Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Intestinal Obstruction: Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Laryngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LARYNX which coordinates many functions such as voice production, breathing, swallowing, and coughing.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Tracheal StenosisBronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Bronchial DiseasesRespiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Pierre Robin Syndrome: Congenital malformation characterized by MICROGNATHIA or RETROGNATHIA; GLOSSOPTOSIS and CLEFT PALATE. The mandibular abnormalities often result in difficulties in sucking and swallowing. The syndrome may be isolated or associated with other syndromes (e.g., ANDERSEN SYNDROME; CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA). Developmental mis-expression of SOX9 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR gene on chromosome 17q and its surrounding region is associated with the syndrome.Duodenal Obstruction: Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves: Curves depicting MAXIMAL EXPIRATORY FLOW RATE, in liters/second, versus lung inflation, in liters or percentage of lung capacity, during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviation is MEFV.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction: Blocked urine flow through the bladder neck, the narrow internal urethral opening at the base of the URINARY BLADDER. Narrowing or strictures of the URETHRA can be congenital or acquired. It is often observed in males with enlarged PROSTATE glands.Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Tracheal DiseasesBronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Gastric Outlet Obstruction: The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Intubation, Intratracheal: A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing.Laryngeal Edema: Abnormal accumulation of fluid in tissues of any part of the LARYNX, commonly associated with laryngeal injuries and allergic reactions.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate: The airflow rate measured during the first liter expired after the first 200 ml have been exhausted during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are MEFR, FEF 200-1200, and FEF 0.2-1.2.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the opening so created.Lacrimal Duct Obstruction: Interference with the secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands. Obstruction of the LACRIMAL SAC or NASOLACRIMAL DUCT causing acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal sac (DACRYOCYSTITIS). It is caused also in infants by failure of the nasolacrimal duct to open into the inferior meatus and occurs about the third week of life. In adults occlusion may occur spontaneously or after injury or nasal disease. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p250)Epiglottis: A thin leaf-shaped cartilage that is covered with LARYNGEAL MUCOSA and situated posterior to the root of the tongue and HYOID BONE. During swallowing, the epiglottis folds back over the larynx inlet thus prevents foods from entering the airway.Tracheal NeoplasmsAerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Laryngeal Masks: A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.High-Frequency Jet Ventilation: Respiratory support system used primarily with rates of about 100 to 200/min with volumes of from about one to three times predicted anatomic dead space. Used to treat respiratory failure and maintain ventilation under severe circumstances.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Airway Management: Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Tongue DiseasesSleep Apnea Syndromes: Disorders characterized by multiple cessations of respirations during sleep that induce partial arousals and interfere with the maintenance of sleep. Sleep apnea syndromes are divided into central (see SLEEP APNEA, CENTRAL), obstructive (see SLEEP APNEA, OBSTRUCTIVE), and mixed central-obstructive types.Laryngocele: Congenital anomalous dilitation of the laryngeal saccule that may extend internally into the airway or externally through the thyrohyoid membrane.Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Croup: Inflammation involving the GLOTTIS or VOCAL CORDS and the subglottic larynx. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, HOARSENESS, and persistent inspiratory STRIDOR (a high-pitched breathing sound). It occurs chiefly in infants and children.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Laryngoscopy: Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Laryngismus: A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.Hypopharynx: The bottom portion of the pharynx situated below the OROPHARYNX and posterior to the LARYNX. The hypopharynx communicates with the larynx through the laryngeal inlet, and is also called laryngopharynx.Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of rate of airflow over the middle half of a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination (from the 25 percent level to the 75 percent level). Common abbreviations are MMFR and FEF 25%-75%.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Respiratory Tract DiseasesMuscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Positive-Pressure Respiration: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bronchioles: The small airways branching off the TERTIARY BRONCHI. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Goiter, Substernal: An enlarged THYROID GLAND with at least 50% of the gland situated behind the STERNUM. It is an unusual presentation of an intrathoracic goiter. Substernal goiters frequently cause compression on the TRACHEA leading to deviation, narrowing, and respiratory symptoms.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.Hyperventilation: A pulmonary ventilation rate faster than is metabolically necessary for the exchange of gases. It is the result of an increased frequency of breathing, an increased tidal volume, or a combination of both. It causes an excess intake of oxygen and the blowing off of carbon dioxide.Ludwig's Angina: Severe cellulitis of the submaxillary space with secondary involvement of the sublingual and submental space. It usually results from infection in the lower molar area or from a penetrating injury to the mouth floor. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Pulmonary Heart Disease: Hypertrophy and dilation of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart that is caused by PULMONARY HYPERTENSION. This condition is often associated with pulmonary parenchymal or vascular diseases, such as CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE and PULMONARY EMBOLISM.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Dilatation: The act of dilating.Vocal Cord Paralysis: Congenital or acquired paralysis of one or both VOCAL CORDS. This condition is caused by defects in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, the VAGUS NERVE and branches of LARYNGEAL NERVES. Common symptoms are VOICE DISORDERS including HOARSENESS or APHONIA.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Bezoars: Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pulmonary Atelectasis: Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.Cricoid Cartilage: The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Aortic Arch Syndromes: Conditions resulting from abnormalities in the arteries branching from the ASCENDING AORTA, the curved portion of the aorta. These syndromes are results of occlusion or abnormal blood flow to the head-neck or arm region leading to neurological defects and weakness in an arm. These syndromes are associated with vascular malformations; ATHEROSCLEROSIS; TRAUMA; and blood clots.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Palate, Soft: A movable fold suspended from the posterior border of the hard palate. The uvula hangs from the middle of the lower border.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Micrognathism: Abnormally small jaw.Ileal Diseases: Pathological development in the ILEUM including the ILEOCECAL VALVE.Work of Breathing: RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)Failure to Thrive: A condition of substandard growth or diminished capacity to maintain normal function.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Pulmonary Eosinophilia: A condition characterized by infiltration of the lung with EOSINOPHILS due to inflammation or other disease processes. Major eosinophilic lung diseases are the eosinophilic pneumonias caused by infections, allergens, or toxic agents.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Mucin 5AC: A gel-forming mucin that is primarily found on the surface of gastric epithelium and in the RESPIRATORY TRACT. Mucin 5AC was originally identified as two distinct proteins, however a single gene encodes the protein which gives rise to the mucin 5A and mucin 5C variants.Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Adenoidectomy: Excision of the adenoids. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Bronchial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the BRONCHI.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Thyroid Cartilage: The largest cartilage of the larynx consisting of two laminae fusing anteriorly at an acute angle in the midline of the neck. The point of fusion forms a subcutaneous projection known as the Adam's apple.Ventilators, Negative-Pressure: Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Microscopic Angioscopy: The noninvasive microscopic examination of the microcirculation, commonly done in the nailbed or conjunctiva. In addition to the capillaries themselves, observations can be made of passing blood cells or intravenously injected substances. This is not the same as endoscopic examination of blood vessels (ANGIOSCOPY).Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Respiratory Insufficiency: Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Jejunal Diseases: Pathological development in the JEJUNUM region of the SMALL INTESTINE.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Glomus Tumor: A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Tracheobronchomegaly: A rare and probably congenital condition characterized by great enlargement of the lumen of the trachea and the larger bronchi.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Arytenoid Cartilage: One of a pair of small pyramidal cartilages that articulate with the lamina of the CRICOID CARTILAGE. The corresponding VOCAL LIGAMENT and several muscles are attached to it.Laryngitis: Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Positive-Pressure Respiration, Intrinsic: Non-therapeutic positive end-expiratory pressure occurring frequently in patients with severe airway obstruction. It can appear with or without the administration of external positive end-expiratory pressure (POSITIVE-PRESSURE RESPIRATION). It presents an important load on the inspiratory muscles which are operating at a mechanical disadvantage due to hyperinflation. Auto-PEEP may cause profound hypotension that should be treated by intravascular volume expansion, increasing the time for expiration, and/or changing from assist mode to intermittent mandatory ventilation mode. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1127)Betamethasone Valerate: The 17-valerate derivative of BETAMETHASONE. It has substantial topical anti-inflammatory activity and relatively low systemic anti-inflammatory activity.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Suppuration: A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Adrenal Cortex Hormones

