Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The contamination of indoor air.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Respiratory tract diseases are a broad range of medical conditions that affect the nose, throat, windpipe, and lungs, impairing breathing and oxygen uptake, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, bronchitis, influenza, tuberculosis, and sleep apnea.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
'Smoke' is a complex mixture of gases, fine particles, and volatile compounds, generally produced by combustion of organic substances, which can contain harmful chemicals known to have adverse health effects.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde (C3H4O), highly reactive, toxic and naturally occurring compound that can be found in certain foods, tobacco smoke and is produced as a result of environmental pollution or industrial processes.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term to my knowledge. It is a place name that can refer to a state in the United States or a country in Europe. If you have a different context or meaning in mind, I would be happy to help further if I can.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is the name of a country located in North America, known officially as the United Mexican States. If you have any questions related to medical topics or terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Living facilities for humans.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms, forming the basis of classes such as alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatic hydrocarbons, which play a vital role in energy production and chemical synthesis.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
#### My apologies, but "West Virginia" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the Appalachian region of the United States, known for its diverse topography, rich cultural history, and contributions to various fields including medicine.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country located in East Asia. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help with those!
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
(I'm assuming you are asking for a play on words related to the state of New Jersey, as "New Jersey" is not a medical term.)
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
(LA) is not a medical term; it is a region, specifically the second most populous city in the United States, located in Southern California, which contains several world-renowned hospitals and medical centers that offer advanced healthcare services and cutting-edge medical research.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
(Disclaimer: This is a playful and fictitious response, as there isn't a medical definition for 'New York City'.)
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
**I must clarify that there is no recognized or established medical term or definition for 'Texas.' However, if you're asking for a possible humorous play on words using the term 'Texas' in a medical context, here it is:**
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept, it's a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I'd be happy to help with those!
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Europe' is a geographical continent and not a medical term; therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Radon and lung cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis. (1/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cost-effectiveness of general and targeted strategies for residential radon testing and mitigation in the United States. METHODS: A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing radon-associated deaths from lung cancer. RESULTS: For a radon threshold of 4 pCi/L, the estimated costs to prevent 1 lung cancer death are about $3 million (154 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $480,000 per life-year saved, based on universal radon screening and mitigation, and about $2 million (104 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $330,000 per life-year saved, if testing and mitigation are confined to geographic areas at high risk for radon exposure. For mitigation undertaken after a single screening test and after a second confirmatory test, the estimated costs are about $920,000 and $520,000, respectively, to prevent a lung cancer death with universal screening and $130,000 and $80,000 per life-year for high risk screening. The numbers of preventable lung cancer deaths are 811 and 527 for universal and targeted approaches, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest possible alternatives to current recommendations.  (+info)

Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in Missouri. (2/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk, using both standard radon dosimetry and a new radon monitoring technology that, evidence suggests, is a better measure of cumulative radon exposure. METHODS: Missouri women (aged 30 to 84 years) newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer during the period January 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994, were invited to participate in this population-based case-control study. Both indoor air radon detectors and CR-39 alpha-particle detectors (surface monitors) were used. RESULTS: When surface monitors were used, a significant trend in lung cancer odds ratios was observed for 20-year time-weighted-average radon concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: When surface monitors were used, but not when standard radon dosimetry was used, a significant lung cancer risk was found for radon concentrations at and above the action level for mitigation of houses currently used in the United States (148 Bqm-3). The risk was below the action level used in Canada (750 Bqm-3) and many European countries (200-400 Bqm-3).  (+info)

Chromosome breakage at sites of oncogenes in a population accidentally exposed to radioactive chemical pollution. (3/92)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the population of an area polluted with radionuclides, following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant. We carried out the micronucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of the 1246 inhabitants of the settlement of Samus examined, 148 showed a significantly increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes and were selected for chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out on 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from a non-polluted area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3p14-25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency to preferential involvement of q21-25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in the radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage was located near oncogene loci, which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals.  (+info)

Radon testing in households with a residential smoker--United States, 1993-1994. (4/92)

Epidemiologic investigations of underground miners and studies of alpha particle carcinogenesis among laboratory animals suggest that exposure to the radioactive decay products (progeny) of radon is an important risk factor for lung cancer. Persons who smoke cigarettes and are exposed to these radon progeny have a substantially greater risk for developing malignancy than nonsmokers. Residential radon concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action level of 4 pCi/L are the primary sources of exposure among the general population. EPA and the Public Health Service promote home testing for radon, especially in households with a person who smokes. However, it is unknown whether households that contain smokers are more likely than those without smokers to test for radon. To characterize radon testing practices of households that contain a person who smokes within the dwelling (i.e., residential smoker), CDC analyzed survey data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of this analysis, which indicates that households with a residential smoker are significantly less likely to test for radon than those without smokers.  (+info)

Environmental radioactivity, population exposure and related health risks in the east Baltic region. (5/92)

The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and its decay products. The Chernobyl accident brought an additional dose of about 0.5 mSv in southern Finland and 1.4 mSv in the most contaminated districts of the Leningrad region, Russia. Both external and internal exposure via contaminated food contributed. Currently, significant long-term radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident include persistent radioactive contamination of natural terrestrial (forest) and freshwater (oligotrophic lakes) ecosystems and food products. Radiation health risks are lung cancer among the general population from indoor exposure to radon, acute radiation syndrome from occupational exposure, thyroid cancer among children in heavily contaminated non-Baltic areas, and mutations among offspring of exposed parents.  (+info)

Indoor residential radon exposure and risk of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. (6/92)

Exposure to radon has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in uranium miners, but evidence of adverse health effects due to indoor radon exposure is inconsistent. Ecological studies have suggested a correlation between indoor radon levels and leukaemia incidence. We evaluated the risk associated with indoor residential radon exposure within a larger interview-based case-control study of risk factors for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A total of 173 cases and 254 controls met the eligibility criteria, and information was collected through telephone interviews with parents and analysis of alpha-track radon detectors placed in the home for a period of 1 year. No association was observed between radon exposure and risk of AML, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.8) for 37-100 Bq m(-3) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6-2.0) for > 100 Bq m(-3) compared with < 37 Bq m(-3). Although there was an inverse association between radon level and AML risk among children < 2 years at diagnosis, among children > or = 2 years, AML risk was increased among those with higher radon exposure. The observed association after age 2 is most likely due to chance. Overall, there was no association between residential radon and risk of childhood AML.  (+info)

Evaluation of the impact of Chernobyl on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in 16 regions of Europe. EUROCAT Working Group. (7/92)

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data from population-based congenital anomaly registers in 16 regions of Europe (mainly Western Europe) were analysed to assess the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of selected congenital anomalies. METHODS: Three cohorts of pregnancies were defined: those exposed during the first month following Chernobyl (External Exposure Cohort), the first year (Total Exposure Cohort) and the two subsequent years (Control Cohort). Expected numbers of congenital anomalies in these cohorts were calculated from 1980-1985 baseline rates. Registries were grouped into three exposure categories according to first-year exposure estimates. RESULTS: There was no overall or dose-related increase in prevalence in the two exposed cohorts for Down's Syndrome, neural tube defects, other central nervous system defects or eye defects. There was a statistically significant overall 22% (95% CI: 13-31%) excess of Down's Syndrome in the Control Cohort, with no dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Chernobyl had no detectable impact on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Western Europe, suggesting that in retrospect the widespread fear in the population about the possible effects of exposure on the unborn fetus was not justified. An increasing prevalence of Down's Syndrome in the 1980s, probably unrelated to Chernobyl, merits further investigation.  (+info)

Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. (8/92)

Exposure to high concentrations of radon progeny (radon) produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally exposed laboratory animals. To determine the risk posed by residential radon exposure, the authors performed a population-based, case-control epidemiologic study in Iowa from 1993 to 1997. Subjects were female Iowa residents who had occupied their current home for at least 20 years. A total of 413 lung cancer cases and 614 age-frequency-matched controls were included in the final analysis. Excess odds were calculated per 11 working-level months for exposures that occurred 5-19 years (WLM(5-19)) prior to diagnosis for cases or prior to time of interview for controls. Eleven WLM(5-19) is approximately equal to an average residential radon exposure of 4 pCl/liter (148 Bq/m3) during this period. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, the authors found excess odds of 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.004, 1.81) and 0.83 (95% percent confidence interval: 0.11, 3.34) using categorical radon exposure estimates for all cases and for live cases, respectively. Slightly lower excess odds of 0.24 (95 percent confidence interval: -0.05, 0.92) and 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval: 0.03, 1.84) per 11 WLM(5-19) were noted for continuous radon exposure estimates for all subjects and live subjects only. The observed risk estimates suggest that cumulative ambient radon exposure presents an important environmental health hazard.  (+info)

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

Ozone (O3) is not a substance that is typically considered a component of health or medicine in the context of human body or physiology. It's actually a form of oxygen, but with three atoms instead of two, making it unstable and reactive. Ozone is naturally present in the Earth's atmosphere, where it forms a protective layer in the stratosphere that absorbs harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun.

However, ozone can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health depending on its location and concentration. At ground level or in indoor environments, ozone is considered an air pollutant that can irritate the respiratory system and aggravate asthma symptoms when inhaled at high concentrations. It's important to note that ozone should not be confused with oxygen (O2), which is essential for human life and breathing.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Particulate Matter (PM) refers to the mixture of tiny particles and droplets in the air that are solid or liquid in nature. These particles vary in size, with some being visible to the naked eye while others can only be seen under a microscope. PM is classified based on its diameter:

* PM10 includes particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or smaller. These particles are often found in dust, pollen, and smoke.
* PM2.5 includes particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or smaller. These fine particles are produced from sources such as power plants, industrial processes, and vehicle emissions. They can also come from natural sources like wildfires.

Exposure to particulate matter has been linked to various health problems, including respiratory issues, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. The smaller the particle, the deeper it can penetrate into the lungs, making PM2.5 particularly harmful to human health.

In medical terms, 'air' is defined as the mixture of gases that make up the Earth's atmosphere. It primarily consists of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and small amounts of other gases such as argon, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of neon, helium, and methane.

Air is essential for human life, as it provides the oxygen that our bodies need to produce energy through respiration. We inhale air into our lungs, where oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body. At the same time, carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular metabolism, is exhaled out of the body through the lungs and back into the atmosphere.

In addition to its role in respiration, air also plays a critical role in regulating the Earth's climate and weather patterns, as well as serving as a medium for sound waves and other forms of energy transfer.

'Vehicle Emissions' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, in a broader context, it refers to the gases and particles released into the atmosphere by vehicles such as cars, trucks, buses, and airplanes. The main pollutants found in vehicle emissions include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Exposure to these pollutants can have negative health effects, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, vehicle emissions are a significant public health concern.

