Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.CaliforniaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)BostonCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.FiresHumidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RomeSulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)LondonKerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Los AngelesCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.United StatesPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.MexicoGermany, EastOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.New JerseySoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.GeorgiaBronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.GermanyCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.TokyoAtmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)GuatemalaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/1638)A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance. (+info)
A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (2/1638)The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation. (+info)
A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (3/1638)Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. (+info)
Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/1638)Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources. (+info)
Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (5/1638)Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins. (+info)
Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (6/1638)Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints. (+info)
Increased exhaled nitric oxide on days with high outdoor air pollution is of endogenous origin. (7/1638)The aim of this study was to assess the effect of outdoor air pollution on exhaled levels of endogenously released nitric oxide. To exclude bias from exogenous NO in the recovered exhaled air (residual NO or NO in dead volume) an experimental design was used that sampled NO of endogenous origin only. The validity of the presented experimental design was established in experiments where subjects were exposed to high levels of exogenous NO (cigarette smoke or 480 microg x m(-3) synthetic NO). Subsequent 1 min breathing and a final inhalation of NO-free air proved to be sufficient to attain pre-exposure values. Using the presented method detecting only endogenous NO in exhaled air, 18 subjects were sampled on 4 separate days with different levels of outdoor air pollution (read as an ambient NO level of 4, 30, 138 and 246 microg x m(-3)). On the 2 days with highest outdoor air pollution, exhaled NO was significantly (p<0.001) increased (67-78%) above the mean baseline value assessed on 4 days with virtually no outdoor air pollution. In conclusion, the level of endogenous nitric oxide in exhaled air is increased on days with high outdoor air pollution. The physiological implications of this findings need to be investigated further. (+info)
Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (8/1638)BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma. (+info)
The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 (Pub.L. 84-159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322) was the first Clean Air Act (United States) enacted by Congress to address the national environmental problem of air pollution on July 14, 1955. This was "an act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control". The act "left states principally in charge of prevention and control of air pollution at the source". The act declared that air pollution was a danger to public health and welfare, but preserved the "primary responsibilities and rights of the states and local government in controlling air pollution". The act put the federal government in a purely informational role, authorizing the United States Surgeon General to conduct research, investigate, and pass out information "relating to air pollution and the prevention and abatement thereof". Therefore, The Air Pollution Control Act contained no provisions for the federal government to actively combat air pollution by punishing ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.. RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimers disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be ...
Air Pollution Free Essays, Air Pollution Papers. MOST POPULAR Air Pollution ESSAYS AND PAPERS at #1 Air Pollution ESSAYS COLLECTION ONLINE. Totally Free Air Pollution Essays, Air Pollution Research Papers, Air Pollution Term Papers, Air Pollution Courseworks
Air Pollution Free Essays, Air Pollution Papers. MOST POPULAR Air Pollution ESSAYS AND PAPERS at #1 Air Pollution ESSAYS COLLECTION ONLINE. Totally Free Air Pollution Essays, Air Pollution Research Papers, Air Pollution Term Papers, Air Pollution Courseworks
Our world is a pretty dirty place for most of us and it hurts health of many people. A new World Health Organization (WHO) air quality model confirms that 92% of the worlds population lives in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits. 92% of the worlds population exposed to unsafe levels of air pollution article from Science Daily tells that some 3 million deaths a year are linked to exposure to outdoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution can be just as deadly. In 2012, an estimated 6.5 million deaths (11.6% of all global deaths) were associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution together.. The new WHO model shows countries where the air pollution danger spots are: This WHO heat map shows the highest (red) and lowest (green) levels of air pollution worldwide.. ...
Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue. Several studies have found that an increased level of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk of OHCA. We investigated the relationship between air pollution levels and the incidence of OHCA in Perth, Western Australia.Methods: We linked St John Ambulance OHCA data of presumed cardiac aetiology with Perth air pollution data from seven monitors which recorded hourly levels of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5/PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). We used a case-crossover design to estimate the strength of association between ambient air pollution levels and risk of OHCA.Methods: We linked St John Ambulance OHCA data of presumed cardiac aetiology with Perth air pollution data from seven monitors which recorded hourly levels of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5/PM10), carbon monoxide ...
According to a new research, air pollution has reached a critical level in India and has merged as the fifth largest cause of death in the country.. A study in the medical journal Lancet showed that 6.2 lakh million premature deaths, which is an increase of six times since 2000. The country specific data on Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) report showed that air pollution has emerged as one of the largest causes of for deaths in 2010 in the country. An analysis by Health Effects Institute, which is based in Washington, showed that indoor air pollution and direct and indirect tobacco smoking caused one million deaths each year while 620,000 people died because of outdoor air pollution in 2010.. Aaron Cohen, the head of the expert group on air pollution for the analysis also said that air pollution caused 20 per cent of lung cancer and 6 per cent of high blood pressure deaths in the country. The data pointed out that the India does not have any standard for indoor air pollution and policy makers ...
Define Atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric pollution synonyms, Atmospheric pollution pronunciation, Atmospheric pollution translation, English dictionary definition of Atmospheric pollution. Contamination of the air, especially by smoke or gases from vehicles, factories, and power stations. It can cause disease, kill plants, and damage...
BACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohns disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment. Air pollution data were obtained from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. Residential exposure was assessed with land-use regression models for particulate matter with diameters of |10 μm (PM10), |2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Although air pollution was not significantly
Air pollution and tuberculosis (TB) are public health threats of global proportion, with one-third f people worldwide infected with TB and nearly 90% of the global population living in areas where pollution exceeds safe standards set by the World Health Organization. Children in Viet Nam are exposed to concerning levels of secondhand smoke, cooking smoke, and traffic emissions, yet little is known about the effects of these pollutants on childhood TB. We therefore propose to study the clinical and immunologic effects of air pollutants on childhood TB in Viet Nam. Our overall hypothesis is that air pollution exposures will be associated with increased risk for TB infection and altered immunologic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). To test this hypothesis, we will first develop and validate a questionnaire and air pollution models that accurately predict air pollution exposures in children at risk for TB living in Viet Nam (Aim 1). I Aim 2, to evaluate air pollution exposures as risk ...
47 31 7. 127 119 18. Jul 26, 2019 - Smog hanging over cities is the most familiar and obvious form of air pollution. 63 72 5. 169 Free images of Air Pollution. GIF it. In general, there are two sources of air pollution: pollution due to natural sources, such as volcanic eruptions, and those derived from human activities, such as those originating from transportation, plant emissions, and others. 62 96 12. Industry Sunrise Air. Coal Fired Power Plant. Fog Train Lights Bill. Pollution De LAir. It can be of two types; indoor and outdoor air pollution. Most often, it is caused by human activities such as mining, construction, transportation, industrial work, agriculture, smelting, etc. Power Station Energy. Water and air pollution have altered the course of the earths history. La qualité de lair est jugée satisfaisante et la pollution de lair ne pose peu ou pas de risque: Aucun: 50 - 100: Modéré : La qualité de lair est acceptable. pollution smog environment science conservation #pollution ...
Background and aims: Air pollution is one of the health problems worldwide. Previous epidemiological studies have investigated the impacts of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between air pollution levels and different health indicators among world countries. Methods: This ecological study was performed in 2013 by using dataset of World Health Organization (WHO). The main variable in our study was air pollution index. The data including Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) (per 100000 live births), Life Expectancy at birth (LE), preterm birth rate (per 1000 live births) and Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) death rate (per 100000 populations) from 91 countries were extracted. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between air pollution and investigated indexes using Stata 11. Results: MMR (r=0.36, P=0.001) and NCD death rate (r=0.31, P=0.002) were positively associated with air pollution level. The
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country-specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS: Fifteen population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were analysed. Residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides was modelled with land use regression using a uniform protocol. Traffic exposure was assessed with traffic indicator variables. We analysed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and non-medicated with BP lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using ...
Health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in three groups of schoolchildren living in areas (suburban, urban and urban-traffic) with different air pollution levels in EskiAYehir, Turkey. This study involved 1,880 students aged between 9 and 13 years from 16 public primary schools. This two-season study was conducted from January 2008 through March 2009. Symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were determined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire in 2008. Two lung function tests were performed by each child for summer and winter seasons with simultaneous ambient air measurements of ozone (O-3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by passive sampling. Effects of air pollution on impaired lung function and symptoms in schoolchildren were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Girls with impaired lung function (only for the summer season evaluation) were more observed in suburban and urban areas when compared to ...
Major cities in India are currently experiencing severe levels of air pollution. Some of the most common health effects of air pollution include irritation of eyes, throat and lungs. For people with existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis, breathing in air pollution can make these conditions worse. New Zealanders in areas affected by the air pollution are advised to monitor pollution readings, such as those provided by the Air Quality Index website. If you have concerns about the level of pollution, we recommend remaining indoors as much as possible, with doors and windows closed, and refraining from strenuous activity when outdoors. We also recommend seeking medical advice about appropriate precautions. New Zealanders are advised to follow the advice of local authorities at all times.. The following sites may give further advice and data regarding pollution levels:. ...
Famously, the use of caged birds to alert miners to the invisible dangers of gases such as carbon monoxide gave rise to the cautionary metaphor "canary in a coal mine.". But other than the fact that exposure to toxic gases in a confined space kills caged birds before affecting humans - providing a timely warning to miners - what do we know about the effects of air pollution on birds?. Not as much as youd think, according to researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.. "We know a lot about air pollutions effects on human health, and we know a lot about the impacts of air pollution across ecosystems," explains Tracey Holloway, a professor in UW-Madisons Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. "We were surprised to discover how little we know about how air pollution affects birds.". Writing Aug. 11 in the journal Environmental Research Letters, Holloway, an expert on air quality, and her former graduate student Olivia Sanderfoot, sort through nearly 70 years of the scientific ...
