Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Yolk Sac: The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.Hoarseness: An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.Reindeer: A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Endolymphatic Sac: The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Anal Sacs: A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).Turkeys: Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Finches: Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Acoustic Impedance Tests: Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).Electronic Supplementary MaterialsCervical Rib: A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.Cervical Rib Syndrome: A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Antiparasitic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Spumavirus: Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Balaenoptera: A genus of WHALES in the family Balaenopteridae, consisting of five species: Blue Whale, Bryde's Whale, FIN WHALE, Sei Whale, and MINKE WHALE. They are distinguished by a relatively slender body, a compressed tail stock, and a pointed snout.Osteology: The branch of anatomy that concerns the structure and function of bones.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (1/194)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. (2/194)

Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.  (+info)

Communication signals and sound production mechanisms of mormyrid electric fish. (3/194)

The African weakly electric fishes Pollimyrus isidori and Pollimyrus adspersus (Mormyridae) produce elaborate acoustic displays during social communication in addition to their electric organ discharges (EODs). In this paper, we provide new data on the EODs of these sound-producing mormyrids and on the mechanisms they use to generate species-typical sounds. Although it is known that the EODs are usually species-specific and sexually dimorphic, the EODs of closely related sound-producing mormyrids have not previously been compared. The data presented demonstrate that there is a clear sexual dimorphism in the EOD waveform of P. isidori. Females have a multi-phasic EOD that is more complex than the male's biphasic EOD. In this respect, P. isidori is similar to its more thoroughly studied congener P. adspersus, which has a sexually dimorphic EOD. The new data also reveal that the EODs of these two species are distinct, thus showing for the first time that species-specificity in EODs is characteristic of these fishes, which also generate species-specific courtship sounds. The sound-generating mechanism is based on a drumming muscle coupled to the swimbladder. Transverse sections through decalcified male and female P. adspersus revealed a muscle that envelops the caudal pole of the swimbladder and that is composed of dorso-ventrally oriented fibers. The muscle is five times larger in males (14.5+/-4.4 microl, mean +/- s.d.) than in females (3.2+/-1.8 microl). The fibers are also of significantly larger diameter in males than in females. Males generate courtship sounds and females do not. The function of the swimbladder muscle was tested using behavioral experiments. Male P. adspersus normally produce acoustic courtship displays when presented with female-like electrical stimuli. However, local anesthesia of the swimbladder muscle muted males. In control trials, males continued to produce sounds after injection of either lidocaine in the trunk muscles or saline in the swimbladder muscles.  (+info)

Trading force for speed: why superfast crossbridge kinetics leads to superlow forces. (4/194)

Superfast muscles power high-frequency motions such as sound production and visual tracking. As a class, these muscles also generate low forces. Using the toadfish swimbladder muscle, the fastest known vertebrate muscle, we examined the crossbridge kinetic rates responsible for high contraction rates and how these might affect force generation. Swimbladder fibers have evolved a 10-fold faster crossbridge detachment rate than fast-twitch locomotory fibers, but surprisingly the crossbridge attachment rate has remained unchanged. These kinetics result in very few crossbridges being attached during contraction of superfast fibers (only approximately 1/6 of that in locomotory fibers) and thus low force. This imbalance between attachment and detachment rates is likely to be a general mechanism that imposes a tradeoff of force for speed in all superfast fibers.  (+info)

Proliferative lesions in swimbladder of Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata. (5/194)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the 4 cases from medaka and 8 of the 9 from guppies occurred in untreated control specimens. The lesions affected the gas gland epithelium and included hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. One medaka had hyperplasia of the gas gland epithelium and in 1 guppy the gland was enlarged with an increase in the number of epithelial layers. Gas gland adenomas, 3 cases in medaka and 1 in the guppy, were typically larger than the hyperplastic lesions, formed expansive masses up to 1 mm in greatest dimension, and exhibited a solid or glandular growth pattern and mild cellular pleomorphism. Adenocarcinoma was the most advanced lesion and all 7 cases occurred in guppies. Adenocarcinomas sometimes filled the entire swimbladder and measured up to 2.5 mm in diameter. Cells of adenocarcinomas were highly pleomorphic, with atypical nuclei, and an elevated mitotic activity. Because most of these tumors occurred in fish from control groups or in tests with noncarcinogenic compounds, the lesions observed here are probably spontaneous rather than chemically induced. Their rare occurrence, however, makes swimbladder proliferative lesions in small-fish carcinogenesis models sensitive indicators of compounds that might target cells of the gas gland.  (+info)

Histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the European eel Anguilla anguilla due to infections with Anguillicola crassus. (6/194)

The histopathological changes in swimbladders of European eels naturally and experimentally infected with Anguillicola crassus were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. During the course of probably several infections swimbladders undergo characteristic changes. In addition to the thickening of the entire swimbladder wall, and to the folded internal surface of this organ, inflammation, migration of white blood cells, fibrosis and changes in the epithelial cells are frequently seen. Epithelial cells tend to proliferate heavily and form hyperplastic tissues; these processes are accompanied by changes in the internal structure of the cells. The normally cubic cells become spherical or columnar and form folds facing the lumen of the swimbladder. As a consequence, most of these cells lose contact with the blood vessels and show no strict polarity. In heavily affected swimbladders the basal labyrinth of the epithelial cells is reduced, i.e. becomes shorter and less densely packed. The lamina propria shows severe fibrosis with infiltration of white blood cells. Larvae of A. crassus, inhabiting the wall of the swimbladder, were found to be surrounded by cell debris, but this local necrosis does not affect the entire swimbladder in its overall structure. These histological findings can partly explain changes in the gas composition in eels infected with A. crassus.  (+info)

