The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The contamination of indoor air.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The status of health in urban populations.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The motion of air currents.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
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A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
'Fires' is not a recognized medical term for a symptom, diagnosis, or condition in patients.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rome" is not a medical term or concept, and it doesn't have a specific medical definition. It is the capital city of Italy, known for its rich history, culture, and influence on various aspects including medicine, particularly during the Roman Empire period. If you have any questions about medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help!
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Living facilities for humans.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place name and not a medical term, so it doesn't have a medical definition. It's the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, culture, and landmarks. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help answer those!
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
(LA) is not a medical term; it is a region, specifically the second most populous city in the United States, located in Southern California, which contains several world-renowned hospitals and medical centers that offer advanced healthcare services and cutting-edge medical research.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
##### There is no medical definition for "East Germany" as it is a geopolitical term referring to the former German Democratic Republic (GDR), which existed from 1949 to 1990 and was not a medical or healthcare-related concept. However, I can provide some historical context: East Germany was a socialist state in Central Europe that was established after World War II and was governed by the Soviet Union until its peaceful reunification with West Germany in 1990. The GDR had its own healthcare system, which was based on the principles of socialized medicine and provided universal access to medical care for its citizens.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
(I'm assuming you are asking for a play on words related to the state of New Jersey, as "New Jersey" is not a medical term.)
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term to my knowledge. It is a place name that can refer to a state in the United States or a country in Europe. If you have a different context or meaning in mind, I would be happy to help further if I can.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The climate of a very small area.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. Tokyo is actually the capital city of Japan and is not used as a term in medicine.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Guatemala is the name of a country located in Central America, known officially as the Republic of Guatemala. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (1/1407)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (2/1407)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (3/1407)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (4/1407)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. (5/1407)

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios.  (+info)

Health impacts of domestic coal use in China. (6/1407)

Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.  (+info)

Tobacco smoke exposure at one month of age and subsequent risk of SIDS--a prospective study. (7/1407)

The aim of this investigation was to identify the sources of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke at 1 month of age and to examine their relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Tasmanian Infant Health Survey was a prospective cohort study undertaken from 1988 to 1995. It involved 9,826 infants (89% of eligible infants) at higher risk of SIDS. Subsequently 53 eligible infants died of SIDS. Hospital interviews were available on 51 and home interviews on 35 SIDS infants. Urinary cotinine assays were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography (n = 100). Within a predictive model that explained 63% of urinary cotinine variance, the strongest predictor of cotinine and also of SIDS was maternal smoking, though the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking could not be separated. However, for particular smoking-related behaviors, there was a discordance between prediction of cotinine concentration and prediction of risk of SIDS. If smoking mothers did not smoke in the room with the baby, the cotinine level in the infant's urine was reduced by a little more than a half (p = 0.009), but this was not associated with a reduction in SIDS risk (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.55). Similarly, the presence of other adult resident smokers was associated with a 63% increase in urinary cotinine (p = 0.047) but not with increased SIDS risk (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.40). However, the study lacked the power to detect modest effects, that is, those altering risk less than twofold.  (+info)

Role of the indoor environment in determining the severity of asthma. (8/1407)

Allergen exposure can confound the management of asthma. To understand the potential mechanisms by which allergens increase the steroid requirements in atopic asthmatics, we examined the effects of allergens on glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) binding affinity and glucocorticoid (GC) responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from atopic asthmatics. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the GCR binding affinity (Kd) was observed in ragweed-allergic asthmatics during ragweed pollen season compared with PBMC obtained before and after ragweed season. In vitro effects of allergen on PBMC GCR Kd were also examined by incubating PBMC from atopic asthmatics with allergen (ragweed and cat) versus Candida albicans. GCR binding affinity was significantly reduced after incubation with ragweed (p < 0.001) or cat allergen (p < 0.001) compared with baseline or C. albicans stimulation. This effect was limited to atopic asthmatics in that in vitro cat allergen incubation for 48 h failed to significantly alter GCR binding affinity in nonasthmatic, atopic individuals. These allergen-induced reductions in GCR binding affinity also rendered the PBMC less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of hydrocortisone and dexamethasone on allergen-induced proliferation (p < 0.01). To test the hypothesis that allergen-induced alterations in GCR binding affinity were cytokine-induced, we examined the effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 neutralization using anticytokine antibodies. Addition of both anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-4 antibodies resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of allergen-induced alterations in GCR binding affinity. Furthermore incubation with cat allergen induced significantly higher concentrations of IL-2 (p = 0.03) and IL-4 (p = 0.02) by PBMC from atopic as compared with nonatopic subjects. Our current observations suggest that allergen exposure may contribute to poor asthma control by reducing GCR binding affinity in mononuclear cells. This appears to be mediated through IL-2 and IL-4. These findings may have important implications for novel approaches to the treatment of poorly controlled asthma.  (+info)

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

Epidemiological monitoring is the systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data pertaining to a specific population or community, with the aim of identifying and tracking patterns of disease or injury, understanding their causes, and informing public health interventions and policies. This process typically involves the use of surveillance systems, such as disease registries, to collect data on the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of health outcomes of interest, as well as potential risk factors and exposures. The information generated through epidemiological monitoring can help to identify trends and emerging health threats, inform resource allocation and program planning, and evaluate the impact of public health interventions.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Cities" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a geographical and sociopolitical one referring to large, densely populated urban areas. If you're looking for information about health-related topics associated with cities, I would be happy to help! For example, there are many public health issues that are closely linked to city living, such as air pollution, infectious diseases, and chronic conditions like obesity and heart disease. Please let me know if you have any specific questions in mind!

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Photochemical oxidants refer to chemical compounds that are formed as a result of a photochemical reaction, which involves the absorption of light. These oxidants are often highly reactive and can cause oxidative damage to living cells and tissues.

In the context of environmental science, photochemical oxidants are primarily associated with air pollution and the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful oxidizing agents in the atmosphere. These pollutants are formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, particularly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemical oxidation can also occur in biological systems, such as within cells, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by the absorption of light by certain molecules. These ROS can cause damage to cellular components, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Overall, photochemical oxidants are a significant concern in both environmental and health contexts, and understanding the mechanisms of their formation and effects is an important area of research.

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of highly reactive gases, primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas, or biomass, and are emitted from various sources, including power plants, industrial boilers, transportation vehicles, and residential heating systems. Exposure to NOx can have adverse health effects, particularly on the respiratory system, and contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants like ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motor Vehicles" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It is a general term used to describe vehicles that are powered by a motor or engine and are designed for land transportation. This would include cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and other similar types of vehicles.

However, in a legal context, a "motor vehicle" may have a specific definition that varies by jurisdiction. For example, in some places, the definition might only include vehicles that are intended for use on public roads, excluding things like golf carts or construction equipment.

If you're looking for a medical term related to motor vehicles, there are many that could apply, such as "motor vehicle accident," "whiplash injury," or "traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicle collision." But the term "motor vehicles" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

'Smog' is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" and refers to a type of air pollution typically formed when vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and other sources release large amounts of fine particles and gases (such as nitrogen oxides or ground-level ozone) into the air. These pollutants then react in the presence of sunlight to form smog.

However, exposure to high levels of smog can have negative health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smog can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Long-term exposure to smog has been linked to more serious health problems, including heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

"Soot" is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine due to its potential health effects. Soot is a general term for the fine black or brown particles that are produced when materials burn, such as in fires, industrial processes, or vehicle emissions. It is made up of a complex mixture of substances, including carbon, metals, and other organic compounds.

Inhaling soot can lead to respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, and cancer. This is because the tiny particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing inflammation and damage to tissues. Prolonged exposure or high concentrations of soot can have more severe health effects, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing medical conditions.

"Cooking" is not a medical term, but it generally refers to the process of preparing and cooking food. In a medical or nutritional context, "cooking" may refer to the application of heat to food in order to make it safe and more palatable to eat, as well as to improve its nutritional value and digestibility.

Cooking can also have an impact on the nutrient content of food. For example, cooking certain vegetables can increase their bioavailability, or the amount of a nutrient that is available for absorption by the body. On the other hand, cooking some foods at high temperatures or for long periods of time can lead to the loss of certain nutrients, such as vitamins C and B.

It's important to note that the way food is cooked can also affect its safety. For example, undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood can harbor harmful bacteria, such as Salmonella and E. coli, which can cause foodborne illness. It's essential to cook these foods thoroughly to reduce the risk of infection.

In summary, while "cooking" is not a medical term, it has important implications for food safety, nutrition, and digestion.

Environmental Illness (EI) is a condition in which individuals report experiencing various symptoms that they believe are caused or worsened by exposure to specific environmental factors. These factors can include chemicals, allergens, pollutants, or other substances present in the air, water, or food. The symptoms of EI can vary widely and may include headaches, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, respiratory problems, skin irritations, and gastrointestinal issues.

It's important to note that while some people may be more sensitive than others to environmental factors, the term "Environmental Illness" is not recognized as a formal medical diagnosis by major medical organizations such as the American Medical Association or the World Health Organization. Instead, the symptoms of EI are often attributed to other conditions, such as allergies, asthma, or chemical sensitivities.

In some cases, individuals with EI may be diagnosed with a related condition called Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), which is characterized by heightened sensitivity to chemicals and other environmental factors. However, MCS is also not recognized as a formal medical diagnosis by many major medical organizations.

Overall, while some people may experience symptoms that they believe are caused by exposure to environmental factors, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

In the context of medical terminology, "heating" generally refers to the application of heat to an area of the body for therapeutic purposes. This can be done using various methods such as hot packs, heating pads, warm compresses, or even heated wax. The goal of applying heat is to increase blood flow, reduce pain and muscle spasms, and promote healing in the affected area. It's important to note that excessive heating or application of heat to sensitive areas should be avoided, as it can lead to burns or other injuries.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

I apologize for any confusion, but "coal" is not a medical term. Coal is a black or brownish-black sedimentary rock that is formed from the accumulation and preservation of plant materials, usually in a swamp environment. It is commonly used as a fuel source due to its high carbon content. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

The Czech Republic is a country located in Central Europe. It is not a medical term or concept, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, like any other country, the Czech Republic has its own healthcare system and medical facilities that provide various health services to its population. The Czech Republic is known for its high-quality healthcare and medical education, with many institutions being recognized worldwide.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Acid rain is a form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, that has a pH level less than 5.6 and contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acids. These acidic compounds are formed primarily when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted into the atmosphere from human sources such as coal-fired power plants, industrial processes, and transportation vehicles. When these pollutants mix with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the atmosphere, they form acidic compounds that can fall to the earth as acid rain, harming both natural ecosystems and man-made structures.

The term "acid rain" was first coined in the 1960s by scientists studying the effects of air pollution on the environment. Acid rain can have a number of negative impacts on the environment, including damaging forests, lakes, and streams; harming aquatic life; eroding buildings, monuments, and sculptures; and contributing to respiratory problems in humans and animals.

To mitigate the effects of acid rain, many countries have implemented regulations aimed at reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from industrial sources and power plants. These efforts have helped to reduce the severity of acid rain in some areas, but the problem remains a significant concern in many parts of the world.