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), also known as factory farms, emit large amounts of air pollution, including methane, ammonia, nitrous oxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Yet Oregon has no air pollution control program to monitor and reduce factory farm pollution. While the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long acknowledged the problem of factory farm air pollution, EPA fails to regulate the industry. In the face of federal inaction, states including Minnesota, California, and Idaho have adopted laws to reduce air pollution from factory farms. To date, Oregon has not adopted regulations to control air pollution from factory farms.. The Legislature Must Act - Pass SB 197 ...
With an increased awareness of health and economic costs associated with air pollution exposures - from direct health impacts (e.g. 3.1 million deaths per year worldwide), to repercussions on workforce productivity (e.g. projected 82 million lost workdays in Europe in 2025), and difficulties in attracting qualified workforce and tourists in highly polluted cities - there is a real need to tackle air pollution problems in cities more efficiently.. The AirMAP method combines big data from mobile phones and vehicle fleet GPS tracking with air pollution maps to estimate exposures to air pollution in the population. With the proposed approach, we are thus able to assess exposures accounting for peoples movement in space and time, rather than with the usual static approach whereby people are assumed to spend their whole lives at home. This novel approach can enable policy makers to target much more efficiently and cost-effectively air pollution reductions efforts to protect people from air ...
The effects of air pollution on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and the resulting impacts on public health, have been widely studied. However, little is known about the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a rodent-borne infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between air pollution and HFRS incidence from 2001 to 2010, and estimated the significance of the correlation under the effect of climate variables. We obtained data regarding HFRS, particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) as an index of air pollution, and climate variables including temperature, humidity, and precipitation from the national database of South Korea. Poisson regression models were established to predict the number of HFRS cases using air pollution and climate variables with different time lags. We then compared the ability of the climate model and the combined climate and air pollution model to predict the occurrence of HFRS. The
Air pollution, aside from cigarette smoke, may not be an obvious risk factor for birth defects particularly in developed countries.. However, according to the results of a large European study, exposure to air pollution throughout pregnancy significantly increases the risk of having a low birth weight baby.. Low birth weight (under 2.5 kg) in full term infants has been associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity in comparison to healthy birthweight infants. It also increases the likelihood of experiencing respiratory problems during childhood and later in life.. With high prevalence rates of respiratory conditions such as asthma worldwide, exposure to air pollution appears to one of the most important heath factors to address throughout pregnancy.. How Air Pollution Affects the Health of a Pregnancy Researchers compiled data from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to analyse 14 cohort studies conducted throughout Europe involving over 74,000 women who ...
Based on air pollution levels at 5 a.m on Sept. 4, a Stage 1 Air Pollution Health Advisory has been issued for Mono County communities by the local air pollution control district. Due to elevated particulate pollution levels, children, the elderly, people with heart or lung problems, or people with current illnesses such as the flu, are advised to stay indoors and avoid strenuous outdoor activities in the impacted areas.. Smoke conditions may change quickly. Both Mono County and Owens Valley communities may have impacts throughout the holiday weekend. If you have any questions please visit http://www.gbuapcd.org/ or call the Great Basin Air Pollution Control District office in Bishop at 760-872-8211.. Health advisories on the web: http://www.gbuapcd.org/healthadvisory. Rough Fire air impacts: http://www.gbuapcd.org/Roughfire.htm. Rough Fire Air Quality Report: http://gbuapcd.org/20150904_RoughFireARAReport.pdf. US Forest Service BlueSky smoke forecast: ...
If youre planning to exercise, which is really important, maybe take into account what the air quality alert is for that day, and if its going to be a high pollution day, dont exercise outside," she says. "Exercise inside or rearrange your schedule to exercise at the time of day when air pollution is lower or in a park thats not close to a busy roadway. If youre at home and its a hot day out, rather than opening the windows, turn on the air conditioning to keep pollution out ...
This study was the largest human-controlled air pollution exposure protocol yet completed (274 total exposures).9,11 Our well-coordinated design and uniform methods between 2 sites provided us the unique ability to compare CV responses with air pollution from different locations.. It is unclear why we did not replicate previous findings of brachial artery vasoconstriction after CAP plus ozone exposures.9 We either failed to identify its occurrence, or this vascular territory behaved in a discordant manner between experiments. It is also uncertain why exposures elicited a greater effect on diastolic rather than systolic BP. Additional studies are required, but perhaps the underlying hemodynamic changes responsible reflected a predominant vasoconstriction without changes in cardiac output or arterial compliance (as suggested by the results in Table 6).. We also limited blood biomarker interpretation to the Toronto results because this was where we could account for any filtered air (placebo) ...
Public concern regarding air pollution has increased rapidly in recent years. Because air pollution may present special problems in the pediatric age group, available information on the effects of various air pollutants on children has been reviewed with the purpose of: (1) defining the potential ill effects of air pollution in this age group, (2) making information regarding these effects readily accessible to pediatricians, and (3) delineating further areas of study which may be necessary to safeguard child health from this environmental hazard.. Three general conclusions became apparent to the Committee after reviewing more than 100 publications from the world literature dealing specifically with the health effects of air pollution on children * The first is that children as a group may serve to delineate more clearly the effect of air pollution on health. They (1) spend most of their lives and attend school in limited geographical areas where air quality and meteorological effects can be ...
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is impacted by allergens and air pollution but interactions between air pollution, sleep and allergic diseases are insufficiently understood. POLLAR (Impact of air POLLution on sleep, Asthma and Rhinitis) is a project of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT Health). It will use a freely-existing application for AR monitoring that has been tested in 23 countries (the Allergy Diary, iOS and Android, 17,000 users, TLR8). The Allergy Diary will be combined with a new tool allowing queries on allergen, pollen (TLR2), sleep quality and disorders (TRL2) as well as existing longitudinal and geolocalized pollution data. Machine learning will be used to assess the relationship between air pollution, sleep and AR comparing polluted and non-polluted areas in 6 EU countries. Data generated in 2018 will be confirmed in 2019 and extended by the individual prospective assessment of pollution (portable sensor, TLR7) in AR. Sleep apnea patients will be used as a demonstrator of
Air pollution is not good for the health. Now there is more reason to be concerned, as air pollution can affect antibiotics effectiveness.
Asthma prevalence has steadily increased in the United States since the early 1980s; currently more than 20 million people are diagnosed with asthma, including 9 million children. Asthma can be caused by many factors, including pollen, dust, tobacco smoke, and other allergens. Research has shown that even short-term increases in daily levels of air pollution can trigger an increase in asthma symptoms in some individuals. More research is needed to determine how short-term increases in air pollution affect the severity of asthma later in life. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has constructed research monitoring stations, known as Supersites, to advance the understanding of the effect of airborne pollutants on the health of individuals. Data collected from the Supersites provide important information regarding air pollution and air quality levels. This study will use air pollution measurements obtained from the Fresno, California Supersite to monitor participants exposure to air ...
The Phase I.B Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.B, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) compared approaches for controlling the effects of weather variables when analyzing the connection between air pollution and daily mortality, primarily focusing on Synoptic Weather Categories, an approach newly proposed by Dr. Laurence S. Kalkstein of the University of Delaware; and (2) evaluated the association between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area using statistical models that included data for five pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (referred to as criteria pollutants).
As cold season inversion has shrouded a number of Iranian cities in smog, President Hassan Rouhani unveiled plans on Wednesday. for "urgent, short-term" measures to tackle severe pollution.. Speaking at a weekly session of the Cabinet, President Rouhani said necessary decisions have been made to deal with the pressing problem of air pollution.. Public concern about the pollution is reasonable and just, the president contended, stressing the need for continuous efforts to allay concerns on the issue.. Although tackling the air pollution is not possible in a short-term period, the administration will make whatever decision necessary to combat the problem, Rouhani added.. In recent weeks, cold temperatures and stagnant air in a number of big Iranian cities, including capital Tehran, have put the air pollution index as much as 7 times the levels recommended by the World Health Organization.. Severe air pollution prompted authorities last week to shut down schools for three days in and around the ...
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Ever since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular. According to a 2009 report, around "60 percent of Americans live in areas where air pollution has reached unhealthy levels that can make people sick". Pollution in the United States has plummeted in the recent decade, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide decreasing despite the fact the number of vehicles on the road isnt. This is due to better regulations, economic shifts, and technological innovations. With respect to nitrogen dioxide, NASA reported a 32% decrease in New York City and a 42% decrease in Atlanta between the periods of 2005-2007 and 2009-2011. Air pollution can cause a variety of health problems including, ...
We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21-61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24-51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24-54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for
The human health effects of exposure to tropospheric outdoor air pollutants, which include both particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, have gained prominence as a global public health concern. Indeed, the most recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report lists outdoor air pollution as a leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years, accounting for an estimated ,3 million premature deaths per year globally [1, 2], as well as similarly large numbers of deaths associated with indoor air pollution exposures (e.g. biomass and coal burning smoke). However, outdoor air pollution exposures and trends are quite disparate in different parts of the globe: the principal community air pollutants monitored for regulatory purposes, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and ozone, have generally (but not universally) shown declining concentrations in the developed nations in recent years, while in the low- and middle-income countries ...