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (1/1199)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

Comparison of two new methods for the measurement of lung volumes with two standard methods. (2/1199)

BACKGROUND: The two most commonly used methods for the measurement of lung volumes are helium dilution and body plethysmography. Two methods have been developed which are both easier and less time consuming to perform. Mathematical modelling uses complex calculations from the flow-volume loop to derive total lung capacity (TLC), and the nitrogen balance technique uses nitrogen from the atmosphere to calculate lung volume in a similar way to helium dilution. This study was designed to compare the two new methods with the two standard methods. METHODS: Sixty one subjects were studied, 23 with normal lung function, 17 with restrictive airway disease, and 21 with obstructive ventilatory defects. Each subject underwent repeated measurements of TLC by each of the four methods in random order. Reproducible values were obtained for each method according to BTS/ARTP guidelines. Bland-Altman plots were constructed for comparisons between the methods and paired t tests were used to assess differences in means. RESULTS: Bland-Altman plots showed that the differences between body plethysmography and helium dilution fell into clinically acceptable ranges (agreement limits +/-0.9 l). The agreement between mathematical modelling or the nitrogen balance technique and helium dilution or body plethysmography was poor (+/-1.8-3.4 l), especially for subjects with airflow obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Neither of the new methods agrees sufficiently with standard methods to be useful in a clinical setting.  (+info)

Respiratory mechanics in airways obstruction associated with inspiratory dyspnoea. (3/1199)

Inspiratory muscle strength and the flow and elastic pressure opposing inspiration were measured in seven patients with severe airways obstruction who found inspiration difficult at rest. A comparison was made of measurements obtained from seven normal subjects and five patients with airways obstruction not experiencing inspiratory dyspnoea at rest. Measurements were also obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced in the normal subjects by adding an inspiratory resistance or by voluntarily increasing lung volume. Compared with the controls the inspiratory muscle strength of the patients was reduced but was not significantly less than that of the patients without inspiratory dyspnoea. The pressure required to produce inspiratory flow was significantly greater when inspiratory dyspnoea was present (P = 0-01). However, there was considerable overlap in the pressures of those with and without inspiratory dyspnoea. A better relationship was obtained when muscle strength was considered. The ratio of inspiratory muscle strength to the pressure required to produce flow was 0-24 +/- 0-07 (mean +/- SD) in patient with inspiratory dyspnoea, 0-10 +/- 0-03 in patients without inspiratory dyspnoea, and 0-033 +/- 0-019 in normal subjects. There was no overlap between the two patient groups. The ratios of the normal subjects were increased when inspiratory dyspnoea was induced and, with the exception of two cases, were all above those obtained when inspiratory dyspnoea was absent. Inspiratory dyspnoea was experienced with lower ratios in the normals than in the patients with airways obstruction.  (+info)

Aspects of serum and sputum antibody in chronic airways obstruction. (4/1199)

Immunoglobulin levels and precipitating antibody against a range of microbial antigens were measured in simultaneously collected serum and sputum samples from patients with chronic bronchitis (11), cystic fibrosis (9), bronchiectasis (9), and asthma (4). Sputum was prepared by dialysis and high-speed centrifugation methods. Results showed that it was possible to detect precipitating antibody in the sputum, and the rate was increased when both methods were used. A discrepancy was noted between the detection rate in the sputum and serum. This, combined with the lack of correlation between sputum and serum immunoglobulins, lack of relationship between bronchial inflammation and sputum immunoglobulins, and the lack of IgM in the sputum suggested that the antibody and immunoglobulin were locally produced. Sputum IgA (7S) in patients with chronic bronchitis was significantly lower (P less than 0-05) than that found in patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. Significant differences (P less than 0-05) were also noted in serum IgG levels between patients with chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis while serum IgM levels in patients with chronic bronchitis were significantly lower (P less than 0-05) when compared to serum levels in patients with cystic fibrosis. The presence of precipitating antibody in the sputum raises the possibility that type III reactions may be important in the pathogenesis of these conditions.  (+info)

Localised upper airway obstruction in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (5/1199)

We describe a case of rapidly progressive upper airway obstruction due to tracheal Pseudomonas abscesses in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The case highlights the aggressive nature of Pseudomonas infections and the difficulty of eradicating this organism in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.  (+info)

Gastric rupture secondary to successful Heimlich manoeuvre. (6/1199)

A fatal case of gastric rupture following the Heimlich manoeuvre is reported. This life-threatening complication has only been reported previously in seven patients with a high mortality rate. All patients should be assessed immediately following this manoeuvre for any potentially life-threatening complications.  (+info)

A resuscitated case from asphyxia by large bronchial cast. (7/1199)

A 62-year-old woman with bronchiectasis suffered from asphyxia due to a large bronchial cast that obstructed the bronchial tree. Immediate bronchoscopic suction of a bronchial cast of 17 cm in length through the intubated tube relieved the patients without any complications. Large bronchial casts appear to be rare in this century but it should be considered in patients with acute exacerbation of excessive sputa not only in patients with asthma or allergy but also in patients with respiratory tract infection.  (+info)

Clinical studies of styrene workers: initial findings. (8/1199)

Styrene monomer is a high volume chemical used chiefly in production of polystyrene. A clinical survey of 493 production workers was undertaken at the oldest and largest monomer production, polymerization, and extrusion facility in the U.S. Relative exposure durations and levels were obtained from occupational histories. Significant differences between the high and low exposure groups were found with regard to history of acute prenarcotic symptoms, acute lower respiratory symptoms, prevalence of FEV 1/FV less than 75 per cent, and elevated GCTP. Other liver function tests, chest x-ray, FVC less than 80 per cent, and hematological parameters showed no distinct pattern. A concomitant mortality study has been mounted and is in progress.  (+info)

