Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.CaliforniaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)BostonCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.FiresHumidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RomeSulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)LondonKerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Los AngelesCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.United StatesPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.MexicoGermany, EastOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.New JerseySoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.GeorgiaBronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.GermanyCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.TokyoAtmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)GuatemalaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage. (1/20)

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

Cancer risk around the nuclear power plants of Trillo and Zorita (Spain). (2/20)

AIM: To investigate the association between cancer risk and proximity of place of residence to the Guadalajara nuclear power plants: Trillo and Zorita. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were patients admitted with cancer and controls were non-tumorous patients, both admitted to Guadalajara Hospital (period 1988-99). Exposure factor: place of residence (areas within 10, 20, and 30 km of each plant). Odds ratios (ORs) of those areas closest to the plants were calculated with respect to those furthest away; a linear trend analysis was also performed. RESULTS: In the extreme areas in the vicinity of Trillo, an OR of 1.71 was obtained (95% CI 1.15 to 2.53), increasing in magnitude in the subgroup of more radioinducible tumours and in the period considered as post-latency (1997-99). Risk increased linearly with proximity to the two plants, significantly in Trillo (p < 0.01) but not in Zorita (p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between proximity of residence to Trillo and cancer risk, although the limitations of the study should be kept in mind when interpreting the possible causal relation.  (+info)

RADIATION PROTECTION IN CANADA. III. THE ROLE OF THE RADIATION PROTECTION DIVISION IN SAFEGUARDING THE HEALTH OF THE PUBLIC. (3/20)

The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout.  (+info)

Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. (4/20)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure at home to the radioactive disintegration products of naturally occurring radon gas. DESIGN: Collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. SETTING: Nine European countries. SUBJECTS: 7148 cases of lung cancer and 14,208 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of lung cancer and radon gas concentrations in homes inhabited during the previous 5-34 years measured in becquerels (radon disintegrations per second) per cubic metre (Bq/m3) of household air. RESULTS: The mean measured radon concentration in homes of people in the control group was 97 Bq/m3, with 11% measuring > 200 and 4% measuring > 400 Bq/m3. For cases of lung cancer the mean concentration was 104 Bq/m3. The risk of lung cancer increased by 8.4% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 15.8%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in measured radon (P = 0.0007). This corresponds to an increase of 16% (5% to 31%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in usual radon--that is, after correction for the dilution caused by random uncertainties in measuring radon concentrations. The dose-response relation seemed to be linear with no threshold and remained significant (P = 0.04) in analyses limited to individuals from homes with measured radon < 200 Bq/m3. The proportionate excess risk did not differ significantly with study, age, sex, or smoking. In the absence of other causes of death, the absolute risks of lung cancer by age 75 years at usual radon concentrations of 0, 100, and 400 Bq/m3 would be about 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.7%, respectively, for lifelong non-smokers, and about 25 times greater (10%, 12%, and 16%) for cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe.  (+info)

Archeo-cell biology: carbon dating is not just for pots and dinosaurs. (5/20)

Defining the life span of specific human cell populations is limited by our inability to mark the exact time when cells are born in a way that can be detected over many years. In this issue of Cell, Spalding et al. (2005) describe a clever strategy for retrospectively birth dating human cells in vivo, based on their incorporation of 14C during a peak in atmospheric levels of this isotope resulting from above-ground nuclear arms testing in the 1950s.  (+info)

Indoor radon and lung cancer. Estimating the risks. (6/20)

Radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners with exposure to radon and experimental evidence have established that radon causes lung cancer. The finding that this naturally occurring carcinogen is present in the air of homes and other buildings has raised concern about the lung cancer risk to the general population from radon. I review current approaches for assessing the risk of indoor radon, emphasizing the extrapolation of the risks for miners to the general population. Although uncertainties are inherent in this risk assessment, the present evidence warrants identifying homes that have unacceptably high concentrations.  (+info)

Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy. (7/20)

The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8: 00-21 : 00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity.  (+info)

Indoor radon concentrations and assessment of doses in four districts of the Punjab Province - Pakistan. (8/20)

Seasonal indoor radon measurement studies have been carried out in four districts, namely, Jhelum, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Attock of the Punjab Province. In this regard, CR-39 based detectors were installed in bedrooms, drawing rooms and kitchens of 40 randomly selected houses in each district. After exposing to radon in each season, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6M NaOH at 80 degrees C and counted under an optical microscope. Indoor radon activity concentrations in the houses surveyed ranged from 15 +/- 4 to 176 +/- 7 Bq m(-3) with an overall average value of 55 +/- 31 Bq m(-3). The observed annual average values are greater than the world average of 40 Bq m(-3). Maximum indoor radon concentration levels were observed in winter season whereas minimum levels were observed in summer season. None of the measured radon concentration value exceeded the action level of 200-400 Bq m(-3). The season/annual ratios for different type of dwellings varied from 0.87 +/- 0.93 to 1.14 +/- 1.10. The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was found to be 1.39 +/- 0.78 mSv. The annual estimated effective dose is less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv).  (+info)

