Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mice, Inbred BALB CLung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Bronchial DiseasesLung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tracheal StenosisNasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tracheal DiseasesOropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Mice, Inbred C57BLEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Respiratory Tract DiseasesHypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Rats, Inbred BNRhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.ManikinsMucin-5B: A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly expressed by submucosal glands of airway tissues and the SUBLINGUAL GLAND. It is one of the principal components of high molecular weight salivary mucin.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.SmokeModels, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.
Role of histamine in airway remodeling of asthmatic guinea pig. (1/267)To investigate the role of histamine in airway remodeling, 50 healthy guinea pigs were divided into 5 groups: control group: nebulized inhalation of distilled water for 8 weeks; asthma model group: nebulized inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA) for 8 weeks after sensitization; continued asthma model group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization; histamine group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization and histamine was added in the last 6 weeks; antagonist group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization and histamine receptor antagonists were added in the last 6 weeks. For each group, the concentration of histamine, sodium ion (Na(+)), chlorine ion (Cl(-)), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH, actual bicarbonate (AB), standard bicarbonate (SB) in serum, and thickness of airway mucosa, base membrane and smooth muscle were measured and compared with each other. The results showed that: (1) the concentration of histamine in serum and the thickness of airway increased, the following order was, the control group, the asthma model group, the continued asthma model group and histamine group (P<0.01); and the concentration of histamine in serum and the thickness of airway of antagonist group was lower than that of the continued asthma model group (P<0.05, 0.01). (2) PaO2 of the asthma model group was lower than that of the normal control group (P<0.01); PaO2, pH, AB, SB decreased, the following order was, the asthma model group, the continued asthma model group and the histamine group (P<0.01); and PaO2, pH, AB, SB of the antagonist group was higher than that of the continued asthma model group (P<0.01); but for PaCO2, the order was converse (P<0.01); For the concentration of Na(+) and Cl(-) in serum, there was no difference among these groups. It is concluded that: (1) Histamine is one of the mediators in the airway remodeling of asthma. (2) Histamine receptor antagonists may play a role in preventing and treating airway remodeling. (3) There is a negative correlation between the PaO2, pH and the wall thickness of the airway (P<0.01), while a positive correlation between the PaCO2, anion gap (AG) and the wall thickness of the airway (P<0.01). (+info)
Anti-angiogenic activity of carebastine: a plausible mechanism affecting airway remodelling. (2/267)(+info)
Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: similar thickness, yet different composition. (3/267)BACKGROUND: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. METHODS: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV(1)] 92% predicted), and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV(1) 60% predicted), and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively). Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined. RESULTS: Mean (SD) RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3) vs 6.0 (1.8) microm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9) and 4.8 (1.2) microm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD. (+info)
Monitoring sputum eosinophils in mucosal inflammation and remodelling: a pilot study. (4/267)(+info)
Effects of vitamin E on mitochondrial dysfunction and asthma features in an experimental allergic murine model. (5/267)(+info)
Recovery of airway protective behaviors after spinal cord injury. (6/267)(+info)
p70 Ribosomal S6 kinase is required for airway smooth muscle cell size enlargement but not increased contractile protein expression. (7/267)(+info)
Arginase: a key enzyme in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma opening novel therapeutic perspectives. (8/267)(+info)
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public airway | .
Latest Qantas Airways Ltd (QAN:DUS) share price with interactive charts, historical prices, comparative analysis, forecasts, business profile and more.
Latest Qantas Airways Ltd (QAN:BER) share price with interactive charts, historical prices, comparative analysis, forecasts, business profile and more.
Занятие за границей: первопричины да перспективы Во сегодняшний день про работодателя не так важен диплом, который заверяет об полученном образовании, а теоретические да утилитарные навыки, который Вы смогли купить в ходе обучения. Как не прискорбно, Университеты в нашей стране как правило никак не готовы дать те знания да искусства, что требует настоящий рабочий рынок. Оттого ...
Background Exposure to allergens or air pollutants often leads to asthma exacerbations associated with aggravation of airway inflammation. Although, repeated allergen challenge often induces chronic allergic airway inflammation (CAAI) and airway remodelling, yet, the effects of brief exposure to air pollutants such as SO(2) on development of CAAI and airway remodelling remain to be clarified.. Objective The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of acute neutrophilic airway inflammation induced by brief exposure to SO(2) on development of CAAI and subepithelial fibrosis (SEF) in a murine model of asthma.. Methods Acute airway inflammation was induced by brief exposure to 50 p.p.m. SO(2) (1 h/d, 3 days). CAAI and SEF in BALB/c mice were induced by repeated challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) for 5 or 9 weeks with or without prior exposure to SO(2). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophilia as index of CAAI, BALF endothelin- 1 (ET-1) and TGF-beta 1 levels, morphometric evaluation ...
The potential role of egression as a means of reducing airway inflammation underscores the importance of cell clearance from the bronchial lumen. Death through apoptosis, followed by phagocytosis, is the topical mechanism of cell elimination. Apoptosis of cells in the airway lumen has been much studied during the last two decades with the assumption that observation on lumen cells would be valid for cells in the airway wall. However, apoptosis of lumen cells cannot reflect apoptosis in the airway wall (dead cells do not walk). In this overview we discuss cell apoptosis in the airway lumen merely to see if there are data indicating involvement of this mechanism in final elimination of the cells already eliminated from the airway wall. A widely quoted, uncontrolled study from 199660 reported that steroid treatment increased the percentage of apoptotic eosinophils in the airway lumen, claiming that this action could resolve airway inflammation in asthma. A subsequent placebo-controlled trial, ...
As per the email, Dividend miles will be integrated in to AAdvantage with in the next 30 days and your Dividend miles will be converted to AAdvantage miles at a 1:1 ratio.. While this is not a surprise, you need to remember the following. 1. Dividend miles program will be discontinued after the integration in to AAdvantage, but the ability to redeem Dividend miles will be discontinued much sooner. So hurry up and book any awards you want to redeem with Dividend miles, otherwise you will have to redeem per AAdvantage program.. 2. You must link your US Airways Dividend miles account and AAdvantage account before March 20, 2015. If you do not link your account, you may get a new AAdvantage account replacing your US Airways Dividend miles account.. What happens to Barclays US Airways Premier World Master Card?. 3. This is a sure sign that Barclays US Airways Premier World Master Card card will disappear very soon. When I recently referred a few friends for this card, the email mentions April 17, ...
In this study, we sought to characterize the heretofore unknown landscape of somatic genome-wide chromosomal alterations in the airway field of cancerization in NSCLC. To comprehensively interrogate genome-wide AI in the airway field, we compiled and studied a rich set of matched NSCLCs and spatially distributed normal-appearing airway epithelia. We applied a novel algorithm hapLOH (14) and performed genome-wide assessment of AI in matched NSCLC tissues, germline samples (normal lung parenchyma or blood cells), and multiple normal-appearing airway epithelia. We also investigated "intrafield heterogeneity" by genome-wide survey of multiple spatially distributed airway field samples found in both the local/adjacent airway field (airways adjacent to tumors) and relatively more distant fields (large airways and nasal epithelia). We found that almost half (22/45) of the NSCLC patients harbored AI events in the normal-appearing airway field, the majority of which matched alterations in the paired ...
A bite block 20 for use during transoral medical procedures has a main lumen 42 and a side mount 110 for receiving a separately inserted airway 160 . The airway 110 may be a commercially available nasopharangeal airway which is inserted in mount 110 and extends into the oral cavity so as to effectively function as oral pharangeal airway.
Chronic asthma is a condition in which a persons airways are persistently inflamed and irritated. Whenever an external trigger...
The development of subepithelial fibrosis represents an important feature of airway remodeling in asthma, and a critical role for epithelial cells herei is emer...
This proposal seeks to renew an Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Center that has been focusing on the mechanisms of initiation and persistence...
News: Now people with the British Airways Visa Signature Card can get a bit of a break when booking flights with British Airways when using Avios to pay for their flight. Cardholders can now get up to $600...
Some Facts About Tiger Airways Why would Australians fly with Tiger Airways despite knowing some of the risks they might encounter? Who are these people
Shop at Medex Supply for all your needs in Double Lumen Airways. Find all the top brands, quality products and competitive pricing, only at Medex Supply
Written by recognized authorities on thoracic imaging, this volume is the first to examine all modalities-both noninvasive and invasive-for visualizing the airways.
Find out everything you need to know about taking baggage with you on flights with British Airways and our partners, what you can pack, and what to do when something goes wrong.
Discover the best things to do in Hawaii with British Airways. Find the most popular attractions, sights and experiences for your holiday in Hawaii.
British Airways have admitted that up to 185,000 more people than first thought may have had personal details compromised in Augusts data breach
The Justice Department said it is allowed to withhold information about whom it interviewed for its analysis of AMRs merger with US Airways.