Environmental monitoring is the systematic and ongoing surveillance, measurement, and assessment of environmental parameters, pollutants, or other stressors in order to evaluate potential impacts on human health, ecological systems, or compliance with regulatory standards. This process typically involves collecting and analyzing data from various sources, such as air, water, soil, and biota, and using this information to inform decisions related to public health, environmental protection, and resource management.

In medical terms, environmental monitoring may refer specifically to the assessment of environmental factors that can impact human health, such as air quality, water contamination, or exposure to hazardous substances. This type of monitoring is often conducted in occupational settings, where workers may be exposed to potential health hazards, as well as in community-based settings, where environmental factors may contribute to public health issues. The goal of environmental monitoring in a medical context is to identify and mitigate potential health risks associated with environmental exposures, and to promote healthy and safe environments for individuals and communities.

Environmental exposure refers to the contact of an individual with any chemical, physical, or biological agent in the environment that can cause a harmful effect on health. These exposures can occur through various pathways such as inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact. Examples of environmental exposures include air pollution, water contamination, occupational chemicals, and allergens. The duration and level of exposure, as well as the susceptibility of the individual, can all contribute to the risk of developing an adverse health effect.

Environmental pollutants are defined as any substances or energy (such as noise, heat, or light) that are present in the environment and can cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the natural ecosystems. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, agriculture, and household activities. They can be in the form of gases, liquids, solids, or radioactive materials, and can contaminate air, water, and soil. Examples include heavy metals, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter, and greenhouse gases.

It is important to note that the impact of environmental pollutants on human health and the environment can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) and it depends on the type, concentration, duration and frequency of exposure. Some common effects of environmental pollutants include respiratory problems, cancer, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and developmental delays in children.

It is important to monitor, control and reduce the emissions of these pollutants through regulations, technology advancements, and sustainable practices to protect human health and the environment.

Indoor air pollution refers to the contamination of air within buildings and structures due to presence of particles, gases, or biological materials that can harmfully affect the health of occupants. These pollutants can originate from various sources including cooking stoves, heating systems, building materials, furniture, tobacco products, outdoor air, and microbial growth. Some common indoor air pollutants include particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and mold. Prolonged exposure to these pollutants can cause a range of health issues, from respiratory problems to cancer, depending on the type and level of exposure. Effective ventilation, air filtration, and source control are some of the strategies used to reduce indoor air pollution.

Photochemical oxidants refer to chemical compounds that are formed as a result of a photochemical reaction, which involves the absorption of light. These oxidants are often highly reactive and can cause oxidative damage to living cells and tissues.

In the context of environmental science, photochemical oxidants are primarily associated with air pollution and the formation of ozone (O3) and other harmful oxidizing agents in the atmosphere. These pollutants are formed when nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) react in the presence of sunlight, particularly ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Photochemical oxidation can also occur in biological systems, such as within cells, where reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be generated by the absorption of light by certain molecules. These ROS can cause damage to cellular components, such as DNA, proteins, and lipids, and have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Overall, photochemical oxidants are a significant concern in both environmental and health contexts, and understanding the mechanisms of their formation and effects is an important area of research.

Epidemiological monitoring is the systematic and ongoing collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data pertaining to a specific population or community, with the aim of identifying and tracking patterns of disease or injury, understanding their causes, and informing public health interventions and policies. This process typically involves the use of surveillance systems, such as disease registries, to collect data on the incidence, prevalence, and distribution of health outcomes of interest, as well as potential risk factors and exposures. The information generated through epidemiological monitoring can help to identify trends and emerging health threats, inform resource allocation and program planning, and evaluate the impact of public health interventions.

In the context of medical and health sciences, particle size generally refers to the diameter or dimension of particles, which can be in the form of solid particles, droplets, or aerosols. These particles may include airborne pollutants, pharmaceutical drugs, or medical devices such as nanoparticles used in drug delivery systems.

Particle size is an important factor to consider in various medical applications because it can affect the behavior and interactions of particles with biological systems. For example, smaller particle sizes can lead to greater absorption and distribution throughout the body, while larger particle sizes may be filtered out by the body's natural defense mechanisms. Therefore, understanding particle size and its implications is crucial for optimizing the safety and efficacy of medical treatments and interventions.

Respiratory tract diseases refer to a broad range of medical conditions that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs. These diseases can be categorized into upper and lower respiratory tract infections based on the location of the infection.

Upper respiratory tract infections affect the nose, sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, and include conditions such as the common cold, flu, sinusitis, and laryngitis. Symptoms often include nasal congestion, sore throat, cough, and fever.

Lower respiratory tract infections affect the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and lungs, and can be more severe. They include conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Symptoms may include cough, chest congestion, shortness of breath, and fever.

Respiratory tract diseases can also be caused by allergies, irritants, or genetic factors. Treatment varies depending on the specific condition and severity but may include medications, breathing treatments, or surgery in severe cases.

Water pollutants refer to any substances or materials that contaminate water sources and make them unsafe or unsuitable for use. These pollutants can include a wide range of chemicals, microorganisms, and physical particles that can have harmful effects on human health, aquatic life, and the environment as a whole. Examples of water pollutants include heavy metals like lead and mercury, industrial chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins, agricultural runoff containing pesticides and fertilizers, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and microplastics. Exposure to water pollutants can cause a variety of health problems, ranging from minor irritations to serious illnesses or even death in extreme cases. Additionally, water pollution can have significant impacts on the environment, including harming or killing aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems, and reducing biodiversity.

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. It is toxic to hemoglobic animals when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm. This compound is a product of incomplete combustion of organic matter, and is a major component of automobile exhaust.

Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells much more strongly than oxygen does, forming carboxyhemoglobin. This prevents the transport of oxygen throughout the body, which can lead to suffocation and death. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, vomiting, confusion, and disorientation. Prolonged exposure can lead to unconsciousness and death.

Carbon monoxide detectors are commonly used in homes and other buildings to alert occupants to the presence of this dangerous gas. It is important to ensure that these devices are functioning properly and that they are placed in appropriate locations throughout the building. Additionally, it is essential to maintain appliances and heating systems to prevent the release of carbon monoxide into living spaces.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Cities" is not a medical term or concept, but rather a geographical and sociopolitical one referring to large, densely populated urban areas. If you're looking for information about health-related topics associated with cities, I would be happy to help! For example, there are many public health issues that are closely linked to city living, such as air pollution, infectious diseases, and chronic conditions like obesity and heart disease. Please let me know if you have any specific questions in mind!

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not a medical term or concept. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

The EPA is an independent agency of the federal government of the United States, responsible for protecting public health and the environment by enforcing regulations based on federal laws. The agency conducts environmental assessment, education, research, and regulation of various voluntary and compulsory programs in the US to address issues related to toxic substances, air and water quality, solid waste management, radiation protection, and hazardous waste management.

Occupational air pollutants refer to harmful substances present in the air in workplaces or occupational settings. These pollutants can include dusts, gases, fumes, vapors, or mists that are produced by industrial processes, chemical reactions, or other sources. Examples of occupational air pollutants include:

1. Respirable crystalline silica: A common mineral found in sand, stone, and concrete that can cause lung disease and cancer when inhaled in high concentrations.
2. Asbestos: A naturally occurring mineral fiber that was widely used in construction materials and industrial applications until the 1970s. Exposure to asbestos fibers can cause lung diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
3. Welding fumes: Fumes generated during welding processes can contain harmful metals such as manganese, chromium, and nickel that can cause neurological damage and respiratory problems.
4. Isocyanates: Chemicals used in the production of foam insulation, spray-on coatings, and other industrial applications that can cause asthma and other respiratory symptoms.
5. Coal dust: Fine particles generated during coal mining, transportation, and handling that can cause lung disease and other health problems.
6. Diesel exhaust: Emissions from diesel engines that contain harmful particulates and gases that can cause respiratory and cardiovascular problems.

Occupational air pollutants are regulated by various government agencies, including the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States, to protect workers from exposure and minimize health risks.

"Air movements" is not a medical term or concept. It generally refers to the movement or circulation of air, which can occur naturally (such as through wind) or mechanically (such as through fans or ventilation systems). In some contexts, it may refer specifically to the movement of air in operating rooms or other controlled environments for medical purposes. However, without more specific context, it is difficult to provide a precise definition or medical interpretation of "air movements."

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "weather" is not a medical term. Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time, including factors such as temperature, humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, and wind. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Inhalation exposure is a term used in occupational and environmental health to describe the situation where an individual breathes in substances present in the air, which could be gases, vapors, fumes, mist, or particulate matter. These substances can originate from various sources, such as industrial processes, chemical reactions, or natural phenomena.

The extent of inhalation exposure is determined by several factors, including:

1. Concentration of the substance in the air
2. Duration of exposure
3. Frequency of exposure
4. The individual's breathing rate
5. The efficiency of the individual's respiratory protection, if any

Inhalation exposure can lead to adverse health effects, depending on the toxicity and concentration of the inhaled substances. Short-term or acute health effects may include irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, or lungs, while long-term or chronic exposure can result in more severe health issues, such as respiratory diseases, neurological disorders, or cancer.

It is essential to monitor and control inhalation exposures in occupational settings to protect workers' health and ensure compliance with regulatory standards. Various methods are employed for exposure assessment, including personal air sampling, area monitoring, and biological monitoring. Based on the results of these assessments, appropriate control measures can be implemented to reduce or eliminate the risks associated with inhalation exposure.

An Atmosphere Exposure Chamber (AEC) is a controlled environment chamber that is designed to expose materials, products, or devices to specific atmospheric conditions for the purpose of testing their durability, performance, and safety. These chambers can simulate various environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, pressure, and contaminants, allowing researchers and manufacturers to evaluate how these factors may affect the properties and behavior of the materials being tested.

AECs are commonly used in a variety of industries, including automotive, aerospace, electronics, and medical devices, to ensure that products meet regulatory requirements and industry standards for performance and safety. For example, an AEC might be used to test the durability of a new aircraft material under extreme temperature and humidity conditions, or to evaluate the performance of a medical device in a contaminated environment.

The design and operation of AECs are subject to various regulations and standards, such as those established by organizations like the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). These standards ensure that AECs are designed and operated in a consistent and controlled manner, allowing for accurate and reliable test results.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Chemical water pollutants refer to harmful chemicals or substances that contaminate bodies of water, making them unsafe for human use and harmful to aquatic life. These pollutants can come from various sources, including industrial and agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater, oil spills, and improper disposal of hazardous materials.

Examples of chemical water pollutants include heavy metals (such as lead, mercury, and cadmium), pesticides and herbicides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and petroleum products. These chemicals can have toxic effects on aquatic organisms, disrupt ecosystems, and pose risks to human health through exposure or consumption.

