Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.CaliforniaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)BostonCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.FiresHumidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RomeSulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)LondonKerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Los AngelesCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.United StatesPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.MexicoGermany, EastOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.New JerseySoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.GeorgiaBronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.GermanyCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.TokyoAtmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)GuatemalaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study. (1/1407)

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide and the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years. (2/1407)

BACKGROUND: The objective of the investigation was to test the hypothesis that exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has a causal influence on the occurrence of bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age. METHODS: A nested case-control study with 153 one-to-one matched pairs was conducted within a cohort of 3754 children born in Oslo in 1992/93. Cases were children who developed > or = 2 episodes of bronchial obstruction or one episode lasting >4 weeks. Controls were matched for date of birth. Exposure measurements were performed in the same 14-day period within matched pairs. The NO2 exposure was measured with personal samplers carried close to each child and by stationary samplers outdoors and indoors. RESULTS: Few children (4.6%) were exposed to levels of NO2 > or = 30 microg/m3 (average concentration during a 14-day period). In the 153 matched pairs, the mean level of NO2 was 15.65 microg/m3 (+/-0.60, SE) among cases and 15.37 (+/-0.54) among controls (paired t = 0.38, P = 0.71). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that NO2 exposure at levels observed in this study has no detectable effect on the risk of developing bronchial obstruction in children below 2 years of age.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (3/1407)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Contributory and exacerbating roles of gaseous ammonia and organic dust in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis. (4/1407)

Pigs reared commercially indoors are exposed to air heavily contaminated with particulate and gaseous pollutants. Epidemiological surveys have shown an association between the levels of these pollutants and the severity of lesions associated with the upper respiratory tract disease of swine atrophic rhinitis. This study investigated the role of aerial pollutants in the etiology of atrophic rhinitis induced by Pasteurella multocida. Forty, 1-week-old Large White piglets were weaned and divided into eight groups designated A to H. The groups were housed in Rochester exposure chambers and continuously exposed to the following pollutants: ovalbumin (groups A and B), ammonia (groups C and D), ovalbumin plus ammonia (groups E and F), and unpolluted air (groups G and H). The concentrations of pollutants used were 20 mg m-3 total mass and 5 mg m-3 respirable mass for ovalbumin dust and 50 ppm for ammonia. One week after exposure commenced, the pigs in groups A, C, E, and G were infected with P. multocida type D by intranasal inoculation. After 4 weeks of exposure to pollutants, the pigs were killed and the extent of turbinate atrophy was assessed with a morphometric index (MI). Control pigs kept in clean air and not inoculated with P. multocida (group H) had normal turbinate morphology with a mean MI of 41.12% (standard deviation [SD], +/- 1. 59%). In contrast, exposure to pollutants in the absence of P. multocida (groups B, D, and F) induced mild turbinate atrophy with mean MIs of 49.65% (SD, +/-1.96%), 51.04% (SD, +/-2.06%), and 49.88% (SD, +/-3.51%), respectively. A similar level of atrophy was also evoked by inoculation with P. multocida in the absence of pollutants (group G), giving a mean MI of 50.77% (SD, +/-2.07%). However, when P. multocida inoculation was combined with pollutant exposure (groups A, C, and E) moderate to severe turbinate atrophy occurred with mean MIs of 64.93% (SD, +/-4.64%), 59.18% (SD, +/-2.79%), and 73.30% (SD, +/-3.19%), respectively. The severity of atrophy was greatest in pigs exposed simultaneously to dust and ammonia. At the end of the exposure period, higher numbers of P. multocida bacteria were isolated from the tonsils than from the nasal membrane, per gram of tissue. The severity of turbinate atrophy in inoculated pigs was proportional to the number of P. multocida bacteria isolated from tonsils (r2 = 0.909, P < 0.05) and nasal membrane (r2 = 0.628, P < 0.05). These findings indicate that aerial pollutants contribute to the severity of lesions associated with atrophic rhinitis by facilitating colonization of the pig's upper respiratory tract by P. multocida and also by directly evoking mild atrophy.  (+info)

Double exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke. (5/1407)

One study after another is finding strong associations between a variety of human illness and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). A 1986 report by the U.S. Surgeon General concluded that ETS is a cause of disease, including lung cancer, in healthy nonsmokers. Other reports have documented causal associations between ETS and lower respiratory tract infections, middle ear disease and exacerbation of asthma in children, heart disease, retardation of fetal growth, sudden infant death syndrome, and nasal sinus cancer. However, the findings from many of these studies remain controversial. A number of scientists remain skeptical about the association between ETS and serious illness in nonsmokers, charging that scientific journals either fail to publish pro-tobacco findings and meta-analyses or disregard those that are published. They also claim that many epidemiological studies declare causal associations based on marginal odds ratios.  (+info)

Health impacts of domestic coal use in China. (6/1407)

Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fires fueled with high-arsenic coal. Coal samples in the region were found to contain up to 35,000 ppm arsenic. Chili peppers dried over high-arsenic coal fires adsorb 500 ppm arsenic on average. More than 10 million people in Guizhou Province and surrounding areas suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis. The excess fluorine is caused by eating corn dried over burning briquettes made from high-fluorine coals and high-fluorine clay binders. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed during coal combustion are believed to cause or contribute to the high incidence of esophageal and lung cancers in parts of China. Domestic coal combustion also has caused selenium poisoning and possibly mercury poisoning. Better knowledge of coal quality parameters may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals and macerals in coal may help predict the behavior of the potentially toxic components during coal combustion.  (+info)

Tobacco smoke exposure at one month of age and subsequent risk of SIDS--a prospective study. (7/1407)

The aim of this investigation was to identify the sources of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke at 1 month of age and to examine their relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Tasmanian Infant Health Survey was a prospective cohort study undertaken from 1988 to 1995. It involved 9,826 infants (89% of eligible infants) at higher risk of SIDS. Subsequently 53 eligible infants died of SIDS. Hospital interviews were available on 51 and home interviews on 35 SIDS infants. Urinary cotinine assays were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography (n = 100). Within a predictive model that explained 63% of urinary cotinine variance, the strongest predictor of cotinine and also of SIDS was maternal smoking, though the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking could not be separated. However, for particular smoking-related behaviors, there was a discordance between prediction of cotinine concentration and prediction of risk of SIDS. If smoking mothers did not smoke in the room with the baby, the cotinine level in the infant's urine was reduced by a little more than a half (p = 0.009), but this was not associated with a reduction in SIDS risk (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.55). Similarly, the presence of other adult resident smokers was associated with a 63% increase in urinary cotinine (p = 0.047) but not with increased SIDS risk (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.40). However, the study lacked the power to detect modest effects, that is, those altering risk less than twofold.  (+info)