The British Airways hack involved a highly targeted approach using 22 lines of skimmer code by the group that compromised Ticketmaster.
Current Technical Analysis and interactive chart for $JBLU stock / shares. See the current trading strategy, trend(s), rating and buy and sell signals.
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold ...
This is a list of changes made recently to pages linked from a specified page (or to members of a specified category). Pages on your watchlist are bold ...
Although not an airway course, we have been greatly influenced by the methods used in BASIM for creating and undertaking airway simulations. Highly recommended course presented by the master Dr David Grant himself.. ...
TY - THES. T1 - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with airway remodelling and altered lung structure and function. AU - Foong, Rachel Ee Lin. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high all over the world and there is now a large body of evidence linking vitamin D deficiency to chronic conditions, including autoimmune, infectious, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Of relevance to chronic respiratory disease, some studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency is more prevalent in patients with asthma. Lower vitamin D levels are also associated with reduced lung function, increased asthma exacerbations and airway remodelling. In asthma, structural alterations in the lung have origins in early life, and factors that influence lung development may alter lung function and cause an increased susceptibility to disease in the long term. Vitamin D may be a factor affecting lung development, and maternal vitamin D deficiency may therefore contribute to asthma ...
Background. Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by episodic symptoms that are associated with functional alterations. It is well known that airways inflammation plays a basic role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and many autoptic and bioptic studies have shown that inflammation involves the entire bronchial tree, from proximal to distal airways. Many studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, are well represented in both the inner and the outer layer of the small airway walls, sometimes with a higher density in comparison with large airway walls.. Small airways are the most peripheral airways with an internal diameter , 2 mm and in this zone oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges take place. The contribution of small airways to the development of the clinical features and functional impairment in asthma is incompletely understood, probably due to the unavailability of definite noninvasive techniques for the study of small airways. Pathological changes ...
1. Persistent rotavirus vaccine shedding in a new case of severe combined immunodeficiency: A reason to screen. Uygungil B, Bleesing JJ, Risma KA, McNeal MM, Rothenberg ME. JACI 2009; 125(1): 270-271.. 2. Identifying an at-risk population of children with recurrent near-fatal asthma exacerbations: Carroll CL, Uygungil B, Zucker AR, Schramm CM. J Asthma. 2010 May; 47(4):460-4.. 3. A novel subset of CD4+ TH2 memory/effector cells that produce inflammatory IL-17 cytokine and promote the exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma. Wang YH, Voo KS, Liu B, Chen CY, Uygungil B, Spoede W, Bernstein JA, Huston DP, Liu YJ. J Exp Med. 2010 207(11): 2479-91. PMCID: PMC2964570. 4. Immunodeficiency: a problem with the faucet or the drain? Uygungil, B., Assaad, A, Khurahana Hershey, GK, Risma K. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 107(6):547-9. 5. Severe allergic reaction to thiol-based cytoprotective agents mesna and amifostine in a child with ...
AHR in asthma may be mainly attributed to the inflammation and remodelling of the airways as a consequence of epithelial damage, subepithelial fibrosis, increased airway vasculature, deposition of proteoglycans, and smooth muscle changes.32 In this study the relationship between airway morphology and AHR in patients with EB and those with asthma was compared using thin section CT scanning. We observed no thickening of the large airway walls in patients with EB, whereas patients with mild asthma had significantly thicker walls in the large airways than those with EB. Given that the extent of airway inflammation is comparable between these two diseases, thickening of the large airways in asthmatics would appear to be due to airway remodelling rather than inflammation. In addition, we found that the amount of air trapping and centrilobular prominence was similar in patients with EB and in asthmatics. These results suggest that the absence of thickening of the walls of the large airways in patients ...
0266] Once the POE and tunnel, channel or path direction or orientation is determined, a needle or other piercing member may be fed from the working channel of the scope to make a hole through the airway wall at the POE. This may be followed by a balloon catheter or mechanical dilator to dilate the hole or opening. Alternatively, other means may be used to create a hole big enough to allow subsequent passing of other larger diameter tools. For example, a circular punch, a flat blade with a pointed tip, a cross shaped blade with a sharpened tip, an RF probe, or an RF snare may be used to create a slit, slits, or a larger opening in the airway wall without employing a dilation balloon. Once the hole has been dilated, a sheath or other elongate instrument may be fed through the hole or opening and into the lung tissue. The sheath may contain a dissecting catheter which may fill the entire or substantially entire internal diameter of the sheath so that when the sheath is fed through lung tissue, ...
After the last of the morning activities, Peter Waterhouse presented his second, fascinating lecture on gene silencing. He explained the function of proteins called argonauts and dicers, and how they help to fight against viruses. Waterhouse then went on to explain how the use of such proteins can cause the suppresion of an organisms own genes and how this can be important for the development of an organism.. Alaina Ammit presented her lecture after lunch, on asthma and developments that could lead to a cure, or at least decrease the severity of asthma in patients. She explained that asthma is often caused by a hypersensitivity to allergens and that this hypersensitivity leads to a remodelling of the airway to make asthma more prevailent. Ammit then went on to explain that targeting specific proteins can reduce airway remodelling and thus make asthma less severe.. Students went on their last activities in the afternoon, before hurrying back to the college to prepare for the Galaxy Quest talent ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Nasopharyngeal Airway, Nasal Pharangeal Airway, Nasal Airway, Nasal Trumpet.
22 yrs old Male asked about Chronic asthma, 1 doctor answered this and 174 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
... thought-leaders and airways related healthcare social media twitter hashtags. Discover who to follow and where the healthcare discussions are taking place.
We were able to open up his airway and place a stent (which Dr. Mirambeaux received from another family in the United States) that will allow his airway to heal.. The hospital does not supply any needed supplies for the physicians. Dr. Mirambeaux orders his trachs from Ebay when he needs them. They do not have nurses who scrub in and assist in the cases. This is performed by the residents.. The critical care team spent the day caring for the patients and learning the culture of the hospital. Everybody at the hospital seemed very receptive to learning about how to care for this type of patients. After the surgery, the anesthesiologist stayed with our patient until he was fully recovered.. ...
Need Teleflex Medical Oralpharyngeal Airway Berman? Cascade Healthcare Solutions has Teleflex Medical Oralpharyngeal Airway Berman - 121803EA
The airway is the first priority in EMS. Its also often the most overwhelming. Learn how airway expert and instructor Jim Radcliffe, BS, MBA, EMT-P, reduces that stress.. Read More » ...
Children are susceptible to a number of airway problems, thanks in part to the fact that their anatomy and immune systems arent yet fully developed.
ATLANTA -- US Airways increased the pressure on Delta Air Lines unsecured creditors to take its buyout offer by raising the bid Wednesday nearly 20 percent to $10.3 billion. Whether the deal would survive regulatory scrutiny may be the deciding factor.
You must read JetPrivilege Terms & Conditions page carefully, before quoting your JetPrivilege membership number to Jet Airways or any Programme Partner.
This research has the potential to transform the ways we understand human health and prevent, diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions.. ...
The best way to keep inform, THAI UPDATES gives you the latest in special fares, promotions, services and news from across the THAI network.. ...
The best way to keep inform, THAI UPDATES gives you the latest in special fares, promotions, services and news from across the THAI network.. ...
Data for all parameters are presented as median (25th-75th percentile) or mean±sd. Data for % low-attenuation areas , -950 HU are presented as median and for AWT-Pi10 (airway wall thickness for an airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm) as mean. The p-values were calculated using Kruskall-Wallis (low-attenuation area) and ANOVA (AWT-Pi10). HU: Hounsfield units; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. #: standardised measurement of airway wall thickness. The bold p-values indicate significance. ...
Asthma is characterized by structural changes in the airways - airway remodelling. These changes include an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) and alterations in the profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the airway wall. The mechanisms leading to airway remodelling are not well understood. ASM cells have the potential to play a key role in these processes through the production and release of ECM proteins. The ASM cells and ECM proteins are each able to influence the behaviour and characteristics of the other. The modified ECM profile in the asthmatic airway may contribute to the altered behaviour of the ASM cells, such responses to ECM proteins are modulated through the cell surface expression of integrin receptors. ASM cells from asthmatic individuals express different levels of some integrin subunits compared to nonasthmatic ASM cells, which have the potential to further influence their responses to the ECM proteins in the airways. ECM homeostasis requires the ...
Airway wall thickening with bilateral pleural plaques seen in the lateral aspects of both lung fields on AP view. No interstitial disease is noted.
