Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
The first of four extra-embryonic membranes to form during EMBRYOGENESIS. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it arises from endoderm and mesoderm to incorporate the EGG YOLK into the DIGESTIVE TRACT for nourishing the embryo. In placental MAMMALS, its nutritional function is vestigial; however, it is the source of INTESTINAL MUCOSA; BLOOD CELLS; and GERM CELLS. It is sometimes called the vitelline sac, which should not be confused with the VITELLINE MEMBRANE of the egg.
An unnaturally deep or rough quality of voice.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
The blind pouch at the end of the endolymphatic duct. It is a storage reservoir for excess ENDOLYMPH, formed by the blood vessels in the membranous labyrinth.
Sounds used in animal communication.
The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A pair of anal glands or sacs, located on either side of the ANUS, that produce and store a dark, foul-smelling fluid in carnivorous animals such as MEPHITIDAE and DOGS. The expelled fluid is used as a defensive repellent (in skunks) or a material to mark territory (in dogs).
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.
An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Objective tests of middle ear function based on the difficulty (impedance) or ease (admittance) of sound flow through the middle ear. These include static impedance and dynamic impedance (i.e., tympanometry and impedance tests in conjunction with intra-aural muscle reflex elicitation). This term is used also for various components of impedance and admittance (e.g., compliance, conductance, reactance, resistance, susceptance).
A supernumerary rib developing from an abnormal enlargement of the costal element of the C7 vertebra. This anomaly is found in 1-2% of the population and can put pressure on adjacent structures causing CERVICAL RIB SYNDROME; THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; or other conditions.
A condition associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the thoracic outlet and caused by a complete or incomplete anomalous CERVICAL RIB or fascial band connecting the tip of a cervical rib with the first thoracic rib. Clinical manifestations may include pain in the neck and shoulder which radiates into the upper extremity, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles; sensory loss; PARESTHESIAS; ISCHEMIA; and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p214)
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Areas designated for use by the armed forces personnel.
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
A tumor derived from mesothelial tissue (peritoneum, pleura, pericardium). It appears as broad sheets of cells, with some regions containing spindle-shaped, sarcoma-like cells and other regions showing adenomatous patterns. Pleural mesotheliomas have been linked to exposure to asbestos. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
A type of asbestos that occurs in nature as the dihydrate of magnesium silicate. It exists in two forms: antigorite, a plated variety, and chrysotile, a fibrous variety. The latter makes up 95% of all asbestos products. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p.893)

Fish swimbladder: an excellent mesodermal inductor in primary embryonic induction. (1/194)

Swimbladder of the crucian carp, Carassius auratus, was found to be better as a vegatalizing tissue than other tissues, such as guinea-pig bone marrow, when presumptive ectoderm of Triturus gastrulae was used as reacting tissue. Swimbladder usually induced assemblies of highly organized mesodermal tissues, such as notochord, somites and pronephric tubules, some of which were covered by mesodermal epithelium without any epidermal covering. A special character of the effect of swimbladder was the rather frequent induction of solid balls of undifferentiated cells, which were identified as mesodermal or mesodermal and probably endodermal. These findings show that swimbladder has a strong and fast spreading vegetalizing effect on the responding presumptive ectoderm.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in chickens experimentally infected with viruses of different virulence. (2/194)

Groups of 4-week-old White Rock chickens were inoculated intraconjunctivally with nine isolates of Newcastle disease virus representing all pathotypes. Birds were monitored clinically and euthanatized sequentially, with collection of tissues for histopathologic examination and in situ hybridization using an anti-sense digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe corresponding to the sequence of the gene coding for the matrix protein. Disease was most severe with velogenic viscerotropic pathotypes and was characterized by acute systemic illness with extensive necrosis of lymphoid areas in the spleen and intestine. Viral nucleic acid was detected in multiple tissues but most prominently in macrophages associated with lymphoid tissue. Velogenic neurotropic isolates caused central nervous system disease despite minimal amounts of viral nucleic acid detected in neural tissue. Mesogenic and lentogenic pathotypes caused no overt disease; however, viral nucleic acid was present in myocardium and air sac epithelium following infection with these isolates. Compromise of air sac and myocardium may predispose mesogen- and lentogen-infected chickens to secondary infection and/or decreased meat and egg production.  (+info)

Communication signals and sound production mechanisms of mormyrid electric fish. (3/194)

The African weakly electric fishes Pollimyrus isidori and Pollimyrus adspersus (Mormyridae) produce elaborate acoustic displays during social communication in addition to their electric organ discharges (EODs). In this paper, we provide new data on the EODs of these sound-producing mormyrids and on the mechanisms they use to generate species-typical sounds. Although it is known that the EODs are usually species-specific and sexually dimorphic, the EODs of closely related sound-producing mormyrids have not previously been compared. The data presented demonstrate that there is a clear sexual dimorphism in the EOD waveform of P. isidori. Females have a multi-phasic EOD that is more complex than the male's biphasic EOD. In this respect, P. isidori is similar to its more thoroughly studied congener P. adspersus, which has a sexually dimorphic EOD. The new data also reveal that the EODs of these two species are distinct, thus showing for the first time that species-specificity in EODs is characteristic of these fishes, which also generate species-specific courtship sounds. The sound-generating mechanism is based on a drumming muscle coupled to the swimbladder. Transverse sections through decalcified male and female P. adspersus revealed a muscle that envelops the caudal pole of the swimbladder and that is composed of dorso-ventrally oriented fibers. The muscle is five times larger in males (14.5+/-4.4 microl, mean +/- s.d.) than in females (3.2+/-1.8 microl). The fibers are also of significantly larger diameter in males than in females. Males generate courtship sounds and females do not. The function of the swimbladder muscle was tested using behavioral experiments. Male P. adspersus normally produce acoustic courtship displays when presented with female-like electrical stimuli. However, local anesthesia of the swimbladder muscle muted males. In control trials, males continued to produce sounds after injection of either lidocaine in the trunk muscles or saline in the swimbladder muscles.  (+info)

Trading force for speed: why superfast crossbridge kinetics leads to superlow forces. (4/194)

Superfast muscles power high-frequency motions such as sound production and visual tracking. As a class, these muscles also generate low forces. Using the toadfish swimbladder muscle, the fastest known vertebrate muscle, we examined the crossbridge kinetic rates responsible for high contraction rates and how these might affect force generation. Swimbladder fibers have evolved a 10-fold faster crossbridge detachment rate than fast-twitch locomotory fibers, but surprisingly the crossbridge attachment rate has remained unchanged. These kinetics result in very few crossbridges being attached during contraction of superfast fibers (only approximately 1/6 of that in locomotory fibers) and thus low force. This imbalance between attachment and detachment rates is likely to be a general mechanism that imposes a tradeoff of force for speed in all superfast fibers.  (+info)

Proliferative lesions in swimbladder of Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata. (5/194)

Thirteen cases of proliferative lesions of the swimbladder were encountered in Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes and guppy Poecilia reticulata from about 10,000 medaka and 5000 guppies used in carcinogenicity tests and histologically examined. Two of the 4 cases from medaka and 8 of the 9 from guppies occurred in untreated control specimens. The lesions affected the gas gland epithelium and included hyperplasia, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma. One medaka had hyperplasia of the gas gland epithelium and in 1 guppy the gland was enlarged with an increase in the number of epithelial layers. Gas gland adenomas, 3 cases in medaka and 1 in the guppy, were typically larger than the hyperplastic lesions, formed expansive masses up to 1 mm in greatest dimension, and exhibited a solid or glandular growth pattern and mild cellular pleomorphism. Adenocarcinoma was the most advanced lesion and all 7 cases occurred in guppies. Adenocarcinomas sometimes filled the entire swimbladder and measured up to 2.5 mm in diameter. Cells of adenocarcinomas were highly pleomorphic, with atypical nuclei, and an elevated mitotic activity. Because most of these tumors occurred in fish from control groups or in tests with noncarcinogenic compounds, the lesions observed here are probably spontaneous rather than chemically induced. Their rare occurrence, however, makes swimbladder proliferative lesions in small-fish carcinogenesis models sensitive indicators of compounds that might target cells of the gas gland.  (+info)

Histopathological changes in the swimbladder wall of the European eel Anguilla anguilla due to infections with Anguillicola crassus. (6/194)

The histopathological changes in swimbladders of European eels naturally and experimentally infected with Anguillicola crassus were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. During the course of probably several infections swimbladders undergo characteristic changes. In addition to the thickening of the entire swimbladder wall, and to the folded internal surface of this organ, inflammation, migration of white blood cells, fibrosis and changes in the epithelial cells are frequently seen. Epithelial cells tend to proliferate heavily and form hyperplastic tissues; these processes are accompanied by changes in the internal structure of the cells. The normally cubic cells become spherical or columnar and form folds facing the lumen of the swimbladder. As a consequence, most of these cells lose contact with the blood vessels and show no strict polarity. In heavily affected swimbladders the basal labyrinth of the epithelial cells is reduced, i.e. becomes shorter and less densely packed. The lamina propria shows severe fibrosis with infiltration of white blood cells. Larvae of A. crassus, inhabiting the wall of the swimbladder, were found to be surrounded by cell debris, but this local necrosis does not affect the entire swimbladder in its overall structure. These histological findings can partly explain changes in the gas composition in eels infected with A. crassus.  (+info)

Expression of two vacuolar-type ATPase B subunit isoforms in swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel: nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences. (7/194)

The poly(A)(+) RNA of swimbladder gas gland cells of the European eel Anguilla anguilla was isolated and used for cDNA synthesis. Using a pair of degenerate PCR primers directed towards the evolutionary highly conserved central part of the B subunit of vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) a fragment of 388 bp was amplified. By sequencing the cloned PCR products two different amplicons with a sequence identity of about 86% were obtained. BLASTN searches revealed a high degree of similarity of both to V-ATPase B subunits of other species. The sequences were completed by performing rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR, subsequent cloning, and sequencing of the obtained products. The expression of two different isoforms of the V-ATPase B subunit is already demonstrated for Homo sapiens and Bos taurus. This is the first report that attributes the same phenomenon to a non-mammalian species, A. anguilla. The first isoform found in eel (vatB2) shows the highest degree of amino acid sequence homology with the human brain isoform (98.2%), the second one (vatB1) with the B subunit sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill and kidney (98, 6%). The alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of vatB1 and vatB2 shows that the highest sequence variation between these two isoforms is found at the amino-terminus, where vatB1 is nine amino acids shorter than vatB2, while at the carboxy-terminus it is two amino acids longer than vatB2. This has also been reported for the human and bovine kidney isoforms when compared with the brain isoforms. Northern blot analysis using specific hybridization probes revealed the expression of two mRNA's with lengths of about 2.9 kb and 3.5 kb for vatB1 and vatB2, respectively. For mammals, it is well known that V-ATPases containing the kidney isoforms of the B subunit are responsible for the extrusion of protons across the plasma membranes of several cell types. The fact that eel vatB1 seems to share structural features with the kidney isoforms in mammals supports the hypothesis that in gas gland cells a V-ATPase contributes to the acidification of the blood in the swimbladder.  (+info)

Effect of salinity on hatching, survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) larvae. (8/194)

The effect of salinity on hatching, larval survival and infectivity of Anguillicola crassus was studied under experimental conditions using eggs obtained from naturally infected eels. Egg hatching rate, second-stage larval survival and larval infectivity were maximal in fresh water and declined with increase in salinity. Larvae survived up to 100 d in fresh water, 70 d in 50 % sea water and 40 d in 100% sea water. Infectivity experiments demonstrated that salinity influenced transmission success throughout the life cycle by decreasing total infectivity of the larval population in utero within female A. crassus and when larvae were free-living in the aquatic environment. Infectivity was age-dependent in relation to salinity. Larvae were infective to intermediate and paratenic hosts for up to 80 d in fresh water, 21 d in 50% sea water and up to 8 d in 100% sea water. The data confirm field observations that infection levels decrease with an increase in salinity. The study contributes to experimental verification of the colonization abilities of A. crassus and supports the hypothesis that A. crassus can be disseminated and transmitted in brackish water. The importance of regular monitoring and stringent hygiene practices in the transportation of eels is emphasized.  (+info)