Regulations and standards are in place to monitor and limit the levels of chemical pollutants in water sources, with the aim of protecting public health and the environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Meteorological Concepts" is quite broad and can refer to various ideas and phenomena related to the study of meteorology, which is the scientific discipline that deals with the atmosphere and its processes. Here are a few examples of meteorological concepts:

1. Air pressure: The force exerted by the weight of the air above a given point. It's usually measured in hectopascals (hPa), inches of mercury (inHg), or millibars (mbar).
2. Temperature: A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or environment, often reported in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F).
3. Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current water vapor content to the maximum possible content at a given temperature.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground, including rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
5. Wind: The horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. It's usually described in terms of its speed (measured in knots, miles per hour, or meters per second) and direction (often given as a compass bearing).
6. Clouds: Visible masses of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere. They form due to the condensation of atmospheric water vapor and are classified based on their appearance, altitude, and other characteristics.
7. Fronts: Boundaries between different air masses that have distinct temperature and humidity properties. These boundaries can lead to various weather phenomena, such as precipitation and severe thunderstorms.
8. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances in the atmosphere, often resulting from human activities like industrial processes or transportation.
9. Weather forecasting: The use of scientific principles, observations, and computer models to predict future weather conditions.
10. Climate: The long-term average of weather patterns and conditions in a specific region, typically over a period of 30 years or more.

These are just a few examples of meteorological concepts. There are many more aspects of atmospheric science that could be explored, such as the study of tornadoes, hurricanes, and other extreme weather events.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic compounds characterized by the presence of two or more fused benzene rings. They are called "polycyclic" because they contain multiple cyclic structures, and "aromatic" because these structures contain alternating double bonds that give them distinctive chemical properties and a characteristic smell.

PAHs can be produced from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Natural sources include wildfires, volcanic eruptions, and the decomposition of organic matter. Anthropogenic sources include the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gasoline, as well as tobacco smoke, grilled foods, and certain industrial processes.

PAHs are known to be environmental pollutants and can have harmful effects on human health. They have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung, skin, and bladder cancers, as well as reproductive and developmental toxicity. PAHs can also cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the immune system.

PAHs are found in a variety of environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. They can accumulate in the food chain, particularly in fatty tissues, and have been detected in a wide range of foods, including meat, fish, dairy products, and vegetables. Exposure to PAHs can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact.

It is important to limit exposure to PAHs by avoiding tobacco smoke, reducing consumption of grilled and smoked foods, using ventilation when cooking, and following safety guidelines when working with industrial processes that produce PAHs.

'Smog' is not a term used in medical definitions. It is a combination of the words "smoke" and "fog" and refers to a type of air pollution typically formed when vehicle emissions, industrial processes, and other sources release large amounts of fine particles and gases (such as nitrogen oxides or ground-level ozone) into the air. These pollutants then react in the presence of sunlight to form smog.

However, exposure to high levels of smog can have negative health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smog can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Long-term exposure to smog has been linked to more serious health problems, including heart disease, lung cancer, and premature death.

Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are a group of highly reactive gases, primarily composed of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). They are formed during the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, gas, or biomass, and are emitted from various sources, including power plants, industrial boilers, transportation vehicles, and residential heating systems. Exposure to NOx can have adverse health effects, particularly on the respiratory system, and contribute to the formation of harmful air pollutants like ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter.

Acid rain is a form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, that has a pH level less than 5.6 and contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acids. These acidic compounds are formed primarily when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted into the atmosphere from human sources such as coal-fired power plants, industrial processes, and transportation vehicles. When these pollutants mix with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the atmosphere, they form acidic compounds that can fall to the earth as acid rain, harming both natural ecosystems and man-made structures.

The term "acid rain" was first coined in the 1960s by scientists studying the effects of air pollution on the environment. Acid rain can have a number of negative impacts on the environment, including damaging forests, lakes, and streams; harming aquatic life; eroding buildings, monuments, and sculptures; and contributing to respiratory problems in humans and animals.

To mitigate the effects of acid rain, many countries have implemented regulations aimed at reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from industrial sources and power plants. These efforts have helped to reduce the severity of acid rain in some areas, but the problem remains a significant concern in many parts of the world.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

Nitric acid is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HNO3. It is a highly corrosive mineral acid and is the primary constituent of nitric acid solutions.

Medically, nitric acid or its salts may be mentioned in the context of certain medical conditions or treatments. For example, nitrate or nitrite salts of potassium or sodium can be used as vasodilators to treat angina pectoris (chest pain) by improving blood flow and reducing oxygen demand in the heart muscle. Nitric acid itself is not used medically.

It's important to note that exposure to nitric acid can cause severe burns and tissue damage, so it should be handled with care and appropriate personal protective equipment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motor Vehicles" is not a term that typically has a medical definition. It is a general term used to describe vehicles that are powered by a motor or engine and are designed for land transportation. This would include cars, trucks, motorcycles, buses, and other similar types of vehicles.

However, in a legal context, a "motor vehicle" may have a specific definition that varies by jurisdiction. For example, in some places, the definition might only include vehicles that are intended for use on public roads, excluding things like golf carts or construction equipment.

If you're looking for a medical term related to motor vehicles, there are many that could apply, such as "motor vehicle accident," "whiplash injury," or "traumatic brain injury due to motor vehicle collision." But the term "motor vehicles" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The airway obstruction in asthma is usually reversible, either spontaneously or with treatment.

The underlying cause of asthma involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors that result in hypersensitivity of the airways to certain triggers, such as allergens, irritants, viruses, exercise, and emotional stress. When these triggers are encountered, the airways constrict due to smooth muscle spasm, swell due to inflammation, and produce excess mucus, leading to the characteristic symptoms of asthma.

Asthma is typically managed with a combination of medications that include bronchodilators to relax the airway muscles, corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, and leukotriene modifiers or mast cell stabilizers to prevent allergic reactions. Avoiding triggers and monitoring symptoms are also important components of asthma management.

There are several types of asthma, including allergic asthma, non-allergic asthma, exercise-induced asthma, occupational asthma, and nocturnal asthma, each with its own set of triggers and treatment approaches. Proper diagnosis and management of asthma can help prevent exacerbations, improve quality of life, and reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Organic chemicals" is a broad term that refers to chemical compounds containing carbon, often bonded to hydrogen. These can include natural substances like sugars and proteins, as well as synthetic materials like plastics and pharmaceuticals.

However, if you're asking about "organic" in the context of farming or food production, it refers to things that are produced without the use of synthetic pesticides, fertilizers, genetically modified organisms, irradiation, and sewage sludge.

In the field of medicine, there isn't a specific definition for 'organic chemicals'. If certain organic chemicals are used in medical contexts, they would be defined by their specific use or function (like a specific drug name).

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

Benzene is a colorless, flammable liquid with a sweet odor. It has the molecular formula C6H6 and is composed of six carbon atoms arranged in a ring, bonded to six hydrogen atoms. Benzene is an important industrial solvent and is used as a starting material in the production of various chemicals, including plastics, rubber, resins, and dyes. It is also a natural component of crude oil and gasoline.

In terms of medical relevance, benzene is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Long-term exposure to high levels of benzene can cause various health effects, including anemia, leukemia, and other blood disorders. Occupational exposure to benzene is regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to protect workers from potential health hazards.

It's important to note that while benzene has legitimate uses in industry, it should be handled with care due to its known health risks. Exposure to benzene can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion, so appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling this chemical.

"Maternal exposure" is a medical term that refers to the contact or interaction of a pregnant woman with various environmental factors, such as chemicals, radiation, infectious agents, or physical environments, which could potentially have an impact on the developing fetus. This exposure can occur through different routes, including inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact, or even transplacentally. The effects of maternal exposure on the fetus can vary widely depending on the type, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. It is important to monitor and minimize maternal exposure to potentially harmful substances or environments during pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and developing fetus.

Sulfur oxides (SOx) are chemical compounds that contain sulfur and oxygen in various oxidation states. The term "sulfur oxides" is often used to refer specifically to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), which are the most common and widely studied SOx compounds.

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic eruptions and is also released into the air when fossil fuels such as coal and oil are burned for electricity generation, industrial processes, and transportation. Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Sulfur trioxide is a colorless liquid or solid with a pungent, choking odor. It is produced industrially for the manufacture of sulfuric acid and other chemicals. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage upon contact.

Both sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide contribute to air pollution and have been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, including respiratory problems, acid rain, and damage to crops and forests. As a result, there are regulations in place to limit emissions of these pollutants into the air.

'Smoke' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it can be described as a mixture of small particles and gases that are released when something burns. Smoke can be composed of various components including carbon monoxide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), benzene, toluene, styrene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exposure to smoke can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory symptoms, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

In the medical field, exposure to smoke is often referred to as "secondhand smoke" or "passive smoking" when someone breathes in smoke from another person's cigarette, cigar, or pipe. This type of exposure can be just as harmful as smoking itself and has been linked to a range of health problems, including respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, and heart disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil pollutants" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Soil pollution refers to the presence or accumulation of hazardous substances, chemicals, or other pollutants in soil that can have negative effects on plant life, human health, and the environment.

However, if you're asking about potential health effects of exposure to soil pollutants, it could include a variety of symptoms or diseases, depending on the specific pollutant. For example, exposure to lead-contaminated soil can lead to developmental delays in children, while exposure to certain pesticides or industrial chemicals can cause neurological problems, respiratory issues, and even cancer.

If you have more specific information about a particular substance or context, I may be able to provide a more precise answer.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Fossil fuels are not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of earth science and energy production. They refer to fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossil fuels is typically millions of years, and sometimes even hundreds of millions of years.

There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Coal is primarily composed of carbon and hydrogen, and it is formed from the remains of plants that lived hundreds of millions of years ago in swamps and peat bogs. Petroleum, also known as crude oil, is a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic compounds, formed from the remains of marine organisms such as algae and zooplankton. Natural gas is primarily composed of methane and other light hydrocarbons, and it is found in underground reservoirs, often in association with petroleum deposits.

Fossil fuels are a major source of energy for transportation, heating, and electricity generation, but their combustion also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the atmosphere, contributing to climate change and air pollution.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Respiratory disorders are a group of conditions that affect the respiratory system, including the nose, throat (pharynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These disorders can make it difficult for a person to breathe normally and may cause symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain.

There are many different types of respiratory disorders, including:

1. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease that causes the airways to become narrow and swollen, leading to difficulty breathing.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis, that make it hard to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
4. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that forms in the tissues of the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and shortness of breath.
5. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that mainly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
6. Sleep apnea: A disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep.
7. Interstitial lung disease: A group of disorders that cause scarring of the lung tissue, leading to difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A type of interstitial lung disease that causes scarring of the lung tissue and makes it hard to breathe.
9. Pleural effusion: An abnormal accumulation of fluid in the space between the lungs and chest wall.
10. Lung transplantation: A surgical procedure to replace a diseased or failing lung with a healthy one from a donor.

Respiratory disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, exposure to environmental pollutants, smoking, and infections. Treatment for respiratory disorders may include medications, oxygen therapy, breathing exercises, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the disorder.