Expression of two vacuolar-type ATPase B subunit isoforms in swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel: nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. (7/194)

The poly(A)(+) RNA of swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel Anguilla anguilla was isolated and used for cDNA synthesis. Using a pair of degenerate PCR primers directed towards the evolutionary highly conserved central part of the B subunit of vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) a fragment of 388 bp was amplified. By sequencing the cloned PCR products two different amplicons with a sequence identity of about 86% were obtained. BLASTN searches revealed a high degree of similarity of both to V-ATPase B subunits of other species. The sequences were completed by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, subsequent cloning, and sequencing of the obtained products. The expression of two different isoforms of the V-ATPase B subunit is already demonstrated for Homo sapiens and Bos taurus. This is the first report that attributes the same phenomenon to a non-mammalian species, A. anguilla. The first isoform found in eel (vatB2) shows the highest degree of amino acid sequence homology with the human brain isoform (98.2%), the second one (vatB1) with the B subunit sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill and kidney (98, 6%). The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of vatB1 and vatB2 shows that the highest sequence variation between these two isoforms is found at the amino-terminus, where vatB1 is nine amino acids shorter than vatB2, while at the carboxy-terminus it is two amino acids longer than vatB2. This has also been reported for the human and bovine kidney isoforms when compared with the brain isoforms. Northern blot analysis using specific hybridization probes revealed the expression of two mRNA's with lengths of about 2.9 kb and 3.5 kb for vatB1 and vatB2, respectively. For mammals, it is well known that V-ATPases containing the kidney isoforms of the B subunit are responsible for the extrusion of protons across the plasma membranes of several cell types. The fact that eel vatB1 seems to share structural features with the kidney isoforms in mammals supports the hypothesis that in gas gland cells a V-ATPase contributes to the acidification of the blood in the swimbladder.  (+info)

Effect of salinity on hatching, survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) larvae. (8/194)

The effect of salinity on hatching, larval survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus was studied under experimental conditions using eggs obtained from naturally infected eels. Egg hatching rate, second-stage larval survival and larval infectivity were maximal in fresh water and declined with increase in salinity. Larvae survived up to 100 d in fresh water, 70 d in 50 % sea water and 40 d in 100% sea water. Infectivity experiments demonstrated that salinity influenced transmission success throughout the life cycle by decreasing total infectivity of the larval population in utero within female A. crassus and when larvae were free-living in the aquatic environment. Infectivity was age-dependent in relation to salinity. Larvae were infective to intermediate and paratenic hosts for up to 80 d in fresh water, 21 d in 50% sea water and up to 8 d in 100% sea water. The data confirm field observations that infection levels decrease with an increase in salinity. The study contributes to experimental verification of the colonization abilities of A. crassus and supports the hypothesis that A. crassus can be disseminated and transmitted in brackish water. The importance of regular monitoring and stringent hygiene practices in the transportation of eels is emphasized.  (+info)

The swimbladder is a hydrostatic organ in fish postulated as a homolog of the tetrapod lung. While lung development has been well studied, the molecular mechanism of swimbladder development is essentially uncharacterized. In the present study, swimbladder development in zebrafish was analyzed by using several molecular markers: hb9 (epithelium), fgf10a and acta2 (mesenchyme), and anxa5 (mesothelium), as well as in vivo through enhancer trap transgenic lines Et(krt4:EGFP)(sq33-2) and Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet3) that showed strong EGFP expression in the swimbladder epithelium and outer mesothelium respectively. We defined three phases of swimbladder development: epithelial budding between 36 and 48 hpf, growth with the formation of two additional mesodermal layers up to 4.5 dpf, and inflation of posterior and anterior chambers at 4.5 and 21 dpf respectively. Similar to those in early lung development, conserved expression of Hedgehog (Hh) genes, shha and ihha, in the epithelia, and Hh receptor genes, ...
The vertical movements of a teleostean fish may be restricted by the presence of the swimbladder, which will increase or decrease in volume when the fish moves up or down in the water.. It is shown that the restriction that the swimbladder imposes to vertical movements involving a reduction in pressure will depend on physical factors such as. (1) The resistance that the bladder and body wall offer to the expansion of the bladder gas.. (2) The percentage volume of the swimbladder and the density change of the fish when it is subjected to a reduction in pressure.. (3) The pressure reduction that leads to the rupture of the bladder wall.. A distinction is made between rapid and slow movements. In the former the compensatory ability of the fish must be considered and in the latter the speed with which the fish can accommodate itself to pressure changes.. An equation is derived from which the minimum speed at which a physoclist can migrate from deep to shallow water can be calculated. To solve the ...
This is a common problem whereby fish lose their equilibrium and are unable to maintain their position. This can result in the fish swimming awkwardly, laying upside-down either on the bottom or top of the water, or unable to maintain a horizontal position in the water. This is often attributed to swim-bladder problems and indeed this is the most common cause of loss of equilibrium. The swim-bladder is an air-filled sac laying just under the backbone at the top of the abdominal cavity. By inflating / deflating the swim-bladder, the fish can adjust its position in the water and maintain neutral buoyancy. The swim-bladder can be affected by bacterial or viral diseases. In addition the swim-bladder may malfunction, leading to over or under inflation. Clearly anything which affects the proper functioning of the swim-bladder will also affect the fishs equilibrium.. However, before diagnosing all equilibrium problems as swim-bladder disease, we should be aware that there are other conditions which ...
When birds and humans sing, it sounds completely different, but the very same physical mechanisms are at play when a bird sings and a human speaks.
The photograph was taken 3 days post inoculation. The bird was experimentally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus on 3/2/08 at Plum Island Animal Disease Center. The inoculation was performed in the caudal thoracic air sac with strain A/CK/PA/469/3-84/H5N2, using 0.25ml ...
You need to get your bird examined by the veterinarian for proper diagnosis. If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If treated early, your bird should recover from the infection.. ...