The swimbladder is a hydrostatic organ in fish postulated as a homolog of the tetrapod lung. While lung development has been well studied, the molecular mechanism of swimbladder development is essentially uncharacterized. In the present study, swimbladder development in zebrafish was analyzed by using several molecular markers: hb9 (epithelium), fgf10a and acta2 (mesenchyme), and anxa5 (mesothelium), as well as in vivo through enhancer trap transgenic lines Et(krt4:EGFP)(sq33-2) and Et(krt4:EGFP)(sqet3) that showed strong EGFP expression in the swimbladder epithelium and outer mesothelium respectively. We defined three phases of swimbladder development: epithelial budding between 36 and 48 hpf, growth with the formation of two additional mesodermal layers up to 4.5 dpf, and inflation of posterior and anterior chambers at 4.5 and 21 dpf respectively. Similar to those in early lung development, conserved expression of Hedgehog (Hh) genes, shha and ihha, in the epithelia, and Hh receptor genes, ...
This, I are, can look been with buy The Biology of the Avian Respiratory System: Evolution,. One may definitely weight about the wisdom. Or had he also agree to be a new therapy of Y for the audience, always if not not believed as the labor got by von Balthasar?
The vertical movements of a teleostean fish may be restricted by the presence of the swimbladder, which will increase or decrease in volume when the fish moves up or down in the water.. It is shown that the restriction that the swimbladder imposes to vertical movements involving a reduction in pressure will depend on physical factors such as. (1) The resistance that the bladder and body wall offer to the expansion of the bladder gas.. (2) The percentage volume of the swimbladder and the density change of the fish when it is subjected to a reduction in pressure.. (3) The pressure reduction that leads to the rupture of the bladder wall.. A distinction is made between rapid and slow movements. In the former the compensatory ability of the fish must be considered and in the latter the speed with which the fish can accommodate itself to pressure changes.. An equation is derived from which the minimum speed at which a physoclist can migrate from deep to shallow water can be calculated. To solve the ...
Swim bladder from a bony (teleost) fish How gas is pumped into the swim bladder using. Before getting to know the reasons or symptoms of this disorder, we should first
C. L. Winata, Korzh, S., Kondrychyn, I., Zheng, W., Korzh, V., and Gong, Z., Development of zebrafish swimbladder: The requirement of Hedgehog signaling in specification and organization of the three tissue layers., Dev Biol, vol. 331, no. 2, pp. 222-36, 2009. ...
This is a common problem whereby fish lose their equilibrium and are unable to maintain their position. This can result in the fish swimming awkwardly, laying upside-down either on the bottom or top of the water, or unable to maintain a horizontal position in the water. This is often attributed to swim-bladder problems and indeed this is the most common cause of loss of equilibrium. The swim-bladder is an air-filled sac laying just under the backbone at the top of the abdominal cavity. By inflating / deflating the swim-bladder, the fish can adjust its position in the water and maintain neutral buoyancy. The swim-bladder can be affected by bacterial or viral diseases. In addition the swim-bladder may malfunction, leading to over or under inflation. Clearly anything which affects the proper functioning of the swim-bladder will also affect the fishs equilibrium.. However, before diagnosing all equilibrium problems as swim-bladder disease, we should be aware that there are other conditions which ...
When birds and humans sing, it sounds completely different, but the very same physical mechanisms are at play when a bird sings and a human speaks.
The photograph was taken 3 days post inoculation. The bird was experimentally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus on 3/2/08 at Plum Island Animal Disease Center. The inoculation was performed in the caudal thoracic air sac with strain A/CK/PA/469/3-84/H5N2, using 0.25ml ...
You need to get your bird examined by the veterinarian for proper diagnosis. If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If treated early, your bird should recover from the infection.. ...
Birds suffer from lung and airway disorders, which can be caused by a variety of respiratory parasites. One such parasitic infection in birds is caused by air sac mites, which affects the entire respiratory tract.
The anatomy of the avian respiratory system is quite complex compared to that of mammals. The avian and mammalian respiratory systems consist of the lungs which expand, gas exchange occurs and the air is exhaled. In birds the respiratory system also serves for the exchange of gases but is also important in eliminating heat from the body and has several non-respiratory functions such as the detoxification of metabolic products and vocalization. As in mammals, the upper respiratory system serves to filter air to trap dust. Unlike mammalian lungs, avian lungs are relatively rigid and do not move much during breathing. Emanating from the lungs are thin-walled air sacs that fill most of the body cavity not occupied by other viscera; most birds have nine. Some air sacs penetrate the interior of the bones and even under the skin. In mammals, inspired air goes into the lung as the lung expands and is expired when the lung contracts. In birds the lungs expand very little because the air goes through them ...
In this video, I present a fish thats floating at the water surface; and how I go about treating positive buoyancy disorder - https://youtu.be/SOMjZHW_gy4 Read more from our blogs archive about swimbladder disease - https://thefishvet.com/?s=Buoyancy -- Yours sincerely, Dr Richmond Loh DipProjMgt, BSc, BVMS, MPhil (Pathology), MANZCVS (Aquatics& Pathobiology), CertAqV, NATA Signatory. PERTH | MELBOURNE |…
Several times throughout their radiation fish have evolved either lungs or swim bladders as gas-holding structures. Lungs and swim bladders have different ontogenetic origins and can be used either for buoyancy or as an accessory respiratory organ. Therefore, the presence of air-filled bladders or l …
Medicine for swim bladder disease - Swim Bladder | Pet Care Article | petco.com. Flotrol promotes bladder contol for overactive bladders. Dont let your bladder dictate your schedule - take control with the Flotrol Natural Bladder Support supplement.
A functioning goldfish swim bladder is critical for survival. Swim bladder disease can be cause by several ailments. Some are easier to treat than others.
Nobris re-release. Following her return to the forest, the PRM team worked their hardest to check-in on Nobri, but with her wild nature she travelled deep into the forest, completely loosing her human observers for months. It was not until May that they finally found her again. And she was not happy about it.. She immediately kiss-squeaked at the team, shaking branches in their direction. However, they knew they had to persist and check on her. As they moved closer, their worst fears started to grow; there appeared to be some swelling in her air sac. Had her air sacculitis returned? At this point, they knew that they must keep a close eye on her, despite her objections. Nobri refused to be in human presence, however, and when the team returned to her location the following day she was already long gone…. As the months passed, the team grew worried. Despite their best efforts, all searches turned up in vain. It was six months later during what they thought would be another fruitless search, ...
Trauma Care - AirTraveler Walker Stabilizing Orthosis. Extra compression via air bladders for immobilisation of the ankle joint. For ruptures and ankle injuries
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand. Although birds have lungs, theirs are fairly rigid structures that do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. Instead, the structures that act as the bellows that ventilate the lungs are the air sacs, which are distributed throughout much of the birds bodies.[37] The airsacs move air uniderectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[38][39] Although bird lungs are smaller than those of mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, whereas in mammals, the alveoli, which act as the bellows, constitute only 7% of the total body volume.[40] The walls of the air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
Due to the high metabolic rate required for flight, birds have a high oxygen demand. Their highly effective respiratory system helps them meet that demand.. Although birds have lungs, these are fairly rigid structures, which do not expand and contract as they do in mammals, reptiles and many amphibians. The structures that act as the bellows which ventilate the lungs, are the air sacs distributed throughout much of the birds bodies. Although the bird lungs are smaller than those in mammals of comparable size, the air sacs account for 15% of the total body volume, compared to the 7% devoted to the alveoli which act as the bellows in mammals.[30]. The walls of these air sacs do not have a good blood supply and so do not play a direct role in gas exchange. They act like a set of bellows[31] which move air unidirectionally through the parabronchi of the rigid lungs.[32][33]. Birds lack a diaphragm, and therefore use their intercostal and abdominal muscles to expand and contract their entire ...
COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary (PULL-mun-ary) ailment, is a progressive disease which makes it difficult to breathe. Long term exposure to other lung irritants like dust, chemical fumes, or air pollution also may promote COPD. At exactly the same time, carbon dioxide (a waste gas) proceeds from the capillaries into the air sacs. In COPD, less air flows in and out of the airways because of one or more of the following: In the United States, the term COPD contains two principal afflictions emphysema (em-fih SE-mother) and chronic bronchitis (bron-KI-tis). This damage also can destroy the walls of the air sacs, leading to larger and fewer air sacs instead of many tiny ones. Most individuals who have COPD have both emphysema and chronic bronchitis ...
Phage therapy has also proven to be an effective therapeutic tool in fighting pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, particularly in preventing the development of colibacillosis, which initially develops in the respiratory tract and air sacs and then takes the form of sepsis, causing considerable mortality in poultry.. Phage suspensions applied directly to the air sac in 3-day-old birds in a range of titres from 106 to 103 PFU to treat E. coli infections substantially reduced mortality rates to 5% and 25%, respectively. Similar results were obtained after inoculation of a bacteriophage suspension in the drinking water of birds at 1 week of age (103 or 104 PFU of bacteriophages per mL) followed by air sac challenge with 103 CFU of E. coli phages. Mortality was decreased to 25% and 5%, respectively. No mortality was observed in chickens treated with 108 PFU of an E. coli bacteriophage mixture [38]. Bacteriophages have also been shown to be highly effective in treating sepsis and meningitis in ...
The LD50 values were determined for cardiovascular drugs in chick embryos at different developmental stages in order to obtain a more precise injection stage for fertile eggs of White Leghorn chickens for the prediction in rodents. First, time-course changes in the weight of fertile eggs, their air sac volume, and weight of each egg component were measured after the initiation of incubation. The weight of whole eggs decreased with incubation, while air sac volume increased. The chick embryos weight increased with decreases in albumen weight. These findings suggest that decreases in whole egg weight are due to decreases in water in the eggs. When the maximum volume of physiological saline or CMC-Na solution was injected into the air sac on different days of incubation the bulk of the vehicle did not prove to be toxic to the chick embryos. Next, several cardiovascular drugs, i.e., aloprenolol, piretanide, dipyridamol, lidocaine, propranolol, canrenoate, disopyramide and reserpine were injected ...
a muscle that is attached to the swim bladder. Rapid flexure of the sonic muscle against the swim bladder produces drum-like sounds commonly associated with courtship and spawning behavior. ...
The contraction-relaxation cycle in muscle is regulated by the release of Ca2+ from, and its uptake by, the SR (Ebashi and Endo, 1968). In fish sound-producing muscles, the maximum frequency of sound produced is determined by the maximum frequency of twitch fusion, which is primarily dependent on the rate of relaxation of twitch tension, which is dependent on the rate of Ca2+ uptake by the SR (Skoglund, 1959). In accordance with this view, the fractional SR volume in the sound-producing muscle fibres, including the SBM fibres, is much larger than that in skeletal muscle fibres (Peachey and Porter, 1959; Fawcett and Revel, 1961; Revel, 1962; Franzini-Armstrong, 1972; Appelt et al., 1991; Suzuki et al., 2003).. Twitches produced by repetitive motor nerve stimulation of the SBM tend to decrease rapidly with time (Fig. 5A), as has also been reported by Hidaka and Toida (1969). This may result, at least in part, from the myoplasmic Ca2+ concentration gradually decreasing during repetitive motor nerve ...
BY 124 Mock Exam #3 True/False 1. True or False: A swim bladder may have been observed in the common ancestor of chondrichthyans and osteichthyans. 2. True or False: The amniotic egg is an important evolutionary breakthrough because it allows for incubation of eggs in an aqueous environment. 3. True or False: The amniotic egg added most to vertebrate success in relatively dry environments. 4. True or False: During the prometamorphosis phase, growth happens quickly for the larva as it begins to differentiate into the adult form. 5. True or False: When the gill chamber floor is lowered during respiration in bony fish, the fishs mouth is closed and its operculum is open, allowing for water to be pulled in and across the gills. 6. True or False: Members of Class Actinopterygii have thin fins whereas members of Class Chondrichthyes have thick fins. 7. True or False: Reptiles were the first vertebrates to live on land. 8. True or False: Lengthening of myofibrils is what allows for the contraction of ...
air′ blad der n. 1) a vesicle or sac containing air 2) ich an air filled sac at the top of the body cavity in bony fishes, serving in most to regulate hydrostatic pressure Also called swim bladder • Etymology: 1725-35
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
A frog and his vocal sac. Photo by Christian FischerFrogs can augment the sounds produced in their larynx with the use of a vocal air sac. The males of most frog species have air sacs. The frog inflates his vocal sac and makes a sounds using his larynx. The sound resonates in the inflated vocal sac, which makes the sound louder. As an interesting aside, frogs do not have ribs. Apart from making sounds, their larynx has a role to play as a sort of stop preventing their lungs collapsing during a dive, when there is increased pressure on the frogs body.. So far, the examples Ive considered have been mammals, reptiles or amphibians.. I think birdsong is especially interesting and birds dont make sounds in quite the same way. Bird sounds are made without a larynx or even vocal folds. The bird equivalent of a larynx is a syrinx. The syrinx is located at the base of the trachea, close to where the trachea separate into the 2 bronchi (which then conduct air between the 2 lungs). Air leaving the lungs ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 111-135; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 93 - 105; Vertebrae: 62 - 66. Scales on body in regular but non-overlapping rows, some anguilloid, becoming anguilloid in pattern on belly and flanks in front of anus, top of head from interorbit to nape and sides of head with non-imbricate scales, snout, subocular area and chin and throat naked; ethmoid spine short but strong; gill chamber dark; esophagus dark and intestines and stomach pale; no pyloric caeca; males with posterior opening on swim bladder (Ref. 34024). About 10 broad dark brown bands on body. Dorsal, anal and caudal fin margins blackish. Caudal fin small, posterior margin rounded. Pelvic fins comprising two filamentous rays (Ref. 27363). ...
