Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Rhinometry, Acoustic: Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Mouth Breathing: Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Snoring: Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Mice, Inbred BALB CAtropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Ascaris suum: A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Mice, Inbred C57BLPulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Respiratory System Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Ventilators, Mechanical: Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Pulmonary Edema: Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Sympatholytics: Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Acetanilides: Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (1/1568)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1568)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (3/1568)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/1568)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (5/1568)

Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (6/1568)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Respiratory mechanics in airways obstruction associated with inspiratory dyspnoea. (7/1568)

Inspiratory muscle strength and the flow and elastic pressure opposing inspiration were measured in seven patients with severe airways obstruction who found inspiration difficult at rest. A comparison was made of measurements obtained from seven normal subjects and five patients with airways obstruction not experiencing inspiratory dyspnoea at rest. Measurements were also obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced in the normal subjects by adding an inspiratory resistance or by voluntarily increasing lung volume. Compared with the controls the inspiratory muscle strength of the patients was reduced but was not significantly less than that of the patients without inspiratory dyspnoea. The pressure required to produce inspiratory flow was significantly greater when inspiratory dyspnoea was present (P = 0-01). However, there was considerable overlap in the pressures of those with and without inspiratory dyspnoea. A better relationship was obtained when muscle strength was considered. The ratio of inspiratory muscle strength to the pressure required to produce flow was 0-24 +/- 0-07 (mean +/- SD) in patient with inspiratory dyspnoea, 0-10 +/- 0-03 in patients without inspiratory dyspnoea, and 0-033 +/- 0-019 in normal subjects. There was no overlap between the two patient groups. The ratios of the normal subjects were increased when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced and, with the exception of two cases, were all above those obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was absent. Inspiratory dyspnoea was experienced with lower ratios in the normals than in the patients with airways obstruction.  (+info)

Physiologic basis and interpretation of common indices of respiratory mechanical function. (8/1568)

Tests of pulmonary mechanical function may be used in determining the prominent site of pulmonary reaction to intervention. Responses may be localized from a knowledge of changes in lung resistance and compliance. A peripheral airway or parenchymal response is characterized by a decrease in lung compliance. A central airway reaction is characterized by an increase in pulmonary resistance. In mixed reactions both parameters may change. In this communication some of the physiologic determinants of pulmonary resistance and compliance are discussed and examples of localized responses given.  (+info)

*Rhinomanometry

Unilateral measurements are performed to detect any asymmetry or abnormality in nasal airway resistance. When the measurements ... Increased resistance on rhinomanometry after allergen application is an objective mean in proving allergy to airborne allergens ... Nasal obstruction leads to increased values of nasal resistance. Rhinomanometry may be used to measure only one nostril at a ... Increased pressure during respiration is a result of increased resistance to airflow through nasal passages (nasal blockage), ...

*Airway resistance

... airway resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inhalation and expiration. Airway resistance can ... these airways may collapse causing increased airway resistance. This is simply the mathematical inverse of airway resistance. G ... in asthma during an attack the airways constrict causing an increase in airway resistance. Airway resistance can also vary ... An individual small airway has much greater resistance than a large airway, however there are many more small airways than ...

*Upper airway resistance syndrome

... or UARS is a common sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause ... Upper airway resistance syndrome is caused when the upper airway narrows without closing. Consequently, airflow is either ... "Upper airway resistance syndrome in children". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology: 207-215 - via Elsevier. "Upper Airway ... Medicine portal Airway resistance Sleep apnea Shneerson, John M., ed. (2005). Sleep Medicine (Second ed.). New York: Blackwell ...

*Christian Guilleminault

The upper airway resistance syndrome". Chest. 104 (3): 781-7. doi:10.1378/chest.104.3.781. PMID 8365289. Attribution of the ... Following this work, he went on to describe the presence of elevated upper airway resistance in children in 1982, emphasizing ... "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS) in adults. Finally, working in collaboration with Dr. William C. Dement, Guilleminault ... "Sleep-induced apnea syndrome, a surgical procedure to establish patency of the upper airway during sleep". "Sleep-induced apnea ...

*Peak inspiratory pressure

... increases with any airway resistance. Things that may increase PIP could be increased secretions, ...

*Functional somatic syndrome

Upper airway resistance syndrome may also be implicated. Treatment may involve investigation, reassurance and explanation, and ... "Functional somatic syndromes, anxiety disorders and the upper airway: A matter of paradigms". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 15 (6). ...

*Sarafotoxin

... increasing airway resistance. The bronchoconstriction is also caused by left ventricular dysfunction, caused by the SRTXs. Left ... it was found that there was a marked increase in airway resistance. This was likely caused by bronchoconstriction. ... "Resistance of the egyptian mongoose to sarafotoxins". Toxicon. 35 (8): 1251-1261. doi:10.1016/s0041-0101(97)00019-6. Lüscher, ... Bronchoconstriction occurred due to constriction of smooth muscle and airway wall thickening due to peribronchial edema. This ...

*Sleep and breathing

Upper airway resistance is expected to be highest during REM sleep because of atonia of the pharyngeal dilator muscles and ... Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep. Elastic and flow resistive properties of the lung do not change ... The increase in resistance comes primarily from the upper airway in the retroepiglottic region. Tonic activity of the ... Some have shown unchanged airway resistance during REM sleep, others have shown it to increase to NREM levels. Hypoxemia due to ...

*Alexander A. Clerk

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, or Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 107 (6): 726-734 "Clinical Program - ... Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, or Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 107 (6): 726-734. doi:10.1097/ ... "Recognition and Surgical Management of the Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 106 (9): 1089-1093 Terris, D. J ... "Recognition and Surgical Management of the Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome". The Laryngoscope. 106 (9): 1089-1093. doi:10.1097 ...

*ΔP

Airway resistance is typically increased by bronchospasm and airway secretions. Chest wall compliance can be decreased by fixed ... which eliminates the effects of airway resistance. Pplat is never > PIP and is typically < 3-5 cmH2O lower than PIP when airway ... Alterations in airway resistance, lung compliance and chest wall compliance influence Cdyn. C s t a t = V T P p l a t − P E E P ... Lung compliance Chest wall compliance Airway resistance Lung compliance is influenced by a variety of primary abnormalities of ...

*Peak expiratory flow

... lung volumes and airway resistance in normal children ages 5 to 18". Br J Dis Chest. 64 (1): 15-24. doi:10.1016/S0007-0971(70) ... It measures the airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of obstruction in the airways. Peak flow readings are higher ... The Airways Journal. 2 (2): 80. Retrieved 2006-06-06. Nunn A, Gregg I (1989). "New regression equations for predicting peak ... when patients are well, and lower when the airways are constricted. From changes in recorded values, patients and doctors may ...

*W. Christopher Winter

"Enlargement of the lateral pharyngeal fat pad space in pigs increases upper airway resistance". Journal of Applied Physiology. ...

*Transient tachypnea of the newborn

The increased fluid in the lungs leads to increased airway resistance and reduced lung compliance. It is thought this could be ...

*Plethysmograph

With only a thoracic signal, all parameters can be obtained except for specific airway resistance (SRaw) and specific airway ... Another important parameter, which can be calculated with a body plethysmograph is the airway resistance. During inhalation the ... While observing the so-called resistance loop (cabin pressure and flow), diseases can easily be recognized. If the resistance ... including airway resistance and conductance. Different sizes of plethysmograph exist to study mice, rats or guinea pigs. The ...

*Lung compliance

Pplat is never bigger than PIP and is typically < 3-5 cm H2O lower than PIP when airway resistance is not elevated. PEEP is ... During this maneuver, airflow is transiently (~0.5 sec) discontinued, which eliminates the effects of airway resistance. ... Alterations in airway resistance, lung compliance and chest wall compliance influence Cdyn. Lung compliance is an important ...

*Safety of electronic cigarettes

A 2013 review found an instant increase in airway resistance after using a single e-cigarette. Any reported harmful effects to ... The short-term toxicity of e-cigarette use appears to be low, with the exception for some people with reactive airways. The ... A 2015 PHE report concluded that the risks of fire from e-cigarettes "appear to be comparable to similar electrical goods". ... A 2014 review found "disposable e-cigarettes might cause an electrical waste problem." Since the majority of e-cigarettes are ...

*Heliox

Laminar flow tends to generate less resistance than turbulent flow. In the small airways where flow is laminar, resistance is ... The Hagen-Poiseuille equation describes laminar resistance. In the large airways where flow is turbulent, resistance is ... The mixture generates less resistance than atmospheric air when passing through the airways of the lungs, and thus requires ... Currently, heliox is mainly used in conditions of large airway narrowing (upper airway obstruction from tumors or foreign ...

*Hypersomnia

Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a clinical variant of sleep apnea that can also cause hypersomnia. Just as other ... It is likely that a number of cases labeled as chronic fatigue syndrome are unrecognized cases of upper airway resistance ... For example, if a patient with sleep apnea is treated with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) which resolves their ...

*Medical gas therapy

Laminar flow tends to generate less resistance than turbulent flow. In the small airways where flow is laminar, resistance is ... The Hagen-Poiseuille equation describes laminar resistance. In the large airways where flow is turbulent, resistance is ... Heliox generates less airway resistance than air and thereby requires less mechanical energy to ventilate the lungs. "Work of ... Currently, heliox is mainly used in conditions of large airway narrowing (upper airway obstruction from tumors or foreign ...

*Nocturia

The increased airway resistance that is associated with obstructive sleep apnea may also lead to nocturnal polyuria. ...

*Oxymetazoline

It can reduce nasal airway resistance (NAR) up to 35.7% and nasal mucosal blood flow up to 50%. Imidazolines are ... Vasoconstriction of vessels results in relief of nasal congestion in two ways: first, it increases the diameter of the airway ...

