Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
The act of BREATHING in.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.
Abnormal breathing through the mouth, usually associated with obstructive disorders of the nasal passages.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Rough, noisy breathing during sleep, due to vibration of the uvula and soft palate.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.
Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Analogs and derivatives of atropine.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.
The act of BREATHING out.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Diseases of plants.
A species of parasitic nematode usually found in domestic pigs and a few other animals. Human infection can also occur, presumably as result of handling pig manure, and can lead to intestinal obstruction.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Drugs used for their effects on the respiratory system.
The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.
The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.
The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.
Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.
A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from:
A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Compounds based on N-phenylacetamide, that are similar in structure to 2-PHENYLACETAMIDES. They are precursors of many other compounds. They were formerly used as ANALGESICS and ANTIPYRETICS, but often caused lethal METHEMOGLOBINEMIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
Difficult or labored breathing.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The position or attitude of the body.
An infant during the first month after birth.

Nitric oxide limits the eicosanoid-dependent bronchoconstriction and hypotension induced by endothelin-1 in the guinea-pig. (1/1568)

1. This study attempts to investigate if endogenous nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the eicosanoid-releasing properties of intravenously administered endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pulmonary and circulatory systems in the guinea-pig. 2. The nitric oxide synthase blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 300 microM; 30 min infusion) potentiated, in an L-arginine sensitive fashion, the release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2) stimulated by ET-1, the selective ET(B) receptor agonist IRL 1620 (Suc-[Glu9,Ala11,15]-ET-1(8-21)) or bradykinin (BK) (5, 50 and 50 nM, respectively, 3 min infusion) in guinea-pig isolated and perfused lungs. 3. In anaesthetized and ventilated guinea-pigs intravenous injection of ET-1 (0.1-1.0 nmol kg(-1)), IRL 1620 (0.2-1.6 nmol kg(-1)), BK (1.0-10.0 nmol kg(-1)) or U 46619 (0.2-5.7 nmol kg(-1)) each induced dose-dependent increases in pulmonary insufflation pressure (PIP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1)) did not change basal PIP, but increased, in L-arginine sensitive manner, the magnitude of the PIP increases (in both amplitude and duration) triggered by each of the peptides (at 0.25, 0.4 and 1.0 nmol kg(-1), respectively), without modifying bronchoconstriction caused by U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)). 4. The increases in PIP induced by ET-1, IRL 1620 (0.25 and 0.4 nmol kg(-1), respectively) or U 46619 (0.57 nmol kg(-1)) were accompanied by rapid and transient increases of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pretreatment with L-NAME (5 mg kg(-1); i.v. raised basal MAP persistently and, under this condition, subsequent administration of ET-1 or IRL 1620, but not of U-46619, induced hypotensive responses which were prevented by pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. 5. Thus, endogenous NO appears to modulate ET-1-induced bronchoconstriction and pressor effects in the guinea-pig by limiting the peptide's ability to induce, possibly via ET(B) receptors, the release of TxA2 in the lungs and of vasodilatory prostanoids in the systemic circulation. Furthermore, it would seem that these eicosanoid-dependent actions of ET-1 in the pulmonary system and on systemic arterial resistance in this species are physiologically dissociated.  (+info)

Dose-response slope of forced oscillation and forced expiratory parameters in bronchial challenge testing. (2/1568)

In population studies, the provocative dose (PD) of bronchoconstrictor causing a significant decrement in lung function cannot be calculated for most subjects. Dose-response curves for carbachol were examined to determine whether this relationship can be summarized by means of a continuous index likely to be calculable for all subjects, namely the two-point dose response slope (DRS) of mean resistance (Rm) and resistance at 10 Hz (R10) measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Five doses of carbachol (320 microg each) were inhaled by 71 patients referred for investigation of asthma (n=16), chronic cough (n=15), nasal polyposis (n=8), chronic rhinitis (n=8), dyspnoea (n=8), urticaria (n=5), post-anaphylactic shock (n=4) and miscellaneous conditions (n=7). FOT resistance and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were measured in close succession. The PD of carbachol leading to a fall in FEV1 > or = 20% (PD20) or a rise in Rm or R10 > or = 47% (PD47,Rm and PD47,R10) were calculated by interpolation. DRS for FEV1 (DRSFEV1), Rm (DRSRm) and R10 (DRSR10) were obtained as the percentage change at last dose divided by the total dose of carbachol. The sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of DRSRm, DRS10 delta%Rm and delta%R10 in detecting spirometric bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR, fall in FEV1 > or = 20%) were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. There were 23 (32%) "spirometric" reactors. PD20 correlated strongly with DRSFEV1 (r=-0.962; p=0.0001); PD47,Rm correlated significantly with DRSRm (r=-0.648; p=0.0001) and PD47,R10 with DRSR10 (r=-0.552; p=0.0001). DRSFEV1 correlated significantly with both DRSRm (r=0.700; p=0.0001) and DRSR10 (r=0.784; p=0.0001). The Se and Sp of the various FOT indices to correctly detect spirometric BHR were as follows: DRSRm: Se=91.3%, Sp=81.2%; DRSR10: Se=91.3%, Sp=95.8%; delta%Rm: Se=86.9%, Sp=52.1%; and delta%R10: Se=91.3%, Sp=58.3%. Dose-response slopes of indices of forced oscillation technique resistance, especially the dose-response slope of resistance at 10Hz are proposed as simple quantitative indices of bronchial responsiveness which can be calculated for all subjects and that may be useful in occupational epidemiology.  (+info)

Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat in vivo: a role for nitric oxide modulation. (3/1568)

Bradykinin has an important role in asthma pathogenesis, but its site of action is unclear. It was previously reported by the authors that bradykinin causes a dose-dependent reduction in dynamic compliance but little change in total lung resistance. This suggested that bradykinin may have a preferential effect in the distant lung. The purpose of the current investigation was to better characterize the effects of bradykinin on pulmonary resistance in rodents and explore the role of nitric oxide release in modulating the effect of bradykinin. Airway constriction was induced in the rats by aerosol administration of bradykinin with or without treatments with the inhaled bradykinin-2 receptor antagonist, Hoe 140 or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester or N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine. Total lung resistance was partitioned into tissue and airway resistance by using the alveolar capsule method. Bradykinin induced a significant increase in both resistances. Hoe 140 abolished the response to bradykinin. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors enhanced the bronchoconstricting response. In conclusion, the bradykinin response in the rats was not only localized to conducting airways but also involved a relatively selective tissue reaction. Bradykinin-induced bronchospasm in the rat is solely due to activation of bradykinin-2 receptor. Further, it was shown that nitric oxide significantly modulates the bronchospasm caused by bradykinin, suggesting that nitric oxide is an important modulator of airways responsiveness to bradykinin.  (+info)

Acinar flow irreversibility caused by perturbations in reversible alveolar wall motion. (4/1568)

Mixing associated with "stretch-and-fold" convective flow patterns has recently been demonstrated to play a potentially important role in aerosol transport and deposition deep in the lung (J. P. Butler and A. Tsuda. J. Appl. Physiol. 83: 800-809, 1997), but the origin of this potent mechanism is not well characterized. In this study we hypothesized that even a small degree of asynchrony in otherwise reversible alveolar wall motion is sufficient to cause flow irreversibility and stretch-and-fold convective mixing. We tested this hypothesis using a large-scale acinar model consisting of a T-shaped junction of three short, straight, square ducts. The model was filled with silicone oil, and alveolar wall motion was simulated by pistons in two of the ducts. The pistons were driven to generate a low-Reynolds-number cyclic flow with a small amount of asynchrony in boundary motion adjusted to match the degree of geometric (as distinguished from pressure-volume) hysteresis found in rabbit lungs (H. Miki, J. P. Butler, R. A. Rogers, and J. Lehr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 1630-1636, 1993). Tracer dye was introduced into the system, and its motion was monitored. The results showed that even a slight asynchrony in boundary motion leads to flow irreversibility with complicated swirling tracer patterns. Importantly, the kinematic irreversibility resulted in stretching of the tracer with narrowing of the separation between adjacent tracer lines, and when the cycle-by-cycle narrowing of lateral distance reached the slowly growing diffusion distance of the tracer, mixing abruptly took place. This coupling of evolving convective flow patterns with diffusion is the essence of the stretch-and-fold mechanism. We conclude that even a small degree of boundary asynchrony can give rise to stretch-and-fold convective mixing, thereby leading to transport and deposition of fine and ultrafine aerosol particles deep in the lung.  (+info)

A genome-wide screen for asthma-associated quantitative trait loci in a mouse model of allergic asthma. (5/1568)

Asthma is the most common illness of childhood, affecting one child in seven in the UK. Asthma has a genetic basis, but genetic studies of asthma in humans are confounded by uncontrolled environmental factors, varying penetrance and phenotypic pleiotropy. An animal model of asthma would offer controlled exposure, limited and consistent genetic variation, and unlimited size of sibships. Following immunization and subsequent challenge with ovalbumin, the Biozzi BP2 mouse shows features of asthma, including airway inflammation, eosinophil infiltration and non-specific bronchial responsiveness. In order to identify genetic loci influencing these traits, a cross was made between BP2 and BALB/c mice, and a genome-wide screen carried out in the F2progeny of the F1intercross. Five potentially linked loci were identified, four of which corresponded to human regions of syntenic homology that previously have shown linkage to asthma-associated traits.  (+info)

Pulmonary expression of interleukin-13 causes inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis, physiologic abnormalities, and eotaxin production. (6/1568)

Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large quantities by activated CD4(+) Th2 lymphocytes. To define further its potential in vivo effector functions, the Clara cell 10-kDa protein promoter was used to express IL-13 selectively in the lung, and the phenotype of the resulting transgenic mice was characterized. In contrast to transgene-negative littermates, the lungs of transgene-positive mice contained an inflammatory response around small and large airways and in the surrounding parenchyma. It was mononuclear in nature and contained significant numbers of eosinophils and enlarged and occasionally multinucleated macrophages. Airway epithelial cell hypertrophy, mucus cell metaplasia, the hyperproduction of neutral and acidic mucus, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, and subepithelial airway fibrosis were also prominently noted. Eotaxin protein and mRNA were also present in large quantities in the lungs of the transgene-positive, but not the transgene-negative, mice. IL-4, IL-5, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-5 were not similarly detected. Physiological evaluations revealed significant increases in baseline airways resistance and airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine in transgene-positive animals. Thus, the targeted pulmonary expression of IL-13 causes a mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammatory response, mucus cell metaplasia, the deposition of Charcot-Leyden-like crystals, airway fibrosis, eotaxin production, airways obstruction, and nonspecific AHR. IL-13 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of similar responses in asthma or other Th2-polarized tissue responses.  (+info)

Respiratory mechanics in airways obstruction associated with inspiratory dyspnoea. (7/1568)

Inspiratory muscle strength and the flow and elastic pressure opposing inspiration were measured in seven patients with severe airways obstruction who found inspiration difficult at rest. A comparison was made of measurements obtained from seven normal subjects and five patients with airways obstruction not experiencing inspiratory dyspnoea at rest. Measurements were also obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced in the normal subjects by adding an inspiratory resistance or by voluntarily increasing lung volume. Compared with the controls the inspiratory muscle strength of the patients was reduced but was not significantly less than that of the patients without inspiratory dyspnoea. The pressure required to produce inspiratory flow was significantly greater when inspiratory dyspnoea was present (P = 0-01). However, there was considerable overlap in the pressures of those with and without inspiratory dyspnoea. A better relationship was obtained when muscle strength was considered. The ratio of inspiratory muscle strength to the pressure required to produce flow was 0-24 +/- 0-07 (mean +/- SD) in patient with inspiratory dyspnoea, 0-10 +/- 0-03 in patients without inspiratory dyspnoea, and 0-033 +/- 0-019 in normal subjects. There was no overlap between the two patient groups. The ratios of the normal subjects were increased when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced and, with the exception of two cases, were all above those obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was absent. Inspiratory dyspnoea was experienced with lower ratios in the normals than in the patients with airways obstruction.  (+info)

Physiologic basis and interpretation of common indices of respiratory mechanical function. (8/1568)

Tests of pulmonary mechanical function may be used in determining the prominent site of pulmonary reaction to intervention. Responses may be localized from a knowledge of changes in lung resistance and compliance. A peripheral airway or parenchymal response is characterized by a decrease in lung compliance. A central airway reaction is characterized by an increase in pulmonary resistance. In mixed reactions both parameters may change. In this communication some of the physiologic determinants of pulmonary resistance and compliance are discussed and examples of localized responses given.  (+info)