Define recurrent airway obstruction. recurrent airway obstruction synonyms, recurrent airway obstruction pronunciation, recurrent airway obstruction translation, English dictionary definition of recurrent airway obstruction. n. A respiratory disease of horses that is characterized by a chronic cough, labored breathing, and nasal discharge, and is induced by exposure to allergens...
Severe upper airway obstruction due to retropharyngeal haematoma formation following cervical trauma: Mechanical airway obstruction secondary to retropharyngeal
Lec 11 part 2 - Acute upper airway obstruction | Respiratory Tract | Larynx Endotracheal tube defects: Hidden causes of airway obstruction HUNTER??S SYNDROME: A STUDY IN AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION Pulse steroid therapy in acute airway obstruction in relapsing polychondritis Primary exophytic laryngeal amyloidosis presenting as sudden airway obstruction Airway Obstruction and the Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate Deformity: Contributions by the Bony Septum The role of FEV 6 in the detection of airway obstruction Obstructive sleep apnea: from simple upper airway obstruction to systemic inflammation Diagnosis of Airway Obstruction or Restrictive Spirometric Patterns by Multiclass Support Vector Machines Diagnosis of Airway Obstruction or Restrictive Spirometric Patterns by Multiclass Support Vector Machines Diagnosis of Airway Obstruction or Restrictive Spirometric Patterns by Multiclass Support Vector Machines Chronic upper airway obstruction and cardiac dysfunction: anatomy, pathophysiology and anesthetic
Looking for Chronic airway obstruction? Find out information about Chronic airway obstruction. Politics delay of business, esp in a legislature by means of procedural devices Occlusion or stenosis of hollow viscera, ducts, and vessels. Anything that... Explanation of Chronic airway obstruction
Seasonal recurrent airway obstruction, also known as summer pasture-associated recurrent airway obstruction (SPA-RAO), is a seasonal airway obstructive disease of horses, characterized by clinical exacerbation after exposure to pasture during the summer. Clinical signs usually present in horses during exposure to pastures during turnout in the late spring the summer, although some horses dont develop signs until late summer or early fall. Certain mold spores, grass pollens, and species of grass trigger onset of the disease.
The influence of oral N-acetylcysteine on the exacerbation rate in patients with chronic bronchitis and severe airways obstruction has been studied. Two hundred and forty four patients entered the study during October and November 1983 and took placebo sachets for a run in month. One hundred and eighty one who completed this month satisfactorily were randomised to receive either active (acetylcysteine 200 mg three times a day) or matching placebo sachets for five months in a double blind parallel group study. The two groups were well matched. Patients kept detailed daily symptom diaries and were assessed monthly. At the end of the five months study the outcome in the group taking acetylcysteine appeared a little better, but the differences did not reach conventional levels of statistical significance for the mean (SD) number of exacerbations (2.1 (0.2) for acetylcysteine, 2.6 (0.2) for placebo; p = 0.08); total days taking an antibiotic (13.5 (1.7), 18.0 (2.8); p = 0.17); total days spent in ...
Acute airway obstruction is much more common in infants and children than in adults because of their unique anatomic and physiologic features. Even in young patients with partial airway occlusion, symptoms can be severe and potentially life-threatening. Factors that predispose children to airway com
Acute airway obstruction (AAO) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) can be caused by postoperative retropharyngeal hematoma, which requires urgent recognition and treatment. However, the causes, evaluation, and appropriate treatment of this complication are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective review of a prospective database was to investigate etiologic factors related to the development of AAO due to postoperative hematoma after ACF and formulate appropriate prevention and treatment guidelines. Cervical spinal cases treated at our academic institutions from 1998 to 2013 were evaluated. Demographic data, including factors related to hemorrhagic tendency, and operative data were analyzed. Patients who developed a hematoma were compared with those who did not to identify risk factors. Cases complicated by hematoma were reviewed, and times until development of hematoma and surgical evacuation were determined. Degrees of airway compromise and patient behavior were classified and evaluated
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small airways obstruction syndrome in clinical practice. AU - Chen, Chiung Zuei. AU - Lin, Chien Chung. AU - Lee, Cheng Hung. AU - Chang, Han Yu. AU - Hsiue, Tzuen Ren. PY - 2009/4/1. Y1 - 2009/4/1. N2 - Background and objective: Small airways obstruction syndrome (SAOS) is a particular pulmonary function test (PFT) pattern showing decreased VC and FEV1 but a normal FEV1/VC ratio and TLC. The significance of this syndrome in clinical practice has not been comprehensively investigated. Methods: This study retrospectively identified all patients who had performed PFT that showed a SAOS pattern at a university teaching hospital over 1 year. A simple algorithm for differential diagnosis was developed and validated. Results: Of the 3207 PFT performed, 153 (4.8%) showed a pattern indicating SAOS. Among these, a final diagnosis was confirmed for 85 (63.4%) of the patients. The causes of SAOS included both restrictive and obstructive lung diseases with the leading causes being early ...
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This analysis was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of airway obstruction among Latino poultry processing workers. Data were collected from 279 poultry processing workers and 222 other manual laborers via spirometry and interviewer-administered questionnaires. Participants employed in poultry processing reported the activities they perform at work. Participants with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) or FEV1/forced expiratory volume (FVC) below the lower limits of normal were categorized as having airway obstruction. Airway obstruction was identified in 13% of poultry processing workers and 12% of the comparison population. Among poultry processing workers, the highest prevalence of airway obstruction (21%) occurred among workers deboning chickens (prevalence ratio: 1.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 3.15). These findings identify variations in the prevalence of airway obstruction across categories of work activities ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Altered cardio-respiratory response to spontaneous cortical arousals in children with upper airway obstruction. AU - Baumert, Mathias. AU - Kohler, Mark. AU - Kabir, Muammar. AU - Sanders, Prashanthan. AU - Kennedy, Declan. AU - Martin, James. AU - Pamula, Yvonne. PY - 2011/3/1. Y1 - 2011/3/1. N2 - Objective: Upper airway obstruction (UAO) during childhood is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. The aim of this study was to investigate the cardio-respiratory response to cortical arousal during sleep in children with UAO. Methods: Standard paediatric overnight polysomnography (PSG) was conducted in 40 children with UAO (25. M, 7.5 ± 2.7. yrs) prior to and 6 months following adenotonsillectomy. For comparison a control group of 40 normal, sex and age matched children (21. M, 7.5 ± 2.6. yrs) underwent two PSGs without intervention at the same time points. Results: Heart rate and respiratory rate were measured during spontaneous and respiratory arousals in stage 2 and REM ...
Central airway obstruction (CAO) may present in a wide variety of ways, and patients are frequently misdiagnosed with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A high degree of suspicion is necessary to ascertain the diagnosis. The approach to the patient should be expeditious but with par...
ASTHMATICS:. Patients will be between 18 and 75 years of age, male or female.. The diagnosis of asthma requires a history of intermittent, reversible expiratory flow limitation.. In addition, patients will have demonstrated evidence of either an abnormal methacholine challenge or reversible airway obstruction. An abnormal methacholine challenge will be defined as a decrease in FEV(1) of at least 20% at a PD(20) dose less than 240 micrograms. Reversible airway obstruction will be defined as an improvement of at least 12% and 200 cc in either the FEV(1) or FVC folowing bronchodilator treatment. Methacholine challenge testing will not be performed if the subject has a history of allergy to methoacholine. Result of testing performed by the subjects primary care provider may be accepted as evidence of reversible airflow obstruction.. For women of childbearing potential, negative pregnancy test prior to study and willingness to adhere to reliable birth control methods during the study.. EXCLUSION ...
INTRODUCTION: Airway disease in PSS is reported to be frequent but its severity and clinical relevance remain unclear. We aimed to assess airway obstruction as defined by pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with PSS.. METHOD: Among 502 patients followed in a reference center for PSS, 81 (78 females) non smokers who underwent PFTs from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Airway obstruction (AO) was defined by either FEV1/FVC ,70% of predicted (patent obstruction) or MEF25-75 ,50% of predicted (small airway obstruction) or elevated RV/TLC associated with functional residual capacity ,120% of predicted (hyperinflation). Clinical and chest CT scan characteristics of patients with airway obstruction were compared with normal PFT patients.. RESULTS: Mean age at PSS diagnosis was 53,1 year. Mean disease duration at study was 5.3 year. 73 (90%) patients had respiratory symptoms. 26 patients (32%) had an airway obstruction: 10% a patent obstruction, 15% a small airway obstruction and 7% an ...
