Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Goblet Cells: A glandular epithelial cell or a unicellular gland. Goblet cells secrete MUCUS. They are scattered in the epithelial linings of many organs, especially the SMALL INTESTINE and the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mice, Inbred BALB CLung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Bronchial DiseasesLung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Interleukin-5: A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tracheal StenosisNasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Tracheal DiseasesOropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Mice, Inbred C57BLEpithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Respiratory Tract DiseasesHypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Chemokine CCL11: A CC-type chemokine that is specific for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a potent chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Sleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Interleukin-8: A member of the CXC chemokine family that plays a role in the regulation of the acute inflammatory response. It is secreted by variety of cell types and induces CHEMOTAXIS of NEUTROPHILS and other inflammatory cells.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchiolitis Obliterans: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES leading to an obstructive lung disease. Bronchioles are characterized by fibrous granulation tissue with bronchial exudates in the lumens. Clinical features include a nonproductive cough and DYSPNEA.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Rats, Inbred BNRhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Bronchoscopes: Endoscopes for the visualization of the interior of the bronchi.ManikinsMucin-5B: A gel-forming mucin that is predominantly expressed by submucosal glands of airway tissues and the SUBLINGUAL GLAND. It is one of the principal components of high molecular weight salivary mucin.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Airway Extubation: Removal of an endotracheal tube from the patient.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Disposable Equipment: Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.Cilia: Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Metaplasia: A condition in which there is a change of one adult cell type to another similar adult cell type.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.SmokeModels, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Neurokinin A: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Chemokine CCL24: A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR3 RECEPTORS. It is a chemoattractant for EOSINOPHILS.Eosinophil Granule Proteins: Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Uvula: A fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the opening of the throat.Hyoid Bone: A mobile U-shaped bone that lies in the anterior part of the neck at the level of the third CERVICAL VERTEBRAE. The hyoid bone is suspended from the processes of the TEMPORAL BONES by ligaments, and is firmly bound to the THYROID CARTILAGE by muscles.Chemokines: Class of pro-inflammatory cytokines that have the ability to attract and activate leukocytes. They can be divided into at least three structural branches: C; (CHEMOKINES, C); CC; (CHEMOKINES, CC); and CXC; (CHEMOKINES, CXC); according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Mandibular Advancement: Moving a retruded mandible forward to a normal position. It is commonly performed for malocclusion and retrognathia. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.

Role of histamine in airway remodeling of asthmatic guinea pig. (1/267)

To investigate the role of histamine in airway remodeling, 50 healthy guinea pigs were divided into 5 groups: control group: nebulized inhalation of distilled water for 8 weeks; asthma model group: nebulized inhalation of ovalbumin (OVA) for 8 weeks after sensitization; continued asthma model group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization; histamine group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization and histamine was added in the last 6 weeks; antagonist group: nebulized inhalation of OVA for 14 weeks after sensitization and histamine receptor antagonists were added in the last 6 weeks. For each group, the concentration of histamine, sodium ion (Na(+)), chlorine ion (Cl(-)), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH, actual bicarbonate (AB), standard bicarbonate (SB) in serum, and thickness of airway mucosa, base membrane and smooth muscle were measured and compared with each other. The results showed that: (1) the concentration of histamine in serum and the thickness of airway increased, the following order was, the control group, the asthma model group, the continued asthma model group and histamine group (P<0.01); and the concentration of histamine in serum and the thickness of airway of antagonist group was lower than that of the continued asthma model group (P<0.05, 0.01). (2) PaO2 of the asthma model group was lower than that of the normal control group (P<0.01); PaO2, pH, AB, SB decreased, the following order was, the asthma model group, the continued asthma model group and the histamine group (P<0.01); and PaO2, pH, AB, SB of the antagonist group was higher than that of the continued asthma model group (P<0.01); but for PaCO2, the order was converse (P<0.01); For the concentration of Na(+) and Cl(-) in serum, there was no difference among these groups. It is concluded that: (1) Histamine is one of the mediators in the airway remodeling of asthma. (2) Histamine receptor antagonists may play a role in preventing and treating airway remodeling. (3) There is a negative correlation between the PaO2, pH and the wall thickness of the airway (P<0.01), while a positive correlation between the PaCO2, anion gap (AG) and the wall thickness of the airway (P<0.01).  (+info)

Anti-angiogenic activity of carebastine: a plausible mechanism affecting airway remodelling. (2/267)

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Reticular basement membrane in asthma and COPD: similar thickness, yet different composition. (3/267)

BACKGROUND: Reticular basement membrane (RBM) thickening has been variably associated with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Even if RBM thickness is similar in both diseases, its composition might still differ. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether RBM thickness and composition differ between asthma and COPD. METHODS: We investigated 24 allergic asthmatics (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV(1)] 92% predicted), and 17 nonallergic COPD patients (FEV(1) 60% predicted), and for each group a control group of similar age and smoking habits (12 and 10 persons, respectively). Snap-frozen sections of bronchial biopsies were stained with hematoxylin/eosin and for collagen I, III, IV, V, laminin and tenascin. RBM thickening was assessed by digital image analysis. Relative staining intensity of each matrix component was determined. RESULTS: Mean (SD) RBM thickness was not significantly different between asthma and COPD 5.5 (1.3) vs 6.0 (1.8) microm, but significantly larger than in their healthy counterparts, ie, 4.7 (0.9) and 4.8 (1.2) microm, respectively. Collagen I and laminin stained significantly stronger in asthma than in COPD. Tenascin stained stronger in asthma than in healthy controls of similar age, and stronger in COPD controls than in asthma controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: RBM thickening occurs both in asthma and COPD. We provide supportive evidence that its composition differs in asthma and COPD.  (+info)

Monitoring sputum eosinophils in mucosal inflammation and remodelling: a pilot study. (4/267)

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Effects of vitamin E on mitochondrial dysfunction and asthma features in an experimental allergic murine model. (5/267)

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Recovery of airway protective behaviors after spinal cord injury. (6/267)

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p70 Ribosomal S6 kinase is required for airway smooth muscle cell size enlargement but not increased contractile protein expression. (7/267)

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Arginase: a key enzyme in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma opening novel therapeutic perspectives. (8/267)

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*Eosinophil

This ultimately leads to airway remodelling and difficulty of breathing. Eosinophils can also cause tissue damage in the lungs ... Major basic protein induces mast cell and basophil degranulation, and is implicated in peripheral nerve remodelling. Eosinophil ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Laviolette, Michel (2013). "Effects of benralizumab on airway eosinophils in asthmatic ...

*Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Kauffman, HF (1 January 2003). "Immunopathogenesis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and airway remodeling". Frontiers ... ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to bronchiectasis-a condition marked by abnormal dilation of the airways. Left ... Mucoid impaction of the upper and lower airways is a common finding. Plugs are hypodense but appear on CT with high attenuation ... Immune complexes (a type III reaction) and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading ...

*Asthma

Airway remodeling is observed, but it is unknown whether these represent harmful or beneficial changes. Early treatment with ... Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C ... Beckett PA, Howarth PH (2003). "Pharmacotherapy and airway remodelling in asthma?". Thorax. 58 (2): 163-74. doi:10.1136/thorax. ... Occasionally the airways themselves change. Typical changes in the airways include an increase in eosinophils and thickening of ...

*SIGLEC8

Antibody ligation of Siglec-F has also been shown to inhibit eosinophil-mediated intestinal inflammation and airway remodeling ... "Anti-Siglec-F antibody reduces allergen-induced eosinophilic inflammation and airway remodeling". Journal of Immunology. 183 (8 ... In a chicken ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic airway inflammation, the Siglec-F knockout mouse exhibits increased lung ... Loss of this enzyme leads to enhanced allergic eosinophilic airway inflammation. Despite evidence that Siglec-F binds ...

*ADAM33

"Soluble ADAM33 initiates airway remodeling to promote susceptibility for allergic asthma in early life". JCI Insight. 1 (11). ... "ADAM 33 and its association with airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness in asthma". Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology ... "The splicing and fate of ADAM33 transcripts in primary human airways fibroblasts". American Journal of Respiratory Cell and ... "ADAM33 expression in asthmatic airways and human embryonic lungs". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. ...

*Vascular endothelial growth factor

"Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in airway remodeling". Curr. Mol. Med. 6 (8): ...

