The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The contamination of indoor air.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
The status of health in urban populations.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The motion of air currents.
All deaths reported in a given population.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Living facilities for humans.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The climate of a very small area.
Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/1638)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (2/1638)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (3/1638)

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/1638)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (5/1638)

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (6/1638)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Increased exhaled nitric oxide on days with high outdoor air pollution is of endogenous origin. (7/1638)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of outdoor air pollution on exhaled levels of endogenously released nitric oxide. To exclude bias from exogenous NO in the recovered exhaled air (residual NO or NO in dead volume) an experimental design was used that sampled NO of endogenous origin only. The validity of the presented experimental design was established in experiments where subjects were exposed to high levels of exogenous NO (cigarette smoke or 480 microg x m(-3) synthetic NO). Subsequent 1 min breathing and a final inhalation of NO-free air proved to be sufficient to attain pre-exposure values. Using the presented method detecting only endogenous NO in exhaled air, 18 subjects were sampled on 4 separate days with different levels of outdoor air pollution (read as an ambient NO level of 4, 30, 138 and 246 microg x m(-3)). On the 2 days with highest outdoor air pollution, exhaled NO was significantly (p<0.001) increased (67-78%) above the mean baseline value assessed on 4 days with virtually no outdoor air pollution. In conclusion, the level of endogenous nitric oxide in exhaled air is increased on days with high outdoor air pollution. The physiological implications of this findings need to be investigated further.  (+info)

Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (8/1638)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma.  (+info)

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

Some common examples of respiration disorders include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Some common types of environmental illness include:

1. Asthma and other respiratory allergies: These conditions are caused by exposure to airborne pollutants such as dust, pollen, and smoke.
2. Chemical sensitivity: This condition is caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment, such as pesticides, solvents, and cleaning products.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition is caused by skin contact with allergens such as latex, metals, and certain plants.
4. Mold-related illnesses: Exposure to mold can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and headaches.
5. Radon exposure: Radon is a radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and buildings, particularly in basements and crawl spaces. Prolonged exposure to radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.
6. Carbon monoxide poisoning: This condition is caused by exposure to carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas that can build up in enclosed spaces with faulty heating or cooking appliances.
7. Lead poisoning: Exposure to lead, particularly in children, can cause a range of health problems, including developmental delays, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
8. Mercury poisoning: Exposure to mercury, particularly through fish consumption, can cause neurological symptoms such as tremors, memory loss, and cognitive impairment.
9. Pesticide exposure: Exposure to pesticides, particularly organophosphates, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and neurological symptoms.
10. Particulate matter exposure: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from air pollution can increase the risk of respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

These are just a few examples of environmental health hazards that may be present in your home or building. It's important to be aware of these potential risks and take steps to mitigate them to ensure the health and safety of occupants.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Clinical Significance:
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.

Types of Respiratory Sounds:

1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.

It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

Otitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, and exposure to loud noises. Symptoms may include ear pain, fever, difficulty hearing, and discharge or fluid buildup in the ear canal.

There are several types of otitis, including:

1. Otitis externa: Inflammation of the outer ear canal, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
2. Otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Suppurative otitis media: A severe form of otitis media that is characterized by the formation of pus in the middle ear.
4. Tubotympanic otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid bone, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
5. Otitis media with effusion: A condition in which fluid accumulates in the middle ear without signs of infection.

Treatment for otitis depends on the type and severity of the inflammation or infection, but may include antibiotics, ear drops, or other medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain fluid or remove infected tissue.

Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches

The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.

Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD

Preventive measures for bronchitis include:

* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

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He estimates that 71-110 deaths are attributable to air pollution. This figure excludes effects of indoor air pollution and ... Air pollution is a concern in British Columbia, Canada because of its effects on health and visibility. Air quality is ... Occasionally, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air ... decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution ...
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Official Ventura County Air Pollution Control District-VCAPCD website California Local Air District Directory (Air pollution in ... The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for ... They also appoint the Air Pollution Control Officer, the District Hearing Board, Advisory Committee, and Clean Air Fund ... National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ...
Due to air pollution causing more than one effect it is hard to attribute a condition only to air pollution or to say how much ... The strong relationship between AQI and ozone levels may be found on air pollution maps. Air pollution in Los Angeles has ... While the effects of air pollution on the respiratory diseases are well understood, air pollution also affects the ... Society, National Geographic (2011-04-04). "air pollution". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2017-04-23. "Air pollution ...
The resulting air pollution was trapped by the inversion layer formed by the dense mass of cold air. Concentrations of ... Air pollution will worsen as people burn fuel to heat their homes. When people's respiratory systems are weakened through air ... Air pollution leads to 40,000 early deaths annually and seriously impacts the lives of hundreds of thousands more, air ... Current Air Pollution Bulletin Archived 2006-01-13 at the Wayback Machine "Daily Air Quality Index- Defra, UK". www.airquality. ...
The next Congressional statement on air pollution would come with the Clean Air Act of 1963. The Air Pollution Control Act was ... Prior to the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, little headway was made to initiate this air pollution reform. U.S. cities ... The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 was the first federal law regarding air pollution. This act began to inform the public ... 322 (1955) Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, Sec. 2 Jacobson, Mark Z. (April 2012). Air Pollution and Global Warming History, ...
This was the first attempt by the government of India to combat air pollution. Air pollution in India Indian Council of ... The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 is an Act of the Parliament of India to control and prevent air ... "Air Pollution". Ministry of Environment & Forests, Government of India. Archived from the original on 17 February 2013. ... Forestry Research and Education List of Indian federal legislation "THE AIR (PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF POLLUTION) ACT, 1981 No ...
The final relocation of the people was spurred by the pollution of the islanders' water supply by seawater after it was badly ... The Mornington Island Airport was a temporary airfield used by the RAAF and allied air forces during World War II.[citation ...
In loud enough environments, the ear canal can vibrate, causing the air trapped inside the earcup to vibrate as well. This ... Headphones Earplugs Muffs Noise-induced hearing loss Noise pollution Personal protective equipment Hearing protection fit ... The protection usually comes from acoustic foam - this absorbs sound waves by increasing air resistance, thus reducing the ...
"23 Bathing Pools Planned by Moses; Nine to Be Begun in a Month to Meet Shortage of Facilities Caused by Pollution". The New ... Martin, Douglas (August 15, 1999). "A Day in the Water, Floating on Air; A Swimmer Finds That Manhattan's 12 Municipal Pools ...
Cigarette butts are toxic plastic pollution. Should they be banned? "Cigarette butts are toxic plastic pollution. Should they ... Hellmann, Jessie (2017-11-21). "Big Tobacco to air anti-smoking ads after decadelong fight". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-04-18. ... clean air controls, plain packaging and tobacco smuggling legislation. Initially, the concept of an international tobacco ...
"State of the Air 2005, National and Regional Analysis". American Lung Association. March 25, 2005. Archived from the original ... The industries located along the ship channel and the bay are a major cause of the pollution. Hurricanes are a substantial ...
All pufferfish can inflate, or "puff up", their bodies by quickly ingesting large amounts of water (or air when necessary) into ... pollution from wastewater, and, primarily, overfishing for the aquarium trade. In 2010, some researchers estimated that the ...
It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing ... air pollution, land degradation, energy use, deforestation, and biodiversity decline. The FAO report estimates that the ... Animal production has a large impact on water pollution and usage. According to the Water Education Foundation, it takes 2,464 ... contaminates the air, and emits a major amount of gas that directly affects global warming. As most livestock are raised in ...
When air pollution became a significant issue for California in the mid-1960s the state encouraged investigation into the use ... In 1969, the National Air Pollution Control Administration announced a competition for a contract to design a practical ... Swedish for Without Air Pollution)) headed by Dr. Ove Platell which made a prototype steam-powered car.[citation needed] The ... "CLEAN AIR ACT AMENDMENTS 1969, PUBLIC LAW 91- 137, AN ACT TO EXTEND FOR ONE YEAR THE AUTHORIZATION FOR RESEARCH RELATING TO ...
It is also expected to reduce air pollution since it fulfills Euro III emission standard. The buses are operated by ... air suspension front and rear, rigid front axle I: air suspension front and rear, independent front suspension K230UB4x2LB ... In advantage of the older buses, the Scania K250UB is wheelchair accessible and fitted with air conditioner. ...
... "reduce noise and air pollution, lower transport costs, decongest urban centres, create more green spaces and achieve more ...
... designed by Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) Liquefin - designed by Air Liquide As of January 2016, global nominal LNG ... is planned to go into service in Rotterdam in the summer of 2017 The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution ... designed by Air Products & Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) Cascade - designed by ConocoPhillips AP-X - designed by Air Products & ... For LNG to burn, it must first vaporize, then mix with air in the proper proportions (the flammable range is 5 percent to 15 ...
It is planned that the new airport will be situated on the southwestern side of Kasteli Hellenic Air Force Base, from which the ... even if there are great concerns about the environmental pollution from airplane fumes to the underground water deposits that ... The airport is used by F-16 Fighting Falcon fighter aircraft of the Hellenic Air Force's 133 Combat Group. The Ariadne Airport ... Hellenic Air Force bases, Airports established in 1940, Airports in Crete). ...
To conserve energy the cooling air is not refrigerated but is cooled by being passed through a labyrinth of pipes buried under ... provided by two 72-seater road trains that are fuelled by Calor Gas to minimize pollution. A commentary is provided by the ... it from overheating when the sun is too hot for the plants together with a system that blows a continuous stream of cool air ...
The use of landfill gas is beneficial to the U.S. economy by reducing air pollution through the capture and use of methane. As ... Federal, state, and local laws and regulations vary, but generally govern wastewater or storm water discharges, air emissions, ... It captures and controls emissions from the composting process using a negative air system. It has a smaller footprint than ...