File no.: MI-1012-4430-LI-ZE (liked to MI-1012-5677-LI-ZE describing the generation of human neural microtissues from NECS cells) A novel precursor population that forms electrophysiologically functional neurons more quickly than protocols starting with hPSCs.
We breathe about 12 to 20 times a minute, without having to think. Inhale: and air flows through the mouth and nose, into the trachea. The bronchi stem out like a wishbone, and keep branching, dividing and dividing, and finally feeding out into the tiny air sacs of alveoli. Capillaries - blood vessels thinner than hairs - twine around each alveolus. Both the air sac and the blood vessel are tiny, delicate, one cell thick: portals where blood (the atmosphere of the body) meets air (atmosphere of the world). Oxygen passes from air to blood; carbon dioxide, from blood to air. Then, the exhale pushes that carbon dioxide back out the mouth and nose. Capillaries channel newly oxygenated blood back to the heart. That oxygen fuels the body. Thats why we breathe. Today, these basics of human respiration and metabolism feel obvious - and ventilators, the machines that breathe for sick people, do, too. We have so many medical devices, so of course wed need, and have, machines that help us to breathe. But ...
Your lungs have an arrangement of tubes that do oxygen in and as you relax.. The windpipe isolates into two tubes, the correct bronchus and left bronchus. These split into littler tubes called auxiliary bronchi. They split again to make littler tubes called bronchioles. The bronchioles have little air sacs toward the end called alveoli.. Noticeable all around sacs, oxygen goes into your circulatory system from the air took in. Your circulatory system conveys oxygen to every one of the cells in your body. In the meantime carbon dioxide goes from your circulatory system into the air sacs. This waste gas is expelled from the body as you inhale out.. ...
As there are lots of conditions associated with lungs, they can be classified in several different ways. When it comes to physiologic types we can say there are three types of lung diseases. They are as follows. Obstructive Lung Disease: This type of lung disease is brought on because of the obstruction in the airways due the narrowing or congestion. Some of the diseases which can be included in this category are asthma, emphysema and bronchitis. Limited Lung Disease: This sort of lung disease is a result of the inability of the lungs to hold the air within the air sacs. Hard to stick to lung disease is actually either as a result of decline in the elasticity of the lungs or the growth of the chest walls. The last category is for the conditions which are related to the inability of the air sacs to supply air or to move it to the blood. This results in the lack of oxygen in the blood as well as in the body. List of Lung Diseases ...
Emphysema Emphysema is a condition that is typically designated by gradual destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs which ensure inhaled oxygen is transferred to the system as well as carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and air pollution tend to be said to result in emphysema. Usually, the particular alveoli are usually flexible but with emphysema their own elasticity is impaired. As a result, the alveoli are usually unable home off carbon dioxide and other impurities appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and is then then shortness of breath and prolonged coughing ...
COPD stands for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It refers to two long-term lung diseases -- chronic bronchitis and emphysema -- that often occur together. COPD makes it difficult for you to breathe. There is no cure for COPD, but you can take steps to manage the disease.. If you or someone you love has been diagnosed with COPD, you probably have many questions. Here are answers to some of the most frequently asked questions about living with COPD, its symptoms, treatment, and causes.. 1. What happens to my lungs if I have COPD?. Tubes, called airways, carry air in and out of your lungs. If you have COPD, these airways may become partially blocked from swelling or mucus. This makes it more difficult to breathe.. At the end of the airways are many tiny balloon-like air sacs, which inflate and deflate when you breathe in and out. With COPD, these air sacs lose their elasticity. This can lead to the collapse of small airways and also make it more difficult for you to breathe.. 2. What causes ...
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF , Fibrosi Polmonare Idiopatica) is a disease characterized by progressive scarring, or fibrosis, of the lungs. It is a specific type of interstitial lung disease in which the small air sacs of the lung, known as alveoli, gradually become replaced by fibrotic (scar) tissue. The abnormal fibrosis and scar formation typically begins in the terminal areas of the pulmonary tree lining the air sacs where gas exchange occurs. Normally, this tissue is a thin layer consisting of a few, easily permeable cells. With IPF, progressive scarring causes the normally thin and pliable tissue to thicken and become stiff, making it more difficult for the lungs to expand, preventing oxygen from readily getting into the bloodstream. ...
Emphysema is a condition that is typically marked by steady destruction of alveoli, tiny air sacs in the lungs in which ensure inhaled oxygen will be transferred to the system and also carbon dioxide is exhaled out of the body. These air sacs that look like a cluster of grapes are found at the end of the bronchioles (airways). In the initial stages of emphysema, the alveoli appear inflamed, that interferes with the appropriate exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Longterm smoking cigarettes and associated with the are usually said to result in emphysema. Usually, the actual alveoli are usually stretchy but with emphysema their own elasticity is actually impaired. As a result, the particular alveoli tend to be unable residence off carbon dioxide and other harmful particles appropriately from the lungs. This build up of impurities results in excess mucus production in the lungs and it is then followed by shortness of breath and continual coughing ...
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Before we know necrotizing pneumonia, we need to know what pneumonia is?. Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one lung or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or phlegm, [READ MORE]. ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Anal spines: 0. Head large; eyes large; snout moderately pointed, its anterolateral margin incompletely supported by bone. Head ridges rather weakly scaled, other head scales mostly without spinules; the dorsal and ventral snout surfaces mostly naked. Spines on lower jaw and pectoral girdle without spinules. Light organ large, lens-shaped black fossa between the pelvic fin bases. Swim bladder oval, with 6 to 11 short retia mirabilia and gas glands. Pyloric caeca 10 to 14. Overall color is light brown to swarthy, somewhat silvery ventrally, with heavy punctuations; mouth pale, blackish along tongue base; gill cavity blackish, paler with punctuations toward inner surfaces. ...
In the physics worldview we posit a prestated phase space within which we can conduct a calculus of possible trajectories within that space. This is the basis of Maxwells Demon - the imagination of an intelligence that can be aware of all the current bits (and their states) with the consequence that the future could then be simply foreseen as the inevitable computation of trajectories of the existing bits. Kauffman gives another example of evolution selecting a fish with a swim bladder. This process fits well with developments in the physics pre-stated space as the causal webs that shape the evolving fish-with-swim-bladder-in-environment event. However, when a micro-organism inhabits the swim-bladder turning it into a niche - this was not prestateable, it was a-causal in the swim-bladder was not selected for to be a niche. However, once existant - becoming a niche was an adjacent possible that enabled a micro-organism to actualize an affordance (as adjacent possible). Kauffman says that ...
We have reconstructed the events that led to the evolution of a key physiological innovation underpinning the large adaptive radiation of fishes, namely their unique ability to secrete molecular oxygen (O2). We show that O2 secretion into the swimbladder evolved some 100 million years after another O2-secreting system in the eye. We unravel the likely sequence in which the functional components of both systems evolved. These components include ocular and swimbladder countercurrent exchangers, the Bohr and Root effects, the buffering power and surface histidine content of hemoglobins, and red blood cell Na+/H+ exchange activity. Our synthesis reveals the dynamics of gains and losses of these multiple traits over time, accounting for part of the huge diversity of form and function in living fishes.. ...
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Before there were land animals, certain fish developed a swim bladder, which they could fill with gas, usually air. This allowed the fish to stay at a given depth without expending energy on swimming. The swim bladder probably was, in some species, also helpful for stability, and maybe also as a resonating chamber to produce or receive sound. The swim bladder evolved into the lung of the earliest lungfish - and from there into the lungs of land animals. Something that evolved for one purpose or set of purposes (buoyancy, stability, sonic resonance) was appropriated for a very different purpose (breathing air). A device for staying at a given depth in water turned into the essential step for moving onto land ...
A true fish is cold-blooded, breathes through gills on each side, and depends al-most entirely on water for life. It has a bony skeleton and a long-shaped body, narrowing at the tail. The fins at various parts of its body are used for steering, balancing, and moving it forward. An air bladder, often called swim bladder, helps it maintain bal-ance to rise, descend, and adjust to water pressure. It has a heart which has two principal chambers: the atrium and ventricle. It reproduces by laying eggs ...
Müller, Tamás and Molnár, Tamás Gergely and Szabó, András and Yamaha, E. and Szigetváriné Dr. Járási, Éva Zsuzsanna and Bercsényi, Miklós and Specziár, András and Urbányi, Béla and Romvári, Róbert (2012) In vivo tracking of maturation in male european eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) by computed tomography. ACTA BIOLOGICA HUNGARICA, 63 (2). pp. 180-188. ISSN 0236-5383 ...
Looking for online definition of anal sacculitis in the Medical Dictionary? anal sacculitis explanation free. What is anal sacculitis? Meaning of anal sacculitis medical term. What does anal sacculitis mean?
The adult nematode Anguillicola crassus is covered by a soft wrinkled outer cuticle. Males measure 20-60 mm while females measure 47-71.5 mm. The mouth has a circular opening surrounded by 4 cephalic papillae and 2 lateral amphids. Males have 6 pairs of caudal papillae. Females posses a cone-shaped vuvla on the posterior end of the body and a white uterus which occupies most of the body housing copious amounts of eggs.. Symptoms: Infection from A. crassu can occur as early as the glass eel stage resulting in acute inflammatory reactions such as fibrosis and fibrotic conglomerates in the swimbladder. Scar tissue build up causes constriction of the intestine and can lead to rupture of the swimbladder. Emaciation from the swimbladder rupture can increase risk of bacterial infection resulting in increased mortality rate. Further vulnerability to secondary bacterial infection results from increased cortisol levels when infected with this nematode.. Host(s): European eel (Anguilla anguilla), American ...
Looking for online definition of airsacculitis in the Medical Dictionary? airsacculitis explanation free. What is airsacculitis? Meaning of airsacculitis medical term. What does airsacculitis mean?
幼 成鰻棲息河川 河口 潟湖3喜鑽洞潛居3以蝦 蟹 貝 海蟲維生的肉食者》每年秋季成熟的鰻魚3其眼徑變大3內臟萎縮3生殖腺肥大3體色由黃褐變銀灰色3將開始作長途的產卵洄游作準備3經常選擇一個沒有月亮的夜晚3由河川降海在到大西洋的馬尾藻海產卵3其受精卵會在春季和夏初被發現3幼體時期(柳葉鰻 Leptocephalus(則利用三年時間向歐洲遷移》有如玻璃鰻(glass eels(3歐洲鰻鱺可以到達歐洲沿岸及進入河口》進入淡水前歐洲鰻鱺變成鰻線(elvers(》她們把大半生花在淡水中》雖然近期與歐洲鰻鱺有關的日本鰻鱺(Japanese eel,Anguilla ...
The syndrome known as gastric dilation air sacculitis (GDAS) has previously been shown to affect Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in seawater (SW) aquaculture. Feed and osmoregulatory stress have been implicated as potential epidemiological co-factors. The development and physiology of GDAS was investigated in SW and freshwater (FW) adapted smolts. Diet A (low-cohesion pellets) and diet B (high-cohesion pellets) were fed to both FW- and SW-adapted fish. GDAS was induced only in the SW trial on feeding diet A. Stimulated gastro-intestinal (GI) smooth muscle contractility, and fluid transport by the pyloric caeca were different in GDAS-affected fish, which also showed osmoregulatory dysfunction. Cardiac stomach (CS) smooth muscle contractility in response to acetylcholine and potassium chloride (KCl) was significantly reduced in fish fed diet A relative to controls from weeks 3-5. In contrast, maximal pyloric sphincter (PS) circular smooth muscle contraction in response to KCl was ...
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is a euryhaline species, that has adapted to cope with both, hyper- and hypo-osmotic environments. This study investigates the effect of salinity, from a morphological...
Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J., McEvoy, J. and Peters, L. D. (2003) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in European eels Anguilla anguilla from United Kingdom estuaries. The Science of The Total Environment, 301 (1-3). pp. 105-117. ISSN 0048-9697 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7015 Ruddock, P., Bird, D. J. and McCalley, D. V. (2002) Bile metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three species of fish from the Severn Estuary. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 51 (2). pp. 97-105. ISSN 0147-6513 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7012 Telli-Karakoç, F., Ruddock , P., Bird, D. J., Hewer, A., Van Schanke, A., Phillips, D. and Peters, L. (2002) Correlative changes in metabolism and DNA damage in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene. Marine Environmental Research, 54 (3-5). pp. 511-515. ISSN 0141-1136 Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/7013 ...
da Silva, F FG, H Tveiten, Gersende Maugars, Anne-Gaelle Lafont, Sylvie Dufour, J G Støttrupa, E Kjørsvikd, et J Tomkiewicz. 2018. « Differential Expression Of Gonadotropin And Estrogen Receptors And Oocyte Cytology During Follicular Maturation Associated With Egg Viability In European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla) ». Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology, Part A 221: 44-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2018.03.010 ...
Churcher AM, Pujolar JMartin, Milan M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;16:28-35. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2015.07.002 ...
Churcher AM, Pujolar JMartin, Milan M, et al. Transcriptomic profiling of male European eel (Anguilla anguilla) livers at sexual maturity. Comp Biochem Physiol Part D Genomics Proteomics. 2015;16:28-35. doi:10.1016/j.cbd.2015.07.002 ...
In fishes the membranous labyrinth is complete with three semicircular canals, and in many teleosts it is connected to the air bladder by a duct or a chain of bony Weberian ossicles.. In tetrapoda the change of en-vironment from water to land necessitated formation of structures to conduct vibrations conveyed through air, thus a middle ear or tympa-nic cavity was formed from the first gill cleft or spiracle of fishes.. A tympanic membrane covers the middle ear and small bones come to lie in it for transmitting vibrations.. All tetrapods have a middle ear with a Eustachian tube connecting it to the pharynx. In mammals an external ear or pinna is formed, though its beginnings are seen/in some reptiles and birds.. The external ear catches and directs sound waves to the tympanic membrane of the middle ear.. ...