Role of the indoor environment in determining the severity of asthma. (8/1407)

Allergen exposure can confound the management of asthma. To understand the potential mechanisms by which allergens increase the steroid requirements in atopic asthmatics, we examined the effects of allergens on glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) binding affinity and glucocorticoid (GC) responsiveness of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from atopic asthmatics. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) in the GCR binding affinity (Kd) was observed in ragweed-allergic asthmatics during ragweed pollen season compared with PBMC obtained before and after ragweed season. In vitro effects of allergen on PBMC GCR Kd were also examined by incubating PBMC from atopic asthmatics with allergen (ragweed and cat) versus Candida albicans. GCR binding affinity was significantly reduced after incubation with ragweed (p < 0.001) or cat allergen (p < 0.001) compared with baseline or C. albicans stimulation. This effect was limited to atopic asthmatics in that in vitro cat allergen incubation for 48 h failed to significantly alter GCR binding affinity in nonasthmatic, atopic individuals. These allergen-induced reductions in GCR binding affinity also rendered the PBMC less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of hydrocortisone and dexamethasone on allergen-induced proliferation (p < 0.01). To test the hypothesis that allergen-induced alterations in GCR binding affinity were cytokine-induced, we examined the effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-4 neutralization using anticytokine antibodies. Addition of both anti-IL-2 and anti-IL-4 antibodies resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) inhibition of allergen-induced alterations in GCR binding affinity. Furthermore incubation with cat allergen induced significantly higher concentrations of IL-2 (p = 0.03) and IL-4 (p = 0.02) by PBMC from atopic as compared with nonatopic subjects. Our current observations suggest that allergen exposure may contribute to poor asthma control by reducing GCR binding affinity in mononuclear cells. This appears to be mediated through IL-2 and IL-4. These findings may have important implications for novel approaches to the treatment of poorly controlled asthma.  (+info)

A third of the worlds population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are
The Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental Risks (SCHER), one of the independent scientific committees managed by the Directorate-General for Health and Consumer Protection of the European Commission, reported that more than 900 different compounds have been detected in indoor air. Figure 1 shows the main indoor air pollutants and related sources. Most indoor pollutants derive from human activity (anthropogenic pollutants). Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of human respiration, and elevated levels may be reached in crowded indoor environments with inadequate air exchange, thus altering indoor air quality. Allergens - mainly related to the presence of dust, damp, pets or insects, but also penetrating from outdoors - and infectious agents play an important role in indoor pollution. Indoor air pollution is the eighth most important risk factor for disease, responsible for an estimated 2.7% of the global burden of disease (4% in low-income countries). Conservative estimates show that ...
... An indoor air pollutant is a substance that is present inside buildings that has a harmful health effect on the occupants of the building. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental hazard.. Indoor air pollutants have become a serious problem in recent years due to efforts by builders to make homes and other buildings more energy efficient. Modern buildings are built to restrict the flow of air from the inside out and vice versa. These new building practices work well to save energy. However, reduced airflow in a building can cause air quality problems in three ways.. ...
Testimony of Paul Cammer on behalf of the Business Council on Indoor Air (BCIA) at a Congressional hearing on indoor air quality. Describes BCIA. Addresses the federal indoor air quality strategy and provisions of indoor air quality legislation introduced in the House. Questions the need for legislation. Discusses the bulding-systems approach, research, public communication, technology-based stand... read moreards, and interagency juristictional issues. read less. ...
indoor air quality manufacturers indoor air quality suppliers Directory - Browse indoor air quality products,Choose Quality indoor air quality manufacturers, suppliers, factory at B2BAGE
02/24/2003 - Reiteration of Existing OSHA Policy on Indoor Air Quality: Office Temperature/Humidity and Environmental Tobacco Smoke.
Solutions to Indoor Air Pollution - One of the best solutions to indoor air pollution is ventilation. Learn more solutions to indoor air pollution and to breathing more easily.
The impact of building and decoration materials on indoor air quality (IAQ) is now well known and recognized [1, 2]. For many Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) found in indoor environments (formaldehyde, α-pinene,…), the main sources are located inside the building [3]. Moreover, the development of low energy buildings which promotes more and more airtight constructions tends to raise indoor pollutant concentration levels. Therefore, indoor air quality became a major public health issue and, in France, a new legislation was implemented. The labeling of all building materials according to their emissions of VOCs is effective since 2013 (decree 2011-321, 23 March 2011), and the compulsory measurement of some pollutants in public buildings (formaldehyde and benzene) is being considered. In the near future, museum and libraries might be concerned.. The preservation of cultural heritage is also challenging as VOCs and carbonyl compounds may damage artwork exposed to the confined atmosphere of ...
Source Control. Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed; others, like gas stoves, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation can increase energy costs. Specific sources of indoor air pollution in your home are listed later in this section.. Ventilation Improvements. Another approach to lowering the concentrations of indoor air pollutants in your home is to increase the amount of outdoor air coming indoors. Most home heating and cooling systems, including forced air heating systems, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. Opening windows and doors, operating window or attic fans, when the weather permits, or running a window air conditioner with ...
Source Control. Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed; others, like gas stoves, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation can increase energy costs. Specific sources of indoor air pollution in your home are listed later in this section.. Ventilation Improvements. Another approach to lowering the concentrations of indoor air pollutants in your home is to increase the amount of outdoor air coming indoors. Most home heating and cooling systems, including forced air heating systems, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. Opening windows and doors, operating window or attic fans, when the weather permits, or running a window air conditioner with ...
Source Control. Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed; others, like gas stoves, can be adjusted to decrease the amount of emissions. In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation can increase energy costs. Specific sources of indoor air pollution in your home are listed later in this section.. Ventilation Improvements. Another approach to lowering the concentrations of indoor air pollutants in your home is to increase the amount of outdoor air coming indoors. Most home heating and cooling systems, including forced air heating systems, do not mechanically bring fresh air into the house. Opening windows and doors, operating window or attic fans, when the weather permits, or running a window air conditioner with ...