The anatomy of the avian respiratory system is quite complex compared to that of mammals. The avian and mammalian respiratory systems consist of the lungs which expand, gas exchange occurs and the air is exhaled. In birds the respiratory system also serves for the exchange of gases but is also important in eliminating heat from the body and has several non-respiratory functions such as the detoxification of metabolic products and vocalization. As in mammals, the upper respiratory system serves to filter air to trap dust. Unlike mammalian lungs, avian lungs are relatively rigid and do not move much during breathing. Emanating from the lungs are thin-walled air sacs that fill most of the body cavity not occupied by other viscera; most birds have nine. Some air sacs penetrate the interior of the bones and even under the skin. In mammals, inspired air goes into the lung as the lung expands and is expired when the lung contracts. In birds the lungs expand very little because the air goes through them ...
In this video, I present a fish thats floating at the water surface; and how I go about treating positive buoyancy disorder - https://youtu.be/SOMjZHW_gy4 Read more from our blogs archive about swimbladder disease - https://thefishvet.com/?s=Buoyancy -- Yours sincerely, Dr Richmond Loh DipProjMgt, BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Pathology), MANZCVS (Aquatics& Pathobiology), CertAqV, NATA Signatory. PERTH | MELBOURNE |…
Medicine for swim bladder disease - Swim Bladder | Pet Care Article | petco.com. Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
A functioning goldfish swim bladder is critical for survival. Swim bladder disease can be cause by several ailments. Some are easier to treat than others.
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand. Although birds have lungs, theirs are fairly rigid structures that do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. Instead, the structures that act as the bellows that ventilate the lungs are the air sacs, which are distributed throughout much of the birds bodies.[37] The airsacs move air uniderectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[38][39] Although bird lungs are smaller than those of mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, whereas in mammals, the alveoli, which act as the bellows, constitute only 7% of the total body volume.[40] The walls of the air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand.. Although birds have lungs, these are fairly rigid structures, which do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. The structures that act as the bellows which ventilate the lungs, are the air sacs distributed throughout much of the birds bodies. Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.[30]. The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a set of bellows[31] which move air unidirectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[32][33]. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
The LD50 values were determined for cardiovascular drugs in chick embryos at different developmental stages in order to obtain a more precise injection stage for fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens for the prediction in rodents. First, time-course changes in the weight of fertile eggs, their air sac volume, and weight of each egg component were measured after the initiation of incubation. The weight of whole eggs decreased with incubation, while air sac volume increased. The chick embryos weight increased with decreases in albumen weight. These findings suggest that decreases in whole egg weight are due to decreases in water in the eggs. When the maximum volume of physiological saline or CMC-Na solution was injected into the air sac on different days of incubation the bulk of the vehicle did not prove to be toxic to the chick embryos. Next, several cardiovascular drugs, i.e., aloprenolol, piretanide, dipyridamol, lidocaine, propranolol, canrenoate, disopyramide and reserpine were injected ...
a muscle that is attached to the swim bladder. Rapid flexure of the sonic muscle against the swim bladder produces drum-like sounds commonly associated with courtship and spawning behavior. ...
The contraction-relaxation cycle in muscle is regulated by the release of Ca2+ from, and its uptake by, the SR (Ebashi and Endo, 1968). In fish sound-producing muscles, the maximum frequency of sound produced is determined by the maximum frequency of twitch fusion, which is primarily dependent on the rate of relaxation of twitch tension, which is dependent on the rate of Ca2+ uptake by the SR (Skoglund, 1959). In accordance with this view, the fractional SR volume in the sound-producing muscle fibres, including the SBM fibres, is much larger than that in skeletal muscle fibres (Peachey and Porter, 1959; Fawcett and Revel, 1961; Revel, 1962; Franzini-Armstrong, 1972; Appelt et al., 1991; Suzuki et al., 2003).. Twitches produced by repetitive motor nerve stimulation of the SBM tend to decrease rapidly with time (Fig. 5A), as has also been reported by Hidaka and Toida (1969). This may result, at least in part, from the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration gradually decreasing during repetitive motor nerve ...
BY 124 Mock Exam #3 True/False 1. True or False: A swim bladder may have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. 2. True or False: The amniotic egg is an important evolutionary breakthrough because it allows for incubation of eggs in an aqueous environment. 3. True or False: The amniotic egg added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments. 4. True or False: During the prometamorphosis phase, growth happens quickly for the larva as it begins to differentiate into the adult form. 5. True or False: When the gill chamber floor is lowered during respiration in bony fish, the fishs mouth is closed and its operculum is open, allowing for water to be pulled in and across the gills. 6. True or False: Members of Class Actinopterygii have thin fins whereas members of Class Chondrichthyes have thick fins. 7. True or False: Reptiles were the first vertebrates to live on land. 8. True or False: Lengthening of myofibrils is what allows for the contraction of ...
air′ blad der n. 1) a vesicle or sac containing air 2) ich an air filled sac at the top of the body cavity in bony fishes, serving in most to regulate hydrostatic pressure Also called swim bladder • Etymology: 1725-35
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 111-135; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 93 - 105; Vertebrae: 62 - 66. Scales on body in regular but non-overlapping rows, some anguilloid, becoming anguilloid in pattern on belly and flanks in front of anus, top of head from interorbit to nape and sides of head with non-imbricate scales, snout, subocular area and chin and throat naked; ethmoid spine short but strong; gill chamber dark; esophagus dark and intestines and stomach pale; no pyloric caeca; males with posterior opening on swim bladder (Ref. 34024). About 10 broad dark brown bands on body. Dorsal, anal and caudal fin margins blackish. Caudal fin small, posterior margin rounded. Pelvic fins comprising two filamentous rays (Ref. 27363). ...