These studies of Ormdl3Δ2-3/Δ2-3/CC10 mice demonstrate that selectively inhibiting ORMDL3 in airway epithelial cells plays a significant role in induction of allergen-induced increases in AHR in vivo through a pathway independent of inflammation and associated with a pathway of increased S1P generation, which can induce increased smooth muscle contraction. These results further suggest that utilizing an inhalation therapeutic approach in asthma targeting a selective significant reduction in ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelium may paradoxically result in increased AHR as a consequence of increased epithelial-derived S1P increasing airway smooth muscle contractility. Whether an inhalation therapy targeting a less than complete inhibition of ORMDL3 expression by airway epithelium would also result in increased AHR is at present unknown. However, a therapy inducing only partial inhibition of ORMDL3 expression in the airway may also not be an effective therapy in asthma.. In this study, we ...
Looking for online definition of neurogenic airway in the Medical Dictionary? neurogenic airway explanation free. What is neurogenic airway? Meaning of neurogenic airway medical term. What does neurogenic airway mean?
Looking for online definition of chin-lift airway technique in the Medical Dictionary? chin-lift airway technique explanation free. What is chin-lift airway technique? Meaning of chin-lift airway technique medical term. What does chin-lift airway technique mean?
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe asthma have increased airway remodelling and elevated numbers of circulating fibrocytes with enhanced myofibroblastic differentiation capacity, despite being treated with high doses of corticosteroids, and long acting β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists (LABAs). We determined the effect of β2-AR agonists, alone or in combination with corticosteroids, on fibrocyte function. METHODS: Non-adherent non-T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy subjects and patients with non-severe or severe asthma were treated with the β2-AR agonist, salmeterol, in the presence or absence of the corticosteroid dexamethasone ...
Kauffman, HF (1 January 2003). "Immunopathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and airway remodeling". Frontiers ... ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to bronchiectasis-a condition marked by abnormal dilation of the airways. Left ... Mucoid impaction of the upper and lower airways is a common finding. Plugs are hypodense but appear on CT with high attenuation ... Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading ...
Airway remodeling is observed, but it is unknown whether these represent harmful or beneficial changes. Early treatment with ... Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C ... Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). "Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... Occasionally the airways themselves change. Typical changes in the airways include an increase in eosinophils and thickening of ...
This ultimately leads to airway remodelling and difficulty of breathing. Eosinophils can also cause tissue damage in the lungs ... Major basic protein induces mast cell and basophil degranulation, and is implicated in peripheral nerve remodelling. Eosinophil ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Laviolette, Michel (2013). "Effects of benralizumab on airway eosinophils in asthmatic ...
Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?. Thorax. 2003, 58 (2): 163-74. PMC 1746582. PMID 12554904. doi:10.1136/thorax ... 許多其它不同的病症情況也可能引起與氣喘相似的症狀。 在兒童中，其它一些上呼吸道疾病，如過敏性鼻炎和鼻竇炎應該被考慮進去，還有其它一些呼吸道阻塞的原因包括： 異物吸入（英語：Foreign_body#Airways）、氣管狹窄或喉氣管軟化、血管環、增大的淋 ... Primary care respiratory journal
"Soluble ADAM33 initiates airway remodeling to promote susceptibility for allergic asthma in early life". JCI Insight. 1 (11). ... "ADAM 33 and its association with airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthma". Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology ... "The splicing and fate of ADAM33 transcripts in primary human airways fibroblasts". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and ... "ADAM33 expression in asthmatic airways and human embryonic lungs". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. ...
... and noticeable airway remodeling consisting of stiffer airways and lost elasticity. Inflammation in a constricted cylinder, as ... Moulton, D. E.; Goriely, A. (April 2011). "Possible Role of Differential Growth in Airway Wall Remodeling in Asthma" (PDF). ... The layers of the airway wall, including the inner epithelial tissue lining thickens and expands anywhere from 10% to 300% of ... Brackel, HJ; Pedersen, OF; Mulder, PG; Overbeek, SE; Kerrebijn, KF; Bogaard, JM (September 2000). "Central airways behave more ...
Antibody ligation of Siglec-F has also been shown to inhibit eosinophil-mediated intestinal inflammation and airway remodeling ... "Anti-Siglec-F antibody reduces allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling". Journal of Immunology. 183 (8 ... In a chicken ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic airway inflammation, the Siglec-F knockout mouse exhibits increased lung ... Loss of this enzyme leads to enhanced allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. Despite evidence that Siglec-F binds ...
Cytoskeletal remodelling and slow dynamics in the living cell. Nat Mater 4: 557-571, 2005. Crandall SH. The role of damping in ... Airway caliber in healthy and asthmatic subjects: effects of bronchial challenge and deep inspirations. J Appl Physiol 91: 506- ... Cytoskeletal remodelling and slow dynamics in the living cell. Nat Mater 4: 557-571, 2005. Fabry B, Maksym GN, Butler JP, ... Friction in airway smooth muscle: mechanism, latch, and implications in asthma. J Appl Physiol 81: 2703-2712, 1996. Bursac P, ...
"Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax 58 (2): 163-74. PMC 1746582. PMID 12554904. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.2. ... Kelly, FJ; Fussell, JC (2011 Aug). "Air pollution and airway disease.". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the ... Custovic, A; Simpson, A (2012). "The role of inhalant allergens in allergic airways disease.". Journal of investigational ... Salpeter, S; Ormiston, T; Salpeter, E (2001). "Cardioselective beta-blocker use in patients with reversible airway disease.". ...
The Landside Terminal was also remodeled numerous times during the 1980s and 1990s. Both Delta Air Lines and US Airways opened ... Airside F Includes gates 76-90 (14 total). International Airside; Serves American Airlines, British Airways, Cayman Airways, ... In 1996, Airsides C and D were remodeled. The interiors of both satellites were refurbished and the original Westinghouse C-100 ... Three of the regional airlines operate under the banner of mainline air carriers, while a fourth, Silver Airways, is ...
"Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in airway remodeling". Curr. Mol. Med. 6 (8): ...
"Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in airway remodeling". Curr. Mol. Med. 6 (8): ... angiopoietins act complimentary to the VEGF system and contribute to endothelial cell survival and the remodeling of vessels. ...
... mucus hypersecretion and airway remodelling which all contribute to airway obstruction. murine studies demonstrated that IL-13 ... The deposition then influences the airway remodelling in asthmatic patients. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody IL-13 and IL-4 ... production of inducible nitric oxide synthase by airway epithelial cells, and transformation of airway fibroblasts to ... Research has shown that cell-surface expression of IL-13Rα2 on human asthmatic airway fibroblasts was reduced compared with ...
... structural repair and remodelling in the airways". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 5 Suppl A: S35-40. PMID 14980241. doi: ... α was targeted by siRNA in NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cells. In addition to mucus hypersecretion, chronic inflammation ... "Cigarette smoke induces MUC5AC mucin overproduction via tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme in human airway ...
All Nippon Airways began operations to Tokyo from 1994. In 1995, the airport terminal building was remodeled, and certified as ... In April 2003, All Nippon Airways withdrew from operations at Aomori as well, turning its routes over to Skymark Airlines, ...
Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax.58.2.163. PMC 1746582 . PMID ... Kelly, FJ (2011 Aug). „Air pollution and airway disease". Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society ... Asthma, COPD and bronchitis are just components of airway disease". European Respiratory Journal. 28 (2): 264-267. doi:10.1183/ ... Cardioselective beta-blocker use in patients with reversible airway disease". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) ...
British Airways operates two funded principal defined benefit pension schemes in the UK. British Airways admits that one of the ... Linda Blachly, Linda Blachly (29 November 2017). "Iberia remodels T4 lounge at Madrid Airport". Air Transport World. Archived ... The core shareholders were: Caja Madrid- 23.45%, British Airways 13.2%, SEPI- 5.20%, El Corte Inglés- 2.90%. British Airways ... "British Airways and Iberia sign merger agreement". BBC News. 2010-04-08. Retrieved 8 April 2010. "BA seals long-awaited Iberia ...
The release of cytokines causes many functions, such as airway remodeling, a characteristic of IL-17 responses. The increased ... Overexpression of IL-17F gene in the airway of mice is associated with airway neutrophilia, the induction of many cytokines, an ... IL-17F is clearly expressed in the airway of asthmatics and its expression level is correlated with disease severity. Moreover ... Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway inflammation, and have important therapeutic implications in asthma. ...
... inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma". Molecular Medicine. 16 (9-10): 400-8. doi:10.2119/molmed. ...
... sloughing of the airway and pulmonary epithelium, scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling. Bessac BF, Jordt ... which if left untreated can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. Currently, mechanical ventilation ... Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ... Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present ...
The agency's Mary Wells hired Alexander Girard to remodel the terminals, and Pucci to design new clothes for the hostesses. As ... In 1965, New York ad agency Jack Tinker and Associates was hired by Braniff International Airways to update their image. ...
"Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling ... "Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling". The Journal of Clinical ... "Pathological versus protective functions of IL-22 in airway inflammation are regulated by IL-17A". The Journal of Experimental ...
"Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling ...