If variation in ventilatory drive, both endowed and acquired, determines the extent and quality of adaptation to the hypoxia of high altitude, such variation might also contribute to the variable clinical profile of patients with hypoxic disease at low altitude, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has long been known that such patients present a varied clinical picture illustrated by patients presenting at the extreme edges of the spectrum-the pink puffer and blue bloater. More common is the broad range of PaC02 observed with a given degree of severe airway obstruction, indicating that the ventilatory adaptation to severe airway obstruction is quite variable. The presence of intense dyspnea in the eucapnic pink puffer and its absence in the hypercapnic blue bloater have suggested the terms "fighter" and "nonfighter," reflecting possible underlying differences in ventilatory drive. Indeed, early studies indicated decreased ventilatory responsiveness to hypercapnia in patients with ...
The most common cause of airway obstruction in the anesthesia setting is iatrogenic, i.e. occurs with induction of general anesthesia/ sedation, when a reduced level of consciousness and loss of pharyngeal muscle tone leads to the back of the tongue falling backwards against the posterior pharyngeal wall in the patient positioned supine. Other conditions causing a reduced level of consciousness (intoxication, stroke, head injury, ...) can lead to airway obstruction for the same reason.. (Partial) upper airway obstruction due to the same mechanism can occur during sleep causing snoring and as a consequence of obstructive sleep apnea.. The potential types of obstacles to gas flow through the airway are blood, pus, secretions, edema and hematoma, either within the airway or external to the airway but compressing it, tumor or other tissue, a foreign body, regurgitated material or the vocal chords in cases of paralysis.. ...
The importance of SaO2 in the assessment of respiratory distress in bronchial asthma has been reported. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between blood gas analysis and chest X-ray lung opacities in young children presenting with acute respiratory symptoms. Methods: Eighty patients (43 males and 37 females aged 0.5-24 months; mean B SD 9.1 B 7.2 months), either with acute wheezing respiratory symptoms and/or with crackles were enrolled in our study. In all children, blood gas analysis and chest X-rays were performed within 12 h following admission to the emergency department. Results: In 55 children (68.75%) chest X-rays demonstrated lung opacities. Subjects with normal X-rays had paO2 and SaO2 higher than subjects with lung opacities (p ! 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Children with lung opacities almost always presented paO2 !80 mm Hg. Sensitivity and specificity for the presence of lung opacities of paO2 !80 mm Hg were 81 and 90%, respectively, while sensitivity and specificity ...
Laryngeal cysts are cysts involving the larynx or more frequently supraglottic locations, such as epiglottis and vallecula. Usually they do not extend to the thyroid cartilage. They may be present congenitally or may develop eventually due to degenerative cause. They often interfere with phonation. Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal obstruction are unusual complaints. They may cause significant respiratory obstruction leading to dyspnoea or respiratory distress and even cyanosis, and jugular and epigastric retractions. Congenital lesions may present with severe airway obstruction at birth calling for emergency intervention and intubation. There are three types of laryngeal cysts, namely, mucous, hemorrhagic and congenital. However, a new classification system for congenital laryngeal cysts on the basis of the extent of the cyst and the embryologic tissue of origin, is proposed for the ease of initial surgical management. Treatment can be medical or ...
A new oral bronchodilator, clenbuterol, was compared with terbutaline during a 5-week single-blind crossover study in 16 patients with chronic airways obstruction and with cough and sputum production. After a run-in period (1 week), the study was performed in two separated 2-week periods (Phase II a …
TY - JOUR. T1 - New acoustic method for detecting upper airway obstruction in patients with sleep apnoea. AU - Stockx, Elaine Maria. AU - Camilleri, Peter. AU - Skuza, Elizabeth Michalina. AU - Churchward, Thomas. AU - Howes, Julia. AU - Ho, Michael. AU - McDonald, Timothy. AU - Freezer, Nick. AU - Hamilton, Garun Stuart. AU - Wilkinson, Malcolm Howard. AU - Berger, Philip John. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - This article investigates a new acoustic device to assess the behaviour of the upper airway in patients with OSA. Currently there is no simple non-invasive method to perform such measurements. As such this paper describes the device in probing the patency of the airway during sleep and increasing the efficiency of diagnosing OSA. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: OSA is a common disorder resulting in health and economic burdens. Currently identifying OSA in patients involves expensive techniques that require overnight studies in a laboratory setting with qualified staff. This paper tests a new acoustic ...
Pneumoniae infection in adults with new-onset asthma imply that untreated chlamydial infections may have a part in the transition from the acute inflammation of bronchitis to the chronic inflammatory changes of asthma. Patients with acute bronchitis usually have a viral respiratory infection with ephemeral inflammatory changes that create sputum and symptoms of airway obstruction. Evidence of reversible airway obstruction when not infected Symptoms worse during the work but tend to improve during weekends, holidays and vacations Chronic cough with sputum production on a daily basis for a minimum of three months Upper airway inflammation and no signs of bronchial wheezing Evidence of infiltrate on the chest radiograph Evidence of increased interstitial or alveolar fluid on the chest radiograph Usually related to a precipitating event, such as smoke inhalation Signs of reversible airway obstruction even when not infected Symptoms worse during the work week but tend to improve during weekends, ...
A sleep apnea syndrome due to upper airway obstruction was diagnosed in 25 adult men (25 to 65 years of age) using nocturnal polygraphic monitoring. Excessive d
Results The preterm group had substantial impairments in airflow at both ages compared with controls (eg, mean differences in z-score for FEV1; 8 years −1.02, 95% CI −1.21 to −0.82; 18 years −0.92, 95% CI −1.14 to −0.71). The preterm group had a greater increase in small airway obstruction between 8 and 18 years compared with controls. Within the preterm group, those who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the newborn period and those who were smokers at 18 years had airway obstruction that increased over time compared with those who did not. ...
This topic will review an emergency diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute upper airway obstruction in children. The emergent evaluation of children with acute respiratory distress and airway management techniques for the difficult pediatric ai
At resting levels of ventilation, the main airway can be reduced to a diameter of 3 mm or so before respiratory distress and stridor occur. Little more narrowing is required to precipitate complete asphyxia, hence when upper airways obstruction is suspected, assessment of severity, diagnosis, and treatment is a medical emergency....
In this VETgirl blog, we demonstrate how to use a modified Seldinger technique to place a larger endotracheal tube in a dog w/ an upper airway obstruction.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upper airway obstruction and the pharyngeal lymphoid tissue. AU - Yonkers, A. J.. AU - Spaur, R. C.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023259751&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023259751&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Review article. C2 - 3299207. AN - SCOPUS:0023259751. VL - 20. SP - 235. EP - 239. JO - Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. JF - Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. SN - 0030-6665. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Upper Airway Obstruction Caused by Ingestion of Concentrated Acetic acid. AU - Shimizu, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Article. VL - 34. SP - 379. EP - 381. JO - Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. JF - Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. IS - 3. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Outcome of laryngeal web resection with mucosal apposition for treatment of airway obstruction in dogs. T2 - 15 cases (1992-2006). AU - Mehl, Margo L.. AU - Kyle, Andrew E.. AU - Pypendop, Bruno H. AU - Filipowicz, Dean E.. AU - Gregory, Clare R.. PY - 2008/9/1. Y1 - 2008/9/1. N2 - Objective - To evaluate long-term clinical outcome in dogs with upper airway obstruction treated with laryngeal web resection and mucosal apposition. Design - Retrospective case series. Animals - 15 client-owned dogs with laryngeal web formation. Procedures - Medical records of dogs with laryngeal webs treated with a single procedure of web resection with mucosal apposition by use of a ventral laryngotomy were reviewed. Signalment, history, clinical signs, intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and hospitalization time were recorded. Owners were interviewed 6 months to 6 years after surgery. Results - Most dogs had a history of oral ventriculocordectomy. Duration of clinical signs ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Thermoplasty: A newly FDA-approved treatment for patients with moderately severe to severe asthma has met with initial success. This treatment targets reducing airway obstruction in asthma patients due to bronchial muscle hypertrophy. A cardinal feature of asthma is hypertrophy or thickening of the bronchial smooth muscle. At times, the bronchial smooth muscle wall is so thick that it results in persistent and severe narrowing of the bronchial passageway, thus limiting airflow. Patients not responding to conventional therapy who have persistent, severe airway obstruction might be candidates for this new form of treatment. Patients undergo bronchoscopy, in which heat is applied to the local bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in a shrinking or diminution in the bronchial smooth muscle mass, and thus, increasing the airway lumen diameter, resulting in decreased airway obstruction. This is a new technique which is invasive and associated with a potential for adverse events. ...
Background Airway calibers are related to changes in Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in asthma; however, this effect is not well understood especially during spontaneous airway obstruction.. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether FeNO levels could be masked by airway obstruction in patients wit asthma and COPD.. Methods FeNO and spirometry measurements were performed before and after albuterol inhalation in 20 steroid-naive asthmatics with moderate to severe airway obstruction. For comparison, 15 normal subjects, 16 asthmatics using inhaled corticosteroids/ long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist(ICS/LABA combination) and another group of patients with COPD were also studied. All the patients with asthma and COPD recruited had positive bronchodilator test (BDT).. Results FeNO(median [25th-75th percentiles]) increased significantly after albuterol inhalation in steroid-naive asthmatics 61.50[40.50-85.00]vs.80.00[53.00-108.00], P=0.000) but not in treated asthmatics ...
Rationale: Asthma is a serious health problem with increasing prevalence in the world. It is a chronic disease which is characterized by episodes of reversible airway obstruction due to underlying chronic airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness to different bronchial stimuli. Evidence indicates that reduced physical activity may be associated with the severity of asthma and the increasing asthma prevalence (Rusmussen F et al. ERJ). Several studies have shown that physical activity improves asthma control and the quality of life of asthma patients. However, physical training does not lead to improved lung function. Obesity, is another important factor that increases the risk of asthma and is related to the severity of asthma. Compared to normal, lean asthma patients, obese asthma patients have more missed school days per year, a lower peak flow, a higher need of inhalation medication and less often acceptable asthma control. The relationship with atopy, allergic rhinitis and bronchial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Periodontitis and Airway Obstruction. AU - Katancik, J.A.. AU - Kritchevsky, S.. AU - Weyant, R.J.. AU - Corby, P.. AU - Bretz, W.. AU - Crapo, R.O.. AU - Jensen, R.. AU - Waterer, Grant. AU - Rubin, S.M.. AU - Newman, A.B.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Background: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between airway obstruction and periodontal disease.Methods: Participants were a subset of 860 community-dwelling, well functioning elderly (aged 70 to 79, blacks and whites, males and females) selected from 2,732 participants enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study (Health ABC). The periodontal evaluations occurred over years 2 and 3 of the study and included four indices of periodontal health: plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and loss of attachment (LOA). The pulmonary evaluation took place in year 1: conducted according to American Thoracic Society criteria, based on the forced expiratory volume/forced vital ...
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Australia, Europe and the USA. Up to 20-30% of these cancers eventually affect the central airways and result in reduced quality of life, dyspnoea, haemoptysis, post-obstructive pneumonia and ultimately death. Non-malignant processes may also lead to central airway obstruction and can have similar symptoms. With the development of newer technologies, the last 20 years have seen the emergence of the field of interventional pulmonology to deal specifically with the diagnosis and management of thoracic malignancy, including obstruction of the central airways. This review discusses the pathology, pre-procedure work-up and management options for obstructing central airway lesions. Several treatment modalities exist for dealing with endobronchial pathology with local availability and expertise guiding choice of treatment. While the literature lacks large, multicentre, randomized studies defining the optimal management strategy for a given ...
The incidence of colorectal cancer is increasing in South Korea rapidly. In female participants, total excess fat and specific fatty acid intake were not associated with risk of colorectal adenoma. These data support that high SFA intake is definitely associated with risk of colorectal adenoma in Korean males. test for continuous variables were performed for statistical comparisons in the study populace. All nutrient intakes were modified by total energy intake using the residual regression method.[19] Each type of excess fat and fatty acid intake was stratified into quintiles to analyze trends Torin 1 in risk by level of exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) for colorectal adenomatous Torin 1 polyps in the higher intake organizations (Q2CQ5) were determined using multivariable logistic regression analysis by using the least expensive (Q1) as the research group. Age; body mass index; waist circumference; diabetic state; first-degree family history of colorectal malignancy; history of colonoscopic ...
Supplementary Materialscells-08-01571-s001. procedure offers a useful progress for flexible applications of DE lineages, specifically for cell medication and therapies verification. for 2 min before putting them in new medium. On day time 0, medium was changed to STEMDiff? Endoderm Basal Press comprising Product MR and CJ. On day time 1 and day time 2, aggregates were fed with STEMDiff? Endoderm Basal Press containing Product CJ only. On day time 3, aggregates were dissociated and analyzed for DE markers, and also further differentiated into liver, pancreatic, intestinal, and lung progenitor cells. Dissociated cells were also freezing in CryoStor? CS10 Freezing Press (BioLife Solutions #210102) at 6 106 cells/vial. 2.4. Differentiation into the Hepatic Lineage For hepatic differentiation, aggregates on day time 3 of DE differentiation were adapted to hepatic differentiation press [20]. In short, Valnoctamide the medium was changed to hepatocyte tradition medium (Lonza #CC-3198) with 30 ng/mL of ...
Pneumoniae infection in adults with new-onset asthma indicate that untreated chlamydial infections may have a part in the transition from the intense inflammation of bronchitis to the chronic inflammatory changes of asthma. Patients with acute bronchitis usually have a viral respiratory infection with passing inflammatory changes that produce sputum and symptoms of airway obstruction. Signs of airway obstruction that is reversible when not infected Symptoms worse during the work week but tend to improve during vacations, holidays and weekends Persistent cough with sputum production on a daily basis for a minimum of three months Upper airway inflammation and no evidence of bronchial wheezing Evidence of infiltrate on the chest radiograph Signs of increased interstitial or alveolar fluid on the chest radiograph Typically related to a precipitating event, such as smoke inhalation Signs of reversible airway obstruction even when not infected Symptoms worse during the work week but tend to improve ...
Wheezes occupy different portions of the respiratory cycle depending on the site of airway obstruction and its nature. The fraction of the respiratory cycle during which a wheeze is produced roughly corresponds to the degree of airway obstruction.[2][3] Bronchiolar disease usually causes wheezing that occurs in the expiratory phase of respiration. As a rule, extrathoracic airway obstruction produce inspiratory sounds. Intrathoracic major airway obstruction produces inspiratory as well as expiratory sounds. Distal airway obstruction predominantly produces expiratory sounds.[4] The presence of expiratory phase wheezing signifies that the patients peak expiratory flow rate is less than 50% of normal.[5] Wheezing heard in the inspiratory phase, on the other hand, is often a sign of a stiff stenosis, usually caused by tumors, foreign bodies or scarring. This is especially true if the wheeze is monotonal, occurs throughout the inspiratory phase (i.e. is "holoinspiratory"), and is heard more ...
