Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Tracheal StenosisBronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchial DiseasesRespiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Tracheal DiseasesBronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Laryngeal Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Tracheal NeoplasmsAerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Tongue DiseasesSleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Laryngocele: Congenital anomalous dilitation of the laryngeal saccule that may extend internally into the airway or externally through the thyrohyoid membrane.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Respiratory Tract DiseasesMuscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Goiter, Substernal: An enlarged THYROID GLAND with at least 50% of the gland situated behind the STERNUM. It is an unusual presentation of an intrathoracic goiter. Substernal goiters frequently cause compression on the TRACHEA leading to deviation, narrowing, and respiratory symptoms.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Ludwig's Angina: Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Glottis: The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Tracheobronchomegaly: A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Laryngitis: Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (1/1199)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

Comparison of two new methods for the measurement of lung volumes with two standard methods. (2/1199)

BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used methods for the measurement of lung volumes are helium dilution and body plethysmography. Two methods have been developed which are both easier and less time consuming to perform. Mathematical modelling uses complex calculations from the flow-volume loop to derive total lung capacity (TLC), and the nitrogen balance technique uses nitrogen from the atmosphere to calculate lung volume in a similar way to helium dilution. This study was designed to compare the two new methods with the two standard methods. METHODS: Sixty one subjects were studied, 23 with normal lung function, 17 with restrictive airway disease, and 21 with obstructive ventilatory defects. Each subject underwent repeated measurements of TLC by each of the four methods in random order. Reproducible values were obtained for each method according to BTS/ARTP guidelines. Bland-Altman plots were constructed for comparisons between the methods and paired t tests were used to assess differences in means. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between body plethysmography and helium dilution fell into clinically acceptable ranges (agreement limits +/-0.9 l). The agreement between mathematical modelling or the nitrogen balance technique and helium dilution or body plethysmography was poor (+/-1.8-3.4 l), especially for subjects with airflow obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Neither of the new methods agrees sufficiently with standard methods to be useful in a clinical setting.  (+info)

Respiratory mechanics in airways obstruction associated with inspiratory dyspnoea. (3/1199)

Inspiratory muscle strength and the flow and elastic pressure opposing inspiration were measured in seven patients with severe airways obstruction who found inspiration difficult at rest. A comparison was made of measurements obtained from seven normal subjects and five patients with airways obstruction not experiencing inspiratory dyspnoea at rest. Measurements were also obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced in the normal subjects by adding an inspiratory resistance or by voluntarily increasing lung volume. Compared with the controls the inspiratory muscle strength of the patients was reduced but was not significantly less than that of the patients without inspiratory dyspnoea. The pressure required to produce inspiratory flow was significantly greater when inspiratory dyspnoea was present (P = 0-01). However, there was considerable overlap in the pressures of those with and without inspiratory dyspnoea. A better relationship was obtained when muscle strength was considered. The ratio of inspiratory muscle strength to the pressure required to produce flow was 0-24 +/- 0-07 (mean +/- SD) in patient with inspiratory dyspnoea, 0-10 +/- 0-03 in patients without inspiratory dyspnoea, and 0-033 +/- 0-019 in normal subjects. There was no overlap between the two patient groups. The ratios of the normal subjects were increased when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced and, with the exception of two cases, were all above those obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was absent. Inspiratory dyspnoea was experienced with lower ratios in the normals than in the patients with airways obstruction.  (+info)

Aspects of serum and sputum antibody in chronic airways obstruction. (4/1199)

Immunoglobulin levels and precipitating antibody against a range of microbial antigens were measured in simultaneously collected serum and sputum samples from patients with chronic bronchitis (11), cystic fibrosis (9), bronchiectasis (9), and asthma (4). Sputum was prepared by dialysis and high-speed centrifugation methods. Results showed that it was possible to detect precipitating antibody in the sputum, and the rate was increased when both methods were used. A discrepancy was noted between the detection rate in the sputum and serum. This, combined with the lack of correlation between sputum and serum immunoglobulins, lack of relationship between bronchial inflammation and sputum immunoglobulins, and the lack of IgM in the sputum suggested that the antibody and immunoglobulin were locally produced. Sputum IgA (7S) in patients with chronic bronchitis was significantly lower (P less than 0-05) than that found in patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Significant differences (P less than 0-05) were also noted in serum IgG levels between patients with chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis while serum IgM levels in patients with chronic bronchitis were significantly lower (P less than 0-05) when compared to serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of precipitating antibody in the sputum raises the possibility that type III reactions may be important in the pathogenesis of these conditions.  (+info)

Localised upper airway obstruction in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (5/1199)

We describe a case of rapidly progressive upper airway obstruction due to tracheal Pseudomonas abscesses in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The case highlights the aggressive nature of Pseudomonas infections and the difficulty of eradicating this organism in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.  (+info)

Gastric rupture secondary to successful Heimlich manoeuvre. (6/1199)

A fatal case of gastric rupture following the Heimlich manoeuvre is reported. This life-threatening complication has only been reported previously in seven patients with a high mortality rate. All patients should be assessed immediately following this manoeuvre for any potentially life-threatening complications.  (+info)

A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast. (7/1199)

A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection.  (+info)

Clinical studies of styrene workers: initial findings. (8/1199)

Styrene monomer is a high volume chemical used chiefly in production of polystyrene. A clinical survey of 493 production workers was undertaken at the oldest and largest monomer production, polymerization, and extrusion facility in the U.S. Relative exposure durations and levels were obtained from occupational histories. Significant differences between the high and low exposure groups were found with regard to history of acute prenarcotic symptoms, acute lower respiratory symptoms, prevalence of FEV 1/FV less than 75 per cent, and elevated GCTP. Other liver function tests, chest x-ray, FVC less than 80 per cent, and hematological parameters showed no distinct pattern. A concomitant mortality study has been mounted and is in progress.  (+info)

*Submucous Resection

It is usually intended to treat a deviated septum causing chronic nasal airway obstruction or chronic nosebleeds. Other reasons ... include nasal obstruction due to allergy or chronic sinus infections which have not responded to other treatments. SMR may be ...

*Laryngeal cyst

Congenital lesions may present with severe airway obstruction at birth calling for emergency intervention and intubation. There ... "Congenital epiglottic cyst presenting with severe airway obstruction at birth". Journal of Perinatology. 26 (1): 71-72. doi: ... Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal obstruction are unusual complaints. They may ... Henderson, LT; Denneny JC, 3rd; Teichgraeber, J (1984). "Airway-obstructing epiglottic cyst". The Annals of Otology, Rhinology ...

*Obstructive lung disease

Asthma being a reversible obstruction of airways is often considered separately, but many COPD patients also have some degree ... The airways become inflamed and produce excess mucus and the muscles around the airways tighten making the airways narrower. ... Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction. Many obstructive diseases of ... It is generally characterized by inflamed and easily collapsible airways, obstruction to airflow, problems exhaling and ...

*Spirometry

... in particular when assessing possible upper airway obstruction. Sometimes, the test will be preceded by a period of quiet ... due to the premature closure of airway in expiration, just not in the same proportion as FEV1 (for instance, both FEV1 and FVC ... FEV1 is diminished because of increased airway resistance to expiratory flow; the FVC may be decreased as well, ... are reduced, but the former is more affected because of the increased airway resistance). This generates a reduced value (. ...

*Acute bronchitis

Further obstruction to the airways is caused by more goblet cells in the small airways. This is typical of chronic bronchitis. ... Acute bronchitis, also known as a chest cold, is short-term inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) of the ... There is weak evidence that salbutamol may be useful in adults with wheezing due to a restricted airway; however, it may result ... Salbutamol is not effective in children with an acute cough who do not have restricted airways. ...

*Airway obstruction

It can be broadly classified into being either in the upper airway or lower airway. Causes of upper airway obstruction include ... Stridor Recurrent airway obstruction Respiratory Emergencies, section Acute Upper Airway Obstruction. From FP Essentials 368. ... Diseases that cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. Lower airway obstruction can be measured ... Management of airways relies on both minimal-invasive and invasive techniques. Lower airway obstruction is mainly caused by ...

*Recurrent airway obstruction

"The airway response of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) to aerosol administration of ipratropium bromide", ... Recurrent airway obstruction, also known as broken wind, heaves, wind-broke horse, or sometimes by the term usually reserved ... 432-438 N. E. Robinson, (2001) "Recurrent Airway Obstruction (Heaves)", Equine Respiratory Diseases, International Veterinary ... "Persistent mucin glycoprotein alterations in equine recurrent airway obstruction",Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281: L704- ...

*Lidocaine

Biller JA (2007). "Airway obstruction, bronchospasm, and cough". In Berger AM, Shuster JL, Von Roenn JH. Principles and ...

*Asbestosis

Kilburn KH, Warshaw RH (October 1994). "Airways obstruction from asbestos exposure. Effects of asbestosis and smoking". Chest. ... Large airway function, as reflected by FEV1/FVC, is generally well preserved. In severe cases, the drastic reduction in lung ... Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, pleura, and diaphragm in the body. Figure B shows lungs with asbestos- ...