Exposure to air pollution can worsen blood sugar levels, cholesterol and other risk factors for heart disease, particularly in people with diabetes, according to a new study, The Association between Air Pollution Exposure and Glucose and Lipid Levels, published in the Endocrine Societys Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. While air pollution is linked with relatively small changes in cardiometabolic risk factors, the continuous nature of exposure and the number of people affected gives us cause for concern, said the studys senior author, Victor Novack, MD, PhD, of BGU and Soroka University Medical Center. Even small changes in glucose levels and glycemic control can contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.. The population-based retrospective cohort study examined the effects of air pollution exposure on 73,117 adults living in southern Israel, where levels of particulate matter can escalate due to its location in the global dust belt. To assess air pollution, ...
Heavy industry emits many potentially hazardous pollutants into the air which can affect health. However, the effects of air pollution from heavy industry on lung function and respiratory symptoms have been investigated scarcely. Our aim was to investigate the associations of long-term air pollution from heavy industry with lung function and respiratory symptoms in school children. A cross-sectional lung function study was conducted among school children (7-13 years) in the vicinity of an area with heavy industry. Lung function measurements were conducted during school hours. Parents of the children were asked to complete a questionnaire about the health of their children. A dispersion model was used to characterize the additional individual-level exposures to air pollutants from the industry in the area. Associations between PM2.5 and NOX exposure with lung function and presence of respiratory symptoms were investigated by linear and/or logistic regression analysis. Participation in the lung function
Long term exposure to low-level air pollution may increase the risk of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, according to researcher s in Denmark. While acute exposure of several days to high level air pollution was known to be a risk factor for exacerbation in pre-existing COPD, until now there had been no studies linking long-term air pollution exposure to the development or progression of the disease.
The African Development Bank is focusing more strongly on air pollution. As part of the banks 10-year strategy to facilitate Africas gradual transition to green growth, the bank has awarded Ramboll a contract for transport emission mapping and monitoring as well as capacity building in five cities.. Although indoor air pollution is the greatest problem, vehicle emissions are also steadily climbing, driven by urban sprawl, rapid motorisation and low levels of institutional capacity to manage traffic and its impacts. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that vehicle emissions account for 90% of urban air pollution in developing countries.. The main objective of the African Development Bank project is to advise city authorities and policy-makers on efficient and accurate methods for collecting, storing and analysing data as well as mapping air pollution levels in cities and, to identify options for financing low-emission transport technologies. The project will cover the ...
NGO News Desk :: Outdoor air pollution has become the fifth largest killer in India after high blood pressure, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoking, and poor nutrition - says a new set of findings of the Global Burden of Disease report. The India and South Asia-specific findings were officially released here today at a Dialogue Workshop jointly organised by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Indian Council of Medical Research and the US-based Health Effects Institute.. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report is a world-wide initiative involving the World Health Organization which tracks deaths and illnesses from all causes across the world every 10 years. The new findings were released by Aaron Cohen, principal epidemiologist of the Health Effects Institute and co-chair of the GBD Ambient Air Pollution Expert Group.. The report says that about 620,000 premature deaths occur in India from air pollution-related diseases. GBD has ranked air pollution as one of the top 10 killers in the ...
Find service providers of Air Pollution Control Services in Uttar Pradesh India - Air Pollution Control Services verified companies listings from Air Pollution Control Services with catalogs, phone numbers, addresses and more.
Air pollution health risks: A recent World Health Organization report showed that over 100,000 children under five in India died due to indoor and outdoor air pollution in 2016. One important threat to child health posed by household air pollution is pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of death among children under five in the country and the world.
A Unicef report states that toxic air severely affects childrens brain development and may cause a permanent damage to their brains. The report mentions that toxic air can also lead to anxiety disorder and may affect IQ level and memory pattern in kids. Severe air pollution can also lead to other neurological disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The findings come at a time when India, particularly in the north, is facing a serious crisis due to rising levels of pollution. Last month, Delhi schools had to be shut temporarily to reduce childrens exposure to pollutants that had enveloped the capital. The air pollution level has been consistently 10 points above the safe zone. The Unicef report also said that South Asia had the largest proportion of babies living in areas where air pollution is at least six times higher than international limits (10 micrograms per cubic metre).. ...
During the last week of September prominent figures from government, finance, business, and civil society came together in New York for the United Nations Climate Summit 2014 to catalyse meaningful action to address climate change. Many climate-related actions may bring co-benefits for the reduction of air pollution both locally and globally. However, this is not a given: it is crucial that such policies are carefully designed to ensure they do not shift the problem from climate change to air pollution. That could pose implementation problems for States wanting, on the one hand, to comply with their climate-related obligations and, on the other hand, to comply with their air pollution reduction obligations under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention) and its protocols. Earlier this year the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that in 2012 almost 600,000 deaths in the European region were attributable to air pollution, with the vast majority ...
Local media sources such as WHIO-TV and Springfield News-Sun will be notified to report the Air Pollution Advisory message through regional television, radio, and newspapers. Partners are notified the afternoon prior to an Air Pollution Advisory Day in order to inform all AQ partners. An Air Pollution Advisory Alert notice will also appear on the front page of the Springfield News-Sun daily paper ont he day of the advisory declaration.. In addition, registered subscribers to the EnviroFlash system will receive notification of all Air Pollution Advisory Days via email. Area residents are also alerted so they will know when to take necessary precaution to protect their health and to take action to further reduce contributions to air pollution ...
Cant Do A Surgical Strike On Air Pollution, Says Minister Harsh Vardhan | NDTV.com Video | Union environment minister Harsh Vardhan today rebutted the allegations of the Delhi government that the Centre had been aloof about the smog that has been choking the national capital, saying one cannot launch surgical strikes against pollution. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, he said, has been monitoring the situation but insisted that a solution has to be found by the states.
Franchini M, Guida A, Tufano A, Coppola A. Air pollution, vascular disease and thrombosis: linking clinical data and pathogenic mechanisms. Journal of Thrombois and Haemostasis. 2012;10(12):2438 - 51. Trasande L, Thurston GD. The role of air pollution in asthma and other pediatric morbidities. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2005;115(4):689 - 99. Murathan A, Biçer A, Alicilar A, Murathan A. Effects of various parameters on removal of NO2 gases in fixed beds by adsorption on sepiolite. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2001; 132(3 - 4): 365 - 72. Murray F, McGranahan G. Air pollution and health in rapidly developing countries - the context. Earthscan; Kavlock R, Daston G, Grabowski CT. Studies on the developmental toxicity of ozone. I. Prenatal effects. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1979;48(1):19 - 28. Bastain TM, Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Intraindividual reproducibility of nasal allergic responses to diesel exhaust particles indicates a suscep tible ...
The Aerosol and Air Pollution Group is a multidisciplinary team at CityU focusing on the investigating the sources, characteristics, impacts and control of urban air pollution. Our mission is to contribute to the development of systematic and fundamental knowledge on air pollution to inform effective air quality management and to develop break-through technologies and control strategies to protect public health and mitigate climate change. Our research activities include the physicochemical and toxicological characterization of aerosol and air pollution from traffic sources and in urban atmospheric environment, and the characterization of personal exposure in complex and heterogeneous microenvironments. We also devise and develop new and aerosol related measurement and control technologies to meet the emerging environmental challenges. ...
A study published in Environment International has demonstrated that exposure to air pollution on the way to school can have damaging effects on childrens cognitive development. The study, led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, found an association between a reduction in working memory and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon during the walking commute to and from school.
HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to characterize the effects of airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) alone and in combination with gaseous air pollutants in a consistent way in a large number of cities. The study was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency?s Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants. In their analysis, the investigators first estimated risk in each city using the same method and then combined these results systematically to draw more information than any single city could provide. The 20 and 90 largest cities were ...
The Washington Clean Air Act, Ch. 70.94 RCW, sets forth the state law regarding outdoor air pollution and establishes a system of regional air pollution control authorities, Local Clean Air Agencies (DOE), to implement federal and state air pollution control regulations.. Air pollution control regulations cover the emission of air contaminants that are injurious to health or that unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life and property. Pursuant to RCW 70.94.230, the rules and regulations adopted by an air pollution control authority, pursuant to the Washington Clean Air Act, preempt local ordinances for the regulation of air pollution. RCW 70.94.230 does, however, authorize cities and towns to enact and enforce local nuisance provisions and performance standards incorporated in zoning ordinances, so long as such standards relating to air pollution control or air quality are not less stringent than those of the authority. Many local governments have enacted general nuisance ordinances, ...
Accurate and reliable exposure estimates are crucial to the success of any environmental health study. The overarching goal of this project is to develop and apply statistical methods to improve exposure assessment and exposure uncertainty quantiﬁcation for spatio-temporal environmental pollution ﬁelds. This is accomplished by statistically integrating observations with additional data sources, including state-of-the-art computer model simulations and satellite imagery. We will develop methods motivated by three current research priorities in air pollution epidemiology: a) identifying susceptible sub-populations most at risk to air pollution exposures; (b) quantifying health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate; and (c) understanding sources of air pollution to develop control strategies. In Aim 1, we will develop multi-resolutional and multivariate data integration methods for ambient air pollution concentrations. We will supplement sparse observations from monitoring networks ...
Air pollution. Main articles: Biomass § Environmental damage, and Ethanol_fuel § Air_pollution ... Biofuels are similar to fossil fuels in that biofuels contribute to air pollution. Burning produces carbon dioxide, airborne ... The WHO estimates 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 due to air pollution. Brazil burns significant amounts of ... WHO , Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health *^ Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan ...