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) in Children: There have been reports of fatalities after initiating therapy with somatropin in pediatric patients with PWS who had one or more of the following risk factors: severe obesity, history of upper airway obstruction or sleep apnea, or unidentified respiratory infection. Male patients with one or more of these factors may be at greater risk than females. Patients with PWS should be evaluated for signs of upper airway obstruction and sleep apnea before initiation of treatment with somatropin. If during treatment with somatropin, patients show signs of upper airway obstruction (including onset of or increased snoring) and/or new onset sleep apnea, treatment should be interrupted. All patients with PWS treated with somatropin should also have effective weight control and be monitored for signs of respiratory infection, which should be diagnosed as early as possible and treated aggressively ...
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstructions during sleep. The most common animal model of OSA is based on subjecting rodents to intermittent hypoxic exposures and does not mimic important OSA features, such as recurrent hypercapnia and increased inspiratory efforts. To circumvent some of these issues, a novel murine model involving non-invasive application of recurrent airway obstructions was developed. An electronically controlled airbag system is placed in front of the mouses snout, whereby inflating the airbag leads to obstructed breathing and spontaneous breathing occurs with the airbag deflated. The device was tested on 29 anesthetized mice by measuring inspiratory effort and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)). Application of recurrent obstructive apneas (6s each, 120/h) for 6h resulted in SaO(2) oscillations to values reaching 84.4 +/- 2.5% nadir, with swings mimicking OSA patients. This novel system, capable of applying controlled recurrent ...
Inflammation of the small airways contributes to the severity of the disease and affects the quality of life of patients with asthma. However, the exact role and relevance of small airways disease in asthma is still unclear. This is partly due to the difficulty of measuring small airways pathology with a sensitive and specific parameter. The most commonly used variable as an indicator of small airway obstruction is the FEF50%. Currently, it is not known which clinical symptoms are associated with small airways disease and how a patient will perceive small airway abnormalities. This knowledge is important to assess small airways disease in patients with asthma and adjust therapy to improve quality of life.The primary purpose of this study is to develop a questionnaire for patients with asthma with and without small airways disease for general and specialist practice ...
165 trials were reviewed and eight were included; a total of 461 patients have been studied (229 with CBA; 232 with intermittent beta-agonists). Overall, admission to hospital was reduced with CBA compared to intermittent beta-agonists (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9); patients with severe airway obstruction at presentation appeared to benefit most from this intervention (RR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9). Patients receiving CBA demonstrated small but statistically significant improvements in pulmonary function tests when all studies were pooled. Patients receiving CBA had greater improvements in % predicted FEV-1 (SMD: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.5) and PEFR (SMD: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.1 to 0.5); this effect was observed by 2-3 hours. Continuous treatment was generally well tolerated, with no clinically important differences observed in pulse rate (WMD: -2.87; 95% CI: -6.0 to 0.3) or blood pressure (WMD: -1.75; 95% CI: -5.6 to 2.1) between the treatment groups. Tremor was equally common in both groups (OR: ...
Dr.Meenesh Juvekar. M.S (ENT), D.N.B, D.O.R.L, M.N.A.M.S (Ear-Nose-Throat & Head Neck surgeon) Call 91+022-25271150 for appointment
Clinical asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction which is commonly due to an exaggerated airway narrowing referred to as airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Although debate exists on the complex etiology of AHR, it is clear that airway smooth muscle (ASM) mediated airway narrowing is a major contributor to airway dysfunction. More importantly, it is now appreciated that smooth muscle is far from being a simple cell with only contractile ability properties. Rather, it is more versatile with the capacity to exhibit numerous cellular functions as it adapts to the microenvironment to which it is exposed. The emerging ability of individual smooth muscle cells to undergo changes in their phenotype (phenotype plasticity) and function (functional plasticity) in response to physiological and pathological cues is an important and active area of research. This article provides a brief review of the current knowledge and emerging concepts in the field of ASM phenotype and function both under ...
The Mike OMeara Show is a fun mash-up of real life, pop-culture, news of the day, dynamic audio clips, and three guys busting each others balls. ...
In the article we outlined the basic principles of some recent methods of lung function testing, suitable for the assessment of airway obstruction in children and adolescents. There is also a brief description of various methods, normal values expressed in a form of regression equations, significanc …
List of 96 causes for Apnea related to airway obstruction and Blue lips and Pathological causes of blue lips and Rales and Severe seasonal COPD-like symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of airway obstruction induced by asthma attack on particle deposition. AU - Inthavong, Kiao. AU - Tu, Jiyuan Y. AU - Ye, Yong. AU - Ding, Songlin. AU - Subic, Aleksander. AU - Thien, Francis. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. UR - http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021850210000777. U2 - 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.03.001. DO - 10.1016/j.jaerosci.2010.03.001. M3 - Article. VL - 41. SP - 587. EP - 601. JO - Journal of Aerosol Science. JF - Journal of Aerosol Science. SN - 0021-8502. IS - 6. ER - ...
Biller JA (2007). "Airway obstruction, bronchospasm, and cough". In Berger AM, Shuster JL, Von Roenn JH. Principles and ...
Airway obstructionEdit. Actual or impending airway obstruction is a common indication for intubation of the trachea. Life- ... Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... and Sukhupragarn W, Management of the airway, pp. 751-92 *^ a b c d e Miller (2000), Stone DJ and Gal TJ, Airway management, pp ... threatening airway obstruction may occur when a foreign body becomes lodged in the airway; this is especially common in infants ...
"Airways obstruction from asbestos exposure. Effects of asbestosis and smoking". Chest. 106 (4): 1061-70. doi:10.1378/chest. ... Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, pleura, and diaphragm in the body. Figure B shows lungs with asbestos- ... Large airway function, as reflected by FEV1/FVC, is generally well preserved.[9] In severe cases, the drastic reduction in lung ...
Airway obstruction is the most common complication. Implant migration or extrusion in cases where proper stitches are not taken ... in case of airway insufficiency after Laryngeal trauma). Type 3 thyroplasty - Shortening of the vocal folds (done to lower the ...
Chou YK, Lee CY, Chao HH (December 2007). "An upper airway obstruction emergency: Ludwig angina". Pediatric Emergency Care. 23 ... There are non-infectious causes of acute upper airway obstruction confused with Ludwig's angina which include angioneurotic ... Methods of airway management range from conservative airway management - consisting of close observation and intravenous ... secondary to obstruction of the airway, which is the most serious potential complication of this condition. At the initial ...
... like upper airway obstruction. (Note regarding clinical variability: respiratory difficulties might be absent.) Pneumonia ... Antila H, Laitio T, Aantaa R, Silvoniemi P, Pakkanen A (1998). "Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome". ... Machotta A, Hoeve H (Apr 2008). "Airway management and fiberoptic tracheal intubation via the laryngeal mask in a child with ... Difficult airway in a patient with Marshall-Smith syndrome. ...
"Severe Hajdu-Cheney syndrome with upper airway obstruction". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 70 (3): 261-266. doi:10.1002 ...
Intrathoracic major airway obstruction produces inspiratory as well as expiratory sounds. Distal airway obstruction ... Wheezes occupy different portions of the respiratory cycle depending on the site of airway obstruction and its nature. The ... As a rule, extrathoracic airway obstruction produce inspiratory sounds. ... Stridor in the inspiratory phase is usually heard with obstruction in the upper airways, such as the trachea, epiglottis, or ...
Rarely, children will have significant life-threatening airway obstruction. The vast majority, however, will only have stridor ... Laryngomalacia results in partial airway obstruction, most commonly causing a characteristic high-pitched squeaking noise on ... cartilages or the mucosa/tissue over the arytenoid cartilages can collapse into the airway and cause airway obstruction. ... causing airway obstruction. It can also be seen in older patients, especially those with neuromuscular conditions resulting in ...