*Angiopoietin 1

"Immunomodulatory role of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiopoietin-1 in airway remodeling". Curr. Mol. Med. 6 (8): ... angiopoietins act complimentary to the VEGF system and contribute to endothelial cell survival and the remodeling of vessels. ...

*Interleukin 13

... mucus hypersecretion and airway remodelling which all contribute to airway obstruction. murine studies demonstrated that IL-13 ... The deposition then influences the airway remodelling in asthmatic patients. Dupilumab is a monoclonal antibody IL-13 and IL-4 ... production of inducible nitric oxide synthase by airway epithelial cells, and transformation of airway fibroblasts to ... Research has shown that cell-surface expression of IL-13Rα2 on human asthmatic airway fibroblasts was reduced compared with ...

*Interleukin 17

The release of cytokines causes many functions, such as airway remodeling, a characteristic of IL-17 responses. The increased ... Overexpression of IL-17F gene in the airway of mice is associated with airway neutrophilia, the induction of many cytokines, an ... IL-17F is clearly expressed in the airway of asthmatics and its expression level is correlated with disease severity. Moreover ... Hence, IL-17F may have a crucial role in allergic airway inflammation, and have important therapeutic implications in asthma. ...

*Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

... inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic asthma". Molecular Medicine. 16 (9-10): 400-8. doi:10.2119/molmed. ...

*Interleukin 22

"Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling ... "Th22 cells represent a distinct human T cell subset involved in epidermal immunity and remodeling". The Journal of Clinical ... "Pathological versus protective functions of IL-22 in airway inflammation are regulated by IL-17A". The Journal of Experimental ...

*CCL8

"Genetic susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in preterm children is associated with airway remodeling ...

*Cilomilast

... and airway remodeling associated with COPD. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) filed for drug approval with the U.S. FDA at the end of 2002 ...

*Osteopontin

... again using a chronic allergen-challenge model of airway remodeling. Furthermore, it was recently demonstrated that OPN ... Opn expression is also upregulated in lungs of mice with allergic airway inflammation. The secreted form of Opn (Opn-s) plays a ... Osteopontin has been implicated as an important factor in bone remodeling. Specifically, research suggests it plays a role in ... OPN has been found to play a role in other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune hepatitis, allergic airway disease, and ...

*Tissue expansion

... and noticeable airway remodeling consisting of stiffer airways and lost elasticity. Inflammation in a constricted cylinder, as ... Moulton, D. E.; Goriely, A. (April 2011). "Possible Role of Differential Growth in Airway Wall Remodeling in Asthma" (PDF). ... The layers of the airway wall, including the inner epithelial tissue lining thickens and expands anywhere from 10% to 300% of ... Brackel, HJ; Pedersen, OF; Mulder, PG; Overbeek, SE; Kerrebijn, KF; Bogaard, JM (September 2000). "Central airways behave more ...

*Acute inhalation injury

... sloughing of the airway and pulmonary epithelium, scarring and transition to airway and pulmonary remodeling. Bessac BF, Jordt ... which if left untreated can result in scar formation and pulmonary and airway remodeling. Currently, mechanical ventilation ... Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ... Severe exposure may result in changes in upper and lower airways resulting in an acute lung injury, which may not be present ...

*Pathophysiology of asthma

... airway remodeling', causes mucus producing cells to grow larger and produce more and thicker mucus, and the cell-mediated arm ... In essence, asthma is the result of an immune response in the bronchial airways. The airways of asthma patients are " ... Inflamed airways are more hyper-reactive, and will be more prone to bronchospasm. The "hygiene hypothesis" postulates that an ... In both people with asthma and people who are free of the disease, inhaled allergens that find their way to the inner airways ...

*Lebrikizumab

... and activation and proliferation of airway fibroblasts, which are involved in airway remodelling. This theory is supported by ... upper airway infections 12.3% versus 14.3%, and severe side effects overall 3.8% (treatment) versus 5.3% (placebo). "First ...

*Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health

Investigation of novel procedural therapies for asthma and COPD Mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling ... of bone-marrow derived hemopoietic stem cells in allergic asthma and COPD Immunobiology of allergic asthma Control of airway ...

*Gene silencing

... structural repair and remodelling in the airways". Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 5 Suppl A: S35-40. PMID 14980241. doi: ... α was targeted by siRNA in NCI-H292 human airway epithelial cells. In addition to mucus hypersecretion, chronic inflammation ... "Cigarette smoke induces MUC5AC mucin overproduction via tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme in human airway ...

*Cystic fibrosis

Viscous secretions and persistent respiratory infections repeatedly damage the lung by gradually remodeling the airways, which ... In airway epithelial cells, the cilia exist in between the cell's apical surface and mucus in a layer known as airway surface ... dependent homeostasis of airway surface liquid volume in human cystic fibrosis airway epithelia". J. Clin. Invest. 118 (12): ... Role of airway surface liquid and submucosal glands in cystic fibrosis lung disease. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2003;284(1):C2- ...

*List of MeSH codes (G09)

... ventricular remodeling MeSH G09.772.765.060 --- airway resistance MeSH G09.772.765.540 --- lung compliance MeSH G09.772.765.600 ...

*Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage

In the case where no blood is visible in the trachea, EIPH in the small airways may still be present and can be confirmed by a ... Regional veno-occlusive remodeling, especially within the caudodorsal lung fields, contributes to the pathogenesis of EIPH, ... To confirm whether the blood is coming from the upper or lower airway requires further examination by endoscopy, although in ... Bronchoalveolar lavage Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a procedure whereby a small volume of fluid is put into the airways in ...

*Tampa International Airport

The Landside Terminal was also remodeled numerous times during the 1980s and 1990s. Both Delta Air Lines and US Airways opened ... Airside F Includes gates 76-90 (14 total). International Airside; Serves American Airlines, British Airways, Cayman Airways, ... In 1996, Airsides C and D were remodeled. The interiors of both satellites were refurbished and the original Westinghouse C-100 ... Three of the regional airlines operate under the banner of mainline air carriers, while a fourth, Silver Airways, is ...

*Aomori Airport

All Nippon Airways began operations to Tokyo from 1994. In 1995, the airport terminal building was remodeled, and certified as ... In April 2003, All Nippon Airways withdrew from operations at Aomori as well, turning its routes over to Skymark Airlines, ...

*Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

Narrowing of the airway in the nose and throat (hence constricting breathing) snoring and even iatrogenically caused sleep ... Tissues which may typically be removed include: The tonsils The adenoids Tissues which may typically be remodeled include: The ... It is administered as a stand-alone procedure in the hope that the tissue which obstructs the patient's airway is localized in ... The goal is to improve the airway and thereby treat (or possibly cure) sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep ...
Airway smooth muscle phenotype may be modulated in response to external stimuli under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. The effect of mechanical forces on airway smooth muscle phenotype were evaluated in vitro by suspending weights of 0.5 gm or 1 gm from the ends of canine tracheal smooth muscle tissues, incubating the weighted tissues for six hours, and then measuring the expression of the phenotypic marker protein, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SmMHC). Incubation of the tissues at a High Load significantly increased expression of SmMHC as compared to incubation at Low Load. Incubation of the tissues at a High Load also decreased activation of PKB/Akt, as indicated by its phosphorylation at Ser 473. Inhibition of Akt or PI3 kinase increased SmMHC expression in tissues at Low Load but did not affect SmMHC expression at High Load. IL-13 induced a significant increase in Akt activation and suppressed the expression of SmMHC protein at both Low and High Loads. The role of integrin ...
iMedPub is a new approach to scientific publishing. As an open service to scientists, it is driven by researchers for researchers, while serving the interests of the general public airway | .
Занятие за границей: первопричины да перспективы Во сегодняшний день про работодателя не так важен диплом, который заверяет об полученном образовании, а теоретические да утилитарные навыки, который Вы смогли купить в ходе обучения. Как не прискорбно, Университеты в нашей стране как правило никак не готовы дать те знания да искусства, что требует настоящий рабочий рынок. Оттого ...
Background Exposure to allergens or air pollutants often leads to asthma exacerbations associated with aggravation of airway inflammation. Although, repeated allergen challenge often induces chronic allergic airway inflammation (CAAI) and airway remodelling, yet, the effects of brief exposure to air pollutants such as SO(2) on development of CAAI and airway remodelling remain to be clarified.. Objective The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of acute neutrophilic airway inflammation induced by brief exposure to SO(2) on development of CAAI and subepithelial fibrosis (SEF) in a murine model of asthma.. Methods Acute airway inflammation was induced by brief exposure to 50 p.p.m. SO(2) (1 h/d, 3 days). CAAI and SEF in BALB/c mice were induced by repeated challenge with ovalbumin (OVA) for 5 or 9 weeks with or without prior exposure to SO(2). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophilia as index of CAAI, BALF endothelin- 1 (ET-1) and TGF-beta 1 levels, morphometric evaluation ...
The potential role of egression as a means of reducing airway inflammation underscores the importance of cell clearance from the bronchial lumen. Death through apoptosis, followed by phagocytosis, is the topical mechanism of cell elimination. Apoptosis of cells in the airway lumen has been much studied during the last two decades with the assumption that observation on lumen cells would be valid for cells in the airway wall. However, apoptosis of lumen cells cannot reflect apoptosis in the airway wall (dead cells do not walk). In this overview we discuss cell apoptosis in the airway lumen merely to see if there are data indicating involvement of this mechanism in final elimination of the cells already eliminated from the airway wall. A widely quoted, uncontrolled study from 199660 reported that steroid treatment increased the percentage of apoptotic eosinophils in the airway lumen, claiming that this action could resolve airway inflammation in asthma. A subsequent placebo-controlled trial, ...
In this study, we sought to characterize the heretofore unknown landscape of somatic genome-wide chromosomal alterations in the airway field of cancerization in NSCLC. To comprehensively interrogate genome-wide AI in the airway field, we compiled and studied a rich set of matched NSCLCs and spatially distributed normal-appearing airway epithelia. We applied a novel algorithm hapLOH (14) and performed genome-wide assessment of AI in matched NSCLC tissues, germline samples (normal lung parenchyma or blood cells), and multiple normal-appearing airway epithelia. We also investigated "intrafield heterogeneity" by genome-wide survey of multiple spatially distributed airway field samples found in both the local/adjacent airway field (airways adjacent to tumors) and relatively more distant fields (large airways and nasal epithelia). We found that almost half (22/45) of the NSCLC patients harbored AI events in the normal-appearing airway field, the majority of which matched alterations in the paired ...
A bite block 20 for use during transoral medical procedures has a main lumen 42 and a side mount 110 for receiving a separately inserted airway 160 . The airway 110 may be a commercially available nasopharangeal airway which is inserted in mount 110 and extends into the oral cavity so as to effectively function as oral pharangeal airway.
Chronic asthma is a condition in which a persons airways are persistently inflamed and irritated. Whenever an external trigger...
This proposal seeks to renew an Asthma and Allergic Diseases Cooperative Research Center that has been focusing on the mechanisms of initiation and persistence...
Some Facts About Tiger Airways Why would Australians fly with Tiger Airways despite knowing some of the risks they might encounter? Who are these people
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Although not an airway course, we have been greatly influenced by the methods used in BASIM for creating and undertaking airway simulations. Highly recommended course presented by the master Dr David Grant himself.. ...
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Our study shows for the first time, to our knowledge, a strong positive correlation between Rbm thickness determined in biopsy specimens and whole airway wall thickness determined by HRCT scanning in patients with asthma. Furthermore, this thickening was correlated with a deterioration in respiratory function. Many investigators have reported a thicker Rbm in patients with asthma than in healthy subjects.1, 4-9 However, whether an increase in Rbm thickness of only a few micrometres can cause narrowing of the airway lumen or airflow obstruction has been unclear. Furthermore, the thickening does not explain why whole airway wall thickness on HRCT scans was 20% greater in patients with asthma than in healthy subjects. Our findings suggest that Rbm thickening appears simultaneously with hypertrophy or hyperplasia of other components of the airway wall which may cause respiratory function deterioration in patients with asthma. Previous studies have used Rbm thickening as an index of remodelling of ...
Airway remodeling and accompanying changes in wall thickness are known to be a major symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), associated with reduced lung function in diseased individuals. Further investigation of this disease as well as monitoring of disease progression and treatment effect demand for accurate and reproducible assessment of airway wall thickness in CT datasets. With wall thicknesses in the sub-millimeter range, this task remains challenging even with todays high resolution CT datasets. To provide accurate measurements, taking partial volume effects into account is mandatory. The Full-Width-at-Half-Maximum (FWHM) method has been shown to be inappropriate for small airways1,2 and several improved algorithms for objective quantification of airway wall thickness have been proposed.1-8 In this paper, we describe an algorithm based on a closed form solution proposed by Weinheimer et al.7 We locally estimate the lung density parameter required for the closed form ...
Background. Asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by episodic symptoms that are associated with functional alterations. It is well known that airways inflammation plays a basic role in the pathogenesis of asthma, and many autoptic and bioptic studies have shown that inflammation involves the entire bronchial tree, from proximal to distal airways. Many studies have demonstrated that inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, are well represented in both the inner and the outer layer of the small airway walls, sometimes with a higher density in comparison with large airway walls.. Small airways are the most peripheral airways with an internal diameter , 2 mm and in this zone oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanges take place. The contribution of small airways to the development of the clinical features and functional impairment in asthma is incompletely understood, probably due to the unavailability of definite noninvasive techniques for the study of small airways. Pathological changes ...
0266] Once the POE and tunnel, channel or path direction or orientation is determined, a needle or other piercing member may be fed from the working channel of the scope to make a hole through the airway wall at the POE. This may be followed by a balloon catheter or mechanical dilator to dilate the hole or opening. Alternatively, other means may be used to create a hole big enough to allow subsequent passing of other larger diameter tools. For example, a circular punch, a flat blade with a pointed tip, a cross shaped blade with a sharpened tip, an RF probe, or an RF snare may be used to create a slit, slits, or a larger opening in the airway wall without employing a dilation balloon. Once the hole has been dilated, a sheath or other elongate instrument may be fed through the hole or opening and into the lung tissue. The sheath may contain a dissecting catheter which may fill the entire or substantially entire internal diameter of the sheath so that when the sheath is fed through lung tissue, ...
After the last of the morning activities, Peter Waterhouse presented his second, fascinating lecture on gene silencing. He explained the function of proteins called argonauts and dicers, and how they help to fight against viruses. Waterhouse then went on to explain how the use of such proteins can cause the suppresion of an organisms own genes and how this can be important for the development of an organism.. Alaina Ammit presented her lecture after lunch, on asthma and developments that could lead to a cure, or at least decrease the severity of asthma in patients. She explained that asthma is often caused by a hypersensitivity to allergens and that this hypersensitivity leads to a remodelling of the airway to make asthma more prevailent. Ammit then went on to explain that targeting specific proteins can reduce airway remodelling and thus make asthma less severe.. Students went on their last activities in the afternoon, before hurrying back to the college to prepare for the Galaxy Quest talent ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Nasopharyngeal Airway, Nasal Pharangeal Airway, Nasal Airway, Nasal Trumpet.
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Children are susceptible to a number of airway problems, thanks in part to the fact that their anatomy and immune systems arent yet fully developed.
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This research has the potential to transform the ways we understand human health and prevent, diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions.. ...
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Asthma is characterized by structural changes in the airways - airway remodelling. These changes include an increase in the bulk of the airway smooth muscle (ASM) and alterations in the profile of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the airway wall. The mechanisms leading to airway remodelling are not well understood. ASM cells have the potential to play a key role in these processes through the production and release of ECM proteins. The ASM cells and ECM proteins are each able to influence the behaviour and characteristics of the other. The modified ECM profile in the asthmatic airway may contribute to the altered behaviour of the ASM cells, such responses to ECM proteins are modulated through the cell surface expression of integrin receptors. ASM cells from asthmatic individuals express different levels of some integrin subunits compared to nonasthmatic ASM cells, which have the potential to further influence their responses to the ECM proteins in the airways. ECM homeostasis requires the ...
Airway wall thickening with bilateral pleural plaques seen in the lateral aspects of both lung fields on AP view. No interstitial disease is noted.
After 30 days of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, the small intestine from untreated diabetic, insulin-treated diabetic, and nondiabetic rodents was excised in toto and measured. Despite a net loss in body weight, the diabetic animals showed a near twofold increase in small intestinal weight. This was characterized by a 148% increase in mucosal mass as well as a 39% increase in intestinal smooth muscle mass (P less than 0.05, respectively). The diabetic intestine was significantly longer and had a greater diameter and surface area. Diabetes significantly increased mucosal mass per unit surface area but produced an insignificant decrease in smooth muscle mass per unit surface area. Insulin treatment of the diabetic animals prevented the increase in total mucosal mass and mucosal mass per unit surface area. Insulin treatment also prevented the increase in smooth muscle mass, but reduced smooth muscle mass per unit surface area to a level significantly less than that found in nondiabetic intestine. ...