'Tillandsia' is not a medical term. It belongs to the field of botany, specifically to the family Bromeliaceae. Tillandsias are often referred to as "air plants" because they absorb water and nutrients through their leaves instead of roots. They are native to the forests, deserts, and mountains of Central and South America, with some species found in the southern United States.

Tillandsia species can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, making them popular choices for indoor and outdoor decoration. While they have no direct medical relevance, taking care of plants like Tillandsias has been linked to various mental and physical health benefits, such as stress reduction, improved mood, and increased focus and productivity.

An air embolism is a medical condition that occurs when one or more air bubbles enter the bloodstream and block or obstruct blood vessels. This can lead to various symptoms depending on the severity and location of the obstruction, including shortness of breath, chest pain, confusion, stroke, or even death.

Air embolisms can occur in a variety of ways, such as during certain medical procedures (e.g., when air is accidentally introduced into a vein or artery), trauma to the lungs or blood vessels, scuba diving, or mountain climbing. Treatment typically involves administering oxygen and supportive care, as well as removing the source of the air bubbles if possible. In severe cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy may be used to help reduce the size of the air bubbles and improve outcomes.

In medical terms, "dust" is not defined as a specific medical condition or disease. However, generally speaking, dust refers to small particles of solid matter that can be found in the air and can come from various sources, such as soil, pollen, hair, textiles, paper, or plastic.

Exposure to certain types of dust, such as those containing allergens, chemicals, or harmful pathogens, can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues like asthma, allergies, and lung diseases. Prolonged exposure to certain types of dust, such as silica or asbestos, can even lead to serious conditions like silicosis or mesothelioma.

Therefore, it is important for individuals who work in environments with high levels of dust to take appropriate precautions, such as wearing masks and respirators, to minimize their exposure and reduce the risk of health problems.

Ventilation, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the process of breathing, which is the exchange of air between the lungs and the environment. It involves both inspiration (inhaling) and expiration (exhaling). During inspiration, air moves into the lungs, delivering oxygen to the alveoli (air sacs) where gas exchange occurs. Oxygen is taken up by the blood and transported to the body's cells, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, is expelled from the body during expiration.

In a medical setting, ventilation may also refer to the use of mechanical devices, such as ventilators or respirators, which assist or replace the breathing process for patients who are unable to breathe effectively on their own due to conditions like respiratory failure, sedation, neuromuscular disorders, or injuries. These machines help maintain adequate gas exchange and prevent complications associated with inadequate ventilation, such as hypoxia (low oxygen levels) and hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels).

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

The Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) is a term used in occupational health to refer to the highest concentration of a hazardous substance (usually in air) that should not cause harmful effects to most workers if they are exposed to it for a typical 8-hour workday, 5 days a week. It's important to note that MAC values are based on average population data and may not protect everyone, particularly those who are sensitive or susceptible to the substance in question.

It's also crucial to differentiate MAC from other similar terms such as the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) or Threshold Limit Value (TLV), which are used in different regulatory contexts and may have slightly different definitions and criteria.

Please consult with a certified industrial hygienist, occupational health professional, or other appropriate experts for specific guidance related to hazardous substance exposure limits.

Epidemiologic studies are investigations that seek to understand the distribution, patterns, and determinants of health and disease within a population. These studies aim to identify the frequency and occurrence of diseases or health-related events, as well as the factors that contribute to their occurrence. This information is used to develop public health policies and interventions to prevent or control diseases and promote overall health.

There are several types of epidemiologic studies, including:

1. Descriptive studies: These studies describe the characteristics of a population and the distribution of a disease or health-related event within that population. They do not typically investigate causes or risk factors.
2. Analytical studies: These studies examine the relationship between exposures (risk factors) and outcomes (diseases or health-related events). There are two main types of analytical studies: observational studies and experimental studies.
3. Observational studies: In these studies, researchers observe and collect data on a population without intervening or manipulating any variables. There are several types of observational studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies.
4. Cohort studies: These studies follow a group of people (a cohort) over time to see if they develop a particular disease or health-related event. Researchers collect data on exposures and outcomes at multiple points in time.
5. Case-control studies: These studies compare people with a specific disease or health-related event (cases) to people without the disease or event (controls). Researchers then look back in time to see if there are any differences in exposures between the two groups.
6. Cross-sectional studies: These studies collect data on exposures and outcomes at a single point in time. They are useful for estimating the prevalence of a disease or health-related event, but they cannot establish causality.
7. Experimental studies: In these studies, researchers manipulate variables to see if they have an effect on a particular outcome. The most common type of experimental study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the intervention being tested or a control group.

Epidemiologic studies can provide valuable insights into the causes and consequences of diseases and health-related events, as well as potential interventions to prevent or treat them. However, they must be carefully designed and conducted to minimize bias and confounding, and their results should be interpreted with caution.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Poisson Distribution is actually a statistical concept rather than a medical term. Here's a general definition:

Poisson Distribution is a discrete probability distribution that expresses the probability of a given number of events occurring in a fixed interval of time or space, as long as these events occur with a known average rate and independently of each other. It is often used in fields such as physics, engineering, economics, and medical research to model rare events or low-probability phenomena.

In the context of medical research, Poisson Distribution might be used to analyze the number of adverse events that occur during a clinical trial, the frequency of disease outbreaks in a population, or the rate of successes or failures in a series of experiments.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons are a group of organic compounds that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and chlorine (Cl) atoms. These chemicals are formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon molecule with chlorine atoms. The properties of chlorinated hydrocarbons can vary widely, depending on the number and arrangement of chlorine and hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been widely used in various industrial applications, including as solvents, refrigerants, pesticides, and chemical intermediates. Some well-known examples of chlorinated hydrocarbons are:

1. Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) - a colorless liquid with a mild sweet odor, used as a solvent in various industrial applications, including the production of pharmaceuticals and photographic films.
2. Chloroform - a heavy, volatile, and sweet-smelling liquid, used as an anesthetic in the past but now mainly used in chemical synthesis.
3. Carbon tetrachloride - a colorless, heavy, and nonflammable liquid with a mildly sweet odor, once widely used as a solvent and fire extinguishing agent but now largely phased out due to its ozone-depleting properties.
4. Vinyl chloride - a flammable, colorless gas, used primarily in the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic and other synthetic materials.
5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - a group of highly stable and persistent organic compounds that were widely used as coolants and insulating fluids in electrical equipment but are now banned due to their toxicity and environmental persistence.

Exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbons can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion, depending on the specific compound and its physical state. Some chlorinated hydrocarbons have been linked to various health effects, including liver and kidney damage, neurological disorders, reproductive issues, and cancer. Therefore, proper handling, use, and disposal of these chemicals are essential to minimize potential health risks.

The Extraction and Processing Industry, also known as the extraction industry or the mining sector, is a major category of businesses and economic activities involved in the removal of minerals and other natural resources from the earth. This industry includes several types of extraction operations, such as:

1. Oil and gas extraction: This involves the exploration, drilling, and pumping of crude oil and natural gas from underground reservoirs.
2. Mining: This includes the extraction of various minerals like coal, iron ore, copper, gold, silver, and other metals and non-metallic minerals. There are different methods used for mining, such as surface mining (open-pit or strip mining) and underground mining.
3. Support activities for mining: This category includes services and supplies needed for the extraction of minerals, like drilling, exploration, and mining support services.

After the extraction process, these raw materials undergo further processing to transform them into usable forms, such as refining crude oil into various petroleum products or smelting metals for manufacturing purposes. This processing stage is often included in the definition of the Extraction and Processing Industry.

The medical definition of this industry may not be explicitly stated; however, it indirectly impacts public health and the environment. For instance, mining activities can lead to air and water pollution, exposure to harmful substances, and increased risk of accidents and injuries for workers. Therefore, understanding the Extraction and Processing Industry is essential in addressing potential health hazards associated with these operations.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of man-made organic chemicals consisting of 209 individual compounds, known as congeners. The congeners are formed by the combination of two benzene rings with varying numbers and positions of chlorine atoms.

PCBs were widely used in electrical equipment, such as transformers and capacitors, due to their non-flammability, chemical stability, and insulating properties. They were also used in other applications, including coolants and lubricants, plasticizers, pigments, and copy oils. Although PCBs were banned in many countries in the 1970s and 1980s due to their toxicity and environmental persistence, they still pose significant health and environmental concerns because of their continued presence in the environment and in products manufactured before the ban.

PCBs are known to have various adverse health effects on humans and animals, including cancer, immune system suppression, reproductive and developmental toxicity, and endocrine disruption. They can also cause neurological damage and learning and memory impairment in both human and animal populations. PCBs are highly persistent in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain, leading to higher concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, including humans.

"Soot" is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine due to its potential health effects. Soot is a general term for the fine black or brown particles that are produced when materials burn, such as in fires, industrial processes, or vehicle emissions. It is made up of a complex mixture of substances, including carbon, metals, and other organic compounds.

Inhaling soot can lead to respiratory problems, cardiovascular issues, and cancer. This is because the tiny particles can penetrate deep into the lungs and even enter the bloodstream, causing inflammation and damage to tissues. Prolonged exposure or high concentrations of soot can have more severe health effects, particularly in vulnerable populations such as children, the elderly, and those with pre-existing medical conditions.

Medical definitions typically focus on the relevance of a term to medicine or healthcare, so here's a medical perspective on polycyclic compounds:

Polycyclic compounds are organic substances that contain two or more chemical rings in their structure. While not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have significant medical implications. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a type of polycyclic compound that can be found in tobacco smoke and certain types of air pollution. PAHs have been linked to an increased risk of cancer, particularly lung cancer, due to their ability to damage DNA.

Another example is the class of drugs called steroids, which include hormones like cortisol and sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen. These compounds are polycyclic because they contain several interconnected rings in their structure. Steroid medications are used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including inflammation, asthma, and Addison's disease.

In summary, while not all polycyclic compounds are relevant to medicine, some can have important medical implications, either as harmful environmental pollutants or as useful therapeutic agents.

Acrolein is an unsaturated aldehyde with the chemical formula CH2CHCHO. It is a colorless liquid that has a distinct unpleasant odor and is highly reactive. Acrolein is produced by the partial oxidation of certain organic compounds, such as glycerol and fatty acids, and it is also found in small amounts in some foods, such as coffee and bread.

Acrolein is a potent irritant to the eyes, nose, and throat, and exposure to high levels can cause coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. It has been shown to have toxic effects on the lungs, heart, and nervous system, and prolonged exposure has been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

In the medical field, acrolein is sometimes used as a laboratory reagent or as a preservative for biological specimens. However, due to its potential health hazards, it must be handled with care and appropriate safety precautions should be taken when working with this compound.

