Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.E2F6 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F6 recruits chromatin remodeling factors directly to target gene promoters and lacks the transactivation domain responsible for binding to the retinoblastoma family of tumor suppressors.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)5-Aminolevulinate Synthetase: An enzyme of the transferase class that catalyzes condensation of the succinyl group from succinyl coenzyme A with glycine to form delta-aminolevulinate. It is a pyridoxyal phosphate protein and the reaction occurs in mitochondria as the first step of the heme biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme is a key regulatory enzyme in heme biosynthesis. In liver feedback is inhibited by heme. EC 2.3.1.37.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Endolymphatic Sac: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Anal Sacs: A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (1/194)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. (2/194)

Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.  (+info)

Communication signals and sound production mechanisms of mormyrid electric fish. (3/194)

The African weakly electric fishes Pollimyrus isidori and Pollimyrus adspersus (Mormyridae) produce elaborate acoustic displays during social communication in addition to their electric organ discharges (EODs). In this paper, we provide new data on the EODs of these sound-producing mormyrids and on the mechanisms they use to generate species-typical sounds. Although it is known that the EODs are usually species-specific and sexually dimorphic, the EODs of closely related sound-producing mormyrids have not previously been compared. The data presented demonstrate that there is a clear sexual dimorphism in the EOD waveform of P. isidori. Females have a multi-phasic EOD that is more complex than the male's biphasic EOD. In this respect, P. isidori is similar to its more thoroughly studied congener P. adspersus, which has a sexually dimorphic EOD. The new data also reveal that the EODs of these two species are distinct, thus showing for the first time that species-specificity in EODs is characteristic of these fishes, which also generate species-specific courtship sounds. The sound-generating mechanism is based on a drumming muscle coupled to the swimbladder. Transverse sections through decalcified male and female P. adspersus revealed a muscle that envelops the caudal pole of the swimbladder and that is composed of dorso-ventrally oriented fibers. The muscle is five times larger in males (14.5+/-4.4 microl, mean +/- s.d.) than in females (3.2+/-1.8 microl). The fibers are also of significantly larger diameter in males than in females. Males generate courtship sounds and females do not. The function of the swimbladder muscle was tested using behavioral experiments. Male P. adspersus normally produce acoustic courtship displays when presented with female-like electrical stimuli. However, local anesthesia of the swimbladder muscle muted males. In control trials, males continued to produce sounds after injection of either lidocaine in the trunk muscles or saline in the swimbladder muscles.  (+info)

Trading force for speed: why superfast crossbridge kinetics leads to superlow forces. (4/194)

Superfast muscles power high-frequency motions such as sound production and visual tracking. As a class, these muscles also generate low forces. Using the toadfish swimbladder muscle, the fastest known vertebrate muscle, we examined the crossbridge kinetic rates responsible for high contraction rates and how these might affect force generation. Swimbladder fibers have evolved a 10-fold faster crossbridge detachment rate than fast-twitch locomotory fibers, but surprisingly the crossbridge attachment rate has remained unchanged. These kinetics result in very few crossbridges being attached during contraction of superfast fibers (only approximately 1/6 of that in locomotory fibers) and thus low force. This imbalance between attachment and detachment rates is likely to be a general mechanism that imposes a tradeoff of force for speed in all superfast fibers.  (+info)

Proliferative lesions in swimbladder of Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata. (5/194)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the 4 cases from medaka and 8 of the 9 from guppies occurred in untreated control specimens. The lesions affected the gas gland epithelium and included hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. One medaka had hyperplasia of the gas gland epithelium and in 1 guppy the gland was enlarged with an increase in the number of epithelial layers. Gas gland adenomas, 3 cases in medaka and 1 in the guppy, were typically larger than the hyperplastic lesions, formed expansive masses up to 1 mm in greatest dimension, and exhibited a solid or glandular growth pattern and mild cellular pleomorphism. Adenocarcinoma was the most advanced lesion and all 7 cases occurred in guppies. Adenocarcinomas sometimes filled the entire swimbladder and measured up to 2.5 mm in diameter. Cells of adenocarcinomas were highly pleomorphic, with atypical nuclei, and an elevated mitotic activity. Because most of these tumors occurred in fish from control groups or in tests with noncarcinogenic compounds, the lesions observed here are probably spontaneous rather than chemically induced. Their rare occurrence, however, makes swimbladder proliferative lesions in small-fish carcinogenesis models sensitive indicators of compounds that might target cells of the gas gland.  (+info)

Histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the European eel Anguilla anguilla due to infections with Anguillicola crassus. (6/194)

The histopathological changes in swimbladders of European eels naturally and experimentally infected with Anguillicola crassus were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. During the course of probably several infections swimbladders undergo characteristic changes. In addition to the thickening of the entire swimbladder wall, and to the folded internal surface of this organ, inflammation, migration of white blood cells, fibrosis and changes in the epithelial cells are frequently seen. Epithelial cells tend to proliferate heavily and form hyperplastic tissues; these processes are accompanied by changes in the internal structure of the cells. The normally cubic cells become spherical or columnar and form folds facing the lumen of the swimbladder. As a consequence, most of these cells lose contact with the blood vessels and show no strict polarity. In heavily affected swimbladders the basal labyrinth of the epithelial cells is reduced, i.e. becomes shorter and less densely packed. The lamina propria shows severe fibrosis with infiltration of white blood cells. Larvae of A. crassus, inhabiting the wall of the swimbladder, were found to be surrounded by cell debris, but this local necrosis does not affect the entire swimbladder in its overall structure. These histological findings can partly explain changes in the gas composition in eels infected with A. crassus.  (+info)

Expression of two vacuolar-type ATPase B subunit isoforms in swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel: nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. (7/194)

The poly(A)(+) RNA of swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel Anguilla anguilla was isolated and used for cDNA synthesis. Using a pair of degenerate PCR primers directed towards the evolutionary highly conserved central part of the B subunit of vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) a fragment of 388 bp was amplified. By sequencing the cloned PCR products two different amplicons with a sequence identity of about 86% were obtained. BLASTN searches revealed a high degree of similarity of both to V-ATPase B subunits of other species. The sequences were completed by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, subsequent cloning, and sequencing of the obtained products. The expression of two different isoforms of the V-ATPase B subunit is already demonstrated for Homo sapiens and Bos taurus. This is the first report that attributes the same phenomenon to a non-mammalian species, A. anguilla. The first isoform found in eel (vatB2) shows the highest degree of amino acid sequence homology with the human brain isoform (98.2%), the second one (vatB1) with the B subunit sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill and kidney (98, 6%). The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of vatB1 and vatB2 shows that the highest sequence variation between these two isoforms is found at the amino-terminus, where vatB1 is nine amino acids shorter than vatB2, while at the carboxy-terminus it is two amino acids longer than vatB2. This has also been reported for the human and bovine kidney isoforms when compared with the brain isoforms. Northern blot analysis using specific hybridization probes revealed the expression of two mRNA's with lengths of about 2.9 kb and 3.5 kb for vatB1 and vatB2, respectively. For mammals, it is well known that V-ATPases containing the kidney isoforms of the B subunit are responsible for the extrusion of protons across the plasma membranes of several cell types. The fact that eel vatB1 seems to share structural features with the kidney isoforms in mammals supports the hypothesis that in gas gland cells a V-ATPase contributes to the acidification of the blood in the swimbladder.  (+info)

Effect of salinity on hatching, survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) larvae. (8/194)

The effect of salinity on hatching, larval survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus was studied under experimental conditions using eggs obtained from naturally infected eels. Egg hatching rate, second-stage larval survival and larval infectivity were maximal in fresh water and declined with increase in salinity. Larvae survived up to 100 d in fresh water, 70 d in 50 % sea water and 40 d in 100% sea water. Infectivity experiments demonstrated that salinity influenced transmission success throughout the life cycle by decreasing total infectivity of the larval population in utero within female A. crassus and when larvae were free-living in the aquatic environment. Infectivity was age-dependent in relation to salinity. Larvae were infective to intermediate and paratenic hosts for up to 80 d in fresh water, 21 d in 50% sea water and up to 8 d in 100% sea water. The data confirm field observations that infection levels decrease with an increase in salinity. The study contributes to experimental verification of the colonization abilities of A. crassus and supports the hypothesis that A. crassus can be disseminated and transmitted in brackish water. The importance of regular monitoring and stringent hygiene practices in the transportation of eels is emphasized.  (+info)

*Physiology of dinosaurs

argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ... air sacs actually evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in later forms. Evidence of air sacs has ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ...

*Air sacs

argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ... air sacs actually evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in later forms. Evidence of air sacs has ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ...

*Air sac

... generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animal's respiratory system. It may refer ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...

*Glassworm

These dots are the air sacs. They use these air sacs to migrate up and down in lakes. Glassworms breathe through the end of ... fact that a normal air filled invertebrate tracheal system would fail at these depths by having it reduced to just two air sacs ...

*Bird feet and legs

They contain many air pockets connected to the pulmonary air sacs of the respiratory system. Their spongy interior makes them ... ISBN 0-521-81172-4. Gier, H. T. (1952). "The air sacs of the loon" (PDF). The Auk. American Ornithologists' Union. 69 (1): 40- ... Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Groenewald, H.B.; Soley, J.T. (1999). "An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches" (PDF ... JSTOR 41559544 . Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). ...