Bronchial biopsies obtained at baseline, 24 hours and 7 days after allergen challenge from mild atopic asthmatics were evaluated to follow the initiation and resolution of allergen-induced inflammation and remodelling in relation to AHR. Further, the expression patterns of the TGF-β Superfamily ligands (TGF-β₁₋₃, activin-A, BMP-2, BMP-4 and BMP-7) and their respective signalling pathway Type II receptors, Type I receptors and signalling Smad proteins were defined in baseline asthma and after allergen provocation in comparision with normal volunteers ...
These studies of Ormdl3Δ2-3/Δ2-3/CC10 mice demonstrate that selectively inhibiting ORMDL3 in airway epithelial cells plays a significant role in induction of allergen-induced increases in AHR in vivo through a pathway independent of inflammation and associated with a pathway of increased S1P generation, which can induce increased smooth muscle contraction. These results further suggest that utilizing an inhalation therapeutic approach in asthma targeting a selective significant reduction in ORMDL3 expression in airway epithelium may paradoxically result in increased AHR as a consequence of increased epithelial-derived S1P increasing airway smooth muscle contractility. Whether an inhalation therapy targeting a less than complete inhibition of ORMDL3 expression by airway epithelium would also result in increased AHR is at present unknown. However, a therapy inducing only partial inhibition of ORMDL3 expression in the airway may also not be an effective therapy in asthma.. In this study, we ...
An improved breathing airway comprising at least two telescopingly engaged flexible elements enabling the airway to be adjusted to the proper length to fit the mouth and pharynx of a patient. To positively secure the adjusted length of the airway, a flap with protruberances extends from the outer element and is engageable with holes in the inner element. Thus, the outer and inner engaged elements can be positively secured at the correct measured mouth to pharynx length. The untelescoped radius of curvature of each element differs from the other causing the radius of curvature of the airway to change as the elements are telescoped together. The radius of airway curvature is therefore automatically adjusted for curvature when the airway is set to desired length. Thus, one size airway of the present invention can substitute for several sizes of the prior art airways, the adjustment for the selected length automatically achieving the correct shape.
Looking for online definition of neurogenic airway in the Medical Dictionary? neurogenic airway explanation free. What is neurogenic airway? Meaning of neurogenic airway medical term. What does neurogenic airway mean?
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BACKGROUND: Patients with severe asthma have increased airway remodelling and elevated numbers of circulating fibrocytes with enhanced myofibroblastic differentiation capacity, despite being treated with high doses of corticosteroids, and long acting β2-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists (LABAs). We determined the effect of β2-AR agonists, alone or in combination with corticosteroids, on fibrocyte function. METHODS: Non-adherent non-T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy subjects and patients with non-severe or severe asthma were treated with the β2-AR agonist, salmeterol, in the presence or absence of the corticosteroid dexamethasone ...
Effect of field of view on accuracy of airway wall measurement. All images were reconstructed with use of standard kernel (B50f) and 0.75 mm slice thickness. Me
The earliest and constant pathological abnormality in the airway of smokers is the cellular inflammatory infiltrate throughout the wall. Inflammation, per se, may be responsible for mild airflow limitation 4, 9, 19, and it has been suggested that inflammation may lead to functional bronchiolar constriction by releasing mediators of inflammation that may act directly on bronchiolar smooth muscle 20. The chronicity of the inflammation would, in turn, produce other changes, such as fibrosis of the airway, and could increase the amount of smooth muscle either directly as a result of inflammation or indirectly as a result of chronically increased muscle tone. These changes, by increasing the thickness of the airway wall, would promote airway narrowing and airflow limitation. Finally, inflammation of the airway could play an important role in the destruction of the alveolar walls attached to the airway (alveolar attachments), and this decrease in alveolar attachments would contribute further to ...
Need more information on basic airway adjuncts? Here is the ACLS Basic Airway Adjuncts Guide from NHCPS you can bookmark and keep handy!
The more narrow your upper airway due to having a smaller mouth, the more symptoms youll feel with any degree of inflammation and swelling.
Food you can live without for 40 days. Water you can live without a few days, but air you can only live without a few minutes. Airway function is essential.
Buy Imaging of the Airway by David P. Naidich at Mighty Ape NZ. Written by recognised authorities on thoracic imaging, this volume is the first to examine all modalities--both noninvasive and invasive--for visualis...
Learn EMT - B Airway facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
The three US Airways Express planes that were reportedly involved in a near-miss incident at Washingtons Reagan National Airport were in no danger of colliding, federal transportation officials said this afternoon.
The best way to Springdale, Utah From LAX, American, Delta, Southwest, United, US Airways, Virgin America and Spirit offer nonstop service to Las Vegas, about a 160-mile drive from Springdale, Utah. Restricted round-trip fares begin at $118. You also can fly US Airways into Flagstaff, Ariz., which...
Although not an airway course, we have been greatly influenced by the methods used in BASIM for creating and undertaking airway simulations. Highly recommended course presented by the master Dr David Grant himself.. ...
R01 AI072265, NIH/NIAID - Bochner (PI). Studies in this grant will explore whether Siglec-8, a molecule selectively expressed by eosinophils and mast cells, can be targeted for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in allergic, gastrointestinal and malignant diseases.. Siglecs (sialic acid-binding, immunoglobulin-like lectins) are cell surface proteins found predominantly on leukocytes. Siglec-8 was discovered by us about a decade ago and is selectively expressed on eosinophils and mast cells. Its closest functional paralog in the mouse is Siglec-F, which is also selectively expressed by eosinophils but unfortunately not on mast cells. Both Siglec-8 and Siglec-F preferentially and uniquely recognize the glycan 6-sulfo-sialyl Lewis X (6-sulfo-sLeX) and its non-fucosylated form. Engagement of Siglec-8/-F with antibodies (Abs) and/or artificial ligands causes eosinophil death. Administration of Siglec-F Abs in mouse models of chronic allergic asthma and eosinophilia normalizes eosinophilic ...
In this study we have adopted a multifunctional approach to identification of EMT ex vivo using cell morphology, upregulation of mesenchymal proteins, downregulation of epithelial proteins, secretion of ECM and a functional assessment of invasive and migratory capacity. This multifunctional approach is likely to be much more robust than reliance on any single marker of EMT. In addition, our quantitative immunohistochemistry has demonstrated reduced epithelial E-cadherin expression and increases in vimentin and α-SMA expression in the airway epithelium of patients with BOS compared with stable recipients and control lung samples.. The results of this study add significantly to the understanding gained from our previously reported pilot observations in the lung transplant airway.10 The present study provides a comprehensive assessment of the ability of airway epithelial cells from the transplanted lung to undergo EMT. Our observations offer significant insight into what might be an important ...
In a cohort of smokers, we demonstrated that the fractal dimension of the airway tree, a measure of airway branching complexity and remodeling, is significantly associated with airflow obstruction and respiratory morbidity as well as with lung function decline after adjustment for traditional measures of airway narrowing. We also showed that a significant number of smokers without airflow obstruction, who would be considered to have mild or no disease by traditional classification schema, can be identified to have high mortality risk based on grouping using fractal dimensions and peribronchial emphysema.. Airway remodeling in cigarette smokers involves a complex combination of airway wall changes, luminal narrowing, and eventual attrition of airways (21, 23, 24). A number of imaging metrics are used to quantify these changes, including airway wall thickness, percentage of wall area, or the summary measures of the square roots of the wall areas of hypothetical airways with internal perimeters 10 ...
Guedel airway is a medical device used to keep the airway patent. It is also known as orophareyngeal airway. Oropharyngeal airway (OPA, oral airway) prevents the tongue from falling backward and obstruction of the airway. When a person is unconscious the muscles of jaw are relaxed allowing the tongue to fall back. In this situation, Guedels airway is necessary to avoid the complication of tongue fall back. ...
Understanding the airway in a newborn patient is a priority, in view of the anatomical and physiological unique characteristics which they have that dont repeat themselves through a persons life: they only last the first years of a persons life. These characteristics are necessary for understanding and manipulating the normal or complicated airway. Newborns usually require urgent surgeries, many of them premature with low birth weight and hemodynamically unstable. The correct manipulation of the airway is fundamental in every newborn. Problems during airway manipulation in the newborn are an important cause of morbidity, oxygen desaturation and secondary hypoxia. They cause the most frequent complication in the pediatric population, and are inversely proportional to the childs age. When the gestation weeks are fewer and the weight is lower, it is more complicated to manipulate the airway. Problems during tracheal intubation and airway manipulation are more common in children less than a year ...
Myanmar Airways International Co., Ltd. é a companhia aérea de bandeira internacional de Mianmar, com sede em Yangon Ele presta serviços regulares para destinos internacionais, principalmente no Sudeste Asiático. Ela é baseada no Aeroporto Internacional de Yangon. A companhia aérea foi fundada pelo governo antes da independência em 1946, como Union of Burma Airways, inicialmente apenas em serviços domésticos, sendo os serviços internacionais adicionados em 1950. O nome foi mudado para Burma Airways em dezembro de 1972, e, em seguida para Myanma Airways em 1 de abril de 1989, após a mudança de nome do país de Birmânia para Mianmar. Os serviços internacionais foram transferidos para Myanmar Airways International, que foi criada em 1993. Myanmar Airways International serve os seguintes destinos (desde maio de 2012): Cambodia Phnom Penh - Aeroporto Internacional de Phnom Penh China Guangzhou - Aeroporto Internacional de Guangzhou Baiyun India Gaya - Aeroporto de Gaya Japan Osaka - ...
Learn the circumstances under which to use the following basic airway adjuncts: oropharyngeal airway (OPA), nasopharyngeal airway (NPA), and suctioning.
A video lecture from my friend and airway guru, Prof. George Kovacs. He has been obsessed with airway for decades. This lecture discusses breaking down the steps of airway management into chunks." ...
Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, and airway remodeling. Eosinophils migrate to the airways and play a significant role in the pathogenesis of ...
This relates to treating an asthmatic lung and more particularly, relates to advancing a treatment device into the lung and treating the lung with the device. This also includes additional steps of treating the airway wall, applying energy or heat to the airway wall in an asthmatic lung.
Airways Hotel Victoria London: May the odds forever be in your favour. - See 1,048 traveler reviews, 305 candid photos, and great deals for Airways Hotel Victoria London at TripAdvisor.
A rare condition caused Kaiba Gionfriddos airway to collapse, so doctors created a dissolvable splint thats supposed to reabsorb into his body as his windpipe grows in a healthy manner.
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British Airways i360 observation tower in Brighton, the CEO Eleanor Harris talks about the development, construction and success of the iconic landmark
Asthma is a variable condition that affects the airways - the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. People with asthma have airways that are sensitive and become inflamed.
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Background In allergic asthma, IgE increases airway remodelling but the mechanism is incompletely understood. Airway remodelling consists of two independent events increased cell numbers and enhanced extracellular matrix deposition, and the mechanism by which IgE up-regulates cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition by human airway smooth muscle cells in asthma is unclear. Objective Characterise the role of the two IgE receptors and associated signalling cascades in airway smooth muscle cell remodelling. Methods Primary human airway smooth muscle cells (8 asthmatics, 8 non-asthmatics) were stimulated with human purified antibody-activated IgE. Proliferation was determined by direct cell counts. Total collagen deposition was determined by Sircol; collagen species deposition by ELISA. IgE receptors were silenced by siRNA and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling was blocked by chemical inhibitors. Results IgE dose-dependently increased extracellular matrix and collagen
