Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic
Water Pollution, Chemical
Air Pollutants, Occupational
Geographic Information Systems
Maximum Allowable Concentration
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Respiratory Function Tests
Water Pollutants, Chemical
Health Impact Assessment
Cause of Death
United States Environmental Protection Agency
Infant, Low Birth Weight
Legislation as Topic
Maps as Topic
Volatile Organic Compounds
Extraction and Processing Industry
Atmosphere Exposure Chambers
Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/1638)A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance. (+info)
A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (2/1638)The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation. (+info)
A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (3/1638)Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. (+info)
Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/1638)Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources. (+info)
Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (5/1638)Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins. (+info)
Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (6/1638)Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints. (+info)
Increased exhaled nitric oxide on days with high outdoor air pollution is of endogenous origin. (7/1638)The aim of this study was to assess the effect of outdoor air pollution on exhaled levels of endogenously released nitric oxide. To exclude bias from exogenous NO in the recovered exhaled air (residual NO or NO in dead volume) an experimental design was used that sampled NO of endogenous origin only. The validity of the presented experimental design was established in experiments where subjects were exposed to high levels of exogenous NO (cigarette smoke or 480 microg x m(-3) synthetic NO). Subsequent 1 min breathing and a final inhalation of NO-free air proved to be sufficient to attain pre-exposure values. Using the presented method detecting only endogenous NO in exhaled air, 18 subjects were sampled on 4 separate days with different levels of outdoor air pollution (read as an ambient NO level of 4, 30, 138 and 246 microg x m(-3)). On the 2 days with highest outdoor air pollution, exhaled NO was significantly (p<0.001) increased (67-78%) above the mean baseline value assessed on 4 days with virtually no outdoor air pollution. In conclusion, the level of endogenous nitric oxide in exhaled air is increased on days with high outdoor air pollution. The physiological implications of this findings need to be investigated further. (+info)
Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (8/1638)BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma. (+info)
Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:
1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.
Some common examples of respiration disorders include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Some common types of environmental illness include:
1. Asthma and other respiratory allergies: These conditions are caused by exposure to airborne pollutants such as dust, pollen, and smoke.
2. Chemical sensitivity: This condition is caused by exposure to chemicals in the environment, such as pesticides, solvents, and cleaning products.
3. Allergic contact dermatitis: This condition is caused by skin contact with allergens such as latex, metals, and certain plants.
4. Mold-related illnesses: Exposure to mold can cause a range of symptoms, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, and headaches.
5. Radon exposure: Radon is a radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and buildings, particularly in basements and crawl spaces. Prolonged exposure to radon can increase the risk of lung cancer.
6. Carbon monoxide poisoning: This condition is caused by exposure to carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless gas that can build up in enclosed spaces with faulty heating or cooking appliances.
7. Lead poisoning: Exposure to lead, particularly in children, can cause a range of health problems, including developmental delays, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
8. Mercury poisoning: Exposure to mercury, particularly through fish consumption, can cause neurological symptoms such as tremors, memory loss, and cognitive impairment.
9. Pesticide exposure: Exposure to pesticides, particularly organophosphates, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues, skin irritation, and neurological symptoms.
10. Particulate matter exposure: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from air pollution can increase the risk of respiratory problems, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.
These are just a few examples of environmental health hazards that may be present in your home or building. It's important to be aware of these potential risks and take steps to mitigate them to ensure the health and safety of occupants.
Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.
There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.
Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.
While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.
A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.
Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.
Some common types of lung diseases include:
1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.
These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.
1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.
Types of Respiratory Sounds:
1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.
It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
Otitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, allergies, and exposure to loud noises. Symptoms may include ear pain, fever, difficulty hearing, and discharge or fluid buildup in the ear canal.
There are several types of otitis, including:
1. Otitis externa: Inflammation of the outer ear canal, often caused by bacterial or fungal infections.
2. Otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
3. Suppurative otitis media: A severe form of otitis media that is characterized by the formation of pus in the middle ear.
4. Tubotympanic otitis media: Inflammation of the middle ear and mastoid bone, often caused by bacterial or viral infections.
