The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The contamination of indoor air.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The status of health in urban populations.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The motion of air currents.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Living facilities for humans.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The climate of a very small area.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage. (1/20)

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

Cancer risk around the nuclear power plants of Trillo and Zorita (Spain). (2/20)

AIM: To investigate the association between cancer risk and proximity of place of residence to the Guadalajara nuclear power plants: Trillo and Zorita. METHODS: Case-control study. Cases were patients admitted with cancer and controls were non-tumorous patients, both admitted to Guadalajara Hospital (period 1988-99). Exposure factor: place of residence (areas within 10, 20, and 30 km of each plant). Odds ratios (ORs) of those areas closest to the plants were calculated with respect to those furthest away; a linear trend analysis was also performed. RESULTS: In the extreme areas in the vicinity of Trillo, an OR of 1.71 was obtained (95% CI 1.15 to 2.53), increasing in magnitude in the subgroup of more radioinducible tumours and in the period considered as post-latency (1997-99). Risk increased linearly with proximity to the two plants, significantly in Trillo (p < 0.01) but not in Zorita (p = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between proximity of residence to Trillo and cancer risk, although the limitations of the study should be kept in mind when interpreting the possible causal relation.  (+info)


The current status of radiation protection in Canada is discussed in the last of a three-part series. Particular emphasis has been placed on the role of the Radiation Protection Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare. A radioactive fallout study program has been established involving the systematic collection of air and precipitation samples from 24 locations, soil samples from 23 locations, fresh-milk samples from 16 locations, wheat samples from nine areas and human-bone specimens from various hospitals throughout Canada. A whole-body-counting facility and a special study of fallout in Northern areas have also been initiated. For any age group, the highest average strontium-90 concentration in human bone so far reported has been less than four picocuries per gram of calcium compared with the maximum permissible level of 67 derived from the International Committee on Radiation Protection (ICRP) recommendations. By the end of 1963 a general downward trend of levels of radioactivity detected in other parts of the program has been observed. Programs to assess the contribution to the radiation exposure of members of the population from medical x-rays, nuclear reactor operations and natural background-radiation sources have also been described. The annual genetically significant dose from diagnostic x-ray examinations in Canadian public hospitals has been estimated to be 25.8 mrem. Results from the reactor-environment monitoring programs have not suggested the presence of radioactivity beyond that contributed from fallout.  (+info)

Radon in homes and risk of lung cancer: collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 European case-control studies. (4/20)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with exposure at home to the radioactive disintegration products of naturally occurring radon gas. DESIGN: Collaborative analysis of individual data from 13 case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. SETTING: Nine European countries. SUBJECTS: 7148 cases of lung cancer and 14,208 controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks of lung cancer and radon gas concentrations in homes inhabited during the previous 5-34 years measured in becquerels (radon disintegrations per second) per cubic metre (Bq/m3) of household air. RESULTS: The mean measured radon concentration in homes of people in the control group was 97 Bq/m3, with 11% measuring > 200 and 4% measuring > 400 Bq/m3. For cases of lung cancer the mean concentration was 104 Bq/m3. The risk of lung cancer increased by 8.4% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 15.8%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in measured radon (P = 0.0007). This corresponds to an increase of 16% (5% to 31%) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in usual radon--that is, after correction for the dilution caused by random uncertainties in measuring radon concentrations. The dose-response relation seemed to be linear with no threshold and remained significant (P = 0.04) in analyses limited to individuals from homes with measured radon < 200 Bq/m3. The proportionate excess risk did not differ significantly with study, age, sex, or smoking. In the absence of other causes of death, the absolute risks of lung cancer by age 75 years at usual radon concentrations of 0, 100, and 400 Bq/m3 would be about 0.4%, 0.5%, and 0.7%, respectively, for lifelong non-smokers, and about 25 times greater (10%, 12%, and 16%) for cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, though not separately, these studies show appreciable hazards from residential radon, particularly for smokers and recent ex-smokers, and indicate that it is responsible for about 2% of all deaths from cancer in Europe.  (+info)

Archeo-cell biology: carbon dating is not just for pots and dinosaurs. (5/20)

Defining the life span of specific human cell populations is limited by our inability to mark the exact time when cells are born in a way that can be detected over many years. In this issue of Cell, Spalding et al. (2005) describe a clever strategy for retrospectively birth dating human cells in vivo, based on their incorporation of 14C during a peak in atmospheric levels of this isotope resulting from above-ground nuclear arms testing in the 1950s.  (+info)