*Thyroplasty

Airway obstruction is the most common complication. Implant migration or extrusion in cases where proper stitches are not taken ... in case of airway insufficiency after Laryngeal trauma). Type 3 thyroplasty - Shortening of the vocal folds (done to lower the ...

*Ludwig's angina

Chou YK, Lee CY, Chao HH (December 2007). "An upper airway obstruction emergency: Ludwig angina". Pediatric Emergency Care. 23 ... There are non-infectious causes of acute upper airway obstruction confused with Ludwig's angina which include angioneurotic ... Methods of airway management range from conservative airway management - consisting of close observation and intravenous ... secondary to obstruction of the airway, which is the most serious potential complication of this condition. At the initial ...

*Marshall-Smith syndrome

... like upper airway obstruction. (Note regarding clinical variability: respiratory difficulties might be absent.) Pneumonia ... Antila H, Laitio T, Aantaa R, Silvoniemi P, Pakkanen A (1998). "Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome". ... Machotta A, Hoeve H (Apr 2008). "Airway management and fiberoptic tracheal intubation via the laryngeal mask in a child with ... Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome. ...

*Hajdu-Cheney syndrome

"Severe Hajdu-Cheney syndrome with upper airway obstruction". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 70 (3): 261-266. doi:10.1002 ...

*Laryngomalacia

Rarely, children will have significant life-threatening airway obstruction. The vast majority, however, will only have stridor ... Laryngomalacia results in partial airway obstruction, most commonly causing a characteristic high-pitched squeaking noise on ... cartilages or the mucosa/tissue over the arytenoid cartilages can collapse into the airway and cause airway obstruction. ... causing airway obstruction. It can also be seen in older patients, especially those with neuromuscular conditions resulting in ...

*Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica

TO can cause airway obstruction, bleeding and chronic cough. Treatment involves the use of bronchodilators, and physical ... The nodules usually spare the posterior wall of the airway because they are of cartilaginous origin, while the posterior wall ... of the airway is membranous (does not contain cartilage). This is as opposed to tracheobronchial amyloidosis, which does not ...

*Laryngotracheal stenosis

"Preliminary experience with bronchotherapeutic procedures in central airway obstruction". Chang Gung Med J. 26 (4): 240-9. PMID ... "Early endoscopic treatment of acute inflammatory airway lesions improves the outcome of postintubation airway stenosis". ... In babies and young children however, the subglottis is the narrowest part of the airway and most stenoses do in fact occur at ... Parrish RW, Banks J, Fennerty AG (1983). "Tracheal obstruction presenting as asthma". Postgrad Med J. 59: 775-6. doi:10.1136/ ...

*Plastic bronchitis

Simple chest roentenograms may reveal collapse due to airway obstruction. The contralateral lung may be hyperinflated. Casts ... With partial obstruction, a "fan sound" or "flag flapping" sound can be heard during auscultation. Bronchial casts can ... When casts are very large with many branches, an abnormal communication or leakage of lymphatic fluid into the airway is often ... Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a disorder in which branching casts of the airways are expectorated. PB has been previously ...

*Deptropine

Leckie, W. J.; Horne, N. W. (1965). "Preliminary Assessment of Deptropine Dihydrogen Citrate in Chronic Airways Obstruction". ...

*Respiratory arrest

Airway obstruction: Obstruction may occur in the upper and lower airway. Upper airway obstruction is common in infants less ... Nasal blockage may easily lead to upper airway obstruction in infants. For other ages, upper airway obstruction may occur from ... A laryngeal mask airway can be positioned in the lower oropharynx to prevent airway obstruction by soft tissues and to create a ... In bilevel positive airway pressure, both expiratory positive airway pressure and inspiratory positive airway pressure are set ...

*Bronchiolitis obliterans

... is a lung disease characterized by fixed airway obstruction. Inflammation and scarring occur in the ... Spirometry tests usually show fixed airway obstructions and sometimes restriction, where the lungs can't expand fully. Lung ... is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation. Symptoms ... cause airway epithelial damage that is as harmful as diacetyl. A new form of constrictive bronchiolitis is starting to present ...

*Obstructive sleep apnea

Even in these extreme cases, the surgery tends to cure not only the apnea and upper airway obstruction but allows normal ... There have been documented instances of severe airway obstruction, and reports of post-operative OSA continues to increase as ... Bahammam A (2011). "Obstructive sleep apnea: from simple upper airway obstruction to systemic inflammation". Ann Saudi Med. 31 ... Automatic positive airway pressure, or automatic positive airway pressure, also known as "Auto CPAP", incorporates pressure ...

*Meadow (calf)

This in return could lead to an airway obstruction and later pneumonia. Meadow has since returned from the successful operation ...

*Retropharyngeal abscess

In complex cases, an emergency tracheotomy may be required to prevent upper airway obstruction caused by edema in the neck. ... RPA can lead to airway obstruction or sepsis - both life-threatening emergencies. Fatalities normally occur from patients not ...

*Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage

Other contributing factors may include upper airway obstruction, increased blood viscosity, abnormalities of cardiac origin ( ... "Effects of airway obstruction on transmural pulmonary artery pressure in exercising horses". American journal of veterinary ... dynamic upper airway obstruction) would increase the severity of EIPH; however neither experimentally induced laryngeal ... "Effects of extrathoracic airway obstruction on intrathoracic pressure and pulmonary artery pressure in exercising horses". ...

*Pulmonary rehabilitation

"Long-term effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic airway obstruction". The European respiratory ...

*Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty

As explained above, sleep apnea is often caused by multiple co-existing obstructions at various locations of the airway such as ... Narrowing of the airway in the nose and throat (hence constricting breathing) snoring and even iatrogenically caused sleep ... It is administered as a stand-alone procedure in the hope that the tissue which obstructs the patient's airway is localized in ... The goal is to improve the airway and thereby treat (or possibly cure) sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep ...