*Sleep surgery

Sleep disordered breathing is a spectrum of disorders that includes snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive ... its muscle attachments to the tongue and airway are pulled forward with the aim of increasing airway size and improving airway ... Influence of nasal resistance on oral appliance treatment outcome in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31 (4): 543 547 Lazard ... Lin HC, Friedman M, Chang HW, Gurpinar B. The efficacy of multilevel surgery of the upper airway in adults with obstructive ...

*Exotic Shorthair

The syndrome can cause increased airway resistance, inflammation of structures in the airways, and increased strain on the ... "Brachycephalic Airway Syndrome in Cats". VCA Animal Hospitals. "Dystocia (difficult birth) in Cats". Cat World. Beck, C.; ... Brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Also referred to as brachycephalic respiratory syndrome or congenital obstructive ... upper airway disease, this causes upper airway abnormalities ranging in severity. ...

*Spirometry

FEV1 is diminished because of increased airway resistance to expiratory flow; the FVC may be decreased as well, due to the ... but the former is more affected because of the increased airway resistance). This generates a reduced value (. Spirometry tests ... It is sometimes directly followed by a rapid inhalation (inspiration), in particular when assessing possible upper airway ... premature closure of airway in expiration, just not in the same proportion as FEV1 (for instance, both FEV1 and FVC are reduced ...

*Dual-control modes of ventilation

Peak airway pressure varies from breath to breath according to changes in the patient's airway resistance and lung compliance. ... Adapts to the patient's resistance and compliance on a breath-by-breath basis Tidal volume varies less than with pressure- ... Varying mean airway pressure When patient demand is increased (when the patient is short of breath) the ventilator will reduce ... to the patient according to the ventilator manufacturer's particular algorithm for determining the patient's resistance and ...