The settlement includes a civil penalty and a commitment to upgrade the air pollution controls at two power plants in Indiana, ... Environmental Protection Agency and Hoosier Energy to reduce emissions that are regulated under the Clean Air Act. ...
Air pollution. Air pollution, or suspended particulate matter locally generated from the increased number of automobiles ... Water pollution has also been found in the Santa Ana River and Cajon wash, and pollutants from the March Air Reserve Base and ... In 2004, the EPA rated the San Bernardino-Riverside area as having the worst particulate air pollution in the United States.[48 ... Supryia, Ray (2006). Plagued by Pollution: Unsafe Levels of Soot Pollution in 2004 (PDF). Los Angeles: Environment California ...
Air pollution. Outdoor air pollutants, especially chemicals released from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the risk ... Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, tissue biopsy[6 ... Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention. Treatment and long- ... Tentative evidence supports an increased risk of lung cancer from indoor air pollution related to the burning of wood, charcoal ...
This state of emergency was called because the fire caused bad air pollution. ... Red Bull Air Races. Windsor has hosted a round of the Red Bull Air Race World Championship in each of 2009 and 2010 ... a regional airport with scheduled commuter air service by Air Canada Express, Porter Airlines, Westjet, Sunwing, and Air ... "Red Bull Air Race". Red Bull Air Race. Archived from the original on August 7, 2009. Retrieved January 2, 2012.. ...
Air pollution. The AQI PM2.5 and PM10 data for air quality from 1 August to 31 December 2015 in Delhi, India. The 5- ... Due to air pollution, over 1 billion people are prone to asthma in present, and it is predicted that it might affect 4 billion ... PARAMESH, H (2019). "Current Scenario of Air Pollution in Relation to Respiratory Health". Current Science. 116 (8): 1289-1292. ... These chemicals are copper, cadmium, lead, magnesium, sodium, zinc, nitrate and nitrite..The air pollution caused by ...
"State Results: Pollution Glance." Houston Chronicle. *^ Czader, Beata (May 20, 2016). "The paradox of peak-based ozone air ... Air pollution. Houston is well known for its oil and petrochemical industries, which are leading contributors to the ... Houston has introduced many programs since the 2000 federal order to reduce air pollution in the city. The ... Houston's environmental problems stem from a long history of pollution. Houston may be considered the air-conditioning capital ...
Air pollution and effects on traffic. The project was also criticized for increasing air pollution in Jerusalem during ... "Dramatic Decrease of 80% in Air Pollution on Jaffa Street" (in Hebrew). Jerusalem Municipality. January 25, 2011. Retrieved ... it was credited with reducing air pollution on Jaffa Road by 80% when the latter was converted to an LRT-only way. In ... but the Jerusalem district court ruled that the company could only be sued for air and noise pollution. Nir Barkat, mayor ...
Air pollution. Increases in asthma rates have occurred despite improvements in air quality produced by the passage and ... Compounding the problem of air quality is the fact that air-borne pollens have been found to attach themselves to diesel ... enforcement of clean air legislation, such as the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1963 and the Clean Air Act of 1990. existing ... For every elevation of 10 μg/m3 in particulate matter concentration in the air a six percent increase in cardiopulmonary deaths ...
The lower layer of air, heated up by the lake water, picks up water vapor from the lake and rises up through the colder air ... For lake-effect rain or snow to form, the air moving across the lake must be significantly cooler than the surface air (which ... lower than the temperature of the air at the surface. Lake-effect occurring when the air at 850 millibars (85 kPa) is much ... the air temperature at an altitude where the air pressure is 850 millibars (85 kPa) (roughly 1.5 kilometers or 0.93 miles ...
Air Pollution. Score(1). Annual. Petroleum. Use. (barrel) Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen). 2016. 58. 53. 158. 7/8*. 6.6 ...
Pollution. *Air pollution (control. *dispersion modeling). *Industrial ecology. *Solid waste treatment. *Waste management ... Dissolved air flotation. When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation (DAF) is ... Drinking water pollution detector Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are being used in water purification plants to detect ... Prior to this step, compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to ...
Ambient air pollution thought to be related to inflammation  ... "The Relationship Between Ambient Air Pollution and Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study in a City- ... A time-stratified case crossover study of the relationship between ambient air pollution and sudden cardiac deaths in Singapore ... Stratified Case Crossover Study of the Association of Outdoor Ambient Air Pollution With the Risk of Acute Myocardial ...
... air pollution (from incineration), and water pollution (from landfilling).. Recycling is a key component of modern waste ... Examples include: decreased air pollution and greenhouse gases from incineration, reduced hazardous waste leaching from ... Creating a new piece of plastic, for instance, may cause more pollution and be less sustainable than recycling a similar piece ... Next, automated machinery such as disk screens and air classifiers separate the recyclates by weight, splitting lighter paper ...
Pollution. *Air pollution (control. *dispersion modeling). *Industrial ecology. *Solid waste treatment. *Waste management ...
2019-05-28: Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. *2019-05-25: Ultrasound Quarterly ...
Air, & Soil Pollution. 44 (1-2): 143-158. doi:10.1007/BF00228784. Earley, Patrick J.; Swope, Brandon L.; Barbeau, Katherine; ... in workroom air during an eight-hour work shift, 40-hour work week. Toxicity to other species of plants and animals is noted to ...
Hogan, C. Michael (1973). "Analysis of highway noise". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 2 (3): 387-392. doi:10.1007/BF00159677.. ... Air brake association. p. 5.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Friction Factors - Coefficients of ... Air Brake Association (1921). The Principles and Design of Foundation Brake Rigging. ... Devices such as wheels, ball bearings, roller bearings, and air cushion or other types of fluid bearings can change sliding ...
Air, & Soil Pollution. 70: 19-37. doi:10.1007/BF01104986.. ... Carbon may burn vigorously and brightly in the presence of air ... may spontaneously combust when exposed to air in coal mine waste tips, ship cargo holds and coal bunkers, and storage ... by heating wood in a pyramid covered with clay to exclude air. ...
Air, & Soil Pollution. 136 (1-4): 147-163.. ... The reflection of such pollution in the karst underground ... Water resources in the karst are extremely sensitive to all kinds of pollution. The contamination of the karst underground ... it is only occasionally exposed to normal adult hearing in air, which is probably also possible for Proteus as in most ...
Andersson, Maud (1988). "Toxicity and tolerance of aluminium in vascular plants". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 39 (3-4): 439- ... Aluminium in the air is washed out by the rain or normally settles down but small particles of aluminium remain in the air for ... which spontaneously ignites on contact with air; contact with damp air results in the release of copious quantities of ... "Lowermoor Water Pollution incident 'unlikely' to have caused long term health effects" (PDF). Committee on Toxicity of ...
J (1996). "Solubility of heavy metals in a contaminated soil: Effects of redox potential and pH". Water, Air, & Soil Pollution ... In places with limitations in air supply, such as submerged soils, swamps and marine sediments, reducing conditions (negative ...
Meybeck, Michel (1993). "Riverine transport of atmospheric carbon: Sources, global typology and budget". Water, Air, & Soil ... Pollution. 70 (1-4): 443-463. doi:10.1007/BF01105015.. *^ Albrecht, Achim (2003). "Validating riverine transport and speciation ...
December 4 - The Great Smog of London: A severe air-pollution event. ... Pace-Finletter MOU 1952: A Memorandum of understanding is signed between "...Air Force Secretary Finletter and Army Secretary ... December 20 - The crash of a U.S. Air Force C-124 Globemaster at Moses Lake, WA kills 86 servicemen. ... September 6 - Television debuts in Canada, as the CBC in Montreal, Quebec airs. ...
Cities and Air Pollution". Hazards. Nelson Thornes. pp. 101-. ISBN 978-0-17-490022-1.. ... Yellowish clouds caused by the presence of nitrogen dioxide are sometimes seen in urban areas with high air pollution levels.[ ... In calm weather, a layer of significantly warmer air can rest over colder dense air, forming an atmospheric duct which acts ... Light rays incoming from overhead encounters 1⁄38 of the air mass that those coming along a horizontal path encounter. Hence, ...
"State of the Air 2005, National and Regional Analysis". American Lung Association. March 25, 2005. Archived from the original ... The industries located along the ship channel and the bay are a major cause of the pollution. ...
Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10750 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Introduction. Each page of this lab that contains ... air pollution - 20 th century. the impacts of air pollution destroy the environment and also ruins its beauty. air pollution ... Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10988 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10750 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. ... Air pollution -. by: rory c. and kurt m. air pollutants. greenhouse effect smog acid rain holes in the ozone layer. air ...
Acid rain is caused by pollution. It is released into the air naturally during a volcanic eruption, but the primary cause of ... The National Academies Press - A report on programs to control air pollution and acid rain in China. ... Using public transportation, biking or walking to destinations leaves fewer cars on the road, less emissions in the air, and a ... National Park Service - Air quality monitoring in the Great Smoky Mountains. New York State - Department of Environmental ...
Pollution from China travels in large quantities across the Pacific Ocean to the United States, a new study has found, making ... Visibility shrank to less than half a football field and small-particle pollution soared to a record 40 times higher than an ... acid rain-inducing sulphate from burning of fossil fuels in China can account for as much as a quarter of sulphate pollution in ...