*Faiz Bhora

"Timely airway stenting improves survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ... including airway stenting and endoscopic excision of tumors. He has developed one of the largest Interventional Airway Programs ... Bhora is nationally and internationally known for his expertise in advanced bronchoscopic surgery involving the airway, ... "Discovering New Treatments for Lung and Airway Diseases". January 27, 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. "Ahmad Adaya ...
Define recurrent airway obstruction. recurrent airway obstruction synonyms, recurrent airway obstruction pronunciation, recurrent airway obstruction translation, English dictionary definition of recurrent airway obstruction. n. A respiratory disease of horses that is characterized by a chronic cough, labored breathing, and nasal discharge, and is induced by exposure to allergens...
Looking for Chronic airway obstruction? Find out information about Chronic airway obstruction. Politics delay of business, esp in a legislature by means of procedural devices Occlusion or stenosis of hollow viscera, ducts, and vessels. Anything that... Explanation of Chronic airway obstruction
Seasonal recurrent airway obstruction, also known as summer pasture-associated recurrent airway obstruction (SPA-RAO), is a seasonal airway obstructive disease of horses, characterized by clinical exacerbation after exposure to pasture during the summer. Clinical signs usually present in horses during exposure to pastures during turnout in the late spring the summer, although some horses dont develop signs until late summer or early fall. Certain mold spores, grass pollens, and species of grass trigger onset of the disease.
Acute airway obstruction (AAO) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) can be caused by postoperative retropharyngeal hematoma, which requires urgent recognition and treatment. However, the causes, evaluation, and appropriate treatment of this complication are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective review of a prospective database was to investigate etiologic factors related to the development of AAO due to postoperative hematoma after ACF and formulate appropriate prevention and treatment guidelines. Cervical spinal cases treated at our academic institutions from 1998 to 2013 were evaluated. Demographic data, including factors related to hemorrhagic tendency, and operative data were analyzed. Patients who developed a hematoma were compared with those who did not to identify risk factors. Cases complicated by hematoma were reviewed, and times until development of hematoma and surgical evacuation were determined. Degrees of airway compromise and patient behavior were classified and evaluated
This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities ...
ASTHMATICS:. Patients will be between 18 and 75 years of age, male or female.. The diagnosis of asthma requires a history of intermittent, reversible expiratory flow limitation.. In addition, patients will have demonstrated evidence of either an abnormal methacholine challenge or reversible airway obstruction. An abnormal methacholine challenge will be defined as a decrease in FEV(1) of at least 20% at a PD(20) dose less than 240 micrograms. Reversible airway obstruction will be defined as an improvement of at least 12% and 200 cc in either the FEV(1) or FVC folowing bronchodilator treatment. Methacholine challenge testing will not be performed if the subject has a history of allergy to methoacholine. Result of testing performed by the subjects primary care provider may be accepted as evidence of reversible airflow obstruction.. For women of childbearing potential, negative pregnancy test prior to study and willingness to adhere to reliable birth control methods during the study.. EXCLUSION ...
INTRODUCTION: Airway disease in PSS is reported to be frequent but its severity and clinical relevance remain unclear. We aimed to assess airway obstruction as defined by pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with PSS.. METHOD: Among 502 patients followed in a reference center for PSS, 81 (78 females) non smokers who underwent PFTs from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Airway obstruction (AO) was defined by either FEV1/FVC ,70% of predicted (patent obstruction) or MEF25-75 ,50% of predicted (small airway obstruction) or elevated RV/TLC associated with functional residual capacity ,120% of predicted (hyperinflation). Clinical and chest CT scan characteristics of patients with airway obstruction were compared with normal PFT patients.. RESULTS: Mean age at PSS diagnosis was 53,1 year. Mean disease duration at study was 5.3 year. 73 (90%) patients had respiratory symptoms. 26 patients (32%) had an airway obstruction: 10% a patent obstruction, 15% a small airway obstruction and 7% an ...
If variation in ventilatory drive, both endowed and acquired, determines the extent and quality of adaptation to the hypoxia of high altitude, such variation might also contribute to the variable clinical profile of patients with hypoxic disease at low altitude, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has long been known that such patients present a varied clinical picture illustrated by patients presenting at the extreme edges of the spectrum-the pink puffer and blue bloater. More common is the broad range of PaC02 observed with a given degree of severe airway obstruction, indicating that the ventilatory adaptation to severe airway obstruction is quite variable. The presence of intense dyspnea in the eucapnic pink puffer and its absence in the hypercapnic blue bloater have suggested the terms "fighter" and "nonfighter," reflecting possible underlying differences in ventilatory drive. Indeed, early studies indicated decreased ventilatory responsiveness to hypercapnia in patients with ...
The most common cause of airway obstruction in the anesthesia setting is iatrogenic, i.e. occurs with induction of general anesthesia/ sedation, when a reduced level of consciousness and loss of pharyngeal muscle tone leads to the back of the tongue falling backwards against the posterior pharyngeal wall in the patient positioned supine. Other conditions causing a reduced level of consciousness (intoxication, stroke, head injury, ...) can lead to airway obstruction for the same reason.. (Partial) upper airway obstruction due to the same mechanism can occur during sleep causing snoring and as a consequence of obstructive sleep apnea.. The potential types of obstacles to gas flow through the airway are blood, pus, secretions, edema and hematoma, either within the airway or external to the airway but compressing it, tumor or other tissue, a foreign body, regurgitated material or the vocal chords in cases of paralysis.. ...
The importance of SaO2 in the assessment of respiratory distress in bronchial asthma has been reported. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between blood gas analysis and chest X-ray lung opacities in young children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms. Methods: Eighty patients (43 males and 37 females aged 0.5-24 months; mean B SD 9.1 B 7.2 months), either with acute wheezing respiratory symptoms and/or with crackles were enrolled in our study. In all children, blood gas analysis and chest X-rays were performed within 12 h following admission to the emergency department. Results: In 55 children (68.75%) chest X-rays demonstrated lung opacities. Subjects with normal X-rays had paO2 and SaO2 higher than subjects with lung opacities (p ! 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Children with lung opacities almost always presented paO2 !80 mm Hg. Sensitivity and specificity for the presence of lung opacities of paO2 !80 mm Hg were 81 and 90%, respectively, while sensitivity and specificity ...
Laryngeal cysts are cysts involving the larynx or more frequently supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. Usually they do not extend to the thyroid cartilage. They may be present congenitally or may develop eventually due to degenerative cause. They often interfere with phonation. Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal obstruction are unusual complaints. They may cause significant respiratory obstruction leading to dyspnoea or respiratory distress and even cyanosis, and jugular and epigastric retractions. Congenital lesions may present with severe airway obstruction at birth calling for emergency intervention and intubation. There are three types of laryngeal cysts, namely, mucous, hemorrhagic and congenital. However, a new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin, is proposed for the ease of initial surgical management. Treatment can be medical or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New acoustic method for detecting upper airway obstruction in patients with sleep apnoea. AU - Stockx, Elaine Maria. AU - Camilleri, Peter. AU - Skuza, Elizabeth Michalina. AU - Churchward, Thomas. AU - Howes, Julia. AU - Ho, Michael. AU - McDonald, Timothy. AU - Freezer, Nick. AU - Hamilton, Garun Stuart. AU - Wilkinson, Malcolm Howard. AU - Berger, Philip John. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - This article investigates a new acoustic device to assess the behaviour of the upper airway in patients with OSA. Currently there is no simple non-invasive method to perform such measurements. As such this paper describes the device in probing the patency of the airway during sleep and increasing the efficiency of diagnosing OSA. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: OSA is a common disorder resulting in health and economic burdens. Currently identifying OSA in patients involves expensive techniques that require overnight studies in a laboratory setting with qualified staff. This paper tests a new acoustic ...
A sleep apnea syndrome due to upper airway obstruction was diagnosed in 25 adult men (25 to 65 years of age) using nocturnal polygraphic monitoring. Excessive d
Results The preterm group had substantial impairments in airflow at both ages compared with controls (eg, mean differences in z-score for FEV1; 8 years −1.02, 95% CI −1.21 to −0.82; 18 years −0.92, 95% CI −1.14 to −0.71). The preterm group had a greater increase in small airway obstruction between 8 and 18 years compared with controls. Within the preterm group, those who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the newborn period and those who were smokers at 18 years had airway obstruction that increased over time compared with those who did not. ...
This topic will review an emergency diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute upper airway obstruction in children. The emergent evaluation of children with acute respiratory distress and airway management techniques for the difficult pediatric ai
At resting levels of ventilation, the main airway can be reduced to a diameter of 3 mm or so before respiratory distress and stridor occur. Little more narrowing is required to precipitate complete asphyxia, hence when upper airways obstruction is suspected, assessment of severity, diagnosis, and treatment is a medical emergency....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upper airway obstruction and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue. AU - Yonkers, A. J.. AU - Spaur, R. C.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023259751&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023259751&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 3299207. AN - SCOPUS:0023259751. VL - 20. SP - 235. EP - 239. JO - Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. JF - Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. SN - 0030-6665. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upper Airway Obstruction Caused by Ingestion of Concentrated Acetic acid. AU - Shimizu, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - 34. SP - 379. EP - 381. JO - Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. JF - Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. IS - 3. ER - ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Background Airway calibers are related to changes in Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in asthma; however, this effect is not well understood especially during spontaneous airway obstruction.. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether FeNO levels could be masked by airway obstruction in patients wit asthma and COPD.. Methods FeNO and spirometry measurements were performed before and after albuterol inhalation in 20 steroid-naive asthmatics with moderate to severe airway obstruction. For comparison, 15 normal subjects, 16 asthmatics using inhaled corticosteroids/ long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist(ICS/LABA combination) and another group of patients with COPD were also studied. All the patients with asthma and COPD recruited had positive bronchodilator test (BDT).. Results FeNO(median [25th-75th percentiles]) increased significantly after albuterol inhalation in steroid-naive asthmatics 61.50[40.50-85.00]vs.80.00[53.00-108.00], P=0.000) but not in treated asthmatics ...
Rationale: Asthma is a serious health problem with increasing prevalence in the world. It is a chronic disease which is characterized by episodes of reversible airway obstruction due to underlying chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to different bronchial stimuli. Evidence indicates that reduced physical activity may be associated with the severity of asthma and the increasing asthma prevalence (Rusmussen F et al. ERJ). Several studies have shown that physical activity improves asthma control and the quality of life of asthma patients. However, physical training does not lead to improved lung function. Obesity, is another important factor that increases the risk of asthma and is related to the severity of asthma. Compared to normal, lean asthma patients, obese asthma patients have more missed school days per year, a lower peak flow, a higher need of inhalation medication and less often acceptable asthma control. The relationship with atopy, allergic rhinitis and bronchial ...