Tobacco smoke pollution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it refers to the presence of tobacco smoke in indoor or outdoor environments, which can have negative effects on air quality and human health. It is also known as secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). This type of smoke is a mixture of sidestream smoke (the smoke given off by a burning cigarette) and mainstream smoke (the smoke exhaled by a smoker).

The medical community recognizes tobacco smoke pollution as a serious health hazard. It contains more than 7,000 chemicals, hundreds of which are toxic and about 70 that can cause cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke pollution can cause a range of adverse health effects, including respiratory symptoms, lung cancer, heart disease, and stroke. In children, it can also lead to ear infections, asthma attacks, and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Therefore, many laws and regulations have been implemented worldwide to protect people from tobacco smoke pollution, such as smoking bans in public places and workplaces.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Georgia" is not a medical term or condition. It is a place name, referring to either a state in the United States or a country in Eastern Europe. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help with those!

A complex mixture is a type of mixture that contains a large number of different chemical components, which can interact with each other in complex ways. These interactions can result in the emergence of new properties or behaviors that are not present in the individual components.

In the context of medical research and regulation, complex mixtures can pose significant challenges due to their complexity and the potential for unexpected interactions between components. Examples of complex mixtures include tobacco smoke, air pollution, and certain types of food and beverages.

Because of their complexity, it can be difficult to study the health effects of complex mixtures using traditional methods that focus on individual chemicals or components. Instead, researchers may need to use more holistic approaches that take into account the interactions between different components and the overall composition of the mixture. This is an active area of research in fields such as toxicology, epidemiology, and environmental health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Geographic Information Systems" (GIS) is not a medical term. GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. It can be used in various fields, including public health and epidemiology, to map and analyze the spread of diseases, identify environmental risk factors, plan health services delivery, and inform evidence-based decision making.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mexico" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in North America. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Industry" is a general term that refers to a specific branch of economic activity, or a particular way of producing goods or services. It is not a medical term with a defined meaning within the field of medicine.

However, if you are referring to the term "industrious," which can be used to describe someone who is diligent and hard-working, it could be applied in a medical context to describe a patient's level of engagement and effort in their own care. For example, a patient who is conscientious about taking their medications as prescribed, following through with recommended treatments, and making necessary lifestyle changes to manage their condition might be described as "industrious" by their healthcare provider.

Aerosols are defined in the medical field as suspensions of fine solid or liquid particles in a gas. In the context of public health and medicine, aerosols often refer to particles that can remain suspended in air for long periods of time and can be inhaled. They can contain various substances, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or chemicals, and can play a role in the transmission of respiratory infections or other health effects.

For example, when an infected person coughs or sneezes, they may produce respiratory droplets that can contain viruses like influenza or SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). Some of these droplets can evaporate quickly and leave behind smaller particles called aerosols, which can remain suspended in the air for hours and potentially be inhaled by others. This is one way that respiratory viruses can spread between people in close proximity to each other.

Aerosols can also be generated through medical procedures such as bronchoscopy, suctioning, or nebulizer treatments, which can produce aerosols containing bacteria, viruses, or other particles that may pose an infection risk to healthcare workers or other patients. Therefore, appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) and airborne precautions are often necessary to reduce the risk of transmission in these settings.

The Respiratory System is a complex network of organs and tissues that work together to facilitate the process of breathing, which involves the intake of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide. This system primarily includes the nose, throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx), windpipe (trachea), bronchi, bronchioles, lungs, and diaphragm.

The nostrils or mouth take in air that travels through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea into the lungs. Within the lungs, the trachea divides into two bronchi, one for each lung, which further divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of these bronchioles are tiny air sacs known as alveoli where the exchange of gases occurs. Oxygen from the inhaled air diffuses through the walls of the alveoli into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide, a waste product, moves from the blood to the alveoli and is exhaled out of the body.

The diaphragm, a large muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen, plays a crucial role in breathing by contracting and relaxing to change the volume of the chest cavity, thereby allowing air to flow in and out of the lungs. Overall, the Respiratory System is essential for maintaining life by providing the body's cells with the oxygen needed for metabolism and removing waste products like carbon dioxide.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Mortality, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being mortal; the quality or fact of being subject to death. It is often used in reference to the mortality rate, which is the number of deaths in a specific population, divided by the size of that population, per a given time period. This can be used as a measure of the risk of death among a population.

Lung diseases refer to a broad category of disorders that affect the lungs and other structures within the respiratory system. These diseases can impair lung function, leading to symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, chest pain, and wheezing. They can be categorized into several types based on the underlying cause and nature of the disease process. Some common examples include:

1. Obstructive lung diseases: These are characterized by narrowing or blockage of the airways, making it difficult to breathe out. Examples include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis, and cystic fibrosis.
2. Restrictive lung diseases: These involve stiffening or scarring of the lungs, which reduces their ability to expand and take in air. Examples include idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and asbestosis.
3. Infectious lung diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites that infect the lungs. Examples include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and influenza.
4. Vascular lung diseases: These affect the blood vessels in the lungs, impairing oxygen exchange. Examples include pulmonary embolism, pulmonary hypertension, and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH).
5. Neoplastic lung diseases: These involve abnormal growth of cells within the lungs, leading to cancer. Examples include small cell lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and mesothelioma.
6. Other lung diseases: These include interstitial lung diseases, pleural effusions, and rare disorders such as pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM).

It is important to note that this list is not exhaustive, and there are many other conditions that can affect the lungs. Proper diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases require consultation with a healthcare professional, such as a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist.

Formaldehyde is a colorless, pungent, and volatile chemical compound with the formula CH2O. It is a naturally occurring substance that is found in certain fruits like apples and vegetables, as well as in animals. However, the majority of formaldehyde used in industry is synthetically produced.

In the medical field, formaldehyde is commonly used as a preservative for biological specimens such as organs, tissues, and cells. It works by killing bacteria and inhibiting the decaying process. Formaldehyde is also used in the production of various industrial products, including adhesives, resins, textiles, and paper products.

However, formaldehyde can be harmful to human health if inhaled or ingested in large quantities. It can cause irritation to the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to respiratory problems and cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle formaldehyde with care and use appropriate safety measures when working with this chemical compound.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Petroleum is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of geology and petrochemicals. It refers to a naturally occurring liquid found in rock formations, which is composed of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, organic compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen.

Petroleum is not typically associated with medical definitions; however, it's worth noting that petroleum and its derivatives are widely used in the production of various medical supplies, equipment, and pharmaceuticals. Some examples include plastic syringes, disposable gloves, catheters, lubricants for medical devices, and many active ingredients in medications.

In a broader sense, environmental or occupational exposure to petroleum and its byproducts could lead to health issues, but these are not typically covered under medical definitions of petroleum itself.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hydrocarbons" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon. They are primarily used in industry as fuel, lubricants, and as raw materials for the production of plastics, fibers, and other chemicals.

However, in a broader scientific context, hydrocarbons can be relevant to medical discussions. For instance, in toxicology, exposure to certain types of hydrocarbons (like those found in gasoline or solvents) can lead to poisoning and related health issues. In environmental medicine, the pollution of air, water, and soil with hydrocarbons is a concern due to potential health effects.

But in general clinical medicine, 'hydrocarbons' wouldn't have a specific definition.

Carcinogens are agents that can cause cancer. According to the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), environmental carcinogens refer to "cancer-causing agents that people encounter in their daily lives, including substances or exposures in air, water, food, and in the workplace." These carcinogens can increase the risk of cancer by damaging DNA or interfering with cellular processes that control growth.

Examples of environmental carcinogens include:

* Air pollution: Certain pollutants in the air, such as diesel exhaust particles and secondhand smoke, have been linked to an increased risk of lung cancer.
* Radon: A naturally occurring radioactive gas that can accumulate in homes and other buildings, radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.
* UV radiation: Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds can lead to skin cancer.
* Certain chemicals: Some chemicals found in the workplace or in consumer products, such as asbestos, benzene, and vinyl chloride, have been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
* Infectious agents: Certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites can increase the risk of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, and hepatitis B and C viruses are leading causes of liver cancer.

It's important to note that exposure to environmental carcinogens does not guarantee that a person will develop cancer. The risk depends on many factors, including the level and duration of exposure, as well as individual susceptibility. However, reducing exposure to these agents can help reduce the overall risk of cancer.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Air conditioning is the process of controlling and maintaining a comfortable indoor environment through the regulation of temperature, humidity, air movement, and cleanliness. It typically involves the use of mechanical systems that circulate and treat air to meet specific comfort requirements. The goal of air conditioning is to provide a comfortable, healthy, and productive indoor environment while also saving energy and reducing environmental impact.

In medical terms, air conditioning can be particularly important in healthcare settings such as hospitals and clinics, where maintaining proper temperature and humidity levels is essential for the health and well-being of patients and staff. Proper air conditioning can help prevent the growth of bacteria, viruses, and mold, reduce the spread of airborne particles, and minimize the risk of infection and illness.

Air conditioning systems in healthcare facilities may include specialized components such as HEPA filters, UV germicidal irradiation, and humidity control to provide a higher level of air quality and protection against infectious diseases. Regular maintenance and testing of these systems is also critical to ensure their proper functioning and to maintain a safe and healthy indoor environment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "West Virginia" is a state located in the Eastern United States, and it is not a medical term or condition. If you have any questions about medical definitions or topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Environmental biodegradation is the breakdown of materials, especially man-made substances such as plastics and industrial chemicals, by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi in order to use them as a source of energy or nutrients. This process occurs naturally in the environment and helps to break down organic matter into simpler compounds that can be more easily absorbed and assimilated by living organisms.

Biodegradation in the environment is influenced by various factors, including the chemical composition of the substance being degraded, the environmental conditions (such as temperature, moisture, and pH), and the type and abundance of microorganisms present. Some substances are more easily biodegraded than others, and some may even be resistant to biodegradation altogether.

Biodegradation is an important process for maintaining the health and balance of ecosystems, as it helps to prevent the accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. However, some man-made substances, such as certain types of plastics and industrial chemicals, may persist in the environment for long periods of time due to their resistance to biodegradation, leading to negative impacts on wildlife and ecosystems.

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in developing biodegradable materials that can break down more easily in the environment as a way to reduce waste and minimize environmental harm. These efforts have led to the development of various biodegradable plastics, coatings, and other materials that are designed to degrade under specific environmental conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Taiwan" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of an island nation located in East Asia. The official name of the country is the Republic of China (ROC). If you have any medical questions or inquiries, I would be happy to help answer those for you!

Environmental pollution is the introduction or presence of harmful substances, energies, or objects in the environment that can cause adverse effects on living organisms and ecosystems. These pollutants can be in the form of chemical, physical, or biological agents that contaminate air, water, soil, or noise levels, exceeding safe limits established by environmental regulations.