The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each breath.. The tissue around these air sacs is called the interstitium. In people with interstitial lung disease, this tissue becomes stiff or scarred, and the air sacs are not able to expand as much. As a result, not as much oxygen can get to the body.. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) can occur without a known cause. This is called idiopathic ILD. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common disease of this type.. There are also dozens of known causes of ILD, including:. ...
So Im having a problem with my goldfishs swim bladder. Hes a calico goldfish, almost four years old, and lives in a clean 20 gal tank with a heater set to 72. He didnt have any swim bladder problems until recently, and hes been acting weird. He was doing some swimming upside down, so I tried some home remedies, like feeding him a pea and fasting him. Both remedies worked, but I knew neither were long-term solutions, so I went to my local Petco and asked for some advice. Hed always
A disease of turkeys characterised by respiratory and skeletal problems caused by Mycoplasma meleagridis. The organism has also been isolated from raptors, it occurs in most turkey-producing countries but is now much rarer in commercial stock. In adult birds though infection rates are high, morbidity may be minimal. Pathogenicity is quite variable. Mortality is low, though up to 25% of infected birds show lesions at slaughter ...
Each tracheal tube develops as an invagination of the ectoderm during embryonic development. To prevent its collapse under pressure, a thin, reinforcing wire of cuticle (the taenidia) winds spirally through the membranous wall. This design (similar in structure to a heater hose on an automobile or an exhaust duct on a clothes dryer) gives tracheal tubes the ability to flex and stretch without developing kinks that might restrict air flow.. The absence of taenidia in certain parts of the tracheal system allows the formation of collapsible air sacs, balloon-like structures that may store a reserve of air. In dry terrestrial environments, this temporary air supply allows an insect to conserve water by closing its spiracles during periods of high evaporative stress. Aquatic insects consume the stored air while under water or use it to regulate buoyancy. During a molt, air sacs fill and enlarge as the insect breaks free of the old exoskeleton and expands a new one. Between molts, the air sacs ...
John Ruben et al. (1997, 1999, 2003, 2004) disputed this and suggested that dinosaurs had a tidal respiratory system (in and out) powered by a crocodile-like hepatic piston mechanism - muscles attached mainly to the pubis pull the liver backwards, which makes the lungs expand to inhale; when these muscles relax, the lungs return to their previous size and shape, and the animal exhales. They also presented this as a reason for doubting that birds descended from dinosaurs.[5][6][7][8][9]Critics have claimed that, without avian air sacs, modest improvements in a few aspects of a modern reptiles circulatory and respiratory systems would enable the reptile to achieve 50% to 70% of the oxygen flow of a mammal of similar size,[10] and that lack of avian air sacs would not prevent the development of endothermy.[11] Very few formal rebuttals have been published in scientific journals of Ruben et al.s claim that dinosaurs could not have had avian-style air sacs; but one points out that the ...
pronounce: new-mo thor-axe). Say WHAT?!. Yea, thats what its called. Pneumo means air and thorax means chest. So, its air in the chest. I know what you are probably saying….isnt air SUPPOSED to be in the chest? Well….yes and no. Let me explain.. The chest obviously protects a few different organs (like the heart, esophagus and some major blood vessels), as well as the lungs. The lungs are a spongey type of tissue. They are made up of millions of little tiny air sacs. These air sacs have little tiny blood vessels in the walls. The air that we breath in, goes into the air sacs and the oxygen in the air can go into the little tiny blood vessels in the walls of the little tiny sacs. The oxygen is then carried to the rest of the bodys tissues through the blood.. So thats more or less how the lungs work….but how do they fit in this whole pneumothorax thing? Well, the lungs usually take up the entire space of the chest on the left and right where the other organs dont live. The ...
On Sat, 5/16/09, David Marjanovic ,[email protected], wrote: , From: David Marjanovic ,[email protected], , Subject: Re: Pneumaticity in Triassic pterosaurs , To: [email protected], DML ,[email protected], , Date: Saturday, May 16, 2009, 1:45 PM , ----- Original Message ----- From: David Peters , ,[email protected], , Sent: Saturday, May 16, 2009 3:54 PM , , , [1] There is no monophyletic Diapsida containing , Archos and Lepidos. [2] Did I not send you my tree? [3] Your , tree problem may be due to the assumption of monophyly in , Diapsids. , , (1) You mean the upper temporal fenestra evolved twice? Yes. (2) , Yes, four years ago, along with the character list and a , weird list that was meant to indicate where state 1 of which , character occurs. It led to a long discussion. I remember , some highlights. -- Not that long ago, you submitted that , thing for publication (after having accepted my , nomenclatural advice, but apparently not any other). I know , that because my ...
In the above cases, we used the ultrasound to observe three abnormal air patterns that should alert the clinician to an intra-abdominal pathology, namely intraperitoneal air (case#2), portal venous gas (case#1), and intramural air (case#1).. Intraperitoneal air can be seen using the liver as an acoustic window. Indeed, the liver offers a unique echogenic window. Although the hepatic flexure of the colon can sometimes be found interposed, there is generally no bowel that creates artifact in the right upper quadrant. Free air will accumulate anteriorly in the supine position and create an air artifact interfering with the normal liver texture (Fig. 1). It is of importance not to press deeply with the ultrasound probe as this can shift small amount of free air away from the US field. This phenomenon of air interposition should be considered abnormal and is similar to the lung point shadow that occurs in a pneumothorax where ultrasound reveals loss of normal lung sliding [10]. We propose the term ...
The presence of pneumaticity in theropod dinosaurs was originally thought to be something leading towards birds, as the efficient respiratory system is believed to be what allows birds to be so successful, allowing for better breathing during flight. However, the exact timing of the bird-like respiratory system has been unclear and controversial. A new study, lead by Akinobu Watanabe from the American Museum of Natural History, and published in PLOS ONE, looked at the presence of postcranial pneumaticity in Archaeornithomimus and other ornithomimosaur dinosaurs, a group of theropods not directly on the branch to modern birds. Using CT scans, they were able to show that Archaeornithomimus had pneumatic cervical (neck), dorsal (back), and caudal (tail) vertebrae, but there was no unequivocal evidence of pneumatic sacral vertebrae, although there were some possible pneumatic fossae. Watanabe et al. (2015) also looked at other ornithomimosaurs to look at the evolution of pneumaticity in this group, ...
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Most soniferous fishes producing sounds with their swimbladder utilize relatively simple mechanisms: contraction and relaxation of a unique pair of sonic muscles cause rapid movements of the swimbladder resulting in sound production. Here we describe the sonic mechanism for Ophidion barbatum, which …
The white-breasted cormorant has adapted to balance thermoregulation and the need to reduce buoyancy to chase fish. Although they have an oil gland, they dont appear to use it to waterproof feathers since that would retain air bubbles. They also have dense bones, low body fat and much-reduced air sacs in the respiratory system, which all decrease buoyancy. The outer vane of each feather becomes soaked; the vane around the rachis (the central shaft) is waterproof so that a thin insulating layer of air is retained when the cormorant dives, important for a bird with little body fat. The small air sacs help maintain heat too since the function of larger sacs is similar to sweating except that heat exchange takes place internally through radiation and vaporization. The small gular sac also radiates heat rapidly because capillaries are concentrated beneath its surface. The white-breasted cormorant can speed this process up by fluttering the sac. Its lack of buoyancy can be observed in its surface ...
Breathing is the first step in respiration. For respiration to happen, the body needs a constant supply of oxygen, which is done by breathing. Inhalation is the breathing in of air. To inhale, the lungs expand, decreasing the air pressure in the lungs. This is caused by two actions. The diaphragm (a sheet of muscular tissue that separates the lungs from the abdomen) is pulled downward. Also the muscles between the ribs contract to expand the chest. Both of these actions expand the lungs. To fill the enlarged lungs, air from outside at higher pressure comes rushing into the area of low pressure in the lungs.[1] Air first passes through the nose and mouth, then through the larynx (voice box), then down the trachea (windpipe), and into the lungs and comes out. The lungs are made of many tubes or branches. As air enters the lungs, it first goes through branches called the bronchi, then through smaller branches called bronchioles, and finally into the air sacs. Gas exchange occurs in the air sacs ...
What does this mean for pterosaur lung structure overall? Its well known that pterosaur skeletons and bodies were pneumatised to the same extent, if not more, than avian dinosaurs, prompting suggestions that pterosaurs also had solid avian-like lungs and similar unidirectional flow-through pulmonary mechanics (Claessens et al. 2009). Do the observations of Geist et al. (2014) refute this? Well, not really, but they dont support them, either. As Geist et al. point out: we really dont know anything concrete about pterosaur lung structure, and its actually pretty hard to tell anything about them from bones alone. A bird-like lung may have been present in pterosaurs and would certainly be consistent with extensive skeletal pneumaticity. However, we need to be careful about exclusively linking extensive pneumaticity with bird-like respiratory organs: flying fish, which of course have no lungs at all, also have pneumatised skeletons thanks to outgrowths of their swim bladders (Geist et al. 2014). ...
Asthma -A disease in which the air passages of the lungs become inflamed and narrowed, causing wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis -Inflammation of the air passages of the lungs. Chronic -Refers to a disease or condition that progresses slowly but persists or recurs over time. Cough suppressant -A medication that stops or prevents coughing. Emphysema -A chronic respiratory disease that involves the destruction of air sac walls to form abnormally large air sacs that have reduced gas exchange ability and that tend to retain air within the lungs. Symptoms include labored breathing, the inability to forcefully blow air out of the lungs, and an increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. Emphysema is usually caused by smoking. Mucus -The thick fluid produced by the mucous membranes that line many body cavities and structures. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and shed cells, and it serve to lubricate body parts and to trap particles of ...
Certain songbirds can contract their vocal muscles 100 times faster than humans can blink an eye - placing the birds with a handful of animals that have evolved superfast muscles, University of Utah researchers found.
Harrison and Socha first noticed a problem while they were doing synchrotron X-rays of grasshoppers to study their air sacs, which are a bit like lungs. The results didnt seem to make sense. We thought we had made a mistake, Socha said.. Then they realized that they hadnt been paying attention to whether the grasshopper was head up or head down in the container that held it.. Grasshoppers, like other insects, get oxygen through tubes, or trachea that are open to the outside air and branch into smaller and smaller tubes in the insects body. All insects have these, and some have air sacs, to store and pump air, as grasshoppers do.. It turned out that the tubes were more compressed at the bottom of the animal, because gravity was causing the grasshopper equivalent of blood to sink to the bottom half of the animal.. This is similar to what happens when humans stand up quickly and become lightheaded, or the way blood goes to the head during a headstand. Humans have valves in the circulatory ...
Its called acute respiratory distress syndrome, ARDS. That means the lungs are filled with fluid. And its notable for the way the X-ray looks: The entire lung is basically whited out from fluid. Patients with ARDS are extremely difficult to oxygenate. It has a really high mortality rate, about 40%. The way to manage it is to put a patient on a ventilator. The additional pressure helps the oxygen go into the bloodstream.. Normally, ARDS is something that happens over time as the lungs get more and more inflamed. But with this virus, it seems like it happens overnight. When youre healthy, your lung is made up of little balloons. Like a tree is made out of a bunch of little leaves, the lung is made of little air sacs that are called the alveoli. When you breathe in, all of those little air sacs inflate, and they have capillaries in the walls, little blood vessels. The oxygen gets from the air in the lung into the blood so it can be carried around the body.. Typically with ARDS, the lungs ...
nce blood travels through the pulmonic valve, it enters your lungs. This is called the pulmonary circulation. From your pulmonic valve, blood travels to the pulmonary artery to tiny capillary vessels in the lungs. Here, oxygen travels from the tiny air sacs in the lungs, through the walls of the capillaries, into the blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, passes from the blood into the air sacs. Carbon dioxide leaves the body when you exhale. Once the blood is purified and oxygenated, it travels back to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. ...
Oxygen in high concentrations is a toxic gas, and, as may be expected, the lung is the predominant target. The direct action of oxygen and the resultant pulmonary signs and symptoms are related to structural damage in the lung. Pulmonary cells are not equally susceptible to hyperoxia; a distinctive pattern of injury has been established,, a differential susceptibility resembling that observed after irradiation. Continuous inhalation of 90% oxygen by mice results, within a few days, in interstitial edema which appears to be related directly to injury to pulmonary vascular endothelium. With continued exposure for 5 to 7 days, 80-90% of the animals die; the lungs of these animals are solid and airless and the alveolar ducts and air sacs are lined with fibrin-containing hyaline membranes. This catastrophic event is a consequence of disintegration of the type 1 epithelium that lines the air sacs. Type 2 cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchiolar cells are much less sensitive to hyperoxia, and necrosis of
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The anti-angiogenic effects of an antitumor protein-bound polysaccharide, PSK, obtained from cultured mycelia of Coriolus versicolor in basidiomycetes were examined by the mouse dorsal air sac assay. PSK suppressed the mouse hepatoma MH134-induced angiogenesis when assessed by morphological and biochemical examinations. This finding suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of PSK is attributed to the suppression of tumor-induced angiogenesis.[...]