He partially decomposed a sample of cerium nitrate by roasting it in air and then treating the resulting oxide with dilute ... Another application is the creation of selective astronomical filters to reduce the effect of light pollution from sodium and ... It is a hard, slightly malleable, silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, neodymium reacts ...
It was formed by local residents to oppose expansion on the grounds of increased air and noise pollution, safety concerns and ... Critics note that Community Air has not targeted the increasing air traffic at suburban Toronto Pearson, with its proximity to ... On May 2, 2007, the lawsuit was dropped after Community Air issued an unconditional apology. Critics of Community Air point out ... The unions and airline industry suppliers have criticized Community Air for potentially hurting jobs. Critics of Community Air ...
They use a fan to extract air from behind the dome surface, allowing atmospheric pressure to push it into the correct shape. ... Lighting to simulate the effect of twilight or urban light pollution. In one planetarium the horizon decor included a small ... Such a solid dome also presents issues connected with heating and ventilation in a large-audience planetarium, as air cannot ... and allows air circulation through the projection surface for climate control. The realism of the viewing experience in a ...
Air quality: air pollution, Energy and environmental impacts Of infrastructure systems, Sustainable transportation planning, ... the participants were told about the concepts of air quality management and various methods for monitoring air quality. In the ... The aim of the workshop was to impart knowledge regarding different aspects of environmental pollution: the different ...
... "contribute to the air pollution that causes climate change and endangers public health and welfare," its first move to start ... destroy four Yemeni Air Force jets at Dailami air base in Sana'a, pound Al Anad Air Base in Lahij Governorate, target the ... The United States Air Force announces that Boeing will build the next Air Force One. The aircraft is to be a Boeing 747-8 that ... A Syrian Air Force Antonov An-26 (NATO reporting name "Curl") crashes at Abu adh Dhuhur Air Base in Syria, killing all 30 ...
Air pollution control systems, Filters, Pollution control technologies). ... This effect causes a large volume of low velocity air to flow through the venturi and out of the air diffuser. The ratio of air ... An air purge system is used to flush electrical control equipment with clean air before it is turned on. This ensures that the ... Air flow from the blower depends on the type of fan and the mains supply voltage and frequency. Most air purge systems consist ...
The environment strongly influences public health in Albania, as for example air pollution and smog in urban areas such as in ... Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the continental air mass that dominates the weather in Eastern Europe ...
Kusumawanti, Ratih (9 January 2021). "Tujuh Kapal Patroli KPLP Bantu Cari Sriwijaya Air". Porto News (in Indonesian). Retrieved ... Prevention of pollution in sea and beach waters as well Training of shipbuilding and installation Installations at Sea and ...
... if manufacturing or transportation cause air pollution imposing costs on others when making use of public air. Congestion ... The law also seeks to encourage the use of public transportation and reduce air pollution. According to the law, revenues from ... All net earnings from Area C are invested to promote sustainable mobility and policies to reduce air pollution, including the ... According to a report commissioned by Land Rover, the emission-related scheme would increase traffic delays and air pollution. ...
As a lawyer, she was involved in a lawsuit filed by local residents over noise pollution caused by jets taking off and landing ... at the U.S. Naval Air Facility Atsugi in Kanagawa Prefecture. She also worked to protect the rights of women and seniors. ... for nuclear-powered aircraft carriers of the United States Navy Advocates moving the night landing practices from the naval air ...
... carbon emissions and air pollution". The plan set out more ambitious projects set out by the Welsh government, including: North ... increased capacity and better air conditioning. The request to increase services was impacted by the delay of the refurbished ...
All newly manufactured window air conditioners and mini split air conditioners in the United States come with R-410A. Since 1 ... Pierrehumbert, R.T. (May 30, 2014). "Short-Lived Climate Pollution". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 42 (1): 341 ... "High-GWP Refrigerants". California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board. Retrieved 25 August 2022. "The ... "Choosing a New System?". California Air Resources Board. California Air Resources Board. Retrieved 25 August 2022. " ...
... increased air pollution and rise in number of road accidents. In light of this, a strong public transport system has been ... "Singapore to help develop city air cargo hub - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 11 March 2018. Khairnar, Abhay ( ... The trains are fully air-conditioned and feature CCTV, panic buttons, emergency doors, public address systems and audio-visual ...
... to reduce air pollution. In 1959, Rolls-Royce acquired H. J. Mulliner & Co., coachbuilders (HJM). In 1961, HJM was merged with ...
Abraha found a pretext for an attack on Mecca, presented by different sources alternatively as pollution of the church by a ... In most of Arabia, these places would take the form of open-air sanctuaries, with distinguishing natural features such as ...
Some air pollution is not seen, but its pungent smell alerts you. ... Air pollution is a familiar environmental health hazard. We ... Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP), a mixture of gasses and particles, has most of the elements of human-made air pollution: ... Air Pollution. Air pollution is a familiar environmental health hazard. We know what were looking at when brown haze settles ... What Is Air Pollution?. Air pollution is a mix of hazardous substances from both human-made and natural sources. ...
Air Pollution[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND last 1 Year [edat] AND (patient education handout[pt] OR ... Randomized Cross-Over Study of In-Vehicle Cabin Air Filtration, Air Pollution Exposure, and Acute Changes to Heart Rate ... Air pollution and anti-social behaviour: Evidence from a randomised lab-in-the-field experiment. Lohmann PM, Gsottbauer E, You ... Air Pollution[majr:noexp] AND humans[mh] AND english[la] AND last 1 Year [edat] AND (patient education handout[pt] OR ...
Reduction of household air pollution through clean fuel intervention and recovery of cellular immune balance Rubhana Raqib 1 , ... Reduction of household air pollution through clean fuel intervention and recovery of cellular immune balance Rubhana Raqib et ... for 26 months among rural Bangladeshi women chronically exposed to household air pollution (HAP) from biomass fuel (BMF) use. ...
Get the facts how air pollution effects your health. ... Did you know that air pollution can happen both inside ... older adults and children are at greater risk from air pollution. Air pollution isnt just outside - the air inside buildings ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, its also called smog. ... Air (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) * Health Effects of Air Pollution (Department of Health ...
CDC Air Pollution Resources:. *Air Quality - information and resources on air pollutants, particle pollution, and other ... Climate change is projected to harm human health by increasing ground-level ozone and/or particulate matter air pollution in ... Health-related costs of the current effects of ozone air pollution exceeding national standards have been estimated at $6.5 ... Climate Change Decreases the Quality of the Air We Breathe pdf icon[PDF - 110 KB] ...
Get the facts how air pollution effects your health. ... Did you know that air pollution can happen both inside ... older adults and children are at greater risk from air pollution. Air pollution isnt just outside - the air inside buildings ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, its also called smog. ... Air (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Womens Health) * Health Effects of Air Pollution (Department of Health ...
