Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)SmokeSmog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Environmental Illness: A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Heating: The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Incineration: High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.CaliforniaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)BostonCarbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.FiresHumidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Noise, Transportation: Noise associated with transportation, particularly aircraft and automobiles.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RomeSulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeSpacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)LondonKerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Los AngelesCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Health Impact Assessment: Combination of procedures, methods, and tools by which a policy, program, or project may be judged as to its potential effects on the health of a population, and the distribution of those effects within the population.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Household Articles: Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.United StatesPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.MexicoGermany, EastOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.New JerseySoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.GeorgiaBronchitis, Chronic: A subcategory of CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE. The disease is characterized by hypersecretion of mucus accompanied by a chronic (more than 3 months in 2 consecutive years) productive cough. Infectious agents are a major cause of chronic bronchitis.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.GermanyCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.TokyoAtmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)GuatemalaIncidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/1638)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (2/1638)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (3/1638)

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/1638)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution--comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress. (5/1638)

Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts/10(8) nucleotides) and of 2-amino-apidic semialdehyde (AAS) in plasma proteins (56.7 pmol/mg protein) were observed in bus drivers working in the central part of Copenhagen, Denmark. In contrast, significantly higher levels of AAS in hemoglobin (55.8 pmol/mg protein), malondialdehyde in plasma (0. 96 nmol/ml plasma), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-albumin adduct (3.38 fmol/ microg albumin) were observed in the suburban group. The biomarker levels in postal workers were similar to the levels in suburban bus drivers. In the combined group of bus drivers and postal workers, negative correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAH-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and [gamma]-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAH-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p = 0.001). Significant correlations were also observed between urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and AAS in plasma (p = 0.001) and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.002). The influence of the glutatione S-transferase (GST) M1 deletion on the correlation between the biomarkers was studied in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAH-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, but not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our results indicate that some of the selected biomarkers can be used to distinguish between high and low exposure to environmental genotoxins.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (6/1638)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Increased exhaled nitric oxide on days with high outdoor air pollution is of endogenous origin. (7/1638)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of outdoor air pollution on exhaled levels of endogenously released nitric oxide. To exclude bias from exogenous NO in the recovered exhaled air (residual NO or NO in dead volume) an experimental design was used that sampled NO of endogenous origin only. The validity of the presented experimental design was established in experiments where subjects were exposed to high levels of exogenous NO (cigarette smoke or 480 microg x m(-3) synthetic NO). Subsequent 1 min breathing and a final inhalation of NO-free air proved to be sufficient to attain pre-exposure values. Using the presented method detecting only endogenous NO in exhaled air, 18 subjects were sampled on 4 separate days with different levels of outdoor air pollution (read as an ambient NO level of 4, 30, 138 and 246 microg x m(-3)). On the 2 days with highest outdoor air pollution, exhaled NO was significantly (p<0.001) increased (67-78%) above the mean baseline value assessed on 4 days with virtually no outdoor air pollution. In conclusion, the level of endogenous nitric oxide in exhaled air is increased on days with high outdoor air pollution. The physiological implications of this findings need to be investigated further.  (+info)

Air pollution, pollens, and daily admissions for asthma in London 1987-92. (8/1638)

BACKGROUND: A study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between daily hospital admissions for asthma and air pollution in London in 1987-92 and the possible confounding and modifying effects of airborne pollen. METHODS: For all ages together and the age groups 0-14, 15-64 and 65+ years, Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk of daily asthma admissions associated with changes in ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and particles (black smoke), controlling for time trends, seasonal factors, calendar effects, influenza epidemics, temperature, humidity, and autocorrelation. Independent effects of individual pollutants and interactions with aeroallergens were explored using two pollutant models and models including pollen counts (grass, oak and birch). RESULTS: In all-year analyses ozone was significantly associated with admissions in the 15-64 age group (10 ppb eight hour ozone, 3.93% increase), nitrogen dioxide in the 0-14 and 65+ age groups (10 ppb 24 hour nitrogen dioxide, 1.25% and 2.96%, respectively), sulphur dioxide in the 0-14 age group (10 micrograms/m3 24 hour sulphur dioxide, 1.64%), and black smoke in the 65% age group (10 micrograms/m3 black smoke, 5.60%). Significant seasonal differences were observed for ozone in the 0-14 and 15-64 age groups, and in the 0-14 age group there were negative associations with ozone in the cool season. In general, cumulative lags of up to three days tended to show stronger and more significant effects than single day lags. In two-pollutant models these associations were most robust for ozone and least for nitrogen dioxide. There was no evidence that the associations with air pollutants were due to confounding by any of the pollens, and little evidence of an interaction between pollens and pollution except for synergism of sulphur dioxide and grass pollen in children (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particles were all found to have significant associations with daily hospital admissions for asthma, but there was a lack of consistency across the age groups in the specific pollutant. These associations were not explained by confounding by airborne pollens nor was there convincing evidence that the effects of air pollutants and airborne pollens interact in causing hospital admissions for asthma.  (+info)

*Air Pollution Control Act

The next Congressional statement on air pollution would come with the Clean Air Act of 1963. The Air Pollution Control Act was ... Prior to the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, little headway was made to initiate this air pollution reform. U.S. cities ... The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 was the first federal law regarding air pollution. This act began to inform the public ... "The First National Air Pollution Symposium". SRI International. Retrieved 2012-08-27. "Origins of Modern Air Pollution ...

*Air Pollution Index

Hong Kong API and You Malaysia Air Pollution Index Phaze - Air Pollution and Haze Monitoring, Malaysia and Singapore. ... The Air Pollution Index (API) is a simple and generalized way to describe the air quality, which is used in Malaysia. It is ... Air pollution Air quality index Atmospheric dispersion modeling Emission standard European emission standards Haze Pollutant ... 60 Pollution index based on index set 20 years ago, p5, South China Morning Post, 30 September 2007 "Air Pollution Index". ...

*Ethylene diurea

Air, and Soil Pollution. 117 (1/4): 263-271. doi:10.1023/A:1005138120490. ISSN 0049-6979. ...

*List of pollution-related diseases

... air pollution is linked to 7 million premature deaths. Here is a breakdown by the diseases air pollution causes: 40% - ... There are many different types of pollution-related diseases, including those caused by air pollution, contaminated soil and ... Pollution Kills More Than Disease" - via IPS News. "7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution". World Heath ... pollution-related diseases are attributed to exposure to toxins in the air, water, and soil. Therefore, all pollution-related ...

*Air pollution on vegetation

"Atmotube: The Portable Air Pollution Monitor". Indiegogo. Retrieved 2016-10-08. "Sheffield gets UK's 'first air pollution ... "UK air pollution 'linked to 40,000 early deaths a year'". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-10-08. "Air Quality Testing, Monitoring, Air ... "Air pollution monitoring in Sheffield". Sheffield City Council. Sheffield government. Retrieved 26 December 2016. "UK-AIR: Air ... The effects of air pollution on our[who?] general life have been well documented, but a specific interest group focusing on ...

*Air pollution in the United States

Federal limits and pollution standards are set by the Clean Air Act. As air pollution increases, symptoms of asthma worsen. ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) project, The World Air Quality Index. "Air Pollution in California: Real-time Air Quality Index ... While the effects of air pollution on the respiratory diseases are well understood, air pollution also affects the ... Society, National Geographic (2011-04-04). "air pollution". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2017-04-23. "Air pollution ...

*Air pollution sensor

... s are devices that detect and monitor the presence of air pollution in the surrounding area. They can be ... "Air Pollution Monitoring for Communities". Epa.gov. Retrieved May 29, 2015. "Microsampling Air Pollution". The New York Times. ... Air and Climate Change Bureau, Air Quality Programs Division, Policy, Planning and Coordination. "Air Pollution and Health - ... Everything we use in the home contributes to the pollution, and can possibly degrade the environment. Air pollution is ...

*Air pollution in India

The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some ... Air quality in Delhi List of Kerala cities by ambient air quality Petroleum coke "Urban Air Pollution, Catching gasoline ad ... Chennai air pollution was least of the four. Recent reports have found problems with pollution increasing, especially because ... that outdoor air pollution was the fifth-largest killer in India and around 620,000 early deaths occurred from air pollution- ...

*Particulates

Increased levels of fine particles in the air as a result of anthropogenic particulate air pollution "is consistently and ... the air pollution obscures the air, affecting the visibility in the city to such an extent that airplanes on some occasions are ... "Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air ... National Study Examines Health Risks of Coarse Particle Pollution Health Effects of Air Pollution in Bangkok Archived 17 ...

*BenMAP

Air Pollution Change. The air quality change is calculated as the difference between the starting air pollution level, also ... The exposed population is the number of people affected by the air pollution reduction. The government census office is a ... Inputs to health impact functions typically include: the change in ambient air pollution level, health effect estimate, the ... and the air pollution level after some change, such as that caused by a regulation. In the case of particulate matter, this is ...

*Indoor air quality

Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. A major source of indoor air pollution in developing ... When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and ... Duflo E, Greenstone M, Hanna R (2008). "Indoor air pollution, health and economic well-being". S.A.P.I.EN.S. 1 (1). Ezzati M, ... 2010, Air pollution. Encyclopedia of Earth. eds. Sidney Draggan and Cutler Cleveland. National Council for Science and the ...

*Air Pollution in Canada

Data estimates that outdoor air pollution in Canada is the cause of more than 20,000 premature deaths each year. Air pollution ... some of which were directly related to air pollution. Many of the main contributors of air pollution that increase the risk of ... Air pollution in Canada arises from the increasing airborne chemicals, matter and biological materials in the air. These ... Air pollution in Canada "The air we breathe". David Suzuki Foundation. Retrieved 2017-03-30. Winters, Nicholas; Goldberg, Mark ...

*Mobile source air pollution

... includes any air pollution emitted by motor vehicles, airplanes, locomotives, and other engines and ... OAR is concerned with pollution prevention and energy efficiency, indoor and outdoor air quality, industrial air pollution, ... Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources:Early Credit Technology Requirement Revision Air Pollution Emissions ... There are a number of different mobile sources of air pollution, some contributing more to pollution than others. As mentioned ...

*Particle-size distribution

This technique has been used for decades in the air pollution control industry (data used for design of control devices). This ... The California Air Resources Board Method 501 is currently the most widely accepted test method for particle size distribution ... State of California Air Resources Board: Method 501 - Determination of Size Distribution of Particulate Matter from Stationary ... Alternatively, the sample may be washed through with a non-reacting liquid (usually water) or blown through with an air current ...

*Air pollution

Human activity and natural processes can both generate air pollution. Indoor air pollution and poor urban air quality are ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ... Environment > Policies > Air >Air Quality Database: outdoor air pollution in cities from the World Health Organisation World ... A 2007 study found that in women, air pollution is not associated with hemorrhagic but with ischemic stroke. Air pollution was ...

*Air pollution forecasting

... also there are private companies like BreezoMeter that give air pollution forecast. Air pollution forecasting can be done by ... Air pollution forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the composition of the atmosphere for a given ... dust that carried by air parcels and follow the wind direction) "Neural networks and periodic components used in air quality ... The forecast may give the pollutants concentration or the air quality index. Countries and cities are giving forecast using ...