5. Otitis media with effusion: A condition in which fluid accumulates in the middle ear without signs of infection.
Treatment for otitis depends on the type and severity of the inflammation or infection, but may include antibiotics, ear drops, or other medications to relieve symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain fluid or remove infected tissue.
Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:
* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches
The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.
Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD
Preventive measures for bronchitis include:
* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.
Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:
1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.
The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:
1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.
Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.
There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.
While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:
1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.
It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.
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- Some air pollutants are poisonous. (nih.gov)
- As an assistant professor at the University of North Carolina (UNC) at Chapel Hill School of Nursing, she studies how air pollutants and psychological well-being (subjective well-being and mental health) affect heart disease risk among American Indian women in Robeson County. (nih.gov)
- In addition, limited evidence shows that having positive mental health-"a positive psychological state"-can help reduce the inflammatory effects of air pollutants. (nih.gov)
- With this background information and an interest in the environment, Dr. Brooks focused her project on studying whether air pollutants increase inflammatory responses involved in heart disease and whether a positive perspective could potentially counteract the inflammatory response in American Indian women. (nih.gov)
- In addition, the research team will assess the women's exposure to air pollutants. (nih.gov)
- The goal is to detect any links among these variables-for example, the team might find blood test results showing higher inflammation in women who inhale a lot of air pollutants and are under a lot of stress. (nih.gov)
- Dr. Brooks has a mentoring team from multiple disciplines that gives her guidance on measuring and analyzing air pollutants, psychosocial factors, and blood markers of inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Burning eyes, cough and chest tightness are common with exposure to high levels of air pollutants. (aafp.org)
- The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. (nih.gov)
- Such inefficient cooking fuels and technologies produce high levels of household air pollution with a range of harmful pollutants, including fine particulate matter that penetrates deeply into the lungs. (nih.gov)
- The study also assessed the contribution of climate change, which can exacerbate the effects of air pollution in various ways, such as changing humidity, which affects the reaction rates that determine whether pollutants form and how long they last. (newscientist.com)
- The initiative aims to support motor transport, reduce air pollutants, climate change and carbon emissions, and improve traffic. (egypttoday.com)
- Egyptian Minister of Environment announced that the air quality in the country is normal, saying that the daily averages of sulfur dioxide gas (the main pollutant of volcanic emissions) corresponds to 100 percent of the maximum limits of outdoor air pollutants allowed by the law. (egypttoday.com)
- Some human activities add pollutants into the air. (nih.gov)
- Did you know the Clean Air Act is a federal law that that sets limits on common air pollutants released by industry and cars and trucks? (nih.gov)
- Air quality models are calculate the dispersion of the pollutants on the reseptor points in an impact area according to different atmospheric and topographic conditions. (environmental-expert.com)
- The far-reaching mobility restrictions at the beginning of the COVID pandemic in March 2020 created a unique situation for atmospheric sciences: 'During the 2020 lockdown, we were able to directly investigate the actual effects of drastic traffic restrictions on the distribution of air pollutants and on the emission of climate gases,' says Innsbruck atmospheric scientist Thomas Karl. (cbd.int)
- This can be coated onto the surface of materials that can passively remove pollutants from the air. (siliconrepublic.com)
- Traffic-Related Air Pollution (TRAP), a mixture of gasses and particles, has most of the elements of human-made air pollution: ground-level ozone, various forms of carbon, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine particulate matter. (nih.gov)
- Symptoms of clinically meaningful anxiety are increased by exposure to fine particulate air pollution, regardless of the presence of major comorbid conditions, results of a large observational study indicate. (medscape.com)