*Westland Lysander

Two aircraft (T1443 and T1739) were transferred to the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) for training and 18 were ... particularly in occupied France with the help of the French Resistance. British army air co-operation aircraft were named after ... formed to undertake missions for the Special Operations Executive to maintain clandestine contact with the French Resistance.[ ...
Our study has shown that within-subject variability of the interrupter technique over a period of some weeks was comparable to within-subject variability over a period of 20-30 minutes, indicating that interrupter resistance may be a stable individual characteristic over a period of some weeks. The repeatability of interrupter resistance measurements over both short and long term intervals was satisfactory. Furthermore, within-subject variability over a period of some weeks under field conditions was only slightly higher than under standardised conditions, in spite of the fact that five observers and two pieces of equipment were involved.. The SDw for short term variability was found to be comparable to the SDw reported by others. Previous studies considered short term variability satisfactory, where a low SDw indicates a small variability over time. Klug et al6 found an SDw for short term variability of 0.08 kPa/l/s in healthy children 2-7 years of age. Furthermore, an SDw of 0.14 kPa/l/s was ...
While sRaw captures information on airflow resistance, it is important to realize that it is not a true measurement of airway resistance. Its units are cmH2O.s while typical airway resistance units would be cmH2O.s/mL. sRaw rather denotes work of breathing as it is defined by the product of airway resistance and the lung volume at the end of inspiration, the functional residual capacity or FRC. Since both factors can influence the outcome of sRaw and that there is an inverse relationship between them, best practice would be to complement measurements of sRaw with direct measurements of both upper and lower airway resistance. This would not only provide more insight in interpreting the results but also a refined and comprehensive assessment leading to a deeper understanding. The flexiVent system offers detailed lung function measurements which can prove helpful in identifying the response site within the lower airway segment while also providing direct upper airway resistance measurements. Both ...
Research reports on pulmonary function measurements often mention caffeine abstinence as a condition for testing subjects. Yet, the effects of caffeine on respiration are not well documented. This study was intended to investigate the physiological effects of caffeine on respiratory resistance measurements and the necessity of caffeine avoidance in such testing. Thirty-one subjects were administered caffeine in pill form for dosages in the range of 3 - 4.5 mg/kg body weight. Respiratory resistance was measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device every 15 minutes after caffeine ingestion until a full hour of elapsed time. No changes were noted in inhalation, exhalation, and average respiratory resistances during the times of measurements. The conclusion is that for low dosages of caffeine, respiratory resistance measurements are not affected by caffeine ingestion prior to testing.
BT_PO 1.16 Describe the factors affecting airway resistance and how airway resistance may be measured. TRUE/FALSE An increase in airway resistance will cause a decrease in FEV1. TRUE/FALSE Airway resistance measurement with an oesophageal balloon is inaccurate in severe airways disease. TRUE/FALSE Airway resistance is highest in the terminal bronchioles. TRUE/FALSE Flow in medium sized airways is laminar. TRUE/FALSE Airway conductance is linearly related to lung volume. ...
How is Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance abbreviated? eUAR stands for Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance. eUAR is defined as Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance very rarely.
Hello, I just reviewed my medical records which included a sleep study. Apparently, according to the paper work I have a diagnosis of upper airway resistance syndrome (23 arousals an hour). No one ...
C522 - 03(2016) Standard Test Method for Airflow Resistance of Acoustical Materials , absorption, acoustical materials, airflow resistance, airflow resistivity ,,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low frequency forced oscillation technique in infants. AU - Hall, Graham L.. AU - Hantos, Z.. AU - Pelak, Ferenc. AU - Wildhaber, Johannes. AU - Sly, Peter D.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The respiratory system in infants undergoes profound changes in the first few years of life. We applied two adaptions of the FOT to characterise 1 ) changes in airway and parenchymal mechanics with growth in the first two years of life; 2) contribution of the nose to total respiratory impedance (Zrs); and 3) the influence of the chest wall to Zrs. Methods: For studies 1 (n=34, 1 -24 months) & 2 (n=20, 3-21 months) a pseudo-random forcing signal (0.5-21 Hz) was applied to sedated infants via a face mask & Zrs was determined at a transrespiratory pressure of 20cm HzO. A model containing an airway compartment [airway resistance (R) & inertance (I)] & a frequency dependant constant-phase tissue compartment [tissue damping (G) & tissue elastance (H)] was fitted to Zrs. In the second study, Zrs was ...
Respiratory resistance was measured by the isovolume method [7] at 500 ml above functional residual capacity. Before each study, a Datex Ultima Capnomac spirometer (Datex Instrumentation, Helsinki, Finland) was calibrated for volume using a 1-1 syringe (Hans Rudolph, Kansas City, Mo). The ventilatory flow and pressure curves were sampled at 10-ms intervals, output to a personal computer, and the volume curve then determined by integration of the flow curve. The pressure drop across the endotracheal tube was excluded by first constructing a pressure-flow curve for both the 7.5-mm and 8-mm endotracheal tubes. For each measurement, the pressure drop across the tube for the flow noted was subtracted from the pressure measurements used during calculation, resulting in a value for R sub rs exclusive of the endotracheal tube. The isovolume method of resistance measurement is a technique applicable to mechanically ventilated patients and is based on measuring airway pressure and flow at identical ...
Ruhle and colleagues suggested in a recent review that upper airway impedance measurements using the forced oscillation technique may be useful as a surrogate of Pes in the diagnosis of UARS. With this technique, an airflow of 2 L/min is applied to a conventional nCPAP mask at an oscillatory frequency of 20 Hz. The researchers studied 25 nono-bese patients with EDS and a mean RDI of 3.4, Although the majority of arousals could not be explained on the basis of standard polysomnographic measurements, this technique showed IUAR in over half of these unexplained events. These authors also suggested that the pulse transit time (the time between the ECG R wave and the fingertip pulse shock wave) correlated with subtle changes in both the Pes and the arousals Reading here asthma medications inhalers. They also discussed changes in BP as a marker of IUAR because more negative intrathoracic pressure would decrease BP and arousal would increase BP. ...
We have studied 26 asthmatic patients in whom deep inspiration induced a transient but marked bronchodilatation when carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was present. Changes in bronchial tone were assessed by specific airway resistance measurements. Bronchodilatation after a slow inspiration (eight subjects) or a 10-second breath-hold at total lung capacity (13 subjects) was significantly less than that observed after either a fast inspiration or no breath-holding period. The magnitude of the bronchodilatation induced by a fast inspiration without breath-holding was directly and significantly related to the magnitude of the carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in five subjects.. ...
doctorstevenpark.com, The Truth About Prescription and OTC Sleep Aids [Podcast 71] In this episode, Kathy and I are going to be talking about another controversial topic that many of you have probably had some experience with at one time or another…and thats the issue of sleeping pills and OTC sleep aids. In particular, we will… ...
Airway resistance is the resistance to the flow of air through the respiratory tract during inhalation and expiration. The level of resistance depends on many things, particularly the diameter of the airway and whether flow is laminar or turbulent. In this article we shall consider how these factors affect the air flow, and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected.
1. The forced expiratory volume (FEV0·75) was measured at increasing mouth pressures in twenty-seven patients with obstructive airways disease. Attempts were made to divide the patients on clinical grounds into emphysematous, bronchitic or asthmatic categories; there was no evidence from the (FEV/mouth pressure) plots that their airways functioned differently during forced expiration.. 2. Static elastic recoil was measured in twelve patients. There was no evidence that this factor alone caused the loss of FEV in any patient.. 3. It is suggested that the use of the FEV as a test of respiratory function during the natural history of obstructive airways disease should be considered in three stages. There is an initial phase when peripheral airways disease develops with little or no alteration of the FEV. In the second phase the FEV decreases from normal values to below 1·0 litre, and at this stage is considered a sensitive indicator of peripheral airways resistance. In stage 3 the FEV is low and ...
The OASYS Oral/Nasal Airway System™ is the first dental device for Snoring, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS) that treats the two major causes of sleep disordered breathing by addressing upper airway resistance in the nasal region and blockage in the throat region. The OASYS is FDA approved as a medical device in two separate classifications (1) As a mandibular repositioner for treatment of snoring and sleep apnea and (2) As a nasal dilator for improved ease of breathing.. The OASYS treats both vulnerable areas of the upper airway with one patented system while strengthening the throat area by pulling the lower jaw and tongue forward to prevent the tongue from blocking the airflow and strengthening the throat against collapse. ...
Airway resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) as measures of lung function and airway reactivity. Basal values of RL (A) and Cdyn (B), and MCh challenge-
Specific Conductance (Sp C). Most substances dissolved in water dissociate into ions that can conduct an electrical current. Specific conductance measures electrical conductivity, and therefore is an indicator of the amount of material dissolved in water. The larger the conductance, the more mineralized the water. In general terms, the more mineralized the water, the lower its quality. Specific conductance values are reported in micromhos per centimeter at 25° C. Specific conductance measurements can be used to estimate total dissolved solids (TDS) content if the general characteristics of the water sample are known. For example, in the Flint Hills, most of the ground water contains some calcite or dolomite that has been derived from the limestone bedrock. In the absence of evaporite minerals or contaminants, the water chemistry is generally a calcium-bicarbonate type. If gypsum or anhydrite are present, calcium-sulfate waters are generated. Contamination of the ground water with brine produces ...
Nasal airway resistance was assessed in halothane-anesthetized rats by measuring the transnasal pressure at constant airflow through both nasal cavities. Low inflation pressures (2.5-5 cmH2O) decreased nasal airway resistance, whereas higher inflation pressures (10-20 cmH2O) caused a biphasic response: an initial increase in resistance followed by a decrease in resistance. The nasal responses to all levels of inflation were completely abolished by hexamethonium, guanethidine, or bretylium pretreatment or cervical sympathectomy and greatly lessened by cervical vagotomy or phenoxybenzamine pretreatment. Atropine and propranolol pretreatments had no effect on the responses. These findings indicate that the nasal airway resistance is related to the level of inflation through pulmonary reflexes with afferents along the vagi and efferents via the alpha-adrenergic nervous system.. ...
P. Fontanari, M-C. Zattera-Hartmann, H. Burnet, Y. Jammes. Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry a airway increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal, European Respiratory Society, 1997, 10 (10), pp.2250 - 2254. ⟨10.1183/09031936.97.10102250⟩. ⟨hal-01802744⟩ ...
An electrical circuit for extensive testing of a ground fault interrupter. Means to create a current differential between the hot and neutral conductors of a ground fault interrupter device, and thereby test the circuit interrupt features of said device, are disclosed. Means are also provided for determining the sensitivity of the device being tested to an accidental grounding of the neutral conductor. The invention also can be used to check the wiring connections between the ground fault interrupter and the electrical system to which it is attached. A further advantage of the invention is that it provides an indirect test of said electrical system. Modifications to the circuitry will provide similar testing devices for two and three phase ground fault interrupters.
The results of the comparative analysis among the AUC of FOT and spirometric parameters are described in Figure 5. In general, R0 (Figure 5A), Rm (Figure 5C), and Crs,dyn (Figure 5E) presented significantly higher AUC in smoking subjects with , 20 pack-years, and AUC similar to that presented by spirometric parameters as the amount of tobacco smoked increased. Spirometric parameters presented significantly higher AUC than S (Figure 5B), fr (Figure 5D), and Xm (Figure 5F) considering groups of smoking subjects with 20-39 pack-years and 40-59 pack-years.. DISCUSSION. This study documented a significantly deleterious effect of smoking on the impedance of the respiratory system. Although many other published reports have used the FOT to compare control groups with ex-smokers and/or smoking subjects, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study to investigate respiratory impedance in groups with different degrees of tobacco consumption. Earlier studies have found deleterious ...