During this period, she also designed the interior of Houston's Central Public Library, a design lost through a remodelling ... She also designed the interiors for the Braniff International Airways Headquarters and the Rice Memorial Center at Rice ... Richard Benjamin Cass (14 December 2015). Braniff Airways: Flying Colors. Arcadia Publishing. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-4671-3440-8. ...
... and airway remodeling associated with COPD. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) filed for drug approval with the U.S. FDA at the end of 2002 ...
Narrowing of the airway in the nose and throat (hence constricting breathing) snoring and even iatrogenically caused sleep ... Tissues which may typically be removed include: The tonsils The adenoids Tissues which may typically be remodeled include: The ... It is administered as a stand-alone procedure in the hope that the tissue which obstructs the patient's airway is localized in ... The goal is to improve the airway and thereby treat (or possibly cure) sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep ...
Airway remodeling in asthma. Unanswered questions.. Elias JA1.. Author information. 1. Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care ...
airway remodeling synonyms, airway remodeling pronunciation, airway remodeling translation, English dictionary definition of ... airway remodeling. tr.v. re·mod·eled , re·mod·el·ing , re·mod·els also re·mod·elled or re·mod·el·ling 1. To make over in ... Airway remodeling - definition of airway remodeling by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/airway+remodeling ... remodeling. (redirected from airway remodeling). Also found in: Medical, Encyclopedia. re·mod·el. (rē-mŏd′l). tr.v. re·mod·eled ...
From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling.. Bousquet J1, Jeffery PK, Busse WW, Johnson M, Vignola AM. ...
... airway remodeling, and airway hyper responsiveness . Airway remodeling refers to the structural changes in the airway ... Since elevated levels of FSTL1 coexist with airway remodeling in asthma, we wonder whether FSTL1 participates in airway ... Plasma FSTL1 levels were associated with fibrosis levels around the airways (. , ) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (. , ). ... of airway remodeling was weaker than the relationship between FSTL1 levels in BALF and parameters of airway remodeling, ...
An important advance in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma has been the discovery that airway inflammation is ... chronic airway inflammation. Airway remodeling results in alterations in the airway epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa, ... the natural history of airway remodeling, and the effects of current asthma treatments on remodeled airways.. ... Airway remodeling in asthma thus may predispose persons with asthma to asthma exacerbations and even death from airway ...
Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ...
Here we demonstrate that CD4+ T cells, central to chronic airway inflammation, drive ASM remodeling in experimental asthma. ... Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells drive airway smooth muscle remodeling in experimental asthma. ... Antigen-specific CD4+ T cells drive airway smooth muscle remodeling in experimental asthma. ... Airway smooth muscle (ASM) growth contributes to the mechanism of airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. ...
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) accumulation and extracellular matrix deposition are characteristic features of airway remodeling, ... Airway inflammation and remodeling are characteristic features of asthma, both contributing to airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR ... Laminin α4 contributes to airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma. Prabhala, P., Wright, D. B., Robbe, P., Bitter, C., ... Laminin α4 contributes to airway remodeling and inflammation in asthma Final authors version, 10 MB, PDF document ...
... Alfredo Chetta and Dario Olivieri ... In asthmatic airways, inhaled steroids can downregulate vascular remodelling by acting on proangiogenic factors. Additionally, ... Vascular changes may significantly contribute to airway wall remodelling. Angiogenesis and vascular leakage are prevalent in ... is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of airway vascular remodelling, both in asthma and COPD. The inhibition of VEGF ...
Even young children with chronic asthma have detectable elements of airway remodeling, inflammation and increased airway ... Remodeling and inflammation together with airway hyperresponsiveness are essential components of asthma but their role in ... Increased airway smooth muscle in early childhood is associated with later development of asthma and may be one link between ... inflammation and airway responsiveness. Novel findings on genetic variation in genes regulating lung growth and remodeling in ...
Defective Fibrillar Collagen Organization by Fibroblasts Contributes to Airway Remodeling in Asthma ... Defective Fibrillar Collagen Organization by Fibroblasts Contributes to Airway Remodeling in Asthma ...
The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ...
Dysfunction and remodeling of the mouse airway persist after resolution of acute allergen-induced airway inflammation. Am J ... Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and ... Overexpression of Smad2 drives house dust mite-mediated airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness via activin and IL-25 ... and induces airway remodelling. Airway epithelium in the saline group showed strong and uniform immunoreactivity for activin A ...
... Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla LU ; Larsen, Kristoffer LU ; Nihlberg, Kristian ... fibrocyte, fibroblast, extracellular matrix, airway remodelling, asthma. in Clinical Respiratory Journal. volume. 4. issue. s1 ... Moreover, airway remodelling occurs not only in asthma but also in several pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive ... Moreover, airway remodelling occurs not only in asthma but also in several pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive ...
Our data do not prove a definitive causative link between the remodelling seen in BOS and EMT in the airway. However, we ... We did not analyse severely remodelled airways in the OB lung as these areas represent advanced lesions where the ... The hypothesis that EMT represents a common final pathway in the development of airway remodelling after lung transplantation ... Background: Aberrant epithelial repair is a key event in the airway remodelling which characterises obliterative bronchiolitis ...
... and Remodeling research area related information and TGF-beta Superfamily Members in Airway Inflammation and Remodeling ... Find TGF-beta Superfamily Members in Airway Inflammation ... Home / Research Areas / TGF-beta Superfamily Members in Airway ...
... on the mucosal surface of small airways and parameters of inflammation and airway wall remodeling in chronic obstructive ... Secretory IgA Deficiency in Individual Small Airways Is Associated with Persistent Inflammation and Remodeling. ... We studied 1,104 small airways (. Measurements and Main Results:. Morphometric evaluation of small airways revealed increased ... fibrotic remodeling of the airway wall.. Conclusions:. Our findings support the concept that localized, acquired SIgA ...
... and airway and vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms that lead to these diverse alterations have not been defined. We ... and airway and vascular remodeling. However, the mechanisms that lead to these diverse alterations have not been defined. ... airway fibrosis, and vascular remodeling. We also highlight interactions between these responses with IL-18 inducing IL-13 via ... airway fibrosis; vascular remodeling; and right ventricle cardiac hypertrophy. We also demonstrate that IL-18 induces type 1, ...
Notch Signaling and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal Ahmad, Youping Yang, Meiping Lu, ... Notch Signaling and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal Ahmad, Youping Yang, Meiping Lu, ... Notch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal ... Notch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
To demonstrate that the observed effect on airway resistance, airway remodeling, and goblet cell activation is actually due to ... the mice exhibited increased airway resistance, airway remodeling, and goblet cell activation. ... Increased airway hyperresponsiveness and epithelial remodeling in asthmatic LTA4H-KO mice may be mediated by CysLTs rather than ... Reversal of allergen-induced airway remodeling by CysLT1 receptor blockade. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 173, 718-728 (2006). ...
... these data suggest that TGF-beta regulates HDM-induced chronic airway inflammation but not remodeling, and furthermore, caution ... Transforming growth factor-beta regulates house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation but not airway remodeling Am J ... Rationale: It is now believed that both chronic airway inflammation and remodeling contribute significantly to airway ... elicits robust Th2-polarized airway inflammation and remodeling that is associated with increased airway hyperreactivity. Here ...
A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic ... ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall ... ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall ... This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to ...
Airway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/- mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease ... Resveratrol has protective effects against airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in a murine model of allergic airways ... Effect of P2X4R on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in allergic airway challenge in mice. Molecular Medicine Reports ... Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling. ...
Airway structural components drive airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6 ... airway smooth muscle, and endothelium, in this process. The airway inflammation and remodelling together likely explain the ... Airway structural components drive airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6 ... Determinants of airway hyperresponsiveness-Balance of tonic and phasic contractility of airway smooth muscles of lobular ...
Airway remodelling occurs in chronic asthma. Angiotensin II promotes growth in cardiovascular remodelling. Since the renin- ... Effects of angiotensin II on remodelling of the airway and the vasculature in the rat Scott G. RAMSAY; Scott G. RAMSAY ... Effects of angiotensin II on remodelling of the airway and the vasculature in the rat. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 2000; 98 (1): ... we hypothesized that angiotensin II has a role in airway remodelling. A total of 14 young male Wistar rats were randomly ...