*Skeletal pneumaticity

The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ... It is generally produced during development by excavation of bone by pneumatic diverticula (air sacs) from an air-filled space ... On the Origin of Avian Air Sacs. Resp. Physiol. Neuro. 154(1-2):89-106. Bruno Moreira and Peter M. Som. Unexplained Extensive ... Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3(9): e3303. doi:10.1371/journal ...

*Prenatal development

Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Fetal hematopoiesis first takes place in the yolk sac. The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...

*Mites of livestock

Cytodites nudus is a typical species of this type; it infests the air-sacs of birds. Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst ... or to penetrate and scrape at internal tissue such as air-sac or lung. Psoroptes ovis is an example of a surface-feeding mite. ... air-sac mites) Family: Laminosioptidae (fowl cyst mites) Family: Analgidae (feather mites) Family: Trombiculidae (trombiculid ... and other species have adapted to feed directly on internal tissues such as air-sacs or lungs (Cytoditidae and Laminosioptidae ...

*Sauropoda

These air spaces reduced the overall weight of the massive necks that the sauropods had, and the air-sac system in general, ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ... Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs, evidenced by ...

*Rhamphorhynchoidea

Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., and gower, D.J. (2009). "Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs ...

*Common raven physiology

Air flow is directed through the lungs via air sacs. The sacs are used to create a continuous unidirectional flow of fresh air ... but the common raven as a member of the Passeriformes group only has seven air sacs (missing two cervical air sacs). The common ... Most birds have nine air sacs, grouped into anterior and posterior sacs, ... Air moves in a unidirectional flow and blood travels in a concurrent direction to air flow. An advantage of this type of system ...

*Thoracic diaphragm

A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen. ... When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. ... or air abnormally present in the abdomen, may collect on one side of the diaphragm. An X-ray may reveal this. Pleural effusion ...

*Two-spotted bumble bee

Mites were recovered from the autosomal air sacs of bumble bees. These mites can affect behavior and reduce longevity, which ...

*Scipionyx

They considered the space more likely to have been filled by a large yolk-sac. Air-sacs were nevertheless probable given the ... Many bird livers are large too, showing that such a trait is compatible with an air-sac system. The small body cavity in front ... Such a system would be an argument against the idea that birds, whose lungs are ventilated by air-sacs, are coelurosaurian ... Dal Sasso & Maganuco however, rejected this interpretation because with living birds the air-sac of the posterior abdomen does ...

*Respiratory tract

The alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The mean number of alveoli in a human lung is 480 ... These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. The lungs are the largest organs in the lower ... This type of COPD deteriorates the air sacs, and lung mass. Secondary COPD can be found in older adults who smoke or have ... When that happens, these sacs fill with air, making the lung expand. The alveoli are rich with capillaries, called alveolor ...

*Cyclocoelidae

Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) from the air sacs of purple moorhen at Sangrur India. Rivista di Parassitologia, 46, 351-354. Dronen ...

*Istiodactylus

The vertebral column, forelimb, and trunk bones were pneumatised by air sacs. The neural arches of the vertebrae had tall, ... Seeley, H. G. (1901). Dragons of the Air: an Account of Extinct Flying Reptiles. New York: D. Appleton & Co. pp. 173-175. Howse ... In his 1901 Dragons of the Air, the first popular book about pterosaurs, Seeley reported another specimen (NHMUK R176 at the ... and they probably spent much time in the air. Istiodactylids had wing-membranes connected to shortened bodies with short legs ...

*Booby

Facial air sacs under their skin cushion the impact with the water. Boobies are colonial breeders on islands and coasts. They ...

*Respiratory system

... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... These microscopic air sacs have a very rich blood supply, thus bringing the air into close contact with the blood. These air ... the oxygen-poor air it contains at the end of exhalation is the first air to re-enter the posterior air sacs and lungs. In ... The air passages connecting the ventrobronchi and anterior air sacs to the intrapulmonary bronchi direct the "spent", oxygen ...

*Araucariaceae

The pollen grains are round and do not possess wings or air sacs. Female cones are also very large. They are spherical to ovoid ... Each has four to 20 elongated pollen sacs attached to the lower surface at one end. ...

*Aerosteon

... suggesting that it may have had a respiratory air-sac system similar to that of modern birds. These air sacs would have acted ... "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina". PLoS ONE. 3 (9): e3303. Bibcode: ... Aerosteon's name can be translated as air bone and derives from Greek ἀήρ (aer, "air") and ὀστέον (osteon, "bone"). Though the ... "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina." PLoS ONE, 21 May 2009. Coria, Rodolfo A ...

*Common ostrich

Thus, they are able to use a series of air sacs connected to the lungs. The use of air sacs forms the basis for the three main ... Ten different air sacs attach to the lungs to form areas for respiration. The most posterior air sacs (abdominal and post- ... oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. The common ostrich air ... since air is pumped by the air sacs rather than the lung itself. As a result, the capillaries in the parabronchi have thinner ...

*Blue-footed booby

Their skulls contain special air sacs that protect the brain from enormous pressure. Prey are usually eaten while the birds are ...

*Vertebral column

In sauropod dinosaurs, the largest known land vertebrates, pleurocoels and air sacs may have reduced the animal's weight by ... These pleurocoels were filled with air sacs, which would have further decreased weight. ... perforated to create an entrance into the air chambers within the vertebrae, which served to decrease the weight of these bones ...

*Northern gannet

There are subcutaneous air sacs in the lower body and along the sides. Other air sacs are located between the sternum and the ... These sacs are connected to the lungs and are filled with air when the bird breathes in. The air can be expelled by muscle ... The bird's subcutaneous air bags aid their rapid return to the surface.[citation needed] The fish is stored in a branched bag ... allowing efficient use of air currents when flying. Even in calm weather they can attain velocities of between 55 and 65 km/h ( ...

*178th Reconnaissance Squadron

It moved to Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, where it became part of Strategic Air Command (SAC), and was assigned to the ... In 1994 the 119th Group won the Hughes Trophy which recognizes the most outstanding air-to-air unit in the Air Force. The only ... William Tell tests pilots and ground crews from the Air Force fighter units in air-to-air combat. This was the Hooligans' third ... Barry (1985). Army Air Forces Stations: A Guide to the Stations Where U.S. Army Air Forces Personnel Served in the United ...

*Melon (cetacean)

Sounds also bounce off the skull and air sacs that surround the melon. Melon size is unrelated to maximum dive depth in toothed ...
The vertical movements of a teleostean fish may be restricted by the presence of the swimbladder, which will increase or decrease in volume when the fish moves up or down in the water.. It is shown that the restriction that the swimbladder imposes to vertical movements involving a reduction in pressure will depend on physical factors such as. (1) The resistance that the bladder and body wall offer to the expansion of the bladder gas.. (2) The percentage volume of the swimbladder and the density change of the fish when it is subjected to a reduction in pressure.. (3) The pressure reduction that leads to the rupture of the bladder wall.. A distinction is made between rapid and slow movements. In the former the compensatory ability of the fish must be considered and in the latter the speed with which the fish can accommodate itself to pressure changes.. An equation is derived from which the minimum speed at which a physoclist can migrate from deep to shallow water can be calculated. To solve the ...
Vetafarm Scatt is effective treatment for air sac and scaly face mites in birds. Scatt 50ml Air Sac Mites Scatt Scaly Face Mites Scatt for Mites - Bird Supply of New Hampshire,Vetafarm,Cede,Higgins,Zupreem,Nemeth Farms,Abba,Harrisons,Pretty Bird,Booda,Parrotopia,Prevue,Birdie Bagel,Bird Kabob,Votoy,Superbird,Seatec,Jungle Talk,Lafeber,Goldenfeast,Kaytee,Vitakraft,Avico,Roudybush,Orlux,Quiko,Cede,Hagen,YML,HQ,A&E,Benelux,Versele-Laga,LAvian Plus,Avian Adventures
I candled my eggs tonight, and I have one that has the air sac on the opposite end. Is there a reason an air sac would be on the wrong end? Will the...
Fig. 1. The type of tube utilized depends on the size of the patient and the urgency of the situation. In small birds a 2-3 cm section of I.V. tubing will suffice. In larger birds a standard 3.0 mm I.D. cuffed endotracheal tube can be modified for abdominal installation. The tube is trimmed just above the air line thereby preserving the integrity of the cuff. A 1 X 5 cm strip of Elasticon is wrapped around the endotracheal tube 2-3 mm above the cuff. Inflation of the cuff after placement in the bird offers the advantage of securing the tube in place and more importantly expanding the air sac thereby improving the patency and effectiveness of the tube (figure 1).. The breathing tube can be installed into the caudal thoracic air sac either between the last two ribs or just behind the last rib, both just dorsal to the dorsal edge of the pectoral muscle. The patient is secured in lateral recumbency and the area is surgically prepped. The leg is flexed and abducted (not pulled cranially or caudally) ...
This is a common problem whereby fish lose their equilibrium and are unable to maintain their position. This can result in the fish swimming awkwardly, laying upside-down either on the bottom or top of the water, or unable to maintain a horizontal position in the water. This is often attributed to swim-bladder problems and indeed this is the most common cause of loss of equilibrium. The swim-bladder is an air-filled sac laying just under the backbone at the top of the abdominal cavity. By inflating / deflating the swim-bladder, the fish can adjust its position in the water and maintain neutral buoyancy. The swim-bladder can be affected by bacterial or viral diseases. In addition the swim-bladder may malfunction, leading to over or under inflation. Clearly anything which affects the proper functioning of the swim-bladder will also affect the fishs equilibrium.. However, before diagnosing all equilibrium problems as swim-bladder disease, we should be aware that there are other conditions which ...
When birds and humans sing, it sounds completely different, but the very same physical mechanisms are at play when a bird sings and a human speaks.
You need to get your bird examined by the veterinarian for proper diagnosis. If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If treated early, your bird should recover from the infection.. ...
In this video, I present a fish thats floating at the water surface; and how I go about treating positive buoyancy disorder - https://youtu.be/SOMjZHW_gy4 Read more from our blogs archive about swimbladder disease - https://thefishvet.com/?s=Buoyancy -- Yours sincerely, Dr Richmond Loh DipProjMgt, BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Pathology), MANZCVS (Aquatics& Pathobiology), CertAqV, NATA Signatory. PERTH | MELBOURNE |…
Medicine for swim bladder disease - Swim Bladder | Pet Care Article | petco.com. Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
A functioning goldfish swim bladder is critical for survival. Swim bladder disease can be cause by several ailments. Some are easier to treat than others.
The swimbladder of Ocythoe connects to the mantle cavity via a muscular duct on the right side. The swimbladder is located at the center of mass just above the center of gravity, a position that allows for stability and manoeverability. The muscular swim-bladder sac is a distended bladder whose volume is about 5% of the total body volume. This volume is sufficient to provide neutral buoyancy when filled with gas. Indeed, observations on a living animal in the Naples Aquarium indicate that the octopus can achieve neutral buoyancy. The nature and origin of the gas that fills the bladder is unknown although the octopod has been observed to release bubbles of gas. The latter were presumably ejected via muscular action through the swimblader duct into the mantle cavity. The swimbladder is absent from the dwarf male. (The above account is from Packard and Wurtz, 1994 ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand.. Although birds have lungs, these are fairly rigid structures, which do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. The structures that act as the bellows which ventilate the lungs, are the air sacs distributed throughout much of the birds bodies. Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.[30]. The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a set of bellows[31] which move air unidirectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[32][33]. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand.. Although birds have lungs, these are fairly rigid structures, which do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. The structures that act as the bellows which ventilate the lungs, are the air sacs distributed throughout much of the birds bodies. Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.[30]. The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a set of bellows[31] which move air unidirectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[32][33]. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
The LD50 values were determined for cardiovascular drugs in chick embryos at different developmental stages in order to obtain a more precise injection stage for fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens for the prediction in rodents. First, time-course changes in the weight of fertile eggs, their air sac volume, and weight of each egg component were measured after the initiation of incubation. The weight of whole eggs decreased with incubation, while air sac volume increased. The chick embryos weight increased with decreases in albumen weight. These findings suggest that decreases in whole egg weight are due to decreases in water in the eggs. When the maximum volume of physiological saline or CMC-Na solution was injected into the air sac on different days of incubation the bulk of the vehicle did not prove to be toxic to the chick embryos. Next, several cardiovascular drugs, i.e., aloprenolol, piretanide, dipyridamol, lidocaine, propranolol, canrenoate, disopyramide and reserpine were injected ...
The contraction-relaxation cycle in muscle is regulated by the release of Ca2+ from, and its uptake by, the SR (Ebashi and Endo, 1968). In fish sound-producing muscles, the maximum frequency of sound produced is determined by the maximum frequency of twitch fusion, which is primarily dependent on the rate of relaxation of twitch tension, which is dependent on the rate of Ca2+ uptake by the SR (Skoglund, 1959). In accordance with this view, the fractional SR volume in the sound-producing muscle fibres, including the SBM fibres, is much larger than that in skeletal muscle fibres (Peachey and Porter, 1959; Fawcett and Revel, 1961; Revel, 1962; Franzini-Armstrong, 1972; Appelt et al., 1991; Suzuki et al., 2003).. Twitches produced by repetitive motor nerve stimulation of the SBM tend to decrease rapidly with time (Fig. 5A), as has also been reported by Hidaka and Toida (1969). This may result, at least in part, from the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration gradually decreasing during repetitive motor nerve ...
BY 124 Mock Exam #3 True/False 1. True or False: A swim bladder may have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. 2. True or False: The amniotic egg is an important evolutionary breakthrough because it allows for incubation of eggs in an aqueous environment. 3. True or False: The amniotic egg added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments. 4. True or False: During the prometamorphosis phase, growth happens quickly for the larva as it begins to differentiate into the adult form. 5. True or False: When the gill chamber floor is lowered during respiration in bony fish, the fishs mouth is closed and its operculum is open, allowing for water to be pulled in and across the gills. 6. True or False: Members of Class Actinopterygii have thin fins whereas members of Class Chondrichthyes have thick fins. 7. True or False: Reptiles were the first vertebrates to live on land. 8. True or False: Lengthening of myofibrils is what allows for the contraction of ...
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
As there are lots of conditions associated with lungs, they can be classified in several different ways. When it comes to physiologic types we can say there are three types of lung diseases. They are as follows. Obstructive Lung Disease: This type of lung disease is brought on because of the obstruction in the airways due the narrowing or congestion. Some of the diseases which can be included in this category are asthma, emphysema and bronchitis. Limited Lung Disease: This sort of lung disease is a result of the inability of the lungs to hold the air within the air sacs. Hard to stick to lung disease is actually either as a result of decline in the elasticity of the lungs or the growth of the chest walls. The last category is for the conditions which are related to the inability of the air sacs to supply air or to move it to the blood. This results in the lack of oxygen in the blood as well as in the body. List of Lung Diseases ...
COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It refers to two long-term lung diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema -- that often occur together. COPD makes it difficult for you to breathe. There is no cure for COPD, but you can take steps to manage the disease.. If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with COPD, you probably have many questions. Here are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about living with COPD, its symptoms, treatment, and causes.. 1. What happens to my lungs if I have COPD?. Tubes, called airways, carry air in and out of your lungs. If you have COPD, these airways may become partially blocked from swelling or mucus. This makes it more difficult to breathe.. At the end of the airways are many tiny balloon-like air sacs, which inflate and deflate when you breathe in and out. With COPD, these air sacs lose their elasticity. This can lead to the collapse of small airways and also make it more difficult for you to breathe.. 2. What causes ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF , Fibrosi Polmonare Idiopatica) is a disease characterized by progressive scarring, or fibrosis, of the lungs. It is a specific type of interstitial lung disease in which the small air sacs of the lung, known as "alveoli," gradually become replaced by fibrotic (scar) tissue. The abnormal fibrosis and scar formation typically begins in the terminal areas of the pulmonary tree lining the air sacs where gas exchange occurs. Normally, this tissue is a thin layer consisting of a few, easily permeable cells. With IPF, progressive scarring causes the normally thin and pliable tissue to thicken and become stiff, making it more difficult for the lungs to expand, preventing oxygen from readily getting into the bloodstream. ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF , Fibrosi Polmonare Idiopatica) is a disease characterized by progressive scarring, or fibrosis, of the lungs. It is a specific type of interstitial lung disease in which the small air sacs of the lung, known as "alveoli," gradually become replaced by fibrotic (scar) tissue. The abnormal fibrosis and scar formation typically begins in the terminal areas of the pulmonary tree lining the air sacs where gas exchange occurs. Normally, this tissue is a thin layer consisting of a few, easily permeable cells. With IPF, progressive scarring causes the normally thin and pliable tissue to thicken and become stiff, making it more difficult for the lungs to expand, preventing oxygen from readily getting into the bloodstream. ...
Emphysema is a condition that is typically marked by steady destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs in which ensure inhaled oxygen will be transferred to the system and also carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the appropriate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and associated with the are usually said to result in emphysema. Usually, the actual alveoli are usually stretchy but with emphysema their own elasticity is actually impaired. As a result, the particular alveoli tend to be unable residence off carbon dioxide and other harmful particles appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and it is then followed by shortness of breath and continual coughing ...
Emphysema is a condition that is typically designated by progressive destruction of alveoli, little air sacs in the lungs in which ensure inhaled oxygen is actually transferred to the bloodstream as well as carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the physique. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the appropriate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Persistent smoking and polluting of are said to trigger emphysema. Usually, the alveoli tend to be elastic but with emphysema their elasticity is reduced. As a result, the actual alveoli are unable dispose off carbon dioxide and other harmful particles appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities contributes to excess mucus production in the lungs which is then followed by shortness of breath and continual coughing ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0. Head large; eyes large; snout moderately pointed, its anterolateral margin incompletely supported by bone. Head ridges rather weakly scaled, other head scales mostly without spinules; the dorsal and ventral snout surfaces mostly naked. Spines on lower jaw and pectoral girdle without spinules. Light organ large, lens-shaped black fossa between the pelvic fin bases. Swim bladder oval, with 6 to 11 short retia mirabilia and gas glands. Pyloric caeca 10 to 14. Overall color is light brown to swarthy, somewhat silvery ventrally, with heavy punctuations; mouth pale, blackish along tongue base; gill cavity blackish, paler with punctuations toward inner surfaces. ...
In the physics worldview we posit a prestated phase space within which we can conduct a calculus of possible trajectories within that space. This is the basis of Maxwells Demon - the imagination of an intelligence that can be aware of all the current bits (and their states) with the consequence that the future could then be simply foreseen as the inevitable computation of trajectories of the existing bits. Kauffman gives another example of evolution selecting a fish with a swim bladder. This process fits well with developments in the physics pre-stated space as the causal webs that shape the evolving fish-with-swim-bladder-in-environment event. However, when a micro-organism inhabits the swim-bladder turning it into a niche - this was not prestateable, it was a-causal in the swim-bladder was not selected for to be a niche. However, once existant - becoming a niche was an adjacent possible that enabled a micro-organism to actualize an affordance (as adjacent possible). Kauffman says that ...
We have reconstructed the events that led to the evolution of a key physiological innovation underpinning the large adaptive radiation of fishes, namely their unique ability to secrete molecular oxygen (O2). We show that O2 secretion into the swimbladder evolved some 100 million years after another O2-secreting system in the eye. We unravel the likely sequence in which the functional components of both systems evolved. These components include ocular and swimbladder countercurrent exchangers, the Bohr and Root effects, the buffering power and surface histidine content of hemoglobins, and red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange activity. Our synthesis reveals the dynamics of gains and losses of these multiple traits over time, accounting for part of the huge diversity of form and function in living fishes.. ...
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Before there were land animals, certain fish developed a swim bladder, which they could fill with gas, usually air. This allowed the fish to stay at a given depth without expending energy on swimming. The swim bladder probably was, in some species, also helpful for stability, and maybe also as a resonating chamber to produce or receive sound. The swim bladder evolved into the lung of the earliest lungfish - and from there into the lungs of land animals. Something that evolved for one purpose or set of purposes (buoyancy, stability, sonic resonance) was appropriated for a very different purpose (breathing air). A device for staying at a given depth in water turned into the essential step for moving onto land ...
A true fish is cold-blooded, breathes through gills on each side, and depends al-most entirely on water for life. It has a bony skeleton and a long-shaped body, narrowing at the tail. The fins at various parts of its body are used for steering, balancing, and moving it forward. An air bladder, often called swim bladder, helps it maintain bal-ance to rise, descend, and adjust to water pressure. It has a heart which has two principal chambers: the atrium and ventricle. It reproduces by laying eggs ...
he acts fine, big WC yesterday and ntoticed he was big, put him in qt, swimming around like he owns the place. nothing differant in routine except I cant get my angels on any type of pellet food, so been feeding on bottem and top at same time so angels can enjoy there food more while my parrots hoard the bottem. the Gourami eats from the bottom and top, he is a piglet. Here is pic of him, again he seem perfectly normal and other fish in tank are fine. Though i lost a platy 2 months ago, I
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The Respiratory system works when air goes in the nose and mouth.Tiny hairs in the nose cleans the large particles in the air like dust. Mucus traps particles and keeps the cells in your nose moist. The air then moves to the trachea also known as the windpipe. The trachea branches into two bronchus tubes that go to the lungs. The bronchus tubes breaks into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles that branch into smaller air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli the oxygen from the air is transferred to the blood. Then the carbon dioxide in the blood is removed ...
The Respiratory System. Respiration Includes. Pulmonary ventilation Air moves in and out of lungs Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli (air sacs) External respiration Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli O2 (oxygen) in air diffuses into blood Slideshow 5322664 by truman
Respiration Includes Pulmonary ventilation External respiration Air moves in and out of lungs Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli (air sacs) External respiration Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli O2 (oxygen) in air diffuses into blood CO2 (carbon dioxide) in blood diffuses into air Transport of respiratory gases Between the lungs and the cells of the body Performed by the cardiovascular system Blood is the transporting fluid Internal respiration Gas exchange in capillaries between blood and tissue cells O2 in blood diffuses into tissues CO2 waste in tissues diffuses into blood
Here is another miracle system. Air enters your nose and passes down to that same pharynx again. But this time, the swallow mechanism is not in operation, so the air goes directly downward into the larynx, past your voice box, and into the trachea, which then divides into the two bronchi, which then lead through the bronchioles into tiny air sacs called atria. Think of two trees with their branches continually rebranching until finally they end-in grapes! That is the appearance of the bronchi, bronchioles, and atria. Tiny projections, called alveoli, protrude outward from each grape-like atrium into the lung. It all does look very much like a bunch of grapes! The plan is to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide-as much as possible and as quickly as possible. There are over 400 million alveoli; each one is closely connected with blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.. That is what, on the inside, your lungs look like; From the outside, the lungs appear to be two cone-shaped organs, ...
Volumes of up to 300 liters of blood are pumped at a high pressure through small lung capillaries surrounding 10 million air sacs to take up and deliver over 70 liters of oxygen per minute ...
On Saturday, February 20, 1999 3:51 PM, [email protected] [SMTP:[email protected]] wrote: , Birds therefore must have developed their present lung system ,alongside, , their original diaphragmatic lung system, at first simply to increase , ventilatory efficiency as they became better fliers. Gradually the original , system was lost (or became modified into, say, part or all of their air sac , system--to figure out the details requires examination of extant-bird , entrails) as the newer system took over more of the respiratory function. , This , didnt happen overnight, and I look forward to the discovery of possible , flightless, very birdlike theropods with well-preserved innards showing signs , of ,both, kinds of respiratory systems--say in Brazil. This is not quite what Rubens group have in mind. Rubens point is that you *cannot* go from hepatic pump to avian without a step that is so debilitating as to be nonviable. Fortunately, the hepatic pump (diapghragm) system and the avian system ...
Lets take a journey through the air passageways of the lungs. Within the lungs, you can see a network of tubes called the bronchial tree, through which air enters and leaves your body. Upon inhalation, the air you breathe in passes through the trachea (windpipe) and follows the network of bronchial tubes into each lung. The winding passageways branch into smaller and smaller sections, which end at tiny air sacs called alveoli. In each alveolus, the oxygen you inhale is exchanged for the carbon dioxide released from the cells in your body. The carbon dioxide is expelled in the reverse direction during exhalation. ...
The human body requires energy to maintain life. Each organ is made up of millions of cells that perform various life support functions. All of these organs and cells have the same basic requirements. They need delivery of oxygen and fuel (such as glucose) in order to produce energy. And they need removal of unwanted energy byproducts like carbon dioxide. It is the team effort provided by the heart and lungs that provides this service to the cells. The lungs provide oxygenation of the blood and the heart pumps that oxygenated blood along with glucose and other nutrients to the cells. The heart then transports the carbon dioxide back from the cells to the lungs where it is disposed. [pic1]This cycle begins when the diaphragm contracts and generates a negative pressure inside the chest cavity that causes the lungs to expand thus drawing in outside air. This air traverses a system of tubes that begins with the trachea and ends where the terminal bronchiole connects to the alveolus or air sac. The ...
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are within tiny air sacs called alveoli. They are found at the end of the bronchial tubes....
The lung (adjectival form: pulmonary) is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli ...
So why should we care about blood vessels? Well, the human body is literally packed with them: 60,000 miles worth in a typical adult. End to end, that would form a line that would circle the earth twice. The smallest blood vessels are called capillaries; weve got 19 billion of them in our bodies. And these are the vessels of life, and, as Ill show you, they can also be the vessels of death. Now the remarkable thing about blood vessels is that they have this ability to adapt to whatever environment theyre growing in. For example, in the liver they form channels to detoxify the blood; in the lung they line air sacs for gas exchange; in muscle they corkscrew so that muscles can contract without cutting off circulation; and in nerves they course along like power lines, keeping those nerves alive. We get most of these blood vessels when were actually still in the womb, And what that means is that as adults, blood vessels dont normally grow. Except in a few special circumstances: In women, blood ...
Aspergillosis is a fungal infection that commonly causes respiratory disease in pet birds. It can cause both upper (nose, sinuses, eye, and trachea) and lower (lungs and air sacs - a specialized part of the respiratory tract that birds have) respiratory problems or more broadly distributed systemic infections.. ...
A cockatiel came in for breathing problems and bubbles from the nose. The owners had just noticed it last night, so they didnt wait to see if it would improve. The bird was alert when it came in, but I could hear some "clicks" when it beathed. I started doing my exam and heard a lot of fluid in the lungs and air sacs. It seemed to be getting stressed, so I started to put it back in its cage to prevent further handling. As I did so it started to act strange, and in less than a minute had died in my hands. All of this was right in front of the owner, so they know that I didnt handle him roughly, but they were also surprised ...
Filled with detailed illustrations, this informative text explains how birds use their bones, air sacs, and feathers to master the art of flying.
Pneumonia occurs when one or both of the lungs become infected by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, or mycoplasma. The air sacs in the lungs become infected, which inhibits oxygen flow to the blood. Fever, fatigue, chills, chest pain, difficulty breathing, enlarged lymph glands in the neck, cough, bloody spit, achy muscles, and sore throat often accompany pneumonia.
It acts on the endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and prevents them from leaking fluid into the lungs air sacs causing respiratory failure.
Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammatory condition in one or both lungs. It affects small air sacs known as alveoli by filing them with fluid or pus, making a person difficult to breathe.
Pneumonia is when one or both of the lungs become infected, causing inflammation in the air sacs of the lungs, known as the alveoli.
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Grin on feeling shaky and light headed: I understand your distress. These symptoms are likely due to Anxiety caused by various stress in your life. We were born with natural ability to have rest and sleep. Focus on Blessing and Wonder of 3 million air sacs in your lungs due to which you are alive and functioning. Realize and Speak-BREATH IS LIFE! See Video of Pembrokeshire Coast National Park See Psychiatrist for Therapy and Medication
Calf Pneumonia Also known as: Enzootic Pneumonia Calf pneumonia is a respiratory disease caused by inflammation in the lungs, primarily the alveoli (air sacs). It is a multifactorial disease caused by a range of organisms including viruses, bacteria and mycoplasmas.
... is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
... is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
... is an infection of one or both of the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or chemical irritants. It is a serious infection or inflammation in which the air sacs fill with pus and other liquid.
FAQ - Summary of our most Frequently Asked Questions. Size, Temperature, average age, breeding, cage size, breeding condition, air sac mite.
Originally Posted by [b Quote[/b] ]Pop when pulled up from depths; their air bladders you mean their bladders (or is the stomach being pushed by the b
An apparatus for applying compression therapy to a portion of the human body includes a flexible member and an air bladder chamber. The flexible member is adapted to wrap around the body portion to se
Archaeopteryx had long mobile posterior ribs like other avetheropods, a long (only partly ossified) hinged sternum, and pneumatic dorsals, so it should have had a fairly well developed air-sac complex, albeit not as well developed as in dromaeosaurs or ratites. GSPaul ...
Poorly Gourami (Red Robins; taxonomy, health) 2/11/09 Hello Crew! Ive had a look all over the internet and at your recently answered question but havent found anything that really applies to the problem my Gourami has, so i hope you dont mind me emailing! Hes is a red robin honey Gourami who i have had for about 6 months and always been well. Yesterday i came home to find him sitting at the bottom of the tank with a slightly rounded underside - just around where i assume his swim bladder is, at the base of his feelers. He was moved about a week ago from my previous 30 litre tank to a new 120 litre. I have given the tank a water change and the water results are still within the normal parameters (Im going to test again this evening). Ive also put some peeled peas into the tank but he doesnt seem to be interested in them. He is currently sitting at the bottom of the tank and taking the occasional trip to the surface for a quick gulp of air, then sinking slowly back to the bottom. Also, ...
Müller, Tamás and Molnár, Tamás Gergely and Szabó, András and Yamaha, E. and Szigetváriné Dr. Járási, Éva Zsuzsanna and Bercsényi, Miklós and Specziár, András and Urbányi, Béla and Romvári, Róbert (2012) In vivo tracking of maturation in male european eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) by computed tomography. ACTA BIOLOGICA HUNGARICA, 63 (2). pp. 180-188. ISSN 0236-5383 ...
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Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (
Background Living birds possess a unique heterogeneous pulmonary system composed of a rigid, dorsally-anchored lung and several compliant air sacs that operate as bellows, driving inspired air through the lung. Evidence from the fossil record for the origin and evolution of this system is extremely limited, because lungs do not fossilize and because the bellow-like air sacs in living birds only rarely penetrate (pneumatize) skeletal bone and thus leave a record of their presence. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe a new predatory dinosaur from Upper Cretaceous rocks in Argentina, Aerosteon riocoloradensis gen. et sp. nov., that exhibits extreme pneumatization of skeletal bone, including pneumatic hollowing of the furcula and ilium. In living birds, these two bones are pneumatized by diverticulae of air sacs (clavicular, abdominal) that are involved in pulmonary ventilation. We also describe several pneumatized gastralia (
Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J., McEvoy, J. and Peters, L. D. (2003) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in European eels Anguilla anguilla from United Kingdom estuaries. The Science of The Total Environment, 301 (1-3). pp. 105-117. ISSN 0048-9697 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7015 Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J. and McCalley, D. V. (2002) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three species of fish from the Severn Estuary. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 51 (2). pp. 97-105. ISSN 0147-6513 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7012 Telli-Karakoç, F., Ruddock , P., Bird, D. J., Hewer, A., Van Schanke, A., Phillips, D. and Peters, L. (2002) Correlative changes in metabolism and DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Marine Environmental Research, 54 (3-5). pp. 511-515. ISSN 0141-1136 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7013 ...
Churcher AM, Pujolar JMartin, Milan M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;16:28-35. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2015.07.002 ...
The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each breath.. The tissue around these air sacs is called the interstitium. In people with interstitial lung disease, this tissue becomes stiff or scarred, and the air sacs are not able to expand as much. As a result, not as much oxygen can get to the body.. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can occur without a known cause. This is called idiopathic ILD. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common disease of this type.. There are also dozens of known causes of ILD, including:. ...
So Im having a problem with my goldfishs swim bladder. Hes a calico goldfish, almost four years old, and lives in a clean 20 gal tank with a heater set to 72. He didnt have any swim bladder problems until recently, and hes been acting weird. He was doing some swimming upside down, so I tried some home remedies, like feeding him a pea and fasting him. Both remedies worked, but I knew neither were long-term solutions, so I went to my local Petco and asked for some advice. Hed always
John Ruben et al. (1997, 1999, 2003, 2004) disputed this and suggested that dinosaurs had a "tidal" respiratory system (in and out) powered by a crocodile-like hepatic piston mechanism - muscles attached mainly to the pubis pull the liver backwards, which makes the lungs expand to inhale; when these muscles relax, the lungs return to their previous size and shape, and the animal exhales. They also presented this as a reason for doubting that birds descended from dinosaurs.[5][6][7][8][9]Critics have claimed that, without avian air sacs, modest improvements in a few aspects of a modern reptiles circulatory and respiratory systems would enable the reptile to achieve 50% to 70% of the oxygen flow of a mammal of similar size,[10] and that lack of avian air sacs would not prevent the development of endothermy.[11] Very few formal rebuttals have been published in scientific journals of Ruben et al.s claim that dinosaurs could not have had avian-style air sacs; but one points out that the ...
Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which the air sacs (alveoli) may be destroyed, narrowed, collapsed, stretched, or overinflated. Overinflation of the air sacs is a result of breakdown of the walls of the alveoli. It causes a decrease in respiratory function and breathlessness. Damage to the air sacs is irreversible and results in permanent
In the above cases, we used the ultrasound to observe three abnormal air patterns that should alert the clinician to an intra-abdominal pathology, namely intraperitoneal air (case#2), portal venous gas (case#1), and intramural air (case#1).. Intraperitoneal air can be seen using the liver as an acoustic window. Indeed, the liver offers a unique echogenic window. Although the hepatic flexure of the colon can sometimes be found interposed, there is generally no bowel that creates artifact in the right upper quadrant. Free air will accumulate anteriorly in the supine position and create an air artifact interfering with the normal liver texture (Fig. 1). It is of importance not to press deeply with the ultrasound probe as this can shift small amount of free air away from the US field. This phenomenon of air interposition should be considered abnormal and is similar to the "lung point" shadow that occurs in a pneumothorax where ultrasound reveals loss of normal lung sliding [10]. We propose the term ...
The presence of pneumaticity in theropod dinosaurs was originally thought to be something leading towards birds, as the efficient respiratory system is believed to be what allows birds to be so successful, allowing for better breathing during flight. However, the exact timing of the bird-like respiratory system has been unclear and controversial. A new study, lead by Akinobu Watanabe from the American Museum of Natural History, and published in PLOS ONE, looked at the presence of postcranial pneumaticity in Archaeornithomimus and other ornithomimosaur dinosaurs, a group of theropods not directly on the branch to modern birds. Using CT scans, they were able to show that Archaeornithomimus had pneumatic cervical (neck), dorsal (back), and caudal (tail) vertebrae, but there was no unequivocal evidence of pneumatic sacral vertebrae, although there were some possible pneumatic fossae. Watanabe et al. (2015) also looked at other ornithomimosaurs to look at the evolution of pneumaticity in this group, ...
How to aspirate a swim bladder - Oscar Fish Advice Forum :: Topic: Swollen abdomen and not able to.... Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
original description Spakulova, M.; Macko, J. K.; Berrilli, F.; Dezfuli, B. S. (2002). Description of Bucephalus anguillae n. sp. (Trematoda: Bucephalidae), a Parasite of the Eel Anguilla anguilla (Anguillidae) from a Brackish Water Lagoon of the Adriatic Sea. The Journal of Parasitology. 88(2): 382., available online at https://doi.org/10.2307/3285593 [details] ...
What does this mean for pterosaur lung structure overall? Its well known that pterosaur skeletons and bodies were pneumatised to the same extent, if not more, than avian dinosaurs, prompting suggestions that pterosaurs also had solid avian-like lungs and similar unidirectional flow-through pulmonary mechanics (Claessens et al. 2009). Do the observations of Geist et al. (2014) refute this? Well, not really, but they dont support them, either. As Geist et al. point out: we really dont know anything concrete about pterosaur lung structure, and its actually pretty hard to tell anything about them from bones alone. A bird-like lung may have been present in pterosaurs and would certainly be consistent with extensive skeletal pneumaticity. However, we need to be careful about exclusively linking extensive pneumaticity with bird-like respiratory organs: flying fish, which of course have no lungs at all, also have pneumatised skeletons thanks to outgrowths of their swim bladders (Geist et al. 2014). ...
Asthma -A disease in which the air passages of the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis -Inflammation of the air passages of the lungs. Chronic -Refers to a disease or condition that progresses slowly but persists or recurs over time. Cough suppressant -A medication that stops or prevents coughing. Emphysema -A chronic respiratory disease that involves the destruction of air sac walls to form abnormally large air sacs that have reduced gas exchange ability and that tend to retain air within the lungs. Symptoms include labored breathing, the inability to forcefully blow air out of the lungs, and an increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. Emphysema is usually caused by smoking. Mucus -The thick fluid produced by the mucous membranes that line many body cavities and structures. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and shed cells, and it serve to lubricate body parts and to trap particles of ...
Certain songbirds can contract their vocal muscles 100 times faster than humans can blink an eye - placing the birds with a handful of animals that have evolved superfast muscles, University of Utah researchers found.
1) What type of bird , age and weight. Budgerigar -- NOT A CHICKEN. A small Australian Parrot. 2) What is the behavior, exactly. Hes fine, other...
nce blood travels through the pulmonic valve, it enters your lungs. This is called the pulmonary circulation. From your pulmonic valve, blood travels to the pulmonary artery to tiny capillary vessels in the lungs. Here, oxygen travels from the tiny air sacs in the lungs, through the walls of the capillaries, into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, passes from the blood into the air sacs. Carbon dioxide leaves the body when you exhale. Once the blood is purified and oxygenated, it travels back to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. ...
Oxygen in high concentrations is a toxic gas, and, as may be expected, the lung is the predominant target. The direct action of oxygen and the resultant pulmonary signs and symptoms are related to structural damage in the lung. Pulmonary cells are not equally susceptible to hyperoxia; a distinctive pattern of injury has been established,, a differential susceptibility resembling that observed after irradiation. Continuous inhalation of 90% oxygen by mice results, within a few days, in interstitial edema which appears to be related directly to injury to pulmonary vascular endothelium. With continued exposure for 5 to 7 days, 80-90% of the animals die; the lungs of these animals are solid and airless and the alveolar ducts and air sacs are lined with fibrin-containing hyaline membranes. This catastrophic event is a consequence of disintegration of the type 1 epithelium that lines the air sacs. Type 2 cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar cells are much less sensitive to hyperoxia, and necrosis of
Duke Engineering researchers have made fluorescent molecules emit photons 1,000 times faster than normal -- a record in the field and an important step toward superfast light emitting diodes and quantum cryptography.
Swimbladderitis typicus Since June last year, we have realized that our Goldfish started behaving strangely, he is living upside down since then. We have fed him once a day only because he is fat for his size and also his flipper got smaller and smaller. We dont know if he is sick or if a kind of fungus attacked him. ,This is most likely swim bladder problem, but it might be as simple a problem with his eating habits. You might be able to help him by changing his diet. Some of the larger bodied goldfish, like Ryukins, have problems with their swim bladders, which causes them to be either to buoyant or sink to the bottom. Before jumping directly to bad problems with swim bladder, The fish might be swallowing air when its feeding. When some of the larger bodied goldfish grab flake foods from the surface they suck in air, which gets trapped in their stomachs. Which in turn flips them over. Try feeding sinking pellets and hopefully the goldfish will be able to expel the air. As for the Flipper ...
Matt Wedel, a sauropod palaeontologist, does a lot of work on the pneumaticity in sauropod vertebrae and realised that there was no way of quantifying pneumaticity within a single bone. He proposed using the Air Space Proportion (ASP), a ratio of the cross-sectional area of the air-filled section compared to the total cross-sectional area [2]. From 0-1, an ASP closer to 1 indicates a bone that is mainly full of air, vs. closer to 0, which is mainly bone. He started doing this on sauropod vertebrae and comparing the ASP between different sauropods and different vertebrae. While Matt came up with the idea of ASP, several people in the past of used the K value (the ratio of the internal to outer diameter) to compare the bone thickness of different bird and pterosaur bones. In a tubular bone, ASP is roughly equal to K^2 ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Find a Bareboat vacation in Anguilla. Visit Anguilla, take a Bareboat vacation to Anguilla, and enjoy a Bareboat trip in Anguilla.
Wilker Aziz, Ruslan Mitkov, and Lucia Specia. s e sac Systems via Post-Editing. network theorists in Computer Science, thermal; 418, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.
Ive been reading a lot about the trends in health and fitness for 2016. Since were already almost 3 weeks into the year, you might have seen some of those already!. A few key points have caught my eye:. First of all, fat is back. Were not talking about pile-driving a box of doughnuts, though. Instead, "low-fat" products with artificial ingredients are being kicked to the curb. This means we can embrace salmon, but we dont have to sauté it in a stick of butter. Naturally-occurring fats (eaten in moderation) are okay again, while artificial fillers, sweeteners and fat substitutes are not okay.. That leads right into the new diet trend: mindfulness. Weighing your food and counting your calories are out, while eating consciously is in. Sure, eat the cookie but savor it, which promotes the mind-body connection of eating just one, instead of mindlessly snacking on the whole package. Do you want the cookie? Be mindful that you might have to give something else up to keep balance.. "Biodynamic" is ...
And yes, its true - a straight run through the album is likely to leave most listeners breathless, slack-jawed, drooling, your eyes rolled back in your head with only the sclera showing.. The music is fast - really damned fast - and almost overpowering in its destructive force, a furious mix of deliberately monstrous and tyrannical mass execution and utterly deranged frenzies of violence. But theres more going on here than rampant obliteration - which Ill come to in a minute.. The main through-line of the album is as I said - a blinding hurricane of speed and power, composed of hyper-accelerated double-bass roaring and equally furious snare eruptions; layers of blizzard-like riffing segmented by blink-of-an-eye stop-starts, huge groaning chords, bursts of merciless, pile-driving hammer blows, and spidery fretboard skittering, leaping, pulsating, and squealing. Even when the drum rhythms slow to a pace you could imagine a normal human being executing, the guitarists and bassist are usually ...
Sean McDermott is sticking with Tyrod Taylor as the Bills starter so long as the quarterbacks bruised left knee holds up.. And Buffalos coach had nothing more to say Monday about Patriots tight end Rob Gronkowski pile-driving into the back of cornerback TreDavious Whites head.. "Look, weve moved on," McDermott said a day after Taylor and White were hurt in a 23-3 loss to New England .. Tests revealed Taylor sustained a bruised patellar tendon, while White is being evaluated for a concussion.. WHEC: Read More. ...
Do you fish for reef fish like snapper or grouper? The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWC) is seeking volunteer anglers and charter/headboat captains to take part in a descending-device citizen science study. Descending devices are tools used to recompress the swim bladder and increase a fishs chance of survival when they cannot be kept and are experiencing barotrauma (swim bladder expansion when a fish is brought up from depths greater than 50 feet). Signs of barotrauma include the stomach coming out of the mouth, bulging eyes, bloated belly and distended intestines. ...
The AB line is currently maintained by a "Round Robin" mating technique: Approximately 60-66 males and 30 females from several different generations are used to make each new generation. Sperm from the males is collected into 6 tubes. An individuals sperm is in only one tube. Eggs are obtained from each of the 30 females. Each clutch is divided and fertilized with sperm from several different tubes. The divided clutches are kept separate from each other. The 15 best looking embryos from each clutch are kept and scored for how many fish survive and produce swim bladders. To be selected for propagating the AB line, 13/15 (86.66%) of the fish must develop swim bladders ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about bowfin at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about bowfin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
As far as I recall from my vet anatomy days, air passes into the lungs first and then on to the air sacs. When the bird breathes out, some air passes straight from sacs to trachea but most travels from sacs to lungs and then out. Birds have no diaphragm, and both inspiration and expiration are active processes that the bird performs by lifting and lowering its sternum. Hence gentle handling is necessary - as any sustained pressure on the breastbone will suffocate the bird ...
Inhabit coral rich areas of lagoon and seaward reefs (Ref. 9710). Occur in small groups. Oviparous (Ref. 205), monogamous (Ref. 52884). Oviparous (Ref. 205). Form pairs during breeding (Ref. 205). Relatively unknown to American and European aquarists because this species has only been rarely imported. ...
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Podgorski II, Pantó L, Papp T, Harrach B Benkő M (2016) Genome analysis of four Old World monkey adenoviruses supports the proposed species classification of primate adenoviruses and reveals signs of possible homologous recombination. J Gen Virol. [Epub ahead of print] doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000465. Pénzes JJ, Pham HT, Benkő M, Tijssen P (2015) Novel parvoviruses in reptiles and genome sequence of a lizard parvovirus shed light on Dependoparvovirus genus evolution. J Gen Virol. 96:2569-2579. doi: 10.1099/vir.0.000215. Doszpoly A, Tarján LZ, Glávits R, Müller T, Benkő M (2014) Full genome sequence of a novel circo-like virus detected in an adult European eel Anguilla anguilla showing signs of cauliflower disease. Dis Aquat Organ. 109:107-115. doi: 10.3354/dao02730. Kaján GL, Kecskeméti S, Harrach B, Benkő M (2013) Molecular typing of fowl adenoviruses, isolated in Hungary recently, reveals high diversity. Vet Microbiol. 167:357-363. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.09.025. Doszpoly A, Wellehan ...
AbeBooks.com: Pesci e derivati: Selachimorpha, Stoccafisso, Caviale, Octopus vulgaris, Xiphias gladius, Anguilla anguilla, Echinoidea, Salmo salar, Brachyura (9781232610014) by Fonte: Wikipedia and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Salinity is one of the most important factors that affect the fish growth and survival. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), as the primary antioxidant enzymes, play a first role in the process of preventing oxidative stress caused by excessive superoxide anion (O ${}_{2}^{-}$ 2 − ) in living organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata. We found that the liver might possess stronger redox capacity compared with other tissues. Furthermore, the gene expressions and enzymatic activities of SODs in juvenile marbled eels could be effectively enhanced by low salinity but inhibited when the salinity was higher than the body tolerance. Our findings indicated that MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD played vital roles in the adaptation of marbled eels to salinity variation, which contributed to the elucidation of physiological adaptation
Aim: Previous work carried out at the Institute of Child Health revealed that in the fetal sheep, combined urethral and urachal occlusion initiated at 75 days gestation (full term = 145 days) and maintained for 30 days resulted in dilated, hypocontractile and hypercompliant bladders, associated with uniformly disrupted kidney development. The aim of this project was to create a less severe model of fetal bladder outlet obstruction, and to define the role of the urachus. This model would then be utilised to investigate the prenatal onset of obstructive bladder dysfunction by means of in-utero radiotelemetered urodynamics. We hypothesised that short-term obstruction would result in a thick-walled bladder with preserved contractility and compliance, and that urachal ligation alone would result in similar features.;Methods: Male fetal lambs were assigned to urachal ligation and partial urethral occlusion, urachal ligation only, or sham, groups. Histological analyses, filling cystometry and ...
Heterogeneity among isolates of Vibrio vulnificus recovered from eels (Anguilla anguilla) in Denmark. Isolation of Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio splendidus from aquacultured carpet shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) larvae associated with mass mortalities
Britt (1993) documented PSP in Rhamphorhynchus and Cretaceous pterodactyloids, noting that in most pterosaur cervical and dorsal vertebrae ovoid pneumatic foramina were present on each side of the centrum or the ventral surface of the neural arch (see also Bonde & Christiansen 2003). The similarities in size and position among the foramina we have documented in Eudimorphodon cf. ranzii, Raeticodactylus filisurensis and Dimorphodon macronyx (figure 1), and those seen in Late Jurassic and Cretaceous pterosaurs (e.g. figure S1, electronic supplementary material), suggests their homology. Britt (1993) additionally documented a large pneumatic foramen on a posterior cervical rib of the Cretaceous pterodactyloid Pteranodon, in a similar position to the pneumatic foramina present in the ribs of sauropods, theropods and birds. The similarly placed and sized foramen we report on an anterior dorsal rib of R. filisurensis is, therefore, probably pneumatic in origin. Our observations suggest that PSP and ...
Abstract: Japanese eel Anguilla japonica were immunized with inactivated Edwardsiella tarda bacterin preparations {formalin-killed cells, FKC (0.4%), formalin with heat-killed cells, FHKC (0.1% and 70°C for 10 min), heat-killed cells, HKC (70°C for 15 min), potassium chloride-killed cells, KKC (0.6%), tannic acid-killed cells, TKC (0.9%), citric acid-killed cells, CAKC (0.9%), pressure-killed cells, PKC (600 psi for 5 min) and electric current-killed cells, ECKC (100 mA at 12 v DC for 5 sec) via intraperitoneal injection in order to develop adequate inactivating method. Immune parameters in the immunized eel were measured to compare responses to different bacterins. Generally, eel rose agglutinating antibody titer in the serum within 2 week and the maximum titer occurred at 6 weeks post immunization. Elevated and significantly higher titer was produced with the PKC of E. tarda than other bacterin preparations. An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), to determine specific anti-E. tarda ...
OBJECTIVES. Localized or generalized abdominal distension is a common problem in birds. The causes, most often are ascites, abdominal hernia, peritonitis, ectopic egg, egg retention, obesity and abdominal neoplasia. Diagnosis is based on information about history, signalment and physical examination. Complementary examination methods used are usually radiology, echography, laboratory tests and biopsy. The purpose of this report is to present the clinical findings in three cases of abdominal distension in budgerigars.. MATERIALS. Three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), a male and two females , aged of 7, 8 and 1.5 years respectively, were submitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital to evaluate a problem of abdominal distension. An extensive anamnesis was made, followed by the physical examination. By simple radiographs, bone density, air sacs and the size of abdominal organs were evaluated. Contrast radiography was performed by oral administration of barium sulfate at a dose of 0,025 ...

Dive Medical Advice, Diving Medicine, FAQs, Common Diving Problems, Midlands Recompression & Hyperbaric facilities - The...Dive Medical Advice, Diving Medicine, FAQs, Common Diving Problems, Midlands Recompression & Hyperbaric facilities - The...

Such conditions may be bullae (large air sacs), severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema), and certain ... Any lung condition that causes a restriction in air coming out of the lungs or a weakness in the structure of the lung is a no- ... Lung Problems: with the pressure changes causing large changes in the volume of air, especially at shallow depths, the lungs ...
more infohttp://www.midlandsdivingchamber.co.uk/index.php?id=advice&page=6&cat=12&sub_cat=157

Jurassic World: Even Dinosaur Skin Contained Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid · Clinic DDr. Heinrich®Jurassic World: Even Dinosaur Skin Contained Collagen and Hyaluronic Acid · Clinic DDr. Heinrich®

The dinosaurs had air sacs in their bones, so that they could inhale considerably more oxygen from the air than mammals could. ... Because they had considerable lighter, air-containing bones in contrast to mammals they could very quickly take on enormous ...
more infohttps://ddrheinrich.com/en/2015/08/jurassic-world-even-dinosaur-skin-contained-collagen-and-hyaluronic-acid/

Anal Sac Problems & Scooting in Dogs - 1800PetMeds®Anal Sac Problems & Scooting in Dogs - 1800PetMeds®

Anal sac inflammation and scooting is a common dog problem. When dogs scoot, they slide their bottoms across the floor. Causes ... German Shepherds and Irish Setters have tails set low and carried close to the body so that air does not circulate under the ... Anal Sac Inflammation. Anal Sac Problems & Scooting in Dogs How to Treat Anal Sac Problems & Scooting in Dogs Symptoms of Dogs ... Anal Sac Problems & Scooting in Dogs Symptoms of Dogs With Anal Sac Problems (Scooting) How to Treat Anal Sac Problems & ...
more infohttps://www.1800petmeds.com/education/anal-sac-scooting-dogs-21.htm

Air sac - WikipediaAir sac - Wikipedia

1 cervical air sac, 2 clavicular air sac, 3 cranial thoracal air sac, 4 caudal thoracal air sac, 5 abdominal air sac (5 ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present.[18] A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003.. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ... Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_sacs

Air sac - WikipediaAir sac - Wikipedia

Air sac generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animals respiratory system. It may refer ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_sac

Air Sac Mite Infection in Birds | petMDAir Sac Mite Infection in Birds | petMD

air sacs. An avian term; refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly ... If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/bird/conditions/respiratory/c_bd_respiratory_parasites-air_sac_mites?page=2

Is this a ruptured air sac? | BackYard ChickensIs this a ruptured air sac? | BackYard Chickens

Ive researched and think it may be a ruptured air sac.. If it is, do I have to lance it or will it go away on its own?. ... Is this a ruptured air sac? Discussion in Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures started by goldfinches, Oct 20, 2011. ... It looks like air, no liquid, and feels very much like just air. It moves in and out when she breathes. Is this something you ... id love to hear some more opinions on this, i have the same problem with an adult chabo roo...hes so full of air he s round ...
more infohttps://www.backyardchickens.com/threads/is-this-a-ruptured-air-sac.587467/

Capillaries of the Air Sac | ClipArt ETCCapillaries of the Air Sac | ClipArt ETC

"Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins.. A, small branch of pulmonary artery; ... B, twigs of pulmonary artery; C, capillary network around the walls of the air sacs; D, branches of network converging to form ...
more infohttp://etc.usf.edu/clipart/15500/15531/airsaccaps_15531.htm

Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs | Biology LettersPostcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs | Biology Letters

... and thus air-sacs) in the common ancestor of most known pterosaurs increases the likelihood that at least non-invading air-sacs ... and air-sacs (OConnor 2006). Postcranial skeletal pneumatization has been used to infer the presence of air-sacs and flow- ... in pterosaurs to infer pneumatization by distinct components of an air-sac system would be more robust if pterosaur air-sacs ... 2008 Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3, e3303. (doi:10.1371/ ...
more infohttp://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/5/4/557

Air sac definition and meaning | Collins English DictionaryAir sac definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary

... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations ... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the ... any of the air-filled cavities in a birds body, having connections to the lungs ... Definition of air sac. air sac in British. noun. 1. ...
more infohttps://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/air-sac

Cat w/collapsed trachea and enlarged air sac - Questions & Answers | VetInfo/QACat w/collapsed trachea and enlarged air sac - Questions & Answers | VetInfo/QA

Feeling this was not right, took to another vet who did 3 x-ray views and said cat had collapsed trachea, a enlarged air sac ... Cat w/collapsed trachea and enlarged air sac 13 year old male cat was first diagnosed with congenital heart failure.was given ... a six year old cat that has been diagnosed with asthma.My vet has her on an anti inflammatory medicine to help open up her air ...
more infohttps://www.vetinfo.com/vets/answers/cat-w-collapsed-trachea-and-enlarged-air-sac

air sacair sac

Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be ... sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. ... air sac - /ˈɛə sæk/ (say air sak) noun 1. a sac containing air. 2. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the ... air sac - noun 1. a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways • Syn: ↑ ...
more infohttps://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/en_ichthyology/340/air

Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacsMale dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs

... and the University of Stirling has found that male dance flies prefer to mate with females that have larger abdominal sacs. In ... Female dance flies have abdominal sacs on the sides of their abdomens that they fill with air, possibly to make them look ... Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs. by Bob Yirka , Phys.org ... Citation: Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs (2018, September 19) retrieved 18 September ...
more infohttps://phys.org/news/2018-09-male-flies-favor-females-bigger.html

dinosaur] Sauropod air sacs + smuggled fossils + Glen Canyon Group dinosaur tracksdinosaur] Sauropod air sacs + smuggled fossils + Glen Canyon Group dinosaur tracks

... *To: [email protected] ... Subject: [dinosaur] Sauropod air sacs + smuggled fossils + Glen Canyon Group dinosaur tracks ... blogs.scientificamerican.com/laelaps/secret-air-sacs-made-this-dinosaur-extra-light/ ...
more infohttp://dml.cmnh.org/2017May/msg00082.html

Tinted SEM of cancerous lung air sacs. - Stock Image M132/0258 - Science Photo LibraryTinted SEM of cancerous lung air sacs. - Stock Image M132/0258 - Science Photo Library

... one of the blind-ended air sacs which make up the lungs). The individual cancer cells are coated with microscopic, hair-like ... False-colour Scanning electron micrograph of a tiny lung tumour filling an alveolus (one of the blind-ended air sacs which make ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/253835/view

air sacair sac

... a sac containing air. 2. alveolus (def. 2). 3. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the lungs. 4. a saclike ... air sac - /ˈɛə sæk/ (say air sak) noun 1. a sac containing air. 2. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the ... air sac - noun 1. a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways • Syn: ↑ ... air sac - noun Date: circa 1828 1. one of the air filled spaces in the body of a bird connected with the air passages of the ...
more infohttps://universalium.academic.ru/70099/air_sac

Search Results - Air sacsSearch Results - 'Air sacs'

Showing 1 - 3 results of 3 for search Air sacs Skip to content Toggle navigation Argentina.gob.ar Presidencia de la Nación ... Keywords: Pneumaticity; Epidermis; Dermis; Air sacs; Aves; Anhimidae; Otras Ciencias Biológicas; Ciencias Biológicas; CIENCIAS ... Keywords: ABDOMINAL AIR SACS; CAUDAL PNEUMATICITY; NEUQUENSAURUS; PNEUMATIC DIVERTICULA; ROCASAURUS; SALTASAURINI; SALTASAURUS ... Showing 1 - 3 results of 3 for search Air sacs, query time: 0.11s ...
more infohttp://repositoriosdigitales.mincyt.gob.ar/vufind/Search/Results?lookfor=%22Air+sacs%22&

Air sac mite - Pet Help CenterAir sac mite - Pet Help Center

Found commonly in Gouldians and Canaries air sac mite can be a very fatal disease. Scinetifcally known as Sternostoma... ... Air sac mite. Symptoms: Found commonly in Gouldians and Canaries air sac mite can be a very fatal disease. Scinetifcally known ... All related to breathing air sac mite can go by undetected. Treatment: Proper treatment involves using and insecticide to fully ...
more infohttps://thefinchfarm.zendesk.com/hc/en-us/articles/204769308-Air-sac-mite

Development of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs - Medicine and HealthDevelopment of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs - Medicine and Health

Development of Pneumonia in the Air Sacs of the Lungs Written by Medicine and Health. Posted in Full size is 394×307 pixels. ...
more infohttps://mednhealth.com/pneumonia.html/development-of-pneumonia-in-the-air-sacs-of-the-lungs

Pulmonary Disorders or Lung Diseases: Lung Diseases Affecting the Airways and Air Sacs (Alveoli) : CUREJUNCTIONPulmonary Disorders or Lung Diseases: Lung Diseases Affecting the Airways and Air Sacs (Alveoli) : CUREJUNCTION

Pulmonary Disorders is often caused by the decrease or compression of air flow paths that prevent air flows in lungs or ... eventually resulting in clusters of tiny air sacs, called alveoli. Emphysema affects the walls of the millions of tiny air sacs ... eventually resulting in clusters of tiny air sacs, called alveoli. These air sacs make up most of the lung tissue. Lung ... Lung Diseases Affecting the Air Sacs (Alveoli):. When you breathe, air travels to your lungs through airways called bronchi. ...
more infohttps://www.curejunction.com/content/pulmonary-disorders-or-lung-diseases-lung-diseases-affecting-the-airways-and-air-sacs-alveoli/448

Sauropoda - WikipediaSauropoda - Wikipedia

Air sacs[edit]. Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs ... Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in Saurischian dinosaurs". (pdf) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A: ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sauropoda

Respiratory Tract Infection in Birds | petMDRespiratory Tract Infection in Birds | petMD

air sacs. An avian term; refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly ... When the air sacs get inflamed, the problem is called airsacculitis. A veterinary examination will find a birds lungs and air ... For birds, the fungal spores lodge in the air sacs of the lungs. But, it can also involve the bronchi, trachea, and syrinx ( ... sacs congested with white mucus; the lungs may also have nodules.. *Chronic Aspergillosis occurs in older, captive birds. ...
more infohttps://www.petmd.com/bird/conditions/respiratory/c_bd_Aspergillosis

Answers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Lifes QuestionsAnswers - The Most Trusted Place for Answering Life's Questions

In Air Conditioning and Coolant What takes air into the air sacs? air sacs are in the lungs and when you breathe in blood ... In Air Conditioning and Coolant Is night air bad air? night air is not bad air unless it is very cold or damp outside then is ... In Air Compressors Air compressor will not compress air? Air Compressor is the tool that can compress air, so it is impossible ... In Air Pollution How is the air pollution affecting the air? it affects the air by putting toxic in it and if you breath the ...
more infohttp://www.answers.com/search?q=airings

Sauropoda - Mashpedia Free Video EncyclopediaSauropoda - Mashpedia Free Video Encyclopedia

Air sacs[edit]. Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs ... Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in Saurischian dinosaurs". (pdf) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A: ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ...
more infohttp://www.mashpedia.com/Sauropoda
  • In advanced sauropods ("neosauropods") the vertebrae of the lower back and hip regions show signs of air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper the pneumatic foramina in both the neural arches and the centra are described in detail, and the relative proportion of air spaces in the caudal vertebrae is established, revealing that the skeleton of Rocasaurus muniozi was more pneumatized than that of Neuquensaurus australis, with Saltasaurus loricatus intermediate. (gob.ar)
  • Here we provide new evidence of PSP in Late Triassic and earliest Jurassic pterosaurs, demonstrating that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of nearly all known pterosaurs and perhaps all ornithodirans. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in sauropods , " prosauropods ", coelurosaurs , ceratosaurs , and the theropods Aerosteon and Coelophysis . (wikipedia.org)
  • In studying the mating behavior of the flies, the researchers found that the females would pull in air just before joining a swarm, and use it to fill their sacs. (phys.org)
  • The air conditioner stinks when the coils gather dust and make water (condensate) and it becomes mold. (answers.com)
  • Found commonly in Gouldians and Canaries air sac mite can be a very fatal disease. (zendesk.com)
  • Sauropods are well known for the amount of air pockets in their bones (especially vertebra), although one theropod, Deinocheirus , shows a rivalling amount of air pockets. (wikipedia.org)
  • SAC was able to get part under warranty and got the job done on time at a reasonable cost. (sacmechanical.com)
  • Theropods , like Aerosteon , have many air sacs in the body that are not just in bones, and they can be identified as the more primitive form of modern bird airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you think your bird has been exposed, then place them in the fresh air immediately and consult your vet. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. (academic.ru)
  • Air is a mixture of various gases, chiefly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), and constitutes the breathable atmosphere of the Earth.Air pressure varies and is greatest at lower … altitudes. (answers.com)
  • If you think it is air and not causing a problem, I'd just watch it, if it seams to be causing discomfort or trouble then they are easy to deflate. (backyardchickens.com)
  • When the air sacs get inflamed, the problem is called airsacculitis. (petmd.com)
  • Q: I have a six year old cat that has been diagnosed with asthma.My vet has her on an anti inflammatory medicine to help open up her air ways but she is till having attacks. (vetinfo.com)
  • We're ready whenever you need us- 24 hours a day, seven days a week!Being Northern Colorados Air Conditioning Company for years, we can work on both residential and commercial HVAC systems. (sacmechanical.com)
  • We have recommended SAC to our neighbor and will do so to friends and family in the future. (sacmechanical.com)