Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Plethysmography, Whole Body: Measurement of the volume of gas in the lungs, including that which is trapped in poorly communicating air spaces. It is of particular use in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Functional Residual Capacity: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Airway Remodeling: The structural changes in the number, mass, size and/or composition of the airway tissues.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Residual Volume: The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a maximal expiration. Common abbreviation is RV.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Plasma Volume: Volume of PLASMA in the circulation. It is usually measured by INDICATOR DILUTION TECHNIQUES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Tidal Volume: The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Helium: Helium. A noble gas with the atomic symbol He, atomic number 2, and atomic weight 4.003. It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas that is not combustible and does not support combustion. It was first detected in the sun and is now obtained from natural gas. Medically it is used as a diluent for other gases, being especially useful with oxygen in the treatment of certain cases of respiratory obstruction, and as a vehicle for general anesthetics. (Dorland, 27th ed)Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Lung Injury: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Expiratory Reserve Volume: The extra volume of air that can be expired with maximum effort beyond the level reached at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. Common abbreviation is ERV.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Forced Expiratory Flow Rates: The rate of airflow measured during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination.Plethysmography: Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.Lung Transplantation: The transference of either one or both of the lungs from one human or animal to another.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
  • M.G. Morris was supported by a Clinical Research Grant (CG‐008‐N) co‐funded by the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Arkansas Chapter of ALA. (ersjournals.com)
  • Provides an extensive range of clinical and workflow tools for Thoracic and Pulmonary specialists for quantification of lung volumes. (terarecon.com)
  • The clinical application of oxygen-enhanced lung MRI has been assessed in several studies. (springer.com)
  • Antibiotic selection for acute infective episodes is based on results of lower airway culture, local antibiotic susceptibility patterns, clinical severity and patient tolerance. (mja.com.au)
  • Application of this computational procedure to the measured tracheal acoustic impedances of 15 human subjects will illustrate the program's capability toward early detection of lung dysfunction using a prototype clinical facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Confounding errors in clinical measurements are readings that are not true reflections of the underlying signal. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • The measuring system must be accurate and precise to produce reliable clinical measurements. (anaesthesiauk.com)
  • This package includes lobar segmentation with volume calculations, AquariusAPS sphericity index to automate lung and trachea segmentation, and low attenuation segmentation with user-configurable range values. (terarecon.com)
  • Utilizing the AquariusAPS results, the software loads pre-processed lung and trachea segmentations. (terarecon.com)
  • By default, the trachea and associated large airways comprise a majority of the anatomic dead space which contains the largest percentage of HP 3 He gas [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The trachea, commonly called the windpipe, is the main airway to the lungs. (cancer.gov)
  • The severity of SCM in the main airways was graded on sections stained by the alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Since the early '90s, our team has been investigating tracheal occlusion - in which the airway is blocked in utero - as a viable alternative to the options of pregnancy termination and expectant management in these severe cases. (chop.edu)
  • Dr. Deprest leads the European "Tracheal Occlusion to Accelerate Lung Growth" (TOTAL) trial. (chop.edu)
  • This maneuver is conducted by occluding the airways at end-expiration and measuring the ratio of changes in esophageal and airway pressure during spontaneous inspiratory efforts made during occlusion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Usually airways resistance and thoracic gas volume are measured with a constant volume (variable pressure) mode [ 6 , 7 ] when the patient is sitting inside a tight box. (omicsonline.org)
  • The estimate of specific work of breathing can be measured by plotting breathing volume measured at mouth (derived from integration of breathing flow) against box shift volume, which is measured from the change of pressure within the body plethysmograph due to compression and decompression of thoracic gas during breathing [ 6 , 8 , 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • With approximately 7 to 10 million individuals in the U.S. projected to meet the criteria for lung cancer screening, thoracic CT volumes will undoubtedly increase with both the screening CT exams and interval CTs between screening for moderately suspicious nodules," said Dr. Kazerooni. (appliedradiology.com)
  • The lung application from Vital Images available on Vitrea is a critical tool for radiologists to evaluate thoracic/chest CT studies for lung cancer or to track its progression. (appliedradiology.com)
  • Our lung experts collaborate with highly skilled physicians in radiology, pathology, otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat care), thoracic surgery and lung transplantation. (uchospitals.edu)
  • Set tidal volume was 6 ml/kg across a range of simulated weights and ETT sizes. (harvard.edu)
  • Effective tidal volume was calculated from a standard equation. (harvard.edu)
  • In the absence of a simulated ETT leak, calculation of the effective tidal volume led to measurements very similar to exhaled tidal volume measured at the ETT. (harvard.edu)
  • With a simulated ETT tube leak, the effective tidal volume markedly overestimated tidal volume measured at the airway. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusion: Previous investigators have emphasized the need to measure tidal volume at the ETT for all children. (harvard.edu)
  • Future studies of tidal volume measurement accuracy in mechanically ventilated children should control for the degree of ETT leakage. (harvard.edu)
  • To obtain uniform, comparable closing volumes, it is suggested that subjects inspire slowly, control expiratory flow voluntarily and not pause between inspiration and expiration. (cdc.gov)
  • Nowadays, spirometric-like measures can be performed in mice by rapidly exposing the airways to a negative pressure in order to generate a forced expiratory flow signal [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the results of both SCM and MCM in the CSA measurement of four different upper airway segments and to evaluate the demographic factors that could potentially affect the outcomes of such a comparison. (cureus.com)
  • Esophageal manometry is the clinically available method to estimate pleural pressure, thus enabling calculation of transpulmonary pressure (PL). However, many concerns make it uncertain in which lung region esophageal manometry reflects local PL. (ovid.com)
  • The more consistent efficacy of both treatment strategies in preventing BHR than in treating the adverse pulmonary vascular consequences suggests the benefit of both calcium channel blockade and ACE inhibition to counteract the airway susceptibility following a LVD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This package provides features including semi-automated liver segmentation, lesion definition with volume measurement, classification of vasculature, and vascular centerline distance measurements for invasive treatments. (terarecon.com)
  • Takahashi Y, Izumi Y, Kohno M, Ikeda E, Nomori H. Airway Administration of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor siRNAs Induces Transient Airspace Enlargement in Mice. (medsci.org)
  • At the University of Chicago, our lung specialists will assess your medical history and your symptoms to determine the diagnostic approach that is most appropriate for you. (uchospitals.edu)
  • In the pressure step preceding physiologic lung recruitment, a significant reversal of atelectasis occurred in 17% of the dependent lung regions (p = .016). (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to the stepwise recruitment maneuver, the sustained inflation did not produce significant changes in atelectasis or oxygenation: atelectasis was only reversed in 12% of the lung (p = .122), and there was only a modest improvement in oxygenation (27 ± 14 mm Hg, p = .088). (nih.gov)
  • Reversal of atelectasis in the most dependent lung region preceded improvements in gas exchange during a stepwise lung-recruitment strategy. (nih.gov)
  • Larger amounts of atelectasis in dependent lung areas were associated with a positive response to a stepwise lung-recruitment maneuver. (nih.gov)