- The results suggest that fine particulate air pollution increases the risk for high anxiety symptoms by 12% to 15%, with the association stronger with exposure in the previous 1 to 3 months. (medscape.com)
- Exposure to a type of air pollution called fine particulate matter, or PM 2.5 , has recently been identified as a potential risk factor for dementia. (nih.gov)
- But there are many sources of fine particulate matter, and it hasn't been clear whether PM 2.5 pollution from some sources pose greater risks than others. (nih.gov)
- This type of air pollution, also known as fine particulate matter, has been previously been linked to lung damage as well as an increased risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes. (reuters.com)
Particulate air pollution2
- Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. (nih.gov)
- Inhaled particles from air pollution accumulate in lung-associated lymph nodes and weaken immune defenses over time, according to an NHLBI-funded study published in Nature Medicine . (nih.gov)
- New research suggests that plastic recycling facilities could be releasing wastewater packed with billions of tiny plastic particles, contributing to the pollution of waterways and endangering human health. (mongabay.com)
- A high pressure systems from China would cover the country and cause stagnant air which would result in the accumulation of dust particles that could reach unsafe levels from Jan 31-Feb 3, Bangkok Governor Chadchart Sittipunt said on Monday. (bangkokpost.com)
- Air pollution is a large number of gases, droplets and particles that reduce the quality of the air. (aafp.org)
- In poorly ventilated dwellings, household air concentrations of small particles (PM2.5) can reach concentrations 100 times higher than acceptable levels. (nih.gov)
- It was an even greater improvement in air quality than 2017, which saw the average concentration of PM2.5 particles fall 6.5 percent from a year earlier, the report said. (france24.com)
- Particulate matter " is the term used for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air, while 2.5 refers to those inhalable particles with diameters of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. (cnn.com)
- Particles in the air harm our lungs and make it difficult to breathe. (nih.gov)
- It is it filled with millions of tiny particles of toxic pollution about 36 times smaller than a grain of sand that may cause or accelerate degenerative brain diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. (citizen.org)
Outdoor air pollu7
- Ambient (outdoor air pollution) in both cities and rural areas was estimated to cause 3 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012. (who.int)
- Policies and investments supporting cleaner transport, energy-efficient housing, power generation, industry and better municipal waste management would reduce key sources of urban outdoor air pollution. (who.int)
- TRAP contributes significantly to outdoor air pollution, especially in urban settings. (nih.gov)
- Then you've actually seen outdoor air pollution. (nih.gov)
- Some outdoor air pollution is invisible to us, of course, but it can still affect our lives. (nih.gov)
- Where does outdoor air pollution come from? (nih.gov)
- How can outdoor air pollution affect my health? (nih.gov)
Household air pollution10
- Effects of a LPG stove and fuel intervention on adverse maternal outcomes: A multi-country randomized controlled trial conducted by the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN). (nih.gov)
- Over 4 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with solid fuels. (who.int)
- More than 50% of premature deaths due to pneumonia among children under 5 are caused by the particulate matter (soot) inhaled from household air pollution. (who.int)
- 3.8 million premature deaths annually from noncommunicable diseases including stroke, ischaemic heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer are attributed to exposure to household air pollution. (who.int)
- In October 2012, the Center for Global Health Studies (CGHS) at Fogarty held the Household Air Pollution Research Training Institute for scientists from the U.S. and low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) interested in developing research projects on the health effects of traditional and improved cookstoves. (nih.gov)
- Household air pollution from these inefficient cookstoves and fuels has been associated with serious health risks, such as the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, child pneumonia, lung cancer and low birth-weight in infants. (nih.gov)
- The purpose of this initiative is to assess the maximum health benefits that may result from reduced household air pollution through clean cooking intervention and, when applicable, intervention to reduce second hand cigarette smoke exposure to yield evidence against which other cooking interventions may be evaluated. (nih.gov)