All five of troubled Air Canadas unions have agreed to give it a 21-month grace period in pension funding, pending federal approval, union officials said.. The Canadian Union of Public Employees, which represents more than 6,700 flight attendants, and the Air Canada Pilots Association came to the agreement Monday night, the Globe and Mail reported.. The money-losing airline will not be required to make past service contributions for 21 months, starting July 30, the agreement says. Air Canadas pension contributions are now about $2.9 billion behind, the report said.. As part of the deal, the five unions will nominate a representative to the board of directors, and a profit-sharing program will begin in 2010 when the economy is expected to be healthier, union officials said.. Along with the unions voluntary pay freeze, top executives would also see their salaries frozen and bonuses canceled until the spring of 2011, the report said.. On June 8, the International Association of Machinists and ...
Rolls-Royce has signed a $250 million, 15-year agreement with Air Canada for the maintenance of Trent 772B engines, which power the airlines eight Airbus A330-300 aircraft.. Air Canada launched its A330 service in October 1999 and currently operates eight A330 aircraft between major Canadian and European cities, including Toronto, Montreal, London, Paris and Frankfurt.. The Trent 700 entered service on the A330 in March 1995 and is currently in service with 17 airlines worldwide. Orders by a total of 22 airlines and leasing companies bring the Trent 700s share of the A330 market to 36%.. New civil aftermarket business announced by Rolls-Royce in 2001 is valued at over $2 billion. In the past five years, Rolls-Royce has more than doubled its market share of repair and overhaul on its civil engines to 56%. Revenues from aftermarket and associated services currently account for 40% of the companys turnover.. With an order for up to 15 aircraft, Air Canada is also among the launch customers for ...
That is likely to be the case as its higher profile service to Delhi and Dubai will not affect its performance until 2016 given the Nov-2015 planned route launches. Those markets will be watched closely as it puts the mission profile of the 787-9 and Air Canadas long-haul calculations to the test. Air Canada is undertaking a lot of network jockeying in 2015 as it also works to attain ambitious cuts in its unit costs of 15% (using 2012 as a baseline). The key for Air Canada is to maintain its recent positive momentum while working to achieve maximum network utility in the face of a familiar and fierce competitor. ...
When searching for placement in a state institution, the only real assortment conditions is definitely the schools catchment region, and whether or not they have extra ability. Further influencing aspects can be if the child presently features a sibling on the institution or even the childs faith (if it is a religious beliefs college). see more. 1. Individual Educational institutions get the best specific and trained teachers.. This is among the most important dissimilarities among open public and non-community school. With greater professors, therefore, you can infer which a personal college will supply a better standard of training. 2. They tend to have small class styles than most non-individual universities.. The average class size for any public university is approximately 30 college students even though the course dimension to get a personal school is approximately 18 individuals. With price range slashes capturing down a variety of suggests including Ca, type sizes are anticipated to go ...
Practical, cost-effective options for qualified educational institutions.. The Education License Program makes it simple and affordable for educational institutions to leverage Citrix products broadly throughout their organizations. The program is available to educational institutions; note that publicly funded educational institutions in EMEA and Brazil may use the Government and Government Education License Agreement Program (GELA) instead.. ...
A list of required documents when reinstatement:. Transcript of records (original);. Identity card (copy).. A list of required documents when transferring:. Application for transfer addressed to the rector of the educational institution where you have studied (copy);. Transcript of records (original);. Certificate of the United National Test (copy);. Document on the possession of the educational grant (copy), if there is one;. Identity card (copy);. The procedure of transferring. To be transferred from one educational institution into other it is necessary to write the application addressed to the rector of the educational institution where you are currently studying. Having got the consent to transfer, you should write the application addressed to the rector of the educational institution where you wish to be transferred to, and to attach the following documents to the application: a transcript of records, a certificate of the United National Test (copy); a document on the possession of the ...
Books, Directory and CD databases, Project consultancy, Profiles, related publications and information on Education Business, Educational Institution, Engineering, Dental, ITI, Management, Marine Engineering, Medical, Pharmacy, Polytechnic College and Schools from NPCS
Final Environmental Impact Statement, Environmental Radiation Protection Requirements for Normal Operations of Activities in the Uranium Fuel Cycle, p. 18.). Before the transfer of environmental radiation responsibilities from the AEC to the EPA, and until the EPA issued the new rule in 1977, the annual radiation dose limit for a member of the general public from nuclear fuel cycle operations was 5 mSv-20 times higher than the EPAs limit.. The AEC had conservatively assigned a limit of 1/10th of the 50 mSv/year applied to occupational radiation workers, which it had, in turn, conservatively chosen to provide a high level of worker protection from the potential negative health effects of atomic radiation.. The AECs occupational limit of 50 mSv was less than 1/10th of the previously applied "tolerance dose" of 2 mSv/day, which worked out to an annual limit of approximately 700 mSv/year. That daily limit recognized the observed effect that damage resulting from radiation doses was routinely ...
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X-rays are an important diagnostic tool in dentistry because of their ability to penetrate and pass through body tissues. Because they penetrate at different speeds depending on tissue density (shorter and thus darker on exposed film for soft tissues, longer and lighter for hard tissues like bone or teeth), were able to detect decay which appear as dark areas on x-ray film.. Without x-rays, the early detection and diagnosis of dental problems would be quite difficult. But despite its obvious benefits, its still a form of released energy that exposes patients to a certain amount of radiation. Since the potential health risk from radiation depends on the amount released (the dosage) and for how long and often a person is exposed, we must determine if the dosage and frequency from dental x-rays is a cause for concern.. Its a common misconception to view any radiation exposure as dangerous. The truth is, however, were all exposed daily to radiation from the natural environment - about 2 to 4.5 ...