Maintaining indoor air quality has become a complicated challenge in todays world. In fact, in most cases we are our own worst enemy because many of the products we use are actually introducing toxins into the air we breathe! Every year, more people reporting lung disease, heart disease and other serious diseases due to exposure to airborne carcinogens.. In past decades, you might have thought you could get away from the toxins by going inside and shutting the door. But recent reports indicate our indoor air is now up to five times more toxic than our outdoor air.. This means the real fight to purify your air is going to take place indoors. One of the best ways to maintain good indoor air quality is to install the latest technology AC units such as ducted air conditioning Sydney.. In this post, meet nine of the most concerning airborne toxins and learn how to remove them from your indoor air supply. Some of the indoor air pollutants are discussed below:. ...
Article Common Indoor Air Pollutants. Is the indoor air you breathe healthy? According to the World Health Organization, 40% of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollutio...
American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE) news release on David Schleins testimony at a hearing on Indoor Air Pollution in Federal Buildings on the behalf of AFGE. Summarizes Schleins main points, including the citation of survey results indicating a widespread indoor air quality problem in government worksites. Discusses Schleins recommendation that an interagency Federal Indoor Air Q... read moreuality Council should be created. read less. ...
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. IAQ can be affected by gases (including carbon monoxide, radon, volatile organic compounds), particulates, microbial contaminants (mold, bacteria), or any mass or energy stressor that can induce adverse health conditions. Source control, filtration and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. Residential units can further improve indoor air quality by routine cleaning of carpets and area rugs. Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces, and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings. IAQ is part of indoor environmental quality (IEQ), which includes IAQ as well as other physical and psychological aspects of life indoors (e.g., ...
... assessments usually begin by conducting a visual inspection to identify areas/equipment that may be sources of pollutants, then determine their correlation with existing ventilation systems. Areas of potentially high pollutant concentrations are identified and air sampler units are installed. Air samples are analyzed for quantitative results of pollutant concentrations and evaluated to determine if there is a potential threat to health or the environment. Although Ontario does not have legislation that deals with indoor air quality, there are guidelines published by Health Canada, the Occupational Safety and Health Act(OSHA) and by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Comco Canada Inc. uses the standards published in these guidelines as well as best practices when conducting indoor air quality assessments.. ...
Did you know that the air you breathe inside your house can be polluted, too? Several things in your home contribute to indoor air pollution. This article tells you about the sources of indoor air pollution and gives you tips on how to eliminate them.
By Nate Adams. Weve all seen the studies: Our Indoor Air Quality is terrible! Its KILLING MILLIONS!!. The problem with these studies is that if youre like me you thought; "great, another scare tactic." Or "its really only a problem in Asia." Or of course, "Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) may be a problem in someone elses house, but not mine." Even if youve read that poor IAQ is being found to be a cause of childhood asthma and mental illness, or that air pollution is the single largest environmental health risk according to the World Health Organization, it still feels too remote to worry about it.. To further enforce the disconnect, short of a government study, there has been no clear way for the average person could gain even the vaguest insight into their indoor air quality (but heres a hint, if you use air "fresheners," you have an IAQ problem.). Well, thats all changed, no more guessing. Average Joes like you and me can now get a pretty good picture of how good or bad the air in our homes ...
People are one of the sources for deterioration of the indoor air quality. They worsen indoor air quality by their presence (respiration, bio-effluents), activities and habits. Through respiration, people decrease the oxygen concentration in the air of the occupied space and increase carbon dioxide and water vapor concentration in the indoor air as well as its temperature. The goal of the AIRMEN project is to find out if the rate of consumption of oxygen and emission of carbon dioxide (and water vapor) by people depends on the indoor air temperature as well as carbon dioxide concentration in the inhaled air. In order to achieve this goal a small climate chamber must be designed and constructed which allows for controlling and measuring both inflow and exposure parameters as well as for measuring outflow parameters. The principal goal of this paper is to present some important details, obtained by CFD simulations, from the design process of the climate chamber which precondition the air ...
Abstract The status of indoor air pollution and its control in China are reviewed by introducing the pollution characteristics of major indoor air pollutants, the strategies and measures adopted to...
How to improve indoor air quality? Indoor air quality can be worse than outdoor and the pollutants can be grouped into three categories: gaseous, particulate, and biological. Here are some tips on improving indoor air quality where you live and work.
How to improve indoor air quality? Indoor air quality can be worse than outdoor and the pollutants can be grouped into three categories: gaseous, particulate, and biological. Here are some tips on improving indoor air quality where you live and work.
Information about The Worlds Biggest Environmental Killer: Indoor Air Pollution. generalaire is always looking to bring you the latest in indoor air quality news and events
... About one out of five Americans suffers from allergies. An allergy is an exaggerated response from the immune system to a substance such as dust, pollen, pet dander or mold.
It is obvious that all humans desire to breathe clean air. In a progressively urbanized world, pollution and air quality are essential and hotly debated issues. More often than not, we tend to assume that air pollution is something that we face while outdoors in the form of that yellow haze in the air, smog, or ozone depletion. We tend to concentrate more on the outside and ignore the problem inside. Yet, indoor air quality is critical as it concerns all of us.. We spend around 90% of our time indoors, without the knowledge that the air inside our offices, homes, and buildings could be more polluted compared to outside air. For most of us, health risks indoors might be greater than outside. This is due to exposure to allergens, chemicals, particles, and pollutants. The elderly and children are more susceptible to indoor air pollution as they are the most exposed. However, since we all spend a lot of time indoors and that present-day buildings are constructed in such a way that they lock ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Indoor air quality and sources in schools and related health effects. AU - Annesi-Maesano, Isabella. AU - Baiz, Nour. AU - Banerjee, Soutrik. AU - Rudnai, P.. AU - Rive, Solenne. PY - 2013/11/17. Y1 - 2013/11/17. N2 - Good indoor air quality in schools is important to provide a safe, healthy, productive, and comfortable environment for students, teachers, and other school staff. However, existing studies demonstrated that various air pollutants are found in classrooms, sometimes at elevated concentrations. Data also indicated that poor air quality may impact childrens health, in particular respiratory health, attendance, and academic performance. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there are other adverse health effects that are less documented. Few data exist for teachers and other adults that work in schools. Allergic individuals seem to be at a higher risk for adverse respiratory health consequences. Air quality improvement represents an important measure for prevention of ...
We spend more of our time indoors than we do outdoors. People spend as much as 90% of their lives inside. If you think about it, a majority of things that we do are inside - sleeping, eating, working, relaxing, etc. The quality of our indoor air is not as high as the quality of outdoor air, which can lead to many health related risks and issues for everyone.. When most people think about air that can be damaging to their health they think about contaminants in an outdoor environment, but these people should be considering the damaging effects that indoor air can have on ones health. Inside air can be polluted from any number of sources. Some sources of interior pollution can be paints, tobacco smoke, cooking, cleaning products, heating the home, and fumes from building materials, just to name a few.. There have been studies that have shown that the levels of indoor pollutants can be 25% - 62% higher than the levels of outdoor toxins. These interior impurity levels can even get up to one hundred ...