Background High-resolution computed tomography has limitations in the assessment of airway wall layers and related remodeling in obstructive lung diseases. Near infrared-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that combined with bronchoscopy generates highly detailed images of the airway wall. The aim of this study is to identify and quantify human airway wall layers both ex-vivo and in-vivo by OCT and correlate these to histology. Methods Patients with lung cancer, prior to lobectomy, underwent bronchoscopy including in-vivo OCT imaging. Ex-vivo OCT imaging was performed in the resected lung lobe after needle insertion for matching with histology. Airway wall layer perimeters and their corresponding areas were assessed by two independent observers. Airway wall layer areas (total wall area, mucosal layer area and submucosal muscular layer area) were calculated. Results 13 airways of 5 patients were imaged by OCT. Histology was matched with 51 ex-vivo OCT images and 39
Ravi Alagar Ed Burdett THE AIRWAY SpR in Anaesthesia the centre for Anaesthesia UCL The airway always comes first This talk… • Airway anatomy • Airway assessment • Airway control Airway Anatomy • Oropharynx Airway Anatomy Airway Anatomy • Larynx Airway Assessment • History • Examination History • Previous difficulty • Medical conditions вЂ" RA вЂ" Ankylosing spondylitis вЂ" Congenital problems • Head and neck tumours • Previous surgery Examination • Sometimes it’s pretty obvious… Examination • • • • • Obesity Short thick neck Neck movement Scars Large breasts Examination • Jaw вЂ" Receding mandible вЂ" Protrusion • Dentition вЂ" вЂ" вЂ" вЂ" Loose teeth Prominent upper teeth Overbite Dentures Examination • Beware the bearded man… Examination • Mouth opening • Bad if ,3cm • Mallampati Examination • Thyromental distance • Bony point on ...
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Dekkers, B.G., Maarsingh, H., Meurs, H. and Gosens, R. (2009) Airway structural components drive airway smooth muscle remodelling in asthma. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, 6, 683-692. doi10.1513/pats.200907-056DP
Embodiments include a medical device, an apparatus, and a method. The medical device includes a tube portion shaped and sized for airway passage insertion and having at least one pathway therethrough; and a stylet of at least one shape-transforming material, configured for insertion in one of said at least one pathway; and at least one sensor carried by the tube portion and the stylet. The apparatus includes a stylet having a first end and a second end, at least a portion of the stylet including a shape-transforming material, the stylet being configured for insertion through an airway intubation structure having at least one pathway therethrough; and at least one sensor carried by the stylet in a proximity to the first end. The method includes capturing an image adjacent to an airway tube proximate to an airway passage; and actuating, in response to the image, at least one shape-transformation of the airway tube.
Article on LMA use in Neonates:. LMA Neonates. Case report of Delayed Sequence Intubation from Annals of EM:. DSI in Pediatrics Weingart. Difficult Airway Society Failed Airway Algorithm. Peds Diff Airway Algorithm APA3-CICV-FINAL. Case report of adult failed airway. Failed Airway Ewing - case report - KM. ...
... , also known as tracheobronchial prostheses, are tube-shaped devices that are inserted into an airway. They are usually placed bronchoscopically and can be used to treat a variety of large airway diseases. The indications for airway sten
We have demonstrated presence of the P2Y12 purinergic receptor on human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC). Apart from acting as an alternative receptor for leukotriene E4, neither its function nor regulation on HBEC is known, not to mention its role in airway remodelling. In this context, we hypothesized that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) could affect expression of the P2Y12 receptor on HBEC.. To test the hypothesis, cultured HBEC were exposed to TGF-β1 (0-10 ng/mL) for 1-24 h. The expression of P2Y12 mRNA was evaluated with use of RT-qPCR.. A slight decrease in the expression of P2Y12 not reaching significance was observed at 1-3 h. TGF-β1 significantly suppressed the expression of P2Y12 in HBEC at 12 h (3.5-5.9-fold decrease from control; p=0.001 and p=0.001 at 2 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, respectively). This decrease persisted by 24 h (3.2-4.0-fold decrease from baseline; p=0.013 and p,0.001 with concentrations of 2 ng/mL and 10 ng/mL, respectively). The decrease was clearly ...
Amini, B., Huang, S. Y., Tsai, J., Benveniste, M. F., Robledo, H. H., & Lee, E. Y. (2013). Primary lung and large airway neoplasms in children. current imaging evaluation with multidetector computed tomography. Radiologic Clinics of North America, 51(4), 637-657.. ...
An important advance in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma has been the discovery that airway inflammation is not confined to severe asthma but also characterizes mild and moderate asthma. Inflammation in asthma may be the result of a
... , founded in 1977, is one of the worlds fastest growing airlines, boasting one of the most modern fleets in Africa. Known as the pride of Africa, Kenya Airways serves 53 destinations throughout Africa and, in partnership with KLM, over 1,500 worldwide.. ...
Respond when the airways, the muscles around the tightened. This causes narrowing of airways and airflow to the lungs. Swelling may also worsen, which even closer Airways. The cells in the airways may have more mucus than usual. Mucus is a viscous, dense, it can further reduce the airway ...
Abstract Inhaled and intranasal glucocorticoids are the most common and effective drugs for controlling symptoms and airway inflammation in respiratory diseases such as asthma, all..
The Commercial Court of Bobigny rejected the unique offer of takeover for XL Airways that was submitted at the last minute. The liquidation of the airline has been pronounced.
What is exactly Asthma? Asthma is an inflammatory disorder of the airways, which causes attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing.Causes, incidence, and risk factors Asthma is caused by inflammation in the airways. When an asthma attack occurs, the muscles surrounding the airways become tight and the lining of the air passages […]. Read More ». ...
The majority of pediatric arrests are due to airway problems, therefore airway is the most important intervention. This should be accomplished immediately. Patient survival is often dependent on airway management success ...
Written by Becky James BSc MSc Non-infectious inflammatory lower airway diseases of horses share marked similarities to human asthma in terms of causes, clinica
Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs. It is used to .... ...
Bronchiectasis is really a medical problem involving an abnormal dilatation from the large airways within the lung area, caused ...
Phlegm. Secretions. Sputum. Mucous. Yuck Whatever you call it, that junk in your lungs is yet another part of having COPD thats not a lot of fun. Yet, its one of those things that as a person with C
The price on this item is lower than the MAP (Minimum Advertised Price) required by the manufacturer. Therefore the price cannot display in the product pages, only during checkout ...
Etihad Airways is gaining greater operational control of Naresh Goyal-promoted Jet Airways in which it acquired a 24% stake for `2,058 crore in November 2013.
Before you pack your bags, be sure to follow up on restricted items and items that may not be allowed on your flight with SAA. Click here for more information.
Airway spasms associated with asthma or COPD often can be treated with Advair. This page of the eMedTV library briefly describes how the drug works, its forms, and possible side effects. Adavare is a common misspelling of Advair.
The ability to reverse induced-bronchoconstriction by deep-inhalation increases after allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), despite a decreased total lung capacity (TLC). We hypothesized that this effect may be due to an increased airway distensibility with lung inflation, likely related to an increment in lung stiffness. We studied 28 subjects, 2 weeks before and 2 months after HSCT. Within-breath respiratory system conductance (G(rs)) at 5, 11 and 19 Hz was measured by forced oscillation technique (FOT) at functional residual capacity (FRC) and TLC. Changes in conductance at 5Hz (G(rs5)) were related to changes in lung volume (ΔG(rs5)/ΔV(L)) to estimate airway distensibility. G(rs) at FRC showed a slight but significant increase at all forcing frequencies by approximately 12-16\%. TLC decreased after HSCT whereas the ΔG(rs5)/ΔV(L) ratio became higher after than before HSCT and was positively correlated (R2=0.87) with lung tissue density determined by quantitative CT ...
BT_PO 1.16 Describe the factors affecting airway resistance and how airway resistance may be measured. TRUE/FALSE An increase in airway resistance will cause a decrease in FEV1. TRUE/FALSE Airway resistance measurement with an oesophageal balloon is inaccurate in severe airways disease. TRUE/FALSE Airway resistance is highest in the terminal bronchioles. TRUE/FALSE Flow in medium sized airways is laminar. TRUE/FALSE Airway conductance is linearly related to lung volume. ...
There are comprehensive accounts of the regulation of mast cell development and activation. This is followed by a detailed description of mast cell factors and receptors and their role in allergic and immunologic conditions. Their localization in airway smooth muscle bundles characterizes asthma. Their roles in airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and in airway remodelling in asthma and their involvement in allergic rhinitis is well covered. The model of "mast cell knock-in" mice and its contribution to understanding of late phase reactions and chronic allergic inflammation is well covered. The species differences in these cells are emphasized, and the point is made that one cannot extrapolate from mouse to human mast cells. This is one factor that has made the study of these cells so difficult.. Assessment: ...
This study aimed at analyzing the relationship between relational factors and on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways. The study specifically sought to establish: the extent to which effective communication influences on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways, conflict management strategies influences on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways, if there is any significant difference between attitudes of the customers on on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways when categorized in gender, age, level of education and occupation, the extent to which product component influences on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways, and to find out the relationship between coordination and on-time service delivery at Kenya Airways. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design coupled with naturalistic research design. The population comprised all Kenya Airways staff in Nairobi office, KQ customers and heads of department. A sample of 244 employees was randomly selected using systematic sampling ...
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Smooth muscle is present and probably functional in the airways in utero and increases in absolute area during growth with little further change during adulthood. It encircles the entire airway below the level of the main bronchus, in a roughly circular orientation, except at high lung volumes. It occupies relatively more of the airway wall in the peripheral airways, reaching a maximum in the membranous bronchioles.. Measurement of smooth muscle area in the airway wall is confounded by clinical classification of cases, methods of tissue retrieval and preparation, staining and orientation of sections, magnification, image analysis and statistical methods of comparison between groups.. Airway smooth muscle area is pathologically increased in inflammatory conditions of the airways such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in relation to airways obstruction, and asthma, in relation to severity and airway size (between 25 and 250% compared with control cases). It is increased in sudden infant ...
Small airway (airway diameter , 1-2 mm) inflammation is thought to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma including airways hyper-responsiveness, spontaneous exacerbations of symptoms, and tissue remodeling [3]. Non-invasive markers of inflammation, such as NO gas in the exhaled breath, could assist in the management of airway inflammation, but the anatomical source remains unclear. Our study demonstrates that small airway epithelial cells can be differentiated at an air-liquid interface to express markers such as mucin and cilia. The differentiated epithelium produces a very small, but detectable, amount of NO gas at baseline. However, the production is significantly increased, due to the upregulation of iNOS, following exposure to soluble inflammatory mediators, most notably a combination of IL-1β, TNF-α and IFN-γ. As such, iNOS in the small airway epithelium is a probable source of NO in the exhaled breath of asthma.. Bronchioles are generally , 1 mm in diameter, are devoid of ...
Inflammation of the small airways contributes to the severity of the disease and affects the quality of life of patients with asthma. However, the exact role and relevance of small airways disease in asthma is still unclear. This is partly due to the difficulty of measuring small airways pathology with a sensitive and specific parameter. The most commonly used variable as an indicator of small airway obstruction is the FEF50%. Currently, it is not known which clinical symptoms are associated with small airways disease and how a patient will perceive small airway abnormalities. This knowledge is important to assess small airways disease in patients with asthma and adjust therapy to improve quality of life.The primary purpose of this study is to develop a questionnaire for patients with asthma with and without small airways disease for general and specialist practice ...