In periods of reduced visibility or whenever a vessel operator needs to signal his or her intentions or position, a sound-producing device is essential. The navigation rules for meeting head-on, crossing, and overtaking situations are examples of when sound signals are required.. The following requirements apply to vessels operating on state or federally controlled waters.. ...
Matt Wedel, a sauropod palaeontologist, does a lot of work on the pneumaticity in sauropod vertebrae and realised that there was no way of quantifying pneumaticity within a single bone. He proposed using the Air Space Proportion (ASP), a ratio of the cross-sectional area of the air-filled section compared to the total cross-sectional area [2]. From 0-1, an ASP closer to 1 indicates a bone that is mainly full of air, vs. closer to 0, which is mainly bone. He started doing this on sauropod vertebrae and comparing the ASP between different sauropods and different vertebrae. While Matt came up with the idea of ASP, several people in the past of used the K value (the ratio of the internal to outer diameter) to compare the bone thickness of different bird and pterosaur bones. In a tubular bone, ASP is roughly equal to K^2 ...
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GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
Wilker Aziz, Ruslan Mitkov, and Lucia Specia. s e sac Systems via Post-Editing. network theorists in Computer Science, thermal; 418, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013.
Various states in India presently have their own systems for classifying goods for tax rate determination. However, with the coming Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime, theres a desire for more uniform classification - not just on the national level but internationally. Hence the move to the Harmonised System of Nomenclature (HSN) for goods and the Service Accounting Code (SAC) system for services. In this whitepaper, well focus on HSN codes as they relate to GST.
The current Ontario record for largest bowfin was set here in Seeleys Bay. The bowfin, Amia calva, is the last surviving member of the order Amiiformes (which includes 3 additional, now-extinct families dating from the Jurassic, to the Eocene), and of the family Amiidae (which contains numerous species in about four subfamilies, only one of which, Amiinae, is extinct). The Bowfin is a freshwater piscivore, preying on fish and larger aquatic invertebrates by ambush or stalking. Native to southeastern Canada and eastern United States, they prefer shallow, weedy waters of lakes or protected back waters of rivers. Bowfin are able to breathe air, using their swim bladder, which is connected to their gastrointestinal tract and allows them to regulate their buoyancy in the water, as a primitive lung. The fish can be seen coming to the surface and gulping air. This limits them to a specific depth range in which the surface is accessible. They tend to utilize shoreline habitats that are not accessible ...
Ive been reading a lot about the trends in health and fitness for 2016. Since were already almost 3 weeks into the year, you might have seen some of those already!. A few key points have caught my eye:. First of all, fat is back. Were not talking about pile-driving a box of doughnuts, though. Instead, low-fat products with artificial ingredients are being kicked to the curb. This means we can embrace salmon, but we dont have to sauté it in a stick of butter. Naturally-occurring fats (eaten in moderation) are okay again, while artificial fillers, sweeteners and fat substitutes are not okay.. That leads right into the new diet trend: mindfulness. Weighing your food and counting your calories are out, while eating consciously is in. Sure, eat the cookie but savor it, which promotes the mind-body connection of eating just one, instead of mindlessly snacking on the whole package. Do you want the cookie? Be mindful that you might have to give something else up to keep balance.. Biodynamic is ...
And yes, its true - a straight run through the album is likely to leave most listeners breathless, slack-jawed, drooling, your eyes rolled back in your head with only the sclera showing.. The music is fast - really damned fast - and almost overpowering in its destructive force, a furious mix of deliberately monstrous and tyrannical mass execution and utterly deranged frenzies of violence. But theres more going on here than rampant obliteration - which Ill come to in a minute.. The main through-line of the album is as I said - a blinding hurricane of speed and power, composed of hyper-accelerated double-bass roaring and equally furious snare eruptions; layers of blizzard-like riffing segmented by blink-of-an-eye stop-starts, huge groaning chords, bursts of merciless, pile-driving hammer blows, and spidery fretboard skittering, leaping, pulsating, and squealing. Even when the drum rhythms slow to a pace you could imagine a normal human being executing, the guitarists and bassist are usually ...
Sean McDermott is sticking with Tyrod Taylor as the Bills starter so long as the quarterbacks bruised left knee holds up.. And Buffalos coach had nothing more to say Monday about Patriots tight end Rob Gronkowski pile-driving into the back of cornerback TreDavious Whites head.. Look, weve moved on, McDermott said a day after Taylor and White were hurt in a 23-3 loss to New England .. Tests revealed Taylor sustained a bruised patellar tendon, while White is being evaluated for a concussion.. WHEC: Read More. ...
The AB line is currently maintained by a Round Robin mating technique: Approximately 60-66 males and 30 females from several different generations are used to make each new generation. Sperm from the males is collected into 6 tubes. An individuals sperm is in only one tube. Eggs are obtained from each of the 30 females. Each clutch is divided and fertilized with sperm from several different tubes. The divided clutches are kept separate from each other. The 15 best looking embryos from each clutch are kept and scored for how many fish survive and produce swim bladders. To be selected for propagating the AB line, 13/15 (86.66%) of the fish must develop swim bladders ...
Dorsal soft rays (total): 31-42; Anal soft rays: 45 - 57; Vertebrae: 119 - 126. Eel-like, moderate to shallow body depth; maxilla free and movable; cardiform teeth present; branchiostegal membranes partly or completely united; swim bladder with thin terminal membrane or bulb; lacking enlarged dentary or premaxillary fangs, dentary diastema, pelvic fins, and swim bladder rocker bone (Ref. 34024). Pectoral fins small, less than 29% head length; body thick, robust and highly pigmented (Ref. 34024). ...
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Air sacs[edit]. Along with other saurischian dinosaurs (such as birds and other theropods), sauropods had a system of air sacs ... Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in Saurischian dinosaurs". (pdf) Journal of Experimental Zoology, 311A: ... An air-sac system connected to the spaces not only lightened the long necks, but effectively increased the airflow through the ... In 2004, D.M. Henderson noted that, due to their extensive system of air sacs, sauropods would have been buoyant and would not ...
... and the pelican can keep its air sacs inflated by closing its glottis, but how air sacs are inflated is not clear.[54] The air ... Air sacsEdit. Anatomical dissections of two brown pelicans in 1939 showed that pelicans have a network of air sacs under their ... as well as having air sacs in their bones.[54] The air sacs are connected to the airways of the respiratory system, ... A brown pelican opening mouth and inflating air sac to display tongue and some inner bill anatomy ...
Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...
They contain many air pockets connected to the pulmonary air sacs of the respiratory system. Their spongy interior makes them ... ISBN 978-0-521-81172-9. Gier, H. T. (1952). "The air sacs of the loon" (PDF). The Auk. 69 (1): 40-49. doi:10.2307/4081291. ... Bezuidenhout, A.J.; Groenewald, H.B.; Soley, J.T. (1999). "An anatomical study of the respiratory air sacs in ostriches" (PDF ... Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. 29 ( ...
The air pockets of the bones are connected to the pulmonary air sacs: However the extent of pneumaticity depends on species. ... It is generally produced during development by excavation of bone by pneumatic diverticula (air sacs) from an air-filled space ... Farmer, CG (November 2006). "On the origin of avian air sacs". Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 154 (1-2): 89-106. doi: ... Wedel, Mathew J. (2003). "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs" (PDF). Paleobiology. ...
Cytodites nudus is a typical species of this type; it infests the air-sacs of birds. Laminosioptes cysticola , the fowl cyst ... or to penetrate and scrape at internal tissue such as air-sac or lung. Psoroptes ovis is an example of a surface-feeding mite. ... air-sac mites) Family: Laminosioptidae (fowl cyst mites) Family: Analgidae (feather mites) Family: Trombiculidae (trombiculid ... and other species have adapted to feed directly on internal tissues such as air-sacs or lungs (Cytoditidae and Laminosioptidae ...
air sac A dilated portion of a trachea. alar squama The middle of three flap-like outgrowths at the base of the wing in various ... shade see central shade spiracle Respiratory openings on the thorax and abdomen that allow air to enter the trachea. sporophagy ...
... the posterior air sacs filling with fresh inhaled air, while the anterior air sacs fill with "spent" (oxygen-poor) air that has ... Passerines possess seven air sacs, as the clavicular air sacs may interconnect or be fused with the anterior thoracic sacs. ... the oxygen-poor air it contains at the end of exhalation is the first air to re-enter the posterior air sacs and lungs. In ... and the posterior air sacs (posterior thoracics and abdominals). Typically there are nine air sacs within the system;[33] ...
The alveoli are the air sacs of the lungs. Not all types of interstitial lung disease that occur in adults occur also in ...
air sacs In modern birds, pulmonary air sacs are thin-walled, translucent air-filled bags connected to the lung. Together with ... Although only limited gas exchange is taking place within air sacs, they power the ventilation of the lung. Air sacs located ... Smaller and blind air-filled bags extending from the air sacs and the lung are known as pneumatic diverticula (singular: ... ISBN 978-0-226-72491-1. Wedel, M.J. (2009). "Evidence for bird-like air sacs in saurischian dinosaurs". Journal of Experimental ...
SAC RADIO WILL TAKE TO AIR JAN. 2". Los Angeles Times. December 23, 1973. Retrieved June 21, 2019. "MSAC program to aid ... The station went on the air January 2, 1974, after being a carrier current station. In fall 2011, the station was rebranded as ...
"SAC Bases: Goose Bay Air Base". strategic-air-command.com. Retrieved 24 March 2021. [1] Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and ... Air Canada and Eastern Provincial Airways were the first air carriers in the area to carry passengers from outside the area ... Goose Air Base became a landing and refuelling stop for the Atlantic Ferry route. Soon after the site was selected, men from ... In 1949, the Air Force donated a second building which became the North Star School. Mrs. Perrault became Happy Valley's first ...
"SAC Bases: Loring Air Force Base". Strategic-Air-Command.com. Retrieved August 3, 2018. Earth Tech, Inc. (1994). "Loring Air ... It was renamed Loring Air Force Base (AFB) in 1953 as the home of the Strategic Air Command (SAC) 42d Bombardment Wing ... Limestone Army Air Field was built in Limestone, Maine in 1947. ... of any SAC base. The 42d Bombardment Wing at Loring operated ...
A complicated system of valves and air sacs cycles air constantly over the absorption surfaces of the lungs so allowing maximal ... On careful dissection, around eight air sacs can be clearly seen. They extend quite far caudally into the abdomen.[15] ... When the diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled by elastic recoil process of the lung and the tissues lining the thoracic cavity. ... Due to its position separating the thorax and abdomen, fluid abnormally present in the thorax, or air abnormally present in the ...
"General Dougherty, former SAC commander, dies". Air Force Link. September 12, 2007. Archived from the original on September 15 ... John Henebry, 89, American Air Force major general, heart failure. Milan Jelić, 51, Bosnian politician, president of Republika ... American former commander in chief of the Strategic Air Command. Joseph W. Eschbach, 74, American doctor and kidney specialist ...
The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Brontosaurus, like its close relative Apatosaurus ... Wedel, M. J. (2003). "Vertebral Pneumaticity, Air Sacs, and the Physiology of Sauropod Dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 29 (2): 243- ... Diplodocids like Brontosaurus are often portrayed with their necks held high up in the air, allowing them to browse on tall ...
Butler, R.J., Barrett, P.M., and gower, D.J. (2009). "Postcranial skeletal pneumaticity and air-sacs in the earliest pterosaurs ...
The lungs of theropod dinosaurs (carnivores that walked on two legs and had bird-like feet) likely pumped air into hollow sacs ... Large meat-eating dinosaurs had a complex system of air sacs similar to those found in modern birds, according to a 2005 ... CT scanning of Aerosteon's fossil bones revealed evidence for the existence of air sacs within the animal's body cavity. ... September 2008). Kemp, Tom (ed.). "Evidence for Avian Intrathoracic Air Sacs in a New Predatory Dinosaur from Argentina". PLOS ...
... at the rear the posterior thoracic air sac, in the middle the anterior thoracic air sac and in front the clavicular air sac, in ... at the same time a cervical air sac at the neck base sucked out the spent air from the lung. Both air sacs contracted ... The cervical air sac was positioned under the shoulder blade, on top of the front lung. The air sacs were via tubes connected ... Air sacs not only invaded the vertebrae, but also the ribs. In Brachiosaurus, the air sacs invaded through a small opening on ...
Though this plays a role in reducing the weight of the animal, Wedel (2003) states they are also likely connected to air sacs, ... To lighten its vertebrae, Apatosaurus had air sacs that made the bones internally full of holes. Like that of other diplodocids ... On this basis, its respiratory system would likely have been parabronchi, with multiple pulmonary air sacs as in avian lungs, ... The large neck was filled with an extensive system of weight-saving air sacs. Apatosaurus, like its close relative Supersaurus ...
SAC Strategic Air Command calls it Tyuratam. Can we once and for all straighten that out and arrive at a . . . name for it, Tom ...
Alveoli (air sacs) are forming in lungs. Gestational age: 24 weeks old. Embryonic age: Week nr 25. 24 weeks old. The fetus ... Fetal hematopoiesis first takes place in the yolk sac. The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to ... Formation of the yolk sac. The embryonic cells flatten into a disk, two cells thick. If separation into identical twins occurs ... Rudimentary blood moves through primitive vessels connecting to the yolk sac and chorionic membranes. The metanephros, ...
This would suggest the presence of laryngeal air sacs characteristic of non-human African apes (and large gibbons). Air sacs ... Hewitt, G.; MacLarnon, A.; Jones, K. E. (2002). "The Functions of Laryngeal Air Sacs in Primates: A New Hypothesis". Folia ... lower the risk of hyperventilating when producing faster extended call sequences by rebreathing exhaled air from the air sacs. ...
Air is briefly stored inside small sacs known as alveoli (sing.: alveolus) before being expelled from the lungs when the ... It brings oxygen from the air and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. First, air is pulled through the trachea ... For the respiratory system to function properly, there need to be as few impediments as possible to the movement of air within ... Each alveolus is surrounded by capillaries carrying deoxygenated blood, which absorbs oxygen out of the air and into the ...
Mites were recovered from the autosomal air sacs of bumble bees. These mites can affect behavior and reduce longevity, which ...
They considered the space more likely to have been filled by a large yolk-sac. Air-sacs were nevertheless probable given the ... Many bird livers are large too, showing that such a trait is compatible with an air-sac system. The small body cavity in front ... Such a system would be an argument against the idea that birds, whose lungs are ventilated by air-sacs, are coelurosaurian ... Dal Sasso & Maganuco however, rejected this interpretation because with living birds the air-sac of the posterior abdomen does ...
The alveoli are tiny air sacs in the lungs where gas exchange takes place. The mean number of alveoli in a human lung is 480 ... These bronchioles give rise to the air sacs in the lungs called the alveoli. The lungs are the largest organs in the lower ... This type of COPD deteriorates the air sacs, and lung mass. Secondary COPD can be found in older adults who smoke or have ... When that happens, these sacs fill with air, making the lung expand. The alveoli are rich with capillaries, called alveolor ...
Strategic Air Command. "SAC Reconnaissance History January 1968-June 1971" (PDF). SAC 1971. Retrieved 2007-10-12. Kopp, Carlo ( ... EMP-like effects are not always from open-air or space explosions; there has been work with controlled explosions for ... "Center for MASINT Studies and Research". Air Force Institute of Technology. CMSR. Archived from the original on 2007-07-07. ... Correll, John T. (November 2004). "Igloo White". Air Force Magazine Online. 87 (11). Igloo White (text only). Archived from the ...
History Division, Strategic Air Command. "SAC Reconnaissance History, January 1968-June 1971" (PDF). Retrieved 2000-10-01. ... Check date values in: ,access-date= (help) Office of the Historian, Strategic Air Command. "History of SAC Reconnaissance ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio: Center for MASINT Studies and Research. Retrieved 2007-10-04. Gold, Rachel (May ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio: Center for MASINT Studies and Research. Gatz 2006. Retrieved 2007-10-04. Goetz, ...
After S. pneumoniae colonizes the air sacs of the lungs, the body responds by stimulating the inflammatory response, causing ...
Some had developed primitive lungs to help them breathe air when the stagnant pools of the Devonian swamps were low in oxygen. ... Some salamanders that are terrestrial have lungs that are used in respiration, although these are simple and sac-like, unlike ...
1. eggshell, 2. yolk sac, 3. yolk (nutrients), 4. vessels, 5. amnion, 6. chorion, 7. air space, 8. allantois, 9. albumin (egg ... The allantois (8) is a sac that collects the metabolic waste produced by the embryo. The amniotic sac (10) contains amniotic ... The air space (7) provides the embryo with oxygen while it is hatching. This ensures that the embryo will not suffocate while ... The yolk sac (2) surrounding the yolk (3) contains protein and fat rich nutrients that are absorbed by the embryo via vessels ( ...
Ang pulmonya ay isang pamamaga na kondisyon ng baga-na pangunahing nakakaapekto sa mga mikroskopikong air sac na kilala bilang ...
The Sac and Fox Nation in Oklahoma. also called Sauk and Fox, were moved to Indian Territory as a result of Article 6, in the ... Lone Wolf and Quanah Parker joined others many times in Washington D.C. meetings to air their viewpoints. From 1893 each ... Keokuk and the Sac and Fox National Council forced the Commission to agree to 160 acres (0.65 km2; 0.25 sq mi) per person, ... The Fox and Sac National Council was credited with uplifting the morality of the tribe by prohibiting polygamy, and requiring ...
Strategic Air Command (SAC) believed its bases with large concentrations of Boeing B-52 Stratofortress bombers made attractive ... The 412th Test Wing (412 TW) is a wing of the United States Air Force, assigned to the Air Force Test Center at Edwards Air ... "Abstract, History 412 Air Base Squadron Apr-Sep 1959". Air Force History Index. Retrieved 1 September 2015.. (412th Air Base ... On 18 August 1955 the 412th Fighter Group (Air Defense) was activated by Air Defense Command (ADC) at Wurtsmith Air Force Base ...
Oxygen and carbon dioxide switch places between a capillary (part of the bloodstream) and an alveolus (an air sac in the lungs ... Breathing is moving air in and out of the lungs. The air going in and out is called breath. If a person cannot breathe, they ... Air comes into the lungs (this is inhalation). When it is time to breathe out, the diaphragm relaxes again and air leaves the ... When a person breathes in, they bring air into their lungs. Air has oxygen in it. The oxygen goes from the lungs into the ...
Access to the water is made via the 'wet porch', a chamber equipped with a moon pool, which keeps the air pressure inside the ...
... a substance that lines the air sacs in the lungs and prevents them from collapsing. Mechanistic information based on toxicology ...
... : As soft tissue falls to the back of the throat, it impedes the passage of air (blue arrows) through ... SACS) of 15 or greater.[23] Home oximetry, however, does not measure apneic events or respiratory event-related arousals and ... If it is impossible to say the sound without fogging a nasal mirror, there is an air leak - reasonable evidence of poor palatal ... When velopalatal insufficiency is present, air leaks into the nasopharynx even when the soft palate should close off the nose. ...
Commander of SAC's 822d Air Division at Turner AFB, to the Air Proving Ground Center Commander, Brigadier General Robert H. ... United States Army Air Forces. Royal Air Force Soviet Air Force. United States Marine Corps ... Royal Air Force[edit]. The Royal Air Force (RAF) was an early customer for the B-25 via Lend-Lease. The first Mitchells were ... Royal Canadian Air Force[edit]. The Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) used the B-25 Mitchell for training during the war. Post- ...
1 cervical air sac, 2 clavicular air sac, 3 cranial thoracal air sac, 4 caudal thoracal air sac, 5 abdominal air sac (5' ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present.[18] A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003.. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ... Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the ...
Foul air[4]. In addition, good vocal hygiene involves getting enough rest and drinking lots of water.[4] It is important to ... sac-like structures that are typically of a yellow or white colour.[2] They occur unilaterally on the midpoint of the medial ... if any epithelium from the cyst sac is left behind during surgery, the cyst may regrow.[8] Surgery of the larynx may also be ...
An organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, marine environments, or ... A type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube ... The study of organic particles which are passively transported by the air, including bacteria, fungal spores, very small ...
There is a system of internal tubes and sacs through which gases diffuse or are actively pumped. Air is taken in through ... Others must rise to the water surface to get air which may be held or trapped in special parts of their body.[11] ...
On 22 March 1988, the PBS series Nova aired a documentary about Ramanujan, "The Man Who Loved Numbers" (Season 15, Episode 19). ... 72 The condition could be treated with a routine surgical operation that would release the blocked fluid in the scrotal sac, ...
The gas is stored in two sac-like organs in his body. The lighter-than-air gas reduces his weight and allows him to fly ... The program originally aired on YTV in Canada and on ABC in Australia. From September 9, 2006 to February 26, 2021, it ran on ... While out on patrol, Dragon's spontaneous loop-de-loop causes Jane to slip off and free-fall through the air. Dragon manages to ...
It was not manned until the following February and used KC-135 aircraft and crews from SAC, Air National Guard, and AF Reserve ... United States Air Forces in Europe - Air Forces Africa (USAFE-AFAFRICA) *501st Combat Support Wing *422d Air Base Group *420th ... Royal International Air TattooEdit. Main article: Royal International Air Tattoo. The Royal International Air Tattoo (RIAT), ... Royal Air Force Fairford or more simply RAF Fairford (IATA: FFD, ICAO: EGVA) is a Royal Air Force (RAF) station in ...
A bronchus is a passage or airway in the respiratory system that conducts air into the lungs. The first bronchi to branch from ... There are five or six alveolar sacs associated with each alveolar duct. The alveolus is the basic anatomical unit of gas ... Exchange of gases between the air in the lungs and the blood in the capillaries occurs across the walls of the alveolar ducts ... The left main bronchus divides into two secondary bronchi or lobar bronchi, to deliver air to the two lobes of the left lung- ...
Additionally, the alveolar sacs of the lungs fail to properly develop as a result of the reduced volume of amniotic fluid. ... If the alveoli, and thereby the lungs, are underdeveloped at the time of birth the infant will not be able to breathe air ... Therefore, the means by which the fetus produces urine and transports it to the bladder for excretion into the amniotic sac has ... Alveoli are the small sacs in the lungs that exchange oxygen with the blood. ...
Air enters the larynx anteriorly but anything swallowed has priority and the passage of air is temporarily blocked. The pharynx ... Early in embryonic development, the embryo has three germ layers and abuts a yolk sac. During the second week of development, ... The laryngopharynx connects to the esophagus and it serves as a passageway for both air and food. ... the embryo grows and begins to surround and envelop portions of this sac. The enveloped portions form the basis for the adult ...
"SAC Bases: Pease Air Force Base". strategic-air-command.com.. *^ "Pease to Get Minuteman Missiles". The Portsmouth Herald ... Pease continues to be home to the New Hampshire Air National Guard's 157th Air Refueling Wing (157 ARW), an Air Mobility ... "Air Mobility Command. Retrieved June 29, 2017.. *^ "Pease ANGB selected to receive KC-46A Pegasus". United States Air Force. ... "strategic-air-command.com.. *^ "509 Bomb Wing (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. June 22, 2017. Retrieved June 29, ...
Seymour began carrying Smith back to Aquarius, but his air umbilical became fouled about thirty yards from the habitat. Dodd ... who were 300 feet from Aquarius using an underwater jackhammer to install a way station that would contain breathable air. ...
Ten different air sacs attach to the lungs to form areas for respiration.[61] The most posterior air sacs (abdominal and post- ... they are able to use a series of air sacs connected to the lungs. The use of air sacs forms the basis for the three main avian ... During expiration, oxygen poor air flows to the anterior air sacs[62] and is expelled by the action of the expiratory muscles. ... since air is pumped by the air sacs rather than the lung itself. As a result, the capillaries in the parabronchi have thinner ...
Strategic Air Command[edit]. Reactivation[edit]. The squadron was reactivated in 1947 as a Strategic Air Command (SAC) ... The 344th Air Refueling Squadron is a unit of the US Air Force, part of the 22d Air Refueling Wing Air Mobility Command at ... Spokane Army Air Field (later, Spokane Air Force Base; Fairchild Air Force Base), Washington, 24 September 1947 (deployed to ... Aeronautical Division / Aviation Section / Division of Military Aeronautics / Army Air Service / Army Air Corps / Army Air ...
Red Bull Air RaceEdit. Pilots in Red Bull Air Race World Championship have worn a g-suit called g-Race Suit since the 2009 ... and a suit was designed with rubber sacs covered externally by inextensible material. The sacs automatically inflated when G ... Franks Mark II suits were used by the United States Army Air Forces and Royal Canadian Air Force pilots. ... Air-based g-suits were very common in NATO aircraft of all nations from the 1950s onwards and are still in common use today.[ ...
The body and the broad, flat tail of the platypus are covered with dense, brown fur that traps a layer of insulating air to ... the embryo has no functional organs and relies on the yolk sac for sustenance. The yolk is absorbed by the developing young.[63 ...
In some mammals, the tongue is used to "lick" the air during the flehmen response to assist transfer of pheremones. Similarly, ... in many species this is necessary to free the newborn from the amniotic sac. The licking not only cleans and dries the ... Wolves licking to indicate social status A domestic cat licking its paw during grooming A tiger "licking" the air during the ... They keep their tongues constantly in motion, sampling particles from the air, ground, and water, analyzing the chemicals found ...
Although there are many different types of alveoli in the body, the word alveoli is usually used to talk about small air sacs ... These alveoli are located at the ends of the air passageways in the lungs. They have very thin (one cell thick), wet walls and ...
Air Force Reserve[edit]. In addition to the SAC units, the United States Air Force Reserve 916th Troop Carrier Group, flew ... a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United ... Continental Air Forces, 15 April 1945. Re-designated: Strategic Air Command, 21 March 1946[1]. *Air Combat Command, 1 June 1992 ... Carswell was a major Strategic Air Command (SAC) base during the Cold War. It was the headquarters of several SAC ...
1 cervical air sac, 2 clavicular air sac, 3 cranial thoracal air sac, 4 caudal thoracal air sac, 5 abdominal air sac (5 ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present.[18] A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003.. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ... Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. Among modern animals, birds possess the ...
argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. Researchers have presented evidence and arguments for air sacs in ... but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ... air sacs actually evolved before the channels in the skeleton that accommodate them in later forms. Evidence of air sacs has ... air sacs, and the physiology of sauropod dinosaurs". Paleobiology. 2003. and "Vertebral pneumaticity, air sacs, and the ...
Air sac generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animals respiratory system. It may refer ... Reptiles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Air sac. If an internal link led you here, you may ... small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory ...
... air sacs include Behavioural Pharmacology in Classical Conditioning of the Proboscis Extension Response in Honeybees (Apis ...
... does air sac mean development of some kind? Or will there be an air sac after a period of time even after sitting on my counter ... The air sac itself does not indicate that an embryo is growing. While being formed the egg and contents are at body temperature ... As for the rest, all but maybe 1 seemed to show a very well defined air sac. The question I had, and that was probably answered ... The air cell size can indicate through out incubation if humidity levels are too high or low. By the end - the air cell should ...
... and thus air-sacs) in the common ancestor of most known pterosaurs increases the likelihood that at least non-invading air-sacs ... and air-sacs (OConnor 2006). Postcranial skeletal pneumatization has been used to infer the presence of air-sacs and flow- ... in pterosaurs to infer pneumatization by distinct components of an air-sac system would be more robust if pterosaur air-sacs ... 2008 Evidence for avian intrathoracic air sacs in a new predatory dinosaur from Argentina. PLoS ONE 3, e3303. (doi:10.1371/ ...
One such parasitic infection in birds is caused by air sac mites, which affects the entire respiratory tract. ... If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If ... The parasites can be present all the way from the nose of the infected bird to the tiny air sacs in the lungs. ... The symptoms of birds with air sac mites are dependent on the severity of the parasitic infection. Birds with a mild infection ...