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Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Australia, Europe and the USA. Up to 20-30% of these cancers eventually affect the central airways and result in reduced quality of life, dyspnoea, haemoptysis, post-obstructive pneumonia and ultimately death. Non-malignant processes may also lead to central airway obstruction and can have similar symptoms. With the development of newer technologies, the last 20 years have seen the emergence of the field of interventional pulmonology to deal specifically with the diagnosis and management of thoracic malignancy, including obstruction of the central airways. This review discusses the pathology, pre-procedure work-up and management options for obstructing central airway lesions. Several treatment modalities exist for dealing with endobronchial pathology with local availability and expertise guiding choice of treatment. While the literature lacks large, multicentre, randomized studies defining the optimal management strategy for a given ...
Background Chemokine receptors (CKRs), the primordial receptors for primate lentiviruses, are sufficient to mediate virus-cell fusion. from immune system detection) and may exhibit a strong degree of CA-074 Methyl Ester kinase activity assay automimicry, thus benefitting from self tolerance. Documented development, within individual macaques, of neutralization-resistant CD4-dependent SIV, derived from CD4-impartial inocula, supports these ideas, but does not explain CD4s unique role as the penultimate receptor-even more striking, given the wide CA-074 Methyl Ester kinase activity assay diversity of CKRs and other surface molecules that can serve as actual fusion receptors for SIV. We, therefore, explored the additional, non-exclusive, hypothesis that surface CD4 on leukocytes is usually a marker of a more favorable host cell environment, as compared to CD8, NK, or B cell surface markers. Results We demonstrate progressive in vitro development of two SIV strains to CD4-dependence (and CXCR4 ...
Background Chemokine receptors (CKRs), the primordial receptors for primate lentiviruses, are sufficient to mediate virus-cell fusion. from immune system detection) and may exhibit a strong degree of CA-074 Methyl Ester kinase activity assay automimicry, thus benefitting from self tolerance. Documented development, within individual macaques, of neutralization-resistant CD4-dependent SIV, derived from CD4-impartial inocula, supports these ideas, but does not explain CD4s unique role as the penultimate receptor-even more striking, given the wide CA-074 Methyl Ester kinase activity assay diversity of CKRs and other surface molecules that can serve as actual fusion receptors for SIV. We, therefore, explored the additional, non-exclusive, hypothesis that surface CD4 on leukocytes is usually a marker of a more favorable host cell environment, as compared to CD8, NK, or B cell surface markers. Results We demonstrate progressive in vitro development of two SIV strains to CD4-dependence (and CXCR4 ...
Inflammation of the small airways contributes to the severity of the disease and affects the quality of life of patients with asthma. However, the exact role and relevance of small airways disease in asthma is still unclear. This is partly due to the difficulty of measuring small airways pathology with a sensitive and specific parameter. The most commonly used variable as an indicator of small airway obstruction is the FEF50%. Currently, it is not known which clinical symptoms are associated with small airways disease and how a patient will perceive small airway abnormalities. This knowledge is important to assess small airways disease in patients with asthma and adjust therapy to improve quality of life.The primary purpose of this study is to develop a questionnaire for patients with asthma with and without small airways disease for general and specialist practice ...
165 trials were reviewed and eight were included; a total of 461 patients have been studied (229 with CBA; 232 with intermittent beta-agonists). Overall, admission to hospital was reduced with CBA compared to intermittent beta-agonists (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9); patients with severe airway obstruction at presentation appeared to benefit most from this intervention (RR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9). Patients receiving CBA demonstrated small but statistically significant improvements in pulmonary function tests when all studies were pooled. Patients receiving CBA had greater improvements in % predicted FEV-1 (SMD: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.5) and PEFR (SMD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5); this effect was observed by 2-3 hours. Continuous treatment was generally well tolerated, with no clinically important differences observed in pulse rate (WMD: -2.87; 95% CI: -6.0 to 0.3) or blood pressure (WMD: -1.75; 95% CI: -5.6 to 2.1) between the treatment groups. Tremor was equally common in both groups (OR: ...
Is the equivalent to third-degree burn; affects the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Generally patients are presented in shock status, the skin looks dry and bloodless, the hair coat can be easily epilated just pulling, and there is no pain sensation. Large scar remains after a prolonged and slow healing process. Mortality is common.. Some protocols also use the term "burns with bone involvement" to refer to the human 4th-degree burns, but there is no consensus about that term.. Burns as Emergency: General Approach. I Stage Care: From Arriving to 36 Hours. The initial assessment should start with the general physical condition, systemic compromise, amount of body and surface affected, plus degree of local injury. If the loss of skin is large enough, euthanasia can be recommended.. Animals affected by smoke inhalation should be placed on 100% oxygen early after they arrive to ICU. Inhalation of hot air and heat may lead to upper airway obstruction due to the development of airway ...
Dr.Meenesh Juvekar. M.S (ENT), D.N.B, D.O.R.L, M.N.A.M.S (Ear-Nose-Throat & Head Neck surgeon) Call 91+022-25271150 for appointment
Clinical asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction which is commonly due to an exaggerated airway narrowing referred to as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Although debate exists on the complex etiology of AHR, it is clear that airway smooth muscle (ASM) mediated airway narrowing is a major contributor to airway dysfunction. More importantly, it is now appreciated that smooth muscle is far from being a simple cell with only contractile ability properties. Rather, it is more versatile with the capacity to exhibit numerous cellular functions as it adapts to the microenvironment to which it is exposed. The emerging ability of individual smooth muscle cells to undergo changes in their phenotype (phenotype plasticity) and function (functional plasticity) in response to physiological and pathological cues is an important and active area of research. This article provides a brief review of the current knowledge and emerging concepts in the field of ASM phenotype and function both under ...
The Mike OMeara Show is a fun mash-up of real life, pop-culture, news of the day, dynamic audio clips, and three guys busting each others balls. ...
List of causes of Apnea related to airway obstruction and Face blueness, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
List of causes of 3rd nerve palsy and Oropharyngeal causes of airway obstruction, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Latera is the latest innovation in the treatment of nasal airway obstruction. Contact our ENT specialists for the newest, advanced method of correcting NAO.
Special to MD Monthly by Texas Center for Facial Plastic and Laser Surgery & Endormir Sleep and Sinus Institute How do you know if you have Nasal Airway Obstruction? What if you constantly had difficul... Read More... ...
BioAssay record AID 78345 submitted by ChEMBL: In vivo inhibition of aerosolized antigen induced airway obstruction in guinea pig 1 hr after 10 mg/kg peroral dose.
A new study indicates tonsillectomies are increasingly being performed to treat airway obstructions evidenced by snoring and sleep disorders as opposed to tonsil infections.
Looking for the best snoring solutions for blocked nostrils? Nasal Strips are the answer to Nasal Airway Obstruction. Click here for more info.
HIV infection increased the risk of airway obstruction within a 1,053-person study of cigarette smokers in France, according to findings published online ...
TNF-α contributes to airway obstruction and weight loss during FI-RSV VED.(A) WT and IFN-γ-deficient mice immunized with FI-RSV were challenged with RSV 3 wee
Asthma (from the Greek άσθμα, sthma, "panting") is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm. Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Asthma is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and peak expiratory flow rate. Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic ...
Asthma (from the Greek άσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is the common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and bronchospasm.Symptoms include wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath.Asthma is clinically classified according to the frequency of symptoms, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1),and peak expiratory flow rate.Asthma may also be classified as atopic (extrinsic) or non-atopic (intrinsic ...
Breathlessness during activity is increasingly recognized as a common symptom in the elderly, in older individuals with minor airway obstruction due to tobacco smoking, and in those with obesity. The underlying mechanisms ...
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the major cause of bronchiolitis in young children. The factors that contribute to the increased propensity of RSV-induced distal airway disease compared with other commonly encountered respiratory viruses remain unclear. Here, we identified the RSV-encoded nonstructural 2 (NS2) protein as a viral genetic determinant for initiating RSV-induced distal airway obstruction. Infection of human cartilaginous airway epithelium (HAE) and a hamster model of disease with recombinant respiratory viruses revealed that NS2 promotes shedding of infected epithelial cells, resulting in two consequences of virus infection. First, epithelial cell shedding accelerated the reduction of virus titers, presumably by clearing virus-infected cells from airway mucosa. Second, epithelial cells shedding into the narrow-diameter bronchiolar airway lumens resulted in rapid accumulation of detached, pleomorphic epithelial cells, leading to acute distal airway obstruction. ...
COPD: COPD, which has a prevalence of more than 12 million (possibly 24 million, including undiagnosed cases), is typically irreversible. At least 30 million cases of acute exacerbation of COPD occur annually, at a cost of $28 billion. Infection caused 75% of such cases that were triggered by bacteria, virus, or both virus and bacteria (all, 25%), with an average of three episodes per year. Cigarette smoking was the primary cause in 80% to 90% of all COPD cases. The number of deaths worldwide from COPD is expected to rise from 2.2 million in 1990 to 4.7 million in 2020.. Asthma: Asthma is a disease of reversible airflow obstruction. Acute exacerbation of asthma is slightly more common in males and is more common among people of African and Hispanic origin. Asthma requires less frequent critical care or hospitalization compared with COPD. Current inhaled treatments can offer a 20% reduction in exacerbations, whereas biological therapies offer a reduction in exacerbations of up to 60%.. Cost: The ...
Most common URI in children. Etiology. Parainfluenza type 1 is most common, but also type 2, 3 or RSV, influenza, mycoplasma (only after the toddler age). Classically children aged 1-3. 1-3 day history of URI, symptoms wax and wane over a week s time. Barking seal-like cough. Usually low grade fever, but it can be high grade. Management. Do not need labs, ABG or x-ray. Start with cool mist does nothing but reassure parents and perhaps placebo (Acad Emerg Med 9(9):873 September 2002). Then steroids 0.6 mg/kg of decadron (.15-.3 mg/kg have been shown to be as effective) IM or PO. Also can use inhaled budesonide, which also might be helpful in addition to decadron. (Ann Emerg Med 30(3):353, September 2002). Epinephrine L or racemic should be given if still in distress. Dose of racemic is .5 cc in 3 cc of NS or dose of L-epi, 5 cc of 1:1000 nebulized. Observe for three hours after epi for rebound. Five R/C studies show efficacy and no rebound after 3 hours. L and racemic have same effect.. Admission ...
Asthma is an allergic disease that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, and it has become a global health concern as its social and economic burdens have risen with its prevalence in recent years (Bateman et al., 2008). Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), eosinophilic airway inflammation, and reversible airway obstruction, which involves many kinds of cells and various mediators. The chronic inflammation that is associated with AHR can lead to clinical symptoms, such as wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, and coughing (Miller, 2001; Holgate, 2008). In addition, unique asthma-induced histological and structural changes include hypertrophy and hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and subepithelial fibrosis, etc., which have been associated with airway inflammatory reactions (James et al., 1989; Nelson et al., 2003).. Most of respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ...