... air pollution kills 9 million people worldwide each year - more than smoking. Rather than killing otherwise healthy people, air ... People exposed to air pollution in early life can still … ... pollution tends to aggravate the effects of heart and lung ... Air pollution is still a major problem in the US: 45 cities have PM2.5 concentrations above those recommended for healthy air. ... How dirty is the air we breathe? The true scale of air pollution ... Why the UKs plan to tackle air pollution is mostly hot air ...
Reduction of solar photovoltaic resources due to air pollution in China Xiaoyuan Li, Fabian Wagner, Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, and ... The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance Xin Zhang, Xi Chen, and Xiaobo Zhang ...
Read about the negative health effects of particle pollution - and find steps you can take to prevent them. ... Air Quality Index (AQI). The EPA Air Quality Indexexternal icon (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels ... When particle pollution levels are high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while youre outside. For example ... How can particle pollution affect my health?. Particle pollution can affect anyone, but it bothers some people more than others ...
Air Pollution. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies, or death in humans. It may also cause harm to other living ... Strategies For Controlling Air Pollution. The German government bases air pollution control on four strategies: ... Air pollution in Germany has significantly decreased over the past decade. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances are ... 3.1 Strategies For Controlling Air Pollution. *3.2 Policy Instruments for Controlling Air Pollution *3.2.1 1. Federal Emission ...
Indoor air pollution has the same negative effects as environmental pollution. Sources include mold, pesticides and more. Find ... We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of ... Clean Air at Home (American Lung Association) * Inside Story: A Guide to Indoor Air Quality (Consumer Product Safety Commission ... The primary NIH organization for research on Indoor Air Pollution is the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ...
The air pollution that we breathe every day is largely invisible, but is killing us. How did it get this bad, and how can we ... The air pollution that we breathe every day is largely invisible, but is killing us. How did it get this bad, and how can we ... Dr Gary Fuller, an air pollution scientist in the Environmental Research Group at Kings College London, explores the history ... The Rising Global Threat of Air Pollution and How We Can Fight Back. ...
... air pollution, and mortality rates using regression techniques and panel data methods to control for demographic and pollution ... Air pollution and procyclical mortality. Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography. Details. Research ... Prior research shows that levels of air pollution fluctuate with the rise and fall of economic conditions, and this study is ... Air pollution and procyclical mortality. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. ...
Soil Pollution is an international, interdisciplinary journal on all aspects of pollution and solutions to pollution in the ... ecological implications of pollution and pollution models. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution also publishes manuscripts on novel ... Water, Air, & Soil Pollution is an international, interdisciplinary journal on all aspects of pollution and solutions to ... atmospheric pollution, metals, aquatic pollution including marine pollution and ground water, waste water, pesticides, soil ...
Air pollution is one of the major current health risks of humanity. At present, urban outdoor air pollution causes 1.3 million ... Air pollution in Europe and North America would also increase, but due to the effect of mitigation policies - that have been in ... to avoid hot-spots of elevated air pollution," says Andrea Pozzer of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, whose ... assuming past emission trends continue and no additional climate change and air pollution reduction measures beyond what is in ...
Chapter 43.21 RCW.) See also Title 173 WAC, Department of Ecology; Title 371, Pollution Control Hearings Board; Title 372, ...
Air Pollution Is Dangerous, but Deadly?. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Boosts Risk for Lung-Related Death, Study Shows ... Limiting Exposure to Ozone Air Pollution. A clear message to the public, Jerrett says, is that exercise during the sunniest ... with up to five months of that a result of decreased air pollution. ... Fine Particulate Pollution. The study, published in the March 12 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, followed 450,000 ...
Particulate air pollution with monitoring of metal concentrations. Health or Social Effects Studied. Daily changes in rates of ... Health data is not yet analyzed and air pollution is excessive in these cities.. ... Air samples were collected for PM2.5, and daily rates of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory disease related to ... Air pollution in the Holy Cities of Saudi Arabia * Air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan Air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan ...
Health, climate change and air pollution. Date: 19 May 2014. In the presence of WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan, ... He linked climate change and air pollution to the risk factors for noncommunicable diseases, placing particular emphasis on ...
But weve also noticed that when it comes to the real health impacts of air pollution, the Chinese public has very limited ... Only once theres real understanding of how harmful air pollution is, can concern turn into pressure and momentum to make real ... shocking air pollution levels. While China will walk a long, hard road before it reaches the land of crisp, clean, blue skies, ... But weve also noticed that when it comes to the real health impacts of air pollution, the Chinese public has very limited ...
More than a million people are thought to die a year from air pollution in China, but now the country is fighting back with ... Chinas Surprising Solutions to Clear Killer Air. More than a million people are thought to die a year from air pollution in ... In China today, air pollution kills an estimated 1.1 million people a year. Tangshan is ranked as the countrys sixth most ... Chinas war against air pollution is part of a broader reckoning with the health and environmental catastrophe wrought by rapid ...
Air Pollution and Bronchitis. Br Med J 1954; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4889.687 (Published 18 September 1954) Cite ...
Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about Air Pollution Malaysia From The latimes ... the air did not taste like ashes, the skies did not appear ablaze, and no one needed masks to breathe. "We prayed for this," ... the air did not taste like ashes, the skies did not appear ablaze, and no one needed masks to breathe. "We prayed for this," ...
Babies Hate Air Pollution. Kate SheppardOctober 11, 2011 1:29 PM *Share on Facebook ... New research in Los Angeles has found that women exposed to air pollution from automobiles are more likely to have children ... "additional evidence of the potential impact of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth" and merits further study, ... is also a nasty side effect of air pollution. ... The researchers found that exposure to air pollutants like ...
the holes in our ozone layer are caused by air pollution. #air pollution#airpollution#smog#pollution#air quality#humans#health# ... Air Pollutionunknown. caused by the stupidity of the human race, caused by the 80's hair styles, and every teenagers dream ...
Air pollution and the war of wills TEHRAN - With the arrival of cold season air pollution spreads its shadow over cities, ... Vehicle inspection curbs air pollution up to 25% TEHRAN - Vehicle inspection can contribute to air pollution mitigation by 15 ... World Car-Free Day: costly cars, cheap fuel to blame for air pollution TEHRAN - Air pollution incurs financial loss of about ... air pollution Total:92. * 2020-08-19 20:30 $240m earmarked to reduce pollution, natural resources degradation TEHRAN - Some 10 ...
Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal burning industries of the early... ... What Is Air Pollution?. Introduction:. Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal ... Air Pollution Safe Limits. Pollutant...........................Safe Exposure (8 h/day, 5 days/wk). Asbestos ... Air pollution is also causing devastation for the environment; many of these causes are by man made gases like sulphur dioxide ...
New small, optical nano-sensor could soon measure air pollution Air pollution is responsible for 550,000 premature deaths a ... Inhaling irritant that mimics air pollution changes defensive heart-lung reflex for hypertension Air pollution significantly ... Acute air pollution exposure may increase risk for NICU admissions Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air ... Living environment, air pollution may be linked to increased risk of hypertension A new study soon to appear in the Journal of ...