Indoor radon and lung cancer. Estimating the risks. (6/20)

Radon is ubiquitous in indoor environments. Epidemiologic studies of underground miners with exposure to radon and experimental evidence have established that radon causes lung cancer. The finding that this naturally occurring carcinogen is present in the air of homes and other buildings has raised concern about the lung cancer risk to the general population from radon. I review current approaches for assessing the risk of indoor radon, emphasizing the extrapolation of the risks for miners to the general population. Although uncertainties are inherent in this risk assessment, the present evidence warrants identifying homes that have unacceptably high concentrations.  (+info)

Indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity affected by a change of ventilation strategy. (7/20)

The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8: 00-21 : 00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity.  (+info)

Indoor radon concentrations and assessment of doses in four districts of the Punjab Province - Pakistan. (8/20)

Seasonal indoor radon measurement studies have been carried out in four districts, namely, Jhelum, Chakwal, Rawalpindi and Attock of the Punjab Province. In this regard, CR-39 based detectors were installed in bedrooms, drawing rooms and kitchens of 40 randomly selected houses in each district. After exposing to radon in each season, CR-39 detectors were etched in 6M NaOH at 80 degrees C and counted under an optical microscope. Indoor radon activity concentrations in the houses surveyed ranged from 15 +/- 4 to 176 +/- 7 Bq m(-3) with an overall average value of 55 +/- 31 Bq m(-3). The observed annual average values are greater than the world average of 40 Bq m(-3). Maximum indoor radon concentration levels were observed in winter season whereas minimum levels were observed in summer season. None of the measured radon concentration value exceeded the action level of 200-400 Bq m(-3). The season/annual ratios for different type of dwellings varied from 0.87 +/- 0.93 to 1.14 +/- 1.10. The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was found to be 1.39 +/- 0.78 mSv. The annual estimated effective dose is less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv).  (+info)

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

Some common examples of respiration disorders include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Some common types of environmental illness include:

1. Asthma and other respiratory allergies: These conditions are caused by exposure to airborne pollutants such as dust, pollen, and smoke.
2. Chemical sensitivity: This condition is caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment, such as pesticides, solvents, and cleaning products.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition is caused by skin contact with allergens such as latex, metals, and certain plants.
4. Mold-related illnesses: Exposure to mold can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and headaches.
5. Radon exposure: Radon is a radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and buildings, particularly in basements and crawl spaces. Prolonged exposure to radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.
6. Carbon monoxide poisoning: This condition is caused by exposure to carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas that can build up in enclosed spaces with faulty heating or cooking appliances.
7. Lead poisoning: Exposure to lead, particularly in children, can cause a range of health problems, including developmental delays, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
8. Mercury poisoning: Exposure to mercury, particularly through fish consumption, can cause neurological symptoms such as tremors, memory loss, and cognitive impairment.
9. Pesticide exposure: Exposure to pesticides, particularly organophosphates, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and neurological symptoms.
10. Particulate matter exposure: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from air pollution can increase the risk of respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

These are just a few examples of environmental health hazards that may be present in your home or building. It's important to be aware of these potential risks and take steps to mitigate them to ensure the health and safety of occupants.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Clinical Significance:
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.

Types of Respiratory Sounds:

1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.

It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Otitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, and exposure to loud noises. Symptoms may include ear pain, fever, difficulty hearing, and discharge or fluid buildup in the ear canal.

There are several types of otitis, including:

1. Otitis externa: Inflammation of the outer ear canal, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
2. Otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Suppurative otitis media: A severe form of otitis media that is characterized by the formation of pus in the middle ear.
4. Tubotympanic otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid bone, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
5. Otitis media with effusion: A condition in which fluid accumulates in the middle ear without signs of infection.

Treatment for otitis depends on the type and severity of the inflammation or infection, but may include antibiotics, ear drops, or other medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain fluid or remove infected tissue.

Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches

The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.

Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD

Preventive measures for bronchitis include:

* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

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The relocation and the fallout from the 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash in the vicinity are a contentious issue in Greenland's ... Radioactive plutonium from the 1968 bomber crash contaminated the nearby ancient hunting grounds, affecting the livelihoods of ... There is evidence of hairless fur seals, and muskoxen with deformed hooves; the pollution remaining a contentious issue between ... In 1951 the United States was given permission to build Thule Air Base at the site of the settlement. Between 1952 and May 1953 ...
... emissions that lead to air pollution, surface and groundwater pollution, food chain contamination, land area depletion, human ... Mixed Waste: These are wastes that contain both radioactive and hazardous waste components making them complicated to regulate ... or an air pollution control facility and other discarded material, including solid, liquid, semi-solid, or contained gaseous ... or air pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant. This includes electric ...
... but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, the cancer may have ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ... sexually transmitted infections and air pollution. Further, poverty could be considered as an indirect risk factor in human ... ISBN 978-0-387-78193-8. The term environment refers not only to air, water, and soil but also to substances and conditions at ...
It is also considered the world's cleanest fossil fuel because it generates the least air pollution and releases the least ... These chemicals can be radioactive materials, methane, other gases, and carcinogenic chemicals. However, the industry has ... Frank, Arthur L (March 2009). "Environmental Justice and Air Pollution: The Right to a Safe and Healthy Environment". Medscape ... This means higher water contamination, air pollution, ecosystem harm, and more risk for earthquakes for those communities. ...
that the addition of stable cesium to the diet of pigs fails to increase the rate at which radioactive cesium is lost from the ... Busby initially proposed the Second Event Theory (SET) in 1995, in his self-published book Wings of Death: Nuclear Pollution ... Ambulance Air Filter Analysis Archived 24 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine Green Audit Research Note 7/2006. 3 November ... Busby claimed radioactive caesium-137 released from the nuclear disaster can cause heart muscle damage and heart attacks in ...
Lindblom, Mike (June 27, 2013). "Options for Ballard light-rail service to be aired". The Seattle Times. p. B2. Archived from ... Uber endorsed the measure as well, citing shared goals of congestion and pollution reduction. The News Tribune in Tacoma ... Lindblom, Mike (July 28, 2016). "Sound Transit picks 'radioactive' Tim Eyman to write statement against expanding light rail". ...
... explosions and air pollution (environmental) hazards. The quality of the hazard determines the safety precautions that are ... The witnesses claimed that 85% of the people suffered from radioactive contamination that created cancer and other radioactive ... On January 17, 1966, a U.S. Air Force B-52 bomber collided with a mid-tanker airplane that was being refueled at 31000 feet. ... The soil on the contaminated area had to be removed and placed in barrels, to reduce the amount of pollution having been caused ...
A radioactive element, still not in the human periodic table. It has a half-life of 14 seconds and is the main energy source of ... An LEP helmet contains a visor, a camera, two 400-watt lamps, and a pollution mask, as well as a microphone, and loudspeaker. ... which causes a slight shimmer in the air. A shielded fairy would cause any object they were sitting upon to shatter under the ... Once detonated, it employs the radioactive energy source Solinium 2 (an element not yet discovered by humans), destroying all ...
A weekly Air Force flight to Vietnam was able to take it to Alaska. Getting the generator onto the island itself proved more ... joint hearings before the Subcommittees on Environmental Pollution and Resource Protection of the Committee on Environment and ... Commercial Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal. Archived 2017-12-13 at the ...
The mayor of Dish, Texas complained that air pollution from a natural gas compressor station was sickening his family. However ... such as benzene and naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Environmental groups have pressured state regulators to ... Some environmental groups and north Texas residents have expressed concern about the effects of drilling on air and water ... Opponents allege that it is inadequately monitored and poses significant threats to water and air quality in surrounding areas ...
... congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke the growing usage and limited supply of water ... or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which ... and Kitakyūshū in Japan for incorporating an international education and training component into its municipal pollution ...