*Air pollution episode

An air pollution episode is an unusual combination of emissions and meteorology that gives rise to high levels of air pollution ... Examples of air pollution episodes include: 1930 Meuse Valley Episode 1939 Saint Louis Episode 1948 Donora Episode 1952 London ... Air Pollution, Inversion http://www.stltoday.com/news/local/a-look-back-black-tuesday-spurred-crackdown-on-coal-pollution/ ...

*Air pollution in Macau

... is considered a serious problem. Cases of asthma and bronchial infections have soared in recent years ... Factories in the Mainland is a significant cause of air pollution in Macau. The rapid industrialization of Shenzhen and the ... Street-level air quality regularly falls short of the government's Air Quality Objectives, and even further short of the World ... Pollution is dramatically harming not only the health of citizens of Macau but also its economy, particularly relating to the ...

*Air pollution in Germany

Air pollution can be generated by both human activity and natural processes. An air pollutant is a substance in the air that ... Air pollution in Germany has significantly decreased over the past decade. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances are ... This has now developed from controlling air pollution to being a leader in climate change politics. Air pollution may cause ... Air pollution began to be seen as a problem in Germany due to these three triggers, causing Germany to put policies into place ...

*Air pollution in Malaysia

The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the Air Pollution Index (API). Four of the index's pollutant components (i.e., ... Air pollution has been an ongoing problem in many countries in the Southeast Asia region, and Malaysia is one of the worst ... A state of emergency was announced once in 2005 at Port Klang as the Air Pollution Index (API) went above the 500 level. ... signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary air pollution in 2002 as a result of a 1997 haze. However, Indonesia is the only ...

*Air pollution in Taiwan

China's air pollution generally deteriorates the air quality in Taiwan significantly every winter. The EPA concluded that air ... Air pollution reason for concern: groups". Taipei Times. "What are the Air Quality Standards for PM". United States EPA ... Air Pollution Technology". Journal of the International Institute. 3 (1). Lee, I-chia (13 March 2014). "Air quality worst among ... Urban Air Pollution in Asian Cities: Status, Challenges and Management. Stockholm Environment Institute and the Clean Air ...

*National Air Pollution Symposium

... as well as early climate change legislation including the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955. "The First National Air Pollution ... The National Air Pollution Symposium was held on November 10-11, 1949 in Pasadena, California by the Stanford Research ... SRI had performed much of the early research on air pollution and the formation of ozone in the lower atmosphere. About 400 ... The conference (and subsequent conferences) spurred some of the early pollution and climate change research, ...

*Air pollution in Hong Kong

"Real Air Pollution Index" as part of a campaign to get the government to update the Air Pollution Index to match WHO guidelines ... Air Quality Objectives (AQOs) for seven widespread air pollutants were established in 1987 under the Air Pollution Control ... The Real Air Pollution Index reports hourly pollution levels from 15 monitoring stations across the region and compares them to ... In October 2005, Task Force on Air Pollution criticised the Government for deluding itself with a pollution index that is a " ...

*Air pollution in Mexico City

... is a continuing concern for citizens, health experts, and environmentalists. The air pollution of ... Connections have been found between air pollution and school absenteeism among children in Mexico City, between air pollution ... Air quality index IMECA-Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire Mexico City metropolitan area topics "Air pollution in ... Air pollution has been a major issue in Mexico City for decades. However, after loosening regulations in 2015 by the Mexico ...

*Air pollution in British Columbia

He estimates that 71-110 deaths are attributable to air pollution. This figure excludes effects of indoor air pollution and ... Air pollution is a concern in British Columbia, Canada because of its effects on health and visibility. Air quality is ... Occasionally, when the amount of air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed 10. The AQHI provides a local air ... decisions to reduce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting activity levels during increased levels of air pollution ...

*Earmuffs

Vibration of the Earmuff In loud enough environments, the ear canal can vibrate, causing the air trapped inside the earcup to ... Headphones Earplugs Muffs Noise-induced hearing loss Noise pollution Personal protective equipment Dielectric National ... The protection usually comes from acoustic foam - this absorbs sound waves by increasing air resistance, thus reducing the ...