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- Pollution fills the air with an invisible gas called sulfur dioxide. (juniorsbook.com)
- Sulfur dioxide combines with water in the air and sunlight to form a weak sulfuric acid that gives acid rain its bitter taste. (juniorsbook.com)
- In addition, the exhaust from cars, trucks, and buses releases nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide into the air. (juniorsbook.com)
- The study presents evidence for the first time that long-term exposure to ozone and fine-particulate pollution have separate, independent effects on mortality, and that they seem to impact different parts of the body," Jerrett tells WebMD. (webmd.com)
- The benefits of living in a walkable neighborhood could be diminished by increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution, suggests a study led by St. Michael's Hospital and ICES, a non-profit research institute that uses population-based health information to produce knowledge on a broad range of health care issues. (news-medical.net)
- She noted that people can reduce their personal exposure to PM air pollution with indoor air filtration and, in heavily polluted cities, wearing a validated respirator N95 facemask. (reuters.com)
- Minimize children's exposure to air pollution by keeping schools away from factories and other pollution sources and using cleaner cookstoves in homes. (cnn.com)
- In a separate study, research identified a link between low birth-weight and exposure to air pollution. (bbc.co.uk)
- In addition to active and passive smoking, atmospheric pollution exposure is a highly prevalent and controllable risk factor for low birth-weight. (bbc.co.uk)
- Lead author Dr Marie Pedersen from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain, observed: "The widespread exposure of pregnant women worldwide to urban ambient air pollution at similar or even higher concentrations than those assessed in our study provides a clear message to policymakers to improve the quality of the air we all share. (bbc.co.uk)
- The thorn in the side of many studies of air-pollution exposure and impact on fetal growth has been the variability in study design and in exposure assessment," says Leonardo Trasande, a children's environmental-health researcher at New York University in New York City. (scientificamerican.com)
- and the mothers' exposure to air pollution during pregnancy was estimated rather than measured directly. (scientificamerican.com)
- Epidemiologists are concerned that some of the effects of a mother's exposure to air pollution may not be seen until several decades after her children are born. (scientificamerican.com)
- Earlier research also found an autism-pollution connection, including a 2010 study that found the risk of autism doubled if a mother, during her third trimester, lived near a freeway, a proxy for exposure to particulates. (yahoo.com)
- Evidence that a mother-to-be's exposure to air pollution affects her child's risk of autism "is becoming quite strong," said Harvard epidemiologist Marc Weisskopf, who led the study, suggesting a way to reduce the risk. (yahoo.com)
- The use of sentinel laboratory animals exposed in situ is a powerful experimental approach for assessing air pollution hazards because it combines the controlled elements of laboratory studies with direct exposure to ambient pollution levels ( 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
- Here, we compare germline ESTR mutation rates in laboratory mice exposed to ambient air at an industrial site near integrated steel mills to those exposed at a rural reference location, with the objective of testing inhalation of industrial air pollution as a route of chemical mutagen exposure. (pnas.org)
- The risk for lung cancer increases with more exposure to air pollution and particulate matter. (cancer.ca)
- You can reduce your exposure to air pollution. (cancer.ca)
- Both short-term and long-term exposure to air pollution harms health . (europa.eu)
- Air and noise pollution, the impacts of climate change such as heatwaves, and exposure to dangerous chemicals cause ill health in Europe. (europa.eu)
- The team found that when the study trees were under stress, either because of a physical wound or because of exposure to an irritant such as ozone pollution, they began sharply increasing their uptake of oVOCs. (enn.com)
- Several studies have linked exposure to air pollution during pregnancy to an increased risk of preterm delivery and low birthweight. (reuters.com)
- In the last year, the World Heritage Organisation has identified air pollution as the world's largest single environmental health risk, with around 7 million people dying annually - one in seven of the total global deaths - as a result of air pollution exposure, more than doubling the previous estimates. (wessex.ac.uk)
- Seven million people died from exposure to air pollution around the world in 2012, according to new estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO) published Tuesday. (msnbc.com)
- Some companies advised employees to avoid exposure to toxic air and work from home. (rte.ie)
- Exposure to air pollution at the place of residence increases the risk of developing insulin resistance as a pre-diabetic state of type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- Moreover, the association between increased exposure to air pollution and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases has now been clearly established. (eurekalert.org)
- 2016). Association between long-term exposure to air pollution and biomarkers related to insulin resistance, subclinical inflammation and adipokines. (eurekalert.org)
- THURSDAY, June 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- In yet another finding that shows air pollution is bad for more than just your lungs , a new study suggests long-term exposure could raise your risk of high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome . (webmd.com)
- The study investigated the association between long-term exposure to air pollution, how far people lived from green spaces and major roads, and the development of high blood pressure and some components of metabolic syndrome, such as high triglyceride levels , lower levels of "good" HDL cholesterol , high blood sugar levels and obesity . (webmd.com)
- Dr Jim Zhang, professor of environmental and global health at the Keck School of Medicine, said: 'We believe this is the first major study to clearly demonstrate that changes in air pollution exposure affect cardiovascular disease mechanisms in healthy young people. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The health benefits of walking are many and varied , but new research shows that they could be cancelled out by exposure to air pollution for city dwellers. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The results suggest that poor air quality - including "greater exposure to black carbon soot and ultrafine particles from diesel exhaust" - can cancel out exercise benefits and demonstrate the health impacts of even short-term exposure to air pollution. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- The study, which combined air pollution exposure data and mortality data to model the risk of death, found that tiny particles of pollution known as PM 2.5, kicked up into the atmosphere mainly by the burning of fossil fuels and biomass, agriculture, and industrial operations, are responsible for 8.79 million early deaths every year - some 1.5 million more deaths per year than tobacco. (theweek.com)
- Researchers have known for decades that exposure to air pollution - and thus its myriad health effects - is not equally distributed. (theweek.com)
- The authors quantified this inequality by tracking pollution levels, exposure rates, and sources of pollution in various regions of the country, and then looking at consumption rates and consumer spending on goods and services that drive those sources of pollution. (theweek.com)
- Research has found that race, rather than poverty levels, is the strongest predictor of exposure to toxic air pollution. (theweek.com)
- One study from 2017 found that race was the strongest predictor of exposure to nitrogen dioxide - an air pollutant emitted by cars, trucks, and power plants. (theweek.com)
- Researchers then compared the development of these cognitive outcomes in the children attending schools where exposure to air pollution was high to those children attending a school with a similar socio-economic index where exposure to pollution was low. (psychcentral.com)
- Their findings, published in December in the journal Atmospheric Environment, suggest that in the hours before sunrise, residential exposure to freeway pollution is more far-reaching than previously thought. (latimes.com)
- China's war against air pollution is part of a broader reckoning with the health and environmental catastrophe wrought by rapid industrialization over the past few decades. (nationalgeographic.com)
- Kaiwen map , a site where people can report environmental conditions in their area, and the Beijing Air Quality Forecast blog are two sites Grzesik finds helpful for analysing China's air quality. (cnn.com)
- Last weekend, air pollution in Beijing reached record highs, raising concerns about the cost of China's rapid industrialization. (npr.org)
- China, for example, is taking serious strides to clean up its air, and the WHO said India should follow China's example. (usatoday.com)
- SHIJIAZHUANG -- North China's Hebei province has been shrouded in heavy air pollution since Monday, with the average daily air quality index (AQI) in some cities soaring. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- Hebei, Beijing's neighbor and home to several of the country's top 10 most polluted cities, is at the forefront of China's fight against air pollution. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- According to the study published in the Journal of Geophysical Research, air pollution in China's industrial east appears to have significantly reduced light rainfall over the past 50 years, raising the possibility that cutting pollution could ease a severe drought in the country's northeast. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- Common between December and May, this annual phenomenon contributes to the urban myth that China's "winter wind" is the source of Bangkok's winter pollution. (bangkokpost.com)
- China's State Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) is responsible for measuring the level of air pollution in China. (wikipedia.org)
- China's new Air Quality Index: How does it measure up? (wikipedia.org)
- Start by learning about the Air Quality Index from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (cdc.gov)
- Indeed, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has noted that indoor air pollution is one of the top public health risks you face on a daily basis. (mercola.com)
- To investigate whether PM might harm the kidneys as well, the researchers looked at more than eight years' worth of data on nearly 2.5 million military veterans, using county-by-county pollution data from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (reuters.com)
- The research is providing the scientific foundation for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, states and communities to make decisions to effectively reduce and control air pollution. (epa.gov)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sets the current air pollution standard as 50 mcg/m3 for course particulate matter, the same as the European standard. (livescience.com)
- Last year the Environmental Protection Agency, citing the link to asthma, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, tightened air quality standards for fine particulate pollution. (yahoo.com)
- When it arrived in America, this spring's dust generated levels of pollution over a quarter of the United States that were close to the limits that the country's Environmental Protection Agency considers harmful. (economist.com)
- Using air pollution standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , researchers found significant differences on all those measures between those who breathed clean air and those exposed to pollution levels deemed unsafe. (latimes.com)
- The undercurrent of the report, which was compiled by the Natural Resources Defense Council, an environmental advocacy group, is a call for the Environmental Protection Agency to strengthen President Barack Obama's Clean Power Plan, which targets a 30 percent reduction in carbon pollution by 2030 and has recently raised the ire of the coal industry. (chicagotribune.com)
- The Environmental Protection Agency has listed indoor air pollution among the top five environmental dangers, with pollution levels two to five times higher than outdoor air. (chicagotribune.com)
- To protect public health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has set the safe air quality standard for this pollutant to 35 micrograms per cubic meter. (reuters.com)
- The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines air pollution as "any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air that is not part of the natural composition of air. (aafa.org)
- The briefing complements the EEA's annual air quality report, an updated version of which will be published later in 2018. (finchannel.com)
