlighted the importance of studying lung microorganisms, known as the lung microbiome, in helping us to understand and manage airway infections. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Professor William Cookson, from Imperial's National Heart and Lung Institute, spoke to Francesca Davenport about his Nature Reviews Microbiology paper, to explain how further studying the microbiome could help to improve the management of lung infections and avoid problems associated with antimicrobial resistance (AMR). (medicalxpress.com)
  • How much do we currently know about the lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
  • Until recently, scientists incorrectly believed that the lungs and airways were sterile, and so the Human Microbiome Project and similar research ventures almost completely ignored the lungs. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Now we know the surfaces of the airways have a resident population of microbes, known as the microbiome, which is similar in density to that of the skin and upper intestines. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What are the specific challenges to researching the lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
  • How do we develop and maintain a balanced and healthy lung microbiome? (medicalxpress.com)
  • A rural lifestyle, for example living on farms, encourages diversity for the microbiome in the lungs as well as the bowel and skin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • For five ELBW infants who later developed BPD, the researchers collected periodic airway microbiome samples from birth through 9 weeks and saw extremely similar patterns of change in the microbiomes over time. (technologynetworks.com)
  • As for the source of the microbes, Lal and colleagues wrote, "As it is commonly believed that colonization of neonates originates in the birth canal, we were surprised to find that the airway microbiome of vaginally delivered and caesarean section-delivered neonates were similar, which suggests that the microbial DNA in the airways is probably transplacentally derived, consistent with reports that the placenta has a rich microbiome. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The report on the global airway/lung stent market offers detailed analysis and forecast on various segments and regions. (bccresearch.com)
  • The report used both top-down and bottom-up approaches to estimate the revenue and size of the global airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The primary and secondary research was also done in order to identify opportunities in the market and gather information on all the major factors in the airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
  • Incremental opportunity in the global airway/lung stent market is also provided as it is considered an important factor in analyzing business opportunities for leading players. (bccresearch.com)
  • The information on the leading players in the global airway/lung stent market is also provided. (bccresearch.com)
  • The global airway/lung stent market is segmented on the basis of product, end user, material type, and region. (bccresearch.com)
  • Region-wise, the global airway/lung stent market is segmented into the Asia Pacific Excluding Japan (APEJ), Europe, Latin America, North America, Japan, and the Middle East and Africa (MEA). (bccresearch.com)
  • The report offers a country-wise forecast for each segment based on all the major parameters in the global airway/lung stent market. (bccresearch.com)
  • The report titled " Airway/Lung Stent Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2017 - 2026" has been added to the comprehensive repository of Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE). (sbwire.com)
  • In addition to the market-specific factors, the demand for airway/lung stent market is also growing on account of macroeconomic factors, such as rising disposable income in developing countries, investments in quality healthcare, and favorable reimbursement policies. (sbwire.com)
  • A new report titled " Global Airway/Lung Stent Market Industry Development Scenario and Forecast to 2026 " has been included in the enormous research repository of Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) that compiles various facets of the Airway/Lung Stent Market at a global level portraying a holistic analysis of the marketplace along with intelligence on key participants. (imfaceplate.com)
  • The report covers an unbiased analysis on various market aspects, emphasizing major trends giving direction to the market, key opportunities paving new growth avenues, key drivers pushing the market's growth and challenges and restraints hindering the market for Airway/Lung Stent Market across the globe. (imfaceplate.com)
  • The airways, a novel route for delivering monoclonal antibodies to treat lung tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosing solitary lung tumors located outside of a patient's main airways has long been a challenge, but evidence is building around a technology designed to improve access to such tumors. (mddionline.com)
  • It has been historically challenging to accurately diagnose solitary lung tumors located outside of the main airways, especially when they are small, with diagnosis rates only in the 30% range," said Felix Herth, lead author of the study and chairman of the Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine at Thoraxklinik University of Heidelberg, Germany. (mddionline.com)
  • By pre-plotting a path to the nodule that avoids the vasculature and navigating through the lung anatomy with three-dimensional, real-time, fluoroscopic guidance, the Archimedes System demonstrated in this study that it aided in more than doubling the diagnostic yield of these challenging tumors to 77.8%, thereby significantly improving existing guided transbronchial biopsy. (mddionline.com)
  • IMs derive from the circulation, and were already known to aid the survival and growth of lung tumors," study first author Takuto Nosaka says. (eurekalert.org)
  • These cells represent the major proliferative airway epithelial cell type, share expression of basal cell markers, such as keratin 5 (KRT5), with LUSC tumors, and can give rise to LUSC-like tumors in genetically engineered mouse models (GEMM). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tumors in the top of the lung, known as Pancoast tumors, may invade the local part of the sympathetic nervous system, leading to Horner's syndrome (dropping of the eyelid and a small pupil on that side), as well as damage to the brachial plexus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: We studied 12 subjects with G551D-CFTR mutations and chronic airway infections before and after ivacaftor. (caltech.edu)
  • The evidence is building that BTPNA under the guidance of our Archimedes System can navigate to and access nodules anywhere in the lung without major complications," said Broncus President Henky Wibowo. (mddionline.com)
  • All mice developing CAF also showed signs of acute rejection, whereas none of the lungs showed signs of other post-transplant complications. (uzh.ch)
  • The animal model was produced by injecting a mouse HCC cell line into the veins of mice, which resulted in the growth of small metastatic lung nodules that resembled HCC lung metastasis in humans. (eurekalert.org)
  • To address the hypothesis that MWCNTs cause persistent morphologic changes and migrate beyond the lung, C57BL/6J mice were exposed by pharyngeal aspiration to 20 or 80 ug MWCNTs (mean dimensions of 4.2 um x 49 nm) or vehicle. (cdc.gov)
  • NF-κB activation in lungs of Ad-cIKK1- and Ad-cIKK2-treated mice was confirmed by immunoblots for RelA and EMSA from lung nuclear protein extracts. (jimmunol.org)
  • In lung lavage fluid, mice treated with Ad-cIKK1 or Ad-cIKK2 showed elevated concentrations of NF-κB-dependent chemokines macrophage-inflammatory protein 2 and KC and increased numbers of neutrophils. (jimmunol.org)
  • D ) Total lung proteins were isolated from gp130-Fc-treated mice and untreated control mice at day 28 and analyzed by Western blot analysis after immunoblotting with a monoclonal antibody directed against GATA-3. (jci.org)
  • In order to surpass this developmental barrier, lung organoids were transplanted onto a microporous polymer scaffold into the epididymal fat pad of immunocompromised mice. (biorxiv.org)
  • In addition, chronic HDM challenge in Batf3 -/- mice results in increased Th2 and Th17 immune responses and exacerbated airway inflammation. (jci.org)
  • By histopathology, Ascaris -infected mice demonstrated early airway remodeling similar to, but more profound than, that in OVA/OVA mice. (asm.org)
  • In the classifier, Ppbp (pro-platelet basic protein) was overexpressed 115 fold in the bronchial airways of mice with preneoplastic lung SCC lesions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, little is known about whether the gene-expression biomarkers or classifiers from bronchial airway samples of mice in which NTCU is used to induce SCC recapitulate the molecular lesions found in human patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, motility-selected cells demonstrated enhanced lung colonization after intravenous injection in mice, suggesting the possible relevance of a motile phenotype to micrometastatic seeding. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We have shown that cetuximab, a chimeric anticancer anti-EGFR mAb, is suitable for airway delivery as it resists the physical constraints of aerosolization, and have evaluated the aerosol delivery of cetuximab in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Although M 3 receptors are responsible for acetylcholine induced bronchoconstriction in isolated rat lung, the role of M 1 receptors has not been determined in the rat in vivo. (bmj.com)
  • The emergence of microphysiologic epithelial lung models using human cells in a physiologically relevant microenvironment has the potential to be a powerful tool for preclinical drug development and to improve predictive power regarding in vivo drug clearance. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Overall, our results demonstrate that this lung airway model has been successfully developed and could interact with other human tissues in vitro to better predict in vivo drug behavior. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Extremely premature infants are at risk for BPD, which is the most common lung pathology of these tiny infants and a significant cause of morbidity, mortality and health care expenditures. (uab.edu)
  • Unlike the common thinking of the period that considered airway remodelling to be consequent to the inflammatory milieu of the asthmatic setting, the authors indicated cellular stresses in the constricted airway, combined with a responsive cell population, as a plausible explanation of the mechanically responsive nature of the airway. (hindawi.com)
  • P = 0.0282) ( B ). Furthermore, the value of sIL-6R in the airways of asthmatic subjects after allergen challenge correlates positively with the respective sIL-6R of IL-5 ( E ) and IL-13 ( F ) in BALF. (jci.org)
  • Moreover, evidence suggests that Notch signaling links embryonic lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Herein, we summarized all-recent advances associated with the mechanistic role of Notch signaling in lung development, consequences of aberrant expression or deletion of Notch signaling in linking early-impaired lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling, and all recently investigated potential therapeutic strategies to treat asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lung parenchymal and airway changes on CT imaging following allergen challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage in atopic and asthmatic subjects. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Therefore, in addition to high airway pressures, end-expiratory lung volume is an important determinant of the degree and site of lung injury during positive-pressure ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • it plays a crucial role by producing both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, affecting the migration of leucocytes in the airway submucosa and lumen and modulating the function of myofibroblasts and airway smooth muscle cells [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Although leukocyte migration to the airways is the result of a complex series of events, it is in part mediated by their expression of integrins and selectins, involved in the multistep process of diapedesis ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The development of a platform to isolate more motile cells from heterogeneous basal cell populations in a step-wise manner has potential implications for airway basal cell heterogeneity, airway epithelial cell migration, and modeling metastatic seeding during early LUSC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The migration and activation of leucocytes within the airways may be the consequence of soluble proteins released by resident cells that are activated by various stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reliable information about lung recruitment during nasal CPAP is useful both for the clinical management of infants and for comparison of efficacy of the various methods available for its administration. (aappublications.org)
  • Covariance-corrected airway resistance appeared more sensitive than other methods of volume standardization in detecting bronchoconstriction. (clinsci.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that TGF-β 1 expression is increased in recipients with OB 11 12 13 14 and, in an animal model of airway obliteration, interrupting TGF-β 1 binding to its receptor reduced intraluminal airway matrix deposition. (bmj.com)
  • The aim was, using pharmacological tools, to determine the role of NO in an aerosolized LPS-driven animal model of airway inflammation by assessment of ex-NO, neutrophilia, and inflammatory biomarkers, using a nonselective NOS inhibitor, N G -nitro- l -arginine methyl ester ( l -NAME), and a selective inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitor, N -3 (aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Comparison of lung sounds and gas trapping in the study of airway mechanics. (cdc.gov)
  • The active form of vitamin D is known to affect the expression of more than 200 genes, so we were interested both in the possible lung-specific production of active vitamin D and in vitamin D-dependent production of proteins that fight infections. (thaindian.com)
  • Lung infections are amongst the most important causes of death and disability in the world, but progress in diagnosing and treating them has lagged far behind infections of other organs such as the gut and skin. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, other than the few organisms that commonly cause lung infections, we know surprisingly little about the different bacteria that live there. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What are the problems with traditional diagnostics and treatments of lung infections? (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, it is important to treat lung infections more quickly than the timeframe allowed by culturing. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Chlamydophila pneumoniae is the second most common cause of lung infections in healthy people aged 5 to 35 years. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Open Airways For Schools was developed more than a decade ago by researchers at Columbia University in collaboration with the Lung Association. (lung.org)
  • The Open Airways For Schools classroom kits contain easy-to-use teaching materials including a detailed curriculum guide, posters and activity handouts. (lung.org)
  • In contrast to the general belief that the airways of an infant are sterile until after birth, University of Alabama at Birmingham researchers and colleagues have found that the infant airway is already colonized with bacteria or bacterial DNA when a baby is born - and this is true for infants born as early as 24 weeks gestation. (uab.edu)
  • Difficulties arise because lung samples contain many human cells, and the presence of high concentrations of human DNA means special techniques are necessary for the bacterial signals to be seen. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 9 The present experiments were performed to investigate whether the peripheral lung responses to inhaled methacholine resulted from stimulation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors. (bmj.com)
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is extremely lethal upon metastasis and requires safe and effective systemic therapies to improve a patient's prognosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The high concentrations of exhaled LTB-4 and IL-8 showed the presence of a neutrophilic inflammation in the airways of NSCLC patients and gave a further support to the inflammatory signalling in lung cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aerosolized IgG accumulated durably in the lungs and the tumor, but passed poorly and slowly into the systemic circulation. (nih.gov)
  • Aerogenous metastases must be differentiated from multiple synchronous lesions in the spectrum of lung adenocarcinoma, [and] imaging features are helpful in differentiating possible aerogenous spread of tumor. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lung metastasis occurs when tumor cells from the liver enter the bloodstream. (eurekalert.org)
  • Objectives: To measure NE exocytosis by airway neutrophils in relation to free extracellular NE activity and lung damage in children with CF. (eur.nl)
  • Conclusions: NE exocytosis by airway neutrophils occurs in all children with CF, and its cellular measure correlates with early lung damage. (eur.nl)