We breathe about 12 to 20 times a minute, without having to think. Inhale: and air flows through the mouth and nose, into the trachea. The bronchi stem out like a wishbone, and keep branching, dividing and dividing, and finally feeding out into the tiny air sacs of alveoli. Capillaries - blood vessels thinner than hairs - twine around each alveolus. Both the air sac and the blood vessel are tiny, delicate, one cell thick: portals where blood (the atmosphere of the body) meets air (atmosphere of the world). Oxygen passes from air to blood; carbon dioxide, from blood to air. Then, the exhale pushes that carbon dioxide back out the mouth and nose. Capillaries channel newly oxygenated blood back to the heart. That oxygen fuels the body. Thats why we breathe. Today, these basics of human respiration and metabolism feel obvious - and ventilators, the machines that breathe for sick people, do, too. We have so many medical devices, so of course wed need, and have, machines that help us to breathe. But ...
As there are lots of conditions associated with lungs, they can be classified in several different ways. When it comes to physiologic types we can say there are three types of lung diseases. They are as follows. Obstructive Lung Disease: This type of lung disease is brought on because of the obstruction in the airways due the narrowing or congestion. Some of the diseases which can be included in this category are asthma, emphysema and bronchitis. Limited Lung Disease: This sort of lung disease is a result of the inability of the lungs to hold the air within the air sacs. Hard to stick to lung disease is actually either as a result of decline in the elasticity of the lungs or the growth of the chest walls. The last category is for the conditions which are related to the inability of the air sacs to supply air or to move it to the blood. This results in the lack of oxygen in the blood as well as in the body. List of Lung Diseases ...
Emphysema Emphysema is a condition that is typically designated by gradual destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs which ensure inhaled oxygen is transferred to the system as well as carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and air pollution tend to be said to result in emphysema. Usually, the particular alveoli are usually flexible but with emphysema their own elasticity is impaired. As a result, the alveoli are usually unable home off carbon dioxide and other impurities appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and is then then shortness of breath and prolonged coughing ...
COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It refers to two long-term lung diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema -- that often occur together. COPD makes it difficult for you to breathe. There is no cure for COPD, but you can take steps to manage the disease.. If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with COPD, you probably have many questions. Here are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about living with COPD, its symptoms, treatment, and causes.. 1. What happens to my lungs if I have COPD?. Tubes, called airways, carry air in and out of your lungs. If you have COPD, these airways may become partially blocked from swelling or mucus. This makes it more difficult to breathe.. At the end of the airways are many tiny balloon-like air sacs, which inflate and deflate when you breathe in and out. With COPD, these air sacs lose their elasticity. This can lead to the collapse of small airways and also make it more difficult for you to breathe.. 2. What causes ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF , Fibrosi Polmonare Idiopatica) is a disease characterized by progressive scarring, or fibrosis, of the lungs. It is a specific type of interstitial lung disease in which the small air sacs of the lung, known as "alveoli," gradually become replaced by fibrotic (scar) tissue. The abnormal fibrosis and scar formation typically begins in the terminal areas of the pulmonary tree lining the air sacs where gas exchange occurs. Normally, this tissue is a thin layer consisting of a few, easily permeable cells. With IPF, progressive scarring causes the normally thin and pliable tissue to thicken and become stiff, making it more difficult for the lungs to expand, preventing oxygen from readily getting into the bloodstream. ...
Emphysema is a condition that is typically marked by steady destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs in which ensure inhaled oxygen will be transferred to the system and also carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the appropriate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and associated with the are usually said to result in emphysema. Usually, the actual alveoli are usually stretchy but with emphysema their own elasticity is actually impaired. As a result, the particular alveoli tend to be unable residence off carbon dioxide and other harmful particles appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and it is then followed by shortness of breath and continual coughing ...
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Before we know necrotizing pneumonia, we need to know what pneumonia is?. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one lung or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or phlegm, [READ MORE]. ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0. Head large; eyes large; snout moderately pointed, its anterolateral margin incompletely supported by bone. Head ridges rather weakly scaled, other head scales mostly without spinules; the dorsal and ventral snout surfaces mostly naked. Spines on lower jaw and pectoral girdle without spinules. Light organ large, lens-shaped black fossa between the pelvic fin bases. Swim bladder oval, with 6 to 11 short retia mirabilia and gas glands. Pyloric caeca 10 to 14. Overall color is light brown to swarthy, somewhat silvery ventrally, with heavy punctuations; mouth pale, blackish along tongue base; gill cavity blackish, paler with punctuations toward inner surfaces. ...
In the physics worldview we posit a prestated phase space within which we can conduct a calculus of possible trajectories within that space. This is the basis of Maxwells Demon - the imagination of an intelligence that can be aware of all the current bits (and their states) with the consequence that the future could then be simply foreseen as the inevitable computation of trajectories of the existing bits. Kauffman gives another example of evolution selecting a fish with a swim bladder. This process fits well with developments in the physics pre-stated space as the causal webs that shape the evolving fish-with-swim-bladder-in-environment event. However, when a micro-organism inhabits the swim-bladder turning it into a niche - this was not prestateable, it was a-causal in the swim-bladder was not selected for to be a niche. However, once existant - becoming a niche was an adjacent possible that enabled a micro-organism to actualize an affordance (as adjacent possible). Kauffman says that ...
We have reconstructed the events that led to the evolution of a key physiological innovation underpinning the large adaptive radiation of fishes, namely their unique ability to secrete molecular oxygen (O2). We show that O2 secretion into the swimbladder evolved some 100 million years after another O2-secreting system in the eye. We unravel the likely sequence in which the functional components of both systems evolved. These components include ocular and swimbladder countercurrent exchangers, the Bohr and Root effects, the buffering power and surface histidine content of hemoglobins, and red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange activity. Our synthesis reveals the dynamics of gains and losses of these multiple traits over time, accounting for part of the huge diversity of form and function in living fishes.. ...
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Before there were land animals, certain fish developed a swim bladder, which they could fill with gas, usually air. This allowed the fish to stay at a given depth without expending energy on swimming. The swim bladder probably was, in some species, also helpful for stability, and maybe also as a resonating chamber to produce or receive sound. The swim bladder evolved into the lung of the earliest lungfish - and from there into the lungs of land animals. Something that evolved for one purpose or set of purposes (buoyancy, stability, sonic resonance) was appropriated for a very different purpose (breathing air). A device for staying at a given depth in water turned into the essential step for moving onto land ...