"Energy-generating resources" is a broad term that refers to various methods and technologies used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. While there isn't a specific medical definition for this term, it is often discussed in the context of public health and environmental medicine due to its impact on air quality, climate change, and human health. Here are some examples of energy-generating resources:

1. Fossil fuels: These include coal, oil, and natural gas, which are non-renewable resources. They are burned to produce heat, which is then converted into electricity. The combustion process releases greenhouse gases and pollutants, contributing to climate change and air pollution-related health issues.
2. Nuclear power: This energy source involves the fission of atomic nuclei to generate heat, which is used to produce steam and drive turbines for electricity generation. While nuclear power itself does not emit greenhouse gases, it poses potential risks associated with radioactive waste disposal, accidents, and proliferation.
3. Renewable resources: These are sustainable energy sources that can be replenished naturally over time. Examples include solar power (photovoltaic or concentrated), wind power, hydroelectric power, geothermal energy, and biomass. These resources have lower environmental impacts and contribute less to air pollution and climate change compared to fossil fuels.
4. Hydrogen fuel cells: These devices convert chemical energy from hydrogen into electricity through an electrochemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. They are clean energy sources, as the only byproducts are water and heat. However, the production of hydrogen can have environmental impacts depending on the method used (e.g., steam methane reforming vs. electrolysis powered by renewable energy).
5. Energy storage systems: While not a primary source of energy generation, energy storage technologies like batteries and capacitors play an essential role in optimizing the use of energy-generating resources. They can store excess energy produced during periods of low demand or high resource availability (e.g., solar power during the day) and release it during peak demand or resource scarcity, improving overall system efficiency and reducing the need for backup generation from fossil fuels.

In summary, "energy-generating resources" refer to various methods used to convert different forms of energy into electricity or other useful forms. The environmental and health impacts of these resources vary significantly, with renewable sources generally having lower impacts compared to fossil fuel-based options.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Poisson Distribution is actually a statistical concept rather than a medical term. Here's a general definition:

Poisson Distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space, as long as these events occur with a known average rate and independently of each other. It is often used in fields such as physics, engineering, economics, and medical research to model rare events or low-probability phenomena.

In the context of medical research, Poisson Distribution might be used to analyze the number of adverse events that occur during a clinical trial, the frequency of disease outbreaks in a population, or the rate of successes or failures in a series of experiments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Meteorological Concepts" is quite broad and can refer to various ideas and phenomena related to the study of meteorology, which is the scientific discipline that deals with the atmosphere and its processes. Here are a few examples of meteorological concepts:

1. Air pressure: The force exerted by the weight of the air above a given point. It's usually measured in hectopascals (hPa), inches of mercury (inHg), or millibars (mbar).
2. Temperature: A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or environment, often reported in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F).
3. Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current water vapor content to the maximum possible content at a given temperature.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground, including rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
5. Wind: The horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. It's usually described in terms of its speed (measured in knots, miles per hour, or meters per second) and direction (often given as a compass bearing).
6. Clouds: Visible masses of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere. They form due to the condensation of atmospheric water vapor and are classified based on their appearance, altitude, and other characteristics.
7. Fronts: Boundaries between different air masses that have distinct temperature and humidity properties. These boundaries can lead to various weather phenomena, such as precipitation and severe thunderstorms.
8. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances in the atmosphere, often resulting from human activities like industrial processes or transportation.
9. Weather forecasting: The use of scientific principles, observations, and computer models to predict future weather conditions.
10. Climate: The long-term average of weather patterns and conditions in a specific region, typically over a period of 30 years or more.

These are just a few examples of meteorological concepts. There are many more aspects of atmospheric science that could be explored, such as the study of tornadoes, hurricanes, and other extreme weather events.

Epidemiologic studies are investigations that seek to understand the distribution, patterns, and determinants of health and disease within a population. These studies aim to identify the frequency and occurrence of diseases or health-related events, as well as the factors that contribute to their occurrence. This information is used to develop public health policies and interventions to prevent or control diseases and promote overall health.

There are several types of epidemiologic studies, including:

1. Descriptive studies: These studies describe the characteristics of a population and the distribution of a disease or health-related event within that population. They do not typically investigate causes or risk factors.
2. Analytical studies: These studies examine the relationship between exposures (risk factors) and outcomes (diseases or health-related events). There are two main types of analytical studies: observational studies and experimental studies.
3. Observational studies: In these studies, researchers observe and collect data on a population without intervening or manipulating any variables. There are several types of observational studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies.
4. Cohort studies: These studies follow a group of people (a cohort) over time to see if they develop a particular disease or health-related event. Researchers collect data on exposures and outcomes at multiple points in time.
5. Case-control studies: These studies compare people with a specific disease or health-related event (cases) to people without the disease or event (controls). Researchers then look back in time to see if there are any differences in exposures between the two groups.
6. Cross-sectional studies: These studies collect data on exposures and outcomes at a single point in time. They are useful for estimating the prevalence of a disease or health-related event, but they cannot establish causality.
7. Experimental studies: In these studies, researchers manipulate variables to see if they have an effect on a particular outcome. The most common type of experimental study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the intervention being tested or a control group.

Epidemiologic studies can provide valuable insights into the causes and consequences of diseases and health-related events, as well as potential interventions to prevent or treat them. However, they must be carefully designed and conducted to minimize bias and confounding, and their results should be interpreted with caution.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

Chemical water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater) with harmful chemicals or substances that negatively impact water quality and pose a threat to human health, aquatic life, and the environment. These chemical pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural activities, waste disposal, oil spills, and chemical accidents. Examples of chemical pollutants include heavy metals (such as mercury, lead, and cadmium), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other hazardous substances. These chemicals can have toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic effects on living organisms and can disrupt ecosystems, leading to decreased biodiversity and impaired ecological functions.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wood" is not a medical term. It is a common name for various hard, fibrous tissues that make up the trunks and branches of trees and shrubs, as well as a term used for a wide range of items made from these materials. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

'Incineration' is not typically used as a medical term, but it does have relevance to the field of medicine and public health. It generally refers to the process of destroying something, usually waste, through extreme heat and combustion. In the medical context, incineration is often discussed in relation to the disposal of healthcare waste, including infectious materials, sharps, and pharmaceutical products. Proper incineration can help reduce the volume of waste, destroy harmful components, and prevent the spread of infection. However, it's important to note that improper incineration practices can also release toxic emissions into the environment, posing risks to public health.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

An air embolism is a medical condition that occurs when one or more air bubbles enter the bloodstream and block or obstruct blood vessels. This can lead to various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the obstruction, including shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion, stroke, or even death.

Air embolisms can occur in a variety of ways, such as during certain medical procedures (e.g., when air is accidentally introduced into a vein or artery), trauma to the lungs or blood vessels, scuba diving, or mountain climbing. Treatment typically involves administering oxygen and supportive care, as well as removing the source of the air bubbles if possible. In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to help reduce the size of the air bubbles and improve outcomes.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Geographic Information Systems" (GIS) is not a medical term. GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. It can be used in various fields, including public health and epidemiology, to map and analyze the spread of diseases, identify environmental risk factors, plan health services delivery, and inform evidence-based decision making.

The Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) is a term used in occupational health to refer to the highest concentration of a hazardous substance (usually in air) that should not cause harmful effects to most workers if they are exposed to it for a typical 8-hour workday, 5 days a week. It's important to note that MAC values are based on average population data and may not protect everyone, particularly those who are sensitive or susceptible to the substance in question.

It's also crucial to differentiate MAC from other similar terms such as the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) or Threshold Limit Value (TLV), which are used in different regulatory contexts and may have slightly different definitions and criteria.

Please consult with a certified industrial hygienist, occupational health professional, or other appropriate experts for specific guidance related to hazardous substance exposure limits.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Boston." It is a city in the state of Massachusetts, USA, and is widely known for its cultural institutions, such as Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Ballet, and The Museum of Fine Arts. Additionally, it is home to many renowned medical institutions, including Massachusetts General Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. However, "Boston" does not have a specific meaning or definition in the medical field.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Fires" is not a medical term that I am aware of. In a general context, a fire refers to the rapid oxidation of a material in the chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. If you are asking about a specific medical term or condition, could you please provide more context or clarify your question? I'm here to help!

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Transportation noise is not a medical condition itself, but it is a significant environmental health concern. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines transportation noise as noise produced by various transportation systems, including road traffic, railways, airports, and shipping.

Exposure to high levels of transportation noise can have adverse effects on human health, such as:

1. Sleep disturbance: Noise can interrupt sleep patterns, leading to difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings during the night, and daytime sleepiness.
2. Cardiovascular disease: Prolonged exposure to high levels of transportation noise has been linked to an increased risk of hypertension, heart attack, and stroke.
3. Impaired cognitive function: Children exposed to high levels of transportation noise may experience impaired cognitive functioning, including difficulties with reading, memory, and attention.
4. Annoyance and stress: Exposure to transportation noise can cause annoyance, frustration, and stress, which can negatively impact quality of life.
5. Hearing loss: Long-term exposure to high levels of transportation noise can lead to hearing loss or tinnitus.

It is essential to minimize exposure to transportation noise through various measures such as noise barriers, land-use planning, and traffic management to protect public health.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medicine or healthcare, so here's a medical perspective on polycyclic compounds:

Polycyclic compounds are organic substances that contain two or more chemical rings in their structure. While not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have significant medical implications. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of polycyclic compound that can be found in tobacco smoke and certain types of air pollution. PAHs have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer, due to their ability to damage DNA.

Another example is the class of drugs called steroids, which include hormones like cortisol and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. These compounds are polycyclic because they contain several interconnected rings in their structure. Steroid medications are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including inflammation, asthma, and Addison's disease.

In summary, while not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have important medical implications, either as harmful environmental pollutants or as useful therapeutic agents.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question as "automobiles" is a general term used to describe wheeled motor vehicles for transportation, and it's not typically a medical term with its own specific definition. However, I can provide you with some automobile-related terms that have medical implications:

1. **Driving fitness**: This refers to the physical and mental abilities required to operate a vehicle safely. Various medical conditions or treatments can impact driving fitness, such as seizure disorders, sleep apnea, certain medications, or alcohol/substance use disorders.
2. **Driving simulator**: A device used in research and rehabilitation settings that presents a realistic driving environment for assessing and training individuals with various medical conditions or disabilities affecting their ability to drive.
3. **Adaptive automobile equipment**: Devices designed to assist people with disabilities in operating vehicles, such as hand controls, wheelchair lifts, or pedal extensions.
4. **Transportation disadvantage**: A situation where an individual's medical condition, disability, or lack of access to suitable transportation limits their ability to obtain necessary healthcare services.
5. **Motor vehicle crash (MVC) outcomes**: Medical consequences resulting from motor vehicle crashes, including injuries and fatalities. These outcomes are often studied in public health and injury prevention research.

If you have a specific medical term or concept related to automobiles that you would like me to define or explain, please provide more details, and I will be happy to help.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rome" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Italy and has great historical and cultural significance. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

Sulfur oxides (SOx) are chemical compounds that contain sulfur and oxygen in various oxidation states. The term "sulfur oxides" is often used to refer specifically to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), which are the most common and widely studied SOx compounds.

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic eruptions and is also released into the air when fossil fuels such as coal and oil are burned for electricity generation, industrial processes, and transportation. Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Sulfur trioxide is a colorless liquid or solid with a pungent, choking odor. It is produced industrially for the manufacture of sulfuric acid and other chemicals. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage upon contact.

Both sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide contribute to air pollution and have been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, including respiratory problems, acid rain, and damage to crops and forests. As a result, there are regulations in place to limit emissions of these pollutants into the air.

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

"Otitis" is a general medical term that refers to inflammation or infection in the ear. It can be further classified into different types depending on the part of the ear affected:

1. Otitis externa, also known as swimmer's ear, affects the outer ear and ear canal.
2. Otitis media is an infection or inflammation of the middle ear.
3. Otitis interna, or labyrinthitis, refers to inflammation of the inner ear.