- However, it can also be a problem here in the U.S.: Last year, for instance, research found air pollution had worsened in the United States in 2017 and 2018, leading to thousands of additional deaths, according to Science Alert. (usatoday.com)
- The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the California Air Resources Board provided support for the research, which shows "additional evidence of the potential impact of traffic-related air pollution on fetal growth" and merits further study, according to the authors. (motherjones.com)
- Whether the disease becomes manifest and when this occurs is not only due to lifestyle or genetic factors, but also due to traffic-related air pollution," said Professor Annette Peters, director of the Institute of Epidemiology II at Helmholtz Zentrum München and head of the research area of epidemiology of the DZD. (eurekalert.org)
- A new European study finds that students attending schools in areas of high traffic-related air pollution appear to have slower cognitive development. (psychcentral.com)
- The findings suggest that the developing brain may be vulnerable to traffic-related air pollution well into middle childhood. (psychcentral.com)
- Airtight modern buildings need to be properly ventilated to prevent or reduce the buildup of indoor air pollution. (mercola.com)
- For starters, indoor air is often more contaminated to begin with. (mercola.com)
- Around 600,000 children under age 5 die every year from diseases caused by or exacerbated by outdoor and indoor air pollution, especially in poor nations, UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said in the introduction to a report titled "Clear the Air for Children. (cnn.com)
- The satellite map doesn't take into account the dangers of indoor pollution, primarily a problem in lower-income, rural areas where people use solid fuels like coal and wood for cooking and heating. (cnn.com)
- According to some reports, indoor pollution kills more children globally than outdoor ones. (outlookindia.com)
- They are major components of indoor pollution and forest fires. (outlookindia.com)
- Researchers have also found that radon gas in indoor air can lead to lung cancer. (cancer.ca)
- Allergies, asthma and even lung cancer have been linked to poor indoor air. (chicagotribune.com)
- Indoor air pollution killed more people in 2012 than outdoor pollution, according to the WHO, 4.3 million to 3.7 million, respectively. (msnbc.com)
- No matter how old the building is, there may be hidden indoor air pollution. (aafa.org)
- Indoor air pollution can pose a health risk. (aafa.org)
- Through these strategies, policy instruments have been put in place that have contributed to the success of the significant air pollution reduction in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
- EPA has also failed to determine whether required pollution reduction plans in Arizona and Montana do enough to meet the standards. (commondreams.org)
- The visualization and analysis of data using GIS are very useful for environmental researchers and the government, quickly providing pollution information and locations, and helping with the evaluation of air pollution reduction strategies in Jakarta. (esri.com)
- A reduction in air pollution can have significant benefits for people's cardiovascular health, according to research conducted around the time of the Beijing Olympic Games. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Researchers at the Keck School of Medicine in California used the sports event to study the effects of a short-term reduction in air pollution on cardiovascular health. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- TEHRAN - Over the past six days, polluted air in the country sent 13,931 people to hospitals and medical centers due to heart and respiratory problems, Mojtaba Khaledi, Emergency Medical Services Organization spokesman has said. (tehrantimes.com)
- TEHRAN - Air pollution has caused respiratory and cardiac problems for residents of big cities of the country over the past few days, sending 12,838 people to hospitals, Pir-Hossein Kolivand, head of Emergency Medical Services Organization said. (tehrantimes.com)
- According to WHO, air pollution is a major contributor to lung and respiratory infections, heart disease and cancer. (mercola.com)
- Air pollution is the single largest environmental risk to human health in Europe, causing respiratory problems and shortening lifespans. (finchannel.com)
- Free radicals can form when air pollution enters the lungs, and evidence suggests they play a role in heart disease, cancer and even respiratory ailments. (livescience.com)
- Europe's 10,000 largest factories and energy facilities resulted in 102-169 billion euros in health issues, such as respiratory and cardiovascular problems, and environmental costs because of air pollution in 2009, the most recent available data. (enn.com)
- Another group of bacteria that can cause harmful respiratory infections, Moraxella , was typically found in greater concentrations in people exposed to higher pollution levels. (newscientist.com)
- This study is the first to look at how air pollution levels relate to types of respiratory microbe in healthy people, says Mariani, who presented the work this week at the European Respiratory Society International Congress in Milan. (newscientist.com)
- You're inhaling stuff that might cause inflammatory responses in your airways, so it's extremely likely that the airway microbiome is a sort of mediator between pollution and respiratory effects… but this area of research is still in its infancy. (newscientist.com)
- Rather than killing otherwise healthy people, air pollution tends to aggravate the effects of heart and lung diseases, so working out the death toll is not straightforward. (newscientist.com)
- It has been known for a while that air pollution increases the risks for heart and lung problems. (reuters.com)
- Overall, nearly 37 million children live in areas where the air is unhealthy, according to the American Lung Association . (nrdc.org)
- Air pollution makes existing lung disease and heart problems worse. (cancer.ca)
- Breathing polluted air can lead to heart disease, a stroke and lung cancer, the WHO said. (usatoday.com)
- The agency has formally declared what many medical experts have long suspected: Air pollution causes lung cancer. (cnbc.com)
- The air most people breathe has become polluted with a complicated mixture of cancer-causing substances," said agency department chief Kurt Straif told The Associated Press, warning that air pollution is now considered to create a more serious risk of lung cancer than second-hand cigarette smoke. (cnbc.com)
- Research had already linked air pollution to health problems such as cardiovascular disease, heart attacks, asthma and chronic lung disease. (reuters.com)
- Air pollution from coal-fired power plants is linked with asthma, cancer, heart and lung ailments, neurological problems, acid rain, global warming, and other severe environmental and public health impacts. (ucsusa.org)
- Pollution levels were monitored before, during and after their walk, and each participant had their lung capacity and arterial stiffness measured before and after. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Air pollution has well-documented links to asthma, lung and heart diseases, birth defects, and a slew of other negative health outcomes. (theweek.com)
- The public has gradually learned that 9,000 lung cancer fatalities each year are directly related to air pollution. (taipeitimes.com)
- Where does particle pollution come from? (cdc.gov)
- Particle pollution can come from two different kinds of sources - primary or secondary. (cdc.gov)
- Primary sources cause particle pollution on their own. (cdc.gov)
- Some other common sources of particle pollution can be either primary or secondary - for example, factories, cars and trucks, and construction sites. (cdc.gov)
- Breathing in particle pollution can be harmful to your health. (cdc.gov)
- How can particle pollution affect my health? (cdc.gov)
- Particle pollution can affect anyone, but it bothers some people more than others. (cdc.gov)
- If you have asthma, particle pollution can make your symptoms worse. (cdc.gov)
- If you have heart disease, breathing in particle pollution can cause serious problems like a heart attack. (cdc.gov)
- The good news is there's a lot you can do to protect yourself and your family from the health effects caused by particle pollution. (cdc.gov)
- You can use the AQI as a tool to help you avoid particle pollution. (cdc.gov)
- When particle pollution levels are high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. (cdc.gov)
- Think about spending more time indoors, where particle pollution levels are usually lower. (cdc.gov)
- Particle pollution also can cause breathing problems. (kidshealth.org)
- Particle pollution also makes the air dirty. (kidshealth.org)
- In the western U.S., many come from diesel buses, trucks, and heavy equipment, as well as agriculture and wood burning," according to the ALA. "Breathing particle pollution year-round can shorten life by one to three years. (history.com)
- In the past, severe pollution in London during 1952 added with low winds and high-pressure air had taken more than four thousand lives and another seven hundred in 1962, in what was called the 'Dark Years' because of the dense dark polluted air. (everything2.com)
- Government officials took the unusual step of closing some of the freeways in Beijing earlier this month, the latest in a series of increasingly frantic efforts to reduce the city's seemingly endemic problems with air pollution so severe that many residents now walk around wearing masks to reduce the amount of soot and smoke they breathe. (cnbc.com)
- It may take extra time for rescue workers to reach a victim in a tall building or a crowded office complex, and severe pollution may be more common because of congested roadways and oil-burning buildings. (reuters.com)
- As severe drought threatens crops in northern China, a new study has suggested air pollution could be reducing valuable rainfall. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- A study of young campers with moderate to severe asthma showed they were 40 percent more likely to have acute asthma episodes on high pollution summer days than on days with average pollution levels. (aafa.org)
- I own a lawn mower, one of 14 million in use in California, according to the California Air Resources Board. (latimes.com)
- To see whether the same thing was happening elsewhere, researchers from UCLA and the California Air Resources Board in 2011 sampled the air in residential neighborhoods downwind of the 91 Freeway in Paramount, the 210 in Claremont, the 110 in Carson and the 101 in downtown Los Angeles. (latimes.com)
- Air pollution began to be seen as a problem in Germany due to these three triggers, causing Germany to put policies into place to control air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
- What is important to note, however, is that we can control air pollution if we wish to. (outlookindia.com)
- The legal means to prevent and control air pollution have developed over a period of many years during which time much change has occurred in both the nature of the problem and legal basis for dealing with it. (springer.com)
- However, he added: "Air pollution is causing damage to human health and ecosystems. (bbc.co.uk)
- Particulate pollution also damages ecosystems and obscures scenic vistas throughout the West, including national parks and wilderness areas. (commondreams.org)
- Air pollution also harms ecosystems by contributing to eutrophication and acidification of water and soil, leading to loss of flora and fauna. (europa.eu)
- But we've also noticed that when it comes to the real health impacts of air pollution, the Chinese public has very limited knowledge. (greenpeace.org)
- The Environment Pollution Control Authority, which is leading the effort to tackle Delhi's pollution, said: 'We have to take this as a public health emergency as air pollution is now hazardous and will have adverse health impacts on all, but particularly our children. (rte.ie)
- TEHRAN - Two football matches in Iran Professional League were postponed after the Iranian capital was cloaked in dangerously high levels of air pollution. (tehrantimes.com)
- Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air pollution in the week before delivery are more likely to be admitted to a newborn intensive care unit (NICU), suggests an analysis by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (news-medical.net)
- Even a short stay for travelers in cities with high levels of air pollution leads to breathing problems that can take at least a week from which to recover, a new study shows. (news-medical.net)
- In a nationwide study that tracked the cognitive health of women between the ages of 65 and 79 for 10 years, those who had the APOE-e4 variant were nearly three times more likely to develop dementia if they were exposed to high levels of air pollution than APOE-e4 carriers who were not. (latimes.com)
- Chinese cities are frequently plagued with high levels of air-pollution, making a good face mask a necessity. (wsj.com)
- There are still regions of the world that have dangerously high levels of air pollution. (usatoday.com)