Airway remodeling in asthma. Unanswered questions.  - PubMed - NCBIAirway remodeling in asthma. Unanswered questions. - PubMed - NCBI

Airway remodeling in asthma. Unanswered questions.. Elias JA1.. Author information. 1. Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10712368?dopt=Abstract

The Correlation between FSTL1 Expression and Airway Remodeling in AsthmaticsThe Correlation between FSTL1 Expression and Airway Remodeling in Asthmatics

... airway remodeling, and airway hyper responsiveness [1]. Airway remodeling refers to the structural changes in the airway ... Since elevated levels of FSTL1 coexist with airway remodeling in asthma, we wonder whether FSTL1 participates in airway ... Plasma FSTL1 levels were associated with fibrosis levels around the airways (. , ) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (. , ). ... of airway remodeling was weaker than the relationship between FSTL1 levels in BALF and parameters of airway remodeling, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/mi/2017/7918472/

A novel role for primary cilia in airway remodeling.  - PubMed - NCBIA novel role for primary cilia in airway remodeling. - PubMed - NCBI

However, nothing is known about the role of PC in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in the context of airway remodeling. We ... A novel role for primary cilia in airway remodeling.. Trempus CS1, Song W2, Lazrak A2, Yu Z2, Creighton JR2, Young BM3, Heise ... In conclusion, PC are necessary for the development of airway remodeling by mediating calcium flux and Sonic Hedgehog signaling ... Primary cilia (PC) were assessed in ASMCs in culture and in airway smooth muscle in human normal and asthmatic lung. A and B: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28473325