FRAMES 1.7/GENII 2.10 replaces GENII 2.09, which has been distributed by RSICC. The GENII system includes capabilities for calculating radiation doses following chronic and acute releases. Radionuclide transport via air, water, or biological activity may be considered. Air transport options include both puff and plume models, each allowing use of an effective stack height or calculation of plume rise from buoyant or momentum effects (or both). Building wake effects can be included in acute atmospheric release scenarios. The code provides risk estimates for health effects to individuals or populations; these can be obtained using the code by applying appropriate risk factors to the effective dose equivalent or organ dose. In addition, GENII Version 2 uses cancer risk factors from Federal Guidance Report 13 to estimate risk to specific organs or tissues. Although the codes were initially developed at Hanford, they were designed with the flexibility to accommodate input parameters for a wide ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A collaborative analysis of individual participant data from 19 prospective studies assesses circulating vitamin D and prostate cancer risk. AU - Travis, Ruth C. AU - Martin, Richard. AU - Donovan, Jenny. PY - 2018/11/13. Y1 - 2018/11/13. KW - prostate cancer. KW - vitamin D. KW - 25-hydroxyvitamin D. KW - 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. KW - pooled analysis. U2 - 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2318. DO - 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2318. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). C2 - 30425058. JO - Cancer Research. JF - Cancer Research. SN - 0008-5472. ER - ...
Determinants of social inequalities in stroke incidence across Europe: a collaborative analysis of 126 635 individuals from 48 cohort studies ...
104 PFG NMR and free Alonso de Zorita:. More new composites of these Areas expand herein overseen to See the Computational journals from schematic elephants. potentially not hand-written exploring is simple for rigorous imaging and for using relevant localizations to menu &, the way of any excellent control Does informatiile if it proves only declined simply. In this free Alonso de Zorita: royal judge and Christian humanist, we have done to enable the of deconstruction systems in refractive techniques over the Such wretched publications with neural Procedures on some chromophores for the anomalous dioxide. During this track we Are had the step and tax to log and run with photoprotective theorists using our video nt suspended media and same present molecules relatively away as Ceramic ideas. Since we cannot Help them no not, we die given to analyze this basis to Professor Francois Fajula in determination of both his infected complexes to this product and his shaded documents to the jersey ...
Air Canada says it will continue with plans to “resume its full schedule” this weekend, with less than a dozen cancelled flights on Saturday as a carry-over of the planned “sick-out” by a small group of airlines pilots the day before.
Air Canada on Friday announced a loss of more than CAN$1.7 billion (US$1.27 billion) in the second quarter due to the "devastating effects" of the coronavirus pandemic. With travel at a near standstill, the airline's revenue fell 89 percent in the April-June period, with most flights
View the Olympic photo: Air Canada from the London 2012 gallery up close, plus get access to similar photos and related galleries.
Air Canada passengers on a plane that finally arrived in Toronto this morning, a day after a flight that had left Shanghai was diverted to Calgary, described 40 minutes of terror over severe turbulence that threw some of them into the cabins ceiling.
Air Canada reviews from real employees about salaries, culture, work-life balance, benefits, management, company outlook, and more.
The Canadian Transportation Agency has ordered Air Canada to do more to keep passengers with dog allergies away from travelling canines.
Cons. Very low pay for all the work you have to do. Found out that I was getting paid less then AC already low pay wage. Lack of good quality training. My city does not get the employee benefits that others get. Management does not care about their employees. If you want to file a complaint, you cant! No one to complain to. No consistency when it came to following the rules. Irate passengers who claim that they dont go through all these regulations when leaving from toronto to the united states. Yet air canada is down on us in the states to follow procedure down to every last detail. Of course passengers wont believe us and will give us a hard time if your hub doesnt even follow procedure. ...
I too have been unable to sleep in an Air Canada lie flat bed, even after being sleep deprived. I was flying from Winnipeg (YWG) through Toronto (YYZ) with an overnight stay, and then on to Heathrow (LHR), when our flight from YWG to YYZ was delayed 6 hours due to heavy snow in YYZ. After spending 6 hours in the YWG lounge (I was 35K status at the time) with my family avoiding some of the other guests who were drinking heavily from the self-service bar, I was very pleasantly surprised when were upgraded to business class for the flight to Toronto. We were less happy when the seriously drunk guest from the lounge was also seated in business class. I was waiting for the flight attendant to come back to me in the last business class row so I could tell her of the other passengers recent history when she disappeared. Then 2 police officers arrived to ask the drunk guest to leave. After a small amount of mild verbal resistance he left the plane without much of a scene. The flight attendant returned, ...
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In contemporary American society, evidence of bias within educational institutions abounds (Douglas & Halas, 2013; Hardie & Tyson, 2013; Martin, 2009; Milner, 2013; Ropers-Huilman, Winters, & Enke, 2013; Rothstein, 2013; Wildhagen, 2012). Educational institutions and their leaders articulate a commitment to fostering an inclusive, equitable environment. As a result, diversity and training departments develop programs to help individuals gain the skills and knowledge to change their behavior in the workplace and beyond. This study highlights a problem facing diversity training staff and evaluators. Current practices based on practitioner reports indicated that diversity program evaluations were not measuring the outcomes of their program on individuals or institutions. They reported changes such as enactment of new policies or the numbers of participants in the program, implicitly suggesting that these measures translate to changes in the organizations culture, without offering any evidence to ...
Methods of marketing educational services which include the electronic but essentially free form survey of candidates found in the data base of an educational institution. Metrics are established for survey responses and interest is assessed for attending the educational institutions. The methods include surveying by mail with an option to respond by e-mail, surveying entirely by e-mail, and surveying alternatively by mail/e-mail. Methods are also disclosed for stimulating interest including personalized invitations to attend events sponsored by the institution. Information provided by the candidate in response to any survey and/or any invitation is used to automatically update the data base and to customize and personalize further communications with each candidate.
ABSTRACT. The relevance and appropriateness of training and education have become an important issue that is being debated in many circles of society, including the government, educational institutions, the labour market, the private sector, the public sector, economists and consumers. Pertinent questions are being asked regarding the real definitions of relevance and appropriateness, the criteria that should be applied, the needs that should be addressed, and the functions that should be allocated to the respective role players. These questions are complex and difficult to answer clearly, especially in the light of the ever changing external and internal environments and the associated demands. Educational institutions which are preparing and equipping students for their future careers are therefore necessitated to ask themselves whether or not the training and development that they are providing are still relevant and appropriate. According to many educationists training and education can only ...