... study suggests that the risk for anxiety symptoms is increased by recent exposure to fine particulate air pollution. ... "The reason that air pollution may be important is not that it is likely to be a very strong risk factor for anxiety but that ... The study was published online March 24 in the BMJ, alongside an article indicating that air pollution is also associated with ... "The two linked papers in this issue confirm the urgent need to manage air pollution globally as a cause of ill health and offer ...
This page provides information about Air Pollution Odor Diaries. ... Odor diary used for air quality concerns within the city limits ... Sometimes people can smell certain chemicals in the air before they are at harmful levels. Community members have reported that ... Did odor diary results and sampling results both find high concentrations of the odor in the air? ... Odor diary used by the Michigan Department of Environmental Air Quality regarding a limestone quarry ...
Higher levels of a type of air pollution called PM2.5 were linked to a higher number of dementia cases developing over time. ... Air pollution linked to dementia cases. At a Glance. *Higher levels of a type of air pollution called PM2.5 were linked to a ... Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution (EPA). References: Comparison of Particulate Air Pollution From Different Emission Sources ... The study adds to a growing body of evidence that air pollution can have effects in the body well beyond the lungs. Alex Linch ...
1969)‎. Air pollution. WHO Chronicle, 23 (‎2)‎, 87. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/ ...
Inhaled particles from air pollution accumulate in lung-associated lymph nodes and weaken immune defenses over time, according ... Inhaled particles from air pollution accumulate in lung-associated lymph nodes and weaken immune defenses over time, according ... "This is an interesting study that suggests air pollution may contribute to why older people become more susceptible to ... "In addition to supporting ongoing efforts to control air pollution, these findings underscore the importance of additional ...
As the lead health authority within the United Nations (UN) system, we help ensure the safety of the air we breathe, the food ... Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies ... Factsheet: Ambient (outdoor) air quality. Key facts. *Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. By reducing air ... Household air pollution and health Indoor air pollution and household energy: the forgotten 3 billion. Around 3 billion people ...
Jada Brooks, a member of the Lumbee Nation, studies the effects of air pollutants and positivity on heart health in American ... Air pollution is often worse in low-income areas compared with wealthy neighborhoods. Residents of Robeson County in North ... Exploring the Effects of Air Pollution and Positivity on Heart Health in American Indian Women. Where people live can affect ... Other studies have shown that air pollution may worsen existing heart conditions and contribute to the development of heart ...
New research collaborations related to household air pollution. *Online, publicly available indoor air pollution training ... Household Air Pollution Research Training Institute In October 2012, the Center for Global Health Studies (CGHS) at Fogarty ... Household air pollution from these inefficient cookstoves and fuels has been associated with serious health risks, such as the ... Home , Center for Global Health Studies , Household Air Pollution Research Training Institute Print ...
2021)‎. Mapping opportunities for training in air pollution and health for the health workforce. World Health Organization. ... Mapping opportunities for training in air pollution and health for the health workforce. ...
... Grant Number: 5R01ES019217-08. PI Name: OToole. ... Project Title: Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Particulate Air Pollution. Abstract: Improvements in clinical care and the ... One environmental factor linked to neurological dysfunction across all age groups is exposure to fine air borne particulate ...
... rather than on all air pollution? A: Traffic-related air pollution is a significant contributor to ambient air pollution and is ... Traffic-related air pollution, or TRAP, is a type of air pollution that comes from the emissions of motor vehicles that result ... TRAP contributes significantly to outdoor air pollution, especially in urban settings. Children are especially sensitive to air ... Public Comments for Air Pollution and Childrens Health. Date Received. Commenter(s). Affiliation. In Response To. ...
More than 1.3 million Thais have fallen ill this year from a spike in extreme air pollution. ... Thailands air pollution is an issue year each year in the dry season - which typically runs from November to March - mainly ... Veera Isarathanan fears for newborns who are exposed to the air pollution. Babies cant wear face masks, and even with a ... The girl is under strict orders to stay at home, but even indoors and with an air purifier whirring away, the air quality is ...
particle pollution. particle pollution. Fine liquid or solids such as dust, smoke, fumes, or smog found in air or emissions. ... Title I of the Clean Air Act requires that after we set a new National Ambient Air Quality Standard (. NAAQS. NAAQS. Standards ... Scientific and technical information on setting the 2012 particle pollution standards *Table of historical particle pollution ... Regulatory Actions and Guidance for the 2012 Particle Pollution Designations *Regulatory actions ...
Household Air Pollution (HAP) Health Outcomes Trial (UM1) RFA-HL-16-012. NHLBI ... Expected impact of the intervention on air pollution exposure. * Expected household and possibly community air pollution ... outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, and environmental cigarette smoke). This deficit poses a major challenge to ... The purpose of this initiative is to assess the maximum health benefits that may result from reduced household air pollution ...
Project Summary/Abstract: Breathing unhealthy amounts of particulate matter (PM) in polluted air is unavoidable for many people ...
Dirty air can be bad news for someone with asthma. Find out more in this article for kids. ... If air pollution makes your asthma worse, ask your mom or dad to look up the weather report for you. On days when the air ... Particle pollution also makes the air dirty. Particle pollution is created when tiny bits of dust, dirt, smoke, soot, and other ... Air pollution can lead to an asthma flare-up. This makes it more likely for people with asthma to need to go to the hospital. ...
DHAKA - Air pollution in Bangladesh is the worst in the world, contributing to a reduction of nearly seven years in the average ... Worlds worst air pollution slashes 7 years off life expectancy in Bangladesh by Mahadi Al Hasnat 16 June 2022 ... Another winter of discontent as Kathmandu braces for deadly air pollution by Abhaya Raj Joshi 2 November 2022 ... JAKARTA - Jakartas recent episode of world-beating air pollution has highlighted what activists describe as belligerent ...
Unsafe levels of fine dust are forecast for the capital city from Tuesday to Friday due to stagnant air and extensive burn-off ... Unsafe levels of fine dust are forecast for the capital city from Tuesday to Friday due to stagnant air and extensive burn-off ... A high pressure systems from China would cover the country and cause stagnant air which would result in the accumulation of ... From Tuesday to Friday, businesses and employees should work from home where possible, to avoid the pollution, the governor ...
... Studies in mice suggest that tumour growth is triggered by ... Air pollution could cause lung cancer not by mutating DNA, but by creating an inflamed environment that encourages ... Read the related News & Views: Air pollutions role in the promotion of lung cancer. ... How a dangerous stew of air pollution is choking the United States ...