The symptoms of otitis can vary but often include pain, hearing loss, and discharge. The specific treatment will depend on the type and severity of the otitis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

Biomass is defined in the medical field as a renewable energy source derived from organic materials, primarily plant matter, that can be burned or converted into fuel. This includes materials such as wood, agricultural waste, and even methane gas produced by landfills. Biomass is often used as a source of heat, electricity, or transportation fuels, and its use can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

In the context of human health, biomass burning can have both positive and negative impacts. On one hand, biomass can provide a source of heat and energy for cooking and heating, which can improve living standards and reduce exposure to harmful pollutants from traditional cooking methods such as open fires. On the other hand, biomass burning can also produce air pollution, including particulate matter and toxic chemicals, that can have negative effects on respiratory health and contribute to climate change.

Therefore, while biomass has the potential to be a sustainable and low-carbon source of energy, it is important to consider the potential health and environmental impacts of its use and implement appropriate measures to minimize any negative effects.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spacecraft" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. It may be used to transport humans or cargo to and from space stations, conduct scientific research, or explore other celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and asteroids. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "London" is a place and not a medical term or condition. It is the capital city and largest metropolitan area in both England and the United Kingdom. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kerosene" is not a medical term. It is a type of fuel that is commonly used in lamps, stoves, and heating systems. Medically, the term "kerosene sniffing" or "huffing" is used to describe the dangerous practice of inhaling kerosene vapors to get high, which can lead to serious health consequences, including death.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Coal ash, also known as coal combustion residuals (CCRs), is the waste that is produced when coal is burned to generate electricity. It is a fine-grained, powdery material that is left over after coal is burned in power plants. Coal ash contains a variety of substances, including heavy metals such as arsenic, lead, mercury, and chromium, which can be harmful to human health and the environment if not properly managed.

Coal ash is typically stored in large ponds or landfills, but it can also be reused in a variety of applications, such as in concrete, wallboard, and other building materials. However, if coal ash is not handled and disposed of properly, it can pose serious risks to the environment and human health. For example, if coal ash ponds or landfills leak or burst, the toxic heavy metals they contain can contaminate water supplies and soil, posing a threat to both wildlife and humans.

It is important for coal ash to be managed in accordance with federal regulations to ensure that it is handled and disposed of in a way that protects public health and the environment. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established regulations governing the management of coal ash, including requirements for the location, design, and operation of coal ash disposal facilities, as well as standards for the monitoring and reporting of coal ash releases.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Los Angeles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a city in the state of California, USA. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

Causality is the relationship between a cause and a result, where the cause directly or indirectly brings about the result. In the medical context, causality refers to determining whether an exposure (such as a drug, infection, or environmental factor) is the cause of a specific outcome (such as a disease or adverse event). Establishing causality often involves evaluating epidemiological data, laboratory studies, and clinical evidence using established criteria, such as those proposed by Bradford Hill. It's important to note that determining causality can be complex and challenging, particularly when there are multiple potential causes or confounding factors involved.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Small-area analysis is a research method used in epidemiology and public health to examine health outcomes, healthcare utilization, and other health-related factors across small geographic areas or populations. This approach allows for the identification of spatial patterns, disparities, and clustering of health issues within communities, which can inform the development and targeting of interventions, policies, and resources to improve health outcomes and reduce inequalities.

Small-area analysis often involves the use of statistical techniques, such as spatial statistics and geographic information systems (GIS), to analyze data at a fine spatial resolution, typically at the level of census tracts, zip codes, or other small administrative units. This method can help identify areas with high rates of disease or poor health outcomes, as well as social determinants of health that may contribute to these disparities, such as poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and environmental exposures.

Overall, small-area analysis is a valuable tool for understanding the geographic distribution of health issues and developing targeted interventions to improve population health.

A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a systematic process that uses an array of data sources and assessment tools to identify and evaluate potential beneficial and adverse health effects of a proposed policy, program, project, or plan (referred to as the "proposal") on a population's health. The primary goal of an HIA is to provide evidence-based recommendations to minimize negative health impacts and maximize positive impacts, contributing to more equitable, healthy, and sustainable outcomes for all affected communities.

HIA typically involves six main steps:

1. Screening: Determining whether an HIA is needed and feasible based on the potential health impacts of the proposal.
2. Scoping: Identifying the objectives, key stakeholders, and significant health issues to be addressed in the assessment.
3. Assessment: Gathering and analyzing data related to the determinants of health that may be affected by the proposal, including physical, social, cultural, and economic factors.
4. Recommendations: Developing evidence-based recommendations to address potential health impacts and integrating them into the decision-making process.
5. Reporting: Presenting the findings and recommendations in a clear and concise manner to key stakeholders, including policymakers, community members, and other interested parties.
6. Monitoring and evaluation: Tracking the implementation of HIA recommendations and evaluating their impact on health outcomes over time.

HIA can be applied to various sectors, such as transportation, land use planning, housing, energy, and agriculture, among others. It is a valuable tool for promoting health equity and ensuring that the social, economic, and environmental determinants of health are considered in decision-making processes.

The greenhouse effect is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of environmental science and meteorology. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

The greenhouse effect refers to the warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, known as greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then re-emitted as heat energy, which would normally escape back into space. However, some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm up. This process is essential for life on Earth, as it helps to maintain a stable temperature that supports plant and animal growth.

However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has caused the natural greenhouse effect to become amplified. This has resulted in global warming and climate change, with potentially serious consequences for both human health and the environment.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Household Articles" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to items or goods used in a household for everyday activities, such as cleaning supplies, dishes, furniture, and personal care products. However, in a medical context, it may refer to items that are commonly found in a household and could potentially pose a risk for injury or illness, such as medications, sharp objects, or cleaning products. It's always important to keep these items out of reach of children and pets, and to follow proper safety guidelines when using them.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany, East" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to a historical and geographical region that was known as the German Democratic Republic (GDR), existing from 1949 to 1990. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health sciences, I'd be happy to help with those!

The German Democratic Republic, colloquially known as East Germany, was a socialist state established in the Soviet occupation zone of Germany after World War II. It existed from 1949 to 1990, when it was dissolved and merged with the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) following the Peaceful Revolution. The term "East Germany" is often used to refer to this region during that time period in historical or geographical contexts, but it does not have any relevance to medical definitions or healthcare.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Jersey" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

In the context of medical definitions, "transportation" typically refers to the movement of patients from one location to another. This can include the transfer of patients between healthcare facilities (such as from a hospital to a long-term care facility), between departments within a healthcare facility (such as from the emergency department to an inpatient unit), or to and from medical appointments.

Transportation may also refer to the movement of medical equipment, supplies, or specimens between locations. In this context, transportation ensures that necessary items are delivered to the right place at the right time, which is critical for providing high-quality patient care.

It's important to note that safe and timely transportation is essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes, reducing the risk of adverse events, and improving overall healthcare efficiency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a place name, referring to either a state in the United States or a country in Eastern Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the airways (bronchi) in the lungs. It is characterized by a persistent cough that produces excessive mucus or sputum. The cough and mucus production must be present for at least three months in two consecutive years to meet the diagnostic criteria for chronic bronchitis.

The inflammation of the airways can lead to narrowing, obstructing the flow of air into and out of the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath and wheezing. Chronic bronchitis is often associated with exposure to irritants such as tobacco smoke, dust, or chemical fumes over an extended period.

It is a significant component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which also includes emphysema. While there is no cure for chronic bronchitis, treatments can help alleviate symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. These may include bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and pulmonary rehabilitation. Quitting smoking is crucial in managing this condition.

A premature birth is defined as the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention due to maternal or fetal complications. Premature babies, also known as preemies, may face various health challenges depending on how early they are born and their weight at birth. These challenges can include respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, issues with feeding and digestion, developmental delays, and vision problems. With advancements in medical care and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), many premature babies survive and go on to lead healthy lives.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). It's often defined as a birth weight of 2,499 grams or less. This can be further categorized into very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) and extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 grams). Low birth weight is most commonly caused by premature birth, but it can also be caused by growth restriction in the womb. These babies are at risk for numerous health complications, both in the short and long term.

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

Environmental policy refers to the regulations, guidelines, and practices established by federal, state, or local governments to protect natural resources, human health, and the environment from potential harm caused by human activities. These policies aim to balance economic development with environmental sustainability through various measures such as:

1. Setting standards for air and water quality, waste management, and hazardous substance handling.
2. Encouraging sustainable practices in industries, agriculture, transportation, and energy production.
3. Promoting conservation efforts, habitat restoration, and biodiversity preservation.
4. Implementing monitoring programs to assess environmental impacts and enforce regulations.
5. Providing education and awareness campaigns to engage the public in environmentally responsible behaviors.

Environmental policies can be mandatory or voluntary and may involve various stakeholders, including government agencies, businesses, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and communities. The primary goal of environmental policy is to minimize negative human impacts on ecosystems while promoting a healthy and sustainable environment for present and future generations.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

An "aircraft" is not a medical term, but rather a general term used to describe any vehicle or machine designed to be powered and operated in the air. This includes fixed-wing aircraft such as airplanes and gliders, as well as rotary-wing aircraft such as helicopters and autogyros.

However, there are some medical conditions that can affect a person's ability to safely operate an aircraft, such as certain cardiovascular or neurological disorders. In these cases, the individual may be required to undergo medical evaluation and obtain clearance from aviation medical examiners before they are allowed to fly.

Additionally, there are some medical devices and equipment that are used in aircraft, such as oxygen systems and medical evacuation equipment. These may be used to provide medical care to passengers or crew members during flight.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

A microclimate refers to a localized climate or weather conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas. It is typically created by differences in terrain, vegetation, water bodies, or man-made structures that can affect temperature, humidity, wind, and precipitation patterns. In medical terms, understanding microclimates can be important for studying the spread of diseases, air quality, and other environmental factors that may impact human health. For example, urban microclimates created by concrete and asphalt can retain heat and increase air pollution levels, which may exacerbate respiratory symptoms in individuals with lung disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maps as Topic" is not a recognized medical term or concept in the field of medicine. The term "maps" can be used in a medical context to refer to visual representations of data, such as anatomical diagrams or genetic maps. However, without further context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition of "Maps as Topic" in a medical sense.

If you could provide more information about the context in which this term is being used, I may be able to give a more specific and accurate answer.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition emphasizes that health is more than just the absence of illness, but a positive state of well-being in which an individual is able to realize their own potential, cope with normal stresses of life, work productively, and contribute to their community. It recognizes that physical, mental, and social factors are interconnected and can all impact a person's overall health. This definition also highlights the importance of addressing the social determinants of health, such as poverty, education, housing, and access to healthcare, in order to promote health and prevent disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), environmental carcinogens refer to "cancer-causing agents that people encounter in their daily lives, including substances or exposures in air, water, food, and in the workplace." These carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by damaging DNA or interfering with cellular processes that control growth.

Examples of environmental carcinogens include:

* Air pollution: Certain pollutants in the air, such as diesel exhaust particles and secondhand smoke, have been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.
* Radon: A naturally occurring radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and other buildings, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.
* UV radiation: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds can lead to skin cancer.
* Certain chemicals: Some chemicals found in the workplace or in consumer products, such as asbestos, benzene, and vinyl chloride, have been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
* Infectious agents: Certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites can increase the risk of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, and hepatitis B and C viruses are leading causes of liver cancer.