A true fish is cold-blooded, breathes through gills on each side, and depends al-most entirely on water for life. It has a bony skeleton and a long-shaped body, narrowing at the tail. The fins at various parts of its body are used for steering, balancing, and moving it forward. An air bladder, often called swim bladder, helps it maintain bal-ance to rise, descend, and adjust to water pressure. It has a heart which has two principal chambers: the atrium and ventricle. It reproduces by laying eggs ...
he acts fine, big WC yesterday and ntoticed he was big, put him in qt, swimming around like he owns the place. nothing differant in routine except I cant get my angels on any type of pellet food, so been feeding on bottem and top at same time so angels can enjoy there food more while my parrots hoard the bottem. the Gourami eats from the bottom and top, he is a piglet. Here is pic of him, again he seem perfectly normal and other fish in tank are fine. Though i lost a platy 2 months ago, I
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The Respiratory system works when air goes in the nose and mouth.Tiny hairs in the nose cleans the large particles in the air like dust. Mucus traps particles and keeps the cells in your nose moist. The air then moves to the trachea also known as the windpipe. The trachea branches into two bronchus tubes that go to the lungs. The bronchus tubes breaks into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles that branch into smaller air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli the oxygen from the air is transferred to the blood. Then the carbon dioxide in the blood is removed ...
The Respiratory System. Respiration Includes. Pulmonary ventilation Air moves in and out of lungs Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli (air sacs) External respiration Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli O2 (oxygen) in air diffuses into blood Slideshow 5322664 by truman
Respiration Includes Pulmonary ventilation External respiration Air moves in and out of lungs Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli (air sacs) External respiration Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli O2 (oxygen) in air diffuses into blood CO2 (carbon dioxide) in blood diffuses into air Transport of respiratory gases Between the lungs and the cells of the body Performed by the cardiovascular system Blood is the transporting fluid Internal respiration Gas exchange in capillaries between blood and tissue cells O2 in blood diffuses into tissues CO2 waste in tissues diffuses into blood
MEDICAL ANIMATION TRANSCRIPT: Pneumonia is an infection that causes swelling, irritation, and a collection of mucus in your lungs. You have two lungs, one on each side of your chest. Each lung has separate sections called lobes. Normally, as you breathe, air moves freely through your trachea or windpipe, then through large tubes called bronchii through smaller tubes called bronchioles, and finally into tiny sacs called alveoli. Your airways and alveoli are flexible and springy. When you breathe in, each air sac inflates like a small balloon, and when you breathe out, the sacs deflate. Small blood vessels, called capillaries, surround your alveoli. Oxygen from the air you breathe passes into your capillaries. Then carbon dioxide from your body passes out of your capillaries into your alveoli so that your lungs can get rid of it when you breathe out. If you have pneumonia, your airways or lungs have an infection caused by germs, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Your airways catch most
Here is another miracle system. Air enters your nose and passes down to that same pharynx again. But this time, the swallow mechanism is not in operation, so the air goes directly downward into the larynx, past your voice box, and into the trachea, which then divides into the two bronchi, which then lead through the bronchioles into tiny air sacs called atria. Think of two trees with their branches continually rebranching until finally they end-in grapes! That is the appearance of the bronchi, bronchioles, and atria. Tiny projections, called alveoli, protrude outward from each grape-like atrium into the lung. It all does look very much like a bunch of grapes! The plan is to exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide-as much as possible and as quickly as possible. There are over 400 million alveoli; each one is closely connected with blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and connective tissue.. That is what, on the inside, your lungs look like; From the outside, the lungs appear to be two cone-shaped organs, ...
Principal Body System: Respiratory. Definition: The lungs and a series of associated passageways leading into and out of them. Function: Supplies oxygen; elimintaes carbon dioxide, helps regulate the acid-base balance of the body. The equine respiratory system is geared for athleticism. With a huge lung capacity to enable air-intakes of up to 1800-litres/minute in a galloping horse, up to 300-litres of blood are pumped at high pressure at full gallop through tiny lung capillaries surrounding 10-million air-sacs, to take up and deliver over 70-litres of oxygen, per minute, to the working muscles. Phew!. As a result, any related condition that reduces efficiency of oxygen uptake from the air sacs can have a significant influence on a horses athletic capacity. As fate would have it, in domesticity, the equine respiratory system is continually being challenged from stable environments, school surfaces, dusty bedding and feed.. Previously thought of as a winter occurrence when horses traditionally ...
Volumes of up to 300 liters of blood are pumped at a high pressure through small lung capillaries surrounding 10 million air sacs to take up and deliver over 70 liters of oxygen per minute ...
On Saturday, February 20, 1999 3:51 PM, [email protected] [SMTP:[email protected]] wrote: , Birds therefore must have developed their present lung system ,alongside, , their original diaphragmatic lung system, at first simply to increase , ventilatory efficiency as they became better fliers. Gradually the original , system was lost (or became modified into, say, part or all of their air sac , system--to figure out the details requires examination of extant-bird , entrails) as the newer system took over more of the respiratory function. , This , didnt happen overnight, and I look forward to the discovery of possible , flightless, very birdlike theropods with well-preserved innards showing signs , of ,both, kinds of respiratory systems--say in Brazil. This is not quite what Rubens group have in mind. Rubens point is that you *cannot* go from hepatic pump to avian without a step that is so debilitating as to be nonviable. Fortunately, the hepatic pump (diapghragm) system and the avian system ...
Lets take a journey through the air passageways of the lungs. Within the lungs, you can see a network of tubes called the bronchial tree, through which air enters and leaves your body. Upon inhalation, the air you breathe in passes through the trachea (windpipe) and follows the network of bronchial tubes into each lung. The winding passageways branch into smaller and smaller sections, which end at tiny air sacs called alveoli. In each alveolus, the oxygen you inhale is exchanged for the carbon dioxide released from the cells in your body. The carbon dioxide is expelled in the reverse direction during exhalation. ...
The human body requires energy to maintain life. Each organ is made up of millions of cells that perform various life support functions. All of these organs and cells have the same basic requirements. They need delivery of oxygen and fuel (such as glucose) in order to produce energy. And they need removal of unwanted energy byproducts like carbon dioxide. It is the team effort provided by the heart and lungs that provides this service to the cells. The lungs provide oxygenation of the blood and the heart pumps that oxygenated blood along with glucose and other nutrients to the cells. The heart then transports the carbon dioxide back from the cells to the lungs where it is disposed. [pic1]This cycle begins when the diaphragm contracts and generates a negative pressure inside the chest cavity that causes the lungs to expand thus drawing in outside air. This air traverses a system of tubes that begins with the trachea and ends where the terminal bronchiole connects to the alveolus or air sac. The ...
The actual sites of gas exchange within the lungs are within tiny air sacs called alveoli. They are found at the end of the bronchial tubes....
The lung (adjectival form: pulmonary) is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. This exchange of gases is accomplished in the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli ...
Air sacs[edit]. Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs ... Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in Saurischian dinosaurs". (pdf) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A: ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ...
These dots are the air sacs. They use these air sacs to migrate up and down in lakes. Glassworms breathe through the end of ... fact that a normal air filled invertebrate tracheal system would fail at these depths by having it reduced to just two air sacs ...
... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... Passerines possess seven air sacs, as the clavicular air sacs may interconnect or be fused with the anterior thoracic sacs. ... the oxygen-poor air it contains at the end of exhalation is the first air to re-enter the posterior air sacs and lungs. In ... and the posterior air sacs (posterior thoracics and abdominals). Typically there are nine air sacs within the system;[33] ...
They contain many air pockets connected to the pulmonary air sacs of the respiratory system. Their spongy interior makes them ... ISBN 0-521-81172-4. Gier, H. T. (1952). "The air sacs of the loon" (PDF). The Auk. American Ornithologists' Union. 69 (1): 40- ... Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Groenewald, H.B.; Soley, J.T. (1999). "An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches" (PDF ... JSTOR 41559544 . Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). ...
The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ... It is generally produced during development by excavation of bone by pneumatic diverticula (air sacs) from an air-filled space ... On the Origin of Avian Air Sacs. Resp. Physiol. Neuro. 154(1-2):89-106. Bruno Moreira and Peter M. Som. Unexplained Extensive ... Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3(9): e3303. doi:10.1371/journal ...
Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Fetal hematopoiesis first takes place in the yolk sac. The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...
Cytodites nudus is a typical species of this type; it infests the air-sacs of birds. Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst ... or to penetrate and scrape at internal tissue such as air-sac or lung. Psoroptes ovis is an example of a surface-feeding mite. ... air-sac mites) Family: Laminosioptidae (fowl cyst mites) Family: Analgidae (feather mites) Family: Trombiculidae (trombiculid ... and other species have adapted to feed directly on internal tissues such as air-sacs or lungs (Cytoditidae and Laminosioptidae ...
A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen.[15] ... When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. ... Due to its position separating the thorax and abdomen, fluid abnormally present in the thorax, or air abnormally present in the ...
Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., and gower, D.J. (2009). "Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs ...
Air flow is directed through the lungs via air sacs. The sacs are used to create a continuous unidirectional flow of fresh air ... but the common raven as a member of the Passeriformes group only has seven air sacs (missing two cervical air sacs). The common ... Most birds have nine air sacs, grouped into anterior and posterior sacs, ... Air moves in a unidirectional flow and blood travels in a concurrent direction to air flow. An advantage of this type of system ...
SAC Strategic Air Command calls it Tyuratam. Can we once and for all straighten that out and arrive at a . . . name for it, Tom ...
A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen. ... When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. ... or air abnormally present in the abdomen, may collect on one side of the diaphragm. An X-ray may reveal this. Pleural effusion ...
Mites were recovered from the autosomal air sacs of bumble bees. These mites can affect behavior and reduce longevity, which ...
They considered the space more likely to have been filled by a large yolk-sac. Air-sacs were nevertheless probable given the ... Many bird livers are large too, showing that such a trait is compatible with an air-sac system. The small body cavity in front ... Such a system would be an argument against the idea that birds, whose lungs are ventilated by air-sacs, are coelurosaurian ... Dal Sasso & Maganuco however, rejected this interpretation because with living birds the air-sac of the posterior abdomen does ...
The alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The mean number of alveoli in a human lung is 480 ... These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. The lungs are the largest organs in the lower ... This type of COPD deteriorates the air sacs, and lung mass. Secondary COPD can be found in older adults who smoke or have ... When that happens, these sacs fill with air, making the lung expand. The alveoli are rich with capillaries, called alveolor ...
Strategic Air Command. "SAC Reconnaissance History January 1968-June 1971" (PDF). SAC 1971. Retrieved 2007-10-12. Kopp, Carlo ( ... EMP-like effects are not always from open-air or space explosions; there has been work with controlled explosions for ... "Center for MASINT Studies and Research". Air Force Institute of Technology. CMSR. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. ... Correll, John T. (November 2004). "Igloo White". Air Force Magazine Online. 87 (11). Igloo White (text only). Archived from the ...
"SAC Reconnaissance History January 1968-June 1971" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-12. Strategic Air Command. "History of SAC ... It is air-transportable to deal with sudden monitoring contingencies. Cobra Gemini was installed aboard USNS Invincible (T-AGM- ... One real-world example is a review of how xenon by-product levels could be used to distinguish if air sampling from a North ... US Air Force. "COBRA GEMINI". National Security Space Road Maps (NSSRM). Federation of American Scientists. COBRA GEMINI. ...
Wedel, M. J. (2003). "Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 29 (2): 243- ... The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Brontosaurus, like its close relative Apatosaurus ... Diplodocids like Brontosaurus are often portrayed with their necks held high up in the air, allowing them to browse on tall ...
Trematoda: Cyclocoelidae) from the air sacs of purple moorhen at Sangrur India. Rivista di Parassitologia, 46, 351-354. Dronen ...
The vertebral column, forelimb, and trunk bones were pneumatised by air sacs. The neural arches of the vertebrae had tall, ... Seeley, H. G. (1901). Dragons of the Air: an Account of Extinct Flying Reptiles. New York: D. Appleton & Co. pp. 173-175. Howse ... In his 1901 Dragons of the Air, the first popular book about pterosaurs, Seeley reported another specimen (NHMUK R176 at the ... and they probably spent much time in the air. Istiodactylids had wing-membranes connected to shortened bodies with short legs ...
Facial air sacs under their skin cushion the impact with the water. Boobies are colonial breeders on islands and coasts. They ...
SAC (Strategic Air Command), eliminated tail codes in 1953. In 1957 the B-36s were replaced by B-52E Stratofortresses and all ... 1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History ... 1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History ... 30 June 1994 United States Air Forces Europe, 2 July 2007 to activate or inactivate as needed 401st Air Expeditionary Group 4 ...
The pollen grains are round and do not possess wings or air sacs. Female cones are also very large. They are spherical to ovoid ... Each has four to 20 elongated pollen sacs attached to the lower surface at one end. ...
... suggesting that it may have had a respiratory air-sac system similar to that of modern birds. These air sacs would have acted ... "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina". PLoS ONE. 3 (9): e3303. Bibcode: ... Aerosteon's name can be translated as air bone and derives from Greek ἀήρ (aer, "air") and ὀστέον (osteon, "bone"). Though the ... "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina." PLoS ONE, 21 May 2009. Coria, Rodolfo A ...
Thus, they are able to use a series of air sacs connected to the lungs. The use of air sacs forms the basis for the three main ... Ten different air sacs attach to the lungs to form areas for respiration. The most posterior air sacs (abdominal and post- ... oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. The common ostrich air ... since air is pumped by the air sacs rather than the lung itself. As a result, the capillaries in the parabronchi have thinner ...
After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing ...
1 cervical air sac, 2 clavicular air sac, 3 cranial thoracal air sac, 4 caudal thoracal air sac, 5 abdominal air sac (5 ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present.[18] A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003.. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ... Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the ...
Air sac generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animals respiratory system. It may refer ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...
... does air sac mean development of some kind? Or will there be an air sac after a period of time even after sitting on my counter ... The air sac itself does not indicate that an embryo is growing. While being formed the egg and contents are at body temperature ... As for the rest, all but maybe 1 seemed to show a very well defined air sac. The question I had, and that was probably answered ... The air cell size can indicate through out incubation if humidity levels are too high or low. By the end - the air cell should ...
... and thus air-sacs) in the common ancestor of most known pterosaurs increases the likelihood that at least non-invading air-sacs ... and air-sacs (OConnor 2006). Postcranial skeletal pneumatization has been used to infer the presence of air-sacs and flow- ... in pterosaurs to infer pneumatization by distinct components of an air-sac system would be more robust if pterosaur air-sacs ... 2008 Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3, e3303. (doi:10.1371/ ...
air sacs. An avian term; refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly ... If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If ...
Ive researched and think it may be a ruptured air sac.. If it is, do I have to lance it or will it go away on its own?. ... Is this a ruptured air sac? Discussion in Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures started by goldfinches, Oct 20, 2011. ... It looks like air, no liquid, and feels very much like just air. It moves in and out when she breathes. Is this something you ... id love to hear some more opinions on this, i have the same problem with an adult chabo roo...hes so full of air he s round ...
... the air sacs of the dorsal thorax. During the third larval instar, air sac precursor cells bud from a tracheal branch in ... FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system.. Sato M1, Kornberg TB. ... In addition, FGF induces these air sac precursors to extend cytoneme-like filopodia to FGF-expressing cells. These findings ...
"Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins.. A, small branch of pulmonary artery; ... B, twigs of pulmonary artery; C, capillary network around the walls of the air sacs; D, branches of network converging to form ...
Feeling this was not right, took to another vet who did 3 x-ray views and said cat had collapsed trachea, a enlarged air sac ... Cat w/collapsed trachea and enlarged air sac 13 year old male cat was first diagnosed with congenital heart failure.was given ... a six year old cat that has been diagnosed with asthma.My vet has her on an anti inflammatory medicine to help open up her air ...
Thankfully a few hours later & the sac is almost back to normal size on its own. Ruptured Air Sac. IMG_7870chick with air sac. ... A ruptured air sac is an accumulation of air under the skin. It looks like an overinflated balloon & affects the respiratory ... Chick with ruptured air sac. Welcome to the internets gathering place for Purple Martin enthusiasts. ... During a nest check this morning I found a chick with a ruptured air sac (see photo). He was fine last night. ...
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... one of the blind-ended air sacs which make up the lungs). The individual cancer cells are coated with microscopic, hair-like ... False-colour Scanning electron micrograph of a tiny lung tumour filling an alveolus (one of the blind-ended air sacs which make ...
... and the University of Stirling has found that male dance flies prefer to mate with females that have larger abdominal sacs. In ... Female dance flies have abdominal sacs on the sides of their abdomens that they fill with air, possibly to make them look ... Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs. by Bob Yirka , Phys.org ... Citation: Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs (2018, September 19) retrieved 18 September ...
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... *To: [email protected] ... Subject: [dinosaur] Sauropod air sacs + smuggled fossils + Glen Canyon Group dinosaur tracks ... blogs.scientificamerican.com/laelaps/secret-air-sacs-made-this-dinosaur-extra-light/ ...
... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations ... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the ... any of the air-filled cavities in a birds body, having connections to the lungs ... Definition of air sac. air sac in British. noun. 1. ...
Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be ... sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. ... air sac - /ˈɛə sæk/ (say air sak) noun 1. a sac containing air. 2. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the ... air sac - noun 1. a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways • Syn: ↑ ...
Sac City Schools Are Keeping Students Indoors Due To Poor Air Quality Press release November 12, 2018. ... Click here to read the Sacramento County Public Health Officer and Sac Metro Air District advisory calling for schools to keep ... Air Quality Management District. At the recommendation of the Air Quality Management District, we will be keeping all ... We take this responsibility very seriously and before making the decision to keep our schools open, we did check on the air ...
First eliminate the possibility that it is the air-sac mite. Treat your bird with Scatt or S76. If the symptoms do not subside ... Respiratory Infection or Air-sac mites? - Wheezing, clicking, sucking, sneezing, coughing, neck stretching, nostril discharge, ... Air Sac Mite Treatment Kits - Great Savings on everything you need to treat for the air sac mite! Kit A includes S76 30ml, ... First eliminate the possibility that it is the air-sac mite. Treat your bird with Scatt or S76. If the symptoms do not subside ...
Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight ... FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2. ...
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Air sacs[edit]. Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs ... Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in Saurischian dinosaurs". (pdf) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A: ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ...
Showing 1 - 3 results of 3 for search Air sacs Skip to content Toggle navigation Argentina.gob.ar Presidencia de la Nación ... Keywords: Pneumaticity; Epidermis; Dermis; Air sacs; Aves; Anhimidae; Otras Ciencias Biológicas; Ciencias Biológicas; CIENCIAS ... Keywords: ABDOMINAL AIR SACS; CAUDAL PNEUMATICITY; NEUQUENSAURUS; PNEUMATIC DIVERTICULA; ROCASAURUS; SALTASAURINI; SALTASAURUS ... Showing 1 - 3 results of 3 for search Air sacs, query time: 0.11s ...
... a sac containing air. 2. alveolus (def. 2). 3. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the lungs. 4. a saclike ... air sac - /ˈɛə sæk/ (say air sak) noun 1. a sac containing air. 2. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the ... air sac - noun 1. a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways • Syn: ↑ ... air sac - noun Date: circa 1828 1. one of the air filled spaces in the body of a bird connected with the air passages of the ...
  • If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. (petmd.com)
  • When your bird first experiences a rupture to one of its air sacs and develops a ballooning lump, it is important to take your bird to your avian veterinarian to have your bird checked. (wagwalking.com)
  • There are two types of air sacs within your bird's body that are distinguished by their connection and position within your bird. (wagwalking.com)
  • Remark, du designer graphique Ben Brown est kit de réparation pour vélo éco-conçu : il utilise chambre à air et carton pour étui. (scoop.it)
  • We had a saying about Offutt Air Force Base: once you get on it, you never get Offutt - but I needed to. (wildpostcards.com)
  • Fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of your lung into the air sacs and the area around them. (webmd.com)
  • This allows to fluid to pool in the lower chest and allow the lungs to expand as much as possible when breathing in air. (vetinfo.com)
  • The infection will make the air sacs swell and fill with fluid or pus. (epnet.com)
  • amniotic sac that formed by the amnion , containing the amniotic fluid . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In ARDS, infections, injuries, or other conditions cause fluid to build up in the air sacs. (nih.gov)
  • Customize and personalize this Strategic Air Command (SAC) KC-97 Stratotanker model with your choice of pilot and crew chief names, weapons load out and patch and text on stand. (islandenterprises.net)
  • This report summarizes the seismic vulnerability assessment of selected mission essential and high potential loss facilities of three Strategic Air Command (SAC) bases in California: Beale, Castle, and March Air Force Bases. (worldcat.org)
  • The disease is contracted from other chickens, mosquitos, or even by air if there is an infected flock nearby. (omlet.us)
  • Studies indicate that fossils of coelurosaurs , ceratosaurs , and the theropods Coelophysis and Aerosteon exhibit evidence of air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coelophysis , from the late Triassic , is one of the earliest dinosaurs whose fossils show evidence of channels for air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by the air sacs of insects, a team in China has developed a smart surface that can deliver liquid droplets to a desired location. (nature.com)
  • Organisms ingested when the bird eats the food or inhales the air-borne toxins will display all the symptoms mentioned above. (ladygouldianfinch.com)
  • The first signs and symptoms of ARDS are feeling like you can't get enough air into your lungs, rapid breathing, and a low blood oxygen level. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms actually can begin years before you realize that your air flow in and out of your lungs has been compromised. (healthcentral.com)
  • THERE is nothing more frightening than being unable to get enough air into your lungs to sustain normal activities. (nytimes.com)
  • FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system. (nih.gov)
  • During the third larval instar, air sac precursor cells bud from a tracheal branch in response to FGF, and then they proliferate and migrate to the adepithelial layer of the wing imaginal disc. (nih.gov)
  • Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • one of the air filled spaces in the body of a bird connected with the air passages of the lungs 2. (academic.ru)
  • In this paper the pneumatic foramina in both the neural arches and the centra are described in detail, and the relative proportion of air spaces in the caudal vertebrae is established, revealing that the skeleton of Rocasaurus muniozi was more pneumatized than that of Neuquensaurus australis, with Saltasaurus loricatus intermediate. (gob.ar)
  • An example: I've done a dive to 66 feet for 35 minutes, with an 80 cubic feet cylinder with a working pressure of 3000 Psi (both can be found on the cylinder), I have consumed 2000 Psi of that air. (divein.com)
  • un seul sac inclus) Y compris 4 sac a bandouliere de compression qui permettant de comprimer le sac de couchage a une minimale taille. (wallmart.win)