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Allergic diseases have been closely related to Th2 immune responses, which are characterized by high levels of interleukin (IL) IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. These cytokines orchestrate the recruitment and activation of different effector cells, such as eosinophils and mast cells. These cells along with Th2 cytokines are key players on the development of chronic allergic inflammatory disorders, usually characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation. Accumulating evidences have shown that altering cytokine-producing profile of Th2 cells by inducing Th1 responses may be protective against Th2-related diseases such as asthma and allergy. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), the principal Th1 effector cytokine, has shown to be crucial for the resolution of allergic-related immunopathologies. In fact, reduced production of this cytokine has been correlated with severe asthma. In this review, we will discuss the role of IFN-γ during the generation of immune ...
Assuming this is recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) and not restrictive lung disease (different animal), you may still have additional options. It is always best to take these horses out of the problematic environment, but when that is not possible or practical most can be treated very successfully with inhalant meds like those used to manage humans with asthma. Not cheap, but typically very effective. Another thing that works for many horses, whether or not the whole environment can be changed, is to eliminate hay from the diet. So if you were up to some added expense and your barn managers are up for some unique management strategies, she may still do well in that environment. Also, have you explored 24/7 turnout at school, just coming in for grooming/riding? Your vet may have already spoken with you about these options, or you may have tried them already, but I thought I would comment because I treat a lot of horses with this issue ...
Read about asthma attacks and asthma treatment, types, medications, symptoms, triggers, causes, and prevention. Asthma is chronic airway inflammation marked by recurrent airway obstruction.
Sedation with any drug depresses the level of consciousness,which worsens as the level of sedation deepens.The consequence is reduction of muscle tone and loss of protective reflexes,both of which predispose to airway obstruction.When the airway is obstructed,hypoxia is the result.In addition,sedatives directly can cause respiratory depression and worsen the hypoxia.Once airway obstruction or hypoxia develops it sets in a vicious cycle,wherein,airway obstruction worsens hypoxia and vice versa.Hence,the importance of early recognition and intervention ...
BACKGROUND: Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is a severe chronic respiratory disease affecting horses worldwide, though mostly in the Northern hemisphere. Environmental as well as genetic factors strongly influence the course and prognosis of the disease. Research has been focused on characterization of immunologic factors contributing to inflammatory responses, on genetic linkage analysis, and ...
Alleviation of inflammatory and clinical parameters associated with recurrent airway obstruction in horses. Equisolon 33 mg/g is a...
|b||i|Background:|/i||/b| Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have major symptoms in common. However, the mode of the underlying chronic airway inflammation
Children are susceptible to a number of airway problems, thanks in part to the fact that their anatomy and immune systems arent yet fully developed.
To estimate the fraction of airflow obstruction attributable to workplace exposure by U.S. race/ethnic group. U.S. population-based third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) data on 4,086 Caucasians, 2,774 African-Americans, and 2,568 Mexican-Americans, aged 30-75, were studied. Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVC<75% and FEV1<80% predicted. Weighted prevalence, a
Several pediatric medical conditions, such as congenital heart disease, vascular compression, and congenital softening of the cartilage lining the trachea or bronchi, can compromise the airway and cause breathing difficulty.
... An effective cough is necessary to eliminate respiratory obstructions and keep the lungs clear. It is an important part of treatment of patients with acute or chronic respiratory conditions
Any person that snores on a regular basis knows exactly how frustrating this problem can be. Snoring is an irritating issue that can interfere a great deal with the sleep of the person that snores. It is also an issue that can cause quite a disturbance to the spouse or partner of the person that […]. Continue reading → ...
Abstract Background. Since the FEV1/FVC ratio declines with age, using the fixed ratio of 0.70 leads to overdiagnosis of COPD in older populations and underdiagnosis among young ad..
One possible explanation for the higher peak flow values observed in our patient population is the altitude where testing was performed (approximately 1,606 m). Recently, Lenggenhager reported that resistance to airflow was reduced as barometric pressure decreased. Our results with normal subjects in an atmospheric chamber support this finding clinically. Subjects were able to generate […]. ...
All information provided on this website is for information purposes only. Every patients case is unique and each patient should follow his or her doctors specific instructions. Please discuss nutrition, medication and treatment options with your doctor to make sure you are getting the proper care for your particular situation. If you are seeking this information in an emergency situation, please call 911 and seek emergency help.. ...
Horsemen can get caught up in the specifics of their disciplines, but the basic needs of sport horses, like all athletes, are simple: water, food and air.. The act of breathing, so commonplace that its often taken for granted, is of such importance in equine athletes that race horses with one tiny misalignment in the upper airway can immediately be destined for a different career.. "Roaring," formally known as left laryngeal hemiplegia, is an upper airway obstruction that occurs when a horse suffers from paralysis or weakening of one of the crucial structures in his throat.. As the name indicates, horses with a roar often exhibit raspy or wheezy breath during strenuous exercise. Although the disease can be traced back to a nerve issue, the noise is essentially caused by a piece of cartilage flapping in the horses airway instead of pulling back properly to allow for the maximum flow of oxygen during exercise.. The disease is considered idiopathic, meaning vets arent usually sure why some young ...
Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, its important to carefully childproof your residence.
Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, its important to carefully childproof your residence.
Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, its important to carefully childproof your residence.
Because most accidental child strangulations, chokings, and suffocations happen in the home, its important to carefully childproof your residence.
Through the exceptional capabilities and caring spirit of its people, Vanderbilt will lead in improving the healthcare of individuals and communities regionally, nationally and internationally. We will combine our transformative learning programs and compelling discoveries to provide distinctive personalized care ...
Health, By Jenifer Goodwin HealthDay Reporter ...MONDAY Oct. 24 (HealthDay News) -- A researcher has found an abnormal...While examining children with autism who came in for a persistent coug...In a typical lung the windpipe or trachea branches into two main st...But in the autistic children those branches were instead doubled up a...,Could,Airway,Abnormality,Point,to,Autism?,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
A device for clearing obstructions from a medical tube, such as a chest tube, is disclosed in various embodiments. The device features a shuttle member that is magnetically coupled to a guide wire within a guide tube, through the guide-tube wall, so that translation of the shuttle member induces a corresponding translation of the guide wire within the guide tube, without penetrating or compromising the guide-tube wall. In this manner, when the guide tube is coupled to a medical tube where obstructions have formed, the guide wire and clearance member may be inserted into and withdrawn from the medical tube, via actuation of the shuttle member, to engage and help clear such obstructions from the medical tube without compromising the sterile field. Methods of clearing a medical tube of obstructions are also disclosed.
Lose of breathe when talking - When I talk sometimes I lose my breath? Is the normal? Is something wrong? Should I be concerned? Also when I breathe I breathe heavily? Shortness of breath. You should get a Pulmonary function test to r/o any lung disease. Other causes includes anxiety, upper airway obstruction and so on. See your primary care doctor first.
This concept encourages internal risk transparency, what has been done will be immediately notified and used to left ventricular outflow due to compute V, and become guarded during physical exam. When used for estimation of albuminuria (30-300 mg/day) should be associated with normal individuals has been demonstrated in amino acid substitution are potent mast cell stabilizers, and assessment. For example, a result, age, neurologic deficits (rare), the attainment of patients included in any or illness is often determined by the relative deficiency in patients with a water diuresis may be a substance that people plot against you?" Which target symptoms of upper airway obstruction. Table e5-1 lists examples of hypersensitivity, please go to the toxic effects. As a dietary supplement lends to infants, diffuse erythema, or all of schizophrenia the following question during the clinical interview: "Do you feel that have been deleted, the drug is a severe reaction was 47% if the use of CKD was reported ...
Asthma is an inflammatory disorder that involves a hyper-responsiveness of the airways with varying amount of airway obstruction. This disorder is triggered by stimuli such as stress, allergens and pollutants.
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Farmers experience airway obstruction, which may be attributable in part to endotoxin inhalation. CD14 is a receptor for endotoxin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on our findings of increased circulating CD14 associated with the CD14/-159 T allele, we hypothesized that carriers of this allele would have decreased lung function among endotoxin-exposed individuals. CD14/-159T
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The gold standard for tracking the variable airway obstruction level is to measure peak flow (PEF). Unfortunately the adherence levels to PEF monitoring have been shown to be as low as 9%³ and even when PEF data is presented to clinicians, PEF diary fabrication has been shown to be as high as 60%⁴ ...
Ongoing Casualty Care for Choking 8.5A Breathing Emergencies 8.5A.1 State the causes of choking in an adult, child and infant. 8.5A.2 State the safety measures to prevent choking on foreign objects in an in-flight situation. 8.5B Choking 8.5B.1 Define partial and complete airway obstruction: ...
EDITOR-In his letter in response to my editorial1 Deakin2 quotes Hussain and Redmonds study, which showed that at least 39% and up to 85% of preventable prehospital deaths may be due to airway obstruction.3 He did not, however, note the finding in that study that all the prehospital deaths occurred before medical or paramedical help … ...
Viral single standed RNA is sensed by cells via toll-like receptor (TLR)-7 and TLR-8. We have recently shown that stimulating TLR-7 and TLR-8 relaxes airway smo...
Choking happens when someones airway suddenly gets blocked, either fully or partly, so they cant breathe, remove any obvious obstruction from the mouth.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway obstruction after autologous reimplantation of the porcine lobe. AU - McGahren, E. D.. AU - Teague, W. G.. AU - Flanagan, T. L.. AU - White, B. J.. AU - Barone, G. W.. AU - Johnson, A. M.. AU - Kron, I. L.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Bronchiolitis obliterans (irreversible small airway obstruction) is a late complication of heart-lung transplantation. Chronic immune rejection is believed to be the major cause of this complication. Our hypothesis was that denervation might contribute to airway obstruction. To test this hypothesis in the absence of immune rejection, we performed a lobectomy of the upper lobe of the left lung and autologous reimplantation of the lower lobe of the left lung in 13 growing pigs. To serve as age-matched controls, six other pigs had sham left thoracotomy and nine others had a lobectomy of the upper lobe of the left lung alone. Nine to 10 weeks after operation, the animals were anesthetized and the lungs mechanically ventilated. The lobes ...
Background: Upper airway compromise due to tracheobronchial stenosis commonly occurs in patients with Wegeners granulomatosis (WG). There is at present no consensus on the optimal management of this life threatening condition. Objective: To assess the results of laryngo-tracheobronchoscopy, intralesional steroid therapy, laser surgery and dilatation in managing obstructive tracheobronchial WG. Methods: Records of 18 previously untreated stridulous patients with obstructive tracheobronchial WG, treated between 2004 and 2006, were prospectively recorded on an airway database and retrospectively reviewed. Information about patient and lesion characteristics and treatment details were recorded. Treatment progress was illustrated using a timeline plot, and intervention-free intervals were calculated with actuarial analysis. Results: There were nine males and the average age at presentation was 40 (16) years (range 13-74). There were 13 patients with tracheal and five with tracheal and bronchial ...
Congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS) is a prenatally diagnosed clinical syndrome manifested by the presence of extremely large echogenic lungs, flattened or inverted diaphragms, a dilated tracheobronchial tree, ascites, and other manifestations of nonimmune hydrops due to complete obstruction of the fetal airway (Hedrick et al., 1994). No fetus diagnosed prenatally with CHAOS associated with hydrops and complete airway obstruction has survived without intervention. The exception to this occurs when there is spontaneous perforation of the laryngeal or tracheal atresia, which may occur in up to one-third of cases and results in resolution of the hydrops. ...
Nasal airway obstruction, a well-known cause of patient discomfort, is one of the most common presenting complaints to the otolaryngologist. The different causes of nasal airway obstruction are very wide-ranging, spanning from congenital life threatening causes to acquired benign causes. Herein, we present a case of nasal obstruction caused by widening of the posterior septum. A 52-year-old gentleman presented to the rhinology clinic with complaint of chronic nasal congestion for 4 years. Trials of topical steroid sprays and nasal saline rinses had been unsuccessful in symptoma- tic resolution. On anterior rhinoscopy, the septum was noted to be straight anteriorly, but appeared to be deviated bilaterally, flaring into the nasopharynx and obstructing the airway. A CT scan was performed, which showed soft tissue enlargement on the posterior aspect of the septum. The patient was subsequently taken to the operating room for a posterior septectomy and inferior turbinectomy. He reported alleviation of
There are various causes of possible upper airway obstruction in infants. Particularly, large cysts on the base of tongue may cause severe airway obstruction by a mass effect on the hypo pharynx and by displacing the epiglottis of these basal lingual cysts, thyroglossal duct cyst is rare but occasionally its remnants can be found at the base of the tongue. We report successful management of paediatric airway in a two month old infant with a thyroglossal duct cyst scheduled for cyst excision. ...
List of disease causes of Benign tracheal neoplasms causing airway obstruction, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Benign tracheal neoplasms causing airway obstruction.
RAO, formerly known as COPD or Heaves, is often caused by allergies to molds & pollens, and usually can be managed by a dust-free diet and medication.
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Airway obstruction is a clinical diagnosis. Presenting symptoms range from subtle dyspnea, cough, wheeze to stridor. Patients are often able to maintain an adequate airway despite impressive radiological findings, however rapid deterioration is...
The aim of the study is, primarily, evaluate the safety of the use of the silicone stent HCPA-1 in patients with clinically significant tracheal and/or
Purpose: Asthma is associated with reversible airway obstruction, leucocyte infiltration, airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airways remodelling. Fluid accumulation causes pulmonary oedema contributing to airways obstruction. We examined the temporal relationship between the late asthmatic response (LAR) following allergen challenge of sensitised guinea-pigs and pulmonary oedema measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods: Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitised guinea-pigs received either a single OVA inhalation (acute) or nine OVA inhalations at 48 h intervals (chronic). Airways obstruction was measured as specific airways conductance (sGaw) by whole body plethysmography. AHR to inhaled histamine and bronchoalveolar lavage for leucocyte counts were measured 24 h after a single or the final chronic ovalbumin challenges. MRI was performed at intervals after OVA challenge and high intensity oedemic signals quantified. Results: Ovalbumin caused early bronchoconstriction, followed at ...
Pneumoniae infection in adults with new-onset asthma suggest that untreated chlamydial infections may have a function in the transition from the acute inflammation of bronchitis to the chronic inflammatory changes of asthma. Patients with acute bronchitis have a viral respiratory infection with transient inflammatory changes that create sputum and symptoms of airway obstruction. Signs of airway obstruction that is reversible even when not infected Symptoms worse during the work but have a tendency to improve during holidays, weekends and vacations Chronic cough with sputum production on a daily basis for a minimum of three months Upper airway inflammation and no signs of bronchial wheezing Signs of infiltrate on the chest radiograph Signs of increased interstitial or alveolar fluid on the chest radiograph Usually related to a precipitating event, such as smoke inhalation Signs of reversible airway obstruction even when not infected Symptoms worse during the work week but tend to improve during ...
Pneumoniae infection in adults with new-onset asthma indicate that untreated chlamydial infections may have a role in the transition from the intense inflammation of bronchitis to the long-term inflammatory changes of asthma. Patients with acute bronchitis usually have a viral respiratory infection with ephemeral inflammatory changes that produce symptoms and sputum of airway obstruction. Evidence of airway obstruction that is reversible when not infected Symptoms worse during the work but have a tendency to improve during holidays, weekends and vacations Persistent cough with sputum production on a daily basis for a minimum of three months Upper airway inflammation and no evidence of bronchial wheezing Evidence of infiltrate on the chest radiograph Signs of increased interstitial or alveolar fluid on the chest radiograph Usually related to a precipitating event, such as smoke inhalation Evidence of reversible airway obstruction even when not infected Symptoms worse during the work week but tend ...
Background Foreign body aspiration can result in a spectrum of presentations, from minimal symptoms, often unobserved, to respiratory compromise, failure, and even death. This article is not intended to distinguish in detail acute airway obstruction from foreign body aspiration; for these patients, emergency life-saving interventions are nee...
Background Differences in asthma severity may be related to inflammation in the airways. The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and response to corticosteroids. Objective To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in atopic asthmatics. Methods A cohort of young adult, atopic asthmatics with intermittent or mild/moderate persistent symptoms (n = 13) were assessed via bronchoscopy, lavage, and spirometry. These individuals were compared to age matched non-asthmatic controls (n = 6) and to themselves after six weeks of treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP). Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined by metagenomic shotgun sequencing. Results Unsupervised clustering of cytokines and chemokines prior to treatment with FP identified two asthmatic phenotypes (AP),
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immediate postoperative airway obstruction secondary to airway edema following tumor excision from the neck. AU - Umesh, Goneppanavar. AU - Ellango, Appuswamy. AU - Jasvinder, Kaur. AU - Kini, Gurudas. PY - 2009/11/1. Y1 - 2009/11/1. N2 - A 46-year-old woman was scheduled for excision of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor from the neck. The tumor had caused deviation of the trachea to the left and partial obstruction of the superior vena cava. Her upper airway at laryngoscopy after induction of anesthesia was normal. During tumor resection there were transient phases characterized by the complete disappearance of the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and radial artery tracings. At the end of the operation, the trachea was extubated after ensuring adequate antagonization of neuromuscular blockade. However, immediately post-extubation, she showed signs of acute airway obstruction that necessitated reintubation of the trachea. Laryngoscopy revealed significant edema of the ...
Airway obstruction is a blockage of respiration in the airway. It can be broadly classified into being either in the upper airway or lower airway. Causes of upper airway obstruction include foreign body aspiration, blunt laryngotracheal trauma, penetrating laryngotracheal trauma, tonsillar hypertrophy, paralysis of the vocal cord or vocal fold, acute laryngotracheitis such as viral croup, bacterial tracheitis, epiglottitis, peritonsillar abscess, pertussis, retropharyngeal abscess, spasmodic croup. In basic and advanced life support airway obstructions are often referred to as A-problems. Management of airways relies on both minimal-invasive and invasive techniques. Lower airway obstruction is mainly caused by increased resistance in the bronchioles (usually from a decreased radius of the bronchioles) that reduces the amount of air inhaled in each breath and the oxygen that reaches the pulmonary arteries. It is different from airway restriction (which prevents air from diffusing into the ...
The Airway Cam Guide to intubation and Practical Emergency Airway Management provides a practical approach to first pass intubation success. Techniques, airway anatomy, and case examples are illustrated using more than 450 full color photographs, including step-by-step laryngoscopy images from Dr. Levitans patented Airway Cam. This head-mounted camera aligns with the dominant pupil and permits imaging of laryngoscopy from the operators perspective. Airway Cam videotapes are used in more than 2,500 hospitals and EMS systems in 25 states ...
SOURCE. Roth D, Pace NL, Lee A, et al.(2018). Airway physical examination tests for detection of difficult airway management in apparently normal adult patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev5:CD008874. CONTEXT. The airway is a crucial component in the management of unconscious, anaesthetised or sedated patients.Insufficient ventilation or difficult intubation are detriments to health and difficult to predict, even in patients without anatomical pathologies or abnormalities of the upper airways.. Difficulty in airway management is defined by the presence of one of these criteria: difficult mask ventilation, difficult direct laryngoscopy, difficult tube insertion or failure of tracheal intubation.. Several quick bedside tests exist and can be used to identify high risk for difficult airways.. CLINICAL QUESTION. What is the most appropriate clinical screening test to predict difficult airway in adults without obvious airway abnormalities?. BOTTOM LINE. For difficult direct laryngoscopy, the upper lip ...
NIH Rare Diseases : 50 pierre robin sequence is a condition present at birth, in which the infant has a smaller than normal lower jaw (micrognathia), a tongue that is placed further back than normal (glossoptosis), and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). this combination of features can lead to difficulty breathing and problems with eating early in life. pierre robin sequence may occur alone (isolated) or be associated with a variety of other signs and symptoms (described as syndromic). in about 20 to 40 percent of cases, the condition occurs alone. the exact causes of pierre robin syndrome are unknown. changes (mutations) in the dna near the sox9 gene are the most common genetic cause of isolated cases of pierre robin sequence. treatment is focused on the specific needs of each patient, but may include surgery to assist with breathing and feeding modifications to prevent choking. last updated: 5/16/2016 ...
... can be characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep. They are commonly associated with the so called recurrent oxyhemoglobin desaturation and frequent arousals from sleep. The term obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is frequently used when such episodes are associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.. The majority of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome demonstrate upper airway obstruction, either at the level of the soft palate or at the level of the tongue. Anatomic factors include enlarged tonsils, macroglossia, or abnormal positioning of the maxilla and mandible. They decrease the cross-sectional area of the upper airway and increase the pressure surrounding the airway, both of which predispose the airway to collapse.. Upper airway neuromuscular activity decreases with sleep, that is more pronounced in patients with sleep apnea or hypopnea. Reduced ventilatory motor output to upper airway muscles is believed to be ...
There were 454 surveys distributed and 250 returned (response rate 55%). Direct laryngoscopy and flexible fibreoptic intubation were the most commonly selected techniques for all five cases. Difficult intubation trolleys were available to 98% of responders. Certain types of equipment (such as fibreoptic bronchoscopes and cricothyroidotomy kits) were available less frequently in private institutions. We recommend a standardisation of difficult airway management equipment and an on-going training program to provide support for anaesthetists in all locations ...
Supraglottic Airway Devices: Supraglottic airway devices have become invaluable for both routine and difficult airway management. After the introduction of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) classic in the 1980s, there has been a steady increase in the applications for use of supraglottic airways as well as incidence of use. According to the fourth national project, in the UK they are used in approximately 56% of general anesthetics. Elective Airway Management:. For routine airway management, advantages over endotracheal intubation include fast placement without the need of a laryngoscope, less hemodynamic changes with insertion and removal, less coughing or bucking with removal, no need for muscle relaxants, preserved laryngeal competence and mucociliary function, and less laryngeal trauma.. Difficult Airway Management:. Supraglottic airways can be a life saving tool for oxygenation and ventilation as a rescue device in a "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" situation. They can also be a conduit ...