Air pollution can be indoors or outdoors. Particles in the air harm our lungs and make it difficult to breathe. Air pollution ... Then youve actually seen outdoor air pollution.. Some outdoor air pollution is invisible to us, of course, but it can still ... Where does outdoor air pollution come from?. Many factors play a role in outdoor air quality. Natural things like volcanic ... By reducing air pollution, the Clean Air Act has led to major improvements in human health and the environment in the United ...
... according to a study that suggests particle pollution could be an environmental risk factor for diabetes. ... Kids who are exposed to air pollution in the womb may have higher blood sugar levels during childhood than kids without this ... This type of air pollution, also known as fine particulate matter, has been previously been linked to lung damage as well as an ... "One is that air pollution causes a great deal of inflammation, and we know that other inflammatory exposures can affect organ ...
Hundreds of Americas national parks are suffering significant levels of haze and air pollution, a National Parks Conservation ...
Air pollution is a large number of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of the air. Air can be polluted in the ... In the city, air pollution may be caused by cars, buses and airplanes, as well as industry and construction. Air pollution in ... The EPA, in cooperation with local air-quality boards, measures the level of pollution in the air over many large cities and a ... Fortunately for most healthy people, the symptoms of air pollution exposure go away as soon as the air quality improves. ...
  • Some air pollutants are poisonous. (nih.gov)
  • As an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill School of Nursing, she studies how air pollutants and psychological well-being (subjective well-being and mental health) affect heart disease risk among American Indian women in Robeson County. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, limited evidence shows that having positive mental health-"a positive psychological state"-can help reduce the inflammatory effects of air pollutants. (nih.gov)
  • With this background information and an interest in the environment, Dr. Brooks focused her project on studying whether air pollutants increase inflammatory responses involved in heart disease and whether a positive perspective could potentially counteract the inflammatory response in American Indian women. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the research team will assess the women's exposure to air pollutants. (nih.gov)
  • The goal is to detect any links among these variables-for example, the team might find blood test results showing higher inflammation in women who inhale a lot of air pollutants and are under a lot of stress. (nih.gov)
  • Dr. Brooks has a mentoring team from multiple disciplines that gives her guidance on measuring and analyzing air pollutants, psychosocial factors, and blood markers of inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Burning eyes, cough and chest tightness are common with exposure to high levels of air pollutants. (aafp.org)
  • The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. (nih.gov)
  • Such inefficient cooking fuels and technologies produce high levels of household air pollution with a range of harmful pollutants, including fine particulate matter that penetrates deeply into the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • The study also assessed the contribution of climate change, which can exacerbate the effects of air pollution in various ways, such as changing humidity, which affects the reaction rates that determine whether pollutants form and how long they last. (newscientist.com)
  • The initiative aims to support motor transport, reduce air pollutants, climate change and carbon emissions, and improve traffic. (egypttoday.com)
  • Egyptian Minister of Environment announced that the air quality in the country is normal, saying that the daily averages of sulfur dioxide gas (the main pollutant of volcanic emissions) corresponds to 100 percent of the maximum limits of outdoor air pollutants allowed by the law. (egypttoday.com)
  • Some human activities add pollutants into the air. (nih.gov)
  • Did you know the Clean Air Act is a federal law that that sets limits on common air pollutants released by industry and cars and trucks? (nih.gov)
  • Air quality models are calculate the dispersion of the pollutants on the reseptor points in an impact area according to different atmospheric and topographic conditions. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The far-reaching mobility restrictions at the beginning of the COVID pandemic in March 2020 created a unique situation for atmospheric sciences: 'During the 2020 lockdown, we were able to directly investigate the actual effects of drastic traffic restrictions on the distribution of air pollutants and on the emission of climate gases,' says Innsbruck atmospheric scientist Thomas Karl. (cbd.int)
  • This can be coated onto the surface of materials that can passively remove pollutants from the air. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP), a mixture of gasses and particles, has most of the elements of human-made air pollution: ground-level ozone, various forms of carbon, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine particulate matter. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of clinically meaningful anxiety are increased by exposure to fine particulate air pollution, regardless of the presence of major comorbid conditions, results of a large observational study indicate. (medscape.com)
  • The results suggest that fine particulate air pollution increases the risk for high anxiety symptoms by 12% to 15%, with the association stronger with exposure in the previous 1 to 3 months. (medscape.com)
  • Exposure to a type of air pollution called fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5 , has recently been identified as a potential risk factor for dementia. (nih.gov)
  • But there are many sources of fine particulate matter, and it hasn't been clear whether PM 2.5 pollution from some sources pose greater risks than others. (nih.gov)
  • This type of air pollution, also known as fine particulate matter, has been previously been linked to lung damage as well as an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. (reuters.com)
  • To investigate the association between exposure to particulate air pollution and anxiety symptoms, the researchers examined data from the Nurses' Health Study. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of Particulate Air Pollution From Different Emission Sources and Incident Dementia in the US. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. (nih.gov)
  • Inhaled particles from air pollution accumulate in lung-associated lymph nodes and weaken immune defenses over time, according to an NHLBI-funded study published in Nature Medicine . (nih.gov)
  • New research suggests that plastic recycling facilities could be releasing wastewater packed with billions of tiny plastic particles, contributing to the pollution of waterways and endangering human health. (mongabay.com)
  • A high pressure systems from China would cover the country and cause stagnant air which would result in the accumulation of dust particles that could reach unsafe levels from Jan 31-Feb 3, Bangkok Governor Chadchart Sittipunt said on Monday. (bangkokpost.com)
  • Air pollution is a large number of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of the air. (aafp.org)
  • In poorly ventilated dwellings, household air concentrations of small particles (PM2.5) can reach concentrations 100 times higher than acceptable levels. (nih.gov)
  • It was an even greater improvement in air quality than 2017, which saw the average concentration of PM2.5 particles fall 6.5 percent from a year earlier, the report said. (france24.com)
  • Particulate matter " is the term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air, while 2.5 refers to those inhalable particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. (cnn.com)
  • Particles in the air harm our lungs and make it difficult to breathe. (nih.gov)