Effect of inhaled drugs administered as dry powder is not only dependent on drug efficacy but also on technical properties of the inhalers. Different inhalers have different internal resistances and therefore it is expected that patients with limited airflow may have different exposure rates of drugs delivered from different ...
5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and Area Changes - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.
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P.H. Howarth, J.S. Mann, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Resting Airway Calibre on Non-Specific and Specific Airway Reactivity in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 5P-6P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067005Pb. Download citation file:. ...
A temperature responsive current interrupter in which two conductors are connected by electrically conductive, low-melting-point fusible elements respectively mounted on the conductors and a connector element interconnecting the fusible elements and urged against an electrically non-conductive high-melting-point fusible element, the connector element being moved into a position separate from at least one of the conductors when the high-melting-point fusible element is melted by heat.
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Oscillatory Resistance measurement answers the central question for the degree of obstruction immediately and practically without the patients cooperation
This paper discusses the techniques utilized during automated testing of Z-technology modules for mosaic focal planes. The testing includes continuity and isolation resistance measurements on both layers and modules, and functional tests of the Signal Processing Chips as they are wirebonded to the modules. The criteria for layer selection, empirically derived, is presented. Test results are presented and their impact on product development are described ...
Grading the severity of obstruction in mixed -obstructive-restrictive lung disease. Chest 140:598-603, 2011. 7. Krowka MJ, Enright PL, Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE. Effect of effort on measurement of forced -expiratory volume in one second. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:829-833, 1987. indd 34 30/01/14 10:36 AM 4 Diffusing Capacity of the Lungs An important step in the transfer of oxygen from ambient air to the arterial blood is the process of diffusion, that is, the transfer of oxygen from the alveolar gas to the hemoglobin within the red cell. 1 gives: PB VF = (PB + ∆P)(VF − ∆V) Piston and: Simplifies to: VF = ∆V (PB + ∆P) ∆P VF = ∆V (PB) ∆P FIG. 3-6. The subject is seated in an airtight plethysmograph and the pressure in the plethysmograph (Ppleth) changes with changes in lung volume. When the subject stops breathing, alveolar pressure equals barometric pressure (Pb). Consider what happens if the valve at the mouth is closed at the end of a quiet expiration, that is, FRC, and the subject makes ...
EXTREMES FOR PERIOD OF DAILY RECORD - SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE: Maximum, 2,040 microsiemens, Oct. 2, 1994; minimum, 85 microsiemens, August 17, 1996.pH: Maximum, 9.4 units, September 28, 1989; minimum, 6.4 units, June 19, 2013 and April 22-23, 2014.WATER TEMPERATURE: Maximum, 39.0°C, July 2, 1990; minimum, -0.6°C, January 10-11, 2011 DISSOLVED OXYGEN: Maximum, 20.7 mg/l, July 19, 2006; minimum, 0.7 mg/l, August 28, 2014 ...
Y V ~ F: y f ǡP ??w ̪ w A v?? y { A W ?? P } o x?? ??R Head and neck cancer: Epidemiology and patient-based market forecasts, treatment algorithm, and marketed and pipeline drug analysis ...
This patent search tool allows you not only to search the PCT database of about 2 million International Applications but also the worldwide patent collections. This search facility features: flexible search syntax; automatic word stemming and relevance ranking; as well as graphical results.
Looking for online definition of Resistance measurement in the Medical Dictionary? Resistance measurement explanation free. What is Resistance measurement? Meaning of Resistance measurement medical term. What does Resistance measurement mean?
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This study provides several insights relevant to the pathogenesis of OSA and CSA in men with HF. First, in the obstructive-dominant group, application of LBPP, which displaced 260 ml of fluid from the legs, increased NC and induced a degree of upper airway obstruction, reflected by an increase in Rph. This was a physiologically significant effect because it was sufficient to reduce Vmin and increase PtcCO2. Second, in the central-dominant group, LBPP displaced a similar amount of fluid from the legs and resulted in an increase in NC similar to that in the obstructive-dominant group. However, in contrast to the obstructive-dominant group, LBPP induced a reduction in Rph accompanied by an increase in Vmin. These changes were physiologically significant because they were sufficient to reduce PtcCO2 by 1.4 mm Hg; they might also be clinically significant because a decrease of this magnitude can induce central apnea during sleep in HF patients (9,18). These data suggested that a portion of the fluid ...
Pacific Sleep Program is dedicated to providing comprehensive sleep medicine in both Astoria and Portland, OR. If you are experiencing symptoms of UARS, its time you called us today.
Detection of smoking effects is of utmost importance in the prevention of cigarette-induced chronic airway obstruction. The forced oscillation technique offers a simple and detailed approach to investigate the mechanical properties of the respiratory
Introduction. Overweight contributes to the development of significant cardiorespiratory impairments, including the increase in airway and respiratory system resistance, limited ventilatory capacity, and changes in the cardiovascular autonomic function. As these changes are proportional to the body mass index (BMI), they are more pronounced in patients with morbid obesity.1,2. The respiratory system resistance and its components can be determined using the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT), described by Dubois et al. in 1956 as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of mechanical properties of the respiratory system in different frequencies.3 Morbidly obese patients also present increased cardiovascular sympathetic discharge and reduced parasympathetic activity.4 Because heart rate variability is influenced by the autonomic control, the time and frequency-domain analysis of RR intervals has been recognized as an effective and non-invasive method of evaluating the cardiovascular autonomic ...
The use of esophageal balloon allows us to partition respiratory system into its components, namely, chest wall and lung compliance. These measurements have not been described so far in patients undergoing pleural fluid drainage. Thus, assessment of esophageal pressure which is a surrogate of pleural pressure will allow us an accurate measurement of the effect of pleural fluid drainage on chest wall and lung mechanics ...
PURPOSE: ALI and ARDS are associated with lung volume derecruitment, usually counteracted by PEEP and recruitment maneuvers (RM), which should be accurately tailored to the patients needs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of monitoring the amount of derecruited lung by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). METHODS: We studied six piglets (26 +/- 2.5 kg) ventilated by a mechanical ventilator connected to a FOT device that produced sinusoidal pressure forcing at 5 Hz. The percentage of non-aerated lung tissue (V (tiss)NA%) was measured by whole-body CT scans at end-expiration with zero end-expiratory pressure. Respiratory system oscillatory input reactance (X (rs)) was measured simultaneously to CT and used to derive oscillatory compliance (C (X5)), which we used as an index of recruited lung. Measurements were performed at baseline and after several interventions in the following sequence: mono-lateral reabsorption atelectasis, RM, bi-lateral derecruitment induced by ...
Respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R20) by impulse oscillometry (IO) characterizes airways resistance with inextensible walls. Airways resistance (Rtot) by body plethysmography reflects the total resistance of the first 8 - 10 bronchi generations. These indicators by different methods are close physiologically. The airways in patients with an emphysema are deprived of elastic support, so a lung compliance (CL) considerably increases. We have assumed that shunting of R20 increases with loss of lung elastic recoil.. Aim of the study is evaluation loss of respiratory resistance by IO with increasing of compliance and decreasing of lung elastic recoil.. Materials and methods: We compared Rtot and R20 in 67 healthy volunteers (32F/35M, 47±1 yrs) and in the patients with obstructive disorders - 41 patients with COPD (0F/41M, 56±1 yrs) and 52 patients with bronchial asthma (34F/18M, 47±2 yrs). We have used the relation Rtot/R20. All patients were performed investigation of lung elasticity using ...
Inflation of the leg compartments of pneumatic trousers increases thoracic blood volume. The resultant response in respiratory impedence was investigated in nine normal volunteers, and compared with the response to increasing doses of inhaled carbachol. Respiratory impedance was measured by the forced oscillation technique (4-32 Hz), and respiratory resistance at zero frequency (R0) was extrapolated from linear regression analysis of resistive impedance versus frequency. The mean increase in R0 was 31% after inhalation of 125 micrograms carbachol, and 21% after inflation of pneumatic trousers. The percentage changes in R0 following pneumatic trouser inflation highly correlated those induced by inhalation of 125 micrograms carbachol (r = 0.98) Our data demonstrate that, even in normal subjects, pneumatic trouser inflation causes an increase in respiratory resistance, which can be predicted by the response to a low dose of carbachol. These results support the assumption that cholinergic agents ...
To determine the sensitivity of pulmonary resistance (RL) to changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume, we measured RL in intact anesthetized dogs over a range of breathing frequencies and tidal volumes centering around those encountered during quiet breathing. To investigate mechanisms responsible for changes in RL, the relative contribution of airway resistance (Raw) and tissue resistance (Rti) to RL at similar breathing frequencies and tidal volumes was studied in six excised, exsanguinated canine left lungs. Lung volume was sinusoidally varied, with tidal volumes of 10, 20, and 40% of vital capacity. Pressures were measured at three alveolar sites (PA) with alveolar capsules and at the airway opening (Pao). Measurements were made during oscillation at five frequencies between 5 and 45 min-1 at each tidal volume. Resistances were calculated by assuming a linear equation of motion and submitting lung volume, flow, Pao, and PA to a multiple linear regression. RL decreased with increasing
We tested the hypothesis that different strategies are used to alter tracheal pressure (Pt) during sustained and transient increases in intensity. It has been suggested that the respiratory system plays the primary role in Pt changes associated with alteration in overall intensity, whereas laryngeal adjustment is primary for transient change in Pt related to emphasis. Tracheal pressure, obtained via tracheal puncture, airflow (U), and laryngeal electromyography from the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA EMG) were collected from 6 subjects during sentence production at different intensity levels and with various stress patterns. Using a technique described in a previous study, we computed lower airway resistance (Rlaw) from measures of Pt and U obtained during a sudden change in upper airway resistance. We used this resistance value, together with direct measures of Pt and U during speech, to derive a time-varying measure of alveolar pressure (Pa), the pressure created by respiratory muscle activity and ...
Vacuum Interrupters Inc. has introduced its new MAC-TS4 vacuum interrupter tester, the only test set capable of conducting predictive testing on vacuum interrupters in the field.
This was an interesting study, because it showed what sRAW can and cannot do when compared to RAW and JPEG files. If your intention is to be able to recover white balance, the sRAW format has a definite advantage over JPEG as demonstrated in the first part of the article. Although there is definite loss of colors, you can recover most of the data when altering white balance, which is good news. Hence, if you want to have smaller RAW files and have the flexibility to change white balance, the sRAW format seems to be a viable option.. However, when it comes to recovering information from shadows and highlights, the sRAW format must be used with caution. First, you should not be using Adobe Camera RAW (Photoshop and Lightroom) for sRAW file conversion, since the Adobe RAW engine ends up heavily under-exposing images and losing more data in highlights, as demonstrated above. Capture NX-D clearly does a better job, but the software is very buggy and has its own set of problems (for example, ...
The present study was designed: (a) to compare the additional inspiratory laryngeal mask airway (LMA) resistance measured in vitro during simulated ventilation and in vivo in five anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated patients; and (b) to evaluate the resistive pressure drop along the lenght of the LMA. After the differential pressure across the mask was measured, the pressure-flow relationship was characterised by Rohers equation and in vitro and in vivo resistance was calculated. Thereafter, the distal pressure measuring point was moved along the lenght of the LMA and differential pressure was meausred at each point under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Values for resistance were approximately twice as great as those obtained in vitro, with most of the resistive pressure drop occurring across the vertical bars, especially when measured in vivo. We conclude that in vivo positioning of the LMA significantly increases resistance because of the configurational changes occurring when the LMA ...
0047]To test the transparent conductor 120 of the touch panel 200, the bottom panel 101 is connected to a voltage testing supply 203 that supplies a supply voltage V0. In the present embodiment, the supply voltage is set at five volts, but may be any suitable testing voltage that will not harm the underlying circuitry and touch panel materials but will allow for adequate testing of the touch panel 200. The top panel 105 is preferably set at a zero voltage level. Also, connected to the bottom panel 101 and the voltage testing supply 203, there is a resistor RT. There is also a sense terminal 204 at which a sensing voltage Vsense can be detected. The sensing voltage is used to measure a voltage caused by the bottom panel 101 and the top panel 105 coming into electrical contact at a point 201. The sensing voltage Vsense is used to calculate the contact resistances for each point of contact made between the bottom panel 101 and the top panel 105. For example, electrical contact is made at the point ...