Pathological airway remodelling in inflammationPathological airway remodelling in inflammation

... Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla LU ; Larsen, Kristoffer LU ; Nihlberg, Kristian ... fibrocyte, fibroblast, extracellular matrix, airway remodelling, asthma. in Clinical Respiratory Journal. volume. 4. issue. s1 ... Moreover, airway remodelling occurs not only in asthma but also in several pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive ... Moreover, airway remodelling occurs not only in asthma but also in several pulmonary disorders such as chronic obstructive ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/f7ad7de6-c470-4d96-aad9-cc06f3ccf144

Role of Inhaled Steroids in Vascular Airway Remodelling in Asthma and COPDRole of Inhaled Steroids in Vascular Airway Remodelling in Asthma and COPD

... Alfredo Chetta and Dario Olivieri ... In asthmatic airways, inhaled steroids can downregulate vascular remodelling by acting on proangiogenic factors. Additionally, ... Vascular changes may significantly contribute to airway wall remodelling. Angiogenesis and vascular leakage are prevalent in ... is crucially involved in the pathophysiology of airway vascular remodelling, both in asthma and COPD. The inhibition of VEGF ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2012/397693/abs/

The activin A antagonist follistatin inhibits asthmatic airway remodelling | ThoraxThe activin A antagonist follistatin inhibits asthmatic airway remodelling | Thorax

Dysfunction and remodeling of the mouse airway persist after resolution of acute allergen-induced airway inflammation. Am J ... Intranasal follistatin (0.05, 0.5, 5 µg) inhibited the airway remodelling and dose-dependently decreased airway activin A and ... Overexpression of Smad2 drives house dust mite-mediated airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness via activin and IL-25 ... and induces airway remodelling. Airway epithelium in the saline group showed strong and uniform immunoreactivity for activin A ...
more infohttps://thorax.bmj.com/content/68/1/9

The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling | Science SignalingThe Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling | Science Signaling

The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/6/263/ra12/tab-figures-data

The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling | Science SignalingThe Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling | Science Signaling

The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ... The Homeobox Transcription Factor Cut Coordinates Patterning and Growth During Drosophila Airway Remodeling ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/6/263/ra12/tab-pdf

Notch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling | Molecular PharmacologyNotch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling | Molecular Pharmacology

Notch Signaling and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal Ahmad, Youping Yang, Meiping Lu, ... Notch Signaling and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal Ahmad, Youping Yang, Meiping Lu, ... Notch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling. Musaddique Hussain, Chengyun Xu, Mashaal ... Notch Signaling: Linking Embryonic Lung Development and Asthmatic Airway Remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/92/6/676

A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in resp | Open-iA possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in resp | Open-i

A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic ... ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall ... ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall ... This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC3924447_ijerph-11-00337-g005&req=4

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and airway remodelling after human lung transplantation | ThoraxEpithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and airway remodelling after human lung transplantation | Thorax

Our data do not prove a definitive causative link between the remodelling seen in BOS and EMT in the airway. However, we ... We did not analyse severely remodelled airways in the OB lung as these areas represent advanced lesions where the ... The hypothesis that EMT represents a common final pathway in the development of airway remodelling after lung transplantation ... Background: Aberrant epithelial repair is a key event in the airway remodelling which characterises obliterative bronchiolitis ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/64/9/770

Relationship between Serum Vitamin D, Disease Severity, and Airway Remodeling in Children with AsthmaRelationship between Serum Vitamin D, Disease Severity, and Airway Remodeling in Children with Asthma

... ... and endobronchial biopsy with assessment of airway inflammation and remodeling.. Measurements and Main Results:. 25(OH)D3 ... Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, but not epithelial shedding or reticular basement membrane thickness, was inversely related to ... The link between vitamin D, airway structure, and function suggests vitamin D supplementation may be useful in pediatric STRA. ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/ajrccm/201112150/00019521-201112150-00009

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Airway Remodeling in Asthma | BenthamScienceMatrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Airway Remodeling in Asthma | BenthamScience

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Airway Remodeling in Asthma. Author(s): Hiroyuki Ohbayashi, Kaoru Shimokata. Department of ... This review mainly focuses upon the pivotal role of MMP-9 in airway remodeling, and also upon major cellular source of MMP-9 in ... Abstract: Airway remodeling is a major change responsible for irreversible asthmatic airflow restriction. The Th-2 cytokines- ... This review mainly focuses upon the pivotal role of MMP-9 in airway remodeling, and also upon major cellular source of MMP-9 in ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/90337/article

Airway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/- mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease - Request PDFAirway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/- mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease - Request PDF

Airway remodeling is absent in CCR1-/- mice during chronic fungal allergic airway disease ... Resveratrol has protective effects against airway remodeling and airway hyperreactivity in a murine model of allergic airways ... Effect of P2X4R on airway inflammation and airway remodeling in allergic airway challenge in mice. Molecular Medicine Reports ... Prolonged ozone exposure in an allergic airway disease model: adaptation of airway responsiveness and airway remodeling. ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/003/354/003354471.php

The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates allergic airway remodelling in the rat | European Respiratory SocietyThe epidermal growth factor receptor mediates allergic airway remodelling in the rat | European Respiratory Society

Effect of EGFR blockade on allergen-induced airway epithelial remodelling. Allergic airway remodelling involves phenotypic ... Allergen-induced airway epithelial and airway smooth muscle remodelling is mediated by cysteinyl leukotrienes via the cysteinyl ... The epidermal growth factor receptor mediates allergic airway remodelling in the rat. M. Tamaoka, M. Hassan, T. McGovern, D. ... Asthmatic airways often show extensive and complex remodelling 1-4. The growth of smooth muscle has the potential to have the ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/32/5/1213

Airway remodelling in children with cystic fibrosis. | UK CF Gene Therapy ConsortiumAirway remodelling in children with cystic fibrosis. | UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium

A study was undertaken to determine changes in airway remodelling in children with CF compared with appropriate disease and ... This study provides evidence for two forms of airway remodelling in children with CF: (1) matrix breakdown, related to ... investigated for recurrent infection and/or cough and 7 control children with no lower airway symptoms. Inflammatory cells, ... The relationship between airway structural changes and inflammation is unclear in early cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. ...
more infohttp://cfgenetherapy.org.uk/publications/publication/223

A role for WNT-5B in airway remodeling in COPD by activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling? | European Respiratory SocietyA role for WNT-5B in airway remodeling in COPD by activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling? | European Respiratory Society

A role for WNT-5B in airway remodeling in COPD by activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling?. Irene Heijink, Harold de Bruin, Robin ... A role for WNT-5B in airway remodeling in COPD by activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling? ... We aimed to investigate whether dysregulated expression of WNT genes may contribute to airway remodeling in COPD. ... A role for WNT-5B in airway remodeling in COPD by activation of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling? ...
more infohttp://erj.ersjournals.com/content/42/Suppl_57/P622

Nutraceutical with Anti-Inflammatory Activity for the Management of Airway Remodeling        in Bronchial Asthma: |i|Kalanchoe...Nutraceutical with Anti-Inflammatory Activity for the Management of Airway Remodeling in Bronchial Asthma: |i|Kalanchoe...