*Outline of air pollution dispersion

Air pollution dispersion - distribution of air pollution into the atmosphere. Air pollution is the introduction of particulates ... regarding air pollution control. Air pollution emission plume - flow of pollutant in the form of vapor or smoke released into ... Air pollution may come from anthropogenic or natural sources. Dispersion refers to what happens to the pollution during and ... There are three primary types of air pollution emission plumes: Buoyant plumes - Plumes which are lighter than air because they ...
The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 (Pub.L. 84-159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322) was the first Clean Air Act (United States) enacted by Congress to address the national environmental problem of air pollution on July 14, 1955. This was "an act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control". The act "left states principally in charge of prevention and control of air pollution at the source". The act declared that air pollution was a danger to public health and welfare, but preserved the "primary responsibilities and rights of the states and local government in controlling air pollution". The act put the federal government in a purely informational role, authorizing the United States Surgeon General to conduct research, investigate, and pass out information "relating to air pollution and the prevention and abatement thereof". Therefore, The Air Pollution Control Act contained no provisions for the federal government to actively combat air pollution by punishing ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.. RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimers disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be ...
Air Pollution Free Essays, Air Pollution Papers. MOST POPULAR Air Pollution ESSAYS AND PAPERS at #1 Air Pollution ESSAYS COLLECTION ONLINE. Totally Free Air Pollution Essays, Air Pollution Research Papers, Air Pollution Term Papers, Air Pollution Courseworks
Air Pollution Free Essays, Air Pollution Papers. MOST POPULAR Air Pollution ESSAYS AND PAPERS at #1 Air Pollution ESSAYS COLLECTION ONLINE. Totally Free Air Pollution Essays, Air Pollution Research Papers, Air Pollution Term Papers, Air Pollution Courseworks
Our world is a pretty dirty place for most of us and it hurts health of many people. A new World Health Organization (WHO) air quality model confirms that 92% of the worlds population lives in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits. 92% of the worlds population exposed to unsafe levels of air pollution article from Science Daily tells that some 3 million deaths a year are linked to exposure to outdoor air pollution. Indoor air pollution can be just as deadly. In 2012, an estimated 6.5 million deaths (11.6% of all global deaths) were associated with indoor and outdoor air pollution together.. The new WHO model shows countries where the air pollution danger spots are: This WHO heat map shows the highest (red) and lowest (green) levels of air pollution worldwide.. ...
Background: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains a major public health issue. Several studies have found that an increased level of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) is associated with an increased risk of OHCA. We investigated the relationship between air pollution levels and the incidence of OHCA in Perth, Western Australia.Methods: We linked St John Ambulance OHCA data of presumed cardiac aetiology with Perth air pollution data from seven monitors which recorded hourly levels of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5/PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). We used a case-crossover design to estimate the strength of association between ambient air pollution levels and risk of OHCA.Methods: We linked St John Ambulance OHCA data of presumed cardiac aetiology with Perth air pollution data from seven monitors which recorded hourly levels of PM smaller than 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5/PM10), carbon monoxide ...
According to a new research, air pollution has reached a critical level in India and has merged as the fifth largest cause of death in the country.. A study in the medical journal Lancet showed that 6.2 lakh million premature deaths, which is an increase of six times since 2000. The country specific data on Global Burden of Diseases (GBD) report showed that air pollution has emerged as one of the largest causes of for deaths in 2010 in the country. An analysis by Health Effects Institute, which is based in Washington, showed that indoor air pollution and direct and indirect tobacco smoking caused one million deaths each year while 620,000 people died because of outdoor air pollution in 2010.. Aaron Cohen, the head of the expert group on air pollution for the analysis also said that air pollution caused 20 per cent of lung cancer and 6 per cent of high blood pressure deaths in the country. The data pointed out that the India does not have any standard for indoor air pollution and policy makers ...
Define Atmospheric pollution. Atmospheric pollution synonyms, Atmospheric pollution pronunciation, Atmospheric pollution translation, English dictionary definition of Atmospheric pollution. Contamination of the air, especially by smoke or gases from vehicles, factories, and power stations. It can cause disease, kill plants, and damage...
BACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohns disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment. Air pollution data were obtained from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. Residential exposure was assessed with land-use regression models for particulate matter with diameters of |10 μm (PM10), |2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Although air pollution was not significantly
The nature of air pollution has changed over the past 40 years. Emissions of smoke and sulphur dioxide associated with smogs of the past have declined, while the proportion of pollution from vehicles has increased. The health effects of air pollution are still, however, significant. Evidence from the Governments Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollution (COMEAP) suggests that some 29,000 deaths per year (4,000 in London alone) are brought forward by exposure to man-made particulate air pollution at current levels. Their current work suggests that a similar scale of premature deaths are caused by NO2 pollution, although further work is being carried out to establish to what extent these impacts overlap.. Health effects are the primary, although not the only, reason for work to improve air quality. In order to be able to assess the effect of air pollutants on health, accurate measurement of personal and population exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution is necessary. Also, the ...
Air pollution and tuberculosis (TB) are public health threats of global proportion, with one-third f people worldwide infected with TB and nearly 90% of the global population living in areas where pollution exceeds safe standards set by the World Health Organization. Children in Viet Nam are exposed to concerning levels of secondhand smoke, cooking smoke, and traffic emissions, yet little is known about the effects of these pollutants on childhood TB. We therefore propose to study the clinical and immunologic effects of air pollutants on childhood TB in Viet Nam. Our overall hypothesis is that air pollution exposures will be associated with increased risk for TB infection and altered immunologic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). To test this hypothesis, we will first develop and validate a questionnaire and air pollution models that accurately predict air pollution exposures in children at risk for TB living in Viet Nam (Aim 1). I Aim 2, to evaluate air pollution exposures as risk ...
Background and aims: Air pollution is one of the health problems worldwide. Previous epidemiological studies have investigated the impacts of air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between air pollution levels and different health indicators among world countries. Methods: This ecological study was performed in 2013 by using dataset of World Health Organization (WHO). The main variable in our study was air pollution index. The data including Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) (per 100000 live births), Life Expectancy at birth (LE), preterm birth rate (per 1000 live births) and Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) death rate (per 100000 populations) from 91 countries were extracted. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the linear correlation between air pollution and investigated indexes using Stata 11. Results: MMR (r=0.36, P=0.001) and NCD death rate (r=0.31, P=0.002) were positively associated with air pollution level. The
BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country-specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS: Fifteen population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were analysed. Residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides was modelled with land use regression using a uniform protocol. Traffic exposure was assessed with traffic indicator variables. We analysed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and non-medicated with BP lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using ...
Health effects of ambient air pollution were studied in three groups of schoolchildren living in areas (suburban, urban and urban-traffic) with different air pollution levels in EskiAYehir, Turkey. This study involved 1,880 students aged between 9 and 13 years from 16 public primary schools. This two-season study was conducted from January 2008 through March 2009. Symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema were determined by the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire in 2008. Two lung function tests were performed by each child for summer and winter seasons with simultaneous ambient air measurements of ozone (O-3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) by passive sampling. Effects of air pollution on impaired lung function and symptoms in schoolchildren were estimated by multivariate logistic regression analyses. Girls with impaired lung function (only for the summer season evaluation) were more observed in suburban and urban areas when compared to ...
Major cities in India are currently experiencing severe levels of air pollution. Some of the most common health effects of air pollution include irritation of eyes, throat and lungs. For people with existing respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis, breathing in air pollution can make these conditions worse. New Zealanders in areas affected by the air pollution are advised to monitor pollution readings, such as those provided by the Air Quality Index website. If you have concerns about the level of pollution, we recommend remaining indoors as much as possible, with doors and windows closed, and refraining from strenuous activity when outdoors. We also recommend seeking medical advice about appropriate precautions. New Zealanders are advised to follow the advice of local authorities at all times.. The following sites may give further advice and data regarding pollution levels:. ...
Famously, the use of caged birds to alert miners to the invisible dangers of gases such as carbon monoxide gave rise to the cautionary metaphor "canary in a coal mine.". But other than the fact that exposure to toxic gases in a confined space kills caged birds before affecting humans - providing a timely warning to miners - what do we know about the effects of air pollution on birds?. Not as much as youd think, according to researchers from the University of Wisconsin-Madison.. "We know a lot about air pollutions effects on human health, and we know a lot about the impacts of air pollution across ecosystems," explains Tracey Holloway, a professor in UW-Madisons Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. "We were surprised to discover how little we know about how air pollution affects birds.". Writing Aug. 11 in the journal Environmental Research Letters, Holloway, an expert on air quality, and her former graduate student Olivia Sanderfoot, sort through nearly 70 years of the scientific ...
Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), also known as factory farms, emit large amounts of air pollution, including methane, ammonia, nitrous oxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter. Yet Oregon has no air pollution control program to monitor and reduce factory farm pollution. While the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has long acknowledged the problem of factory farm air pollution, EPA fails to regulate the industry. In the face of federal inaction, states including Minnesota, California, and Idaho have adopted laws to reduce air pollution from factory farms. To date, Oregon has not adopted regulations to control air pollution from factory farms.. The Legislature Must Act - Pass SB 197 ...
With an increased awareness of health and economic costs associated with air pollution exposures - from direct health impacts (e.g. 3.1 million deaths per year worldwide), to repercussions on workforce productivity (e.g. projected 82 million lost workdays in Europe in 2025), and difficulties in attracting qualified workforce and tourists in highly polluted cities - there is a real need to tackle air pollution problems in cities more efficiently.. The AirMAP method combines big data from mobile phones and vehicle fleet GPS tracking with air pollution maps to estimate exposures to air pollution in the population. With the proposed approach, we are thus able to assess exposures accounting for peoples movement in space and time, rather than with the usual static approach whereby people are assumed to spend their whole lives at home. This novel approach can enable policy makers to target much more efficiently and cost-effectively air pollution reductions efforts to protect people from air ...
The effects of air pollution on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, and the resulting impacts on public health, have been widely studied. However, little is known about the effect of air pollution on the occurrence of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), a rodent-borne infectious disease. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between air pollution and HFRS incidence from 2001 to 2010, and estimated the significance of the correlation under the effect of climate variables. We obtained data regarding HFRS, particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM10) as an index of air pollution, and climate variables including temperature, humidity, and precipitation from the national database of South Korea. Poisson regression models were established to predict the number of HFRS cases using air pollution and climate variables with different time lags. We then compared the ability of the climate model and the combined climate and air pollution model to predict the occurrence of HFRS. The
Your home may seem clean on the surface - but that doesnt mean the air circulating inside of it is. Houses, apartments, and even office buildings can be affected by indoor air pollution. In fact, this problem is so serious that the Environmental Protection Agency (or EPA) has ranked poor air quality as the fourth biggest threat facing public health today. Further, the air inside your home can be anywhere from two to a hundred times more polluted than the air outside. It doesnt matter whether your home or office building is brand new or much older…. indoor air pollution can happen anywhere.. Over time, contaminants (like dust, dirt, and other debris) start to collect inside of your ductwork. When this happens, those contaminants can be pushed back out into the air circulating in your home. The result? Air that is full of dust and dirt. Even if you remember to vacuum as much as possible, the air in your home can still affect the health of you and your loved ones. Yes, breathing air that is ...
Air pollution, aside from cigarette smoke, may not be an obvious risk factor for birth defects particularly in developed countries.. However, according to the results of a large European study, exposure to air pollution throughout pregnancy significantly increases the risk of having a low birth weight baby.. Low birth weight (under 2.5 kg) in full term infants has been associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity in comparison to healthy birthweight infants. It also increases the likelihood of experiencing respiratory problems during childhood and later in life.. With high prevalence rates of respiratory conditions such as asthma worldwide, exposure to air pollution appears to one of the most important heath factors to address throughout pregnancy.. How Air Pollution Affects the Health of a Pregnancy Researchers compiled data from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to analyse 14 cohort studies conducted throughout Europe involving over 74,000 women who ...
Based on air pollution levels at 5 a.m on Sept. 4, a Stage 1 Air Pollution Health Advisory has been issued for Mono County communities by the local air pollution control district. Due to elevated particulate pollution levels, children, the elderly, people with heart or lung problems, or people with current illnesses such as the flu, are advised to stay indoors and avoid strenuous outdoor activities in the impacted areas.. Smoke conditions may change quickly. Both Mono County and Owens Valley communities may have impacts throughout the holiday weekend. If you have any questions please visit http://www.gbuapcd.org/ or call the Great Basin Air Pollution Control District office in Bishop at 760-872-8211.. Health advisories on the web: http://www.gbuapcd.org/healthadvisory. Rough Fire air impacts: http://www.gbuapcd.org/Roughfire.htm. Rough Fire Air Quality Report: http://gbuapcd.org/20150904_RoughFireARAReport.pdf. US Forest Service BlueSky smoke forecast: ...
If youre planning to exercise, which is really important, maybe take into account what the air quality alert is for that day, and if its going to be a high pollution day, dont exercise outside," she says. "Exercise inside or rearrange your schedule to exercise at the time of day when air pollution is lower or in a park thats not close to a busy roadway. If youre at home and its a hot day out, rather than opening the windows, turn on the air conditioning to keep pollution out ...
The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, often abbreviated as Air Pollution or CLRTAP, is intended to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution.. The convention opened for signature on 1979-11-13 and entered into force on 1983-03-16.. The current parties to the Convention are shown on the map.. The Convention, which now has 51 Parties, identifies the Executive Secretary of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) as its secretariat.. Since 1979 the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution has addressed some of the major environmental problems of the UNECE region through scientific collaboration and policy negotiation. The Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify specific measures to be taken by Parties to cut their emissions of air pollutants.. The aim of the Convention is that Parties shall endeavour to limit and, as far ...
This study was the largest human-controlled air pollution exposure protocol yet completed (274 total exposures).9,11 Our well-coordinated design and uniform methods between 2 sites provided us the unique ability to compare CV responses with air pollution from different locations.. It is unclear why we did not replicate previous findings of brachial artery vasoconstriction after CAP plus ozone exposures.9 We either failed to identify its occurrence, or this vascular territory behaved in a discordant manner between experiments. It is also uncertain why exposures elicited a greater effect on diastolic rather than systolic BP. Additional studies are required, but perhaps the underlying hemodynamic changes responsible reflected a predominant vasoconstriction without changes in cardiac output or arterial compliance (as suggested by the results in Table 6).. We also limited blood biomarker interpretation to the Toronto results because this was where we could account for any filtered air (placebo) ...
Public concern regarding air pollution has increased rapidly in recent years. Because air pollution may present special problems in the pediatric age group, available information on the effects of various air pollutants on children has been reviewed with the purpose of: (1) defining the potential ill effects of air pollution in this age group, (2) making information regarding these effects readily accessible to pediatricians, and (3) delineating further areas of study which may be necessary to safeguard child health from this environmental hazard.. Three general conclusions became apparent to the Committee after reviewing more than 100 publications from the world literature dealing specifically with the health effects of air pollution on children * The first is that children as a group may serve to delineate more clearly the effect of air pollution on health. They (1) spend most of their lives and attend school in limited geographical areas where air quality and meteorological effects can be ...