- According to the Global Burden of Disease 2010 data, household air pollution and tobacco smoking are the third and second leading risk factors, respectively, after high blood pressure, for Global Mortality and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost. (nih.gov)
- A request for applications (RFA) with set aside is proposed, entitled "Health Impacts of Household Air Pollution" using the R01 Research Project grant mechanism. (nih.gov)
- According to the WHO, the leading global environmental cause of death is household air pollution (HAP) from burning solid fuels (biomass/coal/kerosene) for cooking, heating, and lighting in the home. (nih.gov)
Type of air pollution2
- Higher levels of a type of air pollution called PM 2.5 were linked to a higher number of dementia cases developing over time. (nih.gov)
- Traffic-related air pollution, or TRAP, is a type of air pollution that comes from the emissions of motor vehicles that result from fossil fuel combustion, and has been shown to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. (nih.gov)
Traffic-Related Air Pollution3
- The final report and press release from the Traffic-related Air Pollution and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy evaluation is now available. (nih.gov)
- NTP concluded that Traffic-related Air Pollution (TRAP) is a presumed hazard for hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. (nih.gov)
- A: Traffic-related air pollution is a significant contributor to ambient air pollution and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. (nih.gov)
- Ozone , a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. (nih.gov)
- When ozone forms air pollution, it's also called smog. (nih.gov)
- Climate change is projected to harm human health by increasing ground-level ozone and/or particulate matter air pollution in some locations. (cdc.gov)
- Increases in global temperatures could cause associated increases in premature deaths related to worsened ozone and particle pollution. (cdc.gov)
- Health-related costs of the current effects of ozone air pollution exceeding national standards have been estimated at $6.5 billion (in 2008 U.S. dollars) nationwide, based on a U.S. assessment of health impacts from ozone levels during 2000-2002. (cdc.gov)
- Ground-level ozone is the major part of air pollution in most cities. (aafp.org)
- Ground-level ozone is created when engine and fuel gases already released into the air interact in the presence of sunlight. (aafp.org)
- Ozone levels increase in cities when the air is still and the sun is bright and the temperature is warm. (aafp.org)
- FILE PHOTO: Buildings shrouded in smog, are pictured as Mexico's government ordered schools in and around Mexico City to be closed on Thursday due to elevated levels of pollution, in Mexico City, Mexico May 16, 2019. (reuters.com)
- When there's more smog in the air, chess players make more mistakes, and bigger ones. (marginalrevolution.com)
- In 1948, the Donora Smog in Pennsylvania killed 20 and sickened half of the town's population, while in the UK the Great Smog of 1952 led to 12,000 deaths-and a Clean Air Act just four years later. (nih.gov)
- News Marked improvement in Europe's air quality over past decade, fewer deaths linked to pollution Better air quality has led to a significant reduction of premature deaths over the past decade in Europe. (europa.eu)
- However, the European Environment Agency's (EEA) latest official data show that almost all Europeans still suffer from air pollution, leading to about 400,000 premature deaths across the continent. (europa.eu)
Exposure to fine1
- One environmental factor linked to neurological dysfunction across all age groups is exposure to fine air borne particulate matter (PM2.5). (nih.gov)
- Watch a short video about air quality changes, and learn what communities can do to prepare . (cdc.gov)
- Community members have reported that smelling odors in the air decreases their quality of life and sense of wellbeing. (cdc.gov)
- Odor diary used for air quality concerns within the city limits of Houston, Texas. (cdc.gov)
- The "WHO Air quality guidelines" provide an assessment of health effects of air pollution and thresholds for health-harmful pollution levels. (who.int)
- In 2014, 92% of the world population was living in places where the WHO air quality guidelines levels were not met. (who.int)
- Residents of Robeson County in North Carolina have lower household incomes, poorer air quality, and worse health than average for the state. (nih.gov)
- There's also not much that expectant parents can do to change their exposure to air pollution, unless they're in a position to move to a place with better air quality. (reuters.com)
- Fortunately for most healthy people, the symptoms of air pollution exposure go away as soon as the air quality improves. (aafp.org)
- The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) checks and reports on air quality in the United States. (aafp.org)
- Because of their efforts, the nation's air quality has greatly improved over the past 20 years. (aafp.org)