Fahy, J.V., Corry, D.B. and Boushey, H.A. (2000) Airway Inflammation and Remodeling in Asthma. Current Opinion in Pulmonary ... Nutraceutical with Anti-Inflammatory Activity for the Management of Airway Remodeling in Bronchial Asthma: Kalanchoe integra ... Gundel, R.H., Letts, L.G. and Gleich, G.J. (1991) Human Eosinophil Major Basic Protein Induces Airway Constriction and Airway ... supporting a role for airway remodelling and mucus hypersecretion in the development of airflow limitation in asthmatics [17] [ ...
more infohttp://file.scirp.org/Html/4-2500422_43748_43748.htm

Relationship between serum vitamin D, disease severity, and airway remodeling in children with asthma. - Semantic ScholarRelationship between serum vitamin D, disease severity, and airway remodeling in children with asthma. - Semantic Scholar

... and endobronchial biopsy with assessment of airway inflammation and remodeling. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS 25(OH)D(3) levels ... Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, but not epithelial shedding or reticular basement membrane thickness, was inversely related to ... The link between vitamin D, airway structure, and function suggests vitamin D supplementation may be useful in pediatric STRA. ... Relationship between serum vitamin D, disease severity, and airway remodeling in children with asthma.. @article{ ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Relationship-between-serum-vitamin-D%2C-disease-and-Gupta-Sjoukes/0d6ebe026c2fa95bc4fefec6c3a2cc5a30d870d0

Airway RemodelingAirway Remodeling

... - 21 Studies Found. Status. Study Terminated. Study Name: Study on the Effects of Sitaxsentan on Airway ... Condition: Airway Remodeling. Date: 2015-09-30. Interventions: Device: Success Success rate and time for insertion. ... Study Name: Effect of Ageing on Airway Remodeling. Condition: Aging. Date: 2010-08-04. Interventions: Other: EFR and TDM EFR : ... Study Name: Effect of Montelukast on the Airway Remodeling. Condition: Asthma. Date: 2008-06-11. Interventions: *Drug: singular ...
more infohttp://webhealthnetwork.com/clinicaltrials-search.php?q=Airway+Remodeling

Airway remodelling and its relationship to inflammation in cystic fibrosis. | UK CF Gene Therapy ConsortiumAirway remodelling and its relationship to inflammation in cystic fibrosis. | UK CF Gene Therapy Consortium

Airway remodelling, defined as structural airway wall changes, begins early in life in CF but the sequence of remodelling ... Airway remodelling in CF has traditionally been thought to be solely the consequence of repeated cycles of inflammation and ... with the main limitation that they assess only changes in proximal large airways and not in peripheral small airways from where ... biopsy studies may provide insight into the role and relative contribution of the different mechanisms of airway remodelling in ...
more infohttp://cfgenetherapy.org.uk/publications/publication/181

Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma.Airway inflammation and remodeling in asthma.

An important advance in our understanding of the pathophysiology of asthma has been the discovery that airway inflammation is ... chronic airway inflammation. Airway remodeling results in alterations in the airway epithelium, lamina propria, and submucosa, ... the natural history of airway remodeling, and the effects of current asthma treatments on remodeled airways.. ... Airway remodeling in asthma thus may predispose persons with asthma to asthma exacerbations and even death from airway ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Airway-inflammation-remodeling-in-asthma/10608420.html

Nasal Airway Remodeling with VIVAER<sup>...Nasal Airway Remodeling with VIVAER<sup>...

Its called VIVAER® Nasal Airway Remodeling. ... Nasal Airway Obstruction. *Nasal Airway Remodeling with VIVAER® ... Its called VIVAER® Nasal Airway Remodeling. VIVAER® is a better solution.1. You now have an option to treat nasal airway ... Request your consultation to find out if you are a candidate for Nasal Airway Remodeling with VIVAER®.. References: ... VIVAER® Nasal Airway Remodeling - goes beyond traditional treatment options, delivers results beyond expectations.1. ...
more infohttps://www.sleepandsinuscenters.com/georgia/nasal-remodeling-vivaer.php

Airway remodelling in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effects of inhaled...Airway remodelling in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effects of inhaled...

Airway remodelling is defined as structural changes occurring in chronic inflammatory diseases of the airways. Our knowledge ... Results:\) Airway remodelling changes were also detectable in S-N. The Rbm was fragmented. The length of splits was ... Airway remodelling in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the effects of inhaled ... Then a double-blind, randomized and placebo controlled study assessed the effects of ICS on airway remodeling, VEGF and TGF- ß ...
more infohttps://eprints.utas.edu.au/10766/

Time course of airway remodelling after an acute chlorine gas exposure in mice | RESPIRATORY RESEARCH | Full TextTime course of airway remodelling after an acute chlorine gas exposure in mice | RESPIRATORY RESEARCH | Full Text

... associated with airway damage, followed by subsequent repair and airway remodelling. ... At 10 days after Cl2 exposure the airway smooth muscle mass was increased relative to controls, suggestive of airway smooth ... However, little is known about the kinetics of airway injury and repair after Cl2 exposure. We investigated the time course of ... The acute injury phase after Cl2 exposure (≤ 24 hrs post-exposure) was characterized by airway epithelial cell apoptosis ( ...
more infohttps://respiratory-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1465-9921-9-61
  • Primary cilia are expressed in human airway smooth muscle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes. (nih.gov)
  • The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism of the growth response of muscle is quite uncertain, although several descriptive studies of growth factor expression in human airway tissues have been reported 14 - 16 and many growth factors have been demonstrated to have mitogenic effects on ASM in culture 17 - 20 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Increase in airway smooth muscle (ASM) in the airways has been associated with the severity of asthma 3 , 7 , and when present in excess in the large airways is associated with mortality 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • article{Gupta2011RelationshipBS, title={Relationship between serum vitamin D, disease severity, and airway remodeling in children with asthma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite the evidence that supports a close relationship between remodeling and clinical severity, the presence of airway remodeling is considered as an independent factor in the whole pathophysiological process of the disease. (pneumon.org)
  • Generally animal models have focussed on allergen-driven changes in airway structure which are of uncertain relevance to irritant-induced asthma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asthma treatment with inhaled corticosteroids does not fully prevent airway remodelling and thus have restricted influence on the natural course of the. (lu.se)
  • I also aimed to study the effects of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) on these airway changes. (edu.au)
  • This is added evidence that asthma should be treated aggressively with inhaled corticosteroids early on in the course of the disease to prevent permanent airway damage and worsening asthma. (blogspot.com)
  • Inhaled corticosteroids seemed to be the ideal treatment although they suppress part of the whole remodeling process without reversing it. (pneumon.org)
  • What is the result of airway remodeling in asthmatics? (blogspot.com)
  • Studies show that airway remodeling and thickened airways may occur even in asthmatics with mild intermittent asthma, and that patients with asthma have thicker airway walls than patients without asthma. (blogspot.com)
  • Conclusion: It is clear that airway mesenchymal cells, including fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, are more dynamic in terms of differentiation and origin than has previously been recognised. (lu.se)
  • Immunolocalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal markers was compared in airway tissue from stable recipients and those with OB. (bmj.com)
  • Airway epithelial biopsies from recipients with OB demonstrated significantly increased staining for mesenchymal markers and significantly reduced E-cadherin staining compared with stable recipients. (bmj.com)
  • We have recently identified a critical role for c-Jun-N-terminal- kinase 1 (JNK1) in augmenting the pro-fibrotic effects of TGF-?1, in association with the causation of a mesenchymal transition of airway epithelial cells (EMT). (grantome.com)
  • Recent advances in bronchoscopic techniques have allowed airway mucosal (endobronchial) biopsies to be taken in children and even infants. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • In addition, TGF-β1 activates EGFR phosphorylation and increases p21WAF1/CIP1 expression that implicates airway remodeling due to irregular cell proliferation and prolonged repair duration. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of an epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor inhibitor, AG1478, and a cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor antagonist, montelukast, on epithelial and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell proliferation in vivo in response to repeated OVA challenge were tested. (ersjournals.com)
  • The repair phase after Cl 2 exposure was characterized by increased airway epithelial cell proliferation, measured by immunoreactive proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), with maximal proliferation occurring 5 days after Cl 2 exposure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma that has the potential to explain the induction and chronicity of the disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We still need further research in order to better understand the relationship between remodeling, the natural history of the disease and the early relevant markers that might predict its appearance and its progress. (pneumon.org)
  • However, nothing is known about the role of PC in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) in the context of airway remodeling. (nih.gov)
  • Airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, but not epithelial shedding or reticular basement membrane thickness, was inversely related to 25(OH)D3 levels (r = -0.6, P = 0.008). (ovid.com)
  • Allergen-induced airway epithelial and airway smooth muscle remodelling is mediated by cysteinyl leukotrienes via the cysteinyl leukotriene-1 receptor with downstream effects on the epidermal growth factor receptor axis. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study observed that the expression of remodeling genes, including TGF-β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and EGFR was upregulated after exposure to field-sampled bioaerosols. (nih.gov)
  • Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. (nih.gov)
  • A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. (nih.gov)
  • The possible mechanism of airway remodeling response of genes to bioaerosols from the composting hall is illustrated in Figure 5. (nih.gov)