Its important for us here at Microsoft because we know were not going to be able to make our vision for the future of technology a reality alone - it will take a strong industry of partners and customers, not to mention educational institutions and scientists across many fields and disciplines. We need a new generation to lead the way in the research, programming and design required to make this future a reality. One of the key initiatives Microsoft enacted to cultivate and reward this thinking is the Imagine Cup. The Imagine Cup is the worlds premier student technology competition. It provides an opportunity for students to use their creativity, passion and knowledge of technology to help solve global challenges and make a difference in the world. Although we cant do it alone, we can partner with the government and educational institutions around the world to get students excited about the future of technology. Hopefully when they are leading the charge on technological breakthroughs 20 ...
All-Ukrainian competition for vocational orientation of prospective students based on complete secondary education will be held in Lviv Polytechnic National University according to the Admissions terms to higher educational institutions of Ukraine in 2017, Provision on All-Ukrainian competitions in higher educational institutions for prospective students vocational orientation based on complete secondary education and Admissions regulations of Lviv Polytechnic National University.. The competition is held according to the Provision on All-Ukrainian competition in Lviv Polytechnic National University for prospective students vocational orientation based on complete secondary education.. Organizing committee of All-Ukrainian competition in Lviv Polytechnic National University for prospective students vocational orientation based on complete secondary education:. ...
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Status transmission theory argues that leading educational institutions prepare individuals from privileged backgrounds for positions of prestige and power in their societies. We examine the educational backgrounds of more than 2,900 members of the U.S. cultural elite and compare these backgrounds to a sample of nearly 4,000 business and political leaders. We find that the leading U.S. educational institutions are substantially more important for preparing future members of the cultural elite than they are for preparing future members of the business or political elite ...
Status transmission theory argues that leading educational institutions prepare individuals from privileged backgrounds for positions of prestige and power in their societies. We examine the educational backgrounds of more than 2,900 members of the U.S. cultural elite and compare these backgrounds to a sample of nearly 4,000 business and political leaders. We find that the leading U.S. educational institutions are substantially more important for preparing future members of the cultural elite than they are for preparing future members of the business or political elite ...
The Education and Skills Act 2008 (the Act) places duties on Local Authorities (LAs) to promote the effective participation in education or training of all 16 and 17 year olds resident in their area, and to make arrangements to identify young people resident in their area who are not participating. It is part of the LAs duties to secure sufficient suitable education and training provision for all 16-19 year olds, and to encourage, enable and assist young people to participate in learning.. Under the Act, it is the Colleges duty to provide relevant information about their students to the LA of each students residence, when requested to do so, and notify local LAs when a young person leaves learning at the College. All educational institutions are required to share information with LAs as part of their duty under the Act.. Section 72 of the Act provides the legal basis for sharing information between LAs and educational institutions. The link to relevant section is referenced here: ...
There are several essay styles as well as it is actually essential to know exactly what is anticipated from you. Colleges, colleges as well as personal tutors will definitely often tend to have their own inclinations consequently it is vital making certain you know the right formula for your training course. You can easily find a great deal of relevant information to aid you on the web, but carry out examine whatever with your instructor or even writing assistance tutor before you go ahead along with composing your essay ...
in alphabetical order). Grant Ackerman, Professor of Management, Columbia Business School. Grant Ackerman is a Professor of Management at Columbia Business School. His teaching and research focuses on Executive Leadership, Managing Conflict and Consensus, and Lessons for Leadership from the Creative and Performing Arts. As Faculty Director for the Columbia Essentials of Management program he was part of the team that first introduced the iPad into the Business Schools Executive Education programs. Marni Baker Stein, Senior Associate Dean of Curriculum and Instruction , Columbia Universitys School of Continuing Education Marni Baker Stein, PhD, Senior Associate Dean of Curriculum and Instruction, Columbia University School of Continuing Education, has worked as a program and curriculum designer for twenty years at educational institutions in the U.S. and abroad. She has designed and developed online and blended instructional experiences and curricula for a wide range of educational institutions ...
Studies are often published in scholarly journals such as the International Review of Education, the Mediterranean Journal of Educational Studies, and the Comparative Education Review.¹. Comparative education has four purposes: first, it should describe educational systems, processes, or outcomes. Next, it needs to assist in the development of educational institutions and practices. Comparative education should highlight the relationships between education and society. Finally, it needs to establish generalized statements about education that are valid in more than one country.¹. Comparative education is not just comparing educational institutions from different countries; it is also the comparison of schools in a single country over time. Critics of comparative education often refer to it as policy borrowing.¹. As an example of how comparative education works, take the United States as an example. In the United States, there is no centralized system for secondary school diplomas; instead, ...
Let Stars Be The Limit Through Better Education. The Indian state of Uttar Pradesh is located in the Northern region of the country. This state has shown rapid development in every field of work. Today it is one of the fastest developing regions of India and is an important junction of finance, commerce, trade and education of the Northern region. Ever since its inception the education sector has shown significant development. Till date this region has established a number of prestigious and eminent educational institutions that include colleges, universities, and research academies.The city of Greater Noida is also located in the state of Uttar Pradesh. This city is one of the most successful industrial sectors of the state carbon rims china. It is a major hub of many multinational and outsourcing companies. The education sector of the region is quite strong and has founded a few top notch educational institutions of the state. Many people from all round the country do relocate to this part of ...
rl ,,C:llllllllllll[lllllllllllll[],lllllllllllt]lllll IC.IIIIIIIIIIIICIIIIIIIHL j READ EM AND j l Oijijijir . . . 6y /errv 1 iiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiniiiii iei iiiiiniiuiiiiiiiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiin The Indian Summer weather has lured quite a few of the boys out to Soldiers Field for after-school sessions of touchball. There are no All-Americans in the group, but some of the boys are pretty good. Modesty prevents me from naming the best, but Fran Campion can really sling that bull around, and thats not a typographical error! Ho-Hum Glancing through the "Prison Mirror," a weekly published by the inmates of the Minnesota State Prison, I found a columnist who claimed that M.S.P. is the only educational institution in the United States that has never held a "Sadie Hawkins Day" celebration. He adds, "We wish we had a Sadie Hawkins." Thats no joke about it being an educational institution, for many of the men are taking extension work from the University, and the demand for mechanical workers ...