Reviews find a likely adverse effect of air pollution on perinatal outcomes, but variation of findings hinders the ability to incorporate the research into policy. The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes (ICAPPO) was formed to better understand relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes through standardized parallel analyses in datasets from different countries. A planning group with 10 members from 6 countries was formed to coordinate the project. Collaboration participants have datasets with air pollution values and birth outcomes. Eighteen research groups with data for approximately 20 locations in Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and South America are participating, with most participating in an initial pilot study. Datasets generally cover the 1990s. Number of births is generally in the hundreds of thousands, but ranges from around 1,000 to about one million. Almost all participants have some measure of particulate matter, and most have
Allergic rhinitis (AR) is impacted by allergens and air pollution but interactions between air pollution, sleep and allergic diseases are insufficiently understood. POLLAR (Impact of air POLLution on sleep, Asthma and Rhinitis) is a project of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIT Health). It will use a freely-existing application for AR monitoring that has been tested in 23 countries (the Allergy Diary, iOS and Android, 17,000 users, TLR8). The Allergy Diary will be combined with a new tool allowing queries on allergen, pollen (TLR2), sleep quality and disorders (TRL2) as well as existing longitudinal and geolocalized pollution data. Machine learning will be used to assess the relationship between air pollution, sleep and AR comparing polluted and non-polluted areas in 6 EU countries. Data generated in 2018 will be confirmed in 2019 and extended by the individual prospective assessment of pollution (portable sensor, TLR7) in AR. Sleep apnea patients will be used as a demonstrator of
Air pollution is not good for the health. Now there is more reason to be concerned, as air pollution can affect antibiotics effectiveness.
Asthma prevalence has steadily increased in the United States since the early 1980s; currently more than 20 million people are diagnosed with asthma, including 9 million children. Asthma can be caused by many factors, including pollen, dust, tobacco smoke, and other allergens. Research has shown that even short-term increases in daily levels of air pollution can trigger an increase in asthma symptoms in some individuals. More research is needed to determine how short-term increases in air pollution affect the severity of asthma later in life. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has constructed research monitoring stations, known as Supersites, to advance the understanding of the effect of airborne pollutants on the health of individuals. Data collected from the Supersites provide important information regarding air pollution and air quality levels. This study will use air pollution measurements obtained from the Fresno, California Supersite to monitor participants exposure to air ...
Atkinson RW, Carey IM, Kent AJ, van Staa TP, Anderson HR, Cook DG. 2013. Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiology 24:44-53.. Beelen R, Hoek G, Houthuijs D, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA, Fischer P, et al. 2009. The joint association of air pollution and noise from road traffic with cardiovascular mortality in a cohort study. Occup Environ Med 66:243-250.. Behbod B, Urch B, Speck M, Scott JA, Liu L, Poon R, et al. 2013. Endotoxin in concentrated coarse and fine ambient particles induces acute systemic inflammation in controlled human exposures. Occup Environ Med 70:761-767.. Berkowicz R, Ketzel M, Jensen SS, Hvidberg M, Raaschou-Nielsen O. 2008. Evaluation and application of OSPM for traffic pollution assessment for a large number of street locations. Environ Model Softw 23:296-303.. Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA III, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, et al. 2010. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an ...
The Phase I.B Report of the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project. The Health Effects Institute began the Particle Epidemiology Evaluation Project in 1994 to evaluate the emerging epidemiologic evidence of a relation between particulate air pollution and daily mortality. In Phase I.B, Drs. Jonathan M. Samet and Scott L. Zeger and their colleagues at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health (1) compared approaches for controlling the effects of weather variables when analyzing the connection between air pollution and daily mortality, primarily focusing on Synoptic Weather Categories, an approach newly proposed by Dr. Laurence S. Kalkstein of the University of Delaware; and (2) evaluated the association between particulate air pollution and daily mortality in the Philadelphia metropolitan area using statistical models that included data for five pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (referred to as criteria pollutants).
As cold season inversion has shrouded a number of Iranian cities in smog, President Hassan Rouhani unveiled plans on Wednesday. for "urgent, short-term" measures to tackle severe pollution.. Speaking at a weekly session of the Cabinet, President Rouhani said necessary decisions have been made to deal with the pressing problem of air pollution.. Public concern about the pollution is reasonable and just, the president contended, stressing the need for continuous efforts to allay concerns on the issue.. Although tackling the air pollution is not possible in a short-term period, the administration will make whatever decision necessary to combat the problem, Rouhani added.. In recent weeks, cold temperatures and stagnant air in a number of big Iranian cities, including capital Tehran, have put the air pollution index as much as 7 times the levels recommended by the World Health Organization.. Severe air pollution prompted authorities last week to shut down schools for three days in and around the ...
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Ever since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular. According to a 2009 report, around "60 percent of Americans live in areas where air pollution has reached unhealthy levels that can make people sick". Pollution in the United States has plummeted in the recent decade, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide decreasing despite the fact the number of vehicles on the road isnt. This is due to better regulations, economic shifts, and technological innovations. With respect to nitrogen dioxide, NASA reported a 32% decrease in New York City and a 42% decrease in Atlanta between the periods of 2005-2007 and 2009-2011. Air pollution can cause a variety of health problems including, ...
We simulated commuter routes and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution during commute in a representative population sample in Basel (Switzerland), and evaluated three air pollution models with different spatial resolution for estimating commute exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Our approach includes spatially and temporally resolved data on actual commuter routes, travel modes and three air pollution models. Annual mean NO2 commuter exposures were similar between models. However, we found more within-city and within-subject variability in annual mean (±SD) NO2 commuter exposure with a high resolution dispersion model (40 ± 7 µg m−3, range: 21-61) than with a dispersion model with a lower resolution (39 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24-51), and a land use regression model (41 ± 5 µg m−3; range: 24-54). Highest median cumulative exposures were calculated along motorized transport and bicycle routes, and the lowest for
The human health effects of exposure to tropospheric outdoor air pollutants, which include both particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, have gained prominence as a global public health concern. Indeed, the most recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report lists outdoor air pollution as a leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years, accounting for an estimated ,3 million premature deaths per year globally [1, 2], as well as similarly large numbers of deaths associated with indoor air pollution exposures (e.g. biomass and coal burning smoke). However, outdoor air pollution exposures and trends are quite disparate in different parts of the globe: the principal community air pollutants monitored for regulatory purposes, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and ozone, have generally (but not universally) shown declining concentrations in the developed nations in recent years, while in the low- and middle-income countries ...
Exposure to air pollution can worsen blood sugar levels, cholesterol and other risk factors for heart disease, particularly in people with diabetes, according to a new study, The Association between Air Pollution Exposure and Glucose and Lipid Levels, published in the Endocrine Societys Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. While air pollution is linked with relatively small changes in cardiometabolic risk factors, the continuous nature of exposure and the number of people affected gives us cause for concern, said the studys senior author, Victor Novack, MD, PhD, of BGU and Soroka University Medical Center. Even small changes in glucose levels and glycemic control can contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease.. The population-based retrospective cohort study examined the effects of air pollution exposure on 73,117 adults living in southern Israel, where levels of particulate matter can escalate due to its location in the global dust belt. To assess air pollution, ...
The African Development Bank is focusing more strongly on air pollution. As part of the banks 10-year strategy to facilitate Africas gradual transition to green growth, the bank has awarded Ramboll a contract for transport emission mapping and monitoring as well as capacity building in five cities.. Although indoor air pollution is the greatest problem, vehicle emissions are also steadily climbing, driven by urban sprawl, rapid motorisation and low levels of institutional capacity to manage traffic and its impacts. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) estimates that vehicle emissions account for 90% of urban air pollution in developing countries.. The main objective of the African Development Bank project is to advise city authorities and policy-makers on efficient and accurate methods for collecting, storing and analysing data as well as mapping air pollution levels in cities and, to identify options for financing low-emission transport technologies. The project will cover the ...
NGO News Desk :: Outdoor air pollution has become the fifth largest killer in India after high blood pressure, indoor air pollution, tobacco smoking, and poor nutrition - says a new set of findings of the Global Burden of Disease report. The India and South Asia-specific findings were officially released here today at a Dialogue Workshop jointly organised by Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), Indian Council of Medical Research and the US-based Health Effects Institute.. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report is a world-wide initiative involving the World Health Organization which tracks deaths and illnesses from all causes across the world every 10 years. The new findings were released by Aaron Cohen, principal epidemiologist of the Health Effects Institute and co-chair of the GBD Ambient Air Pollution Expert Group.. The report says that about 620,000 premature deaths occur in India from air pollution-related diseases. GBD has ranked air pollution as one of the top 10 killers in the ...
Find service providers of Air Pollution Control Services in Uttar Pradesh India - Air Pollution Control Services verified companies listings from Air Pollution Control Services with catalogs, phone numbers, addresses and more.
Air pollution health risks: A recent World Health Organization report showed that over 100,000 children under five in India died due to indoor and outdoor air pollution in 2016. One important threat to child health posed by household air pollution is pneumonia, which is the leading infectious cause of death among children under five in the country and the world.
A Unicef report states that toxic air severely affects childrens brain development and may cause a permanent damage to their brains. The report mentions that toxic air can also lead to anxiety disorder and may affect IQ level and memory pattern in kids. Severe air pollution can also lead to other neurological disorders like Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The findings come at a time when India, particularly in the north, is facing a serious crisis due to rising levels of pollution. Last month, Delhi schools had to be shut temporarily to reduce childrens exposure to pollutants that had enveloped the capital. The air pollution level has been consistently 10 points above the safe zone. The Unicef report also said that South Asia had the largest proportion of babies living in areas where air pollution is at least six times higher than international limits (10 micrograms per cubic metre).. ...
In a recent estimate, outdoor air pollution was found to account for approximately 1.4% of total mortality, 0.5% of all disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 2% of all cardiopulmonary disease (World Health Report 2002). This guide outlines a method for quantifying selected health impacts associated with outdoor air pollution. Such an estimate can be performed at the level of a country or city, according to locally available exposure and health data, and can be used as input to decision-making regarding for example transport options or standard setting in air quality.. The exposure variable for air pollution used in this guide is particulate matter (PM) measured as either PM10 or PM2.5 (i.e. PM less than 10 μm or 2.5 μm in diameter, respectively). Population exposure is characterized by exposure concentrations and the numbers of people exposed at the various exposure levels. Concentrationresponse functions from the epidemiological literature are then applied to the exposed population. ...
This event has been cancelled** We will rearrange in September. Air Pollution kills 9,416 Londoners every year. Most of Southwark has unacceptable levels of air pollution, putting the health of residents at risk. See: Air Pollution Map. Diesel buses contribute to air pollution, especially older models that dont use hybrid technology. Our petition will call on TFL and Southwark Council to increase the number of low emission buses serving our communities, making an important contribution to improving air quality in the borough.. Well have a stall on Rye Lane urging passers-by to sign the air pollution petition. ...
Local media sources such as WHIO-TV and Springfield News-Sun will be notified to report the Air Pollution Advisory message through regional television, radio, and newspapers. Partners are notified the afternoon prior to an Air Pollution Advisory Day in order to inform all AQ partners. An Air Pollution Advisory Alert notice will also appear on the front page of the Springfield News-Sun daily paper ont he day of the advisory declaration.. In addition, registered subscribers to the EnviroFlash system will receive notification of all Air Pollution Advisory Days via email. Area residents are also alerted so they will know when to take necessary precaution to protect their health and to take action to further reduce contributions to air pollution ...
Cant Do A Surgical Strike On Air Pollution, Says Minister Harsh Vardhan | NDTV.com Video | Union environment minister Harsh Vardhan today rebutted the allegations of the Delhi government that the Centre had been aloof about the smog that has been choking the national capital, saying one cannot launch surgical strikes against pollution. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, he said, has been monitoring the situation but insisted that a solution has to be found by the states.
Franchini M, Guida A, Tufano A, Coppola A. Air pollution, vascular disease and thrombosis: linking clinical data and pathogenic mechanisms. Journal of Thrombois and Haemostasis. 2012;10(12):2438 - 51. Trasande L, Thurston GD. The role of air pollution in asthma and other pediatric morbidities. Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2005;115(4):689 - 99. Murathan A, Biçer A, Alicilar A, Murathan A. Effects of various parameters on removal of NO2 gases in fixed beds by adsorption on sepiolite. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2001; 132(3 - 4): 365 - 72. Murray F, McGranahan G. Air pollution and health in rapidly developing countries - the context. Earthscan; Kavlock R, Daston G, Grabowski CT. Studies on the developmental toxicity of ozone. I. Prenatal effects. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1979;48(1):19 - 28. Bastain TM, Gilliland FD, Li Y-F, Saxon A, Diaz-Sanchez D. Intraindividual reproducibility of nasal allergic responses to diesel exhaust particles indicates a suscep tible ...
The Aerosol and Air Pollution Group is a multidisciplinary team at CityU focusing on the investigating the sources, characteristics, impacts and control of urban air pollution. Our mission is to contribute to the development of systematic and fundamental knowledge on air pollution to inform effective air quality management and to develop break-through technologies and control strategies to protect public health and mitigate climate change. Our research activities include the physicochemical and toxicological characterization of aerosol and air pollution from traffic sources and in urban atmospheric environment, and the characterization of personal exposure in complex and heterogeneous microenvironments. We also devise and develop new and aerosol related measurement and control technologies to meet the emerging environmental challenges. ...
A study published in Environment International has demonstrated that exposure to air pollution on the way to school can have damaging effects on childrens cognitive development. The study, led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health, found an association between a reduction in working memory and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and black carbon during the walking commute to and from school.
Air pollution is the worlds largest single environmental health risk, the World Health Organization said on Tuesday.. According to the bodys just released estimates, seven million people died in 2012 as a result of air pollution. That amounts to one in 8 deaths worldwide.. "The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes," stated Dr. Maria Neira, Director of the WHOs Department for Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health.. Their findings attribute 80 percent of outdoor air pollution-caused deaths to heart disease and stroke; those diseases were implicated in 60 percent of indoor air pollution-caused deaths.. Because the indoor air pollution is often the result of smoke and soot from cooking stoves, women and children pay a particular heavy price.. "Thanks to effective regulatory and legislative policies over the years, the United States has made significant strides towards cleaning up ...
HEI funded the National Morbidity, Mortality, and Air Pollution Study (NMMAPS) to characterize the effects of airborne particles less than 10 ?m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) alone and in combination with gaseous air pollutants in a consistent way in a large number of cities. The study was designed to select multiple locations based on the specific criteria of population size and availability of PM10 data from the US Environmental Protection Agency?s Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) database, and to apply the same statistical procedures to all locations. Dr Jonathan Samet and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins University conducted a time-series study of mortality effects in large US cities representing various levels of PM10 and gaseous pollutants. In their analysis, the investigators first estimated risk in each city using the same method and then combined these results systematically to draw more information than any single city could provide. The 20 and 90 largest cities were ...