In October 2012, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) convened a Research Training Institute on Household Air Pollution on the NIH campus in Bethesda, Maryland. The three-day training workshop aimed to develop expertise in indoor air pollution research. Faculty experts from academia, nongovernmental organizations, NIH and other government agencies gave lectures and hands-on demonstrations of cookstoves and emissions testing to about 20 trainee scientists from the U.S. and seven developing countries.. ...
March 2005. Abstract. In many rural areas of low-income countries, biomass fuel is the principal source of household energy, meaning that indoor air pollution (IAP) is a serious health problem. If exposure to IAP is greatest in areas where combustion occurs, primarily the kitchen, IAP will mostly affect the women who cook and the children whom they supervise. Using a 2000-2003 survey of 1638 rural households in Bangladesh, where biomass fuel provides more than 90 percent of household energy, we investigate (i) the extent to which the division of household responsibilities, household structure, and dimensions and location of kitchen facilities causally affect the health of women and children, taking into account optimizing behavior within households, and (ii) whether households act as if they are optimally sharing the burden of a disease. The results suggest that proximity to stoves adversely affects the respiratory health of women and the young children they supervise and that households appear ...
Exposure to air pollution has been linked to elevated blood pressure (BP) and hypertension, but most research has focused on short-term (hours, days, or months) exposures at relatively low concentrations. We examined the associations between long-term (3-year average) concentrations of outdoor PM and household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with solid fuels with BP and hypertension in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. Outdoor PM exposures were estimated at year of enrollment for 137,809 adults aged 35-70 years from 640 urban and rural communities in 21 countries using satellite and ground-based methods. Primary use of solid fuel for cooking was used as an indicator of HAP exposure, with analyses restricted to rural participants (n = 43,313) in 27 study centers in 10 countries. BP was measured following a standardized procedure and associations with air pollution examined with mixed-effect regression models, after adjustment for a comprehensive set of potential ...
Goal: Understand how to better operate and maintain buildings to ultimately prevent indoor air quality problems from happening. Also, gain an understanding of how many aspects of operation and maintenance can both improve and degrade indoor air quality.. ...
... by AirRadio at Humble Opinion. MPN: A6. Hurry! Limited time offer. Offer valid only while supplies last. Overview: AirRadio A6 simultaneously tracks five major factors of indoor air quality: PM2.5, PM10, Temperature, Humidity and Formaldehyde (HCHO).
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) problems are not limited to just homes. In fact, many office buildings have a wider variety of air pollution sources, such as office equipment, printing/copying, and industrial chemicals. Some of these buildings may be inadequately ventilated or mechanical ventilation systems may not be designed or operated to provide adequate amounts of outdoor air. In addition, sometimes external sources of pollutants like wildfires are beyond our control and systems are not adequately designed to handle these extreme cases. Finally, people generally have less control over the indoor environment in their offices than they do in their homes. As a result, there has been an increase in the incidence of reported health problems due to poor indoor air quality, which impacts employee productivity.. Examples of office air pollutants include gases and particles produced by tobacco smoking, those released by molds and bacteria that grow indoors on damp surfaces, and the volatile organic ...
AirRenew Essential Indoor Air Quality Drywall improves indoor air quality by capturing and converting formaldehyde into a safe, inert compound
Any type of building or home can have issues related to IAQ. New homes, offices, and schools are built to be tight and solid in order to conserve energy. This can lead to inadequate ventilation and less ventilation may lead to higher concentrations of indoor pollutants. Owners of existing buildings and homeowners are attempting to increase energy-saving and decrease heating and cooling costs by installing storm windows and insulation, caulking and weather stripping, and heating through natural resources. All buildings and homes need regular maintenance as they age. Paint and caulking deteriorate, pipes break, roofs leak, and so on, which can lead to problems with indoor air quality.. Indoor pollutants may cause discomfort and illness. People with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema, are the most sensitive and may become affected before an otherwise healthy person would even notice there was a problem. At extreme levels, they can even be fatal. IAQ pollutants have many sources and may ...
Rely on Grainger to carry a wide range of indoor air quality screening kits to accurately test homes and businesses for molds, allergens, toxins and more.
Read the latest hvac and indoor air quality news and research, and watch educational hvac and indoor air quality webinars and so much more.
Information about Latest News About Indoor Air Quality. generalaire is always looking to bring you the latest in indoor air quality news and events
Air filter manufacturer Filtrete has commissioned a major survey showing parents are not recognising the risks of indoor air pollution.
Pollution is one of todays biggest environmental problem. One in particular is indoor air pollution. But, what exactly is this specific type of pollution? How can you manage it? These are some of the questions that will be answered through this article.
An improved understanding of indoor air chemistry would significantly benefit human health. It is estimated that at least 15% of new-onset asthma cases can be attributed to workplace exposures. The 2011 American Thoracic Society report on work exacerbated asthma identified 1) better exposure assessment methods to identify and characterize the complex exposures in workplaces and 2) investigating pathophysiological mechanisms such as neurogenic inflammation and epithelial response to oxidant stress as two of the major research gaps for addressing work exacerbated asthma reduction. Unfortunately even though indoor air is identified as a significant link between occupational lung disease and its prevention/reduction, it has been poorly understood or characterized. Research in gas-phase and surface-phase chemistries, improved field and analytical sampling methods and mechanism-based toxicology may all be used to improve indoor air quality ...
Indoor air pollution poses many challenges to the health professional. When you just ended your home decoration, there are a large number of toxic gases in your home. Formaldehyde is the most dangerous one. Formaldehyde is a very common chemical and can be found in everywhere. In homes, the most significant sources of formaldehyde are likely to be pressed wood products made using adhesives that contain urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins. Pressed wood products made for indoor use include: particleboard (used as subflooring and shelving and in cabinetry and furniture); ...
Air Duct Cleaning Portland by J&M Services Are Your Portland Metro Area Indoor Air Pollution Experts, Call Us Today For Your Air Duct Cleaning Service.
indoor air pollution is a cross-cutting issue said mitchell. cutting down trees for fuel leads to deforestation and desertification and is linked to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. but it is also a gender issue as it affects the health of women who are most exposed to the indoor smoke and are often the last in the family to avail of medical treatment; and it affects childrens health causing respiratory problems ...