Swelling of the airway can result in its obstruction. Attacks, without treatment, typically occur every couple of weeks and ... To avoid potentially fatal consequences such as upper airway obstruction and unnecessary abdominal surgery, the importance of a ... When the airway is involved, without treatment, death occurs in about 25%. With treatment outcomes are generally good. The ... This most commonly affects the arms, legs, face, intestinal tract, and airway. Itchiness does not typically occur. If the ...
TO can cause airway obstruction, bleeding and chronic cough. Treatment involves the use of bronchodilators, and physical ... The nodules usually spare the posterior wall of the airway because they are of cartilaginous origin, while the posterior wall ... of the airway is membranous (does not contain cartilage). This is as opposed to tracheobronchial amyloidosis, which does not ...
"Preliminary experience with bronchotherapeutic procedures in central airway obstruction". Chang Gung Med J. 26 (4): 240-9. PMID ... "Early endoscopic treatment of acute inflammatory airway lesions improves the outcome of postintubation airway stenosis". ... In babies and young children however, the subglottis is the narrowest part of the airway and most stenoses do in fact occur at ... Parrish RW, Banks J, Fennerty AG (1983). "Tracheal obstruction presenting as asthma". Postgrad Med J. 59: 775-6. doi:10.1136/ ...
Epinephrine relieves airway swelling and obstruction, and improves blood circulation; blood vessels are tightened and heart ...
Simple chest roentenograms may reveal collapse due to airway obstruction. The contralateral lung may be hyperinflated. Casts ... With partial obstruction, a "fan sound" or "flag flapping" sound can be heard during auscultation. Bronchial casts can ... When casts are very large with many branches, an abnormal communication or leakage of lymphatic fluid into the airway is often ... Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a disorder in which branching casts of the airways are expectorated. PB has been previously ...
Leckie, W. J.; Horne, N. W. (1965). "Preliminary Assessment of Deptropine Dihydrogen Citrate in Chronic Airways Obstruction". ...
Congenital lesions may present with severe airway obstruction at birth calling for emergency intervention and intubation. There ... "Congenital epiglottic cyst presenting with severe airway obstruction at birth". Journal of Perinatology. 26 (1): 71-72. doi: ... Hoarseness is the most common presenting symptom, while pain, stridor or laryngeal obstruction are unusual complaints. They may ... Henderson, LT; Denneny JC, 3rd; Teichgraeber, J (1984). "Airway-obstructing epiglottic cyst". The Annals of Otology, Rhinology ...
Airway obstruction: Obstruction may occur in the upper and lower airway. Upper airway obstruction is common in infants less ... Nasal blockage may easily lead to upper airway obstruction in infants. For other ages, upper airway obstruction may occur from ... A laryngeal mask airway can be positioned in the lower oropharynx to prevent airway obstruction by soft tissues and to create a ... In bilevel positive airway pressure, both expiratory positive airway pressure and inspiratory positive airway pressure are set ...
... is a lung disease characterized by fixed airway obstruction. Inflammation and scarring occur in the ... Spirometry tests usually show fixed airway obstructions and sometimes restriction, where the lungs can't expand fully. Lung ... is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation. Symptoms ... cause airway epithelial damage that is as harmful as diacetyl. A new form of constrictive bronchiolitis is starting to present ...
Even in these extreme cases, the surgery tends to cure not only the apnea and upper airway obstruction but allows normal ... There have been documented instances of severe airway obstruction, and reports of post-operative OSA continues to increase as ... Bahammam A (2011). "Obstructive sleep apnea: from simple upper airway obstruction to systemic inflammation". Ann Saudi Med. 31 ... Automatic positive airway pressure, or automatic positive airway pressure, also known as "Auto CPAP", incorporates pressure ...
It commonly is due to partial obstruction of the upper airway. Hypopnea during sleep is classed as a sleep disorder. With ... most of which are also typical causes of airway obstruction, snoring and sleep apnea The most common hypopnea symptom is ... An air blower forces air through the upper airway. The air pressure is adjusted so that it is just enough to maintain the ... Surgery is generally a last resort in hypopnea treatment, but is a site-specific option for the upper airway. Depending on the ...
This in return could lead to an airway obstruction and later pneumonia. Meadow has since returned from the successful operation ...
In complex cases, an emergency tracheotomy may be required to prevent upper airway obstruction caused by edema in the neck. ... RPA can lead to airway obstruction or sepsis - both life-threatening emergencies. Fatalities normally occur from patients not ...
Other contributing factors may include upper airway obstruction, increased blood viscosity, abnormalities of cardiac origin ( ... "Effects of airway obstruction on transmural pulmonary artery pressure in exercising horses". American journal of veterinary ... dynamic upper airway obstruction) would increase the severity of EIPH; however neither experimentally induced laryngeal ... "Effects of extrathoracic airway obstruction on intrathoracic pressure and pulmonary artery pressure in exercising horses". ...
"Long-term effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic airway obstruction". The European respiratory ...
"Timely airway stenting improves survival in patients with malignant central airway obstruction". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ... including airway stenting and endoscopic excision of tumors. He has developed one of the largest Interventional Airway Programs ... Bhora is nationally and internationally known for his expertise in advanced bronchoscopic surgery involving the airway, ... "Discovering New Treatments for Lung and Airway Diseases". January 27, 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014. "Ahmad Adaya ...
As explained above, sleep apnea is often caused by multiple co-existing obstructions at various locations of the airway such as ... Narrowing of the airway in the nose and throat (hence constricting breathing) snoring and even iatrogenically caused sleep ... It is administered as a stand-alone procedure in the hope that the tissue which obstructs the patient's airway is localized in ... The goal is to improve the airway and thereby treat (or possibly cure) sleep apnea. It has been found that obstructive sleep ...
... and airway obstruction. Often, these are associated with a cleft of the soft palate. In most cases, the tongue and the airway ... This is purely dependent on how much obstruction the tongue causes on the upper airway. More mild cases tend to resolve on ... Historically, a tracheostomy was the only option to relieve the airway obstruction. This is still an option today, but is ... Multiple studies are showing that this method does a better job at alleviating airway obstruction than the tongue lip adhesion ...
Hocking G, Roberts FL, Thew ME: Airway obstruction with cricoid pressure and lateral tilt. Anaesthesia. 2001, 56: 825-828. ... Ho AM, Wong W, Ling E, Chung DC, Tay BA: Airway difficulties caused by improperly applied cricoid pressure. J Emerg Med. 2001, ... Furthermore the application of CP may be associated with increased risks to the patient: impeding airway management [7, 8]; ... The DVD consists of an explanation of the trial, reviewing the anatomy of the upper airway, standardising location of the ...
It can be broadly classified into being either in the upper airway or lower airway. Causes of upper airway obstruction include ... Stridor Recurrent airway obstruction Respiratory Emergencies, section Acute Upper Airway Obstruction. From FP Essentials 368. ... Diseases that cause lower airway obstruction are termed obstructive lung diseases. Lower airway obstruction can be measured ... Management of airways relies on both minimal-invasive and invasive techniques. Lower airway obstruction is mainly caused by ...
Home Health Conditions and Diseases Airway Obstruction Prevention Airway Obstruction: Prevention. Facebook Twitter Linkedin ... Foods account for half of airways obstructions. Keep the following foods away from children younger than 4 years:. *. Hot dogs ... These may lead to obstruction of an infants airway or suffocation. ...
Recurrent airway obstruction (RAO). Many horses across Canada are affected by recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), a respiratory ... Recurrent airway obstruction is a chronic condition that waxes and wanes. Affected horses experience episodes of respiratory ... both of which contribute to airway obstruction and difficulty in breathing. Episodes can vary in severity, but for some horses ... Strict management to reduce your horses exposure to airway irritants will help to maintain your horse in remission and keep it ...
... Airway Obstruction. (En español: Obstrucción de las vías aéreas) ... its called an airway obstruction. When someone has asthma, the airways may become obstructed, or blocked, because the airways ... Say: air-way ub-struk-shun. When something keeps the air from moving in and out of the airways in your lungs, ...
... Chikoti Wheat,1,2 Ryan J. Bickley,3 Erik Cohen,4 ... "Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Presenting with Acute Airway Obstruction," Case Reports in Otolaryngology, vol. 2016, ...
The emergent evaluation of children with acute respiratory distress and airway management techniques for the difficult ... This topic will review an emergency diagnostic and therapeutic approach to acute upper airway obstruction in children. ... Airway pressure with chest compressions versus Heimlich manoeuvre in recently dead adults with complete airway obstruction. ... Emergency evaluation of acute upper airway obstruction in children. Author. Laura L Loftis, MD. Laura L Loftis, MD ...