Examples of environmental pollution include:

1. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air that can cause respiratory and other health problems.
2. Water pollution: Contamination of water sources with chemicals, heavy metals, pathogens, or other pollutants that can harm aquatic life and make the water unsafe for human consumption or recreational use.
3. Soil pollution: The presence of harmful substances such as heavy metals, pesticides, and industrial waste in soil that can reduce soil fertility, contaminate crops, and pose a risk to human health.
4. Noise pollution: Excessive noise levels from transportation, industrial activities, or other sources that can cause stress, sleep disturbances, and hearing loss in humans and animals.
5. Light pollution: The excessive use of artificial light that can disrupt ecosystems, affect human circadian rhythms, and contribute to energy waste.

Environmental pollution is a significant global health issue that requires urgent attention and action from governments, industries, and individuals to reduce pollutant emissions, promote sustainable practices, and protect the environment for future generations.

Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure with a faintly sweet odor. It is used primarily as a sterilant, especially for medical equipment, but also has applications in the manufacture of other chemicals, including antifreeze and textile products. Ethylene oxide is highly flammable and reactive, and exposure can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as more serious health effects with prolonged or high-level exposure. It is also a known human carcinogen, meaning that it has been shown to cause cancer in humans.

Pollen, in a medical context, refers to the fine powder-like substance produced by the male reproductive organ of seed plants. It contains microscopic grains known as pollen grains, which are transported by various means such as wind, water, or insects to the female reproductive organ of the same or another plant species for fertilization.

Pollen can cause allergic reactions in some individuals, particularly during the spring and summer months when plants release large amounts of pollen into the air. These allergies, also known as hay fever or seasonal allergic rhinitis, can result in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, congestion, itchy eyes, and coughing.

It is important to note that while all pollen has the potential to cause allergic reactions, certain types of plants, such as ragweed, grasses, and trees, are more likely to trigger symptoms in sensitive individuals.

Respiratory sounds are the noises produced by the airflow through the respiratory tract during breathing. These sounds can provide valuable information about the health and function of the lungs and airways. They are typically categorized into two main types: normal breath sounds and adventitious (or abnormal) breath sounds.

Normal breath sounds include:

1. Vesicular breath sounds: These are soft, low-pitched sounds heard over most of the lung fields during quiet breathing. They are produced by the movement of air through the alveoli and smaller bronchioles.
2. Bronchovesicular breath sounds: These are medium-pitched, hollow sounds heard over the mainstem bronchi and near the upper sternal border during both inspiration and expiration. They are a combination of vesicular and bronchial breath sounds.

Abnormal or adventitious breath sounds include:

1. Crackles (or rales): These are discontinuous, non-musical sounds that resemble the crackling of paper or bubbling in a fluid-filled container. They can be heard during inspiration and are caused by the sudden opening of collapsed airways or the movement of fluid within the airways.
2. Wheezes: These are continuous, musical sounds resembling a whistle. They are produced by the narrowing or obstruction of the airways, causing turbulent airflow.
3. Rhonchi: These are low-pitched, rumbling, continuous sounds that can be heard during both inspiration and expiration. They are caused by the vibration of secretions or fluids in the larger airways.
4. Stridor: This is a high-pitched, inspiratory sound that resembles a harsh crowing or barking noise. It is usually indicative of upper airway narrowing or obstruction.

The character, location, and duration of respiratory sounds can help healthcare professionals diagnose various respiratory conditions, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis.

Air sacs, also known as alveoli, are tiny air-filled sacs in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs during respiration. They are a part of the respiratory system in mammals and birds. In humans, the lungs contain about 300 million alveoli, which are clustered together in small groups called alveolar sacs. The walls of the air sacs are extremely thin, allowing for the easy diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the sacs and the blood in the capillaries that surround them.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

An allergen is a substance that can cause an allergic reaction in some people. These substances are typically harmless to most people, but for those with allergies, the immune system mistakenly identifies them as threats and overreacts, leading to the release of histamines and other chemicals that cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, rashes, hives, and difficulty breathing. Common allergens include pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander, insect venom, and certain foods or medications. When a person comes into contact with an allergen, they may experience symptoms that range from mild to severe, depending on the individual's sensitivity to the substance and the amount of exposure.

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) is a measurement of how quickly a person can exhale air from their lungs. It is often used as a quick test to assess breathing difficulties in people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PEFR is measured in liters per minute (L/min) and the highest value obtained during a forceful exhalation is recorded as the peak expiratory flow rate. Regular monitoring of PEFR can help to assess the severity of an asthma attack or the effectiveness of treatment.

DNA adducts are chemical modifications or alterations that occur when DNA molecules become attached to or bound with certain harmful substances, such as toxic chemicals or carcinogens. These attachments can disrupt the normal structure and function of the DNA, potentially leading to mutations, genetic damage, and an increased risk of cancer and other diseases.

DNA adducts are formed when a reactive molecule from a chemical agent binds covalently to a base in the DNA molecule. This process can occur either spontaneously or as a result of exposure to environmental toxins, such as those found in tobacco smoke, certain industrial chemicals, and some medications.

The formation of DNA adducts is often used as a biomarker for exposure to harmful substances, as well as an indicator of potential health risks associated with that exposure. Researchers can measure the levels of specific DNA adducts in biological samples, such as blood or urine, to assess the extent and duration of exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

It's important to note that not all DNA adducts are necessarily harmful, and some may even play a role in normal cellular processes. However, high levels of certain DNA adducts have been linked to an increased risk of cancer and other diseases, making them a focus of ongoing research and investigation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New Jersey" is not a medical term or concept. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Climate, in the context of environmental science and medicine, refers to the long-term average of weather conditions (such as temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, rainfall, and other meteorological elements) in a given region over a period of years to decades. It is the statistical description of the weather patterns that occur in a particular location over long periods of time.

In medical terms, climate can have significant impacts on human health, both physical and mental. For example, extreme temperatures, air pollution, and ultraviolet radiation levels associated with certain climates can increase the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, heat-related illnesses, and skin cancer. Similarly, changes in climate patterns can affect the distribution and prevalence of infectious diseases, such as malaria and Lyme disease.

Climate change, which refers to significant long-term changes in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years, can have even more profound impacts on human health, including increased rates of heat-related illnesses and deaths, worsening air quality, and altered transmission patterns of infectious diseases.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

The Czech Republic is a country located in Central Europe. It is not a medical term or concept, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, like any other country, the Czech Republic has its own healthcare system and medical facilities that provide various health services to its population. The Czech Republic is known for its high-quality healthcare and medical education, with many institutions being recognized worldwide.

Occupational exposure refers to the contact of an individual with potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents as a result of their job or occupation. This can include exposure to hazardous substances such as chemicals, heavy metals, or dusts; physical agents such as noise, radiation, or ergonomic stressors; and biological agents such as viruses, bacteria, or fungi.

Occupational exposure can occur through various routes, including inhalation, skin contact, ingestion, or injection. Prolonged or repeated exposure to these hazards can increase the risk of developing acute or chronic health conditions, such as respiratory diseases, skin disorders, neurological damage, or cancer.

Employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to minimize occupational exposures through the implementation of appropriate control measures, including engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective equipment, and training programs. Regular monitoring and surveillance of workers' health can also help identify and prevent potential health hazards in the workplace.

Hypersensitivity is an exaggerated or inappropriate immune response to a substance that is generally harmless to most people. It's also known as an allergic reaction. This abnormal response can be caused by various types of immunological mechanisms, including antibody-mediated reactions (types I, II, and III) and cell-mediated reactions (type IV). The severity of the hypersensitivity reaction can range from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. Common examples of hypersensitivity reactions include allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylaxis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Respiratory Function Tests (RFTs) are a group of medical tests that measure how well your lungs take in and exhale air, and how well they transfer oxygen and carbon dioxide into and out of your blood. They can help diagnose certain lung disorders, measure the severity of lung disease, and monitor response to treatment.

RFTs include several types of tests, such as:

1. Spirometry: This test measures how much air you can exhale and how quickly you can do it. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other lung diseases.
2. Lung volume testing: This test measures the total amount of air in your lungs. It can help diagnose restrictive lung diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis or sarcoidosis.
3. Diffusion capacity testing: This test measures how well oxygen moves from your lungs into your bloodstream. It's often used to diagnose and monitor conditions like pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung disease, and other lung diseases that affect the ability of the lungs to transfer oxygen to the blood.
4. Bronchoprovocation testing: This test involves inhaling a substance that can cause your airways to narrow, such as methacholine or histamine. It's often used to diagnose and monitor asthma.
5. Exercise stress testing: This test measures how well your lungs and heart work together during exercise. It's often used to diagnose lung or heart disease.

Overall, Respiratory Function Tests are an important tool for diagnosing and managing a wide range of lung conditions.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

The greenhouse effect is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of environmental science and meteorology. However, I can certainly provide a definition for you:

The greenhouse effect refers to the warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the trapping of heat by certain gases in the atmosphere, known as greenhouse gases. These gases include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and fluorinated gases.

When sunlight reaches Earth's surface, it is absorbed and then re-emitted as heat energy, which would normally escape back into space. However, some of this heat is trapped by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, causing the planet to warm up. This process is essential for life on Earth, as it helps to maintain a stable temperature that supports plant and animal growth.

However, human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and agriculture have led to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, which has caused the natural greenhouse effect to become amplified. This has resulted in global warming and climate change, with potentially serious consequences for both human health and the environment.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is not typically included in standard medical textbooks or resources as it's more of a environmental and industrial chemical. However, I can provide you with an definition from a toxicological perspective:

Hexachlorobenzene (C6Cl6) is an organic compound that consists of a benzene ring with six chlorine atoms attached to it. It is a persistent organic pollutant, which means it does not break down easily and can accumulate in the environment and living organisms. HCB has been used as a pesticide, fungicide, and chemical intermediate in various industrial processes. Exposure to this compound can lead to several health issues, including skin lesions, damage to the nervous system, and impaired immune function. It's also considered a possible human carcinogen by some agencies. Long-term environmental exposure to HCB is of particular concern due to its bioaccumulation in the food chain and potential adverse effects on human health and the environment.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Los Angeles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a city in the state of California, USA. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Heavy metals are a group of elements with a specific gravity at least five times greater than that of water. They include metals such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb). These metals are considered toxic when they accumulate in the body beyond certain levels, interfering with various biological processes and causing damage to cells, tissues, and organs.

Heavy metal exposure can occur through various sources, including occupational exposure, contaminated food, water, or air, and improper disposal of electronic waste. Chronic exposure to heavy metals has been linked to several health issues, such as neurological disorders, kidney damage, developmental problems, and cancer. Monitoring and controlling exposure to these elements is essential for maintaining good health and preventing potential adverse effects.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Nasal mucosa refers to the mucous membrane that lines the nasal cavity. It is a delicate, moist, and specialized tissue that contains various types of cells including epithelial cells, goblet cells, and glands. The primary function of the nasal mucosa is to warm, humidify, and filter incoming air before it reaches the lungs.