Also parallel bar instruments are intended to measure flat, regular material surfaces and are intended to measure the effect of many parallel paths across the material between the two bars. Using these instruments for Point to Point measurements are different than area measurements and will provide different measurement results. In this case they are simply indicators and not specification measurements.. For example, the ESD Check ESI-870 is probably just fine. You can check it by placing it on surfaces of various resistance characteristics e.g., on an insulated surface and a clean metal surface. The problem is when comparing two different measurement fixtures on an undefined surface - Soft Rubber vs Machined Metal contact fixtures - and expect to get the same answer. This is not always possible. This is the reason Prostat provides REMOVABLE conductive boots & ...
They had them breathe in through a machine that could vary the temperature and humidity of the air. They would have the patients pant afterwards, and they would measure airway resistance. For those that had mild asthma, they showed airway resistance to hot, humid air. (That means they were having a hard time breathing) The "normal people" showed very little or now problems. Figures. Once again our asthma bodies over-react to normal every day things. Here are the results of the study ...
폐기능 검사는 주관적인 호흡기 증상이 있는 경우 이를 객관화할 수 있으며, 호흡기 질환의 심한 정도를 평가하고 치료에 대한 반응과 병의 진형 상태를 감시할 수 있다. 그러나 표준적인 폐기능 검사는 환자의 협조를 필요로 하기 때문에 대상 연령이 제한적이고 검사자의 인내와 기술을 요하며, 많은 시간을 소비하는데 따른 소아과 의사의 소극적인 태도로 소아, 특히 신생아에서는 일반적으로 거의 이용되지 않고 있다. 최근에는 신생아 집중 치료의 발달로 여러가지 폐질환을 갖는 신생아의 생존율이 증가함에 따라 폐기능 검사를 통한 폐기능의 질적, 양적 평가로 폐질한의 진단및 치료에 만전을 기할 수 있다. 이에 저자는 비교적 간단하며 비침습적이어서 신생아에서도 시행할 수 있는 호흡속도묘사기(pneumotachography)와 수동 호기 유량-기량곡선(passive ...
We investigated the effect of different levels of hypercapnia on total pulmonary resistance (RL) in 13 subjects ranging from nonsnorers with low RL to snorers with high RL and dynamic narrowing of the upper airway during inspiration. Added CO2 was ad
Chrystèle Locher, Mathieu Raux, Marie-Noelle Fiamma, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Marc Zelter, Jean-Philippe Derenne, Thomas Similowski, Christian Straus
Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent , Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golden group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. Specific conductance values were generally 21 microsiemens/cm at 25 C or less, and dissolved solids concentrations were generally 20 mg/L or less. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform....
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This is a one week project. Later, full-blown agriculture dominated, as wild plants were used more rarely. The clients skin should be dry and free of any oils and lotions. Full blown racer. Were beginning to see a shift in hardware infrastructures, from ASIC chips connected via USB in the home to full fledged rack mountable servers in large datacenters. Cabinet ministers were preparing for EU chiefs to. Full Blown CD009 Shifter Kit Add to Cart. Elena Popina, sent anxiety swirling that a full-blown easing period isnt at hand. com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. As towns grow larger and areas become incorporated, theres an increased demand for services. 10Irrespective of whether the respiratory event is a full blown apnoea, a hypopnoea, or an episode of upper airway resistance, the associated arousal is accompanied by changes in heart rate and by a transient burst of sympathetic. We offer the best prices around, and we wont be beat! Check out www. While your initial ...
Iwasawa, S; Kikuchi, Y; Nishiwaki, Y; Nakano, M; Michikawa, T; Tsuboi, T; Tanaka, S; Uemura, T; Ishigami, A; Nakashima, H; +7 more... Takebayashi, T; Adachi, M; Morikawa, A; Maruyama, K; Kudo, S; Uchiyama, I; Omae, K; (2009) Effects of SO2 on respiratory system of adult Miyakejima resident 2 years after returning to the island. Journal of occupational health, 51 (1). pp. 38-47. ISSN 1341-9145 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1539/joh.L8075 Full text not available from this repository ...
Also, and very important, the range you must be able to measure for packaging is at least as low or lower than 1.0×103 ohms to 1.0×1012 ohms and higher if possible. A multimeter does not meet this performance range requirement. In class we used two instruments: a Prostat PRS-801 Resistance System that had a range of 0.1 ohm to 2.0×1014 ohms, and a Prostat PRS-853 Resistance Audit System that has a range of 0.01 ohm to 1.0×1012 ohms. Both are constant voltage instruments that meet industry standards for resistance measurement - a multimeter cannot meet these requirements ...
Owners Manual Manual Ranging Multimeter Model No. 82337 CAUTION: Read, understand and follow Safety Rules and Operating Instructions in this manual before using this product. • Safety • Operation • Maintenance • Español © Sears, Roebuck and Co., Hoffman Estates, IL 60179 U.S.A. www.craftsman.com 061906 TABLE OF CONTENTS Warranty Page 3 Safety Instructions 4 Safety Symbols 5 Control and Jacks 6 Symbols and Annunciators 6 Specifications 7 Battery Installation 9 Operating Instructions 10 DC Voltage Measurements 10 AC Voltage Measurements 11 DC Current Measurements 12 AC Current Measurements 13 Resistance Measurements 14 Continuity Measurements 15 Diode Test 15 Temperature Measurements 16 Display Backlight 17 Battery Check 17 Data Hold 17 Auto Power Off 17 Low Battery Indication 17 Blown Fuse Indication 17 Wrong Connection Indication 17 Maintenance 18 Battery Replacement 19 Fuse Replacement 19 Troubleshooting 21 Service and Parts 21 2 ONE YEAR FULL WARRANTY ONE YEAR FULL WARRANTY ON ...
Hydrolab Corporations water quality monitoring instruments can monitor multiple parameters simultaneously including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, ORP, depth, turbidity, chlorophyll, total dissolved gas, nitrates, ammoni...
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a direct link between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Several studies also support the presence of small-airway dysfunction (SAD) in non-asthmatic children with AR. However, it remains unknown whether SAD can predict the progression of AR to asthma. Our objective was to explore the existence of SAD in non-asthmatic children with AR and to assessed its ability to predict the development of asthma. METHODS: Seventy-three 6-year-old children with intermittent moderate-severe AR but without asthma symptoms/medication within the last two years, underwent spirometry and measurement of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) before and after bronchodilation (BD) (300mcg salbutamol ...
Surgeons can now use 3D, accurate images of the liver to rehearse keyhole tumor removal before real surgery "" reducing the risk to the patient and enabling them to take expert advice.. Odysseus has developed systems to construct 3D images of individual patients livers, with their tumors or other pathologies, from MRI or CT-scans. The reconstructions can be transmitted to external experts in any location, for consultation in real time just before surgery. Collaborative decisions can be made and optimal therapy planned with the best possible diagnostic support, before real surgery is attempted. Simulation of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, with tissue resistance, can be used either to practice the exact surgery proposed for an individual patient, or also for training several surgeons simultaneously.. Medical imaging of organs and tissues has contributed greatly to diagnosis and therapy planning, especially in the treatment of cancers, which are the major cause of deaths worldwide. However the ...
A pneumatically powered trocar assembly includes a source of compressed gas which releases a metered amount of gas to a chamber. A piston slidably positioned within the chamber is driven forward by the compressed gas introduced therein, and an obturator with a tissue piercing tip are advanced thereby. Optionally, a sensor detects the presence of body tissue within the cutting path of the tip and blocks the passage of compressed gas to the chamber, or alternatively, opens an escape vent to release compressed gas therefrom if insufficient body tissue resistance is encountered. The powered trocar assembly is intended for use in conjunction with a cannula assembly to create a passage to the interior of a body cavity for conducting surgical procedures.
In spite of these difficulties, such studies have already shown that sucrose, in proportions within the range found in current human dietaries, produces an increase in plasma lipids, uric acid, insulin and cortisol; abnormalities in platelet behavior; reduction in glucose tolerance; tissue resistance to insulin; damage to the liver and the kidney, and an increase in lipid in the aorta ...
The American Radio Relay League (ARRL) is the national association for amateur radio, connecting hams around the U.S. with news, information and resources.
If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Nasopharyngeal Airway, Nasal Pharangeal Airway, Nasal Airway, Nasal Trumpet.
Food you can live without for 40 days. Water you can live without a few days, but air you can only live without a few minutes. Airway function is essential.
Dobrnęliśmy do końca tej opowieści. Czy jest więc to pora na zawieszenie plakatu Fot. plakat Fot. Odczytanie wiersza Fot. A na... ...
Show Notes. Original UARS paper by Dr. Christian Guilleminault. Sleep Interrupted: A physician reveals the #1 reason why so many of us are sick and tired Robert Sapolskys book, "Why Zebras Dont Get Ulcers". The Sleep Breathing Paradigm (Podcast 39). POTS (postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome). UARS and somatic syndromes: Dr. Avram Gold article. ...
The fastest and most accurate way to assess body plethysmography and DLCO module for standard testing like lung volume(TGV,TLC,FRC etc ),slow vital capacity(SVC), maximum voluntary ventilation(MVV),MIP/MEP, respiratory drive, bronchial challenge test, absolute and specific conductance of airway(GAW/SGAW)absolute and specific airway resistance ...
by Thomas Powell, Edgar Mark Williams. The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WRI) was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component) allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WRI, power of breathing, PRI and minute ventilation, were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts) and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min-1) with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec-1. Resting WRI was 0.12 JL-1 and PRI was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WRI increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of , while PRI increased ...
Since much of the sulfur dioxide (SO2) that is produced from fossil fuel combustion is oxidized to sulfuric acid, (H2SO4), there is concern about the effects of inhaled H2SO4 on human health. Adolescent asthmatic subjects, unlike healthy or even adult asthmatic subjects, have shown decreased pulmonary function after inhalation of 100 μg/m3 H2SO4. This paper describes a recent study exploring the effect of inhalation of a near ambient concentration of H2SO4 in allergic adolescent subjects with asthma. Subjects were exposed via a rubber mouthpiece for 30 min during rest and 10 min during moderate exercise to filtered air, 68 μg/ m3 H2SO4, or 0.1 ppm SO2 alone or in combination. Pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1, total respiratory resistance RT and maximal flow) were measured before and after exposure. Exposure to 68 μg/m3 alone caused a significant 6% decrease in FEV1 (p = 0.012), whereas exposure to air or SO2 alone did not. Exposure to SO2 combined with the ...
The results of these experiments in anaesthetised Brown Norway rats show that prolonged inhalation of methacholine results in a predominantly parenchymal (or tissue) constrictor response which is effectively reversed by a maximum dose of atropine sulphate but not by pirenzepine. In contrast, intravenous methacholine produced more marked changes in airway resistance which were reversed by pirenzepine.. Our adaptation of the low frequency forced oscillation technique allows lung mechanics to be partitioned into airway and parenchymal components by fitting the constant phase model to the impedance spectra. The airways through which gas moves by bulk flow will be included in the airway component, whereas airways through which gas moves by diffusion are likely to be included in the parenchymal component. It is therefore most likely that the parenchymal response is the result of contraction of smooth muscle in respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts and of contractile elements in the alveolar ...
Hyperreactivity of airways to bronchoconstrictive agents is a common feature of reactive airway diseases. In addition to its established role on vascular smooth muscle tone, the NO/cGMP pathway is also expected to balance the contractile responses of airway smooth muscle. The NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) which forms cyclic GMP in response to NO holds a key position in this pathway and exists in two isoforms, NO-GC1 and NO-GC2, which both have been identified in bronchial and pulmonary blood vessels smooth muscle.. Here we determined the contribution of the NO-GC isoforms to the regulation of airway resistance. Airway resistance was determined in a whole body plethysmography chamber in conscious mice deficient in either NO-GC1 or NO-GC2 in response to methacholine and serotonine inhalation. L-NAME was applied to NO-GC KOs to analyse the effect mediated by the remaining NO-GC isoform and to WT to inhibit both isoforms to see a possible synergistic or antagonistic action. The ganglionic ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Current clinical diagnostic tests for asthma. AU - Shah, Shiwan. AU - Sharma, Gulshan. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Asthma involves variable airflow obstruction in both large and small airways. The physiological consequences of obstruction include increased airway resistance and decreased expiratory flow rates, which lead to air trapping and dynamic hyperinflation. This chapter reviews current methods for pulmonary function testing to detect these physiological changes for both diagnosis and monitoring.. AB - Asthma involves variable airflow obstruction in both large and small airways. The physiological consequences of obstruction include increased airway resistance and decreased expiratory flow rates, which lead to air trapping and dynamic hyperinflation. This chapter reviews current methods for pulmonary function testing to detect these physiological changes for both diagnosis and monitoring.. KW - Airway hyperresponsiveness. KW - Bronchodilator reversibility. KW - ...