The Washington Clean Air Act, Ch. 70.94 RCW, sets forth the state law regarding outdoor air pollution and establishes a system of regional air pollution control authorities, Local Clean Air Agencies (DOE), to implement federal and state air pollution control regulations.. Air pollution control regulations cover the emission of air contaminants that are injurious to health or that unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life and property. Pursuant to RCW 70.94.230, the rules and regulations adopted by an air pollution control authority, pursuant to the Washington Clean Air Act, preempt local ordinances for the regulation of air pollution. RCW 70.94.230 does, however, authorize cities and towns to enact and enforce local nuisance provisions and performance standards incorporated in zoning ordinances, so long as such standards relating to air pollution control or air quality are not less stringent than those of the authority. Many local governments have enacted general nuisance ordinances, ...
Exposure to air pollution has been shown in epidemiological studies to be closely linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The exact components of air pollution that underlie the cardiovascular effects are not yet known, but combustion-derived particulate matter is suspected to be the major cause. In controlled exposure studies, we have recently demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust causes increased myocardial ischaemia with exercise in patients with asymptomatic coronary artery disease. The mechanism behind this effect is not yet understood, but we have shown that diesel exhaust exposure causes an acute impairment of two important and highly relevant aspects of vascular tone: vasomotor tone and endogenous fibrinolysis. In this study we propose to investigate the effects of exposure to ambient levels of air pollution on patients with stable, symptomatic angina pectoris, during their daily lives ...
The Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act provides a brief introduction to the 1990 Clean Air Act. The 1990 Clean Air Act is the most recent version of a law first passed in 1970 to clean up air pollution. This summary covers some of the important provisions of the 1990 Clean Air Act and may help you understand what is in the law and how it may affect you.. You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPAs About PDF page to learn more. ...
Responsible for 400,000 deaths each year globally, air pollution has yet to be sufficiently addressed by the worlds governments, researchers have warned. EURACTIV France reports. Air pollution damages the heart. According to an expert position paper published in the European Heart Journal, many types of cardiovascular disease are linked to poor air quality.. Not only does air pollution exacerbate existing heart problems, but it also appears to play a role in the development of heart disease in otherwise healthy people, the researchers said. There is particularly strong evidence of the harmful effects of suspended particles, as opposed to gas pollution, they said.. Air pollution is made up of thousands of different particles and gasses. Among the most important pollutants, from a health point of view, are particles in suspension and gasses like ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), volatile organic compounds (like benzene), carbon monoxide (CO) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The burning of fossil ...
Adamkiewicz G, Ebelt S, Syring M, Slater J, Speizer FE, Schwartz J, et al. 2004. Association between air pollution exposure and exhaled nitric oxide in an elderly population. Thorax 59:204-209.. Adar SD, Adamkiewicz G, Gold DR, Schwartz J, Coull BA, Suh H. 2007a. Ambient and microenvironmental particles and exhaled nitric oxide before and after a group bus trip. Environ Health Perspect 115:507-512, doi: 10.1289/ehp.9386.. Adar SD, Gold DR, Coull BA, Schwartz J, Stone PH, Suh H. 2007b. Focused exposures to airborne traffic particles and heart rate variability in the elderly. Epidemiology 18:95-103.. Adar SD, Klein R, Klein BE, Szpiro AA, Cotch MF, Wong TY, et al. 2010. Air pollution and the microvasculature: a cross-sectional assessment of in vivo retinal images in the population-based multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). PLoS Med 7:e1000372, doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000372.. Allen RW, Criqui MH, Diez Roux AV, Allison M, Shea S, Detrano R, et al. 2009. Fine particulate matter air ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772 subjects in the Netherlands. METHODS: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter | 10 μm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels…
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Unless more stringent policies are adopted, findings point to a significant increase in global emissions and concentrations of air pollutants, with severe impacts on human health and the environment. The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to significant economic costs, which are illustrated at the regional and sectoral levels, and to substantial annual global welfare costs.
Premature deaths as a result of air pollution are costing the global economy trillions of dollars every year.. A new study from the World Bank found air pollution to be the "deadliest" form of pollution and the fourth leading risk factor for premature deaths worldwide.. It put a "welfare cost" - an approach used to evaluate the costs and benefits of environmental regulations in a given country context - from both indoor and outdoor air pollution and found it to be more than $5 trillion (£3.8tn) in 2013.. Thats the size of the GDP of India, Canada and Mexico combined.. China lost nearly 10% of its GDP, India 7.69% and Sri Lanka and Cambodia roughly 8% in 2013 - the latest year for which global data is available.. Rich countries are also losing billions of dollars, with dirty air found to cost the UK $7.6 billion (£5.7bn) annually, the US $45 billion (£33.7bn) and Germany $18 billion (£13.5bn).. Without including the costs of treating illnesses linked to pollution, the bank calculated ...
Environmental problems such as noise and air pollution are increasingly catching peoples attention in recent years owing to the industrialization and urbanization all over the world. Therefore it is important to develop effective methods to present information on noise and air pollution to the public. One feasible approach is to carry out prediction based on traffic data and make noise and pollution maps. GIS is a powerful tool for prediction since its spatial analysis function could be used in analysis and calculation. In addition the available GIS platforms also provide visualization functions to display the analysis results in variety of forms, in both 2D and 3D. This thesis uses noise and air pollution as examples to study how to predict noise and pollution from traffic data and how to visualize the predicted pollution information in 3D with the help of the existing visualization technology.. Therefore, the thesis has two objectives. The first objective is focused on prediction of noise and ...
Pollution effect on oceans - Rana Hodges by Rana Hodges | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
Mines Endanger Public Health, Safety and the Climate. DENVER- A coalition of environmental groups today called on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to put public health and safety first, and to establish, for the first time ever, limits on air pollution from coal mines throughout the United States.. "Its time to finally hold coal mines accountable to our health, safety and environment," said Jeremy Nichols, climate and energy program director for WildEarth Guardians. "With mines spewing methane, dust, toxic orange clouds and other dangerous gases, we need a national response that puts clean air before coal.". In a petition to EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson, Earthjustice, WildEarth Guardians, the Center for Biological Diversity, the Environmental Integrity Project and the Sierra Club called for the agency to exercise its authority under the Clean Air Act to both list coal mines as a source of harmful air pollution and ensure the best systems of emission reduction are used to keep this ...
The remaining 3.7 premature deaths caused by air pollution are from ambient air pollution--that is, in the outdoor air. Again, in terms of absolute numbers, most of these deaths occur in the western Pacific and south-east Asia regions, where both air pollution levels and populations are especially high. However, its worth noting that even in the high-income parts of the Americas, referring mainly to the United States and Canada, there are an estimated 94,000 deaths per year from outdoor air pollution ...
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Background Air pollution exposure has been shown to have adverse effects on several health outcomes, and numerous studies have reported associations with cardiovascular morbidity, respiratory disease, and mortality. Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies have investigated possible associations with pregnancy outcomes, including preterm delivery. High levels of vehicle exhaust in residential neighborhoods have been associated with respiratory effects, including childhood asthma, and preterm birth is also associated with childhood asthma.. The first aim of this thesis was to investigate possible associations between air pollution exposure and pregnancy outcomes - primarily preterm delivery but also small for gestational age (SGA) and pre-eclampsia - in a large Swedish population (Papers I-III). The second aim was to study any association between exposure to high levels of vehicle exhaust during pregnancy and infancy and prescribed asthma medication in childhood (Paper IV).. Methods ...
African Americans and Latinos are disproportionately affected by asthma, a complex disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Although much is known about the separate effects of air pollution and cigarette smoke on asthma and asthma attacks, what remains to be determined is whether combined exposures to tobacco smoke and air pollution have greater effects on asthma risk and morbidity than what would be expected based on the individual exposures (i.e., interaction effects).. We hypothesize that the combined effect of exposure to tobacco smoke and air pollution will be more detrimental to asthma risk and morbidity than what would be expected based on the individual exposures. We further hypothesize that these environment-by-environment interaction effects will be manifest as epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation).. We will examine the interaction effects of air pollution and tobacco smoke exposure on asthma outcomes at two time points: early-life (pregnancy ...
Air pollution is a serious problem in thickly populated and industrialized areas in Thailand, especially in Bangkok. The air pollution in Bangkok is abundant, especially in areas where pollution sources and the human population are concentrated. Economic growth and industrialization are proceeding at a rapid pace, accompanied by increasing emissions of air polluting sources. Furthermore, though the variety and quantities of polluting sources have increased dramatically, the development of a suitable method for monitoring the pollution causing sources has not followed at the same pace. Environmental impacts of air pollutants have impact on public health, vegetation, material deterioration etc. To prevent or minimize the damage caused by atmospheric pollution, suitable monitoring systems are urgently needed that can rapidly and reliably detect and quantify polluting sources for monitoring by regulating authorities in order to prevent further deterioration of the current pollution levels. ...
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He also criticised the use of gold nanoparticles on humans, saying this was "very risky because the small gold particles they used are known to be cytotoxic". The mechanism identified in the study, Professor Dobson said, was "of minimal relevance to the real world".. Environmentalists said the research provided more reasons - beyond global warming - why tackling air pollution was a good idea.. WWF Head of Energy and Climate, Gareth Redmond-King criticised the Governments record on the issue.. "The repeated delays in tackling it puts peoples health - and, indeed, lives - at risk," he said. "Air pollution is a serious public health crisis and must be an urgent priority for the next Government.. "From the remaining coal in in our power stations to the diesel and petrol in our car, bus, van and train engines, we need to ensure dirty fossil fuels are consigned to the dustbin of history.. "The UK Governments air quality and clean growth plans must be ambitious in addressing this, replacing petrol ...
European efforts to develop strategies to control air pollution require an understanding of a wide range of issues, including the movement of air pollution across national borders. A significant part of the scientific modeling behind those efforts comes from IIASAs Mitigation of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases Program (MAG), primarily through use of the GAINS model. The GAINS model, and its predecessor, the RAINS model, have been applied to assist key policy negotiations on improving air quality throughout Europe.. Since 1999 IIASA has been hosting the Centre for Integrated Assessment Modelling (CIAM), one of the four centres assigned for the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution.. CIAM prepares technical background material for the annual meetings of the Task Force on Integrated Assessment Modelling (TFIAM). The Task Force brings together information gathered from the Parties and from other Convention bodies on ...
The association between long-term exposure to air pollution and local inflammation in the lung has rarely been investigated in the general population of elderly subjects before. We investigated this association in a population-based cohort of elderly women from Germany. In a follow-up examination of the SALIA cohort study in 2008/2009, 402 women aged 68 to 79 years from the Ruhr Area and Borken (Germany) were clinically examined. Inflammatory markers were determined in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and in induced sputum (IS). We used traffic indicators and measured air pollutants at single monitoring stations in the study area to assess individual traffic exposure and long-term air pollution background exposure. Additionally long-term residential exposure to air pollution was estimated using land-use regression (LUR) models. We applied multiple logistic and linear regression analyses adjusted for age, indoor mould, smoking, passive smoking and socio-economic status and additionally conducted
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Air pollution had been linked to health hazards before but a recent research suggests that experts may be underestimating the deaths caused by air pollution.
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About Air Pollution - Air Pollution was written by and Heather C. Hudak. Air Pollution was published by Weigl Publishers. Subjects of Air Pollution i
Chapter 1 Air Pollution 1] Background 49 2] Diagnosis: Air Quality 52 3] Causes: Air Pollutant Emissions 60 4] Actions: Air Pollution Control chapter 1 air pollution Air Quality PM2.5 Maximum Permissible
Heather E. Volk, a scientist at USCs Keck School of Medicine, said the research showed children with a risk genotype and high air pollution exposure were at an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder.. The studys senior author, Daniel Campbell, an assistant professor of psychiatry and the behavioral sciences at the school, called the research "the first demonstration of a specific interaction between a well-established genetic risk factor and an environmental factor that independently contribute to autism risk.". Campbell and Volks team studied 408 children between ages 2 and 5. Of those, 252 met the criteria for autism or autism spectrum disorder. The researchers determined air pollution exposure by examining past residences of the children and their mothers, local traffic-related sources, and regional air quality measures.. The scientists will next study the link between the gene and air pollution in mothers during pregnancy.. H/T Sam Lane. ...
The Supreme Court was very clear in its ruling against the government which ordered ministers to come up with a plan to bring air pollution down within legal limits as soon as possible. That was in 2015! Mr Gove, you are now in charge of the environment and the air our children are breathing in. Mr Khan, you as the mayor of London issues the highest pollution warning and most children dont even know about it and even if they do, they have no choice. Adults are deciding for them. They are still sent outside to play in school playgrounds and sports fields. Some schools advised asthmatic children to make sure they bring their inhalers. Some schools are starting to install pollution filters. We put seat belts on our children before driving a car. We put helmets on their heads to ride a bike. There is a smoking ban in cars with children, we have smoking bans in hospitals. Why are we then harming our children knowingly with toxic air pollution on a daily basis?. We need a national air pollution ...
I know Teddy Kennedy had fun at the Democratic convention when he said that I said that trees and vegetation caused 80 percent of the air pollution in this country. ... Well, now he was a little wrong about what I said. I didnt say 80 percent. I said 92 percent 93 percent, pardon me. And I didn t say air pollution, I said oxides of nitrogen. Growing and decaying vegetation in this land are responsible for 93 percent of the oxides of nitrogen. ... If we are totally successful and can eliminate all the manmade oxides of nitrogen, we ll still have 93 percent as much as we have in the air today ...
Nearly 40 million people in the UK are living in areas where illegal levels of air pollution from diesel vehicles risk damaging their health, according to analysis commissioned by the Labour party.. The extent of the air pollution crisis nationally is exposed in the data which shows 59% of the population are living in towns and cities where nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution breaches the lawful level of 40 microgrammes per cubic metre of air.. Labour says the air pollution crisis is a "national scandal". Sue Hayman, shadow secretary of state for environment, food and rural affairs, said a Labour government would bring in a new clean air act to tackle what was a public health emergency.. "Labour will not allow the Tories to use the snap general election or Brexit to kick this issue into the long grass or water down standards that would put millions of UK adults and children at risk," said Hayman.. She said the party was committed to putting in place a network of clean air zones across the UK where ...
WHY THE PROJECT IS IMPORTANT. Pollution consists in the introduction of man-made or natural contaminants into a natural space, causing harmful impact on both the health and the environment, in particular through the following forms: air pollution; water pollution, soil pollution, radioactive pollution, littering pollution and noise pollution.. Air pollution results from the release into the atmosphere of chemicals and particulates produced by industry, agriculture and motor vehicles.. Water pollution results from the discharge of chemicals associated to agricultural and industrial activities, sewage systems and waste disposal.. Soil contamination results from the release of chemicals by spill or underground leakage.. Radioactive pollution results from nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons-related activities.. Littering pollution results from the illegal throwing of trash onto public and private properties or the wrong management of municipal solid waste.. Noise pollution results from ...
In new estimates released this week, the United Nations World Health Organization (WHO) reports that in 2012 around 7 million people died - one in eight of total global deaths - as a result of air pollution exposure. This finding more than doubles previous estimates and confirms that air pollution is now the worlds largest single environmental health risk. Reducing air pollution could save millions of lives. In particular, the new data reveal a stronger link between both indoor and outdoor air pollution exposure and cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and ischaemic heart disease, as well as between air pollution and cancer. This is in addition to air pollutions role in the development of respiratory diseases, including acute respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The new estimates are not only based on more knowledge about the diseases caused by air pollution, but also upon better assessment of human exposure to air pollutants through the use of improved ...