- The EPA, in cooperation with local air-quality boards, measures the level of pollution in the air over many large cities and a number of rural areas. (aafp.org)
- Newspapers, television and radio stations often give air-quality reports in areas where pollution is a problem. (aafp.org)
- The Pollution Standards Index (PSI) is a scale of air quality that ranges from 0 to 500 and is used in many weather reports. (aafp.org)
- China's air quality improved substantially last year, the environment ministry said Monday, following a government crackdown on pollution and a weakening economy. (france24.com)
- Premature mortality associated with poor air quality is likely to become the world's top environmental challenge, even exceeding water and sanitation," he adds. (newscientist.com)
- Report a noise problem, find out about pollution and how we manage air quality in Brighton & Hove. (brighton-hove.gov.uk)
- Many factors play a role in outdoor air quality. (nih.gov)
- Would you like to understand the dynamics of air quality at your facility? (environmental-expert.com)
- By Ennotes Air Quality Management Services based in Ankara, TURKEY . (environmental-expert.com)
- Understand what regulates air, soil and water quality from a scientific and legislative perspective. (bangor.ac.uk)
- Penny Woods of the British Lung Foundation said in response to the figures: "It's shocking that pollution limits in London have already been breached for 2017 - this shows the extent of the public health crisis we are facing. (refinery29.com)
- Reuters Health) - Kids who are exposed to air pollution in the womb may have higher blood sugar levels during childhood than kids without this exposure, according to a study that suggests particle pollution could be an environmental risk factor for diabetes. (reuters.com)
- As a result of their work, the researchers suggest that a reduction of environmental fine-particle air pollution levels may promote longevity. (cnn.com)
- Particle pollution contains toxic combinations of sulfate, nitrate and ammonium ions, hydrocarbons and heavy metals - all that reek havoc on the brain's immune system. (citizen.org)
- The particle pollution causes chronic inflammation which leaves microglia unable to remove waste from the brain or to overproduce chemicals meant to kill unwanted bacteria. (citizen.org)
- The researchers estimated pollution exposures for the participants using models that included real-time pollution measurements and aspects of their homes like geography, land use, and local emissions sources. (nih.gov)
- One is that air pollution causes a great deal of inflammation, and we know that other inflammatory exposures can affect organ development and function (such as brain, pancreas, liver, muscle and fat - all of which participate in blood sugar regulation) in ways that have long-lasting effects," Oken said by email. (reuters.com)
- The strongest links between pollution and dementia were seen for PM 2.5 from agriculture and wildfires. (nih.gov)
- As we experience the effects of air pollution from wildfires and other emissions locally and internationally, these findings contribute to the strong evidence needed to best inform health and policy decisions," says Dr Richard J. Hodes, director of NIH's National Institute on Aging. (nih.gov)
Solutions to air pollution1
- Air pollution problems on the streets of London are nothing new, but some of the newest solutions to air pollution problems seem to be coming from Green Tomato Cars on the city streets. (cnn.com)
- Vehicle emissions, fuel oils and natural gas to heat homes, by-products of manufacturing and power generation, particularly coal-fueled power plants, and fumes from chemical production are the primary sources of human-made air pollution. (nih.gov)
- Particulate matter concentrations are affected by wildfire emissions and air stagnation episodes, among other factors. (cdc.gov)
- By using climate models to simulate what air pollution was like in 1850 and 2000, Jason West at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and his colleagues have estimated its effect on current death rates. (newscientist.com)
- However, climate change was found to be linked to just 3,700 of the annual deaths from air pollution. (newscientist.com)
- Although the climate of the Earth is continually changing from the very beginning, anthropogenic effects, the pollution of the air by combustion and industrial activities make it change so quickly that the adaptation is very difficult for all living organisms. (intechopen.com)
- The agreement is part of a project that was launched by the government for minimizing air pollution and confronting climate change, said Mashaat in statements. (egypttoday.com)
- Minister of Environment Yasmine Fouad and Minister of Planning Hala el Saaed probed Thursday with a mission from the World Bank a project to combat air pollution and climate change impacts. (egypttoday.com)
Manage air pollution1