When hot oil meats a droplet of water in the frying pan, oil droplets explode in all directions. New research suggests they can also cause indoor air pollution.
Find indoor air pollution Books on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Poor indoor air quality poses serious risks to your health. Get familiar with the most common sources of indoor air pollutants and learn how to control them
Inhale and exhale. No, this is not just a yoga mantra; it is a reminder that your homes indoor air quality is important. How important? So it important it should be a mantra -your mantra! Trust us: there are too many threats that can weaken or destroy the indoor air quality in your home. Getting the facts about this problem is a high priority.. Why should you check the air quality of your home? Because you breathe it all day and all night long. If there is something in the ducts or ventilation system, such as microbes, mildew (or worse, animals), you and your family might be breathing in these toxic substances all day, every day.. ...
In this study, we attempt to mitigate household air pollution (HAP) through improved kitchen design. Field surveys were conducted in ten kitchens of rural western India, which were then modelled and...
Because people in industrialized countries spend as much of 80% to 90% of their time indoors, indoor air pollution has been ranked as one of the worlds greatest public health risks. The United Nations Development Program estimated (1998) that more than two million people die each year due to the presence of toxic indoor air, while other studies estimate that 14 times as many deaths occur globally from poor indoor air quality compared with outdoor air pollution. The economic consequences of polluted indoor air cant be ignored either; one Australian study estimated that the cost of unhealthy indoor air in that country exceeds $12 billion annually, measured in losses of worker productivity, higher medical costs, and increased absenteeism.. As indoor air pollution poses new concerns worldwide, cost effective and easy-to-implement methods are needed to eliminate or reduce ozone concentrations. Activated charcoal filters reduce air pollutants, but installation and maintenance costs can be high. Now, ...
Indoor air pollution from solid fuels 1.8 Unsafe water and poor sanitation 1.6 ...
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. Co-sponsored by: The American Lung Association (ALA), The ... US EPA and US Consumer Product Safety Commission published a booklet on indoor air pollution that discusses MCS, among other ... Behaviors exhibited by MCS sufferers may reflect broader sociological fears about industrial pollution and broader societal ... 485; see, for example, Whillock v. Delta Air Lines, 926 F.Supp. 1555 (N.D.Ga. 1995) http://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/ealr/vol25/ ...
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals. Co-sponsored by: The American Lung Association (ALA), The ... US EPA and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission published a booklet on indoor air pollution that discusses MCS, among ... behaviors exhibited by MCS sufferers were hypothesized by some to reflect broader sociological fears about industrial pollution ...
Fungi portal Bioaerosol Indoor air quality Mold growth, assessment, and remediation Mold health issues Sick building syndrome ... "Questions and Answers on Stachybotrys chartarum and other molds". Air Pollution & Respiratory Health. National Center for ... 17 (6): 430-6. Nelson, D. "Stachybotrys chartarum: the toxic indoor mold". APSnet. American Phytological Society. Archived from ... Samson RA, Houbraken J, Thrane U, Frisvad JC & Andersen B. (2010). Food and Indoor Fungi. CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, ...
"WHO Household (Indoor) Air Pollution". World Health Organization. "Health Impacts". Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves. "7 ... indoor air pollution, and respiratory diseases by the manufacture and distribution of highly efficient institutional rocket- ... An estimated seven million people die prematurely each year from air pollution, which is preventable with the InStove's rocket ... Three billion people cook on biomass each day, releasing carbon and particulate matter into the air. Three-stone cooking fires ...
"Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. "Green stoves to replace chullahs". The Times of India. 3 ... 2001). "INDOOR AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA - A MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN" (PDF). Indian Council of Medical ... Traditional fuel combustion is the primary source of indoor air pollution in India, causes between 300,000 and 400,000 deaths ... claim 300,000 to 400,000 people in India die of indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide poisoning every year because of ...
"Health effects of indoor air pollution". Retrieved 2006-07-26. Wirth N, Abou-Hamdan K, Spinosa A, Bohadana A, Martinet Y ( ... 555-8 Bentayeb, M; Simoni, M; Norback, D; Baldacci, S; Maio, S; Viegi, G; Annesi-Maesano, I (2013). "Indoor air pollution and ... Jafta, N; Jeena, PM; Barregard, L; Naidoo, RN (May 2015). "Childhood tuberculosis and exposure to indoor air pollution: a ... Others have suggested a system of tradable smoking pollution permits, similar to the cap-and-trade pollution permits systems ...
"Indoor air pollution and household energy". WHO and UNEP. 2011. "Indigenous Peoples' Forest Tenure in India". Asian Development ... it is a primary cause of India's near-permanent haze and air pollution. Forestry in India is more than just about wood and fuel ... However, the slash and burn causes damage to a dense forest, to soil, to flora and fauna, as well as pollution. The crop yields ...
"Environmental Analysis of Indoor Air Pollution" (PDF). CaluTech UV Air. Retrieved 2006-12-05. "Introduction to UV disinfection ... Air purification UVGI systems can be free-standing units with shielded UV lamps that use a fan to force air past the UV light. ... State UVGI publications by W. J. Kowalski] Residential and Commercial UVGI systems with detailed UV-C indoor air treatment ... ASHRAE covers UVGI and its applications in indoor air quality and building maintenance in "Ultraviolet Lamp Systems", Chapter ...
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 24(2): 158-161. Taylor, Dean D., & Sabersky, R. H. (1974). Extrapolation to ... Another later project that Sabersky was involved with was the study of indoor air quality that involved smog and ozone. ... Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 25(10): 1028-1032. Sabersky, R. H. (1975). Further comments on heat transfer ... Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. 24(2): 158-161. Petersen, G. A., & Sabersky, R. H. (1975). Measurements of ...
Parikh, Jyoti; Smith, Kirk; Laxmi, Vijay (1999). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Reflection on Gender Bias". Economic and Political ... They have been proposed for introduction to developing countries in order to improve air quality. In addition to their ... and they do not appear to be effective at reducing illnesses such as pneumonia induced by breathing polluted air, which may ... "Case-control study of indoor cooking smoke exposure and cataract in Nepal and India". International Journal of Epidemiology. 34 ...
Indoor air pollution causes 56% of deaths and 80% of the global burden of disease for children under the age of five. Indoor ... Indoor air pollution is especially deadly for children; it is responsible for nearly 50% of pneumonia deaths in children under ... Education about indoor air pollution is a fundamental element of Project Gaia's mission, which it has pursued by spreading ... Indoor air pollution also disproportionately effects refugee, poor urban, and HIV/AIDs populations living in crowded and poorly ...