It's important to note that exposure to environmental carcinogens does not guarantee that a person will develop cancer. The risk depends on many factors, including the level and duration of exposure, as well as individual susceptibility. However, reducing exposure to these agents can help reduce the overall risk of cancer.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

The Extraction and Processing Industry, also known as the extraction industry or the mining sector, is a major category of businesses and economic activities involved in the removal of minerals and other natural resources from the earth. This industry includes several types of extraction operations, such as:

1. Oil and gas extraction: This involves the exploration, drilling, and pumping of crude oil and natural gas from underground reservoirs.
2. Mining: This includes the extraction of various minerals like coal, iron ore, copper, gold, silver, and other metals and non-metallic minerals. There are different methods used for mining, such as surface mining (open-pit or strip mining) and underground mining.
3. Support activities for mining: This category includes services and supplies needed for the extraction of minerals, like drilling, exploration, and mining support services.

After the extraction process, these raw materials undergo further processing to transform them into usable forms, such as refining crude oil into various petroleum products or smelting metals for manufacturing purposes. This processing stage is often included in the definition of the Extraction and Processing Industry.

The medical definition of this industry may not be explicitly stated; however, it indirectly impacts public health and the environment. For instance, mining activities can lead to air and water pollution, exposure to harmful substances, and increased risk of accidents and injuries for workers. Therefore, understanding the Extraction and Processing Industry is essential in addressing potential health hazards associated with these operations.

"Manure" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it is commonly referred to in agriculture and horticulture. Manure is defined as organic matter, such as animal feces and urine, that is used as a fertilizer to enrich and amend the soil. It is often rich in nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, which are essential for plant growth. While manure can be beneficial for agriculture and gardening, it can also pose risks to human health if not handled properly due to the potential presence of pathogens and other harmful substances.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "gasoline" is not a medical term. It is a petroleum-derived liquid used as fuel in internal combustion engines. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "power plants" is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a term commonly used to refer to industrial facilities that generate and distribute power, typically in the form of electricity. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tokyo" is not a medical term. It is the capital city of Japan and the country's largest metropolitan area. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help with those!

An Atmosphere Exposure Chamber (AEC) is a controlled environment chamber that is designed to expose materials, products, or devices to specific atmospheric conditions for the purpose of testing their durability, performance, and safety. These chambers can simulate various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and contaminants, allowing researchers and manufacturers to evaluate how these factors may affect the properties and behavior of the materials being tested.

AECs are commonly used in a variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices, to ensure that products meet regulatory requirements and industry standards for performance and safety. For example, an AEC might be used to test the durability of a new aircraft material under extreme temperature and humidity conditions, or to evaluate the performance of a medical device in a contaminated environment.

The design and operation of AECs are subject to various regulations and standards, such as those established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These standards ensure that AECs are designed and operated in a consistent and controlled manner, allowing for accurate and reliable test results.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

I must clarify that "Fuel Oils" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Fuel oils are types of oil used as fuel, and they include various distillates of petroleum. They are commonly used for heating purposes or to generate electricity in industrial plants and ships.

However, if you're asking about the medical implications of exposure to fuel oils, it can cause respiratory irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea, especially if inhaled in large quantities or in a poorly ventilated space. Long-term exposure may lead to more severe health issues, such as bronchitis, heart disease, and cancer.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Ecology is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of biology. It refers to the study of the relationships between living organisms and their environment. This includes how organisms interact with each other and with their physical surroundings, such as climate, soil, and water. Ecologists may study the distribution and abundance of species, the flow of energy through an ecosystem, and the effects of human activities on the environment. While ecology is not a medical field, understanding ecological principles can be important for addressing public health issues related to the environment, such as pollution, climate change, and infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Guatemala" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Central America. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "steel" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe an alloy made primarily of iron and carbon. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

In the context of medicine, risk is the probability or likelihood of an adverse health effect or the occurrence of a negative event related to treatment or exposure to certain hazards. It is usually expressed as a ratio or percentage and can be influenced by various factors such as age, gender, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental conditions. Risk assessment involves identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing risks to make informed decisions about prevention, mitigation, or treatment strategies.