  • It is it filled with millions of tiny particles of toxic pollution about 36 times smaller than a grain of sand that may cause or accelerate degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (citizen.org)
  • Ambient (outdoor air pollution) in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. (who.int)
  • Policies and investments supporting cleaner transport, energy-efficient housing, power generation, industry and better municipal waste management would reduce key sources of urban outdoor air pollution. (who.int)
  • TRAP contributes significantly to outdoor air pollution, especially in urban settings. (nih.gov)
  • Then you've actually seen outdoor air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • Some outdoor air pollution is invisible to us, of course, but it can still affect our lives. (nih.gov)
  • Where does outdoor air pollution come from? (nih.gov)
  • How can outdoor air pollution affect my health? (nih.gov)
  • Effects of a LPG stove and fuel intervention on adverse maternal outcomes: A multi-country randomized controlled trial conducted by the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN). (nih.gov)
  • Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels. (who.int)
  • More than 50% of premature deaths due to pneumonia among children under 5 are caused by the particulate matter (soot) inhaled from household air pollution. (who.int)
  • 3.8 million premature deaths annually from noncommunicable diseases including stroke, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. (who.int)
  • In October 2012, the Center for Global Health Studies (CGHS) at Fogarty held the Household Air Pollution Research Training Institute for scientists from the U.S. and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) interested in developing research projects on the health effects of traditional and improved cookstoves. (nih.gov)
  • Household air pollution from these inefficient cookstoves and fuels has been associated with serious health risks, such as the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, child pneumonia, lung cancer and low birth-weight in infants. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this initiative is to assess the maximum health benefits that may result from reduced household air pollution through clean cooking intervention and, when applicable, intervention to reduce second hand cigarette smoke exposure to yield evidence against which other cooking interventions may be evaluated. (nih.gov)
  • According to the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data, household air pollution and tobacco smoking are the third and second leading risk factors, respectively, after high blood pressure, for Global Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost. (nih.gov)
  • A request for applications (RFA) with set aside is proposed, entitled "Health Impacts of Household Air Pollution" using the R01 Research Project grant mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • According to the WHO, the leading global environmental cause of death is household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels (biomass/coal/kerosene) for cooking, heating, and lighting in the home. (nih.gov)
  • Higher levels of a type of air pollution called PM 2.5 were linked to a higher number of dementia cases developing over time. (nih.gov)
  • Traffic-related air pollution, or TRAP, is a type of air pollution that comes from the emissions of motor vehicles that result from fossil fuel combustion, and has been shown to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • The final report and press release from the Traffic-related Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy evaluation is now available. (nih.gov)
  • NTP concluded that Traffic-related Air Pollution (TRAP) is a presumed hazard for hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. (nih.gov)
  • A: Traffic-related air pollution is a significant contributor to ambient air pollution and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. (nih.gov)
  • Ozone , a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. (nih.gov)
  • When ozone forms air pollution, it's also called smog. (nih.gov)
  • Climate change is projected to harm human health by increasing ground-level ozone and/or particulate matter air pollution in some locations. (cdc.gov)
  • Increases in global temperatures could cause associated increases in premature deaths related to worsened ozone and particle pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • Health-related costs of the current effects of ozone air pollution exceeding national standards have been estimated at $6.5 billion (in 2008 U.S. dollars) nationwide, based on a U.S. assessment of health impacts from ozone levels during 2000-2002. (cdc.gov)
  • Ground-level ozone is the major part of air pollution in most cities. (aafp.org)
  • Ground-level ozone is created when engine and fuel gases already released into the air interact in the presence of sunlight. (aafp.org)
  • Ozone levels increase in cities when the air is still and the sun is bright and the temperature is warm. (aafp.org)
  • FILE PHOTO: Buildings shrouded in smog, are pictured as Mexico's government ordered schools in and around Mexico City to be closed on Thursday due to elevated levels of pollution, in Mexico City, Mexico May 16, 2019. (reuters.com)
  • When there's more smog in the air, chess players make more mistakes, and bigger ones. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • In 1948, the Donora Smog in Pennsylvania killed 20 and sickened half of the town's population, while in the UK the Great Smog of 1952 led to 12,000 deaths-and a Clean Air Act just four years later. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution is contamination of the indoor or outdoor environment by any chemical, physical or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphere. (who.int)
  • Outdoor and indoor air pollution cause respiratory and other diseases, which can be fatal. (who.int)
  • News Marked improvement in Europe's air quality over past decade, fewer deaths linked to pollution Better air quality has led to a significant reduction of premature deaths over the past decade in Europe. (europa.eu)
  • However, the European Environment Agency's (EEA) latest official data show that almost all Europeans still suffer from air pollution, leading to about 400,000 premature deaths across the continent. (europa.eu)
  • One environmental factor linked to neurological dysfunction across all age groups is exposure to fine air borne particulate matter (PM2.5). (nih.gov)
  • Watch a short video about air quality changes, and learn what communities can do to prepare . (cdc.gov)
  • Community members have reported that smelling odors in the air decreases their quality of life and sense of wellbeing. (cdc.gov)
  • Odor diary used for air quality concerns within the city limits of Houston, Texas. (cdc.gov)
  • The "WHO Air quality guidelines" provide an assessment of health effects of air pollution and thresholds for health-harmful pollution levels. (who.int)
  • In 2014, 92% of the world population was living in places where the WHO air quality guidelines levels were not met. (who.int)
  • Residents of Robeson County in North Carolina have lower household incomes, poorer air quality, and worse health than average for the state. (nih.gov)
  • There's also not much that expectant parents can do to change their exposure to air pollution, unless they're in a position to move to a place with better air quality. (reuters.com)
  • Fortunately for most healthy people, the symptoms of air pollution exposure go away as soon as the air quality improves. (aafp.org)
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) checks and reports on air quality in the United States. (aafp.org)
  • Because of their efforts, the nation's air quality has greatly improved over the past 20 years. (aafp.org)
  • The EPA, in cooperation with local air-quality boards, measures the level of pollution in the air over many large cities and a number of rural areas. (aafp.org)
  • Newspapers, television and radio stations often give air-quality reports in areas where pollution is a problem. (aafp.org)
  • The Pollution Standards Index (PSI) is a scale of air quality that ranges from 0 to 500 and is used in many weather reports. (aafp.org)