While sRaw captures information on airflow resistance, it is important to realize that it is not a true measurement of airway resistance. Its units are cmH2O.s while typical airway resistance units would be cmH2O.s/mL. sRaw rather denotes work of breathing as it is defined by the product of airway resistance and the lung volume at the end of inspiration, the functional residual capacity or FRC. Since both factors can influence the outcome of sRaw and that there is an inverse relationship between them, best practice would be to complement measurements of sRaw with direct measurements of both upper and lower airway resistance. This would not only provide more insight in interpreting the results but also a refined and comprehensive assessment leading to a deeper understanding. The flexiVent system offers detailed lung function measurements which can prove helpful in identifying the response site within the lower airway segment while also providing direct upper airway resistance measurements. Both ...
Research reports on pulmonary function measurements often mention caffeine abstinence as a condition for testing subjects. Yet, the effects of caffeine on respiration are not well documented. This study was intended to investigate the physiological effects of caffeine on respiratory resistance measurements and the necessity of caffeine avoidance in such testing. Thirty-one subjects were administered caffeine in pill form for dosages in the range of 3 - 4.5 mg/kg body weight. Respiratory resistance was measured with the Airflow Perturbation Device every 15 minutes after caffeine ingestion until a full hour of elapsed time. No changes were noted in inhalation, exhalation, and average respiratory resistances during the times of measurements. The conclusion is that for low dosages of caffeine, respiratory resistance measurements are not affected by caffeine ingestion prior to testing.
How is Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance abbreviated? eUAR stands for Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance. eUAR is defined as Expiratory Upper Airway Resistance very rarely.
C522-03(2016) Standard Test Method for Airflow Resistance of Acoustical Materials airflow resistance~ airflow velocity~ acoustical absorption~ sound~
Measurement of the total resistance of the respiratory system (Rrs) is an attractive alternative to measurement of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in young children because it requires minimal co-operation. The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of the forced oscillation technique (FOT) to detect airway obstruction in asthmatic children and in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Spirometry and Rrs were recorded in 45 asthmatic children (32 males and 13 females) and in 45 patients with CF (28 males and 17 females). Rrs was measured at 10 Hz with the Siregnost FD5 (Siemens, Germany). The asthmatic children were slightly younger than the patients with CF (10+/-3 vs 14+/-7 yrs), and had milder airway obstruction (FEV1 80+/-19 vs 66+/-27% of predicted). Rrs was significantly higher in the asthmatic children (6.6+/-1.7 cmH2O x L(-1) x s) than in the patients with CF (4.8+/-1.4 cmH2O x L(-1) x s). A normal FEV1 (, or = mean -2SD) was associated with a normal Rrs (, or = mean ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether transtracheal open ventilation (TOV), pressure control ventilation (PCV) through a minitracheotomy tube (internal diameter 4 mm), is an effective method of inspiratory assistance under high upper airway resistance in postextubation patients; to compare, in a lung model study, TOV with other methods.. DESIGN: Clinical study: A prospective, controlled, crossover study. Lung model study: A prospective laboratory trial.. SETTING: Clinical study: A six-bed general intensive care unit in a teaching hospital. Lung model study: Animal research laboratory.. PATIENTS: Clinical study: Eleven postextubation patients, who had undergone minitracheotomy for sputum retention between January 1997 and December 1997.. SUBJECT: Lung model study: Two-bellows-in-a-box lung model, which included ordinary and high levels of upper airway resistance.. INTERVENTIONS: Clinical study: Ventilatory settings were: assist/control (A/C) mode, 2 breaths/min of A/C back-up rate, 35-40 cm H2O of ...
Snoring occurs during sleep due to a partial blockage in the upper airway, as a result of receding tongue or relaxing jaw, and the vibration of tissues. When the underlying causes of snoring start to progress from comparatively safe sound to being the sleep disorder called sleep apnea, which poses numerous risk factors or health concerns, it often develops first into Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome.. Snoring is a sign that some sort of resistance is happening in ones upper respiratory system. The more this resistance, the more the breathing effort required to overcome the same. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome happens when ones breathing effort changes from being a snoring sign to a harmful sleep disorder. Not all people with the health disorder snore during sleep, even as symptoms may sound similar to heavy or labored breathing.. Reasons behind the sleep disorder are similar to that of Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome can be caused by narrowed airway, loose fatty ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Low frequency forced oscillation technique in infants. AU - Hall, Graham L.. AU - Hantos, Z.. AU - Pelak, Ferenc. AU - Wildhaber, Johannes. AU - Sly, Peter D.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - The respiratory system in infants undergoes profound changes in the first few years of life. We applied two adaptions of the FOT to characterise 1 ) changes in airway and parenchymal mechanics with growth in the first two years of life; 2) contribution of the nose to total respiratory impedance (Zrs); and 3) the influence of the chest wall to Zrs. Methods: For studies 1 (n=34, 1 -24 months) & 2 (n=20, 3-21 months) a pseudo-random forcing signal (0.5-21 Hz) was applied to sedated infants via a face mask & Zrs was determined at a transrespiratory pressure of 20cm HzO. A model containing an airway compartment [airway resistance (R) & inertance (I)] & a frequency dependant constant-phase tissue compartment [tissue damping (G) & tissue elastance (H)] was fitted to Zrs. In the second study, Zrs was ...
Respiratory resistance was measured by the isovolume method [7] at 500 ml above functional residual capacity. Before each study, a Datex Ultima Capnomac spirometer (Datex Instrumentation, Helsinki, Finland) was calibrated for volume using a 1-1 syringe (Hans Rudolph, Kansas City, Mo). The ventilatory flow and pressure curves were sampled at 10-ms intervals, output to a personal computer, and the volume curve then determined by integration of the flow curve. The pressure drop across the endotracheal tube was excluded by first constructing a pressure-flow curve for both the 7.5-mm and 8-mm endotracheal tubes. For each measurement, the pressure drop across the tube for the flow noted was subtracted from the pressure measurements used during calculation, resulting in a value for R sub rs exclusive of the endotracheal tube. The isovolume method of resistance measurement is a technique applicable to mechanically ventilated patients and is based on measuring airway pressure and flow at identical ...
Ruhle and colleagues suggested in a recent review that upper airway impedance measurements using the forced oscillation technique may be useful as a surrogate of Pes in the diagnosis of UARS. With this technique, an airflow of 2 L/min is applied to a conventional nCPAP mask at an oscillatory frequency of 20 Hz. The researchers studied 25 nono-bese patients with EDS and a mean RDI of 3.4, Although the majority of arousals could not be explained on the basis of standard polysomnographic measurements, this technique showed IUAR in over half of these unexplained events. These authors also suggested that the pulse transit time (the time between the ECG R wave and the fingertip pulse shock wave) correlated with subtle changes in both the Pes and the arousals Reading here asthma medications inhalers. They also discussed changes in BP as a marker of IUAR because more negative intrathoracic pressure would decrease BP and arousal would increase BP. ...
We have studied 26 asthmatic patients in whom deep inspiration induced a transient but marked bronchodilatation when carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction was present. Changes in bronchial tone were assessed by specific airway resistance measurements. Bronchodilatation after a slow inspiration (eight subjects) or a 10-second breath-hold at total lung capacity (13 subjects) was significantly less than that observed after either a fast inspiration or no breath-holding period. The magnitude of the bronchodilatation induced by a fast inspiration without breath-holding was directly and significantly related to the magnitude of the carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction in five subjects.. ...
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UARS might seem like a nuisance, rather than a health threat, but keep in mind, it can turn into obstructive sleep apnea without treatment., The Truth About Prescription and OTC Sleep Aids [Podcast 71] In this episode, Kathy and I are going to be talking about another controversial topic that many of you have probably had some experience with at one time or another…and thats the issue of sleeping pills and OTC sleep aids. In particular, we will… ...
Airway resistance is the resistance to the flow of air through the respiratory tract during inhalation and expiration. The level of resistance depends on many things, particularly the diameter of the airway and whether flow is laminar or turbulent. In this article we shall consider how these factors affect the air flow, and consider some clinical conditions in which airway resistance is affected.
1. The forced expiratory volume (FEV0·75) was measured at increasing mouth pressures in twenty-seven patients with obstructive airways disease. Attempts were made to divide the patients on clinical grounds into emphysematous, bronchitic or asthmatic categories; there was no evidence from the (FEV/mouth pressure) plots that their airways functioned differently during forced expiration.. 2. Static elastic recoil was measured in twelve patients. There was no evidence that this factor alone caused the loss of FEV in any patient.. 3. It is suggested that the use of the FEV as a test of respiratory function during the natural history of obstructive airways disease should be considered in three stages. There is an initial phase when peripheral airways disease develops with little or no alteration of the FEV. In the second phase the FEV decreases from normal values to below 1·0 litre, and at this stage is considered a sensitive indicator of peripheral airways resistance. In stage 3 the FEV is low and ...
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The OASYS Oral/Nasal Airway System™ is the first dental device for Snoring, Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) and Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome (UARS) that treats the two major causes of sleep disordered breathing by addressing upper airway resistance in the nasal region and blockage in the throat region. The OASYS is FDA approved as a medical device in two separate classifications (1) As a mandibular repositioner for treatment of snoring and sleep apnea and (2) As a nasal dilator for improved ease of breathing.. The OASYS treats both vulnerable areas of the upper airway with one patented system while strengthening the throat area by pulling the lower jaw and tongue forward to prevent the tongue from blocking the airflow and strengthening the throat against collapse. ...
Airway resistance (RL) and dynamic compliance (Cdyn) as measures of lung function and airway reactivity. Basal values of RL (A) and Cdyn (B), and MCh challenge-
Specific Conductance (Sp C). Most substances dissolved in water dissociate into ions that can conduct an electrical current. Specific conductance measures electrical conductivity, and therefore is an indicator of the amount of material dissolved in water. The larger the conductance, the more mineralized the water. In general terms, the more mineralized the water, the lower its quality. Specific conductance values are reported in micromhos per centimeter at 25° C. Specific conductance measurements can be used to estimate total dissolved solids (TDS) content if the general characteristics of the water sample are known. For example, in the Flint Hills, most of the ground water contains some calcite or dolomite that has been derived from the limestone bedrock. In the absence of evaporite minerals or contaminants, the water chemistry is generally a calcium-bicarbonate type. If gypsum or anhydrite are present, calcium-sulfate waters are generated. Contamination of the ground water with brine produces ...
P. Fontanari, M-C. Zattera-Hartmann, H. Burnet, Y. Jammes. Nasal eupnoeic inhalation of cold, dry a airway increases airway resistance in asthmatic patients. European Respiratory Journal, European Respiratory Society, 1997, 10 (10), pp.2250 - 2254. ⟨10.1183/09031936.97.10102250⟩. ⟨hal-01802744⟩ ...
An electrical circuit for extensive testing of a ground fault interrupter. Means to create a current differential between the hot and neutral conductors of a ground fault interrupter device, and thereby test the circuit interrupt features of said device, are disclosed. Means are also provided for determining the sensitivity of the device being tested to an accidental grounding of the neutral conductor. The invention also can be used to check the wiring connections between the ground fault interrupter and the electrical system to which it is attached. A further advantage of the invention is that it provides an indirect test of said electrical system. Modifications to the circuitry will provide similar testing devices for two and three phase ground fault interrupters.
The results of the comparative analysis among the AUC of FOT and spirometric parameters are described in Figure 5. In general, R0 (Figure 5A), Rm (Figure 5C), and Crs,dyn (Figure 5E) presented significantly higher AUC in smoking subjects with , 20 pack-years, and AUC similar to that presented by spirometric parameters as the amount of tobacco smoked increased. Spirometric parameters presented significantly higher AUC than S (Figure 5B), fr (Figure 5D), and Xm (Figure 5F) considering groups of smoking subjects with 20-39 pack-years and 40-59 pack-years.. DISCUSSION. This study documented a significantly deleterious effect of smoking on the impedance of the respiratory system. Although many other published reports have used the FOT to compare control groups with ex-smokers and/or smoking subjects, to the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study to investigate respiratory impedance in groups with different degrees of tobacco consumption. Earlier studies have found deleterious ...