In addition, solar lamps produce no indoor air pollution unlike kerosene lamps. However, solar lamps generally have a higher ... The use of solar energy minimizes the creation pollution indoors, where kerosene have been linked to cases of health issues. ...
"Interior Landscape Plants for Indoor Air Pollution Abatement" (PDF). ... This plant can be noted for its popularity as an indoor houseplant in part because of its air cleaning qualities as per a study ... done by NASA, removing trichloroethylene, benzene, formaldehyde, ammonia, and other chemicals from the air. In general, the ...
Indoor air pollution is widespread, mostly from the burning of coal in the kitchen for cooking. Compounds released from fuel ... Addressing the air pollution in big cities is often a big priority, even though the continent as a whole produces little air ... Air pollution in Africa is coming to the forefront and must not be ignored. For example, in South Africa the mercury levels are ... when more than one third of the total Disability Adjusted Life Years was lost as a result of exposure to indoor air pollution ...
BC Wolverton; WL Douglas; K Bounds (July 1989). A study of interior landscape plants for indoor air pollution abatement (PDF) ( ... The NASA Clean Air Study found D. trifasciata has potential to filter indoor air, removing 4 of the 5 main toxins involved in ... "Potted plants do not improve indoor air quality: a review and analysis of reported VOC removal efficiencies". Journal of ... in both the tropics outdoors in both pots and garden beds and as an indoor plant in temperate areas.[11] ...
Indoor air pollution from solid fuels 1.8 Unsafe water and poor sanitation 1.6 ... There are a few differences between the two, such as malnutrition, pollution, and unsafe sanitation, that reflect health ...
Indoor air pollution from solid fuels 1.8 Unsafe water and poor sanitation 1.6 ... This could be reducing air pollution or prohibiting endocrine-disrupting chemicals in food-handling equipment and food contact ... There are a few differences between the two, such as malnutrition, pollution, and unsafe sanitation, that reflect health ...
"Indoor air pollution", Le bien air chez soi, 24 July 2013 "Organic VS Hard dicount", Top santé, 2 April 2014 "Study : ... Air quality", La provence "Car indoor air pollution", Le Parisien, 7 July 2015 "WHO/IARC classifies radiofrequency ... The association also speaks about the exposure to indoor air pollution. "Our Homes contain more than 900 chemical substances in ... The association focuses on 10 priority areas: childhood, homes, nutrition, cosmetics, gardening, air pollution, mobile phones, ...
She works with OPIRG organizing an Indoor Air Pollution Awareness committee. Previous candidacies: Hamilton municipal election ... Co-creator and writer of "The Jane Show" to begin airing summer of 2006. Wrote and starred in "Now Watch This Drive" at the ... Supported the Kosovo War of 1998, but called for ground troops instead of air strikes. Received 1,728 votes, finishing fourth ... Has also suggested making public transportation free of charge to achieve reduced pollution levels.[4][permanent dead link] ...
Reduce child mortality: Modern energy can allow reliable access to better sources of water and lowers the indoor air pollution ... Smith, K.R (1998). "The National Burden of Diseases from Indoor Air Pollution in India." Mumbai, Indira Gandhi Institute of ... Improved maternal health: Energy development lowers a mother's risk from indoor air pollution or water borne illness. ...
Candles and Incense As Potential Sources of Indoor Air Pollution: Market Analysis And Literature Review. United States ... non-conductive coolant or thermal fluid in electric components as it does not conduct electricity and functions to displace air ...
Indoor air pollution from volatile organic compounds, including perfumes and perfumed products. Examples include soap, ... Highways are a major source of traffic-related air pollution such that there is an accumulation of air pollutants such as ... "AIR POLLUTION INCREASES PRETERM BIRTH RISK FOR WOMEN WITH ASTHMA". March 1, 2016. Retrieved 2016-03-29. Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, ... "Air Pollution Impacts on Infants and Children, UCLA Institute of the Environment and Sustainability". www.environment.ucla.edu ...
... plants have been shown to reduce indoor air pollution by the NASA Clean Air Study.[12] ... "Foliage Plants for Removing Indoor Air Pollutants from Energy-efficient Homes" (PDF). Retrieved 27 Dec 2013.. ...
Mathematical modeling is commonly used to determine human exposure to indoor air pollution. Studies have shown that humans ... Indoor air modeling requires information on a number of parameters including the air exchange rate, deposition rate, source ... CRC Press (2007) The Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality. U.S. EPA (2009). ... is very important when trying to determine air pollution exposure. In the absence of data obtained from direct observation, ...
... indoor air polllution). *Tropical and infectious diseases (neglected tropical diseases). *Air pollution ... Increased and intensified industrial and agricultural production and emission of toxic chemicals directly into the soil, air, ...
Indoor air pollution has the same negative effects as environmental pollution. Sources include mold, pesticides and more. Find ... Clean Air at Home (American Lung Association) * Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality (Consumer Product Safety Commission ... The primary NIH organization for research on Indoor Air Pollution is the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ... Air Cleaners and Air Filters in the Home (Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division) ...
Do you know what pollutants are threatening your indoor air quality? Learn about exposure to carbon monoxide, radon, pesticides ... What Is Indoor Air Pollution?. You cant see it, but sometimes you can smell it. Indoor air pollution can occur from a huge ... "Cooking up indoor air pollution: Emissions from natural gas stoves," "Indoor air quality: Scented products emit a bouquet of ... impact on indoor air quality," "Introduction to Indoor Air Quality," "Ozone generators that are sold as air cleaners," " ...
... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ...
So what can be done to put an end to indoor air pollution? Finding cleaner solutions is the main challenge. Gases, liquids and ... Indoor air pollution - the killer in the kitchen. Joint statement WHO/UNDP ... While the millions of deaths from well-known communicable diseases often make headlines, indoor air pollution remains a silent ... are marking World Rural Womens Day on 15 October 2004 by drawing attention to indoor air pollution - one of the major causes ...
Certain air pollutants can exist in high concentrations in indoor spaces and can trigger health problems. ... www.eea.europa.eu/signals/signals-2013/infographics/indoor-air-pollution or scan the QR code. ... Topics: Air pollution Environment and health We spend a large part of our time indoors - in our homes, workplaces, schools or ... External Data Spec Indoor Air Quality People, young and old, spend most of their time indoors, whether in homes, offices, ...
COST Action CA17136 - Indoor Air Pollution Network. Dr Nicola Carslaw. Room 132, Environment Building. University of York. York ... Indoor Air Quality management system. C. Notes. Liaisons A: Organizations that make an effective contribution to the work of ...