The data in this list refers only to outdoor air quality and not indoor air quality, which caused an additional two million ... Air pollution can affect nearly every organ and system of the body, negatively affecting nature and humans alike. Air pollution ... "Indoor Air Pollution". Our World in Data. https://www.iqair.com/world-most-polluted-countries "The Air Quality Life Index (AQLI ... Air pollution, Environment-related lists by country, Pollution-related lists). ...
Indoor air pollution is a major health hazard in developing countries and is commonly referred to as "household air pollution" ... Indoor combustion, such as for cooking or heating, is a major cause of indoor air pollution and causes significant health harms ... Air purifier Domed city Environmental management Healthy building Household air pollution Indoor bioaerosol Lead paint ... When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and ...
Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are listed as two of the world's worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 ... Air pollution increases the risk of dementia in people over 50 years old. Childhood indoor air pollution may negatively affect ... "Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. Hawkes, N. (22 May 2015). "Air pollution in UK: the public ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Air pollution. Wikivoyage has travel information for Air pollution. Air Pollution: ...
Spengler, John D.; Sexton, K. A. (1983). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective". Science. 221 (4605): 9-17 [p. 9 ... Major forms of pollution include air pollution, light pollution, litter, noise pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination ... radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, and water pollution. Pollution has widespread consequences on ... In 2019, pollution killed nine million people worldwide (one in six deaths), a number unchanged since 2015. Air pollution ...
"Indoor air pollution and household energy". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on January 30, 2014. ... "Gas and Propane Combustion from Stoves Emits Benzene and Increases Indoor Air Pollution". Environmental Science & Technology. ... Another method of reducing air pollution is through the addition of a device to clean the exhaust gas, for example, a filter or ... Due to concerns about air pollution, efforts have been made to improve stove design. Pellet stoves are a type of clean-burning ...
"Indoor Air Pollution in California" (PDF). Air Resources Board, California Environmental Protection Agency. July 2005. pp. 65- ... it is one of the more common indoor air pollutants. At concentrations above 0.1 ppm in air, formaldehyde can irritate the eyes ... "Testing for Indoor Air Quality, Baseline IAQ, and Materials". Environmental Protection Agency. Archived from the original on ... Residential Indoor Air Formaldehyde Testing Program: Pilot Study. Report No. IE-2814, prepared by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for ...
"Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. "Green stoves to replace chullahs". The Times of India. 3 ... 2001). "INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA - A MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN" (PDF). Indian Council of Medical ... The World Health Organization estimates that 300,000 to 400,000 people in India die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide ... In addition to air pollution problems, a 2007 study finds that discharge of untreated sewage is the single most important cause ...
"Health effects of indoor air pollution". Archived from the original on 2006-08-05. Retrieved 2006-07-26. Wirth, N.; Abou-Hamdan ... Jafta, N; Jeena, PM; Barregard, L; Naidoo, RN (May 2015). "Childhood tuberculosis and exposure to indoor air pollution: a ... "Indoor air pollution and respiratory health in the elderly". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 48 (14): 1783 ... Others have suggested a system of tradable smoking pollution permits, similar to the cap-and-trade pollution permits systems ...
"Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. Sinha, Kanad (2017). "Envisioning a No-Man's Land: Hermitage as ... it is a primary cause of India's near-permanent haze and air pollution. Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel ... However, the slash and burn causes damage to a dense forest, to soil, to flora and fauna, as well as pollution. The crop yields ...
Household electrification and indoor air pollution. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Volume 86, 2017:81-92. ... Barron, Manuel; Torero, Maximo (2017). "Household electrification and indoor air pollution". Journal of Environmental Economics ...
Many studies found that both indoor and outdoor Air Pollution can increase the risk of respiratory cancer. Indoor pollution ... Due to air pollution causing more than one effect it is hard to attribute a condition only to air pollution or to say how much ... Air pollution can derive from natural sources (like wildfires), or anthropogenic sources. Anthropogenic air pollution has ... The strong relationship between AQI and ozone levels may be found on air pollution maps. Air pollution in Los Angeles has ...
"Low-Cost Air Pollution Monitors and Indoor Air Quality". US Environmental Protection Agency. 2 May 2023. Retrieved 30 June 2023 ... Air pollution measurement is the process of collecting and measuring the components of air pollution, notably gases and ... "Impacts of air pollution on Lichens and Bryophytes (mosses and liverworts)". Air Pollution Information System. Centre for ... "Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities". Epa.gov. 26 March 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015. "Microsampling Air Pollution". The ...
"Sidhu Kanhu Indoor Stadium, Durgapur Air Pollution". aqicn.org. Air Quality Index China. (Use dmy dates from December 2022, Use ... Sidhu Kanhu Indoor Stadium is an indoor stadium in Durgapur, West Bengal, India. It was built by Durgapur Municipal Corporation ... It is played and practiced in the Sidhu-Kanhu indoor stadium and many state level tournament has been played here. This stadium ...
... outdoor air pollution was already causing 350,000 to 400,000 premature deaths a year. Indoor pollution contributed to the ... Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law (1995) Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law (2000) Air Pollution Prevention and ... "Ambient air quality standards". Boren, Zachary Davies (27 August 2015). "China air pollution: Beijing records its cleanest air ... "Air pollution in Northern China cuts life expectancy by 5.5 years". WebMD China. 12 August 2013. "Air pollution in China is ...
Parikh, Jyoti; Smith, Kirk; Laxmi, Vijay (1999). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Reflection on Gender Bias". Economic and Political ... They have been proposed for introduction to developing countries, particularly the cooking type in order to improve air quality ... "Case-control study of indoor cooking smoke exposure and cataract in Nepal and India". International Journal of Epidemiology. 34 ... income countries they did not appear to be effective at reducing illnesses such as pneumonia induced by breathing polluted air ...
However, low tech use of biomass, which still amounts for more than 10% of world energy needs may induce indoor air pollution ... The first world conference on pellets Duflo E, Greenstone M, Hanna R (2008). "Indoor air pollution, health and economic well- ... being". S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (1). Ezzati M, Kammen DM (November 2002). "The health impacts of exposure to indoor air pollution from ... Sustainable harvesting and use of renewable resources (i.e., maintaining a positive renewal rate) can reduce air pollution, ...
Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith (15 September 1989). "Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution ... After the study was published, the ALCA formed the Foliage for Clean Air Council, later renamed the Plants for Clean Air ... Wolverton, B.C. (1997). How to Grow Fresh Air. Penguin Group. p. 21. "Plants For Clean Air Council To Cease Operations". Lawn ... In collaboration with NASA, the ALCA sponsored the NASA Clean Air Study, which was published in 1989. ...
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. Co-sponsored by: The American Lung Association (ALA), The ... US EPA and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission published a booklet on indoor air pollution that discusses MCS, among ... disorder Sensory processing sensitivity List of questionable diseases Environmental health Environmental medicine Indoor air ... exhibited by people with MCS were hypothesized by some to reflect broader sociological fears about industrial pollution and ...
However air pollution was a constant health threat; the houses lacked indoor plumbing. As demand for metallurgical coke ...
Indoor air pollution causes 56% of deaths and 80% of the global burden of disease for children under the age of five. Indoor ... Indoor air pollution is especially deadly for children; it is responsible for nearly 50% of pneumonia deaths in children under ... Education about indoor air pollution is a fundamental element of Project Gaia's mission, which it has pursued by spreading ... Indoor air pollution also disproportionately effects refugee, poor urban, and HIV/AIDs populations living in crowded and poorly ...
World Health Organization Page on Indoor Air Pollution Washington Post Article on Indoor Air Pollution in Asia IPS story on the ... Household air pollution (HAP) is a significant form of indoor air pollution mostly relating to cooking and heating methods used ... "Household air pollution and health". who.int. Retrieved 16 July 2021. "Household air pollution and health: fact sheet". WHO. 8 ... May 2008). "Indoor air pollution from unprocessed solid fuel use and pneumonia risk in children aged under five years: a ...
... noise level and air pollution abatement. However, to have the optimal effect on the indoor climate it is important that the ... "The biofiltration of indoor air: implications for air quality". Indoor Air. 10 (1): 39-46. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0668.2000. ... "Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement" (PDF). "Living green walls from Natural Greenwalls for offices ... and airway irritation and internal air pollution. Green walls can also purify the air from mould growth in building interiors ...
Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith (15 September 1989). "Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution ... "Feng Shui and indoor plants". Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2010. Englebert, Clear (2001). ... According to a NASA Clean Air Study, along with other plants such as golden pothos (Epipremnum aureum) and corn plant (Dracaena ... fragrans), Dracaena trifasciata is capable of purifying air by removing some pollutants such as formaldehyde, xylene, and ...
Wang Wei (25 July 2016). "Research to address health impact of indoor air pollution". china.org.cn. China.org.cn. Archived from ... "Clean Air Leadership Talks with the 2015 Haagen-Smit Clean Air Award Winners". California Air Resource Board. Archived from the ... Clean Air Asia. "..." cn.swisscham.org. Swiss Cham. Archived from the original on 21 July 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2018. " ... Such innovation included clean water resources, clean air and energy conservation. In 2015, the IEEPA worked together with non- ...
Nearly two million people are killed each year by indoor air pollution caused by open-fire cooking, mostly women and children, ... Wood burners can triple the level of harmful indoor air pollution. Each year 61,000 premature deaths are attributable to ... "Wood burners triple harmful indoor air pollution, study finds". TheGuardian.com. 18 December 2020. 1557: First patent issued ... To regulate air flow, there may be damper devices built into the stove, flue, and stove pipes, and there is usually an air ...
Wolverton, B. C.; Johnson, Anne; Bounds, Keith (15 September 1989). Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution ... NASA Clean Air Study, began in 1989 at the Stennis Space Center. ECOSTRESS, began June 2018 aboard the ISS. Chang'e 4 lunar ... Plants can metabolize carbon dioxide in the air to produce valuable oxygen, and can help control cabin humidity. Growing plants ... Zimmerman, Robert (September 2003). "Growing Pains". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 13 February 2019. Griffin, Amanda (17 ...
"Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-29. Retrieved ... This plant can be noted for its popularity as an indoor houseplant in part because of its air cleaning qualities as per a study ... It also applies as an air purifier. Contact with parts of plants may in some cases cause skin irritation and allergies. The ... done by NASA, removing trichloroethylene, benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, and other chemicals from the air. In general, the ...
Indoor air pollution is widespread, mostly from the burning of coal in the kitchen for cooking. Compounds released from fuel ... Issues include deforestation, soil degradation, air pollution, water pollution, garbage pollution, climate change and water ... Air Pollution". "Air Quality in Africa". Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 15 May 2013. Scorgie, Yvanne. "Air Quality ... The emissions from these solid fuels are the main causes of indoor air pollution. Climate change in Africa is an increasingly ...
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 24(2): 158-161. Taylor, Dean D., & Sabersky, R. H. (1974). Extrapolation to ... Another later project that Sabersky was involved with was the study of indoor air quality that involved smog and ozone. ... Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 25(10): 1028-1032. Sabersky, R. H. (1975). Further comments on heat transfer ... Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 24(2): 158-161. Petersen, G. A., & Sabersky, R. H. (1975). Measurements of ...
... have the potential to reduce household air pollution exposure by 20-98%. Indoor Air Pollution (IAP) exposure can be greatly ... Indoor air pollution and health - World Health Organization fact sheet. Amegah, A. K., & Jaakkola, J. J. (2016). Household air ... which causes harmful household air pollution and also contributes significantly to outdoor air pollution. The World Health ... According to the Global Burden of Disease study 1.6 million people died prematurely in 2017 as a result of indoor air pollution ...
Indoor air pollution has the same negative effects as environmental pollution. Sources include mold, pesticides and more. Find ... Article: Indoor Air Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution: Health Consequences, Policy, and... ... Clean Air at Home (American Lung Association) * Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality (Consumer Product Safety Commission ... Indoor Air in Homes and Coronavirus (COVID-19) (Environmental Protection Agency) * Volatile Organic Compounds Impact on Indoor ...
Indoor air pollution can pose a serious health threat. EPA studies indicate that the levels of many air pollutants may be two ... to five times higher in indoor air than outdoor air. In some cases, indoor air pollutants may even be 100 times higher than ... The content in this section focuses on the above potential sources of indoor air pollution. The next section discusses ... The clinician should consider the following possible sources of indoor air pollution when eliciting information on exposures. ...
... daily exposure to potentially hazardous particulate air pollution. Associations between indoor air pollutants and building ... In an Indoor Air study conducted in a suburb of the city of Kuopio, Finland, relatively short-lasting wood and candle burning ... Indoor exposure to air pollution studied. Date:. February 21, 2019. Source:. Wiley. Summary:. In an Indoor Air study conducted ... Clever Coating Turns Lampshades Into Indoor Air Purifiers. Aug. 16, 2023 Indoor air pollution may have met its match. ...
Sensory testing of indoor air. C. ISO/TC 146/SC 6/WG 20. Determination of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor air ... COST Action CA17136 - Indoor Air Pollution Network. Dr Nicola Carslaw. Room 132, Environment Building. University of York. York ...
August 14 - Cookstoves and Indoor Air Pollution (Part I) * August 14 - Cookstoves and Indoor Air Pollution (Part II) August 14 ... including the World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines for ambient and household air pollution. She also serves as a ... She has been involved with research concerning air pollution and health in the ambient, household and occupational environments ... She has contributed to several national and international technical assessments concerned with air quality, ...
Indoor Air Pollution Bjorn Lomborg, director of Copenhagen Consensus Center and adjunct professor at Copenhagen Business School ... the biggest environmental killer we face is actually indoor air pollution. … Electrification has ended the scourge of indoor ... Forbes: The Worlds Biggest Environmental Killer: Indoor Air Pollution. Bjorn Lomborg, director of Copenhagen Consensus Center ... Electrification Can Help Curb Deaths From Indoor Air Pollution. May 13, 2014 ...
Outdoor air pollution has received much-required attention in popular... ... closing the windows cannot guard one against air pollution. Indoor air pollution is also lethal like outdoor pollution and ... Indoor air pollution: the killer we dont talk about. Over one lakh children die in India annually because of household air ... Outdoor air pollution has received much-required attention in popular media. What is missing though in conversations is indoor ...
... the symptomatic impacts of other common indoor air pollutants from gas stoves, fireplaces, and environmental tobacco smoke have ... Although there is abundant clinical evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, ... Indoor air pollution and asthma. Results from a panel study Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1994 Jun;149(6):1400-6. doi: 10.1164/ ... We report here results of an analysis of associations between indoor pollution and several outcomes of respiratory morbidity in ...
... Gasses. Fungi/mold. Ventilation. How to measure. Diseases caused by indoor air pollution ... Examine effects of indoor air on rubber bands. * Utilize ozone/NO2 samplers to test indoor air ... Air Pollution. Definition. Causes. Sources: Point; Non-point. Effects on the human body. ... Read about gases, air pollution, diseasesSelected web-sites for student/teacher use:. http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/tools4s2. ...
... which reveals the indoor air pollution in Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) homes in the city is five times the national ... SRA designs curb air flow, worsen indoor air pollution. BySnehal Fernandes, Mumbai ... News / Cities / Mumbai News / SRA designs curb air flow, worsen indoor air pollution ... air into the household significantly contributed to indoor air pollution, and SRA architects should keep this factor central to ...
... place on an open frying pan with oil and found that these oil droplets could contribute significantly to indoor air pollution. ... of planning larger and more extensive studies to see how much indoor air pollution can contribute to indoor air pollution and ... The contribution to indoor air pollution due to the fluid dynamics of these hot oil droplets was not clearly known till date. ... Indoor air pollution kills millions worldwide Marston explained but we still do not know if cooking in a poorly ventilated ...
Learn more about indoor air pollution sources and how to reduce your exposure. ... Indoor air pollution is a serious environmental hazard, but there are ways to tackle it. ... Indoor plants are beneficial in eliminating contaminants that cause indoor air pollution.. Image: Beatriz Moraes/unsplash. ... 6 things you should know about air pollution and your health. *. Tackling air pollution can accelerate climate action - heres ...
... indoor air pollution can pose a risk to health. As we spend much time in our homes, it is important that the air is as clean as ... Just like outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution can pose a risk to health. As we spend much time in our homes, it is ... Indoor air pollution can come from sources outside the home, such as emissions from transport or smoke from neighbouring wood ... How to reduce or limit exposure to indoor air pollution. *Dont smoke indoors ...
... so that the air pollution source passes through the discharge passage (3), filtered and purified by a cleaning and filtration ... for discharging the air pollution source to an outdoor space (B). The intelligent control-driving processing device (5) ... assembly (D), and is discharged to the outdoor space (B), thereby allowing the indoor space (A) to have a clean air. ... for guiding the outdoor gas into an indoor space (A). The discharge passage (3) is connected to the gas-exchange processing ...
Chinas air purifier market is worth US$2.6 billion but poorer households are being left behind, writes Helen Roxburgh ... Awareness of indoor air pollution, however, has been much slower, even though indoor air can be far worse than outside. As well ... Yet concern over indoor air pollution has been mounting. At the time of the severe smog in 2013, there were only 3.1 million ... The government has focused on improving outdoor air quality in Chinas cities but has left indoor air quality to consumers and ...
Air quality is a big concern for large cities, but did you know that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air? Learn ... And while most air purifiers just capture indoor air pollutants in filters, the Molekule filter actually eliminates the ... Molekule has just launched a stylish and functional air purification system that offers a whole new indoor air experience. This ... starting in one home at a time but with the goal of eliminating indoor air pollution entirely. A noble goal indeed. ...
If you wish to reduce indoor air pollution, you have to keep things as dry as possible. This is why using a dehumidifier is ... Practical Ways to Reduce Indoor Air Pollution. April 10, 2023. by Carter Leave a Comment ... Using a suitable HVAC system can be key to ensuring that you can reduce indoor air pollution. These systems can efficiently ... Here are some practical ways to reduce indoor air pollution at home. ...
Greetings and welcome to We Blog the World, an online travel and lifestyle magazine dedicated to Transformative Travel!
Be Aware of Indoor Air Quality. Air pollution affects more than just outdoor air; dirty air can be inside every building you ... The 8 Best Ways to Use Air Purifiers. Using an air purifier can do much more than just improve your indoor air quality; it can ... 8 Ways to Get Clean Air in Your Home. You may not realize it, but indoor air is most likely anywhere between two and five times ... Improve Indoor Air Quality With Your Home Remodel. When you begin the process of remodeling your home, you are probably focused ...
... the link between indoor air pollution and pregnancy is becoming more clear. Learn how both mom and baby can be affected and ... How Indoor Air Pollution Affects Pregnancy. While it might not be visible, the link between indoor air pollution and pregnancy ... www.who.int/health-topics/air-pollution. Franklin P, Tan M, Hemy N, Hall GL. Maternal Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution and ... A good place to start for knowing air indoor air pollution risk is by testing or installing devices to measure harmful ...
This study evaluates the benefits and costs of three interventions affecting household air pollution caused by the use of solid ... Andhra Pradesh Priorities: Indoor Air Pollution, Larsen In a hurry? Download the full PDF summary. ... This makes household air pollution (HAP) one of the leading health risk factors in developing countries. ... This study evaluates the benefits and costs of three interventions affecting household air pollution caused by the use of solid ...
Heres the latest on optimizing ventilation and other air-clearing strategies. ... Poor air quality can drive you indoors, but do you know what youre breathing inside your home? ... Poor indoor air quality can contribute to health problems. Letting in fresh air, keeping air filters changed and using air ... Health impacts from indoor air. Poor indoor air quality can have health consequences that range from irritation of the eyes, ...
This review assesses the health effects associated with indoor air pollution exposures in GCC, including other air pollutants ( ... Commonly reported plausible health effects potentially associated with indoor air pollution were related to respiratory ... It was revealed that there is a lack of human health assessment studies on most indoor air pollutants in almost all GCC ... It is highly recommended that future indoor air quality (IAQ) studies in GCC should focus more on epidemiologic and ...
... developing countries burn biomass fuel in traditional stoves with incomplete combustion that leads to high indoor air pollution ... The data were collected using a pretested semistructured questionnaire and laser pm 2.5 meter for indoor particulate matter ... The concentration of indoor particulate matter was higher in households using biomass fuel than clean fuel. There was ... Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in India Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in ...
Affordable Air Filters: Breaking the Wall of Indoor Air Pollution Oyungerel Munkhbat ... Affordable Air Filters: Breaking the Wall of Indoor Air Pollution Oyungerel Munkhbat ... Shes also co-founding Airee Felt, an all organic indoor air purifier.. She holds a BSc Environmental Science from the National ... By capitalizing on low-cost local wool produced by herders, Oyungerel Munkhbat is able to produce affordable air purification ...
Health effects from indoor air pollutants can affect you greatly, so its important to avoid them. How can you spot these ... Unmasking the Hidden Threat: The Unseen Dangers of Indoor Air Pollution. "Air pollution is only outside, once Im indoors Ill ... EPA, Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/introduction-indoor-air-quality ... Home / Air Filtration / Unmasking the Hidden Threat: The Unseen Dangers of Indoor Air Pollution. ...
Google Announces New Maps Features, Including Indoor Live View, Weather and Air Pollution Layers, and Eco-Friendly Driving ... including improvements indoor navigation, weather and air pollution data, eco-friendly driving directions, and delivery and ... New weather and air quality layers are being added to Google Maps in the coming months too. The rollout will begin in Australia ... Google is expanding its Live View feature to indoor locations, providing AR overlays in Maps to help you find locations inside ...
The EPA estimates that the air inside our homes can be as more polluted than the air outside, and some of that pollution comes ... Yet because you often cant see or smell them, its difficult to know when your air has been compromised. Especially now that ...
... Pollution and ... Air pollution and decision making. Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of air pollution on cognition and brain ... "There are more and more papers showing that there is a cost with air pollution, and there is a cost for more and more people," ... used computer models to analyze the quality of indoor chess games and found that even with a slight increase in air pollution, ...
COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... COPD and chronic bronchitis risk of indoor air pollution from solid fuel: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
  • The CDC recommends using a fan to improve indoor air quality. (wmfe.org)
  • There are many ways to improve indoor air quality and advance safety in your work setting. (vaniman.com)
  • However, at present we lack a robust, standardised approach to rank the potential for different VOC to cause harm, which prevents effective action to improve indoor air quality and reduce impacts on human health. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The Netatmo Smart Weather Station allows you to take control of your home's indoor environment and improve indoor air quality. (netatmo.com)
  • Usually, the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate inpidual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is also lethal like outdoor pollution and considering that many studies say that we spend most of our time indoors, improper ventilation and disposal of household pollutants may actually be worse. (deccanherald.com)
  • One of the best ways to reduce air pollution is to avoid smoking or vaping indoors. (neighborgoods.net)
  • What is the link between pregnancy and air pollution that might be hiding indoors? (bistromd.com)
  • This summer, with wildfire smoke suffocating swaths of North America, we've been warned to stay indoors to avoid poor-quality air. (wmfe.org)
  • Air pollution is only outside, once I'm indoors I'll be fine. (vaniman.com)
  • Another approach to lowering the concentrations of indoor air pollutants in your home is to increase the amount of outdoor air coming indoors. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Because people spend a lot of time indoors, the quality of the air indoors can affect their health. (webbselectric.com)
  • Combustion pollutants found indoors include outdoor air, tobacco smoke, exhaust from car and lawn mower internal combustion engines, and some hobby activities such as welding, wood burning, and soldering. (webbselectric.com)
  • The most reliable way of improving the quality of the air we are breathing indoors is by eliminating every source of pollutants and ventilating with fresh outdoor air. (olansi.net)
  • Although these devices are excellent for reducing air pollution indoors, they do have their limitations. (olansi.net)
  • Counseling patients on protective measures, including being aware of current and predicted air quality levels, staying indoors, using air filtration , and using properly fitted N95 respirators when outdoors is also important for mitigating adverse effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Aug. 16, 2023 Indoor air pollution may have met its match. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Cite this: Air Pollution Tied to Postpartum Depression - Medscape - Oct 20, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Usually indoor air quality problems only cause discomfort. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Making sure that your building is well-ventilated and getting rid of pollutants can improve the quality of your indoor air. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The next section discusses additional potential exposure sources and pathways to hazardous substances in the home and environment that may also contribute to poor indoor air quality and pose exposure and health risks. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers found that the air quality inside SRA buildings was below average, in part due to lack of ventilation and poor interior design. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Air quality levels measured in the foyer, kitchen and sleeping area in these SRA houses exceeded average particulate matter (PM) 2.5 levels recorded in the entire slum household. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Despite 75-85% of the surveyed households using LPG stoves, PM2.5 inside/outside (I/O) air quality ratio exceeding 1.0 was recorded in 45.7% of Dharavi residences and 44.7% in Natwar Parekh tenements. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Environmentalists said many flats on a floor - as opposed to four - in SRA buildings has resulted in both poor indoor air quality and lack of sunlight due to the absence of cross-ventilation since windows are smaller. (hindustantimes.com)
  • For more information on wood-burning heaters, unflued gas heaters, mould or ozone generators, please visit our section on air quality fact sheets . (nsw.gov.au)
  • For information related to air quality in the workplace, please see WorkCover NSW or Safe Work Australia . (nsw.gov.au)
  • Since the announcement there have been significant improvements to China's air quality. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Keen to attract top-level talent, companies in the big cities are building offices with high quality air filtration systems, and hotels are advertising the air quality inside their guest rooms. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Air quality is a big concern for large cities, but did you know that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air? (cleantechies.com)
  • Learn more about why indoor air quality is so important in your bedroom . (cleantechies.com)
  • Indoor air quality is important to ensure you and your family stay as healthy as possible. (neighborgoods.net)
  • They can also smell, which affects the air quality. (neighborgoods.net)
  • It's no secret that vehicle and industrial emissions negatively impact air quality outdoors. (rabbitair.com)
  • With allergies and asthma on the rise, many people are wondering about the quality of the air they breathe. (rabbitair.com)
  • These exposure levels are 5-20 times the WHO's outdoor annual air quality guideline (AQG) of 10 μg/m3, and cause serious health effects including heart disease, stroke, lung cancer and respiratory diseases. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Poor indoor air quality can contribute to health problems. (wmfe.org)
  • Poor indoor air quality can have health consequences that range from irritation of the eyes, nose and throat to headaches and dizziness to asthma attacks. (wmfe.org)
  • A portable air purifier can be a good way to clean the air if outdoor air quality is poor. (wmfe.org)
  • Actually, working on indoor air quality makes you kind of crazy! (wmfe.org)
  • So check your local air quality index before cracking your windows, to be safe. (wmfe.org)
  • It is highly recommended that future indoor air quality (IAQ) studies in GCC should focus more on epidemiologic and intervention studies. (degruyter.com)
  • Indoor air quality may seem like an abstract concept, or perhaps it doesn't seem like a threat. (vaniman.com)
  • Most people don't realize how detrimental to their quality of life the air they breathe every day truly is. (vaniman.com)
  • New weather and air quality layers are being added to Google Maps in the coming months too. (macstories.net)
  • Against comparable opponents in the same tournament round, being exposed to different levels of air quality makes a difference for move quality and decision quality. (zmescience.com)
  • For their study, the researchers set up air quality sensors in the tournament venues and measured carbon dioxide, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and temperature. (zmescience.com)
  • You assume the air quality is great, right? (hightechdad.com)
  • Foobot is a relatively new product (launched in October 2015) that not only monitors indoor air quality, it can notify you of pollution "events" when bad air quality goes above a certain threshold. (hightechdad.com)
  • Why is indoor air quality important? (hightechdad.com)
  • Foobot recently compiled a list of indoor air quality facts that will hopefully make you a bit more aware of the importance. (hightechdad.com)
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ranks indoor air quality as a top five environmental risk to public health. (hightechdad.com)
  • 96% of homes have at least one indoor air quality issue . (hightechdad.com)
  • Many approaches to improving indoor air quality focus on removing carbon dioxide (CO2), but in fact it's not very harmful and distracts from the real problems: volatile organic compounds, fine particulate matter, and carbon monoxide. (hightechdad.com)
  • Honestly, our home's indoor air quality was not something I regularly thought about. (hightechdad.com)
  • In an ideal situation, you 1) plug it in to the power, 2) download the Foobot app for your iOS or Android device, 3) set up a Foobot account and 4) check your air quality. (hightechdad.com)
  • While the main goals of the energy performance legislation is to address the buildings' footprint in the external environment, the way that their conception and renovation will be thought should also take into account the indoor environment of buildings and how it impacts health and quality of life of inhabitants. (efanet.org)
  • From EFA's perspective, these considerations are not addressed in the European Commission proposal for a Directive and has published a statement highlighting the missed opportunity to tackle indoor air quality in the EPBD. (efanet.org)
  • At this precise moment where the COVID-19 pandemic has brought the issues of ventilation and air quality to the spotlight, EFA calls on the EU institutions to include indoor air quality criteria in the legislation around buildings. (efanet.org)
  • Indoor air quality is an arguably fragmented policy area, with no unified framework of action at the EU level. (efanet.org)
  • Strengthen the performance of buildings contribution to health and wellbeing by explicitly addressing indoor air quality . (efanet.org)
  • Define health quality standards for buildings, such as healthiness of built environments and indoor air quality. (efanet.org)
  • To this end, we call on the Commission to establish a harmonised indoor air quality monitoring and certification system through the adoption of a mandatory indoor air quality certificate for all new and renovated buildings. (efanet.org)
  • This paper uses a detailed chemical model to quantify the impact of 63 VOCs on indoor air quality. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • However, preliminary research into the effects of indoor air quality has confirmed that inside pollutants do exist and have a negative effect on people's health. (tedtodd.co.uk)
  • Air quality is affected by these emissions, so it is essential to minimise exposure to them. (tedtodd.co.uk)
  • Natural, organic and non-toxic flooring, such as wood, can have a massive impact on indoor air quality. (tedtodd.co.uk)
  • Try a few of these ideas to improve the indoor air quality in your home while escaping the heat outside. (senicaair.com)
  • Investigation of plants with respect to dust deposition and selection of species which can perform the dual functions of improving air quality and providing aesthetic value are needed for understanding the role of vegetation in air pollution mitigation approaches in real life environment. (aaqr.org)
  • This global report provides a review of policy actions of Member States per the mandate provided by UNEA Resolution 3/8 on Preventing and reducing air pollution to improve air quality globally. (org.in)
  • Take advantage of accurate, real-time measurements of your indoor air quality to get rid of indoor air pollution. (netatmo.com)
  • It is an acronym for volatile organic compounds, substances of natural or human origin that affect indoor air quality. (netatmo.com)
  • In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation can increase energy costs. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Indoor air monitoring in kitchens for particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOC), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) was conducted using indoor air quality monitors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These experts have created awareness, and residents around the globe are now showing keen interest in how they can get themselves high-quality air purifiers . (olansi.net)
  • The festival came as worries about air quality in India rose. (tristatehomepage.com)
  • A "hazardous" 400-500 level was recorded on the air quality index last week, more than 10 times the global safety threshold, which can cause acute and chronic bronchitis and asthma attacks. (tristatehomepage.com)
  • New Delhi tops the list almost every year among the many Indian cities with poor air quality, particularly in the winter, when the burning of crop residues in neighboring states coincides with cooler temperatures that trap deadly smoke. (tristatehomepage.com)
  • One of the most important yet most forgotten aspects of living healthy in your home is taking care of your air quality. (yellowbluetech.com)
  • The data in this list refers only to outdoor air quality and not indoor air quality, which caused an additional two million premature deaths in 2019. (wikipedia.org)
  • All data are valid for the year 2018-2022 and are taken from the IQAir 2022 World Air Quality Ranking All data are valid for the year 2020 and are taken from the Air Quality Life Index (ACLI) of the University of Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flight attendants had experienced symptoms attributed to cabin air quality on MD-80 aircraft. (cdc.gov)
  • Travelers, particularly people with underlying cardiorespiratory disease, should investigate the air quality at their destination. (cdc.gov)
  • The AirNow website provides basic information about local air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) ( Table 4-01 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Check the EPA's Air Quality Index (AQI) at AirNow.gov to see the current air quality conditions for your location. (cdc.gov)
  • When PM 2.5 levels are above 12, this means that air quality is more likely to affect your health. (cdc.gov)
  • Wildfires produce high volumes of smoke each year, leading to unhealthy air quality levels, sometimes hundreds of miles away from the fire. (cdc.gov)
  • Staying aware of current and predicted local air quality conditions using AirNow or other tools. (cdc.gov)
  • Going to a designated cleaner air shelter (such as a school gymnasium, buildings at public fairgrounds, or a civic auditorium) during times of poor air quality. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinician should consider the following possible sources of indoor air pollution when eliciting information on exposures. (cdc.gov)
  • This review assesses the health effects associated with indoor air pollution exposures in GCC, including other air pollutants (siloxanes, flame retardants, synthetic phenolic antioxidants) which were not explored in a previous study. (degruyter.com)
  • Travelers should be mindful of, and limit exposures to, outdoor and indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide ( Table 4-02 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ambient air pollution exposures were assessed based on maternal residential addresses using monthly averages of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), PM ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide, and ozone from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitoring stations. (medscape.com)
  • The content in this section focuses on the above potential sources of indoor air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • Specific sources of indoor air pollution in your home are listed later in this section. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Other potential sources of indoor air pollutants include cooking or combustion sources (e.g., kerosene, coal, wood, animal dung). (cdc.gov)
  • Major sources of indoor carbon monoxide include methane gas ranges and ovens, unvented gas or kerosene space heaters, and coal- or wood-burning stoves. (cdc.gov)
  • Associations between indoor air pollutants and building ventilation or cooking were also observed. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Insufficient natural ventilation in older houses further elevates the indoor levels of the hazardous particles. (sciencedaily.com)
  • 22, 2021 Having good room ventilation to dilute and disperse indoor air pollutants has long been recognized, and with the COVID-19 pandemic its importance has become all the more heightened. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The study also found that infiltration of ambient (outdoor) air into the household significantly contributed to indoor air pollution, and SRA architects should keep this factor central to the design and construction of the exterior and ventilation systems. (hindustantimes.com)
  • He said that his team is in the process of planning larger and more extensive studies to see how much indoor air pollution can contribute to indoor air pollution and if improved ventilation could help reduce and remove these ultrafine aerosols. (news-medical.net)
  • They are planning to test "indoor air curtains" that could be part of the ventilation systems to see if they can protect against these aerosols of oil droplets. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, the influence of ventilation conditions due to different indoor environments was also investigated. (degruyter.com)
  • Measured ventilation levels and indoor air velocities in most buildings failed to meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) threshold limits of 8 L/s/p and 0.18-0.25 m/s, respectively. (degruyter.com)
  • While the use of appliances and tools such as air purifiers and CO2 sensors, promoted by several countries during the COVID-19 pandemic, is useful, healthy indoor air should be based on EU level legislative provisions linking ventilation, health and energy performance of new and renovated buildings. (efanet.org)
  • A poorly maintained ventilation or air conditioning system can also cause pollution. (netatmo.com)
  • The second approach -- outdoor air ventilation -- is also effective and commonly employed. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Ventilation methods include installing an exhaust fan close to the source of contaminants, increasing outdoor air flows in mechanical ventilation systems, and opening windows, especially when pollutant sources are in use. (justcalljohns.com)
  • The third approach -- air cleaning -- is not generally regarded as sufficient in itself, but is sometimes used to supplement source control and ventilation. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Air filters, electronic particle air cleaners, and ionizers are often used to remove airborne particles, and gas adsorbing material is sometimes used to remove gaseous contaminants when source control and ventilation are inadequate. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Opening windows and doors, operating window or attic fans, when the weather permits, or running a window air conditioner with the vent control open increases the outdoor ventilation rate. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Local bathroom or kitchen fans that exhaust outdoors remove contaminants directly from the room where the fan is located and also increase the outdoor air ventilation rate. (justcalljohns.com)
  • At the time of the severe smog in 2013, there were only 3.1 million air purifiers in China, according to business intelligence company Euromonitor. (chinadialogue.net)
  • By the end of this year the analyst predicts a doubling in size to 7.5 million air purifiers. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Unique technology in the Molekule ensures that it is extremely quiet compared to conventional air purifiers, and is infinitely more effective, able to completely replace the air in a 600 square foot room (large living room) twice an hour. (cleantechies.com)
  • And while most air purifiers just capture indoor air pollutants in filters, the Molekule filter actually eliminates the pollutants entirely. (cleantechies.com)
  • Letting in fresh air, keeping air filters changed and using air purifiers can help. (wmfe.org)
  • If you are hoping to buy any of the best air purifiers , then this air purifier postis just what you need. (olansi.net)
  • Let's get things started with a brief background on air purifiers and why getting these devices have become an absolute necessity. (olansi.net)
  • Can Air Purifiers provide any solution to this? (olansi.net)
  • Dynamic air purifiers are helpful when methods like that are not possible or inadequate. (olansi.net)
  • Air purifiers, equally called air sanitizers, are meant for filtering air within one room. (olansi.net)
  • What are air purifiers good for? (olansi.net)
  • According to several tests and uses of air purifiers , it has been verified that these devices are an excellent piece for ridding an indoor space of a considerable amount of air pollutants. (olansi.net)
  • But for some apparent reasons, specific experts are refusing to link the health improvement of these individuals to the use of air purifiers . (olansi.net)
  • But that is not going to change the fact that air purifiers are helping to reduce how people expose themselves to airborne diseases. (olansi.net)
  • Indoor plants are beneficial in eliminating contaminants that cause indoor air pollution. (weforum.org)
  • Plus, sometimes outdoor air wafting in through your windows can contain troublesome contaminants, like wildfire smoke, pollen and other allergens. (wmfe.org)
  • The second thing you can do is called source control, which is "keeping sources of contaminants out of the indoor environment if you can," says Pruitt, including pests, mold and pollen. (wmfe.org)
  • This involves minimizing the use of products and materials that cause indoor pollution, employing good hygiene practices to minimize biological contaminants (including the control of humidity and moisture, and occasional cleaning and disinfection of wet or moist surfaces), and using good housekeeping practices to control particles. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Respirators are specifically designed to remove contaminants from the air or to provide clean respirable air from another source. (cdc.gov)
  • Over one lakh children die in India annually because of household air pollution, says study. (deccanherald.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) suggests air and household air pollution causes about seven million premature deaths each year. (bistromd.com)
  • This makes household air pollution (HAP) one of the leading health risk factors in developing countries. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • This study evaluates the benefits and costs of three interventions affecting household air pollution caused by the use of solid fuels for cooking. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Household air pollution can result from fuels that are used for cooking, indoor tobacco smoking, insecticides and pest controls, and building materials and chemicals used for cleaning purposes [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Of course, Molekule also captures the big stuff that we can see: visible particles like dust, pet dander, and pollen are all picked up by the filter, as are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), given off by paints, carpet, and furniture, and it also eliminates mold and bacteria from the air while eliminating odors, too. (cleantechies.com)
  • Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are chemicals that vaporize into the air, which can linger for long periods of time and cause a variety of unpleasant experiences. (vaniman.com)
  • As the only air purifier that destroys pollutants at a molecular level, the name Molekule (molecule with a 'k') seemed to fit. (cleantechies.com)
  • What Can a HEPA Air Purifier Do For You? (rabbitair.com)
  • What Is a HEPA Air Purifier? (rabbitair.com)
  • She's also co-founding Airee Felt, an all organic indoor air purifier. (falling-walls.com)
  • Although there is abundant clinical evidence of asthmatic responses to indoor aeroallergens, the symptomatic impacts of other common indoor air pollutants from gas stoves, fireplaces, and environmental tobacco smoke have been less well characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have reported the negative impacts of air pollution on cognition and brain health. (zmescience.com)
  • Air pollution is among the biggest health problems of modern industrial society and is responsible for more than 10 percent of all deaths worldwide (nearly 4.5 million premature deaths in 2019), according to The Lancet. (wikipedia.org)
  • One Harvard study suggests exposure to high particulate matter pollution, specifically in the third trimester, can increase the risk for autism. (bistromd.com)
  • Interestingly, the same high exposure of high particulate matter pollution earlier in pregnancy was not associated with increased autism risk. (bistromd.com)
  • In addition to particulate matter pollution, the modeled potential loss of life expectancy of the population due to particulate matter pollution is given. (wikipedia.org)
  • When it comes to indoor pollution, you may have already heard of VOCs. (netatmo.com)
  • Indoor air pollution can come from sources outside the home, such as emissions from transport or smoke from neighbouring wood heaters, and from sources within homes. (nsw.gov.au)
  • With industrial waste and the ever increasing amount of car emissions contaminating our air, it is easy to blame exte. (rabbitair.com)
  • Pollutants of indoor air such as mould, dampness, heating/cooking emissions and tobacco smoke can be found everywhere. (efanet.org)
  • Indoor air is subject to emissions of chemicals from numerous sources. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The dust particles can be released directly as primary or formed through gas-to-particle conversion as secondary emissions in air. (aaqr.org)
  • The first thing to do to tackle indoor pollution is to air for 10 to 15 minutes in the morning and evening, to ventilate effectively, and to limit pollutant emissions as far as possible. (netatmo.com)
  • Reactive Chlorine Emissions from Cleaning and Reactive Nitrogen Chemistry in an Indoor Athletic Facility. (ucdenver.edu)
  • And with increased pollen in the air for a longer period each year, these symptoms are not likely to lessen. (vaniman.com)
  • We all know about outdoor smog, pollen and pollution in general. (hightechdad.com)
  • While windows and fans and HVAC systems frequently filter out dust, particles and pollen from the outside, there are other things that can "pollute" your indoor breathing space. (hightechdad.com)
  • Finally, let's not forget the outdoor air: it may be fresh air needed to clean up your indoor air, but it is also yet another source of pollution: pesticides, exhaust fumes, pollen, dust, and other pollutants are well known. (netatmo.com)
  • It can conveniently filter pollen, smoke, dust particles from surrounding air. (olansi.net)
  • The study showed that occupational exposure to multiple kitchen indoor air pollutants (ultrafine particles, PM 2.5 , PM 1 , TVOC, CO, CO 2 ) and FTIR-derived compounds can be associated with a decline in lung function (restrictive and obstructive patterns) in kitchen workers with microalbuminuria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These indoor aerosols also contains fatty acids, short-chain aldehydes, higher aldehydes, and fine and ultrafine particles (UFP) and pose risks for cooks in commercial kitchens [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dark side about this type of arrangement is that it could trap dangerous air particles inside your home. (olansi.net)
  • Based on a recent report that was published by EPA, exposing oneself to air pollutants like smoke particles for an extended period could bring about bronchitis, reducing how your lung function, and sudden death if the case is not appropriately treated. (olansi.net)
  • Particles in the air like dust, dirt, soot, and smoke are one kind of air pollution called particulate matter. (cdc.gov)
  • Wildfire smoke can affect people even if they are not near the fire source, due to exposure to particles of PM 2.5 , which are inhalable air pollutants with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 microns. (cdc.gov)
  • Human activities such as the use of air fresheners, cleaning products and even cosmetics, are sources of multiple pollutants of indoor spaces. (hightechdad.com)
  • Air concentrations of PM2.5 from the use of solid biomass cooking fuels often reach several hundred micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m3) in the kitchen, and well over one hundred micrograms in the living and sleeping environments. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • PM2.5 concentrations variated from 14 to 70 micrograms per cubic meter of air - levels found in most US cities. (zmescience.com)
  • The following list of countries by air pollution sorts the countries of the world according to their average measured concentration of particulate matter (PM2.5) in micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m³). (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of indoor air pollution are plentiful. (weforum.org)
  • There are many causes of indoor air pollution, and thankfully a fair amount of ways to combat it. (yellowbluetech.com)
  • The PECO process uses similar technology as a photovoltaic cell to generate a chemical reaction that breaks down pollutants and eliminates them entirely from the home, and the resulting output is totally clean: trace amounts of water, carbon dioxide and elements (like Nitrogen), which are all naturally found in air. (cleantechies.com)
  • We report here results of an analysis of associations between indoor pollution and several outcomes of respiratory morbidity in a population of adult asthmatics residing in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area. (nih.gov)
  • Most everyone knows and understands that the air outside is full of pollutants that can irritate the respiratory sys. (rabbitair.com)
  • Commonly reported plausible health effects potentially associated with indoor air pollution were related to respiratory symptoms and sick building syndrome (SBS). (degruyter.com)
  • Most of the households in developing countries burn biomass fuel in traditional stoves with incomplete combustion that leads to high indoor air pollution and acute respiratory infections. (hindawi.com)
  • For anyone with allergy problems, asthma, or other respiratory issues, this can be a problem thanks to possible indoor air pollution. (senicaair.com)
  • Indoor air pollution and lower respiratory tract infections in children: report of a symposium held at the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology, Paris, 4 September 2006, presenting preliminary results of a randomized intervention trial in Guatemala and a workshop discussing the implication for policy, advocacy and future research. (who.int)
  • Dr Randeep Guleria, Chairman, Institute of Internal Medicine, Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Medanta, on the long-term impact of air pollution on one\u2019s health, a dire need for a change in policy and effects of long COVID. (wn.com)
  • Reported by: Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Br, Div of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • In an Indoor Air study conducted in a suburb of the city of Kuopio, Finland, relatively short-lasting wood and candle burning of a few hours increased residents' daily exposure to potentially hazardous particulate air pollution. (sciencedaily.com)
  • These findings suggest that long-term antepartum and postpartum air pollution exposure is a potentially modifiable environmental risk factor for PPD and an important public health issue to address for improved maternal mental health," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • Routine checks for mold are also recommended in indoor spaces. (bistromd.com)
  • Mold spores are sneaky, in that they can enter an indoor space by floating through open passageways (windows, doors, vents, etc.), or they can attach to clothing, shoes, backpacks, or things that can be carried in and out with foot traffic. (vaniman.com)
  • Over time, dust, dirt, mold, and droppings can accumulate in your ducts and contaminate the air you breathe. (senicaair.com)
  • May 12, 2021 Coal combustion by power plants and industry pollutes the air, causing many governments to implement mitigation actions and encourage cleaner forms of energy. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Mar. 2, 2021 If you're looking for an indoor space with a low level of particulate air pollution, a commercial airliner flying at cruising altitude may be your best option. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Students will learn about indoor air pollutants the types and legal concentrations and affects on human health. (uni.edu)
  • EPA studies indicate that the levels of many air pollutants may be two to five times higher in indoor air than outdoor air. (cdc.gov)
  • The study found that the local outdoor levels of certain pollutants and ozone were the most important determinants of indoor levels of the same air pollutants. (sciencedaily.com)
  • A separate 2016 study concluded that higher levels of air pollution decreased worker productivity. (chinadialogue.net)
  • The exact amount of pollution levels and which pollutants may increase this risk are still being researched. (bistromd.com)
  • Pollution levels were measured during these competitions. (zmescience.com)
  • We find that when individuals are exposed to higher levels of air pollution, they make more mistakes, and they make larger mistakes," study co-author Juan Palacios said in a statement. (zmescience.com)
  • Living in areas with high outdoor levels of pollutants usually results in high indoor levels. (webbselectric.com)
  • But on Saturday, unexpected rain and a strong wind improved the levels to 220, according to the government-run Central Pollution Control Board. (tristatehomepage.com)
  • Potential exposure misclassifications may also exist since indoor and personal exposure levels could not be estimated. (medscape.com)
  • High levels of air pollution and extreme hot and cold temperatures have been linked to increases in heart disease and deaths from heart attacks. (cdc.gov)
  • Developers such as Tishman Speyer are installing high-end clean air filtration in the core and shell of buildings across their whole China portfolio. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Limiting exposure to air pollutants is important for pregnant women who have asthma. (bistromd.com)
  • The Fort Collins commuter study: variability in personal exposure to air pollutants by microenvironment. (cdc.gov)
  • We reveal ways to help clean the air you breathe to lower the health effects of air pollution on pregnancy here! (bistromd.com)
  • pet dander, and dust mites all form the core of pollutants that make your indoor space an unhealthy place to live. (olansi.net)
  • Indoor air pollution and asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple logistic regression analysis suggests that the indoor sources of combustion have a statistically significant association with exacerbations of asthma. (nih.gov)
  • Not surprisingly, indoor or outdoor air pollution can exacerbate asthma symptoms. (bistromd.com)
  • Air pollution exposure during pregnancy can also increase the risk for the baby developing asthma later in life. (bistromd.com)
  • For patients living with allergy, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) clean buildings mean, first and foremost, healthy indoor air. (efanet.org)
  • Other studies were also carried out by EPA to show how these air purifying devices can be of help to those with asthma and allergies. (olansi.net)
  • Choose filters with a high MERV (minimum efficiency reporting value) rating, yet within the manufacturer's recommendations, and more pollutants, allergens, and bacteria will be filtered out of your air. (senicaair.com)
  • Most of us think of big cities and smog clouds when contemplating air pollution. (meetrv.com)
  • Authorities deployed water sprinklers and anti-smog guns to control the haze and many people used masks to escape the air pollution. (tristatehomepage.com)
  • Removing smoke from the equation can greatly decrease the risk of exposure to indoor pollution. (neighborgoods.net)
  • Smoke, industrial by-products, vehicle exhaust, and agriculture are some of the main contributors to air pollution. (bistromd.com)
  • One of the main concerns for maternal exposure to air pollution, especially second-hand smoke, is the increased risk for preterm birth and/or low birth weight babies. (bistromd.com)
  • And in addition to turning the sky orange, that smoke pollutes the air in several big ways. (vaniman.com)
  • Let friends and family members know they'll need to smoke outside because you need and want your air to be cleaner and easier to breathe. (senicaair.com)
  • Secondhand smoke from smoking tobacco is a primary contributor to indoor air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors focus on radon, a common indoor air pollutant that is the leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. (org.in)
  • New analysis by the University of Chicago found Chinese cities have cut PM2.5, tiny particulate matter in the air, by 32% on average since 2013. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Particulate matter , also known as particle pollution, in the air is considered microscopic liquid and solids that get inhaled with air. (bistromd.com)
  • Some air cleaners are highly effective at particle removal, while others, including most table-top models, are much less so. (justcalljohns.com)
  • For instance, you might place one near an open window to help exhaust indoor air to the outdoors. (wmfe.org)
  • Animals, indoor plants, and other living organisms also pollute indoor air. (netatmo.com)
  • By capitalizing on low-cost local wool produced by herders, Oyungerel Munkhbat is able to produce affordable air purification filters as efficient as the HEPA filter, preventing air pollution-related diseases. (falling-walls.com)
  • From air-purifying plants to advanced air purifying devices, the search has never stopped. (olansi.net)
  • Pollutants from fireplaces and woodstoves with no dedicated outdoor air supply can be back-drafted from the chimney into the living space, particularly in weatherized homes [US Environmental Protection Agency 2012a]. (cdc.gov)
  • Outdoor air pollution has received much-required attention in popular media. (deccanherald.com)
  • Just like outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution can pose a risk to health. (nsw.gov.au)
  • Advanced designs of new homes are starting to feature mechanical systems that bring outdoor air into the home. (justcalljohns.com)
  • Studies have shown that the air in our homes can be even more polluted than the outdoor air in big cities. (webbselectric.com)
  • India has the highest mortality rate due to indoor and outdoor air pollution sources [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 80 countries around the world, and the World Health Organization posts historical data on outdoor air pollution in urban areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Dust with a damp rag to pick up the dirt instead of moving it through the air. (senicaair.com)
  • The occurrence of dust is influenced by many parameters such as wind velocity, moisture in soil, vegetation cover, rainfall etc. and apart from naturally originating dust in the atmosphere, anthropogenic sources which generate pollution such as fossil fuel and biomass burning, building construction, industrial activities, resuspension of dust, transportation, cooking. (aaqr.org)
  • Mineral dust gets transported to distant places across the world through high speed winds after its generation in dry and arid regions (Asia and Africa) where it is considered as one of the key air pollutants ( Tegen and Fung, 1995 ). (aaqr.org)
  • Dust masks, surgical masks, and bandanas offer limited protection against severely polluted air. (cdc.gov)
  • The dry deposition of PM on foliage of indoor plants in the households of Delhi has been reported in this study. (aaqr.org)
  • Chess offers the perfect setting to evaluate how air pollution affects skilled individuals making strategic decisions, the researchers argued. (zmescience.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is a serious issue as it affects your health, it has already been discussed by scientists and is increasingly publicised in the media. (netatmo.com)
  • Very few of the households using solid fuels in Andhra Pradesh use improved biomass cookstoves with more efficient, cleaner burning and less pollution. (copenhagenconsensus.com)
  • Yet concern over indoor air pollution has been mounting. (chinadialogue.net)
  • Since the 1970s, it has become clear air pollution and pregnancy is a concern for both the mother and developing fetus. (bistromd.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is a big concern in developing countries where low to middle-income families use in-home fires for cooking and heating. (bistromd.com)
  • Once you start learning about possible indoor air pollutants, it may be difficult to stop noticing them, warns Katherine Pruitt , national senior director for policy at the American Lung Association. (wmfe.org)
  • A collaboration between Chinese developer Sino Ocean Group, American real estate firm Delos, the Mayo Clinic and SuperImpose Architecture, the research centre is designed to generate evidence on how to create healthier indoor spaces in future homes and offices. (chinadialogue.net)