BioAssay record AID 176474 submitted by ChEMBL: Bronchoconstrictor effect of bradykinin was determined after intravenous administration in rats.
Looking for dynamic compliance? Find out information about dynamic compliance. compliancy a measure of the ability of a mechanical system to respond to an applied vibrating force, expressed as the reciprocal of the systems stiffness.... Explanation of dynamic compliance
Using explant cultures of human extraplacental membranes (the tissue that forms the gestational compartment), Project 2 investigators found that exposure to S-(1,2-dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine (DCVC), a bioactive metabolite of trichloroethylene (TCE), inhibits pathogen-stimulated cytokine responses that are important for tissue defense against infection.. Figure 1 shows that live Group B Streptococcus, added to the maternal side of the extraplacental membranes in transwell cultures, strongly stimulates innate immune defense responses with release of the cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the absence of DCVC but not in the presence of DCVC (Figs. 1a and 1b, respectively; Boldenow et al., 2015). This study shows toxicant-microbial interactions with potential implications for pregnancy.. ...
TMA is an organic acid anhydride that is widely used in industry. It can induce specific IgE and cause occupational asthma in sensitized individuals. Persistent occupational asthma, even with antigen/hapten avoidance can be seen is approximately 20% of the cases. Duration of both circulating TMA-specific IgE and specific airway responsiveness was studied in a TMA sensitized Brown Norway rat asthma
Sodium silicate is the chemical name of (Na2O)x�SiO2. Visit BYJU�S to study the uses, physical and chemical properties, structure of Sodium silicate ((Na2O)x�SiO2) from the expert faculties.
Breath by breath recordings of tidal volume, air flow and pleural pressure, with on-line analog computation of dynamic lung compliance and pulmonary resistance, allow the quantitative assessment of actions of drugs on airways of guinea pigs under nearly physiological conditions. Isoproterenol reduces resistance but has little effect on compliance unless given to animals with induced airway constri
Effective October 1, 2015, the diagnosis code on the CMS-1500 for Obstructive Sleep Apnea is now G47.33. Reimbursement claims with a date of service on or after October 1, 2015 require the use of the new code. The new diagnosis code for Upper Airway Resistance is G47.3 and the diagnosis code for Snoring is R06.83 The treatment…
Inhibition of PDE3/4 has previously been reported to induce relaxation of canine airways, guinea pig trachea, and human ASM preparations (de Boer et al., 1992; Naline et al., 1996; Torphy, 1998; Boswell-Smith et al., 2006b). We have demonstrated that the selective inhibition of PDE3/4 by RPL554 elicited relaxation of bronchial tone in human isolated airways, which extends and supports observations previously reported in guinea pig isolated trachea with this drug (Boswell-Smith et al., 2006b). The use of human isolated bronchial rings to investigate the actions of bronchodilator drugs is well established and considered predictive of the effectiveness of such drugs clinically, and we, as well as a number of other laboratories, have previously demonstrated a range of studies with different drug classes in this model (Matera et al., 2009, 2011a, 2013; Tannu et al., 2010; Calzetta et al., 2011; Cazzola et al., 2011; Hewson et al., 2012; Rogliani et al., 2013). The inhibitory effect of RPL554 was ...
A novel method to measure airway mucus plugging using CT images from patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients.
At resting levels of ventilation, the main airway can be reduced to a diameter of 3 mm or so before respiratory distress and stridor occur. Little more narrowing is required to precipitate complete asphyxia, hence when upper airways obstruction is suspected, assessment of severity, diagnosis, and treatment is a medical emergency....
Acute effects of smoked marijuana and oral delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on specific airway conductance in asthmatic subjects American Review of
yE means the exciters elongation compared with the mid-position; AE is the amplitude of the exciters oscillation, ω means the corresponding angular frequency and t the time.. It is a question of finding the size of the resonators elongation y (compared with its mid-position) at the time t. Using ω0 = (D/m)1/2 this problem is described by the following differential equation:. ...
The level of food consumption was lower in male offspring (IVC=171.7±9; CC=193.1±20) than in female offspring (IVC=100.6±7; CC=123.4±0.4), whereas the water intake was higher in female offspring (IVC=149.8±11; CC=99.2±0) than in male offspring (IVC=302.5±25; CC=249.7±22) at 11 weeks of age when housed in IVCs. The cage temperature was higher in individually ventilated cages than in conventional cages for both male (IVCs=25.9±0.5; CCs=22.95±0.3) and female (IVCs=26.2±0.3; CCs=23.1±0.3) offspring. The respiratory resistance (IVC=68.8±2.8; CC=50.6±3.0) and elastance (IVC=42.0±3.9; CC=32.4±2.0) at 300 µm/kg were higher in the female offspring housed in ventilated cages. The ciliary beat values were lower in both the male (IVCs=13.4±0.2; CC=15±0.4) and female (IVC=13.5±0.4; CC=15.9±0.6) offspring housed in individually ventilated cages than in those housed in conventional cages. The total cell (IVC=117.5±9.7; CC=285.0±22.8), neutrophil (IVC=13.1±4.8; CC=75.6±4.1) and ...
I see now. My point was that you can perfectly write [itex]x[/itex] as [itex]x + 2342 i \in \mathbb{Z} [/itex] without that obeying the equation. So every [itex]z[/itex] that is a solution of the equation, has the property [itex]x = \Re{\{z\}}[/itex] but not every [itex]z[/itex] with the previous property satisfies the equation. The problem was stated in a way that it implied that what I had to show is: Show that [itex]x = \Re{\{z\}}[/itex] if and only if [itex]z[/itex] satisfies the equation ...
Fact: if its a linear ODE and your forcing functions are sin(wt) and/or cos(wt) then you cannot get anything but sin(wt) and/or cos(wt) terms in the solution. I mean, no harmonic terms like sin(3wt) or cos(3wt) etc. (You can still get exp(kt) and/or constant terms however. But not in this case where there were no initial conditions given ...
Bulk flow of air in between the environment and the lungs is an important respiratory function. Coordinated, active movements of the thorax and the diaphragm, result in inspiration and expiration.
1. Verification of Thevenin s theorem. 2. Verification of Superposition theorem. 3. Phasor Diagram and Power factor of LCR circuit.. 4. Measurement of Power and Power factor in single phase Load using three ammeters/voltmeters.. 5. Calibration of Energy Meter/Wattmeter/Voltmeter/Ammeter. 6. Two wattmeter method of measuring power in three phase circuit (resistive load only). 7. Load test on Single Phase Transformer, Regulation and Efficiency of Transformer. 8. Short Circuit/Open Circuit tests on Single Phase transformer. 9. Measure the armature and field resistance of a D.C. Machine. 10. Connection and starting of a Three Phase Induction Motor using direct on line or Star Delta Starter.. 11. Starting and Speed Control of a D.C. shunt motor. 12. Resonance. ...
A method and apparatus for detecting and determining discontinuities in a load under test. The apparatus is preferably a digital continuity analyzer that determines, by time duration of a discontinuity signal, discontinuities in a resistive load under test and displays a total count thereof. Circuit characteristics allow for adjustable time periods for determining discontinuities as required by various tests. During the discontinuity determination, the circuit automatically resets when the discontinuity ceases. Total discontinuities are displayed for the length of the test.
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Airway_Calibre_in_Health_and_Disease.html?id=_xpsAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAirway Calibre in Health and Disease ...
Abstracts included:. Foley, A. L. and Nyswander, R. E. An Improved Wehnelt Interrupter.. Foley, A. L. A Method of Measuring the Absolute Dilatation of Mercury.. ...
Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989 Jul;140(1):10-6. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
1. Measurements of airways resistance and lung volume were made in sixteen patients with chronic bronchitis and ten patients without chest disease before and after intravenous propranolol administration.. 2. The airways resistance of the patients with chronic bronchitis increased significantly after propranolol administration but in the control subjects there was no significant increase.. 3. In the patients with chronic bronchitis the increases in airways resistance were greater when the initial values were high.. 4. In seven of the patients with chronic bronchitis and seven further control subjects airways resistance was measured before and after intravenous thymoxamine administration.. 5. The airways resistance of the normal subjects was unchanged by thymoxamine administration, but that of the patients with chronic bronchitis decreased significantly.. 6. The results are consistent with the existence of bronchial alpha receptors in man. In patients with chronic bronchitis there are greater ...
1. The physiological basis of inspiratory effort sensation remains uncertain. Previous studies have suggested that pleural pressure, rather than inspiratory muscle fatigue, is the principal determinant of inspiratory effort sensation. However, only a limited range of inspiratory flows and breathing patterns have been examined. We suspected that inspiratory effort sensation was related to the inspiratory muscle tension-time index developed whatever the breathing pattern or load, and that this might explain the additional rise in sensation seen with hypercapnia.. 2. To investigate this we measured hypercapnic re-breathing responses in seven normal subjects (six males, age range 21-38 years) with and without an inspiratory resistive load of 10 cm H2O. Pleural and transdiaphragmatic pressures, mouth occlusion pressure and breathing pattern were measured. Diaphragmatic and ribcage tension-time indices were calculated from these data. Inspiratory effort sensation was recorded using a Borg scale at 30s ...
Rhinomanometry is a form of manometry used in evaluation of the nasal cavity. Rhinomanometry is a standard diagnostic tool aiming to objectively evaluate the respiratory function of the nose. It measures pressure and flow during normal inspiration and expiration through the nose. Increased pressure during respiration is a result of increased resistance to airflow through nasal passages (nasal blockage), while increased flow, which means the speed of airstream, is related to better patency. Nasal obstruction leads to increased values of nasal resistance. Rhinomanometry may be used to measure only one nostril at a time (anterior rhinomanometry) or both nostrils simultaneously (posterior rhinomanometry). In anterior rhinomanometry, the patient is asked to blow his nose, sit in an upright position, and the pressure sensing tube is placed in one nostril while the contralateral nostril is left opened. The patient places a mask which is connected to the device tightly onto his face. Unilateral ...
Electrical injuries cause injury via several mechanisms: direct tissue damage from electrical energy, thermal damage from heat created by tissue resistance, and mechanical injury induced by a fall or tetanic muscle contraction. Severity of injury and tissues affected depend on voltage, duration of contact, tissue resistance, and path of current. The risk for serious injury increases with as voltage increases. Patients may sustain immediate cardiac dysrthymias (including ventricular fibrillation), respiratory arrest or seizures. Cardiac complications, such as arrhythmias and QT prolongation are more commonly seen in high voltage injuries. Temporary loss of consciousness is common. Severe burns may results from contact with high voltage lines. Entrance and exit burns are typically painless, gray to yellow depressed areas. The size of the skin injury does not correlate well with internal injuries. Traumatic injuries frequently accompany electrical injuries. Details of specific immediate and delayed ...
Objectives/Hypothesis Inspired air is heated and moistened as it passes the nasal cavity. The temperature increase should be similar to a heated tube model, depending on the airflow.. Study Design Intranasal temperature values of 50 volunteers were measured after inspiration at different locations: nasal vestibule, nasal valve area, anterior to the head of the middle turbinate, and the nasopharynx. Temperature values were related to nasal airway resistance data.. Methods Intranasal temperature measurements were made with a miniaturized thermocouple. Nasal airway resistance was detected by active anterior rhinomanometry.. Results A logarithmic increase of air temperature from the anterior segment of the nose to the posterior part was noted. In the nasopharynx temperature was approximately 34°C. The highest increase in temperature was observed in the nasal valve area.. Conclusions The temperature increase of ambient air in the nasal airways can be compared with a logarithmic curve of the heating ...
Allen J. Moses,1 DDS, R. Gordon Klockow,2 DDS and Marcus Lieberman,3 PhD. Abstract. Resistance to nasal airflow at the nares approximates half the airflow resistance of the entire respiratory system. Nasal dilation at the nares prevents collapsibility via the Bernoulli Principle. Acoustic rhinometry was used to test a system of 1/ 2 inch diameter acrylic discoid pads placed distal to the cuspids at the height of the maxillary labial vestibule. They were intended to stretch the lip and distend the nares. The intraoral discoid pads were anchored by orthodontic wire to a maxillary advancement device (MAD).. MADs are successfully used by dentists to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. The MAD with the acrylic discoid pads was compared to an identical control device without the pads and also compared to a gold standard, external nasal dilator strips (ENDS). The objective measurement device was an acoustic rhinometer.. Subjects in this study were patients in a clinical dental practice ...

Changes In The Shape Of The Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve Following Weight Loss In Obese Females, NC DOCKS (North...Changes In The Shape Of The Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve Following Weight Loss In Obese Females, NC DOCKS (North...

The buildup of fat leads to a decrease in chest well compliance and increase in airway resistance, both of which are ...
more infohttp://libres.uncg.edu/ir/listing.aspx?styp=ti&id=21821

eUAR - Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance | AcronymFindereUAR - Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance | AcronymFinder

... eUAR stands for Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance. eUAR is defined as Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance very rarely. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Expiratory-Upper-Airway-Resistance-(eUAR).html. *Chicago style: Acronym Finder. S.v. "eUAR." Retrieved ... www.acronymfinder.com/Expiratory-Upper-Airway-Resistance-(eUAR).html,eUAR,/a,. ... www.acronymfinder.com/Expiratory-Upper-Airway-Resistance-(eUAR).html ...
more infohttps://www.acronymfinder.com/Expiratory-Upper-Airway-Resistance-

Treatment for Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome - Sleep Apnea / Disorders - MedHelpTreatment for Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome - Sleep Apnea / Disorders - MedHelp

Apparently, according to the paper work I have a diagnosis of upper airway resistance syndrome (23 arousals an hour). No one ... Treatment for Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome nipsic987 Hello, I just reviewed my medical records which included a sleep study ... Apparently, according to the paper work I have a diagnosis of upper airway resistance syndrome (23 arousals an hour). No one ... Create an account to receive updates on: Treatment for Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome ...
more infohttps://www.medhelp.org/posts/Sleep-Apnea---Disorders/Treatment-for-Upper-Airway-Resistance-Syndrome/show/1247321

The effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance.  - PubMed - NCBIThe effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance. - PubMed - NCBI

The effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance.. Hartgerink DV1, Vig PS, Abbott DW. ... Nasal resistance measurements, assessed in four modes (natural state, anterior nares dilation with Tygon tubing, following ... Individual variation in nasal resistance values was considerable and hence the median response for the group was not a reliable ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in nasal resistance to airflow in persons undergoing rapid maxillary ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2445196

AIRWAY RESISTANCE | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsAIRWAY RESISTANCE | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

AIRWAY RESISTANCE You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1967462

Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: Airway ResistanceCanary Database: Browse by Outcome: Airway Resistance

Browse by Outcome: Airway Resistance (2 articles). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
more infohttp://canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/1884

AIRWAY RESISTANCE | Anesthesiology | ASA PublicationsAIRWAY RESISTANCE | Anesthesiology | ASA Publications

AIRWAY RESISTANCE You will receive an email whenever this article is corrected, updated, or cited in the literature. You can ... J. A. Nadel, J. G. Widdicombe; AIRWAY RESISTANCE. Anesthesiology 1963;24(2):266. ... Effects of Changes in Blood Gas Tension and Carotid Sinus Pressure on Airway calibre of Dogs.) ...
more infohttp://anesthesiology.pubs.asahq.org/article.aspx?articleid=1967666

Airway resistance - WikipediaAirway resistance - Wikipedia

... airway resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inhalation and expiration. Airway resistance can ... these airways may collapse causing increased airway resistance. This is simply the mathematical inverse of airway resistance. G ... in asthma during an attack the airways constrict causing an increase in airway resistance. Airway resistance can also vary ... An individual small airway has much greater resistance than a large airway, however there are many more small airways than ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airway_resistance

Upper airway resistance syndrome - WikipediaUpper airway resistance syndrome - Wikipedia

Upper airway resistance syndrome or UARS is a common sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause ... Upper airway resistance syndrome is caused when the upper airway narrows without closing. Consequently, airflow is either ... "Upper airway resistance syndrome in children". Seminars in Pediatric Neurology: 207-215 - via Elsevier. "Upper Airway ... Medicine portal Airway resistance Sleep apnea Shneerson, John M., ed. (2005). Sleep Medicine (Second ed.). New York: Blackwell ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Upper_airway_resistance_syndrome

A Method for Standardizing Airway Resistance for Variations in Lung Volume | Clinical ScienceA Method for Standardizing Airway Resistance for Variations in Lung Volume | Clinical Science

1. The inverse relationship between airway resistance and lung volume contributes to variation in measurement of resistance, as ... of airway resistance was compared with conventional volume-standardized variables such as specific airway resistance, specific ... A Method for Standardizing Airway Resistance for Variations in Lung Volume. T. Higenbottam, T. J. H. Clark ... A Method for Standardizing Airway Resistance for Variations in Lung Volume Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
more infohttp://www.clinsci.org/content/57/5/397

Peripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume | Clinical Science | Portland PressPeripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume | Clinical Science | Portland Press

But airways resistance continues to increase and could be a more sensitive measurement of further airways disease. ... Peripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume Ruth M. Cayton Ruth M. Cayton ... Ruth M. Cayton, P. Howard; Peripheral Airways Resistance, Static Recoil and the Forced Expiratory Volume. Clin Sci 1 April 1972 ... and at this stage is considered a sensitive indicator of peripheral airways resistance. In stage 3 the FEV is low and further ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/clinsci/article-abstract/42/4/505/70036/Peripheral-Airways-Resistance-Static-Recoil-and

5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and Area Changes | Radius | Drag (Physics)5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and Area Changes | Radius | Drag (Physics)

5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and Area Changes - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read ... not exist in physical form in the airways at all. Hence, we can say that the airway. first contract from Aa to Ao and then ... saveSave 5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and... For Later. ... saveSave 5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and... For Later. ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/245440744/5-3-Airway-Resistance-Shock-Losses-for-Bends-and-Area-Changes

Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients | European Respiratory SocietyNasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients | European Respiratory Society

Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. P Fontanari, MC Zattara-Hartmann ... Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients ... Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients ... Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry air increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/10/10/2250?ijkey=5fad9880d01fc9c3ea2fb07c568a97c88a47f8ed&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

RePub, Erasmus University Repository:
  Air pollution and airway resistance at age 8 years - The PIAMA birth cohort studyRePub, Erasmus University Repository: Air pollution and airway resistance at age 8 years - The PIAMA birth cohort study

We assessed associations of long-term air pollution exposure with airway resistance. Methods: We measured airway resistance at ... Air pollution and airway resistance at age 8 years - The PIAMA birth cohort study. Publication. Publication. Environmental ... Air pollution and airway resistance at age 8 years - The PIAMA birth cohort study. Environmental Health: A Global Access ... but measurements of airway resistance may provide additional information. ...
more infohttps://repub.eur.nl/pub/109502

Sleep Apnea Snoring Airway passage Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Before After PhotosSleep Apnea Snoring Airway passage Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Before After Photos

... upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) ... Sleep disordered breathing can be severe to the point of complete airway collapse where your airway gets sucked closed.. Those ... These appliances allow maximum airway capacity. It gently holds your jaw in the correct position to maintain proper airway flow ... upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is defined by the ...
more infohttp://www.dental--health.com/snoring_sleep_apnea.html

Sciatic Nerve Stimulation and its Effects on Upper Airway Resistance in the Anesthetized Rabbit Model Relevant to Sleep Apnea,...Sciatic Nerve Stimulation and its Effects on Upper Airway Resistance in the Anesthetized Rabbit Model Relevant to Sleep Apnea,...