This is the Air Pollution and Respiratory Health home page. ... Georgia Department of Public Health, Indoor Air Qualityexternal ... On this page you can find state programs dealing with indoor air-related health inquiries. ...
US EPA says indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality ... Main causes of indoor air pollution. US EPA says indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the ... primary cause of indoor air quality problems. Inadequate ventilation can make matters worse. ...
One of the best solutions to indoor air pollution is ventilation. Learn more solutions to indoor air pollution and to breathing ... Ionizing Air Cleaners. If youve thought about buying an ionizing air cleaner to zap your indoor air pollutants, you may want ... increased ventilation may actually worsen indoor air pollution. If the outdoor air youre pulling in is filtered to remove ... The sources of indoor air pollution are many and varied, but so are the solutions. To learn more about this topic, be sure to ...
... an air pollution researcher at the University of California, Los Angeles. "But usually the indoor air is worse." ... There is no national standard for air inside buildings.) "Indoor pollution from gas stoves can reach levels that would be ... Coronavirus Lockdowns May Raise Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution. Smarter cooking and cleaning can lessen the risk ... Although federal regulations in the U.S. have spurred dramatic improvements in outdoor air quality, indoor air remains largely ...
Some laser printers release tiny particles into the air... ... Laser Printers Can Cause Indoor Air Pollution, Study Says. ... Some laser printers release tiny particles into the air that can enter the lungs and cause health problems, according to an ...
Find indoor air pollution Books on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information ... indoor air pollution Books. Related terms for "indoor air pollution ": air pollution books , indoor air books , indoor air ... Indoor Air Pollution Indoor Air Pollution has become a major topic in environmental research and health. Most people spend more ... Indoor Air Quality Engineering: Environmental Health and Control of Indoor Pollutants Written by experts, Indoor Air Quality ...
New research suggests they can also cause indoor air pollution. ... Oil droplets from frying pan can cause indoor air pollution. " ... "Its known that millions of deaths worldwide occur due to indoor air pollution, but we dont know yet how much cooking in ... "Were planning to conduct a detailed study to quantify how much impact kitchen-based aerosols have on indoor air pollution." ... potentially contributing to indoor air pollution. These tiny drops of oil could be inhaled, researchers warn.. ...
Reuters Health) - Seniors living in housing with poor indoor air quality may have healthier blood pressure when they use ... Seniors living in housing with poor indoor air quality may have healthier blood pressure when they use portable air filters ... "A simple intervention using inexpensive indoor air filtration units can help to lower both PM2.5 exposures and blood pressure ... FILE PHOTO: People assemble home made air purifiers during a workshop organized by Smart Air Filters at a local coffee shop in ...
How To Improve Indoor Air Quality: The Facts about Indoor Air Pollution. April 21, 2014. by Kory 3 Comments ... about How To Improve Indoor Air Quality: The Facts about Indoor Air Pollution ... You may think you dont need to be that worried about the air in your home, but consider this: 1. Indoor air pollution is 2 to ... Why? Because sources of pollution are everywhere in your home. The EPA also estimates that indoor air contains 5x more ...
"50% of all illness is caused by indoor air pollution." - EPA. "Indoor air pollution is wide spread. You are more likely to get ... "Indoor air pollution is Americas Number One Environmental Health Concern" - EPA. " ... HealingWell.com Forum , Diseases & Conditions , Allergies & Asthma , Indoor Air Pollution Select A Location. ****** Top of the ... sick from pollution in your home and office than from pollution in the air outside." - The American Lung Association. * The ...
Tagged Air Pollution, air pollution and health research, air quality, Air Quality Awareness, Air Quality Awareness Week, Air ... the danger of indoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution can be especially detrimental to older adults because studies show ... Quality Index, air research, asthma, Clean Air Act, indoor air pollution, Million Hearts, ozone Clearing the Air: EPA ... Tagged Administrator, Air, American Indian, climate change, grants, indoor air pollution, tribes Science for Sustainable and ...
Editor -- I thought Jane Kays series of articles on indoor air pollution were outstanding. The guidelines will enable ... Just wanted to send a quick note congratulating Jane Kay on the terrific reporting in her piece on indoor air pollutants. ... LETTERS TO HOME & GARDEN / Indoor air pollution is of concern to many. Published 4:00 am PDT, Wednesday, June 2, 2004 ... Editor -- That was a remarkable pair of articles on indoor air pollution. One of the best Ive seen written anywhere. I ...
Air pollutants like particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ... Air pollutants like particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ... Indoor air pollution is very much real and it can be five times or worse than outdoor air pollution. From everyday consumer ... Tips to avoid indoor air pollutionhttps://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/tips-to-avoid-indoor-air-pollution-5197331 ...
... place on an open frying pan with oil and found that these oil droplets could contribute significantly to indoor air pollution. ... of planning larger and more extensive studies to see how much indoor air pollution can contribute to indoor air pollution and ... The contribution to indoor air pollution due to the fluid dynamics of these hot oil droplets was not clearly known till date. ... Indoor air pollution kills millions worldwide Marston explained but we still do not know if cooking in a poorly ventilated ...
... common indoor air pollutants and their severe health effects, and purification techniques for indoor air pollution. Furthermore ... Nazaroff WW (2013) Four principles for achieving good indoor air quality. Indoor Air 23(5):353-356CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Li Y (2016) The "impurity" of indoor air. Indoor Air 26(1):3-5CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Wolkoff P, Nielsen GD (2001) Organic compounds in indoor air-their relevance for perceived indoor air quality? Atmos Environ 35 ...
Improve indoor air quality naturally and breathe easy. ... indoor air pollution levels are 2-5 times higher indoors than ... How Bad is Indoor Air Quality?. According the EPA, Americans spend 90% of their time indoors, where indoor air pollution levels ... Cure Indoor Air Pollution with Plants. NASA, in studies designed to find ways of improving indoor air quality in closed ... Eliminating all sources of indoor air pollution will be impossible. If the air outside is cleaner than the air indoors, there ...
in fact, about 5 percent of outdoor air pollution is due to smoke from indoors escaping, said mitchell. indoor air pollution ... this is twice as many deaths as estimated due to outdoor pollution. indoor air pollution could lead to an epidemic of breathing ... indoor air pollution - silent killer of women. t v padma. new delhi, jan 3, 2007 (ips) - women and young girls coughing and ... yet, indoor air pollution has been largely ignored by scientists. there have been too few measurements worldwide to determine ...