The nasal mucosa produces mucus, which traps dust, allergens, and microorganisms, preventing them from entering the respiratory system. The cilia, tiny hair-like structures on the surface of the epithelial cells, help move the mucus towards the back of the throat, where it can be swallowed or expelled.

The nasal mucosa also contains a rich supply of blood vessels and immune cells that help protect against infections and inflammation. It plays an essential role in the body's defense system by producing antibodies, secreting antimicrobial substances, and initiating local immune responses.

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New York City" is not a medical term or concept. It's a city located in the state of New York, United States. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Respiratory hypersensitivity, also known as respiratory allergies or hypersensitive pneumonitis, refers to an exaggerated immune response in the lungs to inhaled substances or allergens. This condition occurs when the body's immune system overreacts to harmless particles, leading to inflammation and damage in the airways and alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.

There are two types of respiratory hypersensitivity: immediate and delayed. Immediate hypersensitivity, also known as type I hypersensitivity, is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and results in symptoms such as sneezing, runny nose, and asthma-like symptoms within minutes to hours of exposure to the allergen. Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type III or type IV hypersensitivity, is mediated by other immune mechanisms and can take several hours to days to develop after exposure to the allergen.

Common causes of respiratory hypersensitivity include mold spores, animal dander, dust mites, pollen, and chemicals found in certain occupations. Symptoms may include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and fatigue. Treatment typically involves avoiding the allergen, if possible, and using medications such as corticosteroids, bronchodilators, or antihistamines to manage symptoms. In severe cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may be recommended to help desensitize the immune system to the allergen.

Photochemical processes refer to chemical reactions that are initiated or driven by the absorption of light. In these reactions, photons (light particles) interact with molecules, causing electrons in the molecules to become excited and leading to the formation of new chemical bonds or the breaking of existing ones. This results in the creation of different molecular structures or products.

In the context of human health and medicine, photochemical processes can occur both naturally and artificially. For instance, the body uses light-dependent reactions in the process of vision, where light is absorbed by rhodopsin in the retina, triggering a series of chemical events that ultimately lead to visual perception.

Additionally, photochemotherapy is a medical treatment that utilizes photochemical processes to achieve therapeutic effects. In this approach, a photosensitizing agent is administered to a patient, and then exposed to specific wavelengths of light. The light causes the photosensitizer to react with oxygen, generating reactive oxygen species that can destroy targeted cells or tissues, such as cancer cells or bacteria.

Overall, photochemical processes play an essential role in various biological and medical contexts, enabling critical functions like vision and offering promising therapeutic avenues for a range of conditions.

Toxicogenetics is not a widely recognized medical term, but it generally refers to the study of how genetic factors influence an individual's susceptibility or response to environmental toxicants. It is a multidisciplinary field that combines genetics, toxicology, and molecular biology to understand the genetic basis of toxic responses at various levels, including molecular, cellular, organ, and whole-organism levels.

Toxicogenetic studies can help identify genetic polymorphisms that affect an individual's susceptibility to certain chemicals or toxins, which can have important implications for personalized medicine, risk assessment, and public health. By understanding the genetic factors that contribute to toxic responses, researchers can develop targeted interventions and prevention strategies to reduce the adverse health effects of environmental exposures.

Radioactive air pollutants refer to radioactive particles or gases that are present in the atmosphere and can have harmful effects on human health and the environment. These pollutants can originate from a variety of sources, including nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing, industrial processes, and natural events such as volcanic eruptions.

Radioactive air pollutants emit ionizing radiation, which has the ability to damage living tissue and DNA. Exposure to high levels of ionizing radiation can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems. Even low levels of exposure over a long period of time can have harmful effects on human health.

Some common radioactive air pollutants include radon gas, which is produced by the decay of uranium in soil and rocks and can seep into buildings through cracks in the foundation; and cesium-137 and iodine-131, which were released into the atmosphere during nuclear weapons testing and accidents at nuclear power plants.

Efforts to reduce radioactive air pollution include stricter regulations on nuclear power plants and other industrial sources of radiation, as well as efforts to reduce emissions from nuclear weapons testing and cleanup of contaminated sites.

I'm not aware of any medical definition for the term "Texas." It is primarily used as the name of a state in the United States, located in the southern region. If you're referring to a specific medical term or concept that I might not be aware of, please provide more context or clarify your question.

If you meant to ask for an explanation of a medical condition named 'Texas', it is likely a typo or a misunderstanding, as there is no widely recognized medical condition associated with the name 'Texas'.

Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) is a chemical compound that is formed as a byproduct when dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is metabolized or breaks down in the environment. DDE is an organochlorine pesticide and is similar in structure to DDT, with two phenyl rings and two chlorine atoms attached to a central ethylene molecule.

DDE is highly stable and does not break down easily in the environment, which means that it can persist for many years and accumulate in the food chain. It is lipophilic, meaning that it tends to accumulate in fatty tissues, and bioaccumulates in animals that are higher up in the food chain.

DDE has been shown to have toxic effects on both wildlife and humans. It can disrupt hormone systems, particularly those related to reproduction, and has been linked to reproductive problems in birds and other animals. In humans, exposure to DDE has been associated with increased risk of certain cancers, developmental delays in children, and other health problems.

DDE is no longer used as a pesticide in many countries, but it can still be found in the environment due to its persistence and ability to accumulate in the food chain. People can be exposed to DDE through contaminated food, water, or air, as well as through contact with soil or dust that contains DDE.

In the context of medical definitions, "transportation" typically refers to the movement of patients from one location to another. This can include the transfer of patients between healthcare facilities (such as from a hospital to a long-term care facility), between departments within a healthcare facility (such as from the emergency department to an inpatient unit), or to and from medical appointments.

Transportation may also refer to the movement of medical equipment, supplies, or specimens between locations. In this context, transportation ensures that necessary items are delivered to the right place at the right time, which is critical for providing high-quality patient care.

It's important to note that safe and timely transportation is essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes, reducing the risk of adverse events, and improving overall healthcare efficiency.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Pesticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or repelling pests. Pests can be insects, rodents, fungi, weeds, or other organisms that can cause damage to crops, animals, or humans and their living conditions. The term "pesticide" includes all of the following: insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, bactericides, and various other substances used to control pests.

It is important to note that while pesticides are designed to be toxic to the target pests, they can also pose risks to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it is essential to follow all label instructions and safety precautions when handling and applying pesticides.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

Dioxins are a group of chemically-related compounds that are primarily formed as unintended byproducts of various industrial, commercial, and domestic processes. They include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dioxins are highly persistent environmental pollutants that accumulate in the food chain, particularly in animal fat. Exposure to dioxins can cause a variety of adverse health effects, including developmental and reproductive problems, immune system damage, hormonal disruption, and cancer. The most toxic form of dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Air ionization is the process by which air molecules are electrically charged, either positively or negatively, through the removal or addition of electrons. This can occur naturally, such as through the action of sunlight, wind, and water, or it can be induced artificially through the use of electrical devices known as ionizers or air ionization generators.

In medical terms, air ionization is sometimes used as a therapeutic intervention, particularly in the treatment of respiratory conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and allergies. The negative ions produced by air ionizers are believed to help neutralize airborne pollutants such as dust, mold, bacteria, and viruses, making it easier for individuals with respiratory issues to breathe more easily.

However, it's worth noting that the scientific evidence supporting the use of air ionization as a medical treatment is still limited, and more research is needed to fully understand its potential benefits and risks. Additionally, some studies have suggested that certain types of air ionizers may produce harmful byproducts such as ozone, which can irritate the lungs and exacerbate respiratory symptoms. As with any medical intervention, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before using air ionization as a treatment option.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spain" is not a medical term. It is a country located in southwestern Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

An air bag is a type of vehicle safety device that uses a inflatable cushion to protect occupants from collision forces in the event of a car accident. When a crash occurs, a sensor triggers the inflation of the air bag, which then rapidly deploys and fills the space between the driver or passenger and the steering wheel or dashboard. This helps to absorb the impact and reduce the risk of injury. Air bags are typically installed in the steering wheel, dashboard, and sides of the vehicle, and they can significantly improve safety in the event of a crash. However, air bags can also pose a risk of injury if they deploy improperly or in certain types of crashes, so it is important for drivers to understand how they work and when they are most effective.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A confidence interval (CI) is a range of values that is likely to contain the true value of a population parameter with a certain level of confidence. It is commonly used in statistical analysis to express the uncertainty associated with estimates derived from sample data.

For example, if we calculate a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of a population based on a sample of individuals, we can say that we are 95% confident that the true population mean height falls within the calculated range. The width of the confidence interval gives us an idea of how precise our estimate is - narrower intervals indicate more precise estimates, while wider intervals suggest greater uncertainty.

Confidence intervals are typically calculated using statistical formulas that take into account the sample size, standard deviation, and level of confidence desired. They can be used to compare different groups or to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in medical research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Italy" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southern Europe. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Pentachlorophenol is not primarily a medical term, but rather a chemical compound with some uses and applications in the medical field. Medically, it's important to understand what pentachlorophenol is due to its potential health implications.

Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is an organochlorine compound that has been widely used as a pesticide, wood preservative, and disinfectant. Its chemical formula is C6HCl5O. It is a white crystalline solid with a distinct, somewhat unpleasant odor. In the environment, pentachlorophenol can be found in soil, water, and air as well as in various organisms, including humans.

Pentachlorophenol has been associated with several potential health risks. It is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and as a possible human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Exposure to pentachlorophenol can occur through inhalation, skin contact, or ingestion. Potential health effects include irritation of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract; damage to the liver and kidneys; neurological issues; and reproductive problems.

In a medical context, pentachlorophenol might be relevant in cases where individuals have been exposed to this compound through occupational or environmental sources. Medical professionals may need to assess potential health risks, diagnose related health issues, and provide appropriate treatment.

Bronchitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchi, which are the large airways that lead to the lungs. This inflammation can cause a variety of symptoms, including coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. Bronchitis can be either acute or chronic.

Acute bronchitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as a cold or the flu, and typically lasts for a few days to a week. Symptoms may include a productive cough (coughing up mucus or phlegm), chest discomfort, and fatigue. Acute bronchitis often resolves on its own without specific medical treatment, although rest, hydration, and over-the-counter medications to manage symptoms may be helpful.

Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is characterized by a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months out of the year for two consecutive years. Chronic bronchitis is typically caused by exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or occupational dusts and chemicals. It is often associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

Treatment for chronic bronchitis may include medications to help open the airways, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and avoiding irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "industrial waste" is not a term that has a medical definition. Industrial waste is a term used to describe waste produced by industrial activities, such as manufacturing, mining, and construction. It can include a wide variety of materials, including chemicals, metals, soil, and water. Proper management and disposal of industrial waste are important for protecting the environment and public health. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Europe" is a geographical and political designation, rather than a medical one. It refers to the continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Europe is made up of approximately 50 countries, depending on how one defines a "country."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help answer them!