A popular solution to combat the urban heat island effect may have an unforeseen consequence: increasing air pollution.. "Cool roofs" are required on most new non-residential buildings in California, and cities like Pasadena and Los Angeles have cool-roof ordinances that go even further.. Cool roofs work by bouncing solar radiation back into the atmosphere, absorbing less heat. Usually white or light-colored, they can reflect 60 percent more sunlight and stay up to 55 degrees cooler than a typical roof, according to the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab.. That got air quality scientist Scott Epstein wondering: what might the impact be of widespread adoption of cool roofs on air pollution in greater Los Angeles?. Epstein, who works for the South Coast Air Quality Management District, had read about how winter-time air pollution in rural Utah was worse than in the summer because snow reflects more ultra-violet (UV) light back into the atmosphere, triggering the chemical reaction that forms ozone or ...
In consideration of the adverse health effects of diesel exhaust, Civic Exchange submitted a document to the Subcommittee on Air Pollution Control (Air Pollutant Emission) (Controlled Vehicles) Regulation, urging the members of the Councils to pass the Regulation without delay, in order to protect the health of people in Hong Kong.. ...
A new NASA-led study helps answer decades-old questions about the role of smoke and human-caused air pollution on clouds and rainfall. Looking specifically at deep convective clouds -- tall clouds like thunderclouds, formed by warm air rising -- the study shows that smoky air makes it harder for these clouds to grow. Pollution, on the other hand, energizes their growth, but only if the pollution isnt heavy. Extreme pollution is likely to shut down cloud growth.. Researchers led by scientist Jonathan Jiang of NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, used observational data from two NASA satellites to investigate the effects of smoke and human-made air pollutants at different concentrations on deep convective clouds. The two satellites -- the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) and CloudSat -- orbited on the same track only a few seconds apart from 2006 until this year. CloudSat uses a radar to measure cloud locations and heights worldwide, ...
What are the causes of atmospheric pollution and what can we do about it? Learn about some of the primary sources of air pollution, including the burning of fossil fuels, and just what it is that pollutes the air we breathe. One of the most critical factors is the size of the particles that are inhaled, as this dictates how far into the lungs they penetrate.
The drastically changing climate system plays a critical role in modulating emission and distribution conditions of air pollutants including greenhouse gases, aerosols, and tracer gases, while these air pollutants exert significant feedback to the climate system through multiple biogeophysical, biogeochemical, and hydrological pathways. These interactions occur at different spatial and temporal scales that increase the difficulty for a clear and comprehensive understanding. To shed light on complex interactions between climate variability and air pollution, we used statistical and numerical modeling approaches to investigate the interactive relationship between climate variability and air pollution in the context of severe haze pollution in China and large wildfires worldwide. We identified the key climatic and meteorological forcing factors to the spatial and temporal variations of the two typical air pollution events including severe haze in China during the winter season and biomass burning ...
Background: Air pollution has been associated with cardiac events, including sudden cardiac death. However, the temporal association for acute events is not clear. In this prospective study we follow patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) to assess the acute effects of air pollution on ventricular arrhythmias.. Methods: Subjects were recruited from Tufts Medical Center Arrhythmia Clinic between September 2006 and March 2010. Inclusion criteria included prior implantation of a dual chamber ICD and residential zip codes within a 50-kilometer radius of the Harvard Supersite air quality monitoring station. Arrhythmias documented by the ICD were reviewed and interpreted by an electrophysiologist blinded to air quality. The correlations of sustained ventricular arrhythmias (defined as those necessitating treatment by the ICD) with air pollution, including PM2.5, black carbon (BC), sulfate, particle number, NO2, SO2, and O3 were assessed utilizing a case-crossover ...
Ugaar (smog) research work was conducted in the last three years to determine how air pollution negatively impacts fetal development. Five-hundred pregnant women from Sukhbaatar District participated in the research. As a result, it was determined that babies of mothers living near ger areas arent able to fully develop in the womb. International studies proved that being born with lower than average weight can badly affect a babys health. Its highly likely for them to suffer from respiratory diseases or have a poor immune system in the future. The research results indicate that the weight of infants born in places with higher air pollution is 80 grams lower than the weight it should be, and that its highly possible for these babies to face some kind of serious health challenges as they grow up.. Is there a study on how many deaths are caused by air pollution in Ulaanbaatar?. It was determined in 2010 that 10 percent of total deaths among residents living in the capital are caused by air ...
Obtenez ceci dans une bibliothèque! Air pollution. [Margaret Haerens;] -- Presents a collection of essays exploring varying viewpoints on air pollution, discussing such topics as the political and economic effects of air pollution policy, health effects of air quality, and ...
These findings suggest that living in a polluted environment could promote the development of high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke more pervasively and at an earlier stage than previously thought," said Aruni Bhatnagar, Ph.D., study co-author and professor of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Louisville in Kentucky. "Although we have known for some time that air pollution can trigger heart attacks or strokes in susceptible, high-risk individuals, the finding that it could also affect even seemingly healthy individuals suggests that increased levels of air pollution are of concern to all of us, not just the sick or the elderly.". Study participants included 72 healthy, nonsmoking, adults in Provo, Utah. Their average age was 23, most were white, and more than half were male. During the winters of 2013, 2014, and 2015, participants provided blood samples, which researchers then tested for markers of cardiovascular disease. Due to the unique weather and geographical features of ...
These findings suggest that living in a polluted environment could promote the development of high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke more pervasively and at an earlier stage than previously thought," said Aruni Bhatnagar, Ph.D., study co-author and professor of cardiovascular medicine at the University of Louisville in Kentucky. "Although we have known for some time that air pollution can trigger heart attacks or strokes in susceptible, high-risk individuals, the finding that it could also affect even seemingly healthy individuals suggests that increased levels of air pollution are of concern to all of us, not just the sick or the elderly.". Study participants included 72 healthy, nonsmoking, adults in Provo, Utah. Their average age was 23, most were white, and more than half were male. During the winters of 2013, 2014, and 2015, participants provided blood samples, which researchers then tested for markers of cardiovascular disease. Due to the unique weather and geographical features of ...
More must be done to tackle air pollution in China, according to a leading climate change expert in a new study published today in the journal Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters.. Professor Wang Hui-Jun, from the Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, outlines five specific ways in which the issue could be more effectively managed. These steps, which can also be applied to other heavily polluted countries, center upon the need to conduct more research to better identify the cause of the pollution, and create more effective prevention and control methods.. Specifically, these strategies are:. · Identifying the role of human-caused emissions on climate change.. · Understanding what other factors (particularly, climate change and variability) affect air quality.. · Recognizing the formation process and creating in advance prevention and control regulations.. · Promoting the seasonal prediction of air pollution.. · Implementing stricter air pollution prevention and ...
air pollution news, photos, videos. Read air pollution latest news and all other detail information on air pollution - India TV News | Page 1
The debate over air pollution and, more specifically, the regulation of air pollution, raged on this week as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) watered down its cross-state pollution rule and House Republicans moved to delay new rules on toxic air pollution from cement plants, solid waste incinerators, and industrial boilers. These latest debates come on the heels of President Obamas move last month to reneg on promises to tighten up smog standards, a decision that angered environmentalists and led to speculation that EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson might be ready to walk. In all cases, the argument against regulation goes something like this: The last thing a down economy needs is new regulation, and the EPA is overstepping its boundaries." ...
Today we review research that looks at how the productivity of call workers in China was affected by higher levels of pollution. Results indicate that a 10% increase in the Air Pollution Index (API) was associated with a 0.3% drop in calls handled each day. Translated to Chinas office workers as a whole, a 10% improvement in air pollution equates to $2.2 Billion/year in productivity. Or, to put it in a big city North American context (Los Angeles), were the 90 days that pollution levels exceeded EPA standards eliminated, the productivity for that city alone would be $378 greater. As the authors comment in terms of broader implications, pollution restrictions, aimed at an improved environment, are sometimes seen as a negative, unfair "tax" by businesses. This paper shows that it could help rather than hinder their bottom line ...
Mission Statement. At most times and in most places in Hawaii, we enjoy some of the best air quality in the nation. However, we do have air pollution as does any metropolitan area, so the Department of Health (DOH) works diligently to regulate and monitor air pollution sources.. The Clean Air Branch (CAB) is responsible for air pollution control in the state. The primary services of the branch are provided by its three sections: Engineering, Monitoring, and Enforcement. These sections conduct engineering analysis and permitting, perform monitoring and investigations, and enforce the federal and state air pollution control laws and regulations.. Engineering Section. Reviews air applications and issues air permits of potential air pollution stationery sources. Evaluates, through application of dispersion modeling, the potential impact of an air pollution source on ambient air quality. Evaluates the control technology, operations, and fuels consumed to assess the types and potential air emissions ...
Smog over LA. A growing number of studies have linked particulate pollution with low birth weight and preterm birth.. These costs stem from both direct healthcare expenses and costs associated with lifelong health problems. "Preterm babies who survive often face a life of health complications, including chronic disease, asthma, cognitive and motor problems and psychological impairments," explains Linda Franck, chair of family health care nursing at the University of California San Francisco School of Nursing.. "To our knowledge, this is the first time that such economic estimates are reported and suggest that considerable health and economic benefits can be gained through reductions in outdoor air pollution exposure in pregnancy," write lead study author Leonardo Trasande and colleagues at New York University.. "For a long time weve known that air pollution contributes to cardiovascular disease in adults and to asthma and other respiratory conditions in children," explains Trasande, New York ...
Background: Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear. Methods: All 2107 children aged 9-14 from 40 schools in Rome in 2000-2001 were included in a cross-sectional survey. Respiratory symptoms were assessed on 1760 children by parental questionnaires (response rate=83.5%). Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests and lung function was measured by spirometry on 1359 children (77.2%). Three indicators of traffic-related air pollution exposure were assessed, i.e. self-reported traffic outside the childs home, the measured distance between the childs home and busy roads, and the residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by a land-use regression model (R2=0.69). Results: We found a strong association between estimated NO2 exposure per 10 μg/m3 and lung function, especially expiratory flows, in ...
Almost three billion people worldwide continue to depend on polluting fuels, including biomass fuels (wood, dung, agricultural residues), kerosene and coal, for their energy needs. Cooking and heating with polluting fuels on open fires or traditional stoves results in high levels of household air pollution. Indoor smoke contains a range of health-damaging pollutants, such as small particles and carbon monoxide, and particulate pollution levels may be 20 times higher than accepted guideline values. There is consistent evidence that exposure to household air pollution can lead to acute lower respiratory infections in children under five, and ischaemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer in adults. In 2012, household air pollution was responsible for 7.7% of the global mortality.. ...
A third of the worlds population uses solid fuel derived from plant material (biomass) or coal for cooking, heating, or lighting. These fuels are smoky, often used in an open fire or simple stove with incomplete combustion, and result in a large amount of household air pollution when smoke is poorly vented. Air pollution is the biggest environmental cause of death worldwide, with household air pollution accounting for about 3·5-4 million deaths every year. Women and children living in severe poverty have the greatest exposures to household air pollution. In this Commission, we review evidence for the association between household air pollution and respiratory infections, respiratory tract cancers, and chronic lung diseases. Respiratory infections (comprising both upper and lower respiratory tract infections with viruses, bacteria, and mycobacteria) have all been associated with exposure to household air pollution. Respiratory tract cancers, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are
Biology Assignment Help, Noise pollution - environmental pollution, Noise Pollution - Environmental Pollution Noise is unwanted sound or excessively high levels of sound. Noise pollution is not only an annoyance, but at sufficiently high levels, it may cause loss of hearing. Noise pollution has grown because of
The objective of the research was to investigate the potential of foliar S:N ratios in Ponderosa pine as bioindicators of foliar sulfur loading in areas of long-term exposure to low levels of sulfurous air pollutants. First it was necessary to document seasonal variation in S:N ratios in trees not exposed to air pollution. Fifteen Ponderosa pines were selected at a site remote from urban and industrial sources of air pollution and the trees sampled at 18 intervals over a 15 month study period. Significant differences in sulfur and nitrogen concentrations occurred among the five needle age groups within most collections. One-year-old needles contained significantly more sulfur than other needles. Current-year needles contained more nitrogen than the three and four-year-old needles. Within each foliar age class significant differences in total sulfur content and S:N ratios occurred throughout the season. Sulfur concentrations and S:N r ...
Meteorology. Who Meteorologists What Meteorology Etymology Meteoro- Broader Term Natural Sciences Atmospheric Physics Narrower Terms Meteorological Library of Congress Scope Note Narrower Term: Aeronautics in meteorology Narrower Term: Air Pollution Meteorological aspects Narrower Term: Art and meteorology Narrower Term: Astrology and meteorology Narrower Term: Astronautics in meteorology See Also: Atmosphere Narrower Term: Atmospheric circulation Narrower Term: Atmospheric nucleation Narrower Term: Atmospheric pressure Narrower Term: Atmospheric temperature Narrower Term: Baroclinicity Narrower Term: Classification Books Meteorology Narrower Term: Climatology Narrower Term: Clouds Narrower Term: Cooling power (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Dew Narrower Term: Dust-fall Narrower Term: Dynamic meteorology Narrower Term: Engineering meteorology Narrower Term: Evaporation (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Fog Narrower Term: Forest meteorology Narrower Term: Fronts (Meteorology) Narrower Term: Humidity ...
The Hickory and Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point, NC PM2.5 North Carolina Attainment Demonstration August 21, 2009 i The Hickory and Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point, NC PM2.5 North Carolina Attainment Demonstration August 21, 2009 ii This document contains North Carolinas attainment demonstration for the Hickory and Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point fine particulate matter nonattainment areas, which demonstrates that both of these areas will meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for fine particulate matter by April 5, 2010. These areas include the entire counties of Catawba, Davidson, and Guilford. The Hickory and Greensboro/Winston-Salem/High Point, NC PM2.5 North Carolina Attainment Demonstration August 21, 2009 iii INTRODUCTION Fine particulate matter, also known as fine particles and PM2.5, refers to airborne particles less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (μm) in diameter. Fine particles are treated as though they are a single pollutant, but they come from many ...
DOI: 10.1080/23744731.2016.1152155. Humans spend most of their lives in indoor environments; hence, indoor exposure to air pollution may constitute a large part of the total exposure to air pollution. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are well known for their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity and are ubiquitous in urban environments as a result of combustion from e.g. vehicular traffic. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated to air particulate matter in indoor environments originates from several sources including: cooking and heating, outdoor sources, smoking, candle and incense burning. Infiltration has been suspected to be one major source of indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this study, four different air filter materials intended for mechanical ventilation were tested for their capability to remove particle bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other genotoxic compounds from a real urban aerosol. Particles were sampled at two highly trafficked locations in Stockholm using ...
Elemental carbon was collected with the possibility of using elemental carbon as a surrogate for diesel particulate matter. The terms elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC) and soot are often used by atmospheric researchers to designate products of incomplete combustion that contain randomly oriented graphitic structures interspersed with other compounds. Elemental carbon has been considered a good surrogate for diesel particulate matter because of the relatively high fraction of elemental carbon in diesel particle matter and the relatively high particulate matter emissions from diesel-powered vehicles, compared to gasoline-powered vehicles. Some studies imply a correspondence between elemental carbon measurements and diesel PM related to large truck traffic. But as diesel technologies improved and the diesel fleet became cleaner, it became more difficult to use elemental carbon alone as the marker for diesel particulate matter. Since other sources of elemental carbon became more significant ...