EpitheliumInflammation and airwayObstructionInflammatoryHyper-responsivenessLungStructuralPulmonaryContributesSmooth muscleAsthmatic airwayFeatures of airwayChanges in the airwayExtracellular matrixHyperplasiaMurine ModelAngiogenesisAllergic airway diseaseContribute to airwayThickening of the airway wallCytokinesMucus hypersecretionResponsivenessDevelopment of airwayBronchial airwayEosinophilic inflammationEpithelial-mesenchymaAsthma pathogenesisMucousBronchoconstrictionPersistent airway inflammationSymptomsSevere asthmaInduced airway inflammationInduceMechanisms of airwayRole in airwayHuman airwayAttenuate airwayComputed TomographyPathogenesis of asthma
- Airway remodeling results in alterations in the airway epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa, leading to thickening of the airway wall. (biomedsearch.com)
- Follistatin also impaired the loss of TGF-β1 and activin RIB immunostaining in airway epithelium which occurred following chronic allergen challenge. (bmj.com)
- The potential for airway epithelium from lung transplant recipients to undergo epithelial to mesenchymal cell transition (EMT) was assessed in culture and in vivo in lung allograft tissue. (bmj.com)
- These observations demonstrate the ability of human airway epithelium to undergo EMT and suggest this phenomenon may be a potential link between inflammatory injury and TGF-β 1 -driven airway remodelling in the development of OB. (bmj.com)
- 3 Evidence from animal models of airway obliteration suggests epithelial injury and, importantly, a failure to re-establish an intact epithelium may be critical to the pathogenesis. (bmj.com)
- In this illness is particularly involving the airway epithelium as the place where the inflammation begins, develops and often returns through airway remodelling. (scirp.org)
- In specific way there is also an evolving awareness of the active participation of structural elements, such as the airway epithelium, airway smooth muscle, and endothelium, in this process. (scirp.org)
- For this reason is very important to understand the physiological role of the airway epithelium and their changes during the exacerbation of disease. (scirp.org)
- The airway epithelium is the first target of inhaled Cl 2 gas. (biomedcentral.com)
- Direct oxidative injury to the epithelium may occur immediately with exposure to Cl 2 , but further damage to the epithelium may occur with migration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils into the airway epithelium and the subsequent release of oxidants and proteolytic enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Airway epithelium acts as an initial defence barrier to inhaled spores, orchestrating an inflammatory response and contributing to subepithelial fibrosis. (salford.ac.uk)
- OBJECTIVE: We aimed to analyse the production of profibrogenic factors by airway epithelium in response to A. fumigatus , in order to propose novel anti-fibrotic strategies for fungal-induced asthma. (salford.ac.uk)
- This review highlights complement-mediated inflammation, and the mechanism through it triggers the airway tissue injury and remodeling in the airway epithelium that could serve as potential targets for developing a new drug to rescue the asthma patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The airway epithelium of cigarette smokers undergoes dramatic remodeling with hyperplasia of basal cells (BC) and mucus-producing cells, squamous metaplasia, altered ciliated cell differentiation and reduced junctional barrier integrity, relevant to chronic obstructive pulmonary lung and disease cancers. (researchhunt.com)
- Specifically, we have demonstrated that: 1) JNK is predominantly activated in airway epithelium from ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged mice;2) mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1-/-) fail to induce mesenchymal genes or develop fibrosis in response to ovalbumin, TGF-?1, or bleomycin;3) TGF-?1-induced EMT requires JNK1, through JNK1-dependent phosphorylation of SMAD3 in the linker domain. (grantome.com)
- These data, suggest a critical role of airway epithelium-derived JNK1-dependent signals in orchestrating airways fibrosis. (grantome.com)
- The hypothesis addressed herein is that activation of JNK1 in the airway epithelium is required for the development of subepithelial fibrosis in house dust mite- induced airways disease by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). (grantome.com)
- In Specific Aim 2 we will elucidate whether activation of JNK1 within the airway epithelium is critical in the orchestration of house dust mite-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, airways fibrosis, and altered respiratory mechanics in vivo, and utilize mice that globally lack JNK1, or specifically within the bronchiolar epithelium, following and CRE-recombinase mediated ablation. (grantome.com)
- Metalloproteinase-dependent fluorescence was significantly increased at 8 and 11 weeks, nicely correlated with collagen deposition, as evaluated histologically by Masson's Trichrome staining, and airway epithelium hypertrophy, and was only partly inhibited by budesonide. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is exemplified by thickening of the lamina reticularis and structural changes to the epithelium, submucosa, smooth muscle, and vasculature of the airway wall. (epgonline.org)
- Epithelial flattening, expansion of the epithelial mesenchymal trophic unit, and enhanced Snail family zinc finger 1 and fibronectin 1 expression in airway epithelium were also observed. (nih.gov)
- Rhinovirus infection induces bFGF release by airway epithelium, and stimulates stroma cell proliferation contributing to airway remodeling in asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
- How the epithelium contributes to airway remodeling and subepithelial fibrosis is unknown. (creighton.edu)
- To better understand the mechanisms underlying EMT and the nature of vitamin D modulation in the airway epithelium, human bronchial epithelial cells were stimulated with both calcitriol and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 or TGF-β2. (creighton.edu)
- Interactions between the airway epithelium and environmental allergens are believed to be important in driving development of pathology, particularly because altered epithelial gene expression is common in individuals with asthma. (ox.ac.uk)
- OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interactions between a modified airway epithelium and a common aeroallergen in vivo. (ox.ac.uk)
- METHODS: We used an adenoviral vector to generate mice overexpressing the transforming growth factor-beta signaling molecule, Smad2, in the airway epithelium and exposed them to house dust mite (HDM) extract intranasally. (ox.ac.uk)
- However, mice overexpressing Smad2 in the airway epithelium showed significantly enhanced levels of IL-25 and activin A after HDM exposure. (ox.ac.uk)
- Many authors consider the lower and upper airways as a continuum [ 1 ] of tissue that shares the same pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium lining. (biomedcentral.com)
- This infrastructure is a unique resource in the U.S., providing a steady source of primary bronchial airway epithelial cells from carefully characterized children to conduct mechanistic investigations (stratified by donor clinical characteristics such as lung function, exacerbation history, and disease severity) to better understand the role of the epithelium in childhood asthma and responses to viral infection in health and disease. (seattlechildrens.org)
- Although much has been learned in the past 25 years about the pathophysiology of airway inflammation and airway remodeling in asthma, important questions remain about the relation between airway inflammation and remodeling, the natural history of airway remodeling, and the effects of current asthma treatments on remodeled airways. (biomedsearch.com)
- Increased airway smooth muscle in early childhood is associated with later development of asthma and may be one link between inflammation and airway responsiveness. (ovid.com)
- We examined the relationship between secretory IgA (SIgA) on the mucosal surface of small airways and parameters of inflammation and airway wall remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (ovid.com)
- Our findings support the concept that localized, acquired SIgA deficiency in individual small airways of patients with COPD allows colonizing bacteria to cross the epithelial barrier and drive persistent inflammation and airway wall remodeling, even after smoking cessation. (ovid.com)
- A. fumigatus also induced endothelin-1 in murine lungs, associated with extensive inflammation and airway wall remodelling. (salford.ac.uk)
- However, although plausible and likely, the link between persistent airway inflammation and airway remodeling has not been definitively established and their relationships are complex and not completely known ( Bush, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
- We studied the DRA model taking advantage of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) imaging using near-infrared probes to non-invasively evaluate lung inflammation and airway remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
- Besides the acute symptoms, asthma is characterized by persistent airway inflammation and airway wall remodeling. (openrespiratorymedicinejournal.com)
- Wild-type (WT) mice sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and chronically challenged with OVA for 1 mo developed significantly increased levels of eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling. (elsevier.com)
- Overall, this study demonstrates an important role for PI3Kγ in mediating allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and airway remodeling, suggesting that PI3Kγ may be a novel therapeutic target in asthma. (elsevier.com)
- Resveratrol effectively ameliorated both airway inflammation and airway structural changes in a mouse model of bronchial asthma. (bvsalud.org)
- Asthma is a common chronic disorder of the airways, characterized by the presence of inflammation and airway remodeling. (jimmunol.org)
- Airway remodeling in asthma thus may predispose persons with asthma to asthma exacerbations and even death from airway obstruction caused by smooth muscle contraction, airway edema, and mucus plugging. (biomedsearch.com)
- We evaluated the effect of omalizumab on airway obstruction, assuming persistent normalization of FEV1 as a marker of remodeling amelioration. (ersjournals.com)
- Patients were divided into two groups: G1 showing persistent FEV1 normalization after omalizumab and G2 with persistent airway obstruction. (ersjournals.com)
- 2 The pathological lesion of BOS is obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), which is characterised by aberrant epithelial repair and airway remodelling leading to obstruction due to deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) as a result of an excessive fibroblastic response. (bmj.com)
- it can lead to fixed airway obstruction and refractoriness to treatment [ 4 - 6 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- ASM remodeling is an important determinant in airway obstruction and decline pulmonary function in asthma that compounds the well- established immune/inflammatory components. (elsevier.com)
- A more recent concept is that ASM not only contributes to physical obstruction of airways, but acts as immune effector in asthma. (elsevier.com)
- Until recently, you had limited options for treating the nasal valve area, most often the site of nasal airway obstruction . (sleepandsinuscenters.com)