Opponents to the repeal say that there has been an increase in Australian pollution since the tax's repeal. Since the repeal ... Also nuclear waste requires extensive waste management because it can remain radioactive for centuries. Renewable energy ... A warm climate results in high use of air conditioning. Agriculture, such as methane from sheep and cow belches. High levels of ... This happens a day before the second rejection of the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme bill by the Senate on 2 December 2009. ...
... when a B-52G bomber of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air ... A total of 2.6 square kilometres (1.0 sq mi) was contaminated with radioactive material. This included residential areas, ... Pollution in Spain, Francoist Spain, 1966 in Spain, 1966 in the United States, 1966 in military history, Cold War military ... The commander of the U.S. Air Force at Torrejón Air Base, Spain, Major General Delmar E. Wilson, immediately traveled to the ...
Angela Jeanette Hughes, Chief Executive, Wales Air Ambulance. For services to Emergency Air Service in Wales. Henrietta Sophia ... For services to Radioactive Waste Management. John White, Director, Southwark Construction Skills Centre. For services to the ... Jacquelynn Forsyth Craw, Managing Director, Offshore Pollution Liability Association Limited. For services to Arts, to ... CBE Air Vice Marshal Alastair Norman Crawford Reid, QHP Air Vice Marshal Simon Peter Rochelle, OBE, DFC Civil Division Peter ...
... pollution and operational safety. Exhaust gas purification technology aims to lessen air pollution through sundry mechanical, ... that displaced 50,000 households after radioactive material leaked into the air, soil and sea, and with subsequent radiation ... "Sustainability" also refers to the ability of the environment to cope with waste products, especially air pollution. Sources ... Physics, for thermodynamics and nuclear physics Chemistry for fuel, combustion, air pollution, flue gas, battery technology and ...
Results of search for su:{Air pollution, Radioactive} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators. by International Atomic Energy Agency. ... Routine surveillance for radionuclides in air and water. by World Health Organization. ...
A Latino-led group monitored the air near Suncor for more than a year. They found elevated levels of pollution and radioactive ...
Categories: Air Pollution, Radioactive Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
MeSH Terms: Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis; Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis*; Geological Phenomena*; Housing/statistics & ... Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. Pennsylvania has high indoor radon concentrations; buildings ...
Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evid … ... Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated ... Air Pollution, Radioactive / adverse effects Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated ...
Tag: DISCHARGES AIR× Description: Radioactive discharges and pollution of the air. Title Author Date Magazine categories / ... Des rejets radioactifs dans lenvironnement. Marc Saint Aroman 13/07/05. 01-08-2005. STG. FRANCE GOLFECH, FRANCE DISCHARGES AIR ... Golfech; déchets radioactifs. Marc St Aroman. 01-08-2002. STG. HEALTH POPULATION GOLFECH, FRANCE DISCHARGES AIR RADIATION ... GREENHOUSE EFFECT IEA DISCHARGES AIR DISCHARGES WATER OECD POLITIEK LICENSES Le dossier noir du réacteur nucléaire EPR. Nucl. ...
Air pollution, radioactive minerals, and asbestos also cause lung cancer. The symptoms of the disease include a chronic cough ... Air pollution and cigarette smoking are the main causes of COPD. Nonsmokers who inhale the smoke of others-passive smokers-are ... Bacteria, smoking, and air pollution can also cause acute bronchitis. This type of bronchitis clears up in a short time. ... They form large air pockets from which the air does not escape. This cuts down the surface area for gas exchange. It becomes ...
Her current scholarship explores radioactive residues, mine waste, air pollution, and the Anthropocene in Africa. ... She is also looking at coal in the Arctic, diesel air pollution in urban West Africa, and uranium in South Africa. ...
It is a naturally occurring radioactive gas resulting from the decay of radium, itself a decay product of uranium. Radon in ... "Indoor Air Pollution and Infectious Diseases." In: Samet, J.M. and Spengler, J.D. eds., Indoor Air Pollution, A Health ... "Air Pollution In Your Home?". 1990. Publication No. 1001C.. *American Lung Association. "Home Indoor Air Quality Checklist". ... "Indoor Air Pollution In The Office". 1992. Publication No. 1002C.. *American Lung Association. "Office Indoor Air Quality ...
from China Uncensored: Beijing is being gassed with "crazy bad" air pollution. Did I say air pollution? I meant to say, "heavy ... China Uncensored (Beijings Most Dangerous Pastime-Breathing): Air pollution so bad the spy cameras cant see anything ... radioactive waste (1) * rainforest (3) * Rajendra Pachauri (3) * Ralph Hall (1) * Ray Weymann (5) ...
Air Pollution [N06.850.460.100] * Air Pollution, Indoor [N06.850.460.100.080] * Air Pollution, Radioactive [N06.850.460.100.110 ... Contamination of air with radioactive substances.. Terms. Air Pollution, Radioactive Preferred Term Term UI T001225. Date01/01/ ... Contamination of air with radioactive substances.. Entry Term(s). Radioactive Air Pollution NLM Classification #. WN 615. See ... Radioactive Air Pollution Term UI T000889884. Date11/02/2015. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2017). ...
Multicity study of air pollution and mortality in Latin America (the ESCALA study). Romieu I, Gouveia N, Cifuentes LA, de Leon ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Cumulative effects of air pollution and climate drivers on COVID-19 multiwaves in Bucharest, Romania. Zoran MA, Savastru RS, ... Exposure to indoor radon can be a concern in studies on the role of short-term exposure to air pollution and mortality. ...
Multicity study of air pollution and mortality in Latin America (the ESCALA study). Romieu I, Gouveia N, Cifuentes LA, de Leon ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Cumulative effects of air pollution and climate drivers on COVID-19 multiwaves in Bucharest, Romania. Zoran MA, Savastru RS, ... Exposure to indoor radon can be a concern in studies on the role of short-term exposure to air pollution and mortality. ...
SESE focuses on ecological renewal and pollution control be it in water, soil, or air. Water and wastewater management, solid ... and hazardous waste management, including radioactive, biological waste management, and environmental nanotechnology. At the ...
1) Radioactive pollution: ionizing radiation in the environment from nuclear weapons detonations and the nuclear fuel cycle. ... Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol.167, pp. 139-154. Download pdf Copy. ... Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 122, pp. 456-463. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.05.054. Download pdf Copy.. Kaste JM, *Lauer NE ... Environmental Pollution vol. 182 pp. 127-134. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2013.07.01. Download pdf Copy. ...
25 Distribution of air-borne pollution. 26 An electrical analogue for water flow through locks. 27 Pouring - factors making the ... 28 Construction and use of a variable-interval coincidence counter for study of short-lived isotopes in a radioactive decay. 29 ... 44 Ionisation of air and van de Graff generators. 45 Design of an automatically operating burette. 46 Use of a photo-sensitive ... 95 Variation in range of alpha -particles in air at low pressure. 96 Does water absorb ultra-violet light? 97 An experiment in ...
Air Pollution (‎1)‎Environment and Public Health (‎1)‎International Agencies (‎1)‎... View MoreDate Issued2020 - 2021 (‎1)‎1982 ... Nuclear power: management of high-level radioactive waste: report on a Working Group, Bruges, 2-6 June 1980  World Health ... Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution: REVIHAAP project: technical report  World Health Organization. Regional ... This document presents answers to 24 questions relevant to reviewing European policies on air pollution and to addressing ...
An environmentalist group filed suit for extreme violation of radioactive air pollution regulations. The suit prevailed with ... More specifically downwinder is a general name for people and places which received the radioactive fall-out of nuclear test ... Another major lawsuit over water pollution-levels of chromium in New Mexico groundwater-was resolved in 2007 both by fines and ... The largest single stateside radioactive toxin release in U.S. history occurred in 1979 in Church Rock, New Mexico, a Navajo ...
Possible air pollution emanating from the base. ATSDR used a computer modeling analysis to evaluate the data for air quality. ... Deer retain a very small fraction of radioactive materials that they might eat, and the amount that is retained in the deers ... Results of this analysis suggest that emissions do not cause on-base or off-base air pollution to reach unhealthy levels. ... Naval Air Engineering Station. Lakehurst, N.J.. Ocean County Library. Manchester Branch. 21 Colonial Drive. Manchester, N.J. ...
The drugs are often another form of poisoning that is rife throughout the whole lifestyle (toxic air pollution, radioactive ... Trump s Team Will Start New Wars in the Middle East - Patrick Cockburn, CounterPunch "The US army and air force is today ...
Duke paid $93 million to settle an air pollution case against the plant last year. John Blair,/p, ,/figcaption,,/figure, ,/div ... from radioactive waste to special wilderness areas.,/p, ,p,An aerial view of Duke Energys coal-burning Gallagher Generating ... Two years later, the company agreed to pay nearly $70 million in penalties and remediation to resolve air-pollution claims ... Duke paid $93 million to settle an air pollution case against the plant last year. Credit: John BlairHistorical violations were ...
In fact, NASA research indicates that nuclear power has saved approximately 2 million lives by preventing air pollution. Its ... As a Monticello resident, living about a mile from the nuclear power plant, reading about the radioactive water spill is ... I do believe the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and Xcel when they issue statements that there is no threat to drinking ... Drinking a cup of the affected water would be comparable to consuming eight bananas, which are naturally radioactive. Put ...
... which is generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium (3). Other factors, like asbestos exposure, air pollution, genetic ... The stump of the vein, artery and bronchus were checked for hemostasis and air leakage. A single chest drain was inserted and ... The stump of the vein, artery, and bronchus were checked for hemostasis and air leakage. A single chest drain was inserted, ...
The Ute Mountain Utes are also worried about air pollution. The water in the tailing cells serves as a barrier that prevents ... For example, radioactive waste is stored in specially-designed ponds called tailing cells. The cells have liners to prevent ... radiation from escaping into the air. But in one 40-acre cell, radioactive material has been left above water for the last two ... "At the end of the day, the Clean Air Act says that that thing should have liquid on it," Clow says. ...
Dangerous radiations emitted by radioactive fallout from reactors and nuclear weapons testing cause air pollution. ... 7) Effects of Air Pollution: As a result of air pollution, the following hazards may occur: a) acid rain; b) ozone layer ... 6) Air Pollution: *. Nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapor are the three main components of air. ... Next, soil pollution, water pollution and water pollutants are discussed in detail. The chapter concludes with the strategies ...
There might be some air pollution but in the end, it would be worth it. And now we read horrifying stories about giant ... radioactive beasts, huge clouds of deadly radiation covering Sioux Falls, SD and turning beets into giant caterpillars. And ...
Meet Air Pollution Transport Science: Understanding the United States Response to Trans-Pacific Air Pollution", Presented at ... Other environmental issues, such as radioactive waste management, also require long-term perspectives. Technology Risks ... Other air and water pollutants (including marine oil pollution). Lower = preferred. Solid Wastes (tonnes bottom ash, fly ash, ... Other air and water pollutants (including marine oil pollution). Lower. Lower. Lower = better. Lower = better (primarily for ...
  • Incidence of respiratory symptoms and chronic disease in a non-smoking population as a function of long-term cumulative exposure to ambient air pollutants (Adventist health study of smog follow-up study). (
  • 1971. Fate of air pollutants: Removal of ethylene, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide by soil. (
  • 1997. Lung function and long term exposure to air pollutants in Switzerland. (
  • 1997. A longitudinal study of ambient air pollutants and the lung peak expiratory flow rates among asthmatic children in Hungary. (
  • 1989. Health effects of air pollutants: Sulfuric acid, the old and the new. (
  • Concerns about potential public health problems due to indoor air pollution are based on evidence that urban residents typically spend more than 90 percent of their time indoors, concentrations of some contaminants are higher indoors than outdoors, and for some pollutants personal exposures are not characterized adequately by outdoor measurements. (
  • Others acknowledged they would produce hazardous air pollutants or toxic metals. (
  • In addition, people exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods are often those most susceptible to their effects. (
  • Air pollutant levels in the home increase if not enough outdoor air is brought in to dilute emissions from indoor sources and to carry indoor air pollutants out of the home. (
  • Some biologic pollutants, such as measles, chickenpox, and influenza are transmitted through the air. (
  • Some of the known triggers of intrinsic asthma are infections, such as cold and flu viruses, exercise and cold air, industrial and occupational pollutants, food additives and preservatives, drugs such as aspirin, and emotional stress. (
  • Contamination of air with radioactive substances. (
  • See short video describing a project on the radioactive contamination of honey in the eastern U.S. (
  • Smoking, these studies suggested, and not air pollution, asbestos contamination, or radioactive materials, was the chief cause of the epidemic rise of lung cancer in the twentieth century. (
  • Air pollution, radioactive minerals , and asbestos also cause lung cancer. (
  • Other factors, like asbestos exposure, air pollution, genetic abnormalities and pre-existing lung diseases, also play an important role in the occurrence of lung cancer ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • 28 Construction and use of a variable-interval coincidence counter for study of short-lived isotopes in a radioactive decay. (
  • Particulate matter can be a vector for radioactive isotopes, most of which arise from naturally occurring radon gas, which has been linked to a higher risk of both breast and lung cancer. (
  • Results of this analysis suggest that emissions do not cause on-base or off-base air pollution to reach unhealthy levels. (
  • Why a new air permit at the Clairton Coke Works could increase pollution emissions. (
  • Fukushima's forgotten radionuclides: a review of the understudied radioactive emissions. (
  • 95 Variation in range of alpha -particles in air at low pressure. (
  • Airborne radioactive particles may contribute to the development of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, according to NIEHS researchers and their collaborators. (
  • 1) Radioactive pollution: ionizing radiation in the environment from nuclear weapons detonations and the nuclear fuel cycle. (
  • A broader concept of energy security is needed to adequately consider the full costs and benefits of potential energy policies designed to cope with not only fuel sufficiency and price, but also complex challenges ranging from climate change, to local energy-related pollution, to the social, political, and radiological fallout of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011, to cite just a few examples. (
  • Dangerous radiations emitted by radioactive fallout from reactors and nuclear weapons testing cause air pollution. (
  • She is also looking at coal in the Arctic, diesel air pollution in urban West Africa, and uranium in South Africa. (
  • Uranium, a naturally occurring radioactive substance, was heavily mined in the latter half of the 20th century in the Four Corners region of the Western United States. (
  • Higher estimated residential exposure to ambient radioactive particulate matter was associated with an elevated risk of estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, which has fewer treatment options. (
  • The respiratory system is open to airborne microbes and to outside pollution . (
  • Routine surveillance for radionuclides in air and water. (
  • During the decay process, a radioactive element emits either an alpha or beta particle, which are sometimes accompanied by a gamma ray. (
  • These radioactive daughter elements also undergo decay, until, ultimately, a stable element is formed. (
  • This chain of decay is called a radioactive decay series. (
  • The length of time it takes for each element to decay depends on the type, as well as on the amount of the radioactive element present. (
  • The half-life of a radioactive material is the length of time it takes for half of that material to decay. (
  • That is, there are three forms of energy that are emitted by radioactive elements as they decay. (
  • Her current scholarship explores radioactive residues, mine waste, air pollution, and the Anthropocene in Africa. (
  • Indoor air pollution and exposure to hazardous substances in the home are risks we can do something about. (
  • The WHO Regional Office for Europe, in collaboration with the Government of Belgium, convened a Working Group on Health Implications of High-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal in June 1980. (
  • Energy Fuels' White Mesa facility is also a disposal site for radioactive waste, some of which has been imported from overseas. (
  • Efforts to assess health risks associated with indoor air pollution are limited by insufficient information about the number of people exposed, the pattern and severity of exposures, and the health consequences of exposures. (
  • Indoor air pollution. (
  • Health effects and sources of indoor air pollution. (
  • Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that may be caused by indoor air pollution. (
  • Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health professional. (
  • This booklet addresses the indoor air pollution problems that may be caused by contaminants encountered in the daily lives of persons in their homes and offices. (
  • Because a few prominent aspects of indoor air pollution, notably environmental tobacco smoke and "sick building syndrome," have been brought to public attention, individuals may volunteer suggestions of a connection between respiratory or other symptoms and conditions in the home or, especially, the workplace. (
  • The health professional should use this booklet as a tool in diagnosing an individual's signs and symptoms that could be related to an indoor air pollution problem. (
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health from exposure to indoor air pollution may be greater than risks from outdoor pollution. (
  • Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. (
  • SESE focuses on ecological renewal and pollution control be it in water, soil, or air. (
  • Deer retain a very small fraction of radioactive materials that they might eat, and the amount that is retained in the deer's body accumulates in body parts that are not commonly eaten. (
  • The remaining unfrozen freshwater is found mainly as ground water , with only a small fraction present above ground or in the air. (
  • Treatment of off-gas from radioactive waste incinerators. (
  • State regulators agree and have loosened rules, allowing Energy Fuels to store increasingly radioactive waste onsite, including waste imported from overseas. (
  • For example, radioactive waste is stored in specially-designed ponds called tailing cells. (
  • One question is what should be done with the radioactive waste. (
  • The main legislation that deals with pollution in NSW is the Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 , called the POEO Act. (
  • The population of Chernobyl, Russia, were more affected by nuclear pollution. (
  • As you see, it can take a long time for radioactive materials to stabilize. (
  • Badback and others are opposed to the production and storage of radioactive materials at the Energy Fuels site. (
  • Some radioactive elements, like Lead 214, have a half-life of seconds, some like Radon 222 have a half-life of days. (
  • Radon is also found in well water, natural gas, and ambient air. (
  • Radon gas is regarded as the second most common cause of lung cancer, which is generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium ( 3 ). (
  • The water in the tailing cells serves as a barrier that prevents radiation from escaping into the air. (
  • But in one 40-acre cell, radioactive material has been left above water for the last two years. (
  • The higher the DO value, the lower is the pollution of water and vice versa. (
  • For example- Air, Water , Sunlight etc. (
  • The Environmental Protection Act (EPA) was established in late 1970 and followed not long after by a slate of important environmental laws, like the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water and Clean Air acts. (
  • The mill poured uncontrolled water pollution into the Columbia River. (
  • Balascio NL, Kaste JM , *Meyer MG, *Renshaw M, *Smith K, and Chambers RM (2019) A high-resolution mill pond record from eastern Virginia (USA) reveals the impact of past landscape changes and regional pollution history. (
  • HAYES: When I grew up, in a [Washington state] paper-mill community, there was no form of pollution control on the smokestacks. (
  • Some environmental advocates told the Center the goals of creating a clean energy economy and more jobs don't outweigh the risks of giving money to and foregoing supervision of repeat violators of anti-pollution laws. (
  • This document presents answers to 24 questions relevant to reviewing European policies on air pollution and to addressing health aspects of these policies. (
  • The experts reviewed and discussed the newly accumulated scientific evidence on the adverse effects on health of air pollution, formulating science-based answers to the 24 questions. (
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), a public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is issuing for review and public comment a public health assessment (PHA) for the 7,400-acre U.S. Naval Air Engineering Station at Lakehurst (NAES Lakehurst) in central New Jersey. (
  • Ways to obtain information from the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection to reduce exposures to regional air pollution are identified by ATSDR in the public health assessment. (
  • In 1948, the PHS began studying the health effects of air pollution after 20 citizens died and many became ill from smog in Donora, Pennsylvania. (
  • Rising research on pollution inspired the PHS to establish new environmental health research, regulation, and community engagement programs. (
  • General environmental protection notices such as prevention notices, clean up notices, prohibition notices and compliance cost notices can be issued as well as specific notices for particular types of pollution (POEO Act, Chapter 4, Environment Protection Notices). (
  • In connection with the offences, the court can also order an offender take action to prevent, control, abate or mitigate the harm caused by the pollution and to make good any environmental damage that has resulted (POEO Act, Part 8.3 Court Orders in Connection with Offences). (
  • An air sac of the lung, in which oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange occurs. (
  • Outdoor air pollution has been classified as a human carcinogen based on evidence for lung cancer. (
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in which the air passages of the lungs become narrower and obstructed. (
  • The licence can contain specific and detailed conditions to monitor, control or prevent pollution and if the licence-holder breaches a condition, there are hefty fines and the licence may be suspended or revoked (POEO Act, Chapter 3, Environment Protection Licences). (
  • Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association 19:638-644. (
  • Although official efforts to control air pollution have traditionally focused on outdoor air, it is now apparent that elevated contaminant concentrations are common inside some private and public buildings. (
  • By 1955, Congress passed Public Law 159 giving the PHS funding to establish dedicated programs for the study and control of air pollution. (
  • Most types of pollution, whether industrial or domestic, can be experienced in a neighbourhood setting. (
  • Administered by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA), the Act and its associated regulations create various offences and provide a range of remedies, depending on the type of pollution and the type of activity that is causing it. (
  • To make a complaint about pollution from a licensed activity, contact the Environment Line on 131 555, or check the website for an extensive list of appropriate agencies. (
  • Many government and government-funded pamphlets on pollution encouraged citizens to help create a healthier environment. (
  • There is also a duty under section 148 of the Act for polluters to report a pollution incident to the appropriate authority. (
  • My aim is to understand how processes at the earth's surface are affected or disrupted by anthropogenic activities (groundwater withdrawal, acid and metal pollution, urban development) and global change. (
  • ATSDR used a computer modeling analysis to evaluate the data for air quality. (
  • Whether the pollution is from domestic or industrial sources, the POEO Act and its regulations give police, local councils, the EPA and other regulatory authorities the power to issue various directions and notices as well as the power to institute court proceedings for offences. (
  • In the last several years, a growing body of scientific evidence has indicated that the air within homes and other buildings can be more seriously polluted than the outdoor air in even the largest and most industrialized cities. (
  • Callers should refer to the Naval Air Engineering Station Lakehurst site in New Jersey. (
  • Duke paid $93 million to settle an air pollution case against the plant last year. (