1. The oscillation method for measuring total respiratory resistance ( R rs ) is a simple method of assessing airway dimensions which can be applied in epidemiological surveys and potentially might be useful for detecting mild airway disease in smokers. However, it is not known whether abnormalities in R rs are only present when there are also abnormalities in simple spirometric tests. 2. We have compared values of R rs and its frequency-dependence ( f R ) using the oscillation technique applied over the frequency range 6-26 Hz in 42 healthy, non-asthmatic men who were never-smokers (aged 26-61 years) and in 41 male cigarette smokers (aged 32-64 years). The results were compared with those for spirometry and the single-breath N 2 test which are the most commonly used techniques in epidemiological surveys for detecting the effects of smoking on the lungs. 3. There was a strong trend for R rs (especially at lower oscillation frequency) and f R to increase with increasing age in smokers. Increases ...
This airway resistance (Raw) calculator determines the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inhalation and exhalation.
5.3 Airway Resistance - Shock Losses for Bends and Area Changes - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.
Snoring is seen as a symptom of sleep apnea which may also indicate upper airway resistance syndrome. Some dental procedures can treat both these conditions.
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Differential voltage recordings are made with very high common mode rejection providing accurate measurements free from the effects of common mode potential changes of a noisy environment.. Membrane Resistance Measurement Accurate resistance measurements are made with the membrane mounted in the chamber. This measurement is made using a low frequency 2 Hz bipolar signal to avoid polarization of the membrane (ideal for monolayers). Resistances up to 200 kΩ are displayed on the meter with push-button convenience.. Clamp Speed Selection Three clamp speeds provide optimum recording conditions for a variety of applications. In Fast mode, preparations with low access resistance (small tissues or monolayers) can be clamped with speeds as fast as 10µsec. Typical Ussing chambers with larger tissues will use Medium or Slow modes for stable, oscillation free clamping.. Commands ...
High-power packages show a characteristic three-dimensional heat flow resulting in large lateral changes in chip and case surface temperature. This paper p
ACTAS BTT is a battery-operated, hand-held measuring device which can determine operating times, contact synchronicity, sequence time and coil currents extremely quickly and easily.
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Optional capability of airway resistance measurement when MicroRint transducer is purchased (MRT6000), allowing Spirometry and RINT in one desk sized ...
The pathogenesis of asthmatic attacks appears to follow a biphasic course characterized by early and late phases. The early phase, lasting roughly an hour, appears to be caused by a degranulation of mast cells which release a variety of soluble mediators such as leukotrienes, prostoglandins, and histamine that induce potent bronchoconstriction and hyper-secretion of mucus. The presence of these soluble mediators then initiates the late phase, lasting several hours, that involves the recruitment of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils which subsequently release soluble factors that damage the airway. The bronchoconstriction and mucous secretion can potently narrow the luminal diameter of conducting airways and in doing so can dramatically increase their airflow resistance. The consequent perturbations in ventilation can cause profound ventilation-perfusion defects that can lead to significant hypoxemia. Importantly, the resistance to airflow and consequent obstructive pattern of pulmonary ...
TY - THES. T1 - Measurement of lung function using broadband forced oscillations /Cindy Thamrin. AU - Thamrin, Cindy. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - [Truncated abstract] Respiratory system impedance (Zrs) is commonly measured at low to medium frequencies (0.5 - 40 Hz) to infer structural and physiological information about the respiratory system. Coupled with the use of mathematical models of the lungs, Zrs has been used to partition the behaviour of the conductive airways and the respiratory tissues. High-frequency (HF) Zrs beyond 100 Hz has been comparatively less studied and understood. Past work has revealed spectral features at high frequencies termed antiresonances, marked by peaks in the real part of Zrs, often coinciding with zero-crossings in the imaginary part. It has been shown that the first occurrence of antiresonance in humans primarily reflects the contribution of the airways, and is a property of sound wave propagation in the airways. Also, the first antiresonance is altered in ...
1. The resistance against toxic products of typhoid bacilli of the heart tissues of typhoid-immune animals is greater than that of nonimmunized animals. 2. The
A temperature responsive current interrupter in which two conductors are connected by electrically conductive, low-melting-point fusible elements respectively mounted on the conductors and a connector element interconnecting the fusible elements and urged against an electrically non-conductive high-melting-point fusible element, the connector element being moved into a position separate from at least one of the conductors when the high-melting-point fusible element is melted by heat.
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Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow ...
is associated with an awakening event. It is presently believed that upper airway resistance is caused by the tongue partially. collapsing into the throat. This less than 10 second cessation of breathing causes a rise of carbon dioxide in our blood ...
Megger DLRO10HDX Low Ohmmeter designed for low resistance measurements. Periodic low resistance tests prevent long-term damage to existing equipment & minimises energy wastage as heat.
Oscillatory Resistance measurement answers the central question for the degree of obstruction immediately and practically without the patients cooperation
This paper discusses the techniques utilized during automated testing of Z-technology modules for mosaic focal planes. The testing includes continuity and isolation resistance measurements on both layers and modules, and functional tests of the Signal Processing Chips as they are wirebonded to the modules. The criteria for layer selection, empirically derived, is presented. Test results are presented and their impact on product development are described ...
Grading the severity of obstruction in mixed -obstructive-restrictive lung disease. Chest 140:598-603, 2011. 7. Krowka MJ, Enright PL, Rodarte JR, Hyatt RE. Effect of effort on measurement of forced -expiratory volume in one second. Am Rev Respir Dis 136:829-833, 1987. indd 34 30/01/14 10:36 AM 4 Diffusing Capacity of the Lungs An important step in the transfer of oxygen from ambient air to the arterial blood is the process of diffusion, that is, the transfer of oxygen from the alveolar gas to the hemoglobin within the red cell. 1 gives: PB VF = (PB + ∆P)(VF − ∆V) Piston and: Simplifies to: VF = ∆V (PB + ∆P) ∆P VF = ∆V (PB) ∆P FIG. 3-6. The subject is seated in an airtight plethysmograph and the pressure in the plethysmograph (Ppleth) changes with changes in lung volume. When the subject stops breathing, alveolar pressure equals barometric pressure (Pb). Consider what happens if the valve at the mouth is closed at the end of a quiet expiration, that is, FRC, and the subject makes ...
EXTREMES FOR PERIOD OF DAILY RECORD - SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE: Maximum, 2,040 microsiemens, Oct. 2, 1994; minimum, 85 microsiemens, August 17, 1996.pH: Maximum, 9.4 units, September 28, 1989; minimum, 6.4 units, June 19, 2013 and April 22-23, 2014.WATER TEMPERATURE: Maximum, 39.0°C, July 2, 1990; minimum, -0.6°C, January 10-11, 2011 DISSOLVED OXYGEN: Maximum, 20.7 mg/l, July 19, 2006; minimum, 0.7 mg/l, August 28, 2014 ...
You are already diagnosed with obstructive rest apnea or OSA and after that they hit you with lots of words you have never listened to right before. They begin discussing equipment and mask and humidity. You will be advised This is often long-lasting therapy. What they dont explain is what the equipment does, what sorts of therapy are you presently eligible for and what would be the ideal kind of therapy for yourself.CPAP means steady optimistic airway pressure. It is actually the commonest therapy utilized for the treatment method of OSA. It truly is 1 continual strain that supports the airway. This force was firm during the second sleep study, known as the titration review. On some events the titration will be able to be done on precisely the same night time as the diagnostic examine. Through the titration the technician will little by little raise the strain right up until the respiratory challenges, snoring and airway resistance is eliminated or diminished to inside of normal levels. In ...
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Looking for online definition of Resistance measurement in the Medical Dictionary? Resistance measurement explanation free. What is Resistance measurement? Meaning of Resistance measurement medical term. What does Resistance measurement mean?
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative respiratory system mechanics in rodents. AU - Gomes, R. F.M.. AU - Shen, X.. AU - Ramchandani, R.. AU - Tepper, R. S.. AU - Bates, J. H.T.. PY - 2000/12/1. Y1 - 2000/12/1. N2 - Because of the wide utilization of rodents as animal models in respiratory research and the limited data on measurements of respiratory input impedance (Zrs) in small animals, we measured Zrs between 0.25 and 9.125 Hz at different levels (0-7 hPa) of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in mice, rats, guinea pigs, and rabbits using a computer-controlled small-animal ventilator (Schuessler TF and Bates JHT, IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 42: 860-866, 1995). Zrs was fitted with a model, including a Newtonian resistance (R) and inertance in series with a constant-phase tissue compartment characterized by tissue damping (Gti) and elastance (Hti) parameters. Inertance was negligible in all cases. R, Gti, and Hti were normalized to body weight, yielding normalized R, Gti, and Hti (NHti), respectively. ...
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Introduction. Overweight contributes to the development of significant cardiorespiratory impairments, including the increase in airway and respiratory system resistance, limited ventilatory capacity, and changes in the cardiovascular autonomic function. As these changes are proportional to the body mass index (BMI), they are more pronounced in patients with morbid obesity.1,2. The respiratory system resistance and its components can be determined using the Forced Oscillation Technique (FOT), described by Dubois et al. in 1956 as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of mechanical properties of the respiratory system in different frequencies.3 Morbidly obese patients also present increased cardiovascular sympathetic discharge and reduced parasympathetic activity.4 Because heart rate variability is influenced by the autonomic control, the time and frequency-domain analysis of RR intervals has been recognized as an effective and non-invasive method of evaluating the cardiovascular autonomic ...
Download PULMONARY AIRWAY RESISTANCE by profisy4CHRIST for physiology students University of Ilorin [PULMONARY AIRWAY RESISTANCE - 1102]
PURPOSE: ALI and ARDS are associated with lung volume derecruitment, usually counteracted by PEEP and recruitment maneuvers (RM), which should be accurately tailored to the patients needs. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of monitoring the amount of derecruited lung by the forced oscillation technique (FOT). METHODS: We studied six piglets (26 +/- 2.5 kg) ventilated by a mechanical ventilator connected to a FOT device that produced sinusoidal pressure forcing at 5 Hz. The percentage of non-aerated lung tissue (V (tiss)NA%) was measured by whole-body CT scans at end-expiration with zero end-expiratory pressure. Respiratory system oscillatory input reactance (X (rs)) was measured simultaneously to CT and used to derive oscillatory compliance (C (X5)), which we used as an index of recruited lung. Measurements were performed at baseline and after several interventions in the following sequence: mono-lateral reabsorption atelectasis, RM, bi-lateral derecruitment induced by ...
A prospective respiratory health survey of the general population in Busselton, Western Australia, was conducted between 2005 and 2007. Subjects had measures of spirometry, and resistance and reactance at 6, 11, 19 Hz. Eligible subjects were never smokers, with no history of respiratory disease, no symptoms of cough, shortness of breath or chest tightness in the previous 12 months, and no respiratory tract infections in the previous 4 weeks.. ...
Background: It is unclear why obesity is associated with worse asthma control. We hypothesized that(1) obesity affects asthma control independent of spirometry, airway inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and (2) residual symptoms after resolution of inflammation are due to obesity-related changes in lung mechanics. Methods: Forty-nine subjects with asthma underwent the following tests, before and after 3 months of high-dose inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment: five-item asthma control questionnaire (ACQ-5), spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), methacholine challenge, and the forced oscillation technique, which allows for the calculation of respiratory system resistance (Rrs) and respiratory system reactance (Xrs) as indicators of airway caliber and elastic load, respectively. The effects of treatment were assessed by BMI group (18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and ≥30 kg/m 2 ) using analysis of variance. Multiple regression analyses determined the independent predictors of ACQ-5
Respiratory resistance at 20 Hz (R20) by impulse oscillometry (IO) characterizes airways resistance with inextensible walls. Airways resistance (Rtot) by body plethysmography reflects the total resistance of the first 8 - 10 bronchi generations. These indicators by different methods are close physiologically. The airways in patients with an emphysema are deprived of elastic support, so a lung compliance (CL) considerably increases. We have assumed that shunting of R20 increases with loss of lung elastic recoil.. Aim of the study is evaluation loss of respiratory resistance by IO with increasing of compliance and decreasing of lung elastic recoil.. Materials and methods: We compared Rtot and R20 in 67 healthy volunteers (32F/35M, 47±1 yrs) and in the patients with obstructive disorders - 41 patients with COPD (0F/41M, 56±1 yrs) and 52 patients with bronchial asthma (34F/18M, 47±2 yrs). We have used the relation Rtot/R20. All patients were performed investigation of lung elasticity using ...