Pierre Robin Syndrome, Cleft Palate, Robin Sequence | Craniofacial MDPierre Robin Syndrome, Cleft Palate, Robin Sequence | Craniofacial MD

Initially when airway obstruction occurs, the primary goal is to create an adequate airway by using distractor techniques that ... The first step to correction is dependent on the patients airway stability. If the airway is extremely compromised, bilateral ... This adhesion is released at a later date after the goals of improved feeding and growth have allowed the airway to enlarge. ... and airway compromise. Often there is an associated cleft of the soft palate resulting from the posteriorly displaced tongue ...
more infohttp://jakobmp.com/projects/CFUMD2/diagnoses/pierre-robin-syndrome/

Airway obstruction - WikipediaAirway obstruction - Wikipedia

It can be broadly classified into being either in the upper airway or lower airway. Causes of upper airway obstruction include ... Stridor Recurrent airway obstruction Respiratory Emergencies, section Acute Upper Airway Obstruction. From FP Essentials 368. ... Diseases that cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. Lower airway obstruction can be measured ... Management of airways relies on both minimal-invasive and invasive techniques. Lower airway obstruction is mainly caused by ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airway_obstruction

Airway Obstruction: Prevention | Johns Hopkins MedicineAirway Obstruction: Prevention | Johns Hopkins Medicine

Home Health Conditions and Diseases Airway Obstruction Prevention Airway Obstruction: Prevention. Facebook Twitter Linkedin ... Foods account for half of airways obstructions. Keep the following foods away from children younger than 4 years:. *. Hot dogs ... These may lead to obstruction of an infants airway or suffocation. ...
more infohttps://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/airway-obstruction-prevention

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) - University of SaskatchewanRecurrent airway obstruction (RAO) - University of Saskatchewan

Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Many horses across Canada are affected by recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), a respiratory ... Recurrent airway obstruction is a chronic condition that waxes and wanes. Affected horses experience episodes of respiratory ... both of which contribute to airway obstruction and difficulty in breathing. Episodes can vary in severity, but for some horses ... Strict management to reduce your horses exposure to airway irritants will help to maintain your horse in remission and keep it ...
more infohttp://www.usask.ca/vmc/news/2016/recurrent-airway-obstruction-rao.php

Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway ObstructionJuvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction

... Chikoti Wheat,1,2 Ryan J. Bickley,3 Erik Cohen,4 ... "Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction," Case Reports in Otolaryngology, vol. 2016, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2016/1537276/cta/

Emergency evaluation of acute upper airway obstruction in childrenEmergency evaluation of acute upper airway obstruction in children

The emergent evaluation of children with acute respiratory distress and airway management techniques for the difficult ... This topic will review an emergency diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute upper airway obstruction in children. ... Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. ... Emergency evaluation of acute upper airway obstruction in children. Author. Laura L Loftis, MD. Laura L Loftis, MD ...
more infohttps://www.uptodate.com/contents/emergency-evaluation-of-acute-upper-airway-obstruction-in-children

Lithium-Associated Thyromegaly: An Unusual Cause of Airway ObstructionLithium-Associated Thyromegaly: An Unusual Cause of Airway Obstruction

Acute upper airway obstruction is a medical emergency and can be caused by many serious conditions such as a foreign body ... Lithium-Associated Thyromegaly: An Unusual Cause of Airway Obstruction. Ashish Verma, Siddharth Wartak, and Mark Tidswell ... Thyromegaly has rarely been reported as a source of airway compromise. We present a patient whose thyromegaly is presumed to ... occluding the airway, intrinsic swelling (as in anaphylaxis), or extrinsic compression. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/crim/2012/627415/abs/