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

A premature birth is defined as the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention due to maternal or fetal complications. Premature babies, also known as preemies, may face various health challenges depending on how early they are born and their weight at birth. These challenges can include respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, issues with feeding and digestion, developmental delays, and vision problems. With advancements in medical care and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), many premature babies survive and go on to lead healthy lives.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hong Kong" is not a medical term or concept. It is a region located on the southeastern coast of China. If you have any questions about a medical topic, please provide more details so I can try to help you.

Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was a British colony from 1842 until it was returned to China in 1997. As a SAR, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from those of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems."

The region is known for its impressive skyline, deep natural harbor, and bustling urban center. It is a major port and global financial hub, and it has a high degree of autonomy in administration, legislation, and economic policies. Hong Kong's legal system is based on English common law, and it has its own currency, the Hong Kong dollar.

I hope this clarifies any confusion regarding the term "Hong Kong." If you have any medical questions, please let me know!

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Because natural gas emits less pollutants than other fossil fuels when combusted, cleaner air quality has been measured in ... As an alternative to uranium-fuelled nuclear reactors, thorium has been proven to add to proliferation, produces radioactive ... The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. Propane is a cleaner burning, high-performance ... Hydrogen and natural gas are both lighter than air and can be mixed together. Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed ...
Before the 1990s, most air pollution came from industries. When industrial production declined, emissions of air pollutants ... Radioactive waste can be described as high-level waste or low-level waste. High-level waste is what can be seen as the waste ... Air pollution is attributed to 17% of childhood and 10% of adult diseases, as well as 41% of respiratory and 16% of endocrine ... New data on air pollution in the former Soviet Union. "The Environmental Outlook in Russia". National Intelligence Council. ...
Plants with air pollution controls such as wet scrubbers typically transfer the captured pollutants to the wastewater stream. ... and other naturally occurring radioactive isotopes whose release into the environment leads to radioactive contamination. While ... This technology does not treat dissolved pollutants. Power stations use additional technologies to control pollutants, ... Usually all of the carbon dioxide and some of the other pollution is discharged to the air. Solid waste ash from coal-fired ...
Aeration systems move the radon from the water to the air. Radon gas discharged into the air is the release of a pollutant, and ... amount of radiation accumulates over time and the filter material may reach the level of requiring disposal as a radioactive ... It controls the air delivery rate so that the air conditioner is never overloaded with more moisture than it can effectively ... Delta t (Δt), which is the amount that the air is cooled as it is passed through the air conditioner's cooling coils. A good Δt ...
... and discovered correlations between three lung diseases and different air pollutants. Bronchitis was common in urban/industrial ... Gorham credits his discoveries in radioactive fallout to the milkshakes at a drugstore in Halifax. He became fond of the ... Lung cancer was correlated with tar emitted to the air by industrial plants. This resulted in two publications in the British ... This suggested that the radiation was not the result of the Windscale fire, but rather was global radioactive fallout. Gorham ...
... of the club's request to issue a supplemental EIS addressing air emissions of particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants ... Specific pollution threats include acid rain, radioactive contamination, debris in outer space, stratospheric ozone depletion ... Primary data are those collected in the field to define the status of the environment (like air quality data, water quality ... The main laws in action are the Water Act(1974), the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), the Air (Prevention and Control ...
However, despite the large amounts of pollutants, there is variation in the amount and concentration of certain pollutants. In ... An Innovative Air Pollution Control Technology for VOC emissions". Journal of Air and Waste Management Association. 41 (8): ... "The Syrian Job: Uncovering the Oil Industry's Radioactive Secret". DeSmog UK. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 2020-05-19. Hannah ... Microplastics are concern because they have a tendency to adsorb pollutants on their surface, as well as an ability to ...
One solution to reduce this thermal loss/parasitic load is to burn the pulverised load with pure oxygen instead of air. Newly ... As a result, clean coal technologies are being developed to remove or reduce pollutant emissions to the atmosphere. Some of the ... Reducing fly ash reduces emissions of radioactive materials. Mercury emissions can be reduced up to 95%. Capturing carbon ... These by-products are still a problem, but they have been greatly diminished in most advanced countries due to clean air ...
It fills our air with asthma-inducing air pollutants. It releases radioactive substances. It turns fresh water into poison and ... which often contain radioactive elements, cannot be effectively treated by municipal treatment plants, and are often released ...
Miscellaneous radioactive materials tracking (metals, concrete, other). Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Monitoring: Kristof ... Radiological air monitoring - includes three components: *ORR perimeter (low volume) ambient air monitoring - 12 ... Other incinerators, (e.g., TVA) may have an impact on ambient air around ORR ...
... tracking radioactive emissions and volcanic ash discharges; analysis of accidental air pollutant releases and assisting in ... SAFE AIR II (Italy) - The simulation of air pollution from emissions II (SAFE AIR II) was developed at the Department of ... ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Air Dispersion Modeling at Curlie Air Quality Modeling - From the website of Stuff in the Air The Model ... It was designed for evaluating the impact of industrial pollutant releases and for air quality assessments. It is a Gaussian ...
Categories: Air Pollutants, Radioactive Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
ADMS-Urban: Managing air quality for urban planning and reviews.. *ADMS-Roads: Modeling the dispersion of air pollutant ... short term fluctuations in pollutant concentration; chemical reactions; radioactive decay and gamma-dose; pollution plume rise ... It can also be used to assess air quality with respect to the air quality standards such as the European Union Air Quality ... New Air Quality Directive From the European Unions website *↑ Air Quality from the website of the UKs Department for ...
... "air pollutant" is "any air pollu tion agent . . . , including any physical, chemical, biological, [or] radioactive . . . ... any air pollutant."50. The EPA rule in UARG interpreted the phrase "any air pollu tant" to include greenhouse gases.51 Indeed ... Writing for the Court, Justice Scalia57 held that despite the plain meaning of the Acts definition of "any air pollutant," ... It found ambiguity in the phrase "any air pollutant," not because of textual anomalies that would arise under the alternative ...
Othet risk factors include exposure to carcinogenic and industrial air pollutants (asbestos, arsenic, chromium, radioactive ...
Indoor air pollutants can include volatile organic compounds, mold, radioactive radon, combustion gases like carbon monoxide, ... Unfortunately, indoor air can be as much as five-times more polluted that outdoor air in large cities, according the EPA (1). ... When it comes to our health, the air we breath is just as important as the food we eat and the water we drink, but because we ... Your donation will support our efforts to evaluate homes and make recommended energy-saving and indoor air quality improvements ...
Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis, Smoke/analysis, Smoking/adverse effects, Egypt, Humans, Polonium/analysis, Radiation ... Air/diagnosis/physiopathology, Female, Foramen Ovale, Patent/diagnosis/epidemiology/physiopathology, Humans, Intracranial ...
Differences between the scenarios with regard to generation of greenhouse gases and more conventional air and water pollutants ... Key outputs at each node included uranium and plutonium, spent UOx (uranium oxide) and MOx fuel, and major radioactive waste ... because nuclear power provides a stable sources of baseload power with low air pollutant emissions (particularly compared with ... Mohamed El Baradei suggested multinational approaches to the management and disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste[43]. ...
... smelting is done which emits enormous quantities of air pollutants. Oxides of sulfur, arsenic, cadmium, and lead, etc. enter ... Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) might be released from oil and gas formations. Workers at risk of exposure ... OSHA sets exposure limits for many of the most harmful air pollutants found in diesel exhaust). ... In "open burning", all of the mercury vapor is emitted into the air. Open burning of amalgam or processed amalgam is, therefore ...
... they will bring their technology to dematerialize all nuclear waste and to eliminate all radioactive pollutants in air, water ... The ocean and air around the plant are highly radioactive. The surrounding farms are producing radioactive vegetables. The ... RF is actually a form of energetic air pollution -- and if air were legally considered habitat like water and land, RF might be ... into California to detect radioactive iodide from radioactive plumes possibly coming from Japan. No such deployment has ...
specify pollutant if pertinent (IM or NIM); in addition to AIR POLLUTANTS; RADIOACTIVE POLLUTANTS; SOIL POLLUTANTS & WATER ... Environmental Pollutants Entry term(s). Environmental Pollutant Pollutant Pollutant, Environmental Pollutants Pollutants, ... Environmental Pollutant. Pollutant. Pollutant, Environmental. Pollutants. Pollutants, Environmental. Tree number(s):. D27.888. ... Environmental Pollutants - Preferred Concept UI. M0007514. Scope note. Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which ...
Pollutants are destroyed by heating polluted air and oxidizing organic components. [US]. These instruments are used to measure ... Air Humidifiers Or Dehumidifiers (84798920); Machines For Squeezing Radioactive Waste (84798950); Suction Machine; Mud Scraper ... Air quality monitoring; automated air quality monitoring [BD]. Monitors to measure air pollution; basis for possible correcting ... This process prevents the emission of a variety of air pollutants. [US]. Excluding other filters of a kind used as components ...
The US Clean Air Act defined an air pollutant as "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical ... chemical, biological, radioactive…substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air." In a 2007 ... the ambient air. …Greenhouse gases fit well within the Clean Air Acts capacious definition of air pollutant."6 ... The sixteen scientists next attack the idea of CO2 as a pollutant. They write: "The fact is that CO2 is not a pollutant." By ...
The global residential air purifier market is slated to witness a CAGR of 6.3%, surpassing US$ 7 Bn by the end of the 2022-2032 ... Globally, 9 out of 10 people breathe polluted air containing high levels of pollutants, according to the World Health ... The U.S Atomic Energy Commission developed HEPA filtration technology initially for filtration of harmful radioactive particles ... Growing air pollution across the globe is a major growth driver for the global residential air purifier market. Indoor air ...
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) -- Indoor Air Pollutants: Where to Find Them and What to Do. Formaldehyde ... Next: Radioactive Contaminants. Top of page. ...
Radioactive material. Calibration and measurement sources. X-rays. AIR POLLUTANTS. Burn pits. Oil well fire. Sulfur Fire. Sand ...
Lichens absorb and retain air pollutants for decades. The long-term presence of compounds such as radioactive isotopes has been ...
MeSH headings : Air Pollutants, Radioactive; Air Pollution, Radioactive; Algorithms; Environmental Monitoring / methods; ... MeSH headings : Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis; Algorithms; Environmental Monitoring / methods; Filtration / ... MeSH headings : Beta Particles; Gamma Rays; Geological Phenomena; Geology; Radiation Dosage; Radiation Protection; Radioactive ... A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF TRU ACTIVITY ON AIR SAMPLE FILTERS AND RADIOLOGICAL SMEARS ...
Air Pollutants, Radioactive. Carcinogens, Environmental. Registry Number. Q74S4N8N1G. Related Numbers. 10043-92-2. CAS Type 1 ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive. Public MeSH Note. