Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (1/194)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. (2/194)

Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.  (+info)

Communication signals and sound production mechanisms of mormyrid electric fish. (3/194)

The African weakly electric fishes Pollimyrus isidori and Pollimyrus adspersus (Mormyridae) produce elaborate acoustic displays during social communication in addition to their electric organ discharges (EODs). In this paper, we provide new data on the EODs of these sound-producing mormyrids and on the mechanisms they use to generate species-typical sounds. Although it is known that the EODs are usually species-specific and sexually dimorphic, the EODs of closely related sound-producing mormyrids have not previously been compared. The data presented demonstrate that there is a clear sexual dimorphism in the EOD waveform of P. isidori. Females have a multi-phasic EOD that is more complex than the male's biphasic EOD. In this respect, P. isidori is similar to its more thoroughly studied congener P. adspersus, which has a sexually dimorphic EOD. The new data also reveal that the EODs of these two species are distinct, thus showing for the first time that species-specificity in EODs is characteristic of these fishes, which also generate species-specific courtship sounds. The sound-generating mechanism is based on a drumming muscle coupled to the swimbladder. Transverse sections through decalcified male and female P. adspersus revealed a muscle that envelops the caudal pole of the swimbladder and that is composed of dorso-ventrally oriented fibers. The muscle is five times larger in males (14.5+/-4.4 microl, mean +/- s.d.) than in females (3.2+/-1.8 microl). The fibers are also of significantly larger diameter in males than in females. Males generate courtship sounds and females do not. The function of the swimbladder muscle was tested using behavioral experiments. Male P. adspersus normally produce acoustic courtship displays when presented with female-like electrical stimuli. However, local anesthesia of the swimbladder muscle muted males. In control trials, males continued to produce sounds after injection of either lidocaine in the trunk muscles or saline in the swimbladder muscles.  (+info)

Trading force for speed: why superfast crossbridge kinetics leads to superlow forces. (4/194)

Superfast muscles power high-frequency motions such as sound production and visual tracking. As a class, these muscles also generate low forces. Using the toadfish swimbladder muscle, the fastest known vertebrate muscle, we examined the crossbridge kinetic rates responsible for high contraction rates and how these might affect force generation. Swimbladder fibers have evolved a 10-fold faster crossbridge detachment rate than fast-twitch locomotory fibers, but surprisingly the crossbridge attachment rate has remained unchanged. These kinetics result in very few crossbridges being attached during contraction of superfast fibers (only approximately 1/6 of that in locomotory fibers) and thus low force. This imbalance between attachment and detachment rates is likely to be a general mechanism that imposes a tradeoff of force for speed in all superfast fibers.  (+info)

Proliferative lesions in swimbladder of Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata. (5/194)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the 4 cases from medaka and 8 of the 9 from guppies occurred in untreated control specimens. The lesions affected the gas gland epithelium and included hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. One medaka had hyperplasia of the gas gland epithelium and in 1 guppy the gland was enlarged with an increase in the number of epithelial layers. Gas gland adenomas, 3 cases in medaka and 1 in the guppy, were typically larger than the hyperplastic lesions, formed expansive masses up to 1 mm in greatest dimension, and exhibited a solid or glandular growth pattern and mild cellular pleomorphism. Adenocarcinoma was the most advanced lesion and all 7 cases occurred in guppies. Adenocarcinomas sometimes filled the entire swimbladder and measured up to 2.5 mm in diameter. Cells of adenocarcinomas were highly pleomorphic, with atypical nuclei, and an elevated mitotic activity. Because most of these tumors occurred in fish from control groups or in tests with noncarcinogenic compounds, the lesions observed here are probably spontaneous rather than chemically induced. Their rare occurrence, however, makes swimbladder proliferative lesions in small-fish carcinogenesis models sensitive indicators of compounds that might target cells of the gas gland.  (+info)

Histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the European eel Anguilla anguilla due to infections with Anguillicola crassus. (6/194)

The histopathological changes in swimbladders of European eels naturally and experimentally infected with Anguillicola crassus were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. During the course of probably several infections swimbladders undergo characteristic changes. In addition to the thickening of the entire swimbladder wall, and to the folded internal surface of this organ, inflammation, migration of white blood cells, fibrosis and changes in the epithelial cells are frequently seen. Epithelial cells tend to proliferate heavily and form hyperplastic tissues; these processes are accompanied by changes in the internal structure of the cells. The normally cubic cells become spherical or columnar and form folds facing the lumen of the swimbladder. As a consequence, most of these cells lose contact with the blood vessels and show no strict polarity. In heavily affected swimbladders the basal labyrinth of the epithelial cells is reduced, i.e. becomes shorter and less densely packed. The lamina propria shows severe fibrosis with infiltration of white blood cells. Larvae of A. crassus, inhabiting the wall of the swimbladder, were found to be surrounded by cell debris, but this local necrosis does not affect the entire swimbladder in its overall structure. These histological findings can partly explain changes in the gas composition in eels infected with A. crassus.  (+info)

Expression of two vacuolar-type ATPase B subunit isoforms in swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel: nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. (7/194)

The poly(A)(+) RNA of swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel Anguilla anguilla was isolated and used for cDNA synthesis. Using a pair of degenerate PCR primers directed towards the evolutionary highly conserved central part of the B subunit of vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) a fragment of 388 bp was amplified. By sequencing the cloned PCR products two different amplicons with a sequence identity of about 86% were obtained. BLASTN searches revealed a high degree of similarity of both to V-ATPase B subunits of other species. The sequences were completed by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, subsequent cloning, and sequencing of the obtained products. The expression of two different isoforms of the V-ATPase B subunit is already demonstrated for Homo sapiens and Bos taurus. This is the first report that attributes the same phenomenon to a non-mammalian species, A. anguilla. The first isoform found in eel (vatB2) shows the highest degree of amino acid sequence homology with the human brain isoform (98.2%), the second one (vatB1) with the B subunit sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill and kidney (98, 6%). The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of vatB1 and vatB2 shows that the highest sequence variation between these two isoforms is found at the amino-terminus, where vatB1 is nine amino acids shorter than vatB2, while at the carboxy-terminus it is two amino acids longer than vatB2. This has also been reported for the human and bovine kidney isoforms when compared with the brain isoforms. Northern blot analysis using specific hybridization probes revealed the expression of two mRNA's with lengths of about 2.9 kb and 3.5 kb for vatB1 and vatB2, respectively. For mammals, it is well known that V-ATPases containing the kidney isoforms of the B subunit are responsible for the extrusion of protons across the plasma membranes of several cell types. The fact that eel vatB1 seems to share structural features with the kidney isoforms in mammals supports the hypothesis that in gas gland cells a V-ATPase contributes to the acidification of the blood in the swimbladder.  (+info)

Effect of salinity on hatching, survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) larvae. (8/194)

The effect of salinity on hatching, larval survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus was studied under experimental conditions using eggs obtained from naturally infected eels. Egg hatching rate, second-stage larval survival and larval infectivity were maximal in fresh water and declined with increase in salinity. Larvae survived up to 100 d in fresh water, 70 d in 50 % sea water and 40 d in 100% sea water. Infectivity experiments demonstrated that salinity influenced transmission success throughout the life cycle by decreasing total infectivity of the larval population in utero within female A. crassus and when larvae were free-living in the aquatic environment. Infectivity was age-dependent in relation to salinity. Larvae were infective to intermediate and paratenic hosts for up to 80 d in fresh water, 21 d in 50% sea water and up to 8 d in 100% sea water. The data confirm field observations that infection levels decrease with an increase in salinity. The study contributes to experimental verification of the colonization abilities of A. crassus and supports the hypothesis that A. crassus can be disseminated and transmitted in brackish water. The importance of regular monitoring and stringent hygiene practices in the transportation of eels is emphasized.  (+info)

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

The yolk sac is a structure that forms in the early stages of an embryo's development. It is a extra-embryonic membrane, which means it exists outside of the developing embryo, and it plays a critical role in providing nutrients to the growing embryo during the initial stages of development.

In more detail, the yolk sac is responsible for producing blood cells, contributing to the formation of the early circulatory system, and storing nutrients that are absorbed from the yolk material inside the egg or uterus. The yolk sac also has a role in the development of the gut and the immune system.

As the embryo grows and the placenta develops, the yolk sac's function becomes less critical, and it eventually degenerates. However, remnants of the yolk sac can sometimes persist and may be found in the developing fetus or newborn baby. In some cases, abnormalities in the development or regression of the yolk sac can lead to developmental problems or congenital disorders.

Hoarseness is a condition characterized by an abnormal change in the quality of voice, making it sound rough, breathy, strained, or weak. Medically, it's described as a disorder of phonation, which is the process of producing sound by vibrating the vocal cords in the larynx (voice box). Hoarseness can be caused by various factors, such as inflammation, irritation, or injury to the vocal cords, and may result in symptoms like altered voice pitch, volume, and clarity. It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if hoarseness persists for more than two weeks, especially if it's accompanied by other concerning symptoms like difficulty swallowing or breathing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reindeer" is not a medical term. It is a large species of deer that is native to the Arctic and Subarctic regions of Europe, Siberia, and Greenland. They are known for their impressive antlers and their ability to survive in harsh, cold climates. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help!

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

Dinosaurs are a group of reptiles that were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates for over 160 million years, from the late Triassic period until the end of the Cretaceous period. They first appeared approximately 230 million years ago and went extinct around 65 million years ago.

Dinosaurs are characterized by their upright stance, with legs positioned directly under their bodies, and a wide range of body sizes and shapes. Some dinosaurs were enormous, such as the long-necked sauropods that could reach lengths of over 100 feet, while others were small and agile.

Dinosaurs are classified into two main groups: the saurischians (lizard-hipped) and the ornithischians (bird-hipped). The saurischians include both the large carnivorous theropods, such as Tyrannosaurus rex, and the long-necked sauropods. The ornithischians were primarily herbivores and included a diverse array of species, such as the armored ankylosaurs and the horned ceratopsians.

Despite their extinction, dinosaurs have left a lasting impact on our planet and continue to be a source of fascination for people of all ages. The study of dinosaurs, known as paleontology, has shed light on many aspects of Earth's history and the evolution of life on our planet.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

The endolymphatic sac is a small, fluid-filled structure that is part of the inner ear. It is located near the vestibular aqueduct and is responsible for maintaining the balance of fluids in the inner ear. The endolymphatic sac also plays a role in the resorption of endolymph, which is the fluid that fills the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear. Disorders of the endolymphatic sac can lead to conditions such as Meniere's disease, which is characterized by vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Neck muscles, also known as cervical muscles, are a group of muscles that provide movement, support, and stability to the neck region. They are responsible for various functions such as flexion, extension, rotation, and lateral bending of the head and neck. The main neck muscles include:

1. Sternocleidomastoid: This muscle is located on either side of the neck and is responsible for rotating and flexing the head. It also helps in tilting the head to the same side.

2. Trapezius: This large, flat muscle covers the back of the neck, shoulders, and upper back. It is involved in movements like shrugging the shoulders, rotating and extending the head, and stabilizing the scapula (shoulder blade).

3. Scalenes: These three pairs of muscles are located on the side of the neck and assist in flexing, rotating, and laterally bending the neck. They also help with breathing by elevating the first two ribs during inspiration.

4. Suboccipitals: These four small muscles are located at the base of the skull and are responsible for fine movements of the head, such as tilting and rotating.

5. Longus Colli and Longus Capitis: These muscles are deep neck flexors that help with flexing the head and neck forward.

6. Splenius Capitis and Splenius Cervicis: These muscles are located at the back of the neck and assist in extending, rotating, and laterally bending the head and neck.

7. Levator Scapulae: This muscle is located at the side and back of the neck, connecting the cervical vertebrae to the scapula. It helps with rotation, extension, and elevation of the head and scapula.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

The thorax is the central part of the human body, located between the neck and the abdomen. In medical terms, it refers to the portion of the body that contains the heart, lungs, and associated structures within a protective cage made up of the sternum (breastbone), ribs, and thoracic vertebrae. The thorax is enclosed by muscles and protected by the ribcage, which helps to maintain its structural integrity and protect the vital organs contained within it.

The thorax plays a crucial role in respiration, as it allows for the expansion and contraction of the lungs during breathing. This movement is facilitated by the flexible nature of the ribcage, which expands and contracts with each breath, allowing air to enter and exit the lungs. Additionally, the thorax serves as a conduit for major blood vessels, such as the aorta and vena cava, which carry blood to and from the heart and the rest of the body.

Understanding the anatomy and function of the thorax is essential for medical professionals, as many conditions and diseases can affect this region of the body. These may include respiratory disorders such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular conditions like heart attacks or aortic aneurysms, and musculoskeletal issues involving the ribs, spine, or surrounding muscles.

Anal sacs, also known as scent glands or scent sacs, are small paired sac-like structures located on either side of the anus in many mammals, including dogs and cats. These sacs produce a foul-smelling liquid that is used for marking territory and communication with other animals. In some cases, the ducts leading from the anal sacs can become blocked, causing discomfort or infection, which may require medical intervention.

I'm not aware of any recognized medical term or condition specifically referred to as "turkeys." The term "turkey" is most commonly used in a non-medical context to refer to the large, bird-like domesticated fowl native to North America, scientifically known as Meleagris gallopavo.

However, if you are referring to a medical condition called "turkey neck," it is a colloquial term used to describe sagging or loose skin around the neck area, which can resemble a turkey's wattle. This condition is not a formal medical diagnosis but rather a descriptive term for an aesthetic concern some people may have about their appearance.

If you meant something else by "turkeys," please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate answer.

Mycoplasma infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Mycoplasma. These are among the smallest free-living organisms, lacking a cell wall and possessing a unique molecular structure. They can cause various respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia, bronchitis), urogenital infections, and other systemic diseases in humans, animals, and birds.

The most common Mycoplasma species that infect humans include M. pneumoniae, M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Transmission usually occurs through respiratory droplets or sexual contact. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the site of infection but may include cough, chest pain, difficulty breathing, fatigue, joint pain, rash, and genital discharge or pelvic pain in women. Diagnosis often requires specific laboratory tests due to their unique growth requirements and resistance to many common antibiotics. Treatment typically involves macrolide or fluoroquinolone antibiotics.

An air embolism is a medical condition that occurs when one or more air bubbles enter the bloodstream and block or obstruct blood vessels. This can lead to various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the obstruction, including shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion, stroke, or even death.

Air embolisms can occur in a variety of ways, such as during certain medical procedures (e.g., when air is accidentally introduced into a vein or artery), trauma to the lungs or blood vessels, scuba diving, or mountain climbing. Treatment typically involves administering oxygen and supportive care, as well as removing the source of the air bubbles if possible. In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to help reduce the size of the air bubbles and improve outcomes.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "finches" generally refers to a group of small-sized songbirds that belong to the family Fringillidae. They are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition. Finches are commonly kept as pets and are known for their melodious songs and vibrant colors. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those for you!

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as "Songbirds" is a common name given to a group of birds known for their vocal abilities, rather than a term used in medical definitions. Songbirds, also known as passerines, are a diverse group of more than 5,000 species of small to medium-sized birds. They belong to the order Passeriformes and include familiar birds such as sparrows, finches, robins, and warblers.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or healthcare topics, please let me know and I would be happy to help!

The term "diving" is generally not used in the context of medical definitions. However, when referring to diving in relation to a medical or physiological context, it usually refers to the act of submerging the body underwater, typically for activities such as swimming, snorkeling, or scuba diving.

In a medical or physiological sense, diving can have specific effects on the human body due to changes in pressure, temperature, and exposure to water. Some of these effects include:

* Changes in lung volume and gas exchange due to increased ambient pressure at depth.
* Decompression sickness (DCS) or nitrogen narcosis, which can occur when dissolved gases form bubbles in the body during ascent from a dive.
* Hypothermia, which can occur if the water is cold and the diver is not adequately insulated.
* Barotrauma, which can occur due to pressure differences between the middle ear or sinuses and the surrounding environment.
* Other medical conditions such as seizures or heart problems can also be exacerbated by diving.

It's important for divers to undergo proper training and certification, follow safe diving practices, and monitor their health before and after dives to minimize the risks associated with diving.

The skull is the bony structure that encloses and protects the brain, the eyes, and the ears. It is composed of two main parts: the cranium, which contains the brain, and the facial bones. The cranium is made up of several fused flat bones, while the facial bones include the upper jaw (maxilla), lower jaw (mandible), cheekbones, nose bones, and eye sockets (orbits).

The skull also provides attachment points for various muscles that control chewing, moving the head, and facial expressions. Additionally, it contains openings for blood vessels, nerves, and the spinal cord to pass through. The skull's primary function is to protect the delicate and vital structures within it from injury and trauma.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Acoustic impedance tests are diagnostic procedures used to measure the impedance or resistance of various parts of the ear to sound waves. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and diagnose any issues related to the middle ear, such as fluid buildup or problems with the eardrum.

The most common type of acoustic impedance test is tympanometry, which measures the mobility of the eardrum and the middle ear system by creating variations in air pressure within the ear canal. During this test, a small probe is inserted into the ear canal, and sound waves are generated while the pressure is varied. The resulting measurements provide information about the condition of the middle ear and can help identify any issues that may be affecting hearing.

Another type of acoustic impedance test is acoustic reflex testing, which measures the body's natural response to loud sounds. This involves measuring the contraction of the stapedius muscle in the middle ear, which occurs in response to loud noises. By measuring the strength and timing of this reflex, audiologists can gain additional insights into the functioning of the middle ear and identify any abnormalities that may be present.

Overall, acoustic impedance tests are important tools for diagnosing hearing problems and identifying any underlying issues in the middle ear. They are often used in conjunction with other hearing tests to provide a comprehensive assessment of an individual's hearing function.

The air sacs are usually paired, except for the clavicular air sac, creating a total of 9 air sacs. However, this morphology ... Birds have a system of air sacs in their ventilation system. The air sacs work to produce a unidirectional flow where air ... with some studies hypothesizing that the air sac may be involved as a resonating chamber. The pressure of air in the air sac is ... Birds use air sacs for respiration as well as a number of other things. Theropods, like Aerosteon, have many air sacs in the ...
Air sac generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animal's respiratory system. It may refer ... Reptiles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Air sac. If an internal link led you here, you may ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...
... air sac disease, air sac infection, air sac syndrome and simply sac disease, is a common inflammatory condition of air sacs ... Air sacs are red, swollen and produce a lot of liquid. The cause of airsacculitis is a bacterial infection of air sacs. The ... It is thought that the lack of laryngeal air sacs in humans represents a derived feature. Air sac Bird anatomy#Respiratory ... that laryngeal air sac is not a synonym of pulmonary alveolus (sometimes also called an air sac), which represents the end of ...
These dots are the air sacs. They use these air sacs to migrate up and down in lakes. Glassworms breathe through the end of ... fact that a normal air filled invertebrate tracheal system would fail at these depths by having it reduced to just two air sacs ...
Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...
They contain many air pockets connected to the pulmonary air sacs of the respiratory system. Their spongy interior makes them ... ISBN 978-0-521-81172-9. Gier, H. T. (1952). "The air sacs of the loon" (PDF). The Auk. 69 (1): 40-49. doi:10.2307/4081291. ... Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Groenewald, H.B.; Soley, J.T. (1999). "An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches" (PDF ... Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. 29 ( ...
The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ... It is generally produced during development by excavation of bone by pneumatic diverticula (air sacs) from an air-filled space ... Farmer, CG (November 2006). "On the origin of avian air sacs". Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 154 (1-2): 89-106. doi: ... Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. ...
These air sacs are filled with air, which is then released again to produce sound in a similar fashion to releasing air from a ... Air sacs just below the blowhole allow whales to produce sounds for communication and, for toothed whales, echolocation. ... Reidenberg, Joy S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T. (2008). "Sisters of the Sinuses: Cetacean Air Sacs". The Anatomical Record. 291 (11): ... The muscles controlling the nasal plug are relaxed during this time, but when the whale comes up for air these muscles contract ...
Cytodites nudus is a typical species of this type; it infests the air-sacs of birds. Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst ... or to penetrate and scrape at internal tissue such as air-sac or lung. Psoroptes ovis is an example of a surface-feeding mite. ... air-sac mites) Family: Laminosioptidae (fowl cyst mites) Family: Analgidae (feather mites) Family: Trombiculidae (trombiculid ... and other species have adapted to feed directly on internal tissues such as air-sacs or lungs (Cytoditidae and Laminosioptidae ...
Sauropod dinosaurs supplement their trachea with air sacs that allow for greater air movement through the respiratory system. ... Birds utilize both air sacs and infrequent breathing. Tanystropheus would need to rely on exceptionally specialized lungs which ... Every time the animal inhales, a significant portion of oxygenated air (so-called dead space volume) fails to pass fully ... with unidirectional air flow and infrequent breathing. This type of respiratory system is seen in modern archosaurs and turtles ...
... was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 10 June 2011, with a planned mission life of five years. Due to a power ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to SAC-D. SAC-D website by CONAE SAC-D website by INVAP Aquarius website by NASA Aquarius ... NASA launched SAC-D from Vandenberg Air Force Base's Space Launch Complex 2W aboard a Delta II 7320-10C on 10 June 2011 at 14: ... "Aquarius/SAC-D onboard instruments". CONAE. Retrieved 18 December 2015. Miklus, Nicole; deCharon, Annette (2010). "Aquarius/SAC ...
These air spaces reduced the overall weight of the massive necks that the sauropods had, and the air-sac system in general, ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ... Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as theropods, including birds), sauropods had a system of air sacs, evidenced by ...
The alveoli are the air sacs of the lungs. For these disorders, the alveoli are typically impaired by inflammatory and fibrotic ...
air sacs In modern birds, pulmonary air sacs are thin-walled, translucent air-filled bags connected to the lung. Together with ... Although only limited gas exchange is taking place within air sacs, they power the ventilation of the lung. Air sacs located ... Smaller and blind air-filled bags extending from the air sacs and the lung are known as pneumatic diverticula (singular: ... ISBN 978-0-226-72491-1. Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in saurischian dinosaurs". Journal of Experimental ...
"SAC Bases: Goose Bay Air Base". strategic-air-command.com. Retrieved 24 March 2021. "Goose Bay". Encyclopedia of Newfoundland ... Air Canada and Eastern Provincial Airways were the first air carriers in the area to carry passengers from outside the area ... Goose Air Base became a landing and refueling stop for the Atlantic Ferry route. Soon after the site was selected, men from the ... In 1949, the Air Force donated a second building which became the North Star School. Mrs. Perrault became Happy Valley's first ...
"SAC Bases: Loring Air Force Base". Strategic-Air-Command.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018. Earth Tech, Inc. (1994). "Loring Air ... It was renamed Loring Air Force Base (AFB) in 1953 as the home of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) 42d Bombardment Wing ... Limestone Army Air Field was built in Limestone, Maine in 1947. ... of any SAC base. The 42d Bombardment Wing at Loring operated ...
"General Dougherty, former SAC commander, dies". Air Force Link. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on September 15 ... John Henebry, 89, American Air Force major general, heart failure. Milan Jelić, 51, Bosnian politician, president of Republika ... American former commander in chief of the Strategic Air Command. Joseph W. Eschbach, 74, American doctor and kidney specialist ...
Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., and gower, D.J. (2009). "Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs ...
The lungs of theropod dinosaurs (carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet) likely pumped air into hollow sacs ... Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to a 2005 ... CT scanning of Aerosteon's fossil bones revealed evidence for the existence of air sacs within the animal's body cavity. ... September 2008). Kemp, Tom (ed.). "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina". PLOS ...
Air flow is directed through the lungs via air sacs. The sacs are used to create a continuous unidirectional flow of fresh air ... but the common raven as a member of the Passeriformes group only has seven air sacs (missing two cervical air sacs). The common ... Most birds have nine air sacs, grouped into anterior and posterior sacs, ... Air moves in a unidirectional flow and blood travels in a concurrent direction to air flow. An advantage of this type of system ...
SAC Strategic Air Command calls it Tyuratam. Can we once and for all straighten that out and arrive at a . . . name for it, Tom ...
A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen. ... When the diaphragm relaxes (moves in the superior direction), air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the ... Due to its position separating the thorax and abdomen, fluid abnormally present in the thorax, or air abnormally present in the ...
Though this plays a role in reducing the weight of the animal, Wedel (2003) states they are also likely connected to air sacs, ... The tail also bears an extensive air-sac system to lighten its weight, as observed in specimens of B. parvus. Several scapulae ... Based on this, its respiratory system would likely have consisted of parabronchi, with multiple pulmonary air sacs as in avian ... Wedel, M. J. (2003). "Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. 29 (2): ...
This would suggest the presence of laryngeal air sacs characteristic of non-human African apes (and large gibbons). Air sacs ... Hewitt, G.; MacLarnon, A.; Jones, K. E. (2002). "The Functions of Laryngeal Air Sacs in Primates: A New Hypothesis". Folia ... lower the risk of hyperventilating when producing faster extended call sequences by rebreathing exhaled air from the air sacs. ...
Air is briefly stored inside small sacs known as alveoli (sing.: alveolus) before being expelled from the lungs when the ... It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. First, air is pulled through the trachea ... The external male reproductive system is made up of the penis and the scrotum which is a sac containing the testicles. The ... For the respiratory system to function properly, there need to be as few impediments as possible to the movement of air within ...
... at the rear the posterior thoracic air sac, in the middle the anterior thoracic air sac and in front the clavicular air sac, in ... at the same time a cervical air sac at the neck base sucked out the spent air from the lung. Both air sacs contracted ... The cervical air sac was positioned under the shoulder blade, on top of the front lung. The air sacs were via tubes connected ... Air sacs not only invaded the vertebrae but also the ribs. In Brachiosaurus, the air sacs invaded through a small opening on ...
Mites were recovered from the autosomal air sacs of bumble bees. These mites can affect behavior and reduce longevity, which ...
They considered the space more likely to have been filled by a large yolk-sac. Air-sacs were nevertheless probable given the ... Many bird livers are large too, showing that such a trait is compatible with an air-sac system. The small body cavity in front ... Such a system would be an argument against the idea that birds, whose lungs are ventilated by air-sacs, are coelurosaurian ... Dal Sasso & Maganuco however, rejected this interpretation because with living birds the air-sac of the posterior abdomen does ...
The tail also had an extensive air-sac system as observed in specimens of B. parvus. Several scapulae are known from ... Based on this, its respiratory system would likely have consisted of parabronchi, with multiple pulmonary air sacs as in avian ... Wedel, M. J. (2003). "Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. 29 (2): ... a 2003 publication by Matt Wedel states they are also likely connected to air sacs, as in birds. A 1999 microscopic study of ...
The alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The mean number of alveoli in a human lung is 480 ... These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. The lungs are the largest organs in the lower ... This type of COPD deteriorates the air sacs, and lung mass. Secondary COPD can be found in older adults who smoke or have ... When that happens, these sacs fill with air, making the lung expand. The alveoli are rich with capillaries, called alveolar ...
The air sacs are usually paired, except for the clavicular air sac, creating a total of 9 air sacs. However, this morphology ... Birds have a system of air sacs in their ventilation system. The air sacs work to produce a unidirectional flow where air ... with some studies hypothesizing that the air sac may be involved as a resonating chamber. The pressure of air in the air sac is ... Birds use air sacs for respiration as well as a number of other things. Theropods, like Aerosteon, have many air sacs in the ...
The cranial thoracic air sacs are fused to a single air sac, as are the clavicular air sacs [71]. ... Air Sac Rupture. Air sac rupture may be caused by trauma (bird flying into a window or wall) or chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Most Passeriformes have seven air sacs as opposed to the nine air sacs in Psittaciformes. ... Air Sac Rupture. The order Passeriformes (Table 39.1) is the largest of all avian orders and consists of 63 families comprising ...
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Two Air Sacs? - Problematic Shipped Eggs *Latest: Starrponies. *. A moment ago. Incubating & Hatching Eggs ...
AIR SACS. CONTRACT. CAPILLARIES. EXPAND. OXYGEN. EXCHANGE. CARBON DIOXIDE. SPUTUM. EPIGLOTTIS. BLOOD. RESPIRATION. ...
Air sacs. Ovipary not vivipary (they lay one egg at a time). Atrophy of reproductive organs between breeding seasons. Usually ... Lift is generated by air moving over an air foil, or wing. In addition to flapping flight, birds also glide and soar. In ... No other birds in the world are so purely creatures of the air as are the swifts. Small birds with short tails and saber-shaped ... Some European swifts are even thought to sleep in the air. The only member of the family normally seen over the southwestern U. ...
Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease that can lead to scarring in air sacs within the lungs. This can make breathing difficult. ... HealthDay News)-Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease that can lead to scarring in air sacs within the lungs. This can make breathing ... Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease that can lead to scarring in air sacs within the lungs. This can make breathing difficult. ...
Emphysema. This results from damage to the small air sacs, called alveoli, inside your lungs. These little sacs transfer oxygen ... Bullectomy to remove bullae, large air spaces that form when air sacs collapse ... In particular, your doctor will look for how much air you can breathe out at one time and how much air you blow out in the ... Also, when you breathe out, trapped air stays in your lungs, leaving less room for fresh air and making you feel short of ...
In normal lungs, the air sacs stretch and relax with each breath. Chronic inflammation of the thin tissue lining each air sac ... Pneumonitis occurs when an irritating substance causes the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs to become inflamed. This ... The smallest airways, called bronchioles, lead to tiny air sacs called alveoli. ... causes scarring and makes the sacs less flexible. They become stiff like a dried sponge. This is called pulmonary fibrosis. In ...
A sinus infection is when the small air sacs in bones around the nose become infected. ... Taylor Swift is effortlessly LIFTED into the air by boyfriend Travis Kelce as the couple watch Dom Dolla set at Coachella ... Lila Moss throws her arms in the air as she sings along to Billie Eilishs emotional performance at Coachella ... The sinuses are small, air-filled cavities behind your cheekbones and forehead. ...
Without surfactant, the alveoli (air sacs) collapse when the baby breathes out. These collapsed air sacs can only be reopened ... Without surfactant, the air sacs tend to collapse on exhalation. Lung surfactant production is one of the last systems to ... Delivering oxygen under pressure helps keep air sacs in the lungs open and also helps maintain a clear airway to the lungs. ... Most newborn babies do not have a normal amount of surfactant in their air sacs until 34 to 36 weeks gestation. However, some ...
The sacs are filled with air and include LED lights. Lucedentro Glowing Tiles. ...
There is a certain area in the lungs called the alveolo capillary junction where the airs sacs or breathing sacs come in ... It occurs when there is damage to the membranes that prevent fluid from seeping into the air sacs of the lungs. ARDS refers to ... Any sort of injury that affects this important point of contact causes fluid and blood to flow into the air sacs. This fills up ... the sacs and prevents air from entering. The breathing difficulties that arise are known as ARDS. In addition to the fluid, ...
Air enters the body through the mouth or nose and quickly moves to the pharynx, or throat. From there, it passes through the ... The smallest bronchioles end in tiny air sacs. These are called alveoli. They inflate when a person inhales and deflate when a ... Air enters the body through the mouth or nose and quickly moves to the pharynx, or throat. From there, it passes through the ...
The walls between many of the air sacs are destroyed.. *The walls of the airways become thick and inflamed (irritated and ... With COPD, less air flows through the airways-the tubes that carry air in and out of your lungs-because of one or more of the ... The airways and tiny air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to stretch and shrink back. ... Avoid tobacco smoke and other air pollutants at home and at work. ...
This condition develops when a small air sac in the lung ruptures. Air escapes from the lung into a space between the lung and ... This is a substance that keeps the tiny air sacs in the lung open. As a result, a premature baby often has difficulty expanding ... If a large amount of air accumulates, the lungs cant expand adequately. The pneumothorax can be drained by inserting a small ... Air cant flow in and out of the lungs. This is called obstructive apnea. ...
... air sacs. Typically, the alveoli absorb air and exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen. Sometimes, the air escapes from the alveoli ... the tiny sacs in the lungs that usually take in air. This trapped air causes pressure in the lungs and damages lung tissue. ... PIE was more common among people with interstitial pneumonia, a type of lung inflammation that surrounds the air sacs of the ... Cervical emphysema is a rare condition in which air enters the tissues under the skin of the neck or throat. Learn more here. ...
Skeleton is made of pores and air sacs. Skeleton is dry and hard. ...
The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli. Your body has about 600 million alveoli. The alveoli are ... Without Clean Air Your Body Cant Properly Function!. The cells in the body use oxygen to transfer energy stored in food to a ... Breathing starts when you inhale air into your nose or mouth.. It travels down the back of your throat and into your windpipe, ... Only 21% of the Air You Breathe Is Oxygen! Let Us Introduce You to Your Respiratory System.. BREATHE CLEAN. SHOP NOW ...
Pneumonia is described as an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. These air sacs may fill with fluid or ... With musical classic The Band Wagon, airing on BBC Two today [Saturday, April 30], Astaire is seen at his prime after first ...
Letter to SacCounty Supervisors re Air Quality from ECOS, 350 Sac, CCL, and Sierra Club. June 10, 2022 ... ECOS Letter to Sac County re Climate Action Plan. On March 23rd, 2022, Sacramento County held a workshop on their CLimate ... The California Air Resources Board adopted the 2022 Climate Change Scoping Plan in late 2022, and Assembly Bill 1279 became law ... With this letter, we urged the Board to discuss air quality as an agenda item in an upcoming Board of Supervisors meeting, and ...
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"A sac or container for air and gasses. The fish can compress and enlarge the Swim Bladder. through muscular activity to control ... Swim Bladder: A sac or container for air and gasses which helps adjust buoyancy and sometimes acts as an accessory breathing ...
The development of this disease results in inflammation and scarring of the tiny air sacs of the cats lungs and lung tissue. ... The development of this disease results in inflammation and scarring of the tiny air sacs of the cats lungs and lung tissue. ... hereditary factors and a variety of micro-injuries to the air sacs are suspected. Recent evidence also suggests abnormal wound ... Environmental damage (e.g., exposure to polluted air or cigarette smoke). Diagnosis. The biggest problem in diagnosing and ...
In the study, the researchers exposed air sac and airway organoids to microplastics over a period of 14 days. The results ... is they get released much easier and then they are up in the air in this dust." ...
In the lungs, epithelial cells line the alveolar air sacs, where the critical process of gas exchange takes place. When SARS ...
The Sac Metro Air Districts Supplemental Environmental Project (SEP) Program allows community-based projects to be funded from ... Describe how air emissions or exposure to air pollution is reduced. Be sure to include the specific compounds or air pollutants ... AB 617 South Sac - Florin Air Monitoring Final Community Map. *High to medium sensitivity areas as identified on SMUDs ... Air Pollution Prevention or Reduction: Prevent or reduce air pollution or greenhouse gas emissions. ...
  • The air sacs work to produce a unidirectional flow where air enters and exits the lung at the same rate, contrasting the lungs of other tetrapods such as mammals where air enters and exits the lung in a tidal ventilation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian lungs have a bronchial system in which the air flows through dorsobronchi into the parabronchi before exiting via the ventrobronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The airways and tiny air sacs in the lungs lose their ability to stretch and shrink back. (cdc.gov)
  • Airways carry air in and out of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Healthy airways and air sacs in the lungs are elastic--they bounce back to their original shape after being filled with air and stretched, just the way a new rubber band or balloon does. (cdc.gov)
  • The airways can also become swollen and mucus production might increase, making it even harder to get air in and out of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Asthma: Asthma is a condition that affects your airways.that carry air in and out of your lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • These extremely small particles pass easily into the bronchioles and the small air sacs or alveoli of the lungs. (cdc.gov)
  • Tobacco smoke also damages the air sacs in the lungs. (allianzcare.com)
  • a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways) such as chronic bronchitis (swelling of the air passages that lead to the lungs) and emphysema (damage to the air sacs in the lungs). (planetdrugsdirect.com)
  • Albuterol and ipratropium combination works by relaxing and opening the air passages to the lungs to make breathing easier. (planetdrugsdirect.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. (3qpharmacy.com)
  • Whenever we breathe air, it moves to the lungs. (yashfiin.com)
  • It plays a crucial role in a dog's breathing by allowing the passage of air into and out of the lungs. (homestretchgreys.org)
  • Alveoli (lung bronchial tubes leading to air sacs) begin to relax. (who.int)
  • Alveoli Are small air sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the bloodstream. (yashfiin.com)
  • They play a crucial role in the process of respiration by delivering air to the alveoli, where oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. (homestretchgreys.org)
  • It is composed of an extensive branching system of airway passages that transmit the air from the atmosphere to the alveoli (the gas-exchange units). (medscape.com)
  • This dual breathing mechanism allows dogs to take in more air, enhancing their oxygen intake during physical activities. (homestretchgreys.org)
  • The FB-111A was a nuclear deep-strike platform for the Strategic Air Command (SAC) to replace the B-58 Hustler. (cybermodeler.com)
  • In people with COPD, the air sacs no longer bounce back to their original shape. (cdc.gov)
  • Theropods, like Aerosteon, have many air sacs in the body that are not just in bones, and they can be identified as the more primitive form of modern bird airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • There- virus RNA also were detected in the lung and left air sac fore, we determined the susceptibility of chickens, turkeys, from a few chicks and poults early after infection through and mice to pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. (cdc.gov)
  • This elastic quality helps retain the normal structure of the lung and helps move the air quickly in and out. (cdc.gov)
  • Avian pulmonary air sacs are lined with simple epithelial and secretory cells supported by elastin connective tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different air sacs alternate contraction and expansion, causing air motion, the fundamental mechanism of avian respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In birds that have avian chlamydiosis (AC), cloudy air sacs and enlarged liver and spleen are usually observed, but no specific, gross lesion is pathognomonic. (cdc.gov)
  • Stunting may occur in survivors, with scarring of air sacs and the pericardium resulting in condemnation at slaughter. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • The basic function of your respiratory system is to move fresh air into your body and remove waste air. (yashfiin.com)
  • Pneumonia can occur anywhere, but it is more prevalent in crowded environments, healthcare settings, and areas with poor air quality. (3qpharmacy.com)
  • Birds use air sacs for respiration as well as a number of other things. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compliance of the air sacs is related to the timing of all of the moving parts involved in respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In diving birds, the air sacs can aid in helping birds with respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The portion of the neural pathways which control respiration during vocalization changes air sac pressure to control vocal intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water vapor heats cool air during inhalation in the trachea, and increases its humidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting evaporative water loss varies greatly and depends on several factors including air sac pressure and the subsequent rate of air flow through the trachea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air enters the body through the mouth or nose and quickly moves to the pharynx, or throat. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It serves multiple functions, including filtering, warming, and humidifying the air that enters the dog's body. (homestretchgreys.org)
  • We demonstrated fected oculo-oronasally, through the air sac, or by contact that chickens were refractory to infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Avoid tobacco smoke and other air pollutants at home and at work. (cdc.gov)
  • When the Tactical Air Command was transformed into Air Combat Command (ACC), the aircraft of SAC were absorbed into ACC and the FB-111A became the F-111G. (cybermodeler.com)
  • Dome which, in the interest of national defense, required the Air Force to fly aircraft carrying nuclear weapons around the world 24 hours a day. (cdc.gov)
  • On their return trip to the United States, one collided in mid-air with a KC-135 tanker aircraft during a refueling operation over Spain. (cdc.gov)
  • Among modern animals, birds possess the most air sacs (9-11), with their extinct dinosaurian relatives showing a great increase[clarification needed] in the pneumatization (presence of air) in their bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birds have a system of air sacs in their ventilation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are five main air sacs in birds, three of which branch from the ventrobronchi, and two of which branch from the intrapulomonary bronchus connecting the dorsobronchi and ventrobronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Birds such as parrots have different air sac arrangements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air sacs play a role in song production in songbirds and related birds, with some studies hypothesizing that the air sac may be involved as a resonating chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is the second in a series of articles based on a 2003 study of indoor air hazards in lobstermen's workshops conducted by Richard Donahue, MD, medical director of Islands Community Medical Services, and researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health. (cdc.gov)
  • The hollow air spaces in bird bones outside of the head are connected to the air sacs in a way that a bird with a blocked windpipe and a bone broken in a manner where the inside of the bone was connected to the outside world could still breathe. (wikipedia.org)
  • You might also breathe in these germs if they are in the air around you. (healthline.com)
  • EN 1621 impact protectors must be positioned in the garment so that they cover the appropriate body part, according to the relevant impact protector standard. (joerocket.ca)
  • These volume changes cause pressure gradients between air sacs, with higher gradients causing more air to flow over the parabronchi during inhalation and lower gradients casing more air to flow over the parabronchi during exhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Remove excess air from bulky garments using Eagle Creek medium and large Pack-It™ Compression Sacs save up to 80% of your packing volume. (luggageandleather.com)
  • Movement of the muscles involved in diving can cause a pressure differential between the air sacs which would cause more air to move through the parabronchi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Air Force contracted 140 trucks to move 3,400 truck loads of replacement soil from a dry river bed. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, the virus can be transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes, making it important to practice good respiratory hygiene such as covering your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing. (articleinsider.com)
  • Sauropods are well known for the large number of air pockets in their bones (especially vertebra), although one theropod, Deinocheirus, shows a rivalling number of air pockets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appearance of U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, U.S. Navy, U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, Department of Defense, or NASA imagery or art does not constitute an endorsement nor is Cybermodeler Online affiliated with these organizations. (cybermodeler.com)
  • The US Air Force was looking for their next generation fighter-bomber while the Navy was looking for a fleet defense fighter to replace the F-4 Phantom II and F-8 Crusader. (cybermodeler.com)
  • The F-111C was the only export version of the series, destined for service with the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). (cybermodeler.com)
  • 2009 Virus In addition, 28 chickens (1 week of age) and 28 turkeys (1 week of age) were inoculated with 200 L of virus suspen- sion (106 TCID ) directly into the left air sac. (cdc.gov)
  • Such re- oculated through the air sac were negative for virus (Table). (cdc.gov)
  • Remove clutter, place unused belongings in air-tight containers and always vacuum up any webs, spiders or spider egg sacs you may come across to eliminate these pests. (actionpest.com)
  • The pressure of air in the air sac is also heavily involved in song production, as different males singing the same song have similar modulations in air sac pressure. (wikipedia.org)