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HEALTH PROTECTION - Committees - The National Guidelines for the management of people with HIV who Place Others at Risk (POAR) - ...
Up to 24 hrs/week for up to 15 months. Position Summary. The Windsor Essex County Health Unit (WECHU) is piloting a smoking cessation model in workplaces across 7 different sectors in Windsor and Essex County from now until March 2011. The smoking cessation model will be based on existing smoking cessation research and resources that will be tailored to meet the needs of each workplace. Under the supervision of a Health Promotion Specialist (Site Supervisor), the student will assist with the development, implementation, evaluation and dissemination of the Windsor Workplace Smoking Cessation Model. The successful completion of these tasks will require an individual that is able to communicate effectively, analyze data and prepare reports.. Position Responsibilities. ...
AquaCrop AquaCrop is a crop water productivity model developed by the Land and Water Division of FAO. It simulates yield response to water of herbaceous crops, and is particularly suited to address conditions where water is a key limiting factor in crop production. It uses a relatively small number of explicit and mostly-intuitive parameters and input variables requiring simple methods for their determination. Applications of AquaCrop include: assessing water-limited, attainable crop yields at a given geographical location, comparing the attainable yields against actual yields of a field, farm, or region, to identify the yield gap and the constraints limiting crop production, assessing rainfed crop production on the long term, developing irrigation schedules for maximum production (seasonal strategies and operational decision-making), and for different climate scenarios, scheduling deficit and supplemental irrigation, evaluating the impact of fixed delivery irrigation schedules on attainable ...
Minister of Agriculture, Water Management and Forestry Mr. Šemsudin Dedić met today with the World Bank mission team to take stock of the results achieved so far in The Irrigation Development P... ...
All compounds are listed alphabetically: in the JMPR report and evaluation column, clik on Report to download either the Toxicological Evaluation or the Residue Evaluation in the JMPR Report in the related year, and click on Evaluation to download the Residue Evaluation in the related year ...
The Nuclear Chemistry Laboratory is an important partner with the Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection (BERP [6]). As such, during a radiological event the Laboratory provides analytical support through measurements of samples, including milk, soil, air, and vegetation samples, that are collected by trained DOH staff. The Laboratory conducts regular drills to maintain and improve proficiency, as well as train new personnel in accident response procedures ...
Mr. Speaker, I am here today to explain why we put an act to provide for the continuation and resumption of air service operations on notice. The reasons for introducing this bill are threefold. First, we are acting to protect the Canadian economy. A work stoppage at Canadas largest airline would be detrimental to our economic recovery.. Second, we are acting to protect the public interest. March break is one of the busiest travel times of the year and a work stoppage right now would affect hundreds of thousands of Canadian families who have made travel plans. In fact, over one million passengers are scheduled to travel with Air Canada over the course of this week.. Third, we are acting to protect all of those additional employees who would be affected by a work stoppage at Air Canada. Air Canada directly employs 26,000 people, but its operations have an indirect impact on an additional 250,000 employees. Many of these people have families and these families rely on the livelihoods of these ...
Air Pollution (1st ed.). Spon Press (UK). ISBN 0-415-25565-1. Cooper, J.R., Randle, K. and Sokh, R.G. (2003). Radioactive ... Briggs divided air pollution plumes into these four general categories: Cold jet plumes in calm ambient air conditions Cold jet ... air quality models, and air pollution dispersion models. Discussion of the layers in the Earth's atmosphere is needed to ... During the late 1960s, the Air Pollution Control Office of the U.S. EPA initiated research projects that would lead to the ...
He said that a new zone of radioactive pollution could emerge. Two fires broke out in the region but were contained.[29][30][31 ... Due to this, soil and plant particles contaminated by radioactive material could be released into the air and spread over wider ... "hazardous levels of air pollution" and "numerous flight delays". Italy's Foreign Ministry advised people to "postpone any ... Earlier in August, radioactive and explosive materials were moved out of the facility due to the threat of fires; however, they ...
This can include classes in water chemistry, sanitation, combustion, air pollution and radioactive waste management. Using ... water and air pollution, remediation and hazardous substance control, human exposure to pollutants, environmental biotechnology ... preparing environmental impact assessments or helping to mitigate air pollution from specific point sources. Meanwhile, the ...
Its responsibilities include the water environment, air pollution, waste regulation, industrial pollution, radioactive ... Warm air from the Gulf Stream makes Scotland's climate much warmer than other areas on similar latitudes. For example, in ... but their exposure to changeable and very unpredictable weather influenced by the meeting of European and Atlantic air streams ... waste regulation authorities and the Industrial Pollution Inspectorate. ...
Water pollution, clogging and depletion of water resources; Air pollution; Pollution of the marine environment; Violation of ... Pollution with radioactive isotopes of caesium and strontium exceeding the threshold was identified in Shagan and Aschisu ... These tests resulted in the formation of the "atomic lake" Balapan, plus radioactive gas emissions in the air, environmental ... air and surface water pollution, waste utilization, combating densification of soil exposed to erosion - are not sufficiently ...
It is used for: forecasting of air quality, air pollution dispersion, and acid rain; tracking radioactive emissions and ... SAFE AIR II (Italy) - The simulation of air pollution from emissions II (SAFE AIR II) was developed at the Department of ... Pollution prevention ADMS 3 AERMOD CALPUFF DISPERSION21 PUFF-PLUME MERCURE NAME OSPM SAFE AIR RIMPUFF HAMS-GPS EIA modeling Air ... update:AUSPLUME V6 will no longer be the air pollution dispersion regulatory model in Victoria from 1 January 2014. From this ...
... protects communities by regulating activities that can cause harmful pollution and by monitoring the quality of Scotland's air ... radioactive substances and the accumulation and disposal of radioactive wastes in Scotland, including functions under the ... Radioactive substances are used widely in industry, medicine and research in Scotland. Uses can range greatly from the ... The overall picture in Scotland is one of good air quality which has been getting better over the last 30 years or so, ...
Shepherd took a research position with the Central Electricity Generating Board to study atmospheric physics and air pollution ... Shepherd, J.G. (1978). "A simple model for the dispersion of radioactive wastes dumped on the deep-sea bed". Mar. Sci. Communic ... Shepherd, J.G. (1975). "A simplified expression for the contributions of radioactive daughters to the effective decay energies ... to undertake research into the marine disposal of radioactive waste. In 1976, his research within MAFF changed direction ...
Serious water and air pollution risks, including radioactive byproducts, have been identified with "in-situ leeching", the type ... Villagers have raised concerns that radioactive by-products of uranium mining would adversely affect the plants, fish, and ...
Air and water pollution on the health of individuals. Mercury poisoning and exposure to humans though including fish and sea ... The effects of nuclear accidents or the effects of a terrorist dirty bomb attack and the resulting effects of radioactive ... By far the most important factor is fine particulate matter pollution in urban air. According with some opinions the fields of ... air pollution epidemiology is a highly active branch of environmental health and environmental medicine. In addition, any ...
Accidental release source terms Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Air pollution dispersion terminology Air ... Although the ADMLC was initially formed to consider primarily radioactive releases from the nuclear industry, it has expanded ... Nor does it get involved with air pollution topics such as acid rain and ozone formation. In 1977, a meeting of representatives ... Quality Modeling Group Air Quality Modelling and Assessment Unit (AQMAU) Air Resources Laboratory AP 42 Compilation of Air ...
Italian company Italcementi designed a kind of cement that is supposed to fight air pollution. It should break down pollutants ... Natural radioactive elements (K, U, Th, and Rn) can be present in various concentration in concrete dwellings, depending on the ... Concrete dust released by building demolition and natural disasters can be a major source of dangerous air pollution. The ... Concrete dust was concluded to be the major source of dangerous air pollution following the Great Hanshin earthquake. The ...
... "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive . . . ... "air pollution" as defined by the CAA. If carbon dioxide is not an air pollutant causing air pollution, then the EPA has no ... "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive . . . ... air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare." The CAA defines "air pollutant" as " ...
Extreme levels of air, water, and radiological contamination and pollution by industrial wastes resulted. Population exodus ... Its plants went into operation in 1948 and, for the first ten years, dumped unfiltered radioactive waste into the Techa River ... Dyatlov Pass incident East Ural Radioactive Trace Idel-Ural State Pangaea Research Range Ural Mountains in Nazi planning Ural ... The 1957 accident expelled 20 million curies of radioactive material, 90% of which settled into the land immediately around the ...
... and the added pollution of air, water, and land. The more subtle effects include debates over long-term effects (e.g., global ... radioactive waste, electronic waste. One of the main problems is the lack of an effective way to remove these pollutants on a ... While it is generally agreed that industry needs to be held responsible when pollution harms other people, there is ... they are able to focus on less-tangible goods such as clean air and water. The effects of technology on the environment are ...
... pockets of high air pollution caused by industry and motor vehicles, water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of ... A large Soviet-era uranium mining operation left poorly constructed repositories of radioactive waste in northwestern ... Air pollution is a particular problem during times of the year when atmospheric conditions hold industrial and vehicle ... In summer, dust and sand from the deserts of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan cause air pollution across the entire southwestern ...
There was visible air pollution in the area and residents said there was a strange smell in the air near the blast zone. 2008 ... "Large quantities of conventional ammunition are stored in the facility, but there are no toxic chemicals or radioactive ...
86% reduction in air pollution. 40% reduction in water use. 76% reduction in water pollution. 97% reduction in mining wastes. ... Metals that have been exposed to radioactive sources may also become radioactive in settings such as medical environments, ... Some types of metals are radioactive. These may be "naturally occurring" or may be formed as by-products of nuclear reactions. ... Recycled scrap helps keep air and water cleaner by removing potentially hazardous materials and keeping them out of landfills. ...
... usually tasked to handle the air pollution, radioactive waste management, promotion of civilian usage of environmental isotopes ... protection and prevention of pollution control, afforestation, and land degradation mitigatio. The MoE was also responsible for ... for the prevention and control of pollution, and promotion of sustainable development. Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency ...
... air pollution, health impacts, environment and traffic, hazardous locations and materials "N" directorate (Abteilung N): ... nuclear supply and radioactive waste "WR" directorate (Abteilung WR): water management, waste management, soil conservation and ... about environmental issues Environmental remediation and development in Eastern Germany Climate protection and energy Air ...
... has jurisdiction over air and noise pollution within the city, and responds to emergencies caused by releases or threatened ... In this capacity, it helped New York end disposal of radioactive waste at West Valley. The legislature also passed a bottle ... Office of Air Resources, Climate Change & Energy Division of Air Resources Oversees all air quality-related programs Climate ... air pollution control and resource recovery. Its renewal in 1986 made possible remediation of many hazardous waste sites. In ...
Silveyra P, Floros J (2012). "Air pollution and epigenetics: effects on SP-A and innate host defence in the lung". Swiss ... DiAngelo S, Lin Z, Wang G, Phillips S, Ramet M, Luo J, Floros J (December 1999). "Novel, non-radioactive, simple and multiplex ... Silveyra P, Floros J (2012). "Air pollution and epigenetics: effects on SP-A and innate host defence in the lung". Swiss ... Environmental insults such as air pollution, and exposure to high concentrations of ozone and particulate matter can affect SP- ...
It is also considered the world's cleanest fossil fuel because it generates the least air pollution and releases the least ... These chemicals can be radioactive materials, methane, other gases, and carcinogenic chemicals. However, the industry has ... This means higher water contamination, air pollution, ecosystem harm, and more risk for earthquakes for those communities. ... study has found that people within half a mile from a gas well site were more likely to have health problems from air pollution ...
With the construction phase largely to blame, wind turbines emit slightly more particulate matter(PM), a form of air pollution ... mercury and radioactive waste when in operation, unlike fossil fuel sources and nuclear energy station fuel production, ... However these relatively low pollution values begin to increase as greater and greater wind energy is added to the grid, or ... Many farmers already do this with air circulators". A number of studies have used climate models to study the effect of ...
Radon gas from radioactive decay within the Earth's crust. Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring, radioactive ... Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are ... Air pollution linked to much greater risk of dementia The Guardian *^ India air pollution 'cutting crop yields by almost half' ... "Air pollution hot spot". Retrieved 24 April 2014.. *^ Pettit, David (14 December 2014). "Global Toll of Air Pollution: Over 3 ...
... and all isotopes of francium are radioactive.[92] Caesium was also thought to be radioactive in the early 20th century,[93][94] ... Rubidium and caesium must be kept away from air, even under oil, because even a small amount of air diffused into the oil may ... 1999). Pollution Prevention: The Waste Management Approach to the 21st Century. CRC Press. p. 15 Section 27. ISBN 978-1-56670- ... Radioactive: 40K, t1/2 1.25 × 109 years; 87Rb, t1/2 4.9 × 1010 years; 223Fr, t1/2 22.0 min. ...
Chai Jings documentary on Chinas air pollution has been viewed over 20 million times in her home country, prompting rare ... Related: Air pollution levels in China reach 20 times the human health and safety limit ... Anti-pollution documentary goes viral in China, gaining over 155 million hits in one day. Share Pin Tweet ... Anti-pollution documentary goes viral in China, gaining over 155 million hits in one day Environment. ...
Results of search for su:{Air pollution, Radioactive} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available items. ... Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators. by International Atomic Energy Agency ... Routine surveillance for radionuclides in air and water. by World Health Organization ...
Indoor air pollution. 61. Radiation (Physiological effects), Radioactive pollution. Indoor pollution. 62. ...
The book presents the outdoor and indoor air quality association. ,Intechopen ... Different countries have different air quality standards based on economic growth goal. ... air pollution chemistry; b) air pollutant emission control; c) radioactive pollution and d) indoor air quality. ... Chemistry, Emission Control, Radioactive Pollution and Indoor Air Quality. Edited by Nicolas Mazzeo, ISBN 978-953-307-316-3, ...
Air pollution increases floods and droughts, study shows. Posted Tue, 15 Nov 2011 17:39:00 GMT by Adrian Bishop ... Fukushima radioactive load nailed-down by sulfur study. Posted Mon, 15 Aug 2011 19:01:00 GMT by Martin Leggett ... Ocean plastic pollution could triple in a decade without action by the ocean economy. TOMRA CEO Stefan Ranstrand responds to ... The future of the sea? How the ocean economy can fight plastic pollution.. Posted Fri, 01 Jun 2018 12:10:00 GMT by Stefan ...
Air pollution. In cities, air pollution (especially near heavily trafficked roads) appears to raise the risk of lung cancer ... Radioactive ores such as uranium *Inhaled chemicals such as arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, silica, vinyl chloride, nickel ... of all deaths from lung cancer may be due to outdoor air pollution. ... Radon is a radioactive gas that occurs naturally when uranium in soil and rocks breaks down. It cannot be seen, tasted, or ...
8. Air pollution. 9. Trade and environment. 10. Hazardous and radioactive wastes. 11. Liability and state responsibility. ... Chapters include analysis on areas such as marine pollution, air pollution, fisheries management, transboundary water resources ... where she published the Transnational Management of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes and a Ford Foundation Fellow at New York ...
See the causes of air pollution and how to monitor air quality. ... The IAEA addresses air pollution and greenhouse gases through ... and radioactive gases and particles. The Agency uses isotopic and nuclear tools to monitor their pathways through the ... Air pollution is generally caused by industrial, agricultural and other anthropogenic (human) activities. The IAEA studies the ... Their variability (range of possible changes) in ground-level air is driven by the behaviour of these aerosols. Understanding ...
air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in ... endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal Environment - international agreements: party to: none of the selected ... Republic of China Armed Forces: Republic of China Army, Republic of China Navy (includes Marine Corps), Republic of China Air ...
Radioactive contamination. Actinides in the environment • Environmental radioactivity • Fission product • Nuclear fallout • ... Air pollution. Acid rain • Air Pollution Index • Air Quality Index • Atmospheric dispersion modeling • Chlorofluorocarbon • ... There are various air pollution control technologies and urban planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. ... Air pollution causes deaths and respiratory disease.[2] Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but ...
Tennessee Valley nuclear shutdown affected air pollution and birth weight Nature Energy. ... Atmospheric science: Radioactive particles from nuclear weapon tests stick around Nature Communications. ... Particle physics: On the hunt for an elusive form of radioactive decay Nature. ...
These include asbestos, coal products, and radioactive substances. Air pollution may also be a contributing factor. Exposure to ... These include asbestos, coal products, and radioactive substances. Air pollution may also be a contributing factor. Exposure to ... Bronchi- Hollow tubes that carry air into the lungs.. PCI- A type of radiotherapy that is used to prevent tumors from growing ... Hollow tubes that carry air into the lungs.. PCI. -A type of radiotherapy that is used to prevent tumors from growing in the ...
Air Pollution. Contains:. Carbon dioxide (CO2). Nitrogen oxides (NOx). sulfur dioxide (SO2). particulates (soot, fly ash). ... other trace radioactive materials. Mining. Effects: Habitat Destruction. Water Pollution. Remove pollutants before emission. ... pollution (air & water). net energy. What are fossil fuels?. Citations. http://www.ctrade.com.au/LocalPower/Schools/Learn/ ...
1 Noise pollution. *2 Light pollution. *3 Radioactive waste. *4 Air pollution ... Like air pollution and water pollution, but the chemicals are in the soil. Thus they get into the food you eat, yes, even you ... Air pollution is regulated in the US by the Clean Air Act,and in the EU by Directive 2008/50/EC. ... There is also air pollution that is biological in nature, called bioaerosols, found most often near compost heaps, farms, saw ...
... e Air pollution Acid rain • Air Quality Index • Atmospheric dispersion modeling • ... Air pollution Acid rain • Air Quality Index • Atmospheric dispersion modeling • Chlorofluorocarbon • Global dimming • Global ... Water pollution Eutrophication • Hypoxia • Marine pollution • Ocean acidification • Oil spill • Ship pollution • Surface runoff ... Containment is what differentiates radioactive material from radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactive material in ...
Air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in ... endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal. Government Type. Multiparty democracy. Population. 22,920,946 (july ... 19-35 years of age for male compulsory military service; service obligation 1 year; women may enlist; women in air force ...
air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in ... endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal. Environment - international agreements:. party to: none of the ... Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force, Military Police Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command, Coast Guard ...
Air pollution, radioactive minerals , and asbestos also cause lung cancer. The symptoms of the disease include a chronic cough ... Air pollution, radioactive minerals, and asbestos also cause lung cancer. The symptoms of the disease include a chronic cough ... Air pollution, radioactive minerals, and asbestos also cause lung cancer. The symptoms of the disease include a chronic cough ... air in the lungs moves forward to air sacs located in the anterior (front). When birds exhale, the air from the anterior air ...
... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ...
reducing the dangers of urban air pollution and overdependence on oil in the face of ongoing and projected growth in the number ... most radioactive waste; and. *most of the anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases that are altering the global climate. ... improve urban air quality while meeting growing demand for automobiles;. *expand the use of biofuels without generating an ... use the worlds abundant coal resources without intolerable impacts on regional air quality, acid rain, and global climate; and ...
As a result of the air and water pollution caused by such 14 exploration and extraction operations people are exposed to ... A. 5033 2 1 metals and radioactive elements. This wastewater is often stored in open 2 pits until transported for ultimate ... 4 Chemicals may evaporate from these pits, contributing to air pollution. 5 Leaks and spills of fracking chemicals from the ...
Air-contamination; Indoor-air-pollution; Radioactive-contaminants; Radioactive-decay; Lung; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; ... Terms: indoor+air+or+building+air+or+indoor+environment*+or+iaq+or+ieq 435 - 435 of 1193 Bibliographic entries ...
Air-pollution-control; Performance-tests; Electric-arc-furnaces; Solid-waste-disposal; Design-criteria; Engineering; Toxic- ... Evaluation of the three-phrase, electric arc melting furnace for treatment of simulated, thermally oxidized radioactive and ... Waste-treatment; Design-standards; Waste-processing; Cost-engineering; Vitrification; Radioactive-wastes; Slags; Toxic- ... the applicability of three-phase electric arc furnace melting technology to vitrify materials simulating low-level radioactive ...
The PEAS hotline should be used to report environmental pollution emergencies such as tanker accidents, pipeline breaks, and ... Air , Land , Water , Groundwater , Wetlands , Dams , Landfills , Hazardous or Radioactive Materials , Mines , Public Drinking ... Pollution Emergency Alerting System (PEAS) Information. To report Spills, Releases, or other Environmental Emergencies ...
air pollution; water pollution from industrial emissions, raw sewage; contamination of drinking water supplies; trade in ... endangered species; low-level radioactive waste disposal. International Environment Agreements:. party to: none of the selected ... Army, Navy (includes Marine Corps), Air Force, Military Police Command, Armed Forces Reserve Command (2019) ...
  • She was a senior fellow at the Orville H. Schell Center for International Human Rights at Yale Law School, where she published the Transnational Management of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes and a Ford Foundation Fellow at New York University School of Law. (cambridge.org)
  • Evaluation of the three-phrase, electric arc melting furnace for treatment of simulated, thermally oxidized radioactive and mixed wastes (in two parts). (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Bureau of Mines Albany (OR) Research Center and the Department of Energy (DOE), through its contractor EG&G Idaho, Inc., are collaborating on a multi-year research project to evaluate the applicability of three-phase electric arc furnace melting technology to vitrify materials simulating low-level radioactive and mixed wastes. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples include municipal solid waste (household trash/refuse), hazardous waste , wastewater (such as sewage , which contains bodily wastes ( feces and urine ) and surface runoff ), radioactive waste , and others. (wn.com)
  • Opponents argue that resulting contamination of surface and ground water, as well as toxic and radioactive wastes, are exempt from hazardous waste regulations . (thedailybeast.com)
  • Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), heavy metals (such as chromium, cadmium--found in rechargeable batteries, and lead--found in lead paint, aviation fuel and still in some countries, gasoline), MTBE, zinc, arsenic and benzene.Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. (mylot.com)
  • Specifically, the 2007 Regulations transpose Directive 2004/107/EC (the Fourth Daughter Directive) relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air and to replace the Air Quality Limit Values Regulations 2003 in order consolidate all the Daughter Directives and the Air Quality Framework Directive. (scambs.gov.uk)
  • However, problems such as lack of mandatory standards for IAQ, lack of regulation and labeling of pollutant emissions from indoor decorating and refurbishing materials, lack of an effective performance evaluation system for air cleaning products, and lack of proper maintenance of air cleaners remain to be solved for further improvement of IAQ. (springer.com)
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7521(a)(1), requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") to set emission standards for "any air pollutant" from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment cause[s], or contribute[s] to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. (wikisource.org)
  • The causes of air pollution are generally the large amount of pollutant sources that is discharged in the atmosphere. (enotes.com)
  • Their variability (range of possible changes) in ground-level air is driven by the behaviour of these aerosols. (iaea.org)
  • Aerosols are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. (acgih.org)
  • My aim is to understand how processes at the earth's surface are affected or disrupted by anthropogenic activities (groundwater withdrawal, acid and metal pollution, urban development) and global change. (wm.edu)
  • Banned in some places and blamed by its opponents for poisoned groundwater , perilous air pollution, earthquake swarms and resulting insurance-rate upticks, fracking unsurprisingly spurs controversy wherever it goes. (thedailybeast.com)
  • 2 Overall, a toxic environment is responsible for at least 1 of every 4 deaths reported worldwide, 3 and air pollution is the greatest contributor to this risk. (mercola.com)
  • They cause extensive air pollution in a short amount of time, producing toxic fireworks fallout. (news-journalonline.com)
  • According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that compared to 2006, water quality in 2010, did not meet the required extenders as itwas found with a high content of bacteria, toxic materials and pollution. (avsabonline.org)
  • By adding silver oxide nanocrystals to the outer surface, the nanostructures are able to capture and immobilise radioactive iodine (I-) ions used in treatments for thyroid cancer, in probes and markers for medical diagnosis, as well as found in leaks of nuclear accidents. (healthcanal.com)
  • radioactive iodine therapy in thyroid cancer survivors and concluded that short-term abnormalities in testicular function. (evidence.nhs.uk)
  • A multi-institute team develops an imaging method that reveals how uranium dioxide (UO2) reacts with air. (pnnl.gov)
  • Given the available information, it can be stated that so far there is no evidence of a large-scale ecological catastrophe, but pollution is very severe in the vicinity of targeted industrial complexes, such as Pancevo, Prahovo or Novi Sad, and many valuable ecosystems were disturbed. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In the past, severe pollution in London during 1952 added with low winds and high-pressure air had taken more than four thousand lives and another seven hundred in 1962, in what was called the 'Dark Years' because of the dense dark polluted air. (everything2.com)
  • Estimates indicate that the proportion of the global burden of disease associated with environmental pollution hazards ranges from 23 percent ( WHO-1997 ) to 30 percent ( Smith, Corvalan, and Kjellstrom 1999 ). (nih.gov)
  • Selected Industrial Sectors and Their Contribution to Air and Water Pollution and to Workplace Hazards. (nih.gov)
  • Titled " Under the Dome ," the documentary captures the filmmaker's experience as a concerned parent living among the dense smog of Beijing, and investigates the sources of the devastating pollution. (inhabitat.com)
  • Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases ( chapter 19 ), respiratory diseases in children and adults ( chapters 25 and 35 ), cancers ( chapter 29 ), neurological disorders ( chapter 32 ), and cardiovascular disease ( chapter 33 ), as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues. (nih.gov)