- The two linked papers in this issue confirm the urgent need to manage air pollution globally as a cause of ill health and offer the promise that reducing pollution could be a cost effective way to reduce the large burden of disease from both stroke and poor mental health," Dr Brauer writes. (medscape.com)
Reduce air pollution2
- At a design thinking hackathon supported by the Ministry of Education and Science, Bureau for Development of Education, Fund for Innovation and Technological Development and UNICEF, and organized by CEED-Hub, five teams of 13-19 year old young people were granted each 120,000 denars to realize their innovative solution to reduce air pollution in and around their schools. (unicef.org)
- The findings suggest interventions that reduce air pollution may decrease the lifelong risk of developing dementia. (nih.gov)
- Air pollution is a familiar environmental health hazard. (nih.gov)
- Air pollution isn't just outside - the air inside buildings can also be polluted and affect your health. (nih.gov)
- Dr Power and colleagues note there is "a small but growing body of literature" suggesting a link between air pollution and mental health outcomes. (medscape.com)
- In an accompanying editorial , Michael Brauer, ScD, MD, a professor at the School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Canada, notes that "the findings of these two studies support a sharper focus on air pollution as a leading global health concern. (medscape.com)
- Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health. (who.int)
- The lower the levels of air pollution, the better the cardiovascular and respiratory health of the population will be, both long- and short-term. (who.int)
- Is air pollution bad for my health? (aafp.org)
- The health effects of long-term exposure to low levels of air pollution are being studied. (aafp.org)
- Based on their results, the researchers theorize that pre-birth exposure to air pollution may lead to negative health consequences later in life. (cnn.com)
- By reducing air pollution, the Clean Air Act has led to major improvements in human health and the environment in the United States. (nih.gov)
- EU law states that the average hourly level of nitrogen dioxide in the air may not exceed the World Health Organisation's guideline (200 micrograms per cubic metre) more than 18 times in a year. (refinery29.com)
- The mix of these toxic air pollution levels with freezing temperatures poses a serious risk to people with lung conditions and can affect all of our health. (refinery29.com)
- Crime goes up with increased particulate concentrations, especially violent crime: a 10 per cent reduction in pollution, researchers at Colorado State University found, could reduce the cost of crime in the US by $1.4 billion a year. (marginalrevolution.com)
- Sometimes people can smell certain chemicals in the air before they are at harmful levels. (cdc.gov)
- By reducing air pollution levels, countries can reduce the burden of disease from stroke, heart disease, lung cancer, and both chronic and acute respiratory diseases, including asthma. (who.int)
- Unsafe levels of fine dust are forecast for the capital city from Tuesday to Friday due to stagnant air and extensive burn-off in Cambodia. (bangkokpost.com)
- The current study included 365 children in Mexico City who were exposed to average daily PM 2.5 levels of 22.4 micrograms per cubic meter of air (mcg/m3) while they were in the womb, far above the 12-mcg limit set by Mexican regulators. (reuters.com)
- It's not clear whether or how prenatal air pollution exposure might directly impact kids' blood sugar levels. (reuters.com)
- Children feel the effects of pollution at lower levels than adults. (aafp.org)
- Among older women living in areas with high levels of air pollution, brain shrinkage was greater among those with the lowest blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids than among their counterparts who had the highest levels. (medscape.com)
- Infant death rates increased in line with pollution levels, as did heart malformations. (marginalrevolution.com)
- The Air Pollution app introduces the user to the concept of pollution by simulating a polluted city and allowing the user to control pollution levels themselves. (cnet.com)
- Tackling London's filthy air is one of my main priorities and I am delighted to be delivering on that commitment by introducing these new Low Emission Bus Zones. (refinery29.com)
- Air pollution, in all forms, is responsible for more than 6.5 million deaths each year globally , a number that has increased over the past two decades. (nih.gov)
- These shocking figures are so high because many of these deaths occur in Asia, where population numbers are high and where air pollution has increased markedly in recent years," says Frank Kelly of King's College London. (newscientist.com)
Study that suggests1
- This is an interesting study that suggests air pollution may contribute to why older people become more susceptible to respiratory infections," said James P. Kiley, Ph.D., director of the NHLBI's Division of Lung Diseases. (nih.gov)
- A PSI score of more than 100 indicates unhealthy air conditions. (aafp.org)