Acute upper airway obstruction is a medical emergency and can be caused by many serious conditions such as a foreign body ... Lithium-Associated Thyromegaly: An Unusual Cause of Airway Obstruction. Ashish Verma, Siddharth Wartak, and Mark Tidswell ... Thyromegaly has rarely been reported as a source of airway compromise. We present a patient whose thyromegaly is presumed to ... occluding the airway, intrinsic swelling (as in anaphylaxis), or extrinsic compression. ...
The increased prevalence of rheumatoid factor in smokers with airway obstruction compared with smokers with normal airways9 and ... airway obstruction. Birring and colleagues have shown an interesting link between respiratory symptoms and autoimmunity in the ... Our group has also found correlations between the severity of airway obstruction and the extent of rheumatoid disease at both ... Saravanan V, Cox J, Keaney NP, et al. Airway obstruction in rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with articular disease. ...
recurrent airway obstruction synonyms, recurrent airway obstruction pronunciation, recurrent airway obstruction translation, ... English dictionary definition of recurrent airway obstruction. n. A respiratory disease of horses that is characterized by a ... recurrent airway obstruction. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. recurrent airway ... Recurrent airway obstruction - definition of recurrent airway obstruction by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary. ...
Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. Br Med J 1975; 3 :678 ... Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.. Br Med J 1975; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction. Br Med J 1975; 3 :678 ... If they do commonly occur together then severe airways obstruction, which is often associated with chronic bronchitis, should ... The lack of association between lung cancer and severe airways obstruction requires an explanation. ... Relation between lung cancer, chronic bronchitis, and airways obstruction.. Br Med J 1975; 3 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj. ...
HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Allergies & Asthma , Mild Airway obstruction? Select A Location. ****** Top of ... apparently it showed that I have a mild airway obstruction. I also found out, after I took the PFT, that I had a sinus ...
The lower airway microbiota has been associated with clinical features such as airway obstruction, symptom control, and ... Objective To assess the relationship between local airway inflammation, severity of disease, and the lower airway microbiota in ... Inflammation of the airways was assessed via a cytokine and chemokine panel. Lower airway microbiota composition was determined ... AP2 was associated with more obstruction, compared to AP1. After treatment with FP reduced MIP-1β and TNF-α and increased IL-2 ...
... can compromise the airway and cause breathing difficulty. ... No matter the cause, airway obstruction in children can be life ... at two medical centers underwent a total of 127 ES for 139 obstruction sites. Airway obstruction was caused by congenital ... Japanese surgeons develop new technique to relieve airway obstruction in children. *Download PDF Copy ... A team of surgeons in Japan has developed a technique to relieve airway obstruction in children. The technique, known as ...
... secretion is essential for preventing airway obstruction in allergic airway disease. These results indicate that SLC26A9 may ... treated Slc26a9-deficient mice exhibited airway mucus obstruction, which did not occur in wild-type controls. In a study ... We found that IL-13 treatment increased Cl- secretion in the airways of wild-type but not Slc26a9-deficient mice. While IL-13- ... Representative morphology of conducting airways (. A. ) and lung parenchyma (. B. ) in naive wild-type and Slc26a9-/-. mice. ...
Airway Obstruction. When we breathe, air passes through our airways (the tubes that carry air into and out of the lungs) to get ... The muscles surrounding the airways also tighten, which makes the already clogged airways even narrower. These narrow, swollen ... and mucus-filled airways are obstructed - in other words, they dont let air through as easily as healthy airways. Obstructed ... In someone with asthma, the airways are inflamed, which means that they swell and produce lots of thick mucus. ...
Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). Related terms: Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS), ... Most brachycephalic dogs are affected by upper airway obstruction to some degree (Brown & Gregory 2005). The airways are ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) is a result of breeding practices that have selected for a shortened facial ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) occurs in all dog breeds with brachycephaly Brachycephaly is characterised by ...
"The airway response of horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves) to aerosol administration of ipratropium bromide", ... Recurrent airway obstruction, also known as broken wind, heaves, wind-broke horse, or sometimes by the term usually reserved ... 432-438 N. E. Robinson, (2001) "Recurrent Airway Obstruction (Heaves)", Equine Respiratory Diseases, International Veterinary ... "Persistent mucin glycoprotein alterations in equine recurrent airway obstruction",Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 281: L704- ...
It is important for the otolaryngologist to be aware of the myriad of causes of nasal airway obstruction. An accurate history ... The different causes of nasal airway obstruction are very wide-ranging, spanning from congenital life threatening causes to ... the physician should be aware of the possibility of a widened posterior septum as a cause of nasal airway obstruction. ... Herein, we present a case of nasal obstruction caused by widening of the posterior septum. A 52-year-old gentleman presented to ...
Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling. Michela Maria Bellocchia, Renza Ambrosanio, Filippo Patrucco, Giulia Verri, ... Omalizumab, airway obstruction and remodeling Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from European Respiratory ...
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Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). Related terms: Brachycephalic Onstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS), ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) occurs in all dog breeds with brachycephaly; of which the English bulldog is ... Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS) is a result of breeding practices that have selected for a shortened facial ... Lorinson D, Bright R and White R (1997) Brachycephalic airway obstruction syndrome - a review of 118 cases. Canine Practice 22: ...
... was compared with terbutaline during a 5-week single-blind crossover study in 16 patients with chronic airways obstruction and ... A clinical trial of oral clenbuterol (NAB 365) in chronic airways obstruction Curr Med Res Opin. 1980;6(7):449-55. doi: 10.1185 ... It is suggested that clenbuterol is a good alternative oral drug for treatment of chronic airways obstruction. ... was compared with terbutaline during a 5-week single-blind crossover study in 16 patients with chronic airways obstruction and ...
  • Pierre Robin Sequence is the name given to a set of symptoms that a child can have shortly after birth and includes a small lower jaw (micrognathia), a tongue that is pushed back into the throat (glossoptosis), and airway obstruction. (cleftandcraniofacialinstituteofutah.com)
  • Changes include shortening the graft to reduce the risk of airway perforation by the graft, especially in the right main bronchus. (news-medical.net)
  • and a patient age of 55 or more-increase the risk of airway complications. (americannursetoday.com)
  • HIV infection increased the risk of airway obstruction within a 1,053-person study of cigarette smokers in France, according to findings published online in the journal AIDS . (thebodypro.com)
  • 2 We have reported a similar association between airway obstruction and rheumatoid arthritis with a 2-3-fold increased prevalence of wheeze and physiological abnormalities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis compared with controls with osteoarthritis. (bmj.com)
  • This analysis found no association between airway obstruction and any the following: gender, body mass index, smoking cessation in the past three years, cannabis smoking, or HCV status. (thebodypro.com)
  • abstract = "We present the second confirmed report of HSV laryngitis in an adult stroke patient, resulting in complicated airway management issues. (elsevier.com)
  • While IL-13-induced mucus overproduction was similar in both strains, treated Slc26a9-deficient mice exhibited airway mucus obstruction, which did not occur in wild-type controls. (jci.org)
  • These narrow, swollen, and mucus-filled airways are obstructed - in other words, they don't let air through as easily as healthy airways. (akronchildrens.org)
  • Common to these conditions are reversible airway obstruction, mucus hypersecretion, vasodilation and enhanced vascular permeability. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The duration of an exposure response gradient between incident obstructive airways disease and work at the World Trade Center site: 2001-2011. (cdc.gov)
  • When it comes to delivering airway management support, you'll want to become ACLS-certified. (surefirecpr.com)