"Sciatic Nerve Stimulation and its Effects on Upper Airway Resistance in the Anesthetized Rabbit Model Relevant to Sleep Apnea, ... upper airway resistance was unchanged. Hypoglossal stimulation reduced resistance without altering drive. While sciatic nerve ... upper airway resistance was unchanged. Hypoglossal stimulation reduced resistance without altering drive. While sciatic nerve ... Sciatic Nerve Stimulation and its Effects on Upper Airway Resistance in the Anesthetized Rabbit Model Relevant to Sleep Apnea. ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/aps/sciatic-nerve-stimulation-and-its-effects-on-upper-airway-resistance-K2Jzt0Vz3X

Lecture 18 - Respiratory Physiology III VA/Q matching, lung compliance and airway resistance Flashcards by Silja  Sørinardóttir...Lecture 18 - Respiratory Physiology III VA/Q matching, lung compliance and airway resistance Flashcards by Silja Sørinardóttir...

... lung compliance and airway resistance flashcards from Silja Sørinardóttir ... In lower airways middle order bronchi contribute most resistance. Bronchioles are narrower, so individual resistances are high ... Lecture 18 - Respiratory Physiology III VA/Q matching, lung compliance and airway resistance Flashcards Preview 1060 Human form ... Resistance to airflow is caused by the airways that conduct air to the alveoli ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/lecture-18-respiratory-physiology-iii-va-4843995/packs/7036324

upper airway resistance syndromeupper airway resistance syndrome

Something miraculous happened in my life recently. Not an Old Testament kind of miracle - no parting of the Red Sea or a burning bush. Nor have I received the modern-day version of a miracle where after one visit to one doctor I walked away cured. No, my miracles all arose after slow and steady [...]. ...
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The Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Masquerading as Nocturnal Asthma and Successfully Treated with an Oral Appliance -...The Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Masquerading as Nocturnal Asthma and Successfully Treated with an Oral Appliance -...

... and identify the morbidity associated with the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) has improved vastly. The diagnosis of ... The upper airway resistance syndrome.. *C Guilleminault, R Stoohs, A Clerk, M Cetel, P Maistros ... Treatment of upper airway resistance syndrome in adults: Where do we stand?☆. *Luciana B.M. de Godoy, Luciana O. Palombini, ... 6 Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome - A Twenty-Five Years Experience. *Felix del Campo Matías, Tomas Ruiz Albi, Carlos Zamarrón ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-Upper-Airway-Resistance-Syndrome-Masquerading-Guerrero-Lepler/fb94dbd5cbd2d16238f8b0402ebf42330cf0a846

Airway Resistance - Determinants - Regulation - TeachMePhysiologyTeachMePhysiologyAirway Resistance - Determinants - Regulation - TeachMePhysiologyTeachMePhysiology

The level of resistance depends on many things, particularly the diameter of the airway and whether flow is laminar or ... and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected. ... Airway resistance is the resistance to the flow of air through the respiratory tract during inhalation and expiration. ... Determinants of Airway Resistance. Certain equations can be used to determine airway resistance. ...
more infohttps://teachmephysiology.com/respiratory-system/ventilation/airway-resistance/

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS)Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS)

... is a common and under-diagnosed condition that ... If the patient gains weight or even just ages, this snoring (or upper airway resistance) leads to increased resistance and what ... Sleeping on ones side can decrease resistance in the upper airway in some people whereas sleeping on the back increases ... If there is resistance in breathing in the upper airway, as the diaphragm contracts downward, the air cannot enter the lungs ...
more infohttp://lucohybridosa.com/about/upper-airway-resistance-syndrome-uars/

Upper airway resistance Archives - Primal DentistryUpper airway resistance Archives - Primal Dentistry

Upper airway resistance, Whole body health. Publicado por heriton em DESORDEM ≈ Deixe um comentário Meltdown Facial! Se um ... Upper airway resistance, Whole body health. Plummeting testosterone? Cant remember things you should? Depressed, anxious, ... by Carol , Mar 3, 2015 , Airway obstruction, Anxious, Brain function, Crowding teeth/Orthodontics, Dental/oral health, Health ... by Carol , Mar 16, 2015 , Airway obstruction, Anxious, Brain function, Cortisol, Crowding teeth/Orthodontics, Dental/oral ...
more infohttps://primaldentistry.org/category/upper-airway-resistance/

Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Archives - Tradewide CommercialUpper Airway Resistance Syndrome Archives - Tradewide Commercial

Tag: Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. How Forks and Knives Can Cause Crooked Teeth. doctorstevenpark.com, How Forks and Knives ...
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Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome - Healthy Sleep TexasUpper Airway Resistance Syndrome - Healthy Sleep Texas

Home » Resources » Sleep Apnea » Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome. Upper Airway Resistance ... thus reducing the airway resistance. Reimbursement for the positive airway pressure device (CPAP etc.) may be a concern in ... hypopnea syndrome in that abnormal airway resistance in the upper airway during sleep leads to unwanted physiologic ... Increased upper airway resistance in this disorder does not lead to cessation of airflow (apnea) or decrease in airflow ( ...
more infohttps://www.healthysleeptexas.com/2012/02/upper-airway-resistance-syndrome/
  • In cases of upper airway obstruction the development of turbulent flow is a very important mechanism of increased airway resistance, this can be treated by administering Heliox which is much less dense than air and consequently more conductive to laminar flow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal airway resistance. (nih.gov)
  • Results indicated that some subjects receiving rapid maxillary expansion had a significantly higher nasal resistance than the control group. (nih.gov)
  • There was a significant median reduction in nasal resistance following rapid maxillary expansion, measured in the natural state only, and this appeared to be stable up to 1 year after maximum expansion was obtained. (nih.gov)
  • Rapid maxillary expansion appeared to effect an expansion at the anterior nares, which contributes to nasal resistance reduction. (nih.gov)
  • Individual variation in nasal resistance values was considerable and hence the median response for the group was not a reliable estimate of individual response. (nih.gov)
  • Due to the high individual response variability, rapid maxillary expansion is not a predictable means of decreasing nasal resistance. (nih.gov)
  • The changes in interrupting resistance (Rint) induced by nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold (-5 degrees C) dry air were measured in 22 normal subjects and in 18 asthmatic patients (nine of whom had asthma with rhinitis and nine without) with bronchial hyperreactivity to carbachol. (ersjournals.com)
  • The magnitude of Rint increase induced by nasal cold air breathing was correlated with the sensitivity to carbachol (defined as the dose inducing a 50% increase in specific airway conductance (D50)) in asthmatic patients with symptoms of rhinitis. (ersjournals.com)
  • These observations suggest that airway hyperreactivity is associated with enhanced bronchoconstrictor response to the activation of nasal cold receptors, particularly when rhinitis is present. (ersjournals.com)
  • Nasal continuous positive airway pressure for nonapneic snoring? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some have an increase in respiratory effort only due to anatomical restrictions in the upper airway such as deviated septums, large turbinates, or congenitally narrow nasal passages. (lucohybridosa.com)
  • In this approach, while both waveforms are generally similar and can be superimposed under baseline conditions, the presence of an increased resistance, such as during bronchoconstriction, causes the nasal signal to be delayed relative to the thoracic one, thus inducing a measurable time interval that was shown to be proportional to sR aw . (scireq.com)
  • No significant alterations in airway reactivity were observed at one or seven days after exposure either in baseline values or following methacholine (MCh) inhalation challenge. (nih.gov)
  • As shown above airway resistance is markedly affected by changes in the diameter of the airways, therefore diseases affecting the respiratory tract can increase airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is simply the mathematical inverse of airway resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral appliances to protrude the tongue and mandible (jaw) forward are effective in reducing the airway resistance. (healthysleeptexas.com)
  • Methods: We measured airway resistance at age 8 with the interrupter resistance technique (Rint) in participants of the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. (eur.nl)
  • Associations between air pollution exposure and interrupter resistance (Rint) were assessed using multiple linear regression adjusting for potential confounders. (eur.nl)
  • Covariance-corrected airway resistance appeared more sensitive than other methods of volume standardization in detecting bronchoconstriction. (clinsci.org)
  • During inspiration, the air entering the airways gets heated and humidified and, as a result, expands within the lungs. (scireq.com)
  • This process, known as gas conditioning, has significant implications in the determination of the time delay mainly because it is particularly important during inspiration, which is also when peak changes in resistance occur. (scireq.com)
  • In this article we shall consider how these factors affect the air flow, and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Both airway segments can also be assessed almost simultaneously in the same subject using a specialized configuration of the system. (scireq.com)
  • With the application of support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, we were able to classify the sound segments into two groups of high/low resistance during control and LBPP arms and into two groups of control/LBPP when including all sound segments. (bresotec.com)