- Other studies have shown that air pollution may worsen existing heart conditions and contribute to the development of heart disease. (nih.gov)
- During times of heavy pollution, their condition may worsen to the point that they must limit their activities or even seek additional medical care. (aafp.org)
- But Beijing has been forced to balance its concern over an economic slowdown with fears of a public backlash over environmental pollution. (france24.com)
- More than 70 per cent of companies checked by Chinese authorities failed environmental standards during the latest round of air pollution inspections. (egypttoday.com)
- Moderate dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the form of one to two servings of fish weekly may help counteract the potential harmful effects of air pollution on the brain, a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
- However, Brixton Road in Lambeth had exceeded the guideline 19 times by 9pm on Thursday the 5th of January, monitoring from the London Air Project at King's College suggests. (refinery29.com)
- An NIH-funded study led by Drs. Boya Zhang and Sara Adar from the University of Michigan examined the links between different types of PM 2.5 air pollution and dementia. (nih.gov)
- Further study is needed to confirm these results and better understand if reducing specific types of PM 2.5 pollution would help lower the burden of dementia in the population. (nih.gov)
- While agriculture and open fires had the strongest air pollution-dementia associations, road traffic, non-road traffic, and coal combustion for energy production and industry were also associated with incident dementia. (nih.gov)
- To measure exposure to air pollution, the research team relied on readings from monitoring devices calibrated to estimate particulate matter (PM2.5) at the mother's address. (cnn.com)
- Air pollution in the country may be caused by dust from tractors plowing fields, trucks and cars driving on dirt or gravel roads, rock quarries and smoke from wood and crop fires. (aafp.org)
- For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/country-fact-sheets/2020-country-fact-sheets/denmark or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
- They also have more illness, such as bronchitis and earaches, in areas of high pollution than in areas with cleaner air. (aafp.org)
- The incidence of Alzheimer's can triple: in Choked , Beth Gardiner cites a study which found early markers of Alzheimer's in 40 per cent of autopsies conducted on those in high-pollution areas and in none of those outside them. (marginalrevolution.com)
- A high pollution level in the year a baby is born has been shown to result in reduced earnings and labour force participation at the age of thirty. (marginalrevolution.com)
Effects of air2
- It's the most plausible pathway based on what we understand from how air pollution affects other organ systems. (medscape.com)
- What we know is that air pollution affects the heart, and that seems to be via a pathway that involves inflammation," said Dr Brauer. (medscape.com)
- Pollution affects us even in the womb: Women who are exposed to air pollution during pregnancy have babies with shorter telomeres (a genetic biomarker), a study published Monday in JAMA Pediatrics found. (cnn.com)
- In addition to supporting ongoing efforts to control air pollution, these findings underscore the importance of additional research to better understand the lung effects of inhaled particulates and the interactions between air pollution and chronic lung diseases. (nih.gov)
- If you live or work close to a known pollution source, or if you have a chronic heart or lung problem, talk with your doctor about other ways to deal with air pollution. (aafp.org)
- Heart disease is more common in polluted air, as are many types of cancer, and acute and chronic respiratory diseases like asthma, and strokes. (marginalrevolution.com)
- Observe in the field, different contaminated soils and the factors which caused this pollution. (bangor.ac.uk)
- In this book we provide an interdisciplinary collection of new studies and findings on the score of air pollution. (intechopen.com)
- Both Dr Power and Dr Brauer believe the mechanism underlying the association beween anxiety and exposure to air pollution may be linked to inflammation and oxidative stress. (medscape.com)
- Cognitive performance, with a study showing that cutting Chinese pollution to the standards required in the US would improve the average student's ranking in verbal tests by 26 per cent and in maths by 13 per cent. (marginalrevolution.com)
- Air pollution can be indoors or outdoors. (nih.gov)
- Does Eating Fish Protect the Brain Against Air Pollution's Harmful Effects? (medscape.com)
- And those breathing dirtier air in childhood exhibited significantly higher rates of self-harm in adulthood, with an increase of just five micrograms of small particulates a day associated, in 1.4 million people in Denmark, with a 42 per cent rise in violence towards oneself. (marginalrevolution.com)