In addition, there was some association of TB with passive smoking, and also with indoor air pollution, though the evidence for ... and indoor air pollution from fuels such as wood and charcoal and the risk of infection, disease, and death from TB. Among ... "TB control programs might benefit from a focus on interventions aimed at reducing tobacco and indoor air pollution exposures, ... and five on indoor air pollution and TB. ... of tuberculosis with smoking and indoor air pollution. By Armen ...
... some indoor houseplants available at your local nursery have the ability to remove some contaminants from the inside air. In ... the experiments, plants were placed in a chamber for 24 hours and then the air in the chambers was checked for ... The Best House Plants for Indoor Air Pollution. By Barbara Raskauskas; Updated September 21, 2017 ... plan to place 15 to 20 plants around the house to more effectively tackle indoor air pollution. Avoid placing the plant ...
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) are marking World Rural Women's Day on 15 October 2004 by drawing attention to indoor air pollution - one of the major causes of death and disease in the world's poorest countries. (who.int)
  • The advice in Leviticus 14:33-48 for treating mold infested houses has contemporary meaning in the recent World Health Organization (WHO) document on damp and moldy indoor spaces [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In 2014, the World Health Organization initiated standards for allowable indoor air pollution, setting a standard of 10 micrograms of fine particulate per meter cubed. (emory.edu)
  • A new report from UNICEF finds that approximately two billion children worldwide currently live in areas with unhealthy air that exceed the annual limit for particle pollution set by the World Health Organization. (generalfilters.com)
  • This study intends to contribute for the understanding of the role of environmental factors, namely indoor air pollution, on asthma considering a risk group of different ages, and for the development of preventive measures, which are considered priority issues by the European Commission, according to the European Environmental Agency and the World Health Organization. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4.3 million people in 2012 lost their lives due to indoor air pollution. (generalfilters.com)
  • The challenge is immense because nearly 3 billion people worldwide use indoor cookstoves and are exposed daily to the pollution that this yields. (nih.gov)
  • In 2014, Clasen had an opportunity to expand his research to household air pollution by conducting a large randomized controlled trial in Rwanda that combined water filters with improved cookstoves. (emory.edu)
  • 2. Ditch air 'fresheners. (bewell.com)
  • Detergents, disinfectants and air fresheners contain a cocktail of chemicals. (asehaqld.org.au)
  • There are, of course, various materials used in buildings, carpets and new fittings, but also things we may choose to use, like air fresheners especially plug in ones, scented candles, cleaning products, especially the aerosol type and more. (healthunlocked.com)
  • We are all different, and I am certainly not intending to preach, but wouldn't it be good if we could reduce the use of scented candles and air fresheners especially? (healthunlocked.com)
  • Household cleaning products such as perfumed soaps, leather cleaners, toilet air fresheners and detergents, and laundry detergents are a common cause of indoor air pollution. (eartheclipse.com)
  • Most of the air fresheners that are available in the market today have a variety of ethylene-based glycol ethers. (firstcry.com)
  • Air fresheners also contain phthalates, an endocrine disruptor in babies, which interfere with hormone secretion in the body and affect development. (firstcry.com)
  • In 2018, the Swedish furniture retail giant launched their Better Air Now initiative, which aimed to turn rice straw into a renewable material source to be used in their products . (housebeautiful.com)
  • An air filter is seen in a first grade class on Tuesday, March 13, 2018, at Resurrection Elementary School in Los Angeles. (sbsun.com)
  • 3M's Filtrete™ Smart Air Filters will be available for purchase beginning spring 2018. (filtsep.com)
  • Nitrogen dioxide is heavier than air and, like smog, it can be trapped near the ice by a warmer layer of air on top. (wkar.org)
  • In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever the cause, and wherever it comes from, being able to identify indoor air pollution can help you and your loved ones breathe easier. (medicinenet.com)
  • They provide fresh oxygen to our lungs and planting a few indoor plants in your home with help you breathe clean and off course it gives that extra punch to your indoor décor. (indianexpress.com)
  • Besides enabling people to breathe better air at home, we hope that GUNRID will increase people s awareness of indoor air pollution, inspiring behavioural changes that contribute to a world of clean air, says Lena Pripp-Kovac, Head of Sustainability at Inter IKEA Group. (webwire.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is dust, dirt or gases in the air inside a building such as your home or workplace that harms us if we breathe it in. (blf.org.uk)
  • This means you may have more contact with things that affect the air you breathe. (blf.org.uk)
  • While we're going to great lengths to get into healthier routines and instil better habits in our families, we often overlook the things we can't see - like the air we breathe," said Dr Roshini Raj, clinical associate professor of medicine at the NYU School of Medicine, who carried out the survey. (filtsep.com)
  • Two years ago, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in Johannesburg the Global Partnership for Clean Indoor Air was launched with the backing of WHO and the international community. (who.int)
  • more encouraging news came from the partnership for clean indoor air (pcia) that was launched at the world summit on sustainable development in johannesburg in 2002. (solarcooking.org)
  • We look forward to helping more people add clean indoor air to the fresh and clean carpets and other surfaces in their homes that we clean. (healthway.com)
  • A study by the Ohio State University, published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology on Wednesday, found that adding plants and trees to landscapes near factories and other pollution sources could reduce air pollution by an average of 27 per cent. (yahoo.com)
  • The campaign to reduce air pollution caused by wood smoke also employs periodic bans on wood burning in a smoke reduction zone that includes Tacoma, Parkland, Spanaway, Fife, Milton, Lakewood, Puyallup, South Hill and other nearby areas. (thenewstribune.com)
  • Indoor air pollution can occur from a huge variety of chemicals, products, even pets. (medicinenet.com)
  • Photocatalysis has been used to remove major air pollutants, disinfect water, and oxidize various organic chemicals. (springer.com)
  • Researchers at Drexel University noted that the high-profile experiment that seemed to create the 'myth of houseplants as air purifiers' happened in 1989 when NASA, in search of ways to clean the air on space stations, declared that plants could be used to remove cancer-causing chemicals from the air. (yahoo.com)
  • Nevertheless, indoor problems persist because of faulty construction, complex building systems, deferred maintenance, new formulations of products and a growing recognition that our homes contribute to our body burden of chemicals. (mdpi.com)
  • Because sources of pollution are everywhere in your home. (filtersfast.com)
  • In 75 per cent of the counties analysed, it was cheaper to use plants to mitigate air pollution than it was to add technological interventions -- things like smokestack scrubbers -- to the sources of pollution, the team found. (yahoo.com)