  • China's air quality improved substantially last year, the environment ministry said Monday, following a government crackdown on pollution and a weakening economy. (france24.com)
  • Premature mortality associated with poor air quality is likely to become the world's top environmental challenge, even exceeding water and sanitation," he adds. (newscientist.com)
  • Report a noise problem, find out about pollution and how we manage air quality in Brighton & Hove. (brighton-hove.gov.uk)
  • Many factors play a role in outdoor air quality. (nih.gov)
  • Would you like to understand the dynamics of air quality at your facility? (environmental-expert.com)
  • By Ennotes Air Quality Management Services based in Ankara, TURKEY . (environmental-expert.com)
  • Understand what regulates air, soil and water quality from a scientific and legislative perspective. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Penny Woods of the British Lung Foundation said in response to the figures: "It's shocking that pollution limits in London have already been breached for 2017 - this shows the extent of the public health crisis we are facing. (refinery29.com)
  • The faster you breathe, the more pollution you take into your lungs. (aafp.org)
  • The air we breathe is no longer safe. (citizen.org)
  • Reuters Health) - Kids who are exposed to air pollution in the womb may have higher blood sugar levels during childhood than kids without this exposure, according to a study that suggests particle pollution could be an environmental risk factor for diabetes. (reuters.com)
  • As a result of their work, the researchers suggest that a reduction of environmental fine-particle air pollution levels may promote longevity. (cnn.com)
  • Particle pollution contains toxic combinations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions, hydrocarbons and heavy metals - all that reek havoc on the brain's immune system. (citizen.org)
  • The particle pollution causes chronic inflammation which leaves microglia unable to remove waste from the brain or to overproduce chemicals meant to kill unwanted bacteria. (citizen.org)
  • The researchers estimated pollution exposures for the participants using models that included real-time pollution measurements and aspects of their homes like geography, land use, and local emissions sources. (nih.gov)
  • One is that air pollution causes a great deal of inflammation, and we know that other inflammatory exposures can affect organ development and function (such as brain, pancreas, liver, muscle and fat - all of which participate in blood sugar regulation) in ways that have long-lasting effects," Oken said by email. (reuters.com)
  • The strongest links between pollution and dementia were seen for PM 2.5 from agriculture and wildfires. (nih.gov)
  • As we experience the effects of air pollution from wildfires and other emissions locally and internationally, these findings contribute to the strong evidence needed to best inform health and policy decisions," says Dr Richard J. Hodes, director of NIH's National Institute on Aging. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution problems on the streets of London are nothing new, but some of the newest solutions to air pollution problems seem to be coming from Green Tomato Cars on the city streets. (cnn.com)
  • Vehicle emissions, fuel oils and natural gas to heat homes, by-products of manufacturing and power generation, particularly coal-fueled power plants, and fumes from chemical production are the primary sources of human-made air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • Particulate matter concentrations are affected by wildfire emissions and air stagnation episodes, among other factors. (cdc.gov)
  • By using climate models to simulate what air pollution was like in 1850 and 2000, Jason West at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and his colleagues have estimated its effect on current death rates. (newscientist.com)
  • However, climate change was found to be linked to just 3,700 of the annual deaths from air pollution. (newscientist.com)
  • Although the climate of the Earth is continually changing from the very beginning, anthropogenic effects, the pollution of the air by combustion and industrial activities make it change so quickly that the adaptation is very difficult for all living organisms. (intechopen.com)
  • The agreement is part of a project that was launched by the government for minimizing air pollution and confronting climate change, said Mashaat in statements. (egypttoday.com)
  • Minister of Environment Yasmine Fouad and Minister of Planning Hala el Saaed probed Thursday with a mission from the World Bank a project to combat air pollution and climate change impacts. (egypttoday.com)
  • The two linked papers in this issue confirm the urgent need to manage air pollution globally as a cause of ill health and offer the promise that reducing pollution could be a cost effective way to reduce the large burden of disease from both stroke and poor mental health," Dr Brauer writes. (medscape.com)
  • At a design thinking hackathon supported by the Ministry of Education and Science, Bureau for Development of Education, Fund for Innovation and Technological Development and UNICEF, and organized by CEED-Hub, five teams of 13-19 year old young people were granted each 120,000 denars to realize their innovative solution to reduce air pollution in and around their schools. (unicef.org)
  • The findings suggest interventions that reduce air pollution may decrease the lifelong risk of developing dementia. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution is a familiar environmental health hazard. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution isn't just outside - the air inside buildings can also be polluted and affect your health. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Power and colleagues note there is "a small but growing body of literature" suggesting a link between air pollution and mental health outcomes. (medscape.com)
  • In an accompanying editorial , Michael Brauer, ScD, MD, a professor at the School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada, notes that "the findings of these two studies support a sharper focus on air pollution as a leading global health concern. (medscape.com)
  • Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. (who.int)
  • The lower the levels of air pollution, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory health of the population will be, both long- and short-term. (who.int)
  • Is air pollution bad for my health? (aafp.org)
  • The health effects of long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution are being studied. (aafp.org)
  • Based on their results, the researchers theorize that pre-birth exposure to air pollution may lead to negative health consequences later in life. (cnn.com)
  • By reducing air pollution, the Clean Air Act has led to major improvements in human health and the environment in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • EU law states that the average hourly level of nitrogen dioxide in the air may not exceed the World Health Organisation's guideline (200 micrograms per cubic metre) more than 18 times in a year. (refinery29.com)
  • The mix of these toxic air pollution levels with freezing temperatures poses a serious risk to people with lung conditions and can affect all of our health. (refinery29.com)
  • Crime goes up with increased particulate concentrations, especially violent crime: a 10 per cent reduction in pollution, researchers at Colorado State University found, could reduce the cost of crime in the US by $1.4 billion a year. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • Sometimes people can smell certain chemicals in the air before they are at harmful levels. (cdc.gov)
  • By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. (who.int)
  • Unsafe levels of fine dust are forecast for the capital city from Tuesday to Friday due to stagnant air and extensive burn-off in Cambodia. (bangkokpost.com)
  • The current study included 365 children in Mexico City who were exposed to average daily PM 2.5 levels of 22.4 micrograms per cubic meter of air (mcg/m3) while they were in the womb, far above the 12-mcg limit set by Mexican regulators. (reuters.com)