To determine the sensitivity of pulmonary resistance (RL) to changes in breathing frequency and tidal volume, we measured RL in intact anesthetized dogs over a range of breathing frequencies and tidal volumes centering around those encountered during quiet breathing. To investigate mechanisms responsible for changes in RL, the relative contribution of airway resistance (Raw) and tissue resistance (Rti) to RL at similar breathing frequencies and tidal volumes was studied in six excised, exsanguinated canine left lungs. Lung volume was sinusoidally varied, with tidal volumes of 10, 20, and 40% of vital capacity. Pressures were measured at three alveolar sites (PA) with alveolar capsules and at the airway opening (Pao). Measurements were made during oscillation at five frequencies between 5 and 45 min-1 at each tidal volume. Resistances were calculated by assuming a linear equation of motion and submitting lung volume, flow, Pao, and PA to a multiple linear regression. RL decreased with increasing
We tested the hypothesis that different strategies are used to alter tracheal pressure (Pt) during sustained and transient increases in intensity. It has been suggested that the respiratory system plays the primary role in Pt changes associated with alteration in overall intensity, whereas laryngeal adjustment is primary for transient change in Pt related to emphasis. Tracheal pressure, obtained via tracheal puncture, airflow (U), and laryngeal electromyography from the thyroarytenoid muscle (TA EMG) were collected from 6 subjects during sentence production at different intensity levels and with various stress patterns. Using a technique described in a previous study, we computed lower airway resistance (Rlaw) from measures of Pt and U obtained during a sudden change in upper airway resistance. We used this resistance value, together with direct measures of Pt and U during speech, to derive a time-varying measure of alveolar pressure (Pa), the pressure created by respiratory muscle activity and ...
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Respiratory System multiple choice questions and answers on Respiratory System MCQ questions quiz on Respiratory System objectives questions. Page 3
This was an interesting study, because it showed what sRAW can and cannot do when compared to RAW and JPEG files. If your intention is to be able to recover white balance, the sRAW format has a definite advantage over JPEG as demonstrated in the first part of the article. Although there is definite loss of colors, you can recover most of the data when altering white balance, which is good news. Hence, if you want to have smaller RAW files and have the flexibility to change white balance, the sRAW format seems to be a viable option.. However, when it comes to recovering information from shadows and highlights, the sRAW format must be used with caution. First, you should not be using Adobe Camera RAW (Photoshop and Lightroom) for sRAW file conversion, since the Adobe RAW engine ends up heavily under-exposing images and losing more data in highlights, as demonstrated above. Capture NX-D clearly does a better job, but the software is very buggy and has its own set of problems (for example, ...
In this second posting on this topic, I will attempt to bring together some of the latest research that I have found regarding a very controversial topic of respiratory system weakness. In other words, there is something about your respiratory system that is limiting performance. How does this happen?. I propose, here, a different type of zoning. Most people talk about fat burning zones, or carb burning zones, or threshold power. I propose here zoning based on respiratory mechanics, and, especially if your primary weakness is based on respiratory mechanics.. You say what???. Many, many coaches have shot me down for making such a comment. They say that the respiratory muscles are sometimes insignificant in the overall production of a PB performance. Many of these traditional coaches also think that to succeed, you must be training hard or long all the time, and you must have a winning attitude. I dont disagree with the psychological aspect of a PB performance, but instead of training hard or ...
0047]To test the transparent conductor 120 of the touch panel 200, the bottom panel 101 is connected to a voltage testing supply 203 that supplies a supply voltage V0. In the present embodiment, the supply voltage is set at five volts, but may be any suitable testing voltage that will not harm the underlying circuitry and touch panel materials but will allow for adequate testing of the touch panel 200. The top panel 105 is preferably set at a zero voltage level. Also, connected to the bottom panel 101 and the voltage testing supply 203, there is a resistor RT. There is also a sense terminal 204 at which a sensing voltage Vsense can be detected. The sensing voltage is used to measure a voltage caused by the bottom panel 101 and the top panel 105 coming into electrical contact at a point 201. The sensing voltage Vsense is used to calculate the contact resistances for each point of contact made between the bottom panel 101 and the top panel 105. For example, electrical contact is made at the point ...
Also parallel bar instruments are intended to measure flat, regular material surfaces and are intended to measure the effect of many parallel paths across the material between the two bars. Using these instruments for Point to Point measurements are different than area measurements and will provide different measurement results. In this case they are simply indicators and not specification measurements.. For example, the ESD Check ESI-870 is probably just fine. You can check it by placing it on surfaces of various resistance characteristics e.g., on an insulated surface and a clean metal surface. The problem is when comparing two different measurement fixtures on an undefined surface - Soft Rubber vs Machined Metal contact fixtures - and expect to get the same answer. This is not always possible. This is the reason Prostat provides REMOVABLE conductive boots & ...
They had them breathe in through a machine that could vary the temperature and humidity of the air. They would have the patients pant afterwards, and they would measure airway resistance. For those that had mild asthma, they showed airway resistance to hot, humid air. (That means they were having a hard time breathing) The normal people showed very little or now problems. Figures. Once again our asthma bodies over-react to normal every day things. Here are the results of the study ...
Description Flair Equine Nasal Strips are self-adhesive strips that promote optimum respiratory health of equine athletes at all levels by reducing airway resistance and providing improved airflow. 50% of the airway resistance is in the nasal passage, a Flair Strip reduces airway resistance. Black or White Single
Definition of dynamic compliance in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is dynamic compliance? Meaning of dynamic compliance as a legal term. What does dynamic compliance mean in law?
폐기능 검사는 주관적인 호흡기 증상이 있는 경우 이를 객관화할 수 있으며, 호흡기 질환의 심한 정도를 평가하고 치료에 대한 반응과 병의 진형 상태를 감시할 수 있다. 그러나 표준적인 폐기능 검사는 환자의 협조를 필요로 하기 때문에 대상 연령이 제한적이고 검사자의 인내와 기술을 요하며, 많은 시간을 소비하는데 따른 소아과 의사의 소극적인 태도로 소아, 특히 신생아에서는 일반적으로 거의 이용되지 않고 있다. 최근에는 신생아 집중 치료의 발달로 여러가지 폐질환을 갖는 신생아의 생존율이 증가함에 따라 폐기능 검사를 통한 폐기능의 질적, 양적 평가로 폐질한의 진단및 치료에 만전을 기할 수 있다. 이에 저자는 비교적 간단하며 비침습적이어서 신생아에서도 시행할 수 있는 호흡속도묘사기(pneumotachography)와 수동 호기 유량-기량곡선(passive ...
We investigated the effect of different levels of hypercapnia on total pulmonary resistance (RL) in 13 subjects ranging from nonsnorers with low RL to snorers with high RL and dynamic narrowing of the upper airway during inspiration. Added CO2 was ad
Chrystèle Locher, Mathieu Raux, Marie-Noelle Fiamma, Capucine Morélot-Panzini, Marc Zelter, Jean-Philippe Derenne, Thomas Similowski, Christian Straus
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transgelin-2 as a therapeutic target for asthmatic pulmonary resistance. AU - Yin, Lei Miao. AU - Xu, Yu Dong. AU - Peng, Ling Ling. AU - Duan, Ting Ting. AU - Liu, Jia Yuan. AU - Xu, Zhijian. AU - Wang, Wen Qian. AU - Guan, Nan. AU - Han, Xiao Jie. AU - Li, Hai Yan. AU - Pang, Yu. AU - Wang, Yu. AU - Chen, Zhaoqiang. AU - Zhu, Weiliang. AU - Deng, Linhong. AU - Wu, Ying Li. AU - Ge, Guang Bo. AU - Huang, Shuang. AU - Ulloa, Luis. AU - Yang, Yong Qing. PY - 2018/2/7. Y1 - 2018/2/7. N2 - There is a clinical need for new bronchodilator drugs in asthma, because more than half of asthmatic patients do not receive adequate control with current available treatments. We report that inhibition of metallothionein-2 protein expression in lung tissues causes the increase of pulmonary resistance. Conversely, metallothionein-2 protein is more effective than -2-agonists in reducing pulmonary resistance in rodent asthma models, alleviating tension in tracheal spirals, and relaxing airway smooth ...
Thirteen lakes in Mount Rainier National Park were evaluated for general chemical characteristics, sensitivity to acidification by acidic precipitation, and degree of existing acidification. The lakes studies were Allen, one of the Chenuis group, Crescent , Crystal, Eleanor, Fan, one of the Golden group, Marsh, Mowich, Mystic, Shriner, and two unnamed lakes. The lakes were sampled in August 1983. Specific conductance values were generally 21 microsiemens/cm at 25 C or less, and dissolved solids concentrations were generally 20 mg/L or less. The major cations were calcium and sodium, and the major anion was bicarbonate. Alkalinity concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 9.0 mg/L in 12 of the lakes. Allen Lake was the exception, having an alkalinity concentration of 27 mg/L. The pH values for all of the lakes ranged from 5.8 to 6.5. In most of the lakes, vertical profiles of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were relatively uniform....
This may occur at the top of the lungs, although not in health. Here the arterial pressure is not quite above alveolar pressure by the time it reaches this height. As such, blood flow through the lung unit does not occur. In health, this means that the arterial pressure at this height is 0 (as this is alveolar pressure) but the application of alveolar pressure (e.g. through IPPV) can require higher arterial pressure ...
Whilst Spirometry remains the gold standard to assess the degree of air flow obstruction, it requires a patients maximal respiratory effort in order to perform the test. The Resmon Pro only requires tidal breathing without forced manoeuvres in order to determine the degree of airflow obstruction with the forced oscillation technique. FOT is more sensitive to peripheral airway change than spirometry and usually takes two minutes to perform the test.. This technology is perfect for testing on children and adults that are not capable of performing the respiratory manoeuvres required with spirometry. ...
The airflow resistance provided by the airways during breathing is essential for good pulmonary function. The nose is responsible for almost two thirds of this resistance.
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This is a one week project. Later, full-blown agriculture dominated, as wild plants were used more rarely. The clients skin should be dry and free of any oils and lotions. Full blown racer. Were beginning to see a shift in hardware infrastructures, from ASIC chips connected via USB in the home to full fledged rack mountable servers in large datacenters. Cabinet ministers were preparing for EU chiefs to. Full Blown CD009 Shifter Kit Add to Cart. Elena Popina, sent anxiety swirling that a full-blown easing period isnt at hand. com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. As towns grow larger and areas become incorporated, theres an increased demand for services. 10Irrespective of whether the respiratory event is a full blown apnoea, a hypopnoea, or an episode of upper airway resistance, the associated arousal is accompanied by changes in heart rate and by a transient burst of sympathetic. We offer the best prices around, and we wont be beat! Check out www. While your initial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral airway function in antigen induced bronchoconstriction. AU - Ahmed, Tahir. AU - Mezey, R. J.. AU - Fernandez, R. J.. AU - Wanner, A.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:18244430407. VL - 38. SP - No. 4665. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3 II. ER - ...
Iwasawa, S; Kikuchi, Y; Nishiwaki, Y; Nakano, M; Michikawa, T; Tsuboi, T; Tanaka, S; Uemura, T; Ishigami, A; Nakashima, H; +7 more... Takebayashi, T; Adachi, M; Morikawa, A; Maruyama, K; Kudo, S; Uchiyama, I; Omae, K; (2009) Effects of SO2 on respiratory system of adult Miyakejima resident 2 years after returning to the island. Journal of occupational health, 51 (1). pp. 38-47. ISSN 1341-9145 DOI: Full text not available from this repository ...
Owners Manual Manual Ranging Multimeter Model No. 82337 CAUTION: Read, understand and follow Safety Rules and Operating Instructions in this manual before using this product. • Safety • Operation • Maintenance • Español © Sears, Roebuck and Co., Hoffman Estates, IL 60179 U.S.A. 061906 TABLE OF CONTENTS Warranty Page 3 Safety Instructions 4 Safety Symbols 5 Control and Jacks 6 Symbols and Annunciators 6 Specifications 7 Battery Installation 9 Operating Instructions 10 DC Voltage Measurements 10 AC Voltage Measurements 11 DC Current Measurements 12 AC Current Measurements 13 Resistance Measurements 14 Continuity Measurements 15 Diode Test 15 Temperature Measurements 16 Display Backlight 17 Battery Check 17 Data Hold 17 Auto Power Off 17 Low Battery Indication 17 Blown Fuse Indication 17 Wrong Connection Indication 17 Maintenance 18 Battery Replacement 19 Fuse Replacement 19 Troubleshooting 21 Service and Parts 21 2 ONE YEAR FULL WARRANTY ONE YEAR FULL WARRANTY ON ...
Molar conductance of a 1.5M solution of a electrolyte os found to be 138.9 Siemen cm^2 what would be tje specific conductance of this [email protected] pappu this is a
Hydrolab Corporations water quality monitoring instruments can monitor multiple parameters simultaneously including temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, ORP, depth, turbidity, chlorophyll, total dissolved gas, nitrates, ammoni...
PERIOD OF RECORD - Dec. 1959 to Sept. 1982 (daily mean discharge), Oct. 1982 to Sept. 1989 (annual maximum), Mar. 1992 to current year. PERIOD OF RECORD, Water-Quality.-- CHEMICAL DATA: Oct. 1959 to July 1960, Jan. 1967 to July 1981. BIOCHEMICAL DATA: Oct. 1959 to July 1960, Apr. 1967 to Aug. 1973. RADIOCHEMICAL DATA: Dec. 1980 to June 1981. PERIOD OF DAILY RECORD, Water-Quality.-- SPECIFIC CONDUCTANCE: Oct. 1998 to Sept. 1999. WATER TEMPERATURE: Oct. 1998 to Sept. 1999 ...
Hantos Zoltán, Czövek Dorottya, Gyurkovics Zita, Szabó Hajnalka, Maár A. Balázs, Radics Bence, Virág Katalin, Makan Gergely, Orvos Hajnalka, Gingl Zoltán, Sly D. Peter. ...
Mod.1-4 - Invasive markers of airway inflammation - 1 Ting Joe Li Yah Mod.1-4 Invasive markers of airway inflammation • Why do we need to measure airways infla…
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a direct link between allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. Several studies also support the presence of small-airway dysfunction (SAD) in non-asthmatic children with AR. However, it remains unknown whether SAD can predict the progression of AR to asthma. Our objective was to explore the existence of SAD in non-asthmatic children with AR and to assessed its ability to predict the development of asthma. METHODS: Seventy-three 6-year-old children with intermittent moderate-severe AR but without asthma symptoms/medication within the last two years, underwent spirometry and measurement of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) before and after bronchodilation (BD) (300mcg salbutamol ...
Surgeons can now use 3D, accurate images of the liver to rehearse keyhole tumor removal before real surgery reducing the risk to the patient and enabling them to take expert advice.. Odysseus has developed systems to construct 3D images of individual patients livers, with their tumors or other pathologies, from MRI or CT-scans. The reconstructions can be transmitted to external experts in any location, for consultation in real time just before surgery. Collaborative decisions can be made and optimal therapy planned with the best possible diagnostic support, before real surgery is attempted. Simulation of laparoscopic and robotic surgery, with tissue resistance, can be used either to practice the exact surgery proposed for an individual patient, or also for training several surgeons simultaneously.. Medical imaging of organs and tissues has contributed greatly to diagnosis and therapy planning, especially in the treatment of cancers, which are the major cause of deaths worldwide. However the ...
Kyanite: A stone for aligning your energy and speaking your truth. Your kyanite mantra: May I connect to the wisdom and courage within as I put voice to the truth and tell my story. Details Kyanite is a stone that supports you in speaking your truth. It is also very unique in that it helps to align all the chakras. Thi
This was the engagement that we was destroyed in my orders was clear slow down their advance while crippling whatever ships we could so we set course for the middle of the fight out gunned and out numbered but not out matched we was hitting home with our shots up until Interruptor Julius Gorner had his ship vaporised right in front of me by what appeared to be light mortars I am glad he was flying lane hacker technology otherwise we would of lost him. one wing man down I realised nether of us was getting clear of this onslaught as I was trapped in the middle of the crossfire evading while still trying to land hits on the gunboats then I saw my life flash between my eyes as anti capital ship weaponry ripped my vindicator apart. while I was floating there in my escape pod I watched Interruptor Maria Freudenstein suffered the same fate ...
During an asthma attack the airways constrict causing an increase in airway resistance. Airway resistance can also vary between ... airway resistance is the resistance of the respiratory tract to airflow during inhalation and exhalation. Airway resistance can ... these airways may collapse causing increased airway resistance. This is simply the mathematical inverse of airway resistance. G ... An individual small airway has much greater resistance than a large airway, however there are many more small airways than ...
... is a sleep disorder characterized by the narrowing of the airway that can cause disruptions to ... Upper airway resistance syndrome is caused when the upper airway narrows without closing. Consequently, airflow is either ... Upper airway resistance syndrome was first recognized at Stanford University in the late 1980's and the article that described ... Medicine portal Airway resistance Sleep apnea Shneerson, John M., ed. (2005). Sleep Medicine (Second ed.). New York: Blackwell ...
It also slightly increases airway resistance. More serious complications include vomiting while the laryngeal mask airway is in ... A laryngeal mask airway has an airway tube that connects to an elliptical mask with a cuff. The cuff can either be an inflating ... Laryngeal mask airways are designed to be an easy way to secure the airway and ventilate a patient - they are easier to place ... A laryngeal mask airway (LMA), also known as laryngeal mask, is a medical device that keeps a patient's airway open during ...
Upper airway resistance syndrome is another form of sleep-disordered breathing with symptoms that are similar to obstructive ... Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a form of positive airway pressure (PAP) ventilation in which a constant level of ... "Treatment of upper airway resistance syndrome in adults: Where do we stand?". Sleep Science. 8 (1): 42-48. doi:10.1016/j.slsci. ... The application of positive pressure may be intended to prevent upper airway collapse, as occurs in obstructive sleep apnea, or ...
The upper airway resistance syndrome". Chest. 104 (3): 781-7. doi:10.1378/chest.104.3.781. PMID 8365289. Attribution of the ... Following this work, he went on to describe the presence of elevated upper airway resistance in children in 1982, emphasizing ... "upper airway resistance syndrome" (UARS) in adults. Finally, working in collaboration with Dr. William C. Dement, Guilleminault ... "Sleep-induced apnea syndrome, a surgical procedure to establish patency of the upper airway during sleep". {{cite journal}}: ...
"The Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome, Sleep Apnea and Rhonchopathy." Togawa K, Katayama S, Hisihikawa Y, Ohta Y, Horie T (eds ... The upper airway resistance syndrome." Chest 104 (3): 781-787 Clerk, A.; Duncan, S.; Guilleminault, C. (1994): "Load detection ... the unknown upper airway resistance syndrome." Sleep Research: 20: 251 Valencia-Flores M.; Bliwise, D.; Guilleminault, C.; ... "Resistance perception during wakefulness in subjects with partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep." Sleep ...
... increases with any airway resistance. Things that may increase PIP could be increased secretions, ...
... increasing airway resistance. The bronchoconstriction is also caused by left ventricular dysfunction, caused by the SRTXs. Left ... it was found that there was a marked increase in the airway resistance. This was likely caused by bronchoconstriction. ... Bdolah A, Kochva E, Ovadia M, Kinamon S, Wollberg Z (August 1997). "Resistance of the Egyptian mongoose to sarafotoxins". ... Bronchoconstriction occurred due to a constriction of smooth muscle and airway wall thickening due to peribronchial edema. This ...
Upper airway resistance is expected to be highest during REM sleep because of atonia of the pharyngeal dilator muscles and ... Airway resistance increases by about 230% during NREM sleep. Elastic and flow resistive properties of the lung do not change ... The increase in resistance comes primarily from the upper airway in the retro-epiglottic region. Tonic activity of the ... Some have shown unchanged airway resistance during REM sleep, others have shown it to increase to NREM levels. Hypoxemia due to ...
... and can be associated with sleep apnea or upper airway resistance syndrome. In children, nasal congestion from enlarged ... "Orofacial-cervical alterations in individuals with upper airway resistance syndrome". Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology ... Pacheco-Galván A, Hart SP, Morice AH (April 2011). "Relationship between gastro-oesophageal reflux and airway diseases: the ... Nasal polyps Gastroesophageal reflux disease (theorized to cause chronic rhinosinusitis- the "airway reflux paradigm") COVID-19 ...
Airway resistance is typically increased by bronchospasm and airway secretions. Chest wall compliance can be decreased by fixed ... which eliminates the effects of airway resistance. Pplat is never > PIP and is typically < 3-5 cmH2O lower than PIP when airway ... Alterations in airway resistance, lung compliance and chest wall compliance influence Cdyn. C s t a t = V T P p l a t − P E E P ... Lung compliance Chest wall compliance Airway resistance Lung compliance is influenced by a variety of primary abnormalities of ...
Increased airway resistance - e.g. COPD exacerbation Hydrostatic pulmonary edema - e.g. left ventricular heart failure Right ... opioid overdose Impaired airway protection - e.g. cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Parenchymal lung disease - e.g. Acute ...
Breathing out against the positive pressure resistance (the expiratory positive airway pressure component, or EPAP) may also ... airway on a breath-by-breath basis by measuring the resistance in the patient's breathing based on levels of airway blockage ... "VPAP" or "BPAP" (variable/bilevel positive airway pressure) provides two levels of pressure: inspiratory positive airway ... or that resistance to exhalation generates pressure that forces the upper airway to open wider. Flow generator (PAP machine) ...
"Partitioning airway and lung tissue resistances in humans: effects of bronchoconstriction". Journal of Applied Physiology. ... Fredberg, J. J.; Bunk, D.; Ingenito, E.; Shore, S. A. (1993-03-01). "Tissue resistance and the contractile state of lung ... Airway caliber in healthy and asthmatic subjects: effects of bronchial challenge and deep inspirations". Journal of Applied ... "Friction in airway smooth muscle: mechanism, latch, and implications in asthma". Journal of Applied Physiology. American ...
Cottrell, JE; Wolfson, B; Siker, ES (1978). "Changes in airway resistance following droperidol, hydroxyzine, and diazepam in ...
... lung volumes and airway resistance in normal children ages 5 to 18". Br J Dis Chest. 64 (1): 15-24. doi:10.1016/S0007-0971(70) ... It measures the airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of obstruction in the airways. Peak expiratory flow is ... The Airways Journal. 2 (2): 80. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-06-06. Nunn A, Gregg I (1989). " ... and lower when the airways are constricted. From changes in recorded values, patients and doctors may determine lung ...
At increased ambient pressure the increased breathing gas density causes greater airway resistance. Maximum exercise ... A pressure difference is required to overcome the frictional resistance to gas flow due to viscosity, inertial resistance due ... Some of this work is to overcome frictional resistance to flow, and part is used to deform elastic tissues, and is stored as ... Dynamic airway compression occurs when intrapleural pressure equals or exceeds alveolar pressure, which causes dynamic ...
If secretions are cleared from larger airways, airway resistance and obstruction should decrease. Clearance of secretions and ... If clearance of secretions from both large and small airways occurs, it is reasonable to assume that the work of breathing and ... Oberwaldner, B.; Evans, J.C.; Zach, M.S. (1986). "Forced expirations against a variable resistance: a new chest physiotherapy ... Pryor, J.A (1999). "Physiotherapy for airway clearance in adults". The European Respiratory Journal. 14 (6): 1418-24. doi: ...
... of the total resistance originating at the nasal passages. Decreased resistance reduces the airway forces across the pulmonary ... In the case where no blood is visible in the trachea, EIPH in the small airways may still be present and can be confirmed by a ... Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a procedure whereby a small volume of fluid is put into the airways in order sample the cells ... To confirm whether the blood is coming from the upper or lower airway requires further examination by endoscopy, although in ...
Unilateral measurements are performed to detect any asymmetry or abnormality in nasal airway resistance. When the measurements ... Increased resistance on rhinomanometry after allergen application is an objective mean in proving allergy to airborne allergens ... Nasal obstruction leads to increased values of nasal resistance. Rhinomanometry may be used to measure only one nostril at a ... Increased pressure during respiration is a result of increased resistance to airflow through nasal passages (nasal blockage), ...
"Enlargement of the lateral pharyngeal fat pad space in pigs increases upper airway resistance". Journal of Applied Physiology. ...
The increased fluid in the lungs leads to increased airway resistance and reduced lung compliance. It is thought this could be ...
With only a thoracic signal, all parameters can be obtained except for specific airway resistance (SRaw) and specific airway ... Another important parameter, which can be calculated with a body plethysmograph is the airway resistance. During inhalation the ... While observing the so-called resistance loop (cabin pressure and flow), diseases can easily be recognized. If the resistance ... including airway resistance and conductance. Different sizes of plethysmograph exist to study mice, rats or guinea pigs. The ...
During this maneuver, airflow is transiently (~0.5 sec) discontinued, which eliminates the effects of airway resistance. Pplat ...
They may cause long-term and short-term adverse effects, including airway resistance, irritation of the airways, eyes redness, ... A 2013 review found an instant increase in airway resistance after using a single e-cigarette. Higher levels of exhaled nitric ... The short-term toxicity of e-cigarette use appears to be low, with the exception for some people with reactive airways. The ... A 2015 PHE report concluded that the risks of fire from e-cigarettes "appear to be comparable to similar electrical goods". A ...
October 2019). "Characterization of orally efficacious influenza drug with high resistance barrier in ferrets and human airway ...
October 2019). "Characterization of orally efficacious influenza drug with high resistance barrier in ferrets and human airway ...
The Inspire Upper Airway Stimulation system senses respiration and applies mild electrical stimulation during inspiration, ... Upper airway resistance syndrome "Sleep Apnea: What Is Sleep Apnea?". NHLBI: Health Information for the Public. U.S. Department ... continuous positive airway pressure improves insulin resistance in patients with sleep apnea without diabetes". Annals of the ... or automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) device. These splint the person's airway open during sleep by means of pressurized ...
Laminar flow tends to generate less resistance than turbulent flow. In the small airways where flow is laminar, resistance is ... The Hagen-Poiseuille equation describes laminar resistance. In the large airways where flow is turbulent, resistance is ... Currently, heliox is mainly used in conditions of large airway narrowing (upper airway obstruction from tumors or foreign ... Heliox generates less airway resistance than air and thereby requires less mechanical energy to ventilate the lungs. "Work of ...
Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) is a clinical variant of sleep apnea that can also cause hypersomnia. Just as other ... It is likely that a number of cases labeled as chronic fatigue syndrome are unrecognized cases of upper airway resistance ... For example, if a patient with sleep apnea is treated with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure), which resolves their ...
Two aircraft (T1443 and T1739) were transferred to the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) for training and 18 were ... particularly in occupied France with the help of the French Resistance. Royal Air Force army co-operation aircraft were named ... formed to undertake missions for the Special Operations Executive to maintain clandestine contact with the French Resistance. ...
In 2015, the yeast was found in the airways of a patient with cystic fibrosis; this was the first recorded case of C. blankii ... The yeast was characterized as "an opportunist pathogen for lung transplant and/or CF patients". Because of its resistance, it ... New agent in cystic fibrosis airways?". Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 14: S140. doi:10.1016/S1569-1993(15)30492-6. Buckley, H. R ...
British Airways and Etihad Airways say that they will continue to fly over the Sinai. 2 November Russian Federation Air Force ... The French strikes knock out electrical power in the city of about 200,000 people. 16 November The United States makes its ... Working with British Airways, EasyJet, Monarch Airlines, Thomas Cook Airlines, and Thomson Airways, British authorities begin ... 1 November Air Arabia, Emirates, flydubai, Gulf Air, Jazeera Airways, and Qatar Airways announce that they will reroute their ...
Schwarzer C, Machen TE, Illek B, Fischer H (2004). "NADPH oxidase-dependent acid production in airway epithelial cells". J. ... reductions in skeletal muscle NOX4 in aging and obesity was shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and ... "Skeletal muscle NOX4 is required for adaptive responses that prevent insulin resistance". Science Advances. 7 (51): eabl4988. ...
Another iconic model is the Rolex GMT Master (1955), originally developed at the request of Pan Am Airways to provide its crews ... hence its movement has Paraflex shock absorbers which give them higher shock resistance than other Rolex watches. The 42mm ...
Much as bacteria can become resistant to antibiotic, Ticks can gain resistance to acaricides, rendering them effective at ... extreme allergic reaction that can affect airways and breathing). In some cases, parts of the tick head can remain lodged at ...
The concept emerged that in severe asthma, the airways behaved like a chronic wound with impaired epithelial repair and ... Holgate, Stephen Townley (1978). Beta-Adrenergic Resistance - The development and Mechanisms in normal man. (MD ... focus has been the important role that the epithelium plays in orchestrating both chronic airway inflammation as well as airway ... "Drug development for airway diseases: looking forward". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 14 (6): 367-368. doi:10.1038/nrd4645. ...
Following viral entry, COVID‑19 infects the ciliated epithelium of the nasopharynx and upper airways. One common symptom, loss ... to recommendations for optimised disinfection procedures to avoid issues such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance ...
Drug resistance is increasingly more common and presents a serious problem in persons who are immunocompromised. Prophylactic ... Inhaled steroids in asthma optimizing effects in the airways. [S.l.]: Marcel Dekker Incorporate. 2001. ISBN 9780203908532. Da ...
The merT and merP genes are found on mercury resistance plasmids and transposons of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria ... "In vivo effects of endotoxin on intraepithelial mucosubstances in rat pulmonary airways. Quantitative histochemistry". The ... The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino ... Barkay, Tamar; Miller, Susan M.; Summers, Anne O. (2003-06-01). "Bacterial mercury resistance from atoms to ecosystems". FEMS ...
The third complication occurs after inhalation of particulate matter that obstructs airways. The patients will have sudden ... or meropenem is recommended in cases of potential antibiotic resistance. The typical duration of antibiotic therapy is about 5 ... obstruction of the airways, and damaged lung tissue. Bacteria involved in aspiration pneumonia may be either aerobic or ... causing an increased risk of entry of particles from the stomach or mouth into the airways. While swallowing dysfunction is ...
They will live in the lungs for another two weeks before finally erupting out of the alveolar membranes to enter the airways. ... Martin, Frida; Höglund, Johan; Bergström, Tomas F.; Karlsson Lindsjö, Oskar; Tydén, Eva (2018-12-15). "Resistance to pyrantel ...
"Junkers G31go VH-UOW - Guinea Airways". The Airways Museum & Civil Aviation Historical Society. Retrieved 17 October 2010. " ... persuaded Professor Junkers that the gain in speed provided by reduced air resistance, would not outweigh the increased weight ... Operated by Guinea Airways, one was owned by the airline itself, while the other three were owned by the Bulolo Gold Dredging ... Civil Aviation Historical Society website Hugo Junkers homepage Уголок неба 1930 Flight article on Guinea Airways G 31 ( ...
The Falls curfew started in Northern Ireland as resistance to a weapons search operation by the British Army in a nationalist ... Himachal Pradesh University was established in India as the state university of Himachal Pradesh Olympic Airways Flight 255 was ...
On 22 May 2010, around 100 SWP members disrupted negotiations between Unite and British Airways inside the Acas building, much ... The SWP described the Iraqi insurgency as a "resistance" movement against military occupation and endorsed George Galloway's ... Callinicos, Alex (21 August 2004). "Victory to the resistance in Iraq?". Socialist Worker. No. 1915. Socialist Workers Party. ... Resistance. 1 (2). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 29 April 2020. "Crisis in the SWP, or: ...
After 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) virus samples were tested, only 4% (of 853 samples) showed resistance to oseltamivir (again, no ... resulting in the destruction of lung cells and secretion of blood and mucus into the alveoli and airways. This makes it ... Since 1 October 2008, the CDC has tested 1,146 seasonal influenza A (H1N1) viruses for resistance against oseltamivir and ... samples showed resistance to zanamivir). A study conducted in Japan during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic concluded that infants ...
A meeting of the Slovene presidency was hastily convened at which Kučan and the rest of the members decided on armed resistance ... were killed and four Adria Airways airliners were seriously damaged. The Yugoslav Air Force also attacked the Slovenian TO ... However, this was rejected by the JNA leadership, which vowed to "take control" and crush Slovenian resistance. A large JNA ... "All resistance will be crushed." In the early hours of 27 June the Slovenian leadership was told of the movements of the JNA. ...
Yvette Lundy, 103, French Resistance member and Legion of Honour recipient. Harish Mahapatra, Indian politician, MLA (1971-1977 ... Georges Gutelman, 80, Belgian airline executive (Trans European Airways) and evacuator (Operation Moses). Kevin Hogan, 85, ... Anton Mavretič, 84, Slovene electrical engineer. Oppe Quiñonez, 86, Paraguayan footballer (Nacional Asunción, national team). ...
... decrease airway resistance, and increase delivery of air to the alveoli during respiration. Unlike the SABAs, these medications ... Bronchoconstriction is defined as the narrowing of the airways in the lungs (bronchi and bronchioles). Air flow in air passages ... Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with ... The muscle contraction will cause the diameter of the bronchus to decrease, therefore increasing its resistance to airflow. ...
Age of Resistance, Green Eggs and Ham, The Umbrella Academy, Euphoria, Ramy, The Casagrandes, What We Do in the Shadows, The ... British Airways), America's Funniest Home Videos, Quantum Leap, COPS, The Laughing Salesman, Agatha Christie's Poirot, Shining ...
In December 1942, local communists founded a branch of ELAS resistance organization, the following month the resistance came ... On August 3, 1989, a Short 330 aircraft of the Olympic Airways (now Olympic Airlines) crashed near Samos Airport; 31 passengers ... During the course of the Greek Civil War, Samos became one of the biggest centers of DSE resistance outside of the Greek ... The last DSE unit surrendered in Kerkis on 26 August 1949, the defeat of the communist resistance was followed by a celebratory ...
... of the four principal private air carriers to form Imperial Airways, an ancestor of today's British Airways. The Conservatives ... He declared that Britain stood "for steady and collective resistance to all acts of unprovoked aggression". His speech was ...
The fine motor movements associated with the tongue and the airway, make humans more capable of producing a wide range of ... They observed changes in electrical activity in this area when the monkey executed or observed different hand actions performed ... The diversity of sound production is also increased with the human's ability to open and close the airway, allowing varying ... Shallow diving for seafoods requires voluntary airway control, a prerequisite for spoken language. Seafood such as shellfish ...
In 2015 the project, estimated to cost €70 million, was started after overcoming internal resistance. The project's main ... The premium partners are Audi, Allianz, HypoVereinsbank, Goodyear, Qatar Airways, Siemens, Paulaner Brewery, SAP, DHL, Hamad ...
PGLYRP3 variants are also associated with the composition of airway microbiome. Peptidoglycan recognition protein Peptidoglycan ... Microbial Drug Resistance. 18 (3): 280-5. doi:10.1089/mdr.2012.0002. PMC 3412580. PMID 22432705. Shrivastav A, Dabrowski AN, ... "Host genetic variation in mucosal immunity pathways influences the upper airway microbiome". Microbiome. 5 (1): 16. doi:10.1186 ...
A Pan American-Grace Airways Sikorsky S-43 amphibious aircraft plunged into the ocean 20 miles off Cristóbal, Panama, killing ... French post-Impressionist painter 3,000 Japanese soldiers conspicuously entered Beiping without resistance. Japanese warplanes ...
"How Qatar's cows show the growing resistance to a Saudi-led boycott". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 July 2019. "Qatar says ... Qatar Airways is an airline owned by the Qatar government and was founded in 1993. It travels to over a hundred destinations. ...
Increased antibiotic use is a matter of concern as antibiotic resistance is considered to be a serious threat to human and ... may produce diseases that impact the upper and proximal airways. Farmers are not the only ones at risk for exposure to these ... However, used irresponsibly, this may lead to antibiotic resistance which may impact human, animal and environmental health. ... US Food & Drug Administration (July 2019). "Timeline of FDA Action on Antimicrobial Resistance". Food and Drug Administration. ...
Australian airlines Qantas and Imperial Airways joined forces and establish "Qantas Empire Airways". Born: Raymond Briggs, ... Thomsett, Michael C. (1997). The German Opposition to Hitler: The Resistance, the Underground, and Assassination Plots, 1938- ... The army of warlord and rogue National Revolutionary Army general Sun Dianying is stopped by the Ma clique's heavy resistance ...
Procedure-Concurrent measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and pulmonary resistance (RL) were obtained using a ... was measured by helium dilution for computation of airway resistance (Raw) preloading (Raw = sRaw/FRC). Results-The sRaw and RL ... Additionally, sRaw and RL accurately reflected the magnitude of added resistance. The mean FRC was 52 mL/kg and used to ... Procedure-Concurrent measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and pulmonary resistance (RL) were obtained using a ...
The Ventilatory Response of Infants to Airway Resistance T D Graff, M.D.; T D Graff, M.D. ... T D Graff, K Sewall, H S Lim, O Kantt, R E Morris, D W Benson; The Ventilatory Response of Infants to Airway Resistance. ... Cardiorespiratory Effects of Automatic Tube Compensation during Airway Pressure Release Ventilation in Patients with Acute Lung ... 2022 American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines for Management of the Difficult Airway ...
Airway responsiveness to methacholine indices: Raw, airway resistance; G, coefficient of lung tissue damping; H, coefficient of ... Interleukin-11 Receptor Subunit Alpha-1 is Required for Maximal Airway Responsiveness to Methacholine After Acute Exposure to ... Interleukin-11 receptor subunit alpha-1 is required for maximal airway responsiveness to methacholine after acute exposure to ... Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, is notably characterized by reversible airway obstruction, persistent lung inflammation ...
Nasal airway resistance in asymptomatic Thai population.. Authors: Bunnag, Chaweewan. Jareoncharsri, Perapun. Dachpunpour, ... Nasal airway resistance in asymptomatic Thai population. Siriraj Medical Journal, 1995 Aug; 47(8): 721-725. ... Transnasal airflow and nasal airway resistance (NAR) were measured by ATMOS Rhinomanometer 220 in each subject before and after ...
Is a concept used in respiratory physiology to describe mechanical factors which limit the access of inspired air to the pulmonary alveoli, and thus determine airflow.. ...
Asthma is characterized by abnormal airway hyperresponsiveness. Here the authors identify BPIFA1 as a factor secreted by airway ... Our data suggest that BPIFA1 deficiency in asthmatic airways promotes Orai1 hyperactivity, increased ASM contraction and airway ... mucus hypersecretion and abnormal airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. Bacterial permeability family member A1, BPIFA1, is a ... epithelial cells, and show that it regulates contractility of airway smooth muscle cells by binding to and regulating the Orai1 ...
Airway, Posture, and Occlusion Wars II: Beyond Teeth with Jaz Gulati on Protrusive Dental Podcast (UK) ... Oral and postural physiology required to maximize the brains ability to protect the airway and get oxygen to the brain will ... and position to counter the upper airway restriction. ...
What is Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome?. When the snoring and the resistance present in the airway are prominent enough to ... it is considered upper airway resistance syndrome or "UARS". Patients with UARS, have such poor sleep quality that it results ... By opening the upper airway, you can experience better sleep and wake up more refreshed and ready to start your day.. AOO/ENT ...
Upper airway resistance syndrome is difficult for many doctors to diagnosis. Click here or call us today! (503) 233-5548 ... Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome in Clackamas, OR. Upper airway resistance syndrome occurs during sleep when the muscles of the ... Treatment for upper airway resistance syndrome is often the same as that for obstructive sleep apnea. This may include first ... Symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome include snoring, sleepwalking (in some), and excessive sleepiness during the ...
It is also used for airflow resistance in upper airway resistance syndrome. ... Normal breathing has a rounded pattern, while resistance to airflow leads to a squaring off of the flow signal. Pressure ... 2, 3] The guidelines for using a portable monitor unattended home sleep study device for continuous positive airway pressure ( ... Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Decision Memo for Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy for ...
The present results show that like airway narrowing, short-term airway variability of resistance may be a characteristic ... The present results show that like airway narrowing, short-term airway variability of resistance may be a characteristic ... The present results show that like airway narrowing, short-term airway variability of resistance may be a characteristic ... The present results show that like airway narrowing, short-term airway variability of resistance may be a characteristic ...
... pper airway). Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Upper airway resistance sleep apnea syndrome. Additional Information & Resources. Genetic Testing Information. *Genetic Testing ... It is thought that excess fatty tissue in the head and neck constricts airways and abdominal fat may prevent the chest and ... Other risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea include alcohol use; frequent nasal congestion; and blockages of the airways. , ...
Sleep Apnea & Upper Airway Resistance Treatment. Do you suffer from sleep apnea or upper airway resistance syndrome? There is a ... We can provide a comprehensive evaluation of your sleep and the critical airway spaces using patented technology. The sleep ...
The upper airway resistance syndrome. Chest. 1993 Sep. 104 (3):781-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Long-term treatment, however, has potential side effects of antibiotic resistance, GI problems, and infections. [37] ...
As a result, reflex bronchoconstriction increases airway resistance.. Acute Exposure. Sulfur dioxide dissolves in the moisture ... Healthy adults experience increased airway resistance at 5 ppm, sneezing and coughing at 10 ppm, and bronchospasm at 20 ppm. ... People with asthma can experience increased airway resistance with sulfur dioxide concentrations of less than 0.1 ppm when ... Rarely, new onset airway hyperreactivity, known as reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), develops in patients without ...
airway resistance (H2O pressure) [cm/mL/s] MCh challenge 1 mg/mL airway_res_mch1 inbred. 37 both 9-12wks ... airway resistance (H2O pressure) [cm/mL/s] MCh challenge 3 mg/mL airway_res_mch3 inbred. 37 both 9-12wks ... airway resistance (H2O pressure) [cm/mL/s] MCh challenge 10 mg/mL airway_res_mch10 inbred. 37 both 9-12wks ... airway resistance (H2O pressure) [cm/mL/s] MCh challenge 30 mg/mL airway_res_mch30 inbred. 37 both 9-12wks ...
The major effects of breathing dense gas during physical exercise in hyperbaric environments can be traced to high airway ... resistance during inspiration and expiration and especially to an increased tendency for lung airways to become choked during ... be traced to high airway resistance during inspiration and expiration and especially to an increased tendency for lung airways ... The bodys responses to the high resistance include decrease of alveolar ventilation, which leads to CO2 retention. This ...
Airway-resistance; Inhalation-studies; Equipment-operators; Machine-shop-workers; Author Keywords: cutting oils; coolants; ... The authors conclude that acute airway obstruction was associated with exposure to aerosols of various machining fluids and ...
Airway Resistance. Resistance is determined mainly by radius. Transpulmonary pressure exerts a distending force and keeps ... Asthma is a disease in which airway smooth muscle contracts and increases airway resistance. ... Emphysema is the disease characterized by increased airway resistance, the decreased surface area for ventilation due to ... These constitute the upper airways. Airways beyond the larynx are divided into 2 zones:. *The conducting zone where there is no ...
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome ... View other providers who treat Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome ...
3D printed bilateral arytenoid abductor on laryngeal airway resistance in canine cadaver larynges. Laryngeal airway resistance ... The airway resistance was measured at an airflow of 10 L/min with the epiglottis closed and at airflows ranging from 15 L/min ... With the epiglottis open, median laryngeal airway resistance in all larynges with a bilateral arytenoid abductor were ... The effects of the bilateral arytenoid abductor on laryngeal airway resistance were evaluated statistically. ...
Correlation of Airway Resistance with Forced Random Noise Resistance Parameters.. Author. Pimmel, R. L. ; Fullton, J. M. ; ... Asthma--physiopathology ; Airway Resistance ; Asthma--drug therapy Holdings. Library. Call Number. Additional Info. Location. ... Asthma ; human respiratory mechanics ; airway resistance ; human reactions ; nitrogen dioxide Holdings. Library. Call Number. ... Ozone ; Air pollution effects(Humans) ; Lung ; Exposure ; Airway resistance ; Vital capacity ; Signs and symptoms ; Spirometry ...
1 In early disease this reflects total airways resistance and is insensitive to changes in small airways, which contribute ,10 ... Resistance of central and peripheral airways measured by a retrograde catheter.J Appl Physiol1967;22:395-401. ... Noninvasive assessment of airway alterations in smokers: the small airways revisited.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2004;170:414-9. ... of the overall resistance in healthy adult subjects.2 Significant structural airway damage can be demonstrated on CT scanning ...
Airways resistance (Raw/Sgaw). *Spirometry at absolute lung volumes (FVC, FEV1 and PEFR) ...
Therapy has been reported to increase airway resistance, bronchial. smooth muscle tone, and bronchial secretions; therapy ...
The airway resistance (Raw), was measured using a panting technique within a whole-body plethysmograph (Transmural Body Box ... Even if there was a difference in FEV1% pred and airway resistance between the CF patients and the healthy subjects the ESI has ... The factor was chosen so that it gave a calculated airway resistance (using Poiseuilles law), which was the same as the one ... The dimension factors 0.56, 0.55 and 0.65, respectively, were used to mimic airway resistance, an inhalation flow of 0.045 L·s− ...
decreased airway resistance. increased anteroposterior diameter. thoracic breathing occurs as uterus enlarges ...
Automatic tube compensation (ATC®) compensates for artificial airway resistance. *Assessment of weaning through RSBi, P0.1 and ... Put the power of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to work for you and your patients. With the PulmoVista® 500, you can ...
  • Asthma, a chronic respiratory disease, is notably characterized by reversible airway obstruction, persistent lung inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). (
  • Exposures of 50 to 100 ppm may be tolerated for more than 30 to 60 minutes, but higher or longer exposures can cause death from airway obstruction. (
  • The authors conclude that acute airway obstruction was associated with exposure to aerosols of various machining fluids and that these responses occurred at exposure levels far below those currently recommended as permissible. (
  • When both arytenoid cartilages are affected dogs can present on an emergency basis for upper airway obstruction. (
  • Sleep apnea can be caused by either complete or partial obstruction of the airway, resulting in chronic sleep deprivation. (
  • Differences in airway inflammation in patients with fixed airflow obstruction due to asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (
  • Lung function tests revealed no significant differences in the measurements of lung growth-for example, forced vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity-but the index children had significant reductions in measurements of airways obstruction-for example, forced expiratory volume in one second, maximum expiratory flow at 75, 50 and 25% of vital capacity, and airways resistance. (
  • The pathophysiology of asthma is complex and involves airway inflammation, intermittent airflow obstruction, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (
  • The mechanism of inflammation in asthma may be acute, subacute, or chronic, and the presence of airway edema and mucus secretion also contributes to airflow obstruction and bronchial reactivity. (
  • Nasal airway obstruction can be caused by several factors, including septal deviation, enlarged turbinates, and weakened upper and/or lower lateral nasal wall cartilage, which can lead to nasal valve collapse (vestibular stenosis). (
  • Consequently, the small caliber of the pediatric upper airway, the relatively larger tongue, and the "floppy" and relatively long epiglottis predispose young children to airway obstruction during sedation. (
  • In addition, the large occiput of the infant places the head and neck in the flexed position when the patient is placed recumbent, further exacerbating airway obstruction. (
  • Furthermore airway obstruction was observed. (
  • The sleep apnea obstructive syndrome is a debilitating condition in which the upper airway collapse causes mechanical obstruction to the airflow during sleep, which may result in an impairment of daily activities, as well as cardiac and neurovascular implications. (
  • Transnasal airflow and nasal airway resistance (NAR) were measured by ATMOS Rhinomanometer 220 in each subject before and after decongestion. (
  • Normal breathing has a rounded pattern, while resistance to airflow leads to a squaring off of the flow signal. (
  • It is also used for airflow resistance in upper airway resistance syndrome. (
  • The airway resistance was measured at an airflow of 10 L/min with the epiglottis closed and at airflows ranging from 15 L/min to 60 L/min with the epiglottis open. (
  • Defines airways resistance and lists the factors that contribute to or alter the resistance to airflow. (
  • As soon as a pressure difference sufficient to overcome the resistance to airflow offered by the conducting airways is established between the atmosphere and the alveoli, air flows into the lungs. (
  • Nasal massage of the 'yingxiang' acupuncture point improves nasal airway resistance and sensation of nasal airflow in patients with nasal congestion associated with acute upper respiratory tract infection. (
  • During normal inspiration, negative intrapleural pressure generated in the thorax creates a pressure gradient from the mouth to the airways, resulting in airflow into the lungs. (
  • The surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME) produces a widening at the nasal floor which reduces the nasal airflow resistance, improving the nasopharynx function and breathing patterns. (
  • The nominal filter resistances of the prototype filtering facepiece respirators correspond to airflow resistances ranging from 2.1 - 6.6 mm H 2 O/L/s which are less than, or minimally equivalent to, previously reported values for the normal threshold for detection of inspiratory breathing resistance (6 - 7.6 mm H 2 O/L/sec). (
  • NIOSH certification limits for FFR inspiratory and expiratory filter resistance are 35 and 25 mm H 2 O pressure, respectively (tested at a constant airflow rate of 85 L∙min -1 ) [ 2 ]. (
  • European Standard EN:149 indicates inhalation resistance limits of 7.1 and 24.4 mm H 2 O pressure, respectively, at 30 and 95 liters-per-minute of continuous airflow and exhalation resistance limits of 30.5 mm H 2 O pressure at 160 liters-per-minute of airflow). (
  • This will leads to decreased humidification, increased warming, and reduced nasal airflow and resistance. (
  • Treatment for upper airway resistance syndrome is often the same as that for obstructive sleep apnea. (
  • Do you suffer from sleep apnea or upper airway resistance syndrome? (
  • Obstructive sleep apnea is a condition in which individuals experience pauses in breathing (apnea) during sleep, which are associated with partial or complete closure of the throat (pper airway). (
  • Conditions that may be linked to this problem are upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) or even obstructive sleep apnea which both indicate a frightening lack of oxygen while you're sleeping. (
  • For patients in whom obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is suspected or is diagnosed, examination of the upper airway is essential for determining an optimal treatment, as many variables are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, making the choice of the correct treatment a complex one. (
  • PLEASE READ OUR DIGITAL ARTICLE Introduction The American Association of Orthodontists White Paper: Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Orthodontics states, under the term "Etiology," "Obstructive Sleep Apnea occurs as a function of increased collapsibility of the upper airway. (
  • Thus, based on the aforementioned observations, we hypothesized that genetic deficiency of IL-11Rα1 would attenuate lung inflammation and increases in airway responsiveness following acute inhalation exposure to ozone, a criteria pollutant and non-atopic asthma stimulus. (
  • Through this laboratory-based study, we investigated whether mice genetically deficient in IL-11Rα1 (IL-11Rα1-deficient mice) exhibited decreased airway responsiveness to methacholine and lung inflammation induced by acute inhalation exposure to ozone [2 parts/million (ppm)] for three hours as compared to wild-type (C57BL/6J) mice. (
  • Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and abnormal airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction. (
  • This results in impaired MCC with recurrent bacterial infections, chronic inflammation, bronchiectasis and airway damage. (
  • Antigen presentation by the dendritic cell with the lymphocyte and cytokine response leading to airway inflammation and asthma symptoms. (
  • Here, we demonstrate that transgenic targeting of OGG1 to mitochondria confers significant protection from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. (
  • Cellular damage produced by conditions generating oxidative stress have far-reaching implications in human disease that encompass, but are not restricted to aging, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, airway inflammation/asthma, cancer, and metabolic syndrome including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemia. (
  • It is usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation. (
  • Epithelial surfaces of airways up to respiratory bronchioles have cells that secrete mucus to trap particulate matter in the air, which is then moved by cilia present on these cells and swallowed. (
  • The inherited disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), is characterised by production and accumulation of copious amounts of mucus with increased viscosity in the airways due to defective ion transport across the respiratory epithelium. (
  • The mucus membranes also swell and this further elevates airway resistance. (
  • Treatment may involve a variety of procedures and medications, including airway clearance techniques, antibiotics, a high-calorie diet, mucus thinners, bronchodilators, pancreatic enzymes, and newer generation drugs known as CFTR modulators. (
  • This involves airway clearance techniques to remove mucus from the lungs, exercise to maintain lung capacity and strength, and dietary interventions to improve the absorption of fats and nutrients. (
  • Varying degrees of mononuclear cell and eosinophil infiltration, mucus hypersecretion, desquamation of the epithelium, smooth muscle hyperplasia, and airway remodeling are present. (
  • UARS is caused by narrowing of the upper airway may be described as trying to breathe through an opening as small as a straw. (
  • However, significant narrowing of the upper airway increases airway resistance, and a higher pressure gradient across the airway is required if minute ventilation is to be maintained. (
  • Upper airway resistance syndrome occurs during sleep when the muscles of the throat's airway become relaxed and this relaxation overly reduces the diameter of the airway causing breathing to become labored. (
  • Thus, airway resistance is primarily influenced by the diameter of the airway. (
  • Increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogens causing UTI threatens our ability to continue to treat patients in the clinics. (
  • Antibiotic resistance is a real disease and it's one of our own making. (
  • We'll be talking about antibiotic resistance and fungal infections. (
  • Finish your entire course of treatment with Roxibest 150 MG Tablet, even if the condition gets better to avoid antibiotic resistance (the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics). (
  • Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) commonly used by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are just as effective in treating CF lung disease. (
  • Our data suggest that BPIFA1 deficiency in asthmatic airways promotes Orai1 hyperactivity, increased ASM contraction and airway hyperresponsiveness. (
  • Asthma affects ∼ 334 million people worldwide, yet little is known regarding the underlying aetiology of the exaggerated airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction that leads to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). (
  • Airway hyperresponsiveness or bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma is an exaggerated response to numerous exogenous and endogenous stimuli. (
  • Curchia (hereinafter referred to as asthma) is the most common chronic airway disease in childhood. (
  • The objective of this ex vivo experimental study was to evaluate the effects of a novel, 3D printed bilateral arytenoid abductor on laryngeal airway resistance in canine cadaver larynges. (
  • Laryngeal airway resistance was calculated for each specimen before (control) and after placement of a 3D printed, bilateral arytenoid abductor. (
  • The effects of the bilateral arytenoid abductor on laryngeal airway resistance were evaluated statistically. (
  • This leads to lack of abduction of the arytenoid cartilages during inspiration and subsequent increase in laryngeal airway resistance. (
  • The ideal goal of surgical intervention is to decrease laryngeal airway resistance without increasing risk of aspiration pneumonia [ 6 ]. (
  • If resistance increases, as happens with asthma or emphysema, the airways become obstructed, trapping air in the lungs and causing breathing to become difficult. (
  • Under normal conditions, changes in airway caliber during respiration are clinically insignificant. (
  • It is thought that excess fatty tissue in the head and neck constricts airways and abdominal fat may prevent the chest and lungs from fully expanding and relaxing. (
  • Firstly, the airway resistance within the lungs increases due to smoking. (
  • The intrapleural pressure drops, the lungs expand, and air is drawn into the airways. (
  • The lungs recoil and airways close. (
  • The body's responses to the high resistance include decrease of alveolar ventilation, which leads to CO2 retention. (
  • In early lung disease, ventilation heterogeneity results from regional differences in small airway calibre (those beyond division 8). (
  • Alterations in the ventilation of the airways or perfusion of the arteries can affect gas exchange. (
  • Maintenance of airway patency and oxygenation are the main objectives of face mask ventilation. (
  • Appropriate anticipatory airway management could potentially decrease the incidence of failed ventilation and resultant hypoxia. (
  • Face mask ventilation is the principal mode of ventilation before the placement of a definitive airway device in the majority of general anaesthetics. (
  • [2] Difficult mask ventilation (DMV) forms a component of difficult airway. (
  • During expiration nasal resistance plays a major role in the opening of terminal bronchioles and optimizing alveolar ventilation. (
  • At Mt. Scott ENT & Sleep Medicine, we have found that most patients usually respond to treatment well, and upper airway resistance syndrome is eminently treatable. (
  • No difference was observed between the CF patients and the healthy subjects in the slow clearance phase at day 7 to day 21, representing small airway clearance. (
  • The results of the study do not support the current authors' hypothesis that clearance from small airways is slower in cystic fibrosis patients compared to healthy subjects. (
  • and 2) that the clearance between day one and day 21 from small airways is slower in patients with CF compared to healthy subjects. (
  • Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (
  • Aim: To evaluate prospectively the upper airway of 16 patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion. (
  • I'm also a professor at the University of Manchester and do quite a lot of research on different aspects of fungal disease, particularly aspergillosis, including resistance and new diagnostic tests, and I'm also the leader and president of the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections, which has as its main objective to improve the quality of care and therefore the outcome of patients with fungal diseases across the world. (
  • Only 59% of treated patients reported good adherence to treatment with positive airway pressure, and response to treatment correlated with OSA severity. (
  • This clearance mechanism is rapid, resulting in clearance of the larger airways within hours of inhalation and is considered to be completed within 24 h in healthy subjects. (
  • Extrathoracic airway caliber decreases during inhalation, whereas intrathoracic airway diameter tends to increase. (
  • FFRs are classified as negative pressure respirators because inhalation against the resistance of the filter media creates pressure within the FFR deadspace (V D ) that is negative with respect to ambient air pressure. (
  • This may include first trying less invasive measures such as diet changes and sleep pattern changes, or use of CPAP equipment, or use of specialized oral appliances which serve to protrude the tongue and jaw forward thus reducing the airway resistance. (
  • Once OSA is diagnosed, a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) study is often performed to determine the optimal positive airway pressure required to reduce the AHI and improve oxygenation. (
  • In theory, this will result in greater patency of airways that tend to collapse (such as in bronchiectasis) and greater ability to clear airways with coughing. (
  • The nasal valve collapse contributes as much as 80% of the total airway resistance. (
  • Consequently, the greater negative pressure generated in the pharynx during inspiration tends to further collapse the upper airway. (
  • If the compliance of the lung decreases, as occurs in restrictive diseases like fibrosis, the airways stiffen and collapse upon exhalation. (
  • Study on Uric Acid as Biomarker for Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetic Mellitus. (
  • After endotracheal intubation, however, the upper airway is circumvented and the respiratory system loses its capacity to heat and moisten inhaled gas. (
  • People with asthma can experience increased airway resistance with sulfur dioxide concentrations of less than 0.1 ppm when exercising. (
  • Airway Sensitivity of Asthmatics to Sulfur Dioxide. (
  • Nose and throat irritation, depressed lung function and increased airway resistance were identified as critical local effects of sulfur dioxide on the respiratory tract. (
  • As the muscles that hold open the upper airways relax during sleep cycles, they cause the tongue to rest back into our throat, which can partially block the airways. (
  • It has currently been developed that snoring takes place since the tissues of the throat vibrate and push versus the areas they touch, triggering resistance and turbulence that is the source of the sound. (
  • As part of a programme aimed at measuring the response to gene therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF), we are interested in developing more sensitive measures of changes in CF airway function and structure. (
  • Impaired mucociliary clearance is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF). Early morphological changes first appear in the small airways. (
  • Recognition of the critical role of secretion mobilization in cystic fibrosis (CF) and other related diseases of impaired airway clearance has led to the interesting challenge of having a large number of devices available to aid in secretion mobilization. (
  • Alveoli are hollow sacs having open ends continuous with lumens of airways. (
  • Airway [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Feb 8];5:115-22. (
  • Healthy adults experience increased airway resistance at 5 ppm, sneezing and coughing at 10 ppm, and bronchospasm at 20 ppm. (
  • Lung clearance was investigated in 11 young CF adults with mild-to-moderate lung disease using a method depositing particles mainly in the small airways. (
  • The current study investigated lung clearance in young adults with CF, using a method depositing particles primarily in the small airways. (
  • Organoids generated from dozens of tissues and organs available commercially, or accessible through published protocols include patient-derived models of liver , heart, pancreas, brain, GI tract, kidney, and recently, of human airways suitable for drug and vaccine development and for studying infectious human respiratory diseases. (
  • The structures forming the upper airway are the nose and the pharynx with its 3 divisions (ie, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx). (
  • it demonstrated efficacy in secretion mobilization for a handheld device called the "Flutter," which was a modification of a PEP (positive expiratory pressure) device in which a steel ball oscillated up and down in a cone, vibrating the column of air between the mouth and the lower airways. (
  • Most human infections with MTB occur through inhaled carrier droplets into the lower airways. (
  • Assuming the transaction completes this will be the second airline acquired by IAG since its formation in 2011 and the third member airline of the group (the first acquisition, bmi, being subsumed into British Airways). (
  • IAG has faced numerous difficulties in Spain, prompting some commentators to question the original rationale for the merger with British Airways. (
  • Will Vueling also take over the short-haul operations of British Airways and Iberia? (
  • The White Company Business Class Amenity Kit NEW British Airways 100 Anniv, The USA Flag Vintage New 3 x 5 Foot Antique American Sewn Stripes USA Colors. (
  • A greater pressure gradient generated across the airway accentuates the normal inspiratory and expiratory effects on the airway. (
  • These properties of menthol point towards a compound of dual efficacy which may be an effective and well tolerated treatment for both respiratory tract infection and asthma by improving airways caliber and alleviating the associated cough. (
  • Procedure -Concurrent measurements of specific airway resistance (sR aw ) and pulmonary resistance (R L ) were obtained using a novel noninvasive headout constant-volume plethysmograph and esophageal balloon-pneumotachography, respectively. (
  • Changes in Pulmonary Function and Airway Reactivity Due to Prolonged Exposure to Typical Ambient Ozone (O3) Levels. (
  • A second cohort of mice was anesthetized twenty-four-hours following cessation of exposure and pressure-volume (PV) curves generated and airway responsiveness to methacholine assessed. (
  • 1] The lower airway begins in the trachea and continues to the bronchial tree. (
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease has also been described in upper airway dysfunction. (
  • The major effects of breathing dense gas during physical exercise in hyperbaric environments can be traced to high airway resistance during inspiration and expiration and especially to an increased tendency for lung airways to become "choked" during expiration. (
  • End Tidal Co2 Sampling Port Offers Convenient Access To Airway Gases. (
  • Symptoms of upper airway resistance syndrome include snoring, sleepwalking (in some), and excessive sleepiness during the daytime. (
  • The most common treatment for OSA, positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment, is frequently initiated to reduce sleep-related symptoms. (
  • Short-term variation in airway resistance (Rrs) is elevated in asthma and is thought to be due to increased variation in the contractile activation of airway smooth muscle. (