- You now have an option to treat nasal airway obstruction that offers you significant benefits without the disadvantages. (sleepandsinuscenters.com)
- Millions of people suffer from nasal airway obstruction, which makes it difficult to breathe through the nose. (entofmetairie.com)
- Nasal breathing is a very important function of human life and any obstruction in the nasal airway, also known as a congested or blocked nose, can dramatically impact the quality of life. (entofmetairie.com)
- Nasal airway obstruction has traditionally been treated by ongoing home remedies or traditional nasal surgery. (entofmetairie.com)
- The end result here is thickening of the airway walls resulting in irreversible air-flow obstruction. (blogspot.com)
- Enlargement of any of these areas in the nasal passage can lead to nasal airway obstruction. (andrewcomptonmd.com)
- Can VIVAER Nasal Airway Remodelling Cure Nasal Obstruction? (andrewcomptonmd.com)
- Many people suffer from nasal airway obstruction that limits the airflow through the nose. (andrewcomptonmd.com)
- But VIVAER nasal airway remodelling, a non-invasive and painless procedure, has shown promise in long-term relief of nasal obstruction. (andrewcomptonmd.com)
- VIVAER nasal airway remodelling is a clinically proven solution to fix breathing problems caused by nasal airway obstruction. (andrewcomptonmd.com)
- When inflammation generation of endothelin-1 is increased, this contributes to chronic inflammation and degree of airway obstruction. (mif-ua.com)
- However, several characteristics of asthma are common to many phenotypes, including airway inflammation, airway hyper-responsiveness, and reversible airflow obstruction. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, whose pathologic features most often include reversible airway obstruction, chronic airway inflammation, bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR), and airways remodelling. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- McFadden ER Jr. Exercise-induced airway obstruction. (medscape.com)
- A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. (bioportfolio.com)
- Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. (bioportfolio.com)
- Asthma can occur without wheezing when obstruction involves predominantly the small airways. (medscape.com)
- Furthermore, wheezing can be associated with other causes of airway obstruction, such as cystic fibrosis and heart failure. (medscape.com)
- There is evidence to show that multiple cytokines, chemokines, transcription factors, and growth factors released from inflammatory and structural cells in the airway are involved in airway remodeling, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β ), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Th2 cytokines (IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13), and epithelial-derived nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κ B) [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
- In chronic obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), changes in bronchial microvasculature are present in response to inflammatory stimuli. (hindawi.com)
- Prevention of airway remodelling is a major unmet clinical need in the management of patients with chronic severe asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. (bmj.com)
- Our findings point to the potential of follistatin as a therapeutic for prevention of airway remodelling in asthma and other inflammatory lung diseases. (bmj.com)
- Morphometric evaluation of small airways revealed increased mean airway wall thickness and inflammatory cell counts in lungs from patients with COPD compared with control subjects, whereas SIgA level on the mucosal surface was decreased. (ovid.com)
- Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. (nih.gov)
- The activation of IL-6 further recruits the inflammatory cells, and consequently programs epithelial cells to healing or remodeling. (nih.gov)
- r = 0.53, p = 0.01), although not with other inflammatory markers or pulmonary function.CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence for two forms of airway remodelling in children with CF: (1) matrix breakdown, related to inflammation, proteolysis and impaired pulmonary function, and (2) RBM thickening, related to TGF-beta(1) concentration but independent of other markers of inflammation. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
- Airway remodelling is defined as structural changes occurring in chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. (edu.au)
- Asthma is a disorder of the airways involving multiple inflammatory cells and mediators [ 1 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- In patients with allergic asthma, exposure to allergens to which they are sensitised results in the rapid release of pro-inflammatory mediators that cause immediate contraction of airway smooth muscle and increased mucus production and the symptoms of the early allergic/asthmatic reaction, that is, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough. (ersjournals.com)
- This slower reaction that takes hours to develop, known as the late allergic/asthmatic response, is characterised by inflammatory infiltration and bronchoconstriction and leads to tissue remodelling. (ersjournals.com)
- BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition of the airways and patients sensitised to airborne fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus have more severe asthma. (salford.ac.uk)
- Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung airways, triggered by a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental allergens, such as pollen, air pollution, and the fecal matter from dust mites and cockroaches ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Asthma represents a chronic inflammatory process of the airways followed by healing whose end result may be an altered structure referred to as remodeling of the airways. (pneumon.org)
- The efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment on the natural course of remodeling is still debated. (pneumon.org)
- FMT proved suitable for longitudinal studies to evaluate asthma progression, showing that cathepsin activity could be used to monitor inflammatory cell infiltration while metalloproteinase activity parallels airway remodeling, allowing the determination of steroid treatment efficacy in a chronic asthma model in mice. (biomedcentral.com)
- Considering the previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects of anti-IgE therapy, along with results from a small study showing continued benefit after discontinuation of long-term treatment, a larger study to assess its effect on markers of airway remodeling is underway. (epgonline.org)
- Although few in number, recent scRNA-seq studies in mice and human subjects have highlighted the remarkable cellular diversity of the airway, especially among constituent epithelial cells (EpCs), implicating them in novel proinflammatory pathways that support immune function and promote inflammatory disease. (shaleklab.com)
- Patients that suffer from asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, show pathological changes in the airways, including airway remodeling, basement membrane thickening, and epithelial damage with large immune cell infiltrate. (creighton.edu)
- In order to examine the in vivo significance of these findings, an allergic airway inflammatory mouse model of asthma was utilized to examine the expression of the EMT markers. (creighton.edu)
- According to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Expert Report 3 (EPR3) - Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma, asthma is defined as "a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways in which many cells and cellular elements play a role: in particular, mast cells, eosinophils, T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The purpose of this study is: - To define The differences of bio-chemical phenotypes in chronic airway inflammatory diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in which bronchial wall remodelling plays a significant role. (springer.com)
- The pathogenesis of asthma involves complex interactions of various cell types (immune, airway epithelial, and smooth muscle, as well as inflammatory cells) and numerous biologically active proinflammatory mediators ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis (tissue death) and eosinophilic infiltration. (wikipedia.org)
- Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
- Exposure to ambient airborne PM was shown to cause oxidative and nitrosative stress, airway hyper-responsiveness, airway remodeling , and exacerbation of chronic inflammation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease usually characterized by chronic airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyper responsiveness [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The airway inflammation and remodelling together likely explain the clinical manifestations of asthma that is demonstrated by complicated respiratory manifestations in which wheeze occurring secondary to bronchoconstriction in the setting of airway hyper-responsiveness and mucous hypersecretion. (scirp.org)
- In studies comparing regular versus on-demand treatment for patients with mild persistent asthma, on-demand treatment seems to have a similar efficacy on clinical and functional outcomes, but it does not suppress chronic airway inflammation or airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) associated with asthma. (frontiersin.org)
- Airway remodeling is thought to contribute to airway hyper responsiveness and irreversible airflow limitation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using airway biopsies from healthy subjects and asthmatic patients, we found inverse correlations between ASM α4 chain expression and lung function and AHR, whereas eosinophil numbers correlated positively with expression of laminin α4 in the ASM bundle. (rug.nl)
- Novel findings on genetic variation in genes regulating lung growth and remodeling in early childhood shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to chronic asthma. (ovid.com)
- Even young children with chronic asthma have detectable elements of airway remodeling, inflammation and increased airway responsiveness, which all contribute to impaired lung function. (ovid.com)
- Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and TGF-β1, and allergen-specific T helper 2 cytokine production in the lung-draining lymph nodes. (bmj.com)
- Follistatin instillation during allergen challenge inhibited secretion of activin A and transforming growth factor β1 in the lung, and significantly inhibited subepithelial collagen deposition and airway epithelial mucus production. (bmj.com)
- Aberrant epithelial repair is a key event in the airway remodelling which characterises obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) in the transplanted lung. (bmj.com)
- Moreover, evidence suggests that Notch signaling links embryonic lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
- Herein, we summarized all-recent advances associated with the mechanistic role of Notch signaling in lung development, consequences of aberrant expression or deletion of Notch signaling in linking early-impaired lung development and asthmatic airway remodeling, and all recently investigated potential therapeutic strategies to treat asthmatic airway remodeling. (aspetjournals.org)
- This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. (nih.gov)
- BACKGROUND: The relationship between airway structural changes and inflammation is unclear in early cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
- We conclude that a single exposure of mice to Cl 2 gas causes acute changes in lung function, including pulmonary responsiveness to methacholine challenge, associated with airway damage, followed by subsequent repair and airway remodelling. (biomedcentral.com)
- The purpose of this study was to determine the role of T-bet in susceptibility to lung remodeling by NiNPs or MWCNTs. (biomedcentral.com)
- Early studies found increased numbers of T helper 2 (Th2) cells in the airways of asthmatics and defined them as the key players in regulating allergic lung inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
- Characteristics of lung inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), mucus exacerbation, and lung remodeling in sensitized A/J mice treated or not with 15d-PGJ 2 were assessed. (frontiersin.org)
- In conclusion, our findings suggest that 15d-PGJ 2 can reduce crucial features of asthma, including AHR, lung inflammation, and remodeling in distinct murine models of the disease. (frontiersin.org)
- Asthma pathogenesis is driven by T cells and T-helper 2 (Th2) cytokines, resulting in eosinophil infiltration into lung tissue, peribronchiolar fibrosis, thickening of airway wall layers, epithelial goblet cell metaplasia, and AHR ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
- This session will evaluate mechanisms underpinning the interplay between infection, inflammation and repair/remodeling in CF lung disease. (nacfconference.org)
- There is the possibility that patients without a regular treatment with ICS may develop a more severe asthma associated with airway structural changes (remodeling) and a progressive loss of lung function. (frontiersin.org)
- Until the relationships between symptoms, lung function tests, AHR, airway inflammation, exacerbations, and airway remodeling are clarified, regular treatment seems to be generally more appropriate than on-demand treatment to warrant a greater control of asthma. (frontiersin.org)
- Structural and functional changes caused by chronic inflammation include narrowing or loss of small airways, mucus hypersecretion, mucociliary dysfunction, and destruction of the lung parenchyma that leads to the loss of alveolar attachments to the small airways and decreases lung elastic recoil. (mdpi.com)
- This project will demonstrate the importance of airway epithelial cells which line the airways for the development of a scar in the lung. (grantome.com)
- Using the assay with lung fibroblasts is useful in studying the lung tissue remodeling process in wound healing and disease development. (paperity.org)
- Gel contraction Background Airway remodeling is an important aspect in the pathogenesis of various lung diseases [ 1 ], and involves persistent changes in the normal architecture of airway walls. (paperity.org)
- These findings suggest the usefulness of the 3D collagen-matrices model with lung fibroblasts in investigating the airway remodeling process in connective tissue. (paperity.org)
- The hallmark pathological features of asthma include airway eosinophilic inflammation and structural changes (remodelling) which are associated with an irreversible loss in lung function that tracks from childhood to adulthood. (blogspot.com)
- The reduced eosinophil recruitment to the airway in PI3Kγ-deficient mice challenged with OVA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of TGF-β1 + peribronchial cells, reduced numbers of pSmad 2/3 + airway epithelial cells, and pSmad 2/3 + peribronchial cells, as well as significantly reduced levels of peribronchial fibrosis (quanti-tated by trichrome staining and image analysis as well as by lung collagen levels). (elsevier.com)
- These structural changes of the bronchial airway structure are termed airway remodeling and often occur in obstructive lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung fibrosis. (biologists.org)
- Unraveling the molecular mechanism leading to reversal of airway remodeling by the end of torpor may identify possible therapeutic targets to reduce progression of this process in patients suffering from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung fibrosis. (biologists.org)
- Importantly, the long-term inhalation of cool air is associated with the induction of lung injury and airway remodeling in endurance athletes. (biologists.org)
- Blocking activin A with a neutralizing antibody prevented the increase in lung IL-25 and inhibited subsequent collagen deposition and also the enhanced airway hyperreactivity observed in the Smad2 overexpressing HDM-exposed mice. (ox.ac.uk)
- The reduced airway remodeling in mice treated with the TLR-9 agonist was associated with significantly reduced numbers of peribronchial MBP+ and peribronchial TGF-β 1 + cells, and with significantly reduced levels of lung Th2 cytokines [interleukin-5 and interleukin-and TGF-β 1 . (elsevier.com)
- Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by airway remodeling, leading to a progressive decline in lung function. (bvsalud.org)
- The guinea pigs were sacrificed and the pathological section of lung tissue was prepared to observe the degree of airway remodeling. (bvsalud.org)
- Only Co-administration significantly decreased collagen deposition according to the morphometry of Masson's-stained lung sections, the thickening of airway smooth muscle layer, the number of lymphocytes in BALF and the mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3, and this was associated with a significant increase in levels of Smad7 mRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
- Improve understanding of the heterogeneity of airway epithelial interferon responses to respiratory viruses in asthmatic and healthy children, and how deficient or excessive interferon responses impact the risk of asthma exacerbations, airway remodeling responses and lung function, and (2. (seattlechildrens.org)
- Investigate airway epithelial cell signaling pathways that regulate neighboring stromal cells (e.g. fibroblasts/smooth muscle cells), and how such pathways are dysregulated in asthma leading to airway remodeling and lung function abnormalities in epithelial cell donors. (seattlechildrens.org)
- Our data suggest that angiogenesis of bronchial vessels is a signiﬁcant component of the airway remodelling occurring in symptomatic smokers with normal lung function and with COPD. (unicampania.it)
- Comparison of the upper and lower airway microbiota in children with chronic lung diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- The lower airway microbiota is important in normal immunological development and chronic lung diseases (CLDs). (bioportfolio.com)
- Ultimately, repeated acute episodes lead to wider scale damage of pulmonary structures (parenchyma) and function via irreversible lung remodelling. (wikipedia.org)
- Airway remodeling refers to the structural changes in the airway including, but not limited to, the airway smooth muscle, airway epithelia, blood vessels, and extracellular matrix [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The term "airway remodeling" in asthma refers to structural changes that occur in conjunction with, or because of, chronic airway inflammation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Airway remodelling, defined as structural airway wall changes, begins early in life in CF but the sequence of remodelling events in the disease process is poorly understood. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
- Most elements of the airway wall are implicated in the structural changes observed during remodelling. (ersjournals.com)
- DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Airway smooth muscle (ASM) remodeling in chronic asthma involves structural and functional changes from healthy into hyper-reactive and proliferative/hypertrophic ASM. (elsevier.com)
- The term airway wall remodeling summarizes the structural changes in the airway wall: epithelial cell shedding, goblet cell hyperplasia, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles, basement membrane thickening and increased vascular density. (openrespiratorymedicinejournal.com)
- Among the markers, determining the degree of structural changes in the airways are matrix metalloproteinase tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase, transforming growth factor autoantibody to collagen type III, endothelin-1. (mif-ua.com)
- The results suggest that structural remodeling of airway innervation contributes to symptom severity in eosinophilic asthma. (sciencemag.org)
- The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues. (bioportfolio.com)
- RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction, and airway and vascular remodeling. (biomedsearch.com)
- Small airway remodeling is an important cause of the airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we evaluate the possible involvement of KLF5 in the remodeling of small airways and pulmonary vessels in COPD. (biomedcentral.com)
- The expression of KLF5 was up-regulated in the small airways and pulmonary vessels of the COPD patients and it was mainly expressed in bronchial fibroblasts and cells of the pulmonary vessels. (biomedcentral.com)
- We provide the first evidence that the expression of KLF5 is up-regulated in small airways and pulmonary vessels of patients with COPD and may be involved in the tissue remodeling of COPD. (biomedcentral.com)
- Although the remodeling of small airways and pulmonary vessels is apparent in COPD lungs and molecules such as TGF-β 1 and MMPs could be involved in the tissue remodeling, the precise mechanisms responsible for the tissue remodeling remain poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
- Effects of Bronchodilation on Computed Tomography (CT) Parameters Reflecting Airways Remodelling, and Pulmonary Emphysema Extent. (webhealthnetwork.com)
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, preventable and treatable disease characterized by persistent respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation consequent to airway and/or alveolar abnormalities usually caused by significant exposure to noxious particles or gases [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling is the most critical process in the pathogenesis of COPD. (elsevier.com)
- ROS are implicated in the development of airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling. (elsevier.com)
- We have recently reported for the first time that global inhibition of calpain prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling induced by chronic hypoxia and monocrotaline. (elsevier.com)
- Transforming growth factor (TGF)/Smad pathway have been shown to play important roles in airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling. (elsevier.com)
- This proposal is to study a novel hypothesis that calpain mediates ROS- and TS-induced cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in airway and pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells via activation of intracellular TGF1 in TS-induced COPD. (elsevier.com)
- Moreover, the role of calpain in airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling will be evaluated in a COPD animal model using innovative inducible global and smooth muscle-specific calpain knockout mouse line. (elsevier.com)
- This proposal is novel because it will identify calpain as a mediator in airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling and calpain serves this role by activating intracellular TGF1 in BSMCs and PASMCs. (elsevier.com)
- Unfortunately, the conventional assessments of asthma in mice often rely on invasive measures of pulmonary function, ex vivo characterization of pulmonary cellular infiltration and observation of anatomical changes, such as airway remodeling due to inflammation, an approach that, while used extensively and highly validated, preclude the possibility of repeated, longitudinal assessment of test animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- Airway remodeling is resultant of a complex multicellular response associated with a progressive decline of pulmonary function in patients with chronic airway disease. (nih.gov)
- Mitochondrial regulation of airway smooth muscle functions in health and pulmonary diseases. (bioportfolio.com)
- Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that contributes to tissue remodeling in cardiovascular diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evidence shows a statistically significant decline in regional ventilation for the asthmatic cohort compared to that of the nave and control cohorts, while ADC values did not exhibit a similar decline, indicating that airway remodeling which contributes to lower ventilation is a result of asthmatic responses. (ismrm.org)
- Features of airway remodeling in asthma include an increase of airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial injury, epithelial cell hyperplasia, goblet cell metaplasia, reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening, and angiogenesis [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Asthma is characterized by airway hyper-reactivity, which can result from increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) and airway remodeling following airway inflammation. (iupui.edu)
- Exposure to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells markedly decreased PTEN expression, and increased expression of CD38. (aging-us.com)
- We showed that CRAC mediate proliferative signals during pathological smooth muscle remodeling. (elsevier.com)
- Remodeling is a heterogeneous process, which leads to changes in the structure of the respiratory tract, resulting in under the influence of mediators and biologically active substances to 'break' the biophysical components that determine the contraction of smooth muscle elements. (mif-ua.com)
- An image analysis technique was used to measure perimeter of the basement membrane (Pbm), total bronchial wall area (Wat), and airway bronchial smooth muscle area (Wam). (bvsalud.org)
- Mitochondria are important for airway smooth muscle physiology due to their diverse yet interconnected roles in calcium handling, redox regulation, and cellular bioenergetics. (bioportfolio.com)
- It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL). (bioportfolio.com)
- This phenomenon is related to enhanced proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells, elevated extracellular matrix protein secretion and an increased number of myofibroblasts. (springer.com)
- Accumulating evidence convincingly demonstrates that activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily, is a key driver of airway inflammation, but its role in chronic asthmatic airway remodelling is ill-defined. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions These data demonstrate that follistatin attenuates asthmatic airway remodelling. (bmj.com)
- To determine whether blocking activin A with its naturally occurring antagonist follistatin inhibits asthmatic airway remodelling. (bmj.com)
- Although the mechanism is still under investigation and not accurately known, the imbalance between MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 is considered a major theory to explain the progression of asthmatic airway remodeling. (eurekaselect.com)
- The inhibition of VEGF and its receptor may be useful in the treatment of the vascular changes in the airway wall. (hindawi.com)
- The findings of this study suggest that epithelial changes in the airway may be mediated through EMT mechanisms and could be modulated by vitamin D. Therefore, vitamin D may provide a therapeutic role in attenuating allergic airway inflammation. (creighton.edu)
- Asthma is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, leading to structura1 changes in the airway, collectively termed airway remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
- We stimulated the culture with transforming growth factor (TGF) β1 as an inducer of tissue remodeling for 21 days, and measured gel size, histological changes, and expression of factors related to extracellular matrix homeostasis. (paperity.org)
- Kallikrein-related peptidase 12 (KLK12) is a kallikrein family peptidase involved in angiogenesis - a complex biological process in which the sprouting, migration and stabilization of endothelial cells requires extracellular matrix remodeling. (nature.com)
- FSTL1 may contribute to airway remodeling in asthmatics. (hindawi.com)
- Vascular changes may significantly contribute to airway wall remodelling. (hindawi.com)
- Airway remodeling is a characteristic feature of allergic asthma that is now thought to contribute to airway dysfunction and, ultimately, to clinical symptoms. (eurekaselect.com)
- Both of these cytokines are released post complement activation in airway lumen. (biomedcentral.com)
- AAD greatly improves the symptoms of allergic airway remodeling probably through inhibition of Th2 cytokines and TGF-β1. (biomedcentral.com)
- NO is produced in the airways by inducible NO synthase, which is induced by the high levels of cytokines in the inflamed airways. (jimmunol.org)
- The assumption of thickening of the reticular basement membrane being a prerequirement for chronic asthma is questioned but development of airway responsiveness is a significant factor. (ovid.com)
- Airway responsiveness is at least partially linked to bronchial inflammation but there are several other genes and pathways regulating airway responsiveness. (ovid.com)
- Our results implicate airway nerve remodeling as a key mechanism for increased irritant sensitivity and exaggerated airway responsiveness in eosinophilic asthma. (sciencemag.org)
- There is evidence that IgE are implicated in the development of airway remodeling and that it may be attenuated by treatment with anti-IgE omalizumab. (ersjournals.com)
- In addition to TGF-β and eosinophils, several other factors have been implicated in the development of airway remodeling. (eurekaselect.com)
- Moreover, clinical and mechanistic evidence has lately emerged, implicating IgE in the development of airway remodelling. (ersjournals.com)
- Despite intensive research on the nature of this process, its underlying mechanisms during bronchial airway wall remodelling in asthma are not yet fully clarified. (springer.com)
- However, the precise role and molecular mechanisms by which PTEN and CD38 are involved in airway remodeling throughout asthma pathogenesis remains poorly understood. (aging-us.com)
- Given the equal importance of inflammation and remodelling in asthma pathogenesis, there is a significant disparity in studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of each. (blogspot.com)
- Tremendous progress has been made in our fundamental understanding of asthma pathogenesis by virtue of invasive research tools such as bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage, airway biopsy, and measurement of airway gases, although the cause of airway inflammation remains obscure. (clevelandclinicmeded.com)
- Chronic inflammation with mucous metaplasia and airway remodeling are hallmarks of allergic asthma, and these outcomes have been associated with enhanced expression and activation of EGFR signaling. (elsevier.com)
- From bronchoconstriction to airways inflammation and remodeling. (nih.gov)
- may not be due to the elevation of the PGP peptide but could actually be caused by the effects of the cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) in asthma, which are known to induce bronchoconstriction, airway remodeling, goblet cell activation, and mucus production ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- Endothelin-1 causes bronchoconstriction, bronchial tubes enhances responses to inhaled antigens, increases the migration of neutrophils in the area of inflammation, cytokine production, is involved in the formation of edema, and in the process of airway remodeling. (mif-ua.com)
- In asthma, airway nerve dysfunction leads to excessive bronchoconstriction and cough. (sciencemag.org)
- IgE is an important mediator of allergic reactions, including allergic asthma, and has a central role in asthma-related symptoms, airway inflammation and, possibly, airway remodelling [ 2 , 3 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Many young children who have symptoms characteristic of asthma, including wheezing and coughing (especially at night), may not have chronic airway inflammation. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Recommended guidelines for determination of asthma severity based on clinical symptoms, exacerbations, and measurements of airway function. (medscape.com)
- The diagnosis of asthma is presently based on assessment of symptoms and physiological tests of airway reactivity ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
- An important advance in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma has been the discovery that airway inflammation is not confined to severe asthma but also characterizes mild and moderate asthma. (biomedsearch.com)
- Since the renin-angiotensin system is activated in acute severe asthma, we hypothesized that angiotensin II has a role in airway remodelling. (portlandpress.com)
- In this review, we discuss recent findings supporting the notion that anti-IgE treatment modulates the complex immune responses that manifest clinically as asthma and ameliorates airway remodelling changes often observed in allergic severe asthma phenotypes. (ersjournals.com)
- Severe asthma, as defined by the clinical presentation, is most strongly associated with remodelling. (springer.com)
- ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5571-368X , Hussell, T and Herrick, SE 2019, 'Endothelin-1 mediates Aspergillus fumigatus induced airway inflammation and remodelling' , Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 49 (6) , pp. 861-873. (salford.ac.uk)
- Resveratrol effectively suppressed OVA-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. (bvsalud.org)
- Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. (nih.gov)
- Based on the above, we hypothesized that RV infection may also contribute to the fibrotic component of airway remodeling through bFGF, which may induce fibroblast proliferation and regulate collagen turnover. (biomedcentral.com)
- The mechanisms of airway remodeling, however, are still unclear. (hindawi.com)
- Although the exact underlying mechanisms of airway remodelling still elude us, the existence of chronic persistent inflammation, involving longstanding exposure of the airways to a variety of environmental agents, cells and mediators, is generally considered a prerequisite [ 7 - 9 ], and IgE is central to the initiation and persistence of this inflammation [ 2 , 10 ]. (ersjournals.com)
- Mechanisms of airway remodeling. (springer.com)
- Significant role in airway remodeling play matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). (mif-ua.com)
- These findings demonstrate that PTEN inhibits airway remodeling of asthma through the downregulation of CD38-mediated Ca2+/CREB signaling, highlighting a key role of PTEN/CD38/Ca2+/CREB signaling in the molecular pathogenesis of asthma. (aging-us.com)
- Airway wall remodeling starts early in the pathogenesis of asthma and today it is suggested that remodeling is a prerequisite for other asthma pathologies. (openrespiratorymedicinejournal.com)