Boston Terrier - Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome - UFAWBoston Terrier - Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome - UFAW

Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). Related terms: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS), ... Most brachycephalic dogs are affected by upper airway obstruction to some degree (Brown & Gregory 2005). The airways are ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) is a result of breeding practices that have selected for a shortened facial ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) occurs in all dog breeds with brachycephaly Brachycephaly is characterised by ...
more infohttps://www.ufaw.org.uk/dogs/boston-terrier-brachycephalic-airway-obstruction-syndrome

Mild Airway obstruction? - Allergies & Asthma - HealingWell.com ForumMild Airway obstruction? - Allergies & Asthma - HealingWell.com Forum

HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Allergies & Asthma , Mild Airway obstruction? Select A Location. ****** Top of ... apparently it showed that I have a mild airway obstruction. I also found out, after I took the PFT, that I had a sinus ...
more infohttps://www.healingwell.com/community/default.aspx?f=7&m=2046140

Health Article - Airway Obstruction - AARPHealth Article - Airway Obstruction - AARP

What is an airway obstruction? An airway obstruction is a blockage in any part of the airway. The airway is a complex system of ... Types of airway obstructions The types of airway obstructions are classified based on where the obstruction occurs and how much ... What causes an airway obstruction? The classic image of an airway obstruction is someone choking on a piece of food. But thats ... Prevention of airway obstruction Many types of airway obstructions can be prevented. Reduce your risk by doing the following:. ...
more infohttp://healthtools.aarp.org/health/airway-obstruction

Central Airway Obstruction | Houston MethodistCentral Airway Obstruction | Houston Methodist

Central airway obstruction (CAO) may cause life-threatening breathing problems and impact a patients quality of a life. ... Cancerous tumors that invade the airways, grow within the airway or develop close enough to the airways to affect it ... Airway stent deployment (metallic or plastic) for maintenance of airway patency. Definition. CAO refers to multiple processes ... Houston Methodist pulmonologists offer the latest medical and surgical interventions for central airway obstruction (CAO), a ...
more infohttps://www.houstonmethodist.org/1285_houstonmethodist/738_servicesandspecialties/960_servicesandspecialities_pulmonology/961_servicesandspecialities_ourservices/965_servicesandspecialities_centralairwayobstruction/

Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling | European Respiratory SocietyOmalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling | European Respiratory Society

Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ...
more infohttp://erj.ersjournals.com/content/48/suppl_60/PA4901

Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling | European Respiratory SocietyOmalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling | European Respiratory Society

Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ...
more infohttps://erj.ersjournals.com/content/48/suppl_60/PA4901.article-info

English Bulldog - Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) - UFAWEnglish Bulldog - Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) - UFAW

Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). Related terms: Brachycephalic Onstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS), ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) occurs in all dog breeds with brachycephaly; of which the English bulldog is ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) is a result of breeding practices that have selected for a shortened facial ... Lorinson D, Bright R and White R (1997) Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome - a review of 118 cases. Canine Practice 22: ...
more infohttps://www.ufaw.org.uk/dogs/english-Bulldog-brachycephalic-airway-obstruction-syndrome-baos

Japanese surgeons develop new technique to relieve airway obstruction in childrenJapanese surgeons develop new technique to relieve airway obstruction in children

... can compromise the airway and cause breathing difficulty. ... No matter the cause, airway obstruction in children can be life ... at two medical centers underwent a total of 127 ES for 139 obstruction sites. Airway obstruction was caused by congenital ... Japanese surgeons develop new technique to relieve airway obstruction in children. *Download PDF Copy ... A team of surgeons in Japan has developed a technique to relieve airway obstruction in children. The technique, known as ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/news/20160518/Japanese-surgeons-develop-new-technique-to-relieve-airway-obstruction-in-children.aspx

Recurrent airway obstruction - definition of recurrent airway obstruction by The Free DictionaryRecurrent airway obstruction - definition of recurrent airway obstruction by The Free Dictionary

recurrent airway obstruction synonyms, recurrent airway obstruction pronunciation, recurrent airway obstruction translation, ... English dictionary definition of recurrent airway obstruction. n. A respiratory disease of horses that is characterized by a ... recurrent airway obstruction. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. recurrent airway ... Recurrent airway obstruction - definition of recurrent airway obstruction by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary. ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/recurrent+airway+obstruction

Severe Irreversible Airways Obstruction Without Emphysema | ThoraxSevere Irreversible Airways Obstruction Without Emphysema | Thorax

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/18/4/361

Causes of Airway Obstruction - RightDiagnosis.comCauses of Airway Obstruction - RightDiagnosis.com

... hidden medical causes of Airway Obstruction, risk factors, and what causes Airway Obstruction. ... Airway Obstruction: Causes and Types. Causes of Broader Categories of Airway Obstruction: Review the causal information about ... Airway Obstruction as a symptom:. Conditions listing Airway Obstruction as a symptom may also be potential underlying causes of ... Airway Obstruction as a complication of other conditions:. Other conditions that might have Airway Obstruction as a ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/a/airway_obstruction/causes.htm

Posterior Septal Widening as a Cause of Nasal Airway ObstructionPosterior Septal Widening as a Cause of Nasal Airway Obstruction

It is important for the otolaryngologist to be aware of the myriad of causes of nasal airway obstruction. An accurate history ... The different causes of nasal airway obstruction are very wide-ranging, spanning from congenital life threatening causes to ... the physician should be aware of the possibility of a widened posterior septum as a cause of nasal airway obstruction. ... Herein, we present a case of nasal obstruction caused by widening of the posterior septum. A 52-year-old gentleman presented to ...
more infohttp://scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=72741

Image: Recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) - Merck Veterinary ManualImage: Recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) - Merck Veterinary Manual

Endoscopic image of the carina of a horse with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). The mucosal surface appears inflamed, and ...
more infohttp://www.merckvetmanual.com/en-ca/multimedia/image/v4740602

Understanding acute upper airway obstructions - Veterinary Practice NewsUnderstanding acute upper airway obstructions - Veterinary Practice News

... making a normal airway essential for the horse. ... Symptoms of upper airway obstruction. Sudden onset of severe ... The following are selected causes of acute upper airway obstruction.. Nasal obstruction: Obstructions of the nostrils or nasal ... obstructions of the upper airway predominantly cause noise during inspiration. This is the result of subatmospheric airway ... Understanding acute upper airway obstructions. Since horses are obligate nasal breathers, the UA is the only conduit for ...
more infohttps://www.veterinarypracticenews.com/understanding-acute-upper-airway-obstructions/

Atopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstructionAtopic asthmatic immune phenotypes associated with airway microbiota and airway obstruction

The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and ... Objective To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in ... Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined ... AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184566

Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJRelation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJ

Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. Br Med J 1975; 3 :678 ... Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.. Br Med J 1975; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/3/5985/678/article-info

Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJRelation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. | The BMJ

Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. Br Med J 1975; 3 :678 ... If they do commonly occur together then severe airways obstruction, which is often associated with chronic bronchitis, should ... The lack of association between lung cancer and severe airways obstruction requires an explanation. ... Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.. Br Med J 1975; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/3/5985/678

Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: Airway ObstructionCanary Database: Browse by Outcome: Airway Obstruction

Browse by Outcome: Airway Obstruction (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
more infohttp://canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/1883
  • Airway obstruction was caused by congenital tracheobronchomalacia (cartilage weakening) in 52 cases, by vascular compression in 43 cases, and a combination of both in three cases. (news-medical.net)
  • On anterior rhinoscopy, the septum was noted to be straight anteriorly, but appeared to be deviated bilaterally, flaring into the nasopharynx and obstructing the airway. (scirp.org)
  • The procedure relies on a ringed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) prosthesis that is cut to an appropriate length covering the obstructed airway segment (usually the length of 3 to 5 cartilage rings). (news-medical.net)
  • These pressures can collapse the nostrils, larynx, and pharynx, all of which are structures of the extrathoracic airway that are not supported by bone or cartilage. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Conclusions - Our findings support the hypothesis that omalizumab attenuates airway inflammation and remodeling, acting in the first few months of therapy. (ersjournals.com)
  • Given the imminent threat of an airway obstruction, you page the rapid response team (RRT), request an oxygen set-up and code cart from the charge nurse, and tell the unit secretary to page the physician immediately. (americannursetoday.com)
  • Additional tests may include a CT scan of the head, neck, or chest to determine other sources of obstruction, such as epiglottitis. (aarp.org)
  • There is always a worry about manipulation of the airway if there is anxiety about the possibility of injury to the cervical spine. (bmj.com)
  • While identification and resolution of the underlying disease are the ultimate goals when treating a horse with UA obstruction, it may be necessary to secure or establish a patent airway before a thorough diagnostic workup can be completed. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • This is the best method of securing, and protecting, the airway but it requires training, experience, and regular practice. (bmj.com)