PPT - Air Pollution  and Acid Rain PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1968273PPT - Air Pollution and Acid Rain PowerPoint Presentation - ID:1968273

Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10750 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. Introduction. Each page of this lab that contains ... air pollution - 20 th century. the impacts of air pollution destroy the environment and also ruins its beauty. air pollution ... Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10988 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. 012-10750 r1.04. Air Pollution and Acid Rain. ... Air pollution -. by: rory c. and kurt m. air pollutants. greenhouse effect smog acid rain holes in the ozone layer. air ...
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Acid Rain. - GCSE Science - Marked by Teachers.comAcid Rain. - GCSE Science - Marked by Teachers.com

Acid RainWhat is Acid Rain?Acid rain is a result of air pollution. When any ... Forests It is thought that acid rain can cause ... As a result of acid rain, we suffer from terrible air pollution, so the government should recognize, this problem, and do ... The U.K contributes more pollution than Switzerland, Denmark and the Netherlands. As you can see, these two politicians have ... which produce a lot of pollution, and which burn fossil fuels, and places where a lot of cars go by. Acid rain comes from ...
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The Effects of Acid Rain on the EnvironmentThe Effects of Acid Rain on the Environment

Acid rain is caused by pollution. It is released into the air naturally during a volcanic eruption, but the primary cause of ... The National Academies Press - A report on programs to control air pollution and acid rain in China. ... Using public transportation, biking or walking to destinations leaves fewer cars on the road, less emissions in the air, and a ... National Park Service - Air quality monitoring in the Great Smoky Mountains. New York State - Department of Environmental ...
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jQuery CDNjQuery CDN

attributes are used for Subresource Integrity (SRI) checking. This allows browsers to ensure that resources hosted on third-party servers have not been tampered with. Use of SRI is recommended as a best-practice, whenever libraries are loaded from a third-party source. Read more at srihash.org ...
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air pollution | PNASair pollution | PNAS

Reduction of solar photovoltaic resources due to air pollution in China Xiaoyuan Li, Fabian Wagner, Wei Peng, Junnan Yang, and ... The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance Xin Zhang, Xi Chen, and Xiaobo Zhang ...
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Chinas air pollution crisisChina's air pollution crisis

Pollution from China travels in large quantities across the Pacific Ocean to the United States, a new study has found, making ... Visibility shrank to less than half a football field and small-particle pollution soared to a record 40 times higher than an ... acid rain-inducing sulphate from burning of fossil fuels in China can account for as much as a quarter of sulphate pollution in ...
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Chinas air pollution crisisChina's air pollution crisis

Pollution from China travels in large quantities across the Pacific Ocean to the United States, a new study has found, making ... Visibility shrank to less than half a football field and small-particle pollution soared to a record 40 times higher than an ... acid rain-inducing sulphate from burning of fossil fuels in China can account for as much as a quarter of sulphate pollution in ...
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Air pollution in Germany - WikipediaAir pollution in Germany - Wikipedia