- NEW YORK (Reuters) - Children whose mothers were exposed to high levels of fine particulate pollution in late pregnancy have up to twice the risk of developing autism as children of mothers breathing cleaner air, scientists at Harvard School of Public Health reported on Thursday. (yahoo.com)
- There was no association between autism and fine particulate pollution before or early in pregnancy, or after the child was born. (yahoo.com)
- The researchers collected data on where the women lived while pregnant and levels of particulate pollution. (yahoo.com)
- As the levels of particulate matter air pollution increased, more cardiac arrests occurred," lead researcher Dr. Robert A Silverman of the Long Island Jewish Medical Center, in New York, told Reuters Health in an e-mail. (reuters.com)
- Dr Gary Fuller, an air pollution scientist in the Environmental Research Group at King's College London, explores the history and affects of air pollution, how we can all make a difference and why he's written his new book: The Invisible Killer: The Rising Global Threat of Air Pollution and How We Can Fight Back. (kcl.ac.uk)
- Prior research shows that levels of air pollution fluctuate with the rise and fall of economic conditions, and this study is the first to investigate if these changes are associated with fluctuations in mortality rates. (nih.gov)
- New research in Los Angeles has found that women exposed to air pollution from automobiles are more likely to have children born at low birth-weights. (motherjones.com)
- New research from the University at Buffalo provides pathophysiologic evidence of the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in China. (news-medical.net)
- Air pollution is a risk factor for kidney disease development," Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly of the Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care System in St. Louis, Missouri, who helped conduct the research, told Reuters Health by phone. (reuters.com)
- This study adds to the literature in the field and further promotes the case for lowering air pollution levels beyond even current standards, for its larger societal benefit, especially for at risk populations, and supports continued research in this area. (reuters.com)
- EPA's Air, Climate, and Energy Research is at the forefront of air pollution research to protect public health and the environment. (epa.gov)
- EPA's Air, Climate, and Energy Research conducts a vast amount of this research, producing findings and developing technology vital to our understanding of air pollution. (epa.gov)
- The research program provides an innovative and interdisciplinary approach to the air pollution problem. (epa.gov)
- EPA is moving forward with a "multipollutant" approach to air pollution research. (epa.gov)
- Those centers that have higher levels of air pollution report higher risks of low birth weights compared with those centers that have lower levels of pollution," says Payam Dadvand, an epidemiologist at the center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology in Barcelona, Spain, who is first author on the study. (scientificamerican.com)
- New research points the finger at another possible culprit: air pollution. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In June 2006, the Center for Health and Status Ecology Research and Development, National Institute of Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, conducted research on this pollution. (esri.com)
- The research, led by scientists at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colo., uses observations, gene expression studies, and computer modeling to show that deciduous plants absorb about a third more of a common class of air-polluting chemicals than previously thought. (enn.com)
- With environmental regulations expected to come under heavy fire from the Trump administration, new research offers powerful evidence of a link between air pollution and dementia risk. (latimes.com)
- Giorgio explained the function of WIT that has organised, amongst other activities, this International Conference for a quarter of a century, bringing to the attention of the community the latest developments in air pollution research. (wessex.ac.uk)
- New research shows that air pollution plays a role in atherosclerosis or hardening of the arteries. (motherjones.com)
- The research also showed that medications for heart disease, such as statins , might protect against some of the damage caused by air pollution. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Research shows that air pollution can worsen asthma symptoms . (aafa.org)
- However, the government first has to realise that we're facing an air pollution crisis that demands this research," says Prof Witsanu. (bangkokpost.com)
- The area is the most relevant one in the country for research into determining air pollution. (tudelft.nl)
- New research shows that in the early morning, air pollution plumes from freeways can travel more than a mile downwind. (latimes.com)
- The air pollution that we breathe every day is largely invisible, but is killing us. (kcl.ac.uk)
- the evidence signals the need for concerted action to clean up the air we all breathe. (msnbc.com)
- If your employer allows tobacco smoking in the building, smoke may pollute the air you breathe. (aafa.org)
- But it has also left many of them with undrinkable water, tainted food, and toxic air. (nationalgeographic.com)
- In the UK, harmful nitrogen dioxide air pollution has broken legal levels every year since 2010, and our toxic air has been described as a public health emergency. (greenpeace.org.uk)
- The Government must put forward bold measures to make all areas safer for our hearts and clean up the UK's toxic air. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- This reflects large increases in air pollution in rapidly growing economies like China and India . (newscientist.com)
- EPA scientists have already provided evidence that future temperature increases will increase air pollution levels in some regions of the country. (epa.gov)
- Ventilation increases the amount of outdoor air that comes inside. (cancer.ca)
- Background: A previous study of Helmholtz Zentrum München from 2013 showed that ultrafine particulate air pollution increases the risk of insulin resistance in childhood. (eurekalert.org)
- A new study soon to appear in the Journal of Public Health suggests that air pollution and living in apartment buildings may be associated with an increased risk for dangerous conditions like heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. (news-medical.net)
- Reuters Health) - Breathing dirty air may increase the risk for kidney problems, a study in U.S. veterans suggests. (reuters.com)
- The risk that the veterans' kidney function would worsen over time rose in tandem with the level of pollution they were exposed to at the study's outset. (reuters.com)
- Higher PM concentrations in the air were also associated with an increased risk of end-stage renal disease, in which the kidney can no longer filter blood effectively and a person requires dialysis to stay alive. (reuters.com)
- These new findings support that even low levels of fine particulate matter air pollution across the US can increase the risk of serious kidney problems," she told Reuters Health in a telephone interview. (reuters.com)
- Given the millions of people with and at-risk for kidney disease who are impacted by air pollution, this has serious public health implications. (reuters.com)
- Therefore, the role of air pollution in producing germline mutations and the risk to humans living near steel mills could not be determined. (pnas.org)
- Xinwei L, Xiaolan Z, Loretta YL, Hao C. Assessment of metals pollution and health risk in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China. (springer.com)
- Air pollution might cause widespread inflammation in the body, increase the body's production of cell-damaging oxygen-free radicals, or make the blood more prone to clotting - all of which could pose a risk to pregnancy. (reuters.com)
- The study follows up on earlier reports that warned about the risk of specific types of air pollution. (cnbc.com)
- Children are particularly at risk from air pollution. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Thus, over the long term - especially for people with impaired glucose metabolism - air pollution is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
- Our findings indicate that in traffic congested streets, like London's Oxford Street, the health benefits of walking do not always outweigh the risk from traffic pollution… However, this should not be seen as a barrier to many older people for whom walking is the only exercise they do. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Exercise is crucial in reducing the risk of a heart attack or stroke, but it seems dangerous levels of air pollution could be erasing these benefits in older adults. (netdoctor.co.uk)
- Numerous studies have shown that air pollution raises our risk of certain conditions, such as heart disease and stroke . (newscientist.com)
- TEHRAN - The Municipality of Tehran has prepared a comprehensive plan to mitigate air pollution in the metropolis, based on which a total budget of 174 trillion rials (nearly $4 billion) is required over the course of four years. (tehrantimes.com)
- Technologies to mitigate pollution have become widespread in recent years, but scientists are now exploring a new, pared-down approach: using nature to restore ecological balance. (eurekalert.org)
- TEHRAN - Some 10 trillion rials (nearly $240 million at the official rate of 42,000 rials) have been allocated in order to reduce pollution and prevent the destruction of natural resources in the country. (tehrantimes.com)
- States began passing legislation to reduce air pollution. (epa.gov)
- Reduce pollution by cutting back on fossil fuel combustion and investing in energy efficiency. (cnn.com)
- The report is also submitted by the EU to the UNECE under the requirements of the Gothenburg Protocol to the LRTAP Convention, which aims to limit, and as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution. (finchannel.com)
- Trees also reduce pollution by actively removing it from the atmosphere. (enn.com)
- The report also shows some countries are trying to reduce air pollution. (usatoday.com)
- To better understand the feasibility of NBS to reduce pollution, Bhavik Bakshi and colleagues wanted to perform a data-driven analysis. (eurekalert.org)
- In the latter part of the 13th century, in an effort to reduce air pollution, England's King Edward I threatened Londoners with harsh penalties if they didn't stop burning sea-coal. (history.com)
- In 1963, in an effort to reduce air pollution, the U.S. Congress passed the Clean Air Act, legislation which has been amended and strengthened in the ensuing decades. (history.com)
- Read more about Did the Coal Phase-out Reduce Ontario Air Pollution? (fraserinstitute.org)
- Nearly 45,000 new cases of kidney disease are diagnosed each year in the U.S., and it's possible that some of those might be due to PM 2.5 pollution that exceeds EPA standards, according to the researchers. (reuters.com)
- There is potential legal significance to the researchers' finding that women (and mice) who carried a genetic predisposition to developing Alzheimer's disease were far more sensitive to air pollution's effects. (latimes.com)
- The goal of the conference is to bring together researchers who are active in the study of air contaminants and to exchange information through the presentation and discussion of papers dealing with a wide variety of topics. (wessex.ac.uk)
- Researchers from the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that the number of days of light rainfall decreased in China by 23 percent due to air pollution between 1956 and 2005. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- Two years ago researchers outfitted an electric Toyota RAV4 with a set of test instruments and drove back and forth near four Los Angeles County freeways between 4:30 a.m. and 6:30 a.m., sampling the air. (latimes.com)
- Air pollution is one of the major current health risks of humanity. (redorbit.com)
- The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes," said Dr. Maria Neira, director of the WHO's Department for Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, in a statement . (msnbc.com)
- CNN's Beijing Bureau Chief Jaime FlorCruz looks out on Beijing's pollution on November 16. (cnn.com)
- Beijing may have to wait another 16 years before it will have safe, clean air, according to a report from the capital's environmental authority earlier this week. (cnn.com)
- The former Beijing resident created Banshirne , a free Android app that forecasts the next clean air day based on weather patterns. (cnn.com)
- JOCELYN FORD: Well, I've lived in Beijing for 11 years, and sometimes we call it raging(ph) here(ph) because of the air pollution. (npr.org)
- PETTIT: Well, I think the consensus is that in the winter in Beijing, and I've been there in the Winter, they get a temperature inversion sometimes, much like we have here in Los Angeles, where I'm talking to you from, where the colder air sort of sits on a lid in the Beijing area and prevents the warmer air underneath from moving around. (npr.org)
- Beijing has a serious problem with pollution and took drastic steps to address the issue when it hosted the Olympics in 2008. (netdoctor.co.uk)