  • It's not clear whether or how prenatal air pollution exposure might directly impact kids' blood sugar levels. (reuters.com)
  • Children feel the effects of pollution at lower levels than adults. (aafp.org)
  • Among older women living in areas with high levels of air pollution, brain shrinkage was greater among those with the lowest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids than among their counterparts who had the highest levels. (medscape.com)
  • Infant death rates increased in line with pollution levels, as did heart malformations. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • The Air Pollution app introduces the user to the concept of pollution by simulating a polluted city and allowing the user to control pollution levels themselves. (cnet.com)
  • The study adds to a growing body of evidence that air pollution can have effects in the body well beyond the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Air pollution can irritate the eyes, throat and lungs. (aafp.org)
  • Tackling London's filthy air is one of my main priorities and I am delighted to be delivering on that commitment by introducing these new Low Emission Bus Zones. (refinery29.com)
  • Air pollution, in all forms, is responsible for more than 6.5 million deaths each year globally , a number that has increased over the past two decades. (nih.gov)
  • These shocking figures are so high because many of these deaths occur in Asia, where population numbers are high and where air pollution has increased markedly in recent years," says Frank Kelly of King's College London. (newscientist.com)
  • This is an interesting study that suggests air pollution may contribute to why older people become more susceptible to respiratory infections," said James P. Kiley, Ph.D., director of the NHLBI's Division of Lung Diseases. (nih.gov)
  • A PSI score of more than 100 indicates unhealthy air conditions. (aafp.org)
  • Other studies have shown that air pollution may worsen existing heart conditions and contribute to the development of heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • During times of heavy pollution, their condition may worsen to the point that they must limit their activities or even seek additional medical care. (aafp.org)
  • But Beijing has been forced to balance its concern over an economic slowdown with fears of a public backlash over environmental pollution. (france24.com)
  • More than 70 per cent of companies checked by Chinese authorities failed environmental standards during the latest round of air pollution inspections. (egypttoday.com)
  • Moderate dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of one to two servings of fish weekly may help counteract the potential harmful effects of air pollution on the brain, a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • However, Brixton Road in Lambeth had exceeded the guideline 19 times by 9pm on Thursday the 5th of January, monitoring from the London Air Project at King's College suggests. (refinery29.com)
  • An NIH-funded study led by Drs. Boya Zhang and Sara Adar from the University of Michigan examined the links between different types of PM 2.5 air pollution and dementia. (nih.gov)
  • Further study is needed to confirm these results and better understand if reducing specific types of PM 2.5 pollution would help lower the burden of dementia in the population. (nih.gov)
  • While agriculture and open fires had the strongest air pollution-dementia associations, road traffic, non-road traffic, and coal combustion for energy production and industry were also associated with incident dementia. (nih.gov)
  • To measure exposure to air pollution, the research team relied on readings from monitoring devices calibrated to estimate particulate matter (PM2.5) at the mother's address. (cnn.com)
  • Air pollution in the country may be caused by dust from tractors plowing fields, trucks and cars driving on dirt or gravel roads, rock quarries and smoke from wood and crop fires. (aafp.org)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/country-fact-sheets/2020-country-fact-sheets/denmark or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • They also have more illness, such as bronchitis and earaches, in areas of high pollution than in areas with cleaner air. (aafp.org)
  • The incidence of Alzheimer's can triple: in Choked , Beth Gardiner cites a study which found early markers of Alzheimer's in 40 per cent of autopsies conducted on those in high-pollution areas and in none of those outside them. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • A high pollution level in the year a baby is born has been shown to result in reduced earnings and labour force participation at the age of thirty. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • What symptoms can air pollution cause? (aafp.org)
  • People with heart disease, such as angina, or lung disease, such as asthma or emphysema, may be highly sensitive to exposure to air pollution and may have symptoms when others do not. (aafp.org)
  • However, certain groups of people are more sensitive to the effects of air pollution than others. (aafp.org)
  • These findings provide helpful insight regarding how healthy diet could reduce the adverse effects of air pollution on cognitive decline and neurodegeneration," said Chen. (medscape.com)
  • It's the most plausible pathway based on what we understand from how air pollution affects other organ systems. (medscape.com)
  • What we know is that air pollution affects the heart, and that seems to be via a pathway that involves inflammation," said Dr Brauer. (medscape.com)
  • Pollution affects us even in the womb: Women who are exposed to air pollution during pregnancy have babies with shorter telomeres (a genetic biomarker), a study published Monday in JAMA Pediatrics found. (cnn.com)
  • Children are especially sensitive to air pollution, and there is increasing evidence that exposure to TRAP may impact pregnancy outcomes and child development. (nih.gov)
  • Q: Why did NTP evaluate studies on TRAP, rather than on all air pollution? (nih.gov)
  • In addition to supporting ongoing efforts to control air pollution, these findings underscore the importance of additional research to better understand the lung effects of inhaled particulates and the interactions between air pollution and chronic lung diseases. (nih.gov)
  • If you live or work close to a known pollution source, or if you have a chronic heart or lung problem, talk with your doctor about other ways to deal with air pollution. (aafp.org)
  • Heart disease is more common in polluted air, as are many types of cancer, and acute and chronic respiratory diseases like asthma, and strokes. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • Observe in the field, different contaminated soils and the factors which caused this pollution. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • In this book we provide an interdisciplinary collection of new studies and findings on the score of air pollution. (intechopen.com)
  • Both Dr Power and Dr Brauer believe the mechanism underlying the association beween anxiety and exposure to air pollution may be linked to inflammation and oxidative stress. (medscape.com)
  • Cognitive performance, with a study showing that cutting Chinese pollution to the standards required in the US would improve the average student's ranking in verbal tests by 26 per cent and in maths by 13 per cent. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • Air pollution can be indoors or outdoors. (nih.gov)
  • Does Eating Fish Protect the Brain Against Air Pollution's Harmful Effects? (medscape.com)
  • And those breathing dirtier air in childhood exhibited significantly higher rates of self-harm in adulthood, with an increase of just five micrograms of small particulates a day associated, in 1.4 million people in Denmark, with a 42 per cent rise in violence towards oneself. (marginalrevolution.com)
  • People with heart or lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from air pollution. (nih.gov)
  • People with heart or lung disease react more severely to polluted air. (aafp.org)