Air Pollution[edit]. Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies, or death in humans. It may also cause harm to other living ... Strategies For Controlling Air Pollution[edit]. The German government bases air pollution control on four strategies:[5] ... Air pollution in Germany has significantly decreased over the past decade. Air pollution occurs when harmful substances are ... 3.1 Strategies For Controlling Air Pollution. *3.2 Policy Instruments for Controlling Air Pollution *3.2.1 1. Federal Emission ...
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Air pollutionAir pollution

Poor air quality caused by air pollution can also harm vegetation and sensitive ecosystems. Moreover, several air pollutants ... While air quality in Europe is slowly improving, high concentrations of air pollution still have significant health impacts on ... gradually reduce and prevent air pollution. The protocol also sets emission ceilings or limits for a range of air pollutants ... Air pollution is the single largest environmental risk to human health in Europe, causing respiratory problems and shortening ...
more infohttps://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/world/europe/74479-air-pollution

AIr PollutionAIr Pollution

Yet another myth about air pollution is that it is entirely man-made. When we think of the toxic air, we visualise images ... Air pollution is agnostic towards developed and developing nations, rich and poor, and adults and children. In a similar vein, ... Air pollution, as one is rarely aware, is agnostic towards developed and developing nations, rich and poor, urbanites and rural ... What is important to note, however, is that we can control air pollution if we wish to. Take the example of the cities in China ...
more infohttps://www.outlookindia.com/magazine/story/air-pollution/301763

Chinas air pollution crisisChina's air pollution crisis

Pollution from China travels in large quantities across the Pacific Ocean to the United States, a new study has found, making ... Visibility shrank to less than half a football field and small-particle pollution soared to a record 40 times higher than an ... acid rain-inducing sulphate from burning of fossil fuels in China can account for as much as a quarter of sulphate pollution in ...
more infohttps://news.yahoo.com/photos/china-s-air-pollution-problem-slideshow/

Air pollutionAir pollution

... to protect the marine environment and human health from air pollution and to ensure international emission standards are met. ... Air pollution. Air pollution. Australia regulates emissions from all ships (including cargo ships, bulk carriers and other ... to protect the marine environment and human health from air pollution and to ensure international emission standards are met. ... Perth SES volunteers to take part in AMSA air observation course this weekend. ...
more infohttps://www.amsa.gov.au/marine-environment/air-pollution?page=1

Air Pollution Increases Worldwide - RedorbitAir Pollution Increases Worldwide - Redorbit

Air pollution is one of the major current health risks of humanity. At present, urban outdoor air pollution causes 1.3 million ... Air pollution in Europe and North America would also increase, but due to the effect of mitigation policies - that have been in ... to avoid hot-spots of elevated air pollution," says Andrea Pozzer of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, whose ... assuming past emission trends continue and no additional climate change and air pollution reduction measures beyond what is in ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/science/1112667657/air-pollution-increases-worldwide/

air pollution - Everything2.comair pollution - Everything2.com

Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal burning industries of the early... ... What Is Air Pollution?. Introduction:. Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal ... Air Pollution Safe Limits. Pollutant...........................Safe Exposure (8 h/day, 5 days/wk). Asbestos ... Air pollution is also causing devastation for the environment; many of these causes are by man made gases like sulphur dioxide ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/air+pollution

Air Pollution Dangerous, but Deadly?Air Pollution Dangerous, but Deadly?

Air Pollution Is Dangerous, but Deadly?. Long-Term Ozone Exposure Boosts Risk for Lung-Related Death, Study Shows ... Limiting Exposure to Ozone Air Pollution. A clear message to the public, Jerrett says, is that exercise during the sunniest ... with up to five months of that a result of decreased air pollution. ... Fine Particulate Pollution. The study, published in the March 12 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, followed 450,000 ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/lung/news/20090318/air-pollution-dangerous-but-deadly

Reduce Indoor Air PollutionReduce Indoor Air Pollution

... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ...
more infohttps://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2018/01/31/reduce-indoor-air-pollution.aspx?utm_source=prnl&utm_medium=email&utm_content=art1&utm_campaign=20180131Z1_prnl_v2_31&et_cid=DM188075&et_rid=199343404

Title 18 WAC: AIR POLLUTIONTitle 18 WAC: AIR POLLUTION

Chapter 43.21 RCW.) See also Title 173 WAC, Department of Ecology; Title 371, Pollution Control Hearings Board; Title 372, ...
more infohttp://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=18

Air pollution and procyclical mortalityAir pollution and procyclical mortality

... air pollution, and mortality rates using regression techniques and panel data methods to control for demographic and pollution ... Air pollution and procyclical mortality. Environmental Health Economic Analysis Annotated Bibliography. Details. Research ... Prior research shows that levels of air pollution fluctuate with the rise and fall of economic conditions, and this study is ... Air pollution and procyclical mortality. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists. ...
more infohttps://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/resources/eheaNIEHS/ehea/resources/page836256.cfm

Air Pollution News, ResearchAir Pollution News, Research

New small, optical nano-sensor could soon measure air pollution Air pollution is responsible for 550,000 premature deaths a ... Inhaling irritant that mimics air pollution changes defensive heart-lung reflex for hypertension Air pollution significantly ... Acute air pollution exposure may increase risk for NICU admissions Infants born to women exposed to high levels of air ... Living environment, air pollution may be linked to increased risk of hypertension A new study soon to appear in the Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.news-medical.net/?tag=/Air+Pollution

Air Pollution 2008Air Pollution 2008

... Sixteenth International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution. 22 - 24 ... The Conference sessions dealt with a series of advanced research and applications problems in Air Pollution: *. Air pollution ... The 16th International Conference on Air Pollution Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution took place recently on ... "Dealing with air pollution in Europe" by CTrozzi, Techne Consulting, Italy. *"Potential contribution of local air quality ...
more infohttps://www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2008/air-pollution-2008

Air pollution in Karachi, PakistanAir pollution in Karachi, Pakistan

Particulate air pollution with monitoring of metal concentrations. Health or Social Effects Studied. Daily changes in rates of ... Health data is not yet analyzed and air pollution is excessive in these cities.. ... Air samples were collected for PM2.5, and daily rates of hospitalization for cardiovascular and respiratory disease related to ... Air pollution in the Holy Cities of Saudi Arabia * Air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan Air pollution in Karachi, Pakistan ...
more infohttps://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/programs/geh/partnerships/network/cohorts/pakistan/index.cfm

Urban Dictionary: Air PollutionUrban Dictionary: Air Pollution

the holes in our ozone layer are caused by air pollution. #air pollution#airpollution#smog#pollution#air quality#humans#health# ... Air Pollutionunknown. caused by the stupidity of the human race, caused by the 80's hair styles, and every teenagers dream ...
more infohttps://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Air%20Pollution&defid=6642053

Air Pollution ComplaintsAir Pollution Complaints

Air pollution nuisances, asbestos, idling, odor, open burning, particulate matter, vapor recovery. Review the process to submit ... The Air Pollution Control Program relies on our citizens to help in the regulation of air quality in Saint Louis County. Please ... This includes utilizing Air Curtain Destructors (ACDs). Please note that the Saint Louis County Air Pollution Control Program ... Air Pollution Nuisances. Saint Louis County Ordinance 612.340 prohibits the release of fumes or gases that might "be ...
more infohttps://www.stlouisco.com/HealthandWellness/EnvironmentalServices/AirPollutionControlProgram/Complaints

Can air pollution lead to cancer?Can air pollution lead to cancer?

... polluted outdoor air contains dust and traces of metals and solvents that can lead to cancer. experts know this from looking at ... Can air pollution lead to cancer?. ANSWER Aside from exhaust, polluted outdoor air contains dust and traces of metals and ... Cancer Research UK: "How Smoking Causes Cancer," "How Air Pollution Can Cause Cancer." ... Cancer Research UK: "How Smoking Causes Cancer," "How Air Pollution Can Cause Cancer." ...
more infohttps://www.webmd.com/cancer/qa/can-air-pollution-lead-to-cancer

Air pollution - NaturalNews.comAir pollution - NaturalNews.com

... to tackle the countrys deadly air pollution. The proposal was written […] in: Air pollution, Environment, Fossil fuel, Green ... The impacts of clean air extend beyond our health: Economists say air pollution costs us real money. ... All posts tagged with Air pollution. * Experts warn that shutting down nuclear plants would "negate" efforts to transition to ... in: Air pollution, Cancer, Childhood asthma, Childrens health, Climate change, Environment, Fossil fuel, Greenhouse gases, ...
more infohttps://www.naturalnews.com/tag/air-pollution/
  • The briefing complements the EEA's annual air quality report, an updated version of which will be published later in 2018. (finchannel.com)
  • Air pollution began to be seen as a problem in Germany due to these three triggers, causing Germany to put policies into place to control air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is important to note, however, is that we can control air pollution if we wish to. (outlookindia.com)
  • The four strategies the German government bases air pollution control on are laying down environmental quality standards, emission reduction requirements according to the best available technology, production regulations, and laying down emission ceilings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through these strategies, policy instruments have been put in place that have contributed to the success of the significant air pollution reduction in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • The official statement was given in response to increasing pressure from the European Union (EU) to tackle the country's deadly air pollution. (naturalnews.com)
  • Air pollution can be generated by both human activity and natural processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • According the Greenpeace India's list (2019) of the worst air-polluted cities, 15 of the top 20 are in India. (outlookindia.com)
  • New research from the University at Buffalo provides pathophysiologic evidence of the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular disease in China. (news-medical.net)
  • Natural News) It's been established that air pollution hurts the cardiovascular system. (naturalnews.com)
  • Australia's SES volunteers are often called on to undertake storm damage and land search operations, but they can also be called on to undertake search operations from the air.Trained SES. (amsa.gov.au)
  • Saint Louis County Ordinance 612.340, Air Pollution Nuisances Prohibited, restricts the idling of any motor vehicle to 3 minutes, unless the engine is being used to operate a loading, unloading, or processing device. (stlouisco.com)
  • Young children are at risk because on a per-body-weight basis, they tend to inhale relatively more air than adults, and their immature defence systems make them more susceptible to air pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center: "Links between air pollution and cancer risk. (webmd.com)
  • A recent review of evidence found a link between outdoor air pollution and an increased risk of bladder cancer . (cancer.ca)
  • The willingness of governments to regulate air pollution is often balanced by concerns over the economic impact of regulation. (wessex.ac.uk)
  • The problems of air pollution are a major problem for highly developed nations whose large industrial bases and highly developed infrastructures generate much of the air pollution. (everything2.com)
  • Even a short stay for travelers in cities with high levels of air pollution leads to breathing problems that can take at least a week from which to recover, a new study shows. (news-medical.net)
  • Air pollution makes existing lung disease and heart problems worse. (cancer.ca)
  • A recent UNICEF report claims, "Around 300 million children currently live in areas where the air is toxic - exceeding international limits by at least six times. (outlookindia.com)
  • Ventilation increases the amount of outdoor air that comes inside. (cancer.ca)
  • Prior research shows that levels of air pollution fluctuate with the rise and fall of economic conditions, and this study is the first to investigate if these changes are associated with fluctuations in mortality rates. (nih.gov)
  • In the United Kingdom, traffic is the major cause of air pollution in British cities. (everything2.com)
  • According to WHO, air pollution is a major contributor to lung and respiratory infections, heart disease and cancer. (mercola.com)
  • Researchers examined the correlation between air pollution and omega-3 intake in mice models. (naturalnews.com)