air sacs. An avian term; refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly ... If air sac mites are found to be the cause, anti-parasitic medicine will be administered to the bird orally or by injection. If ...
Climate change is a critical part of the Sac Metro Air District vision of clean air and a low-carbon future for all. Adopted in ... The Sac Metro Air District works to ensure that its operations are sustainable and supportive of its mission. Here are some of ... The Sac Metro Air District may provide financial assistance for residents to replace older wood burning stoves with more ... The Sac Metro Air District is proud to support the CivicSpark program since its launch in 2013. A Governors Initiative ...
Ive researched and think it may be a ruptured air sac.. If it is, do I have to lance it or will it go away on its own?. ... Is this a ruptured air sac? Discussion in Emergencies / Diseases / Injuries and Cures started by goldfinches, Oct 20, 2011. ... It looks like air, no liquid, and feels very much like just air. It moves in and out when she breathes. Is this something you ... id love to hear some more opinions on this, i have the same problem with an adult chabo roo...hes so full of air he s round ...
... the air sacs of the dorsal thorax. During the third larval instar, air sac precursor cells bud from a tracheal branch in ... FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system.. Sato M1, Kornberg TB. ... In addition, FGF induces these air sac precursors to extend cytoneme-like filopodia to FGF-expressing cells. These findings ...
"Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins.. A, small branch of pulmonary artery; ... B, twigs of pulmonary artery; C, capillary network around the walls of the air sacs; D, branches of network converging to form ...
Feeling this was not right, took to another vet who did 3 x-ray views and said cat had collapsed trachea, a enlarged air sac ... Cat w/collapsed trachea and enlarged air sac 13 year old male cat was first diagnosed with congenital heart failure.was given ... a six year old cat that has been diagnosed with asthma.My vet has her on an anti inflammatory medicine to help open up her air ...
Thankfully a few hours later & the sac is almost back to normal size on its own. Ruptured Air Sac. IMG_7870chick with air sac. ... A ruptured air sac is an accumulation of air under the skin. It looks like an overinflated balloon & affects the respiratory ... Chick with ruptured air sac. Welcome to the internets gathering place for Purple Martin enthusiasts. ... During a nest check this morning I found a chick with a ruptured air sac (see photo). He was fine last night. ...
FBNs Charlie Gasparino on the Department of Justices insider-trading investigation of SAC Capital Partners founder Steve ...
... one of the blind-ended air sacs which make up the lungs). The individual cancer cells are coated with microscopic, hair-like ... False-colour Scanning electron micrograph of a tiny lung tumour filling an alveolus (one of the blind-ended air sacs which make ...
... and the University of Stirling has found that male dance flies prefer to mate with females that have larger abdominal sacs. In ... Female dance flies have abdominal sacs on the sides of their abdomens that they fill with air, possibly to make them look ... Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs. by Bob Yirka , Phys.org ... Citation: Male dance flies found to favor females with bigger abdominal air sacs (2018, September 19) retrieved 18 September ...
... the Commander of the Pápa Air Base had his first flight on board of one of the C-17 aircraft executing local training flight ... with Colonel Keith Boone (United States Air Forces), Heavy Airlift Wing (HAW) Commander. ... Air Base Commander Gets Flight Experience on SAC-03. Szöveg: Annele Apajakari , 2011. július 18. 10:51 ... Close cooperation between HAW and the Hungarian Air Base is vital to the missions. "I was able to check from an aerial ...
... few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made to fill the ... In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made ... In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. Considerable progress has recently been made ...
Bel Air, CA 90077, $749,947, 2 beds, 1 baths, 902 sq ft For more information, contact Brad Korb, Brad Korb Real Estate Group, ...
... *To: [email protected] ... Subject: [dinosaur] Sauropod air sacs + smuggled fossils + Glen Canyon Group dinosaur tracks ... blogs.scientificamerican.com/laelaps/secret-air-sacs-made-this-dinosaur-extra-light/ ...
... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the... , Meaning, pronunciation, translations ... any of the membranous air-filled extensions of the lungs of birds, which increase the efficiency of gaseous exchange in the ... any of the air-filled cavities in a birds body, having connections to the lungs ... Definition of air sac. air sac in British. noun. 1. ...
Mess Hall Sac Barracks - in Portsmouth, may have been exposed to asbestos which can lead to mesothelioma and other asbestos ... Army Air Force Base - Mess Hall Sac Barracks - Portsmouth, NH. Take Action If you worked at Army Air Force Base - Mess Hall Sac ... Did you or someone you know work at Army Air Force Base - Mess Hall Sac Barracks - in Portsmouth, NH? If so, you should be ... If you worked at Army Air Force Base - Mess Hall Sac Barracks - or other locations in the greater Portsmouth, NH area where you ...
Contains a varying mixture of gases, not identical to the composition of air. May be one, two or three chambered. May be ... sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. ... air sac - /ˈɛə sæk/ (say air sak) noun 1. a sac containing air. 2. any of certain cavities in a bird s body connected with the ... air sac - noun 1. a tiny sac for holding air in the lungs; formed by the terminal dilation of tiny air passageways • Syn: ↑ ...
Sac City Schools Are Keeping Students Indoors Due To Poor Air Quality Press release November 12, 2018. ... Click here to read the Sacramento County Public Health Officer and Sac Metro Air District advisory calling for schools to keep ... Air Quality Management District. At the recommendation of the Air Quality Management District, we will be keeping all ... We take this responsibility very seriously and before making the decision to keep our schools open, we did check on the air ...
First eliminate the possibility that it is the air-sac mite. Treat your bird with Scatt or S76. If the symptoms do not subside ... Respiratory Infection or Air-sac mites? - Wheezing, clicking, sucking, sneezing, coughing, neck stretching, nostril discharge, ... Air Sac Mite Treatment Kits - Great Savings on everything you need to treat for the air sac mite! Kit A includes S76 30ml, ... First eliminate the possibility that it is the air-sac mite. Treat your bird with Scatt or S76. If the symptoms do not subside ...
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Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight ... FGF coordinates air sac development by activation of the EGF ligand Vein through the transcription factor PntP2. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Air Sac Mite in Poultry. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the ... Cytodites nudus is a small, cosmopolitan mite occasionally noticed as white spots on the bronchi, lungs, air sacs, and ... Cytodites sp mite (circled) in the air sac of a dissected specimen of Rhipidura albiventris. ... Cytodites sp mite (circled) in the air sac of a dissected specimen of Rhipidura albiventris. ...
  • Birds' lungs obtain fresh air during both exhalation and inhalation, because the air sacs do all the "pumping" and the lungs simply absorb oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may refer specifically to: Pulmonary alveolus, small hollow cavities which are a part of the lungs within mammals Air sacs, structures in the saurischian dinosaur respiratory system, including the extant bird respiratory system Lung § Reptiles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Air sac. (wikipedia.org)
  • The parasites can be present all the way from the nose of the infected bird to the tiny air sacs in the lungs. (petmd.com)
  • False-colour Scanning electron micrograph of a tiny lung tumour filling an alveolus (one of the blind-ended air sacs which make up the lungs). (sciencephoto.com)
  • one of the air filled spaces in the body of a bird connected with the air passages of the lungs 2. (academic.ru)
  • Air sacs are found as tiny sacs off the larger breathing tubes (tracheae) of insects, as extensions of the lungs in birds, and as end organs in the lungs of certain other vertebrates. (academic.ru)
  • In addition to the lungs, which serve to absorb this important gas, birds, therefore, possess so-called air sacs. (birds-online.de)
  • These organs are located close to the lungs and serve, among other things, as air reservoirs. (birds-online.de)
  • Lung damage allows air to be trapped in your lungs in this form of COPD . (webmd.com)
  • air sacs are in the lungs and when you breathe in blood carries it to the lungs. (answers.com)
  • In reptiles (some turtles and lizards) air sacs are blind processes in the lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The main function of the air sacs in birds is to draw air through the lungs, especially during flight, to regulate heat, and to alter the specific gravity of the birds while swimming and diving. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Emphysema is a chronic condition caused by damage to the lungs' air sacs (alveoli). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, the passage which brings air into the lungs. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Remember that the respiratory system of a bird includes lungs, air sacs and hollow bones. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • If these are impaired, viruses, bacteria and fungi have a greater chance of colonising the bird in its air sacs, lungs and bones and causing disease which is therefore very difficult to eradicate. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Pulmonary Disorders is often caused by the decrease or compression of air flow paths that prevent air flows in lungs or respiratory system pathways. (curejunction.com)
  • Chronic bronchitis is a common type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in which the air passages in the lungs, called the bronchi are repeatedly inflamed, leading to scarring of the bronchi walls. (curejunction.com)
  • When you breathe, air travels to your lungs through airways called bronchi. (curejunction.com)
  • Emphysema affects the walls of the millions of tiny air sacs in the lungs, which become inflamed and loose elasticity, causing the bronchioles to collapse. (curejunction.com)
  • Pneumonia is an infection deep in the small airways and air sacs of the lungs. (epnet.com)
  • This allows to fluid to pool in the lower chest and allow the lungs to expand as much as possible when breathing in air. (vetinfo.com)
  • THERE is nothing more frightening than being unable to get enough air into your lungs to sustain normal activities. (nytimes.com)
  • The lungs are remarkable instruments of air exchange. (nytimes.com)
  • The breathing muscles are unable to push all the air out of the enlarged sacs, causing stale air to accumulate and diminishing the ability of the lungs to take in freshly oxygenated air. (nytimes.com)
  • Air leaves the tiny sacs in the lungs to pass into capillaries. (biologydiscussion.com)
  • Effect of ammonia on the quantitative clearance of Escherichia coli from lungs, air sacs, and livers of turkeys aerosol vaccinated against Escherichia coli. (elsevier.com)
  • More E coli was found in lungs, air sacs, and livers of turkeys exposed to NH3. (elsevier.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of ammonia on the quantitative clearance of Escherichia coli from lungs, air sacs, and livers of turkeys aerosol vaccinated against Escherichia coli. (elsevier.com)
  • 17. True or false: Exchange of air takes place in the lungs. (syvum.com)
  • The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The blood carries the larvae to the lungs, where they enter into the air sacs. (medindia.net)
  • The lungs become inflamed, and the tiny air sacs, or alveoli, inside the lungs fill up with fluid. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Fit and healthy lungs can supply a lot of air. (umanitoba.ca)
  • In Emphysema, the tiny air sacs (alveoli) in your lungs are damaged. (answers.com)
  • Your airways branch into tiny tubes (bronchioles) that end in clusters of air sacs called alveoli. (webmd.com)
  • Researchers at Johns Hopkins have identified a new molecular pathway involved in the growth of tiny air sacs called alveoli that are crucial for breathing. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The bronchi divide into smaller airways, called bronchioles, eventually resulting in clusters of tiny air sacs, called alveoli. (curejunction.com)
  • It then moves into two main branches called bronchi (one to each lung) that divide into smaller branches, the bronchioles, ending in clusters of tiny air sacs called alveoli. (nytimes.com)
  • In emphysema, the walls of the alveoli are damaged and many of the air sacs become greatly enlarged and lose their elasticity. (nytimes.com)
  • The main symptom of emphysema (the word means ''inflated,'' referring to the trapped air in the alveoli) is shortness of breath. (nytimes.com)
  • I reckon there has to be some kind of material out there in this wild, wonderful world that would be up to the task - or perhaps we could make the sacs organic and construct them of the same stuff as alveoli which are by necessity gas permeable. (halfbakery.com)
  • Finally, air reaches the alveoli, or air sacs. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Feeling this was not right, took to another vet who did 3 x-ray views and said cat had collapsed trachea, a enlarged air sac and emphysema. (vetinfo.com)
  • Air sac generally refers to an organ or portion of an organ containing air within an animal's respiratory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patterns of postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) indicate that pterosaurs possessed components of a bird-like respiratory system, including a series of ventilatory air-sacs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The air-sacs of extant birds form a critical component of the avian respiratory system, permitting flow-through ventilation and exceptionally efficient gas exchange ( Duncker 1971 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • refers to pockets in the respiratory system of birds that hold air and allow them the ability to fly and the buoyancy necessary to do so. (petmd.com)
  • The accumulation of air under the skin of a bird looks like an oversized inflated balloon and affects their respiratory system. (wagwalking.com)
  • Air sac mites affect the whole of the respiratory system. (pethealthinfo.org.uk)
  • Parrots, along with many other birds, have an internal organ called an air sac, part of their respiratory system. (omlet.us)
  • argued against the presence of air sacs in dinosaurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A further indication for the presence of air sacs and their use in lung ventilation comes from a reconstruction of the air exchange volume (the volume of air exchanged with each breath) of Plateosaurus, which when expressed as a ratio of air volume per body weight at 29 ml/kg is similar to values of geese and other birds, and much higher than typical mammalian values. (wikipedia.org)
  • Postcranial skeletal pneumatization has been used to infer the presence of air-sacs and flow-through ventilation in several extinct Mesozoic bird-line (i.e. ornithodiran) archosaur groups, including non-avian saurischian dinosaurs (e.g. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Evidence of air sacs has also been found in theropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies indicate that fossils of coelurosaurs , [16] ceratosaurs , [13] and the theropods Coelophysis and Aerosteon exhibit evidence of air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far no evidence of air sacs has been found in ornithischian dinosaurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • From about 1870 onwards scientists have generally agreed that the post-cranial skeletons of many dinosaurs contained many air-filled cavities ( postcranial skeletal pneumaticity , especially in the vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the air sacs are cavities in the bird's body, they are an ideal environment for certain parasites. (birds-online.de)
  • cavities connected to the respiratory pathways or the esophagus that are capable of filling with air but do not function in gas exchange in most vertebrate animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Many skeletal bones in birds (femur, humerus, sternum, and others) have cavities filled with air sac processes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plants have air sacs and cavities filled with air that originated as a result of the layers of the exine of pollen grains diverging. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We have studied the derivation of part of this system, the air sacs of the dorsal thorax. (nih.gov)
  • gas bladder, a thin membranous, sometimes alveolated sac in the dorsal portion of the abdominal cavity. (academic.ru)
  • Air sac primordium cells (ASP) are tracheal imaginal cells that form the dorsal air sacs that supply oxygen to the flight muscles of the Drosophila adult. (csic.es)
  • Among modern animals, birds possess the most air sacs (9-11), with their extinct dinosaurian relatives showing a great increase in the pneumatization (presence of air) in their bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such parasitic infection in birds is caused by air sac mites, which affects the entire respiratory tract. (petmd.com)
  • Canaries and Gouldian finches are two types of birds that commonly suffer from air sac mites. (petmd.com)
  • The symptoms of birds with air sac mites are dependent on the severity of the parasitic infection. (petmd.com)
  • In biology, few organs have been as elusive as the lung-air sac system of birds. (buecher.de)
  • The air sacs are therefore of enormous importance for the birds' respiration, not only during exertion such as flying. (birds-online.de)
  • So if you have kept a flock of birds for more than a year and the animals haven't been in touch with other birds, usually, you don't have to deal with air sac mites in case your birds are showing respiratory problems. (birds-online.de)
  • They thus get out of the bird's body into the air and are inhaled by birds perched in the immediate vicinity. (birds-online.de)
  • Birds have five pairs of air sacs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • the processes of these (pharyngonasal) air sacs in some birds extend to the cranial bones, under the skin, and into the anterior extremities. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Birds don't breathe the same way humans do, they don't have a diaphragm that moves the air in and out. (wagwalking.com)
  • Even pigeons and other wild birds can suffer this condition especially if they have survived an attack from a hawk or other predator, they may have their air sac damaged during the attack. (wagwalking.com)
  • The avian vocal organ (the syrinx) is a versatile organ located at the junction of the primary bronchi and the trachea, where free moveable connective tissue membranes, the labia, are set in oscillatory motion through an energy exchange from the airstream propelled from the air sacs. (gob.ar)
  • The abdominal sacs branch off from the main bronchi and are situated between the organs of the abdominal cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • [1] Theropods , like Aerosteon , have many air sacs in the body that are not just in bones, and they can be identified as the more primitive form of modern bird airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Critics have claimed that, without avian air sacs, modest improvements in a few aspects of a modern reptile's circulatory and respiratory systems would enable the reptile to achieve 50% to 70% of the oxygen flow of a mammal of similar size, [10] and that lack of avian air sacs would not prevent the development of endothermy. (wikipedia.org)
  • When your bird first experiences a rupture to one of its air sacs and develops a ballooning lump, it is important to take your bird to your avian veterinarian to have your bird checked. (wagwalking.com)
  • USAF is working to re-instill an emphasis on strategic and nuclear deterrence in "the old traditional sense," harkening back to the days of Strategic Air Command, says Lt. Gen. Robert J. Elder Jr., 8th Air Force's outgoing commander. (airforcemag.com)
  • Customize and personalize this Strategic Air Command (SAC) KC-97 Stratotanker model with your choice of pilot and crew chief names, weapons load out and patch and text on stand. (islandenterprises.net)
  • A SAC Information Kit from a visit to the United States Air Force Strategic Air Command Headquarters at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha Nebraska. (united-states-air-force.org)
  • The item "SAC Information Kit United States Air Force Strategic Air Command Offutt AFB" is in sale since Sunday, October 16, 2016. (united-states-air-force.org)
  • Found commonly in Gouldians and Canaries air sac mite can be a very fatal disease. (zendesk.com)
  • At times, a severe air sac mite infection can lead to the bird's death. (petmd.com)
  • Respiratory Infection or Air-sac mites? (ladygouldianfinch.com)
  • If this happens with your bird, your veterinarian will teach you how to do this air release process yourself, keeping in mind that any equipment you use must be sterilized always to prevent infection. (wagwalking.com)
  • The infection will make the air sacs swell and fill with fluid or pus. (epnet.com)
  • But this does not imply that ornithischians could not have had metabolic rates comparable to those of mammals, since mammals also do not have air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram showing the capillary network of the air sacs and origin of the pulmonary veins. (usf.edu)
  • The study concluded that it was impossible to determine whether prosauropods had a bird-like flow-through lung, but that the air sacs were almost certainly present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tinted SEM of cancerous lung air sacs. (sciencephoto.com)
  • These air sacs make up most of your lung tissue. (webmd.com)
  • Fluid leaks out of the small blood vessels of your lung into the air sacs and the area around them. (webmd.com)
  • It most often happens in the main part of your lung, in or near the air sacs. (webmd.com)
  • The hallmark of COPD is that the air leaves the lung slower than normal during a forced expiration. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In people with interstitial lung disease, this tissue becomes stiff or scarred, and the air sacs are not able to expand as much. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The disease is contracted from other chickens, mosquitos, or even by air if there is an infected flock nearby. (omlet.us)
  • Air sac mites are transmitted by rattling and vigorous exhalation. (birds-online.de)
  • Find out how the mites are transmitted, the symptoms of an ASM infestation and how to diagnose Air Sac Mites in a Gouldian Finch or other pet bird. (hubpages.com)
  • There are two types of air sacs within your bird's body that are distinguished by their connection and position within your bird. (wagwalking.com)
  • The obvious balloon shape, the transparent skin over the air lump, and your bird's discomfort will lead to a diagnosis of a ruptured air sac. (wagwalking.com)
  • Once the pressure is off, any remaining air will be slowly absorbed into your bird's system without harm. (wagwalking.com)
  • One study in 2007 concluded that prosauropods likely had abdominal and cervical air sacs, based on the evidence for them in sister taxa (theropods and sauropods). (wikipedia.org)
  • Remark, du designer graphique Ben Brown est kit de réparation pour vélo éco-conçu : il utilise chambre à air et carton pour étui. (scoop.it)
  • other extant tetrapods lack such postcranial skeletal pneumatization (PSP) and air-sacs ( O'Connor 2006 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These small arachnids feel particularly at home in the warm, moist environment of the windpipe (trachea) and air sacs. (birds-online.de)
  • Air inhaled through the nose and mouth enters the trachea, or windpipe, the trunk of the tree. (nytimes.com)
  • Air flows in through your trachea, or windpipe, which is sort of like the trunk of the tree. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Vous pouvez l'utiliser comme une couverture en depliant ce sac de couchage Il peut devenir un double sac de couchage lorsque vous connectez deux sacs de couchage ensemble. (wallmart.win)
  • un seul sac inclus) Y compris 4 sac a bandouliere de compression qui permettant de comprimer le sac de couchage a une minimale taille. (wallmart.win)
  • 2. il n'y a que sac de couchage et sac comprime de rangement , d'autres articles affiches dans les images ne sont pas inclus. (wallmart.win)
  • It is these air sacs that significantly support an ideal oxygen supply at low weight. (birds-online.de)
  • well air is mostly made from:argon,carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen. (answers.com)
  • Air is a mixture of various gases, chiefly nitrogen (78%) and oxygen (21%), and constitutes the breathable atmosphere of the Earth.Air pressure varies and is greatest at lower … altitudes. (answers.com)
  • If you've moved beyond the basics of Scuba diving, and have started planning your own, independent dives, you should know you Surface Air Consumption, or SAC. (divein.com)
  • Surface Air Consumption is an expression of your air consumption during dive, with the depth of the dive taken out of the equation. (divein.com)
  • Where VT is Total Volume of the cylinder used in liters, VC is Consumed Volume in bars during the dive, T is duration of the dive, P is the pressure in bars of the average depth of the dive (or maximum depth if you stayed at the same depth the entire dive), and SAC is the Surface Air Consumption in liters per minute. (divein.com)
  • SAC (Surface Air Consumption) Dive Log Refill Pages. (divelogs.com)
  • Surface Air Consumption is a very useful way to measure how well you are doing as a diver. (divelogs.com)
  • Following is a summary on Surface air Consumption, for more detail and background please check out this info page . (divelogs.com)
  • We calculate a surface air consumption rate because we breath more gas at deeper depths. (divelogs.com)
  • Organisms ingested when the bird eats the food or inhales the air-borne toxins will display all the symptoms mentioned above. (ladygouldianfinch.com)
  • Nevertheless, now and then there are cases in which budgies show the typical symptoms of such a parasitic infestation and also react positively to a treatment aimed at air sac mites. (birds-online.de)
  • A ruptured air sac is an accumulation of air under the skin. (purplemartin.org)
  • they have several air sacs located in their body which if ruptured, leads to an accumulation of air under their skin. (wagwalking.com)
  • Turkeys were exposed to 2 concentrations of NH3 (10 and 40 microliters/L of air). (elsevier.com)
  • We had a saying about Offutt Air Force Base: once you get on it, you never get Offutt - but I needed to. (wildpostcards.com)
  • a pouch or a baglike organ, such as the abdominal sac of the embryo that develops into the abdominal cavity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Most geckos of both sexes possess paired, sac-like structures located posterior to the cloaca - the function of which is unknown - and males also possess bony cloacal rods. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A quite massive no. of Offices, laboratories, resorts, community structures are presently fitted with air conditioning techniques. (nwhkk.com)
  • During the third larval instar, air sac precursor cells bud from a tracheal branch in response to FGF, and then they proliferate and migrate to the adepithelial layer of the wing imaginal disc. (nih.gov)
  • Coelophysis , from the late Triassic , is one of the earliest dinosaurs whose fossils show evidence of channels for air sacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The K9 Sport Sac has features like side ventilation, for keeping your pet cool, adjustible side straps, and water proof materials. (woofycollection.com)
  • With a size of only 0.7 millimeters, the so-called air sac mite ( Sternostoma tracheacolum ) is practically invisible to the human eye. (birds-online.de)
  • According to earlier literature, air sac mites are also supposed to occur in budgies, see for example Respiratory acariasis due to Sternostoma tracheacolum in the budgerigar . (birds-online.de)
  • Female dance flies have abdominal sacs on the sides of their abdomens that they fill with air, possibly to make them look bigger. (phys.org)
  • The air conditioner stinks when the coils gather dust and make water (condensate) and it becomes mold. (answers.com)
  • When we know our SAC, we can make estimations as to how much air we will likely use during a dive to any given depth, allowing us to factor air consumption into our dive planning. (divein.com)
  • Then make note of the air consumed in those 5 minutes, to also have an idea of your air consumption while working under strain . (divein.com)
  • So to take the first dive as an example, before jumping in to do the dive, I should make sure that I have a cylinder with at least 2019 liters of air in it. (divein.com)
  • Keep an eye on why your air consumption spiked on a particular dive or spot trends that make you use less air. (divelogs.com)
  • In this respect they differ from other squamates: when non-gekkotan squamates make noises, they (mostly) do so by forcing air past the glottis, or by vibrating the tissues around the glottis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In case of infestation with air sac mites, however, no mucus appears. (birds-online.de)
  • [2] Sauropods are well known for the amount of air pockets in their bones (especially vertebra), although one theropod, Deinocheirus , shows a rivalling amount of air pockets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cloacal sacs and bones are absent in sphaerodactylids (Kluge 1982, Gamble et al . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Numerous bird species may become affected by air sac mites. (birds-online.de)
  • FGF is an essential mitogen and chemoattractant for the air sacs of the drosophila tracheal system. (nih.gov)
  • Air sacs are spaces within an organism where there is the constant presence of air. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this paper the pneumatic foramina in both the neural arches and the centra are described in detail, and the relative proportion of air spaces in the caudal vertebrae is established, revealing that the skeleton of Rocasaurus muniozi was more pneumatized than that of Neuquensaurus australis, with Saltasaurus loricatus intermediate. (gob.ar)
  • An example: I've done a dive to 66 feet for 35 minutes, with an 80 cubic feet cylinder with a working pressure of 3000 Psi (both can be found on the cylinder), I have consumed 2000 Psi of that air. (divein.com)
  • Three explanations have been suggested for the development of air sacs in dinosaurs: Increase in respiratory capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstrates that PSP and, by inference, air-sacs were probably present in the common ancestor of almost all known pterosaurs, and has broader implications for the evolution of respiratory systems in bird-line archosaurs, including dinosaurs. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • For more on the project, which will install 20 Clarity Node-S monitors for particulate matter 2.5 and nitrogen dioxide, see the Valley Vision webpage at https://www.valleyvision.org/projects/community-air-protection/ . (gettingaroundsac.blog)
  • https://www.valleyvision.org/projects/community-air-protection/ (scroll down to just below the map). (gettingaroundsac.blog)
  • chorionic sac that formed by the vertebrate chorion , surrounding the embryo, amniotic cavity, and amniotic sac and contributing to the fetal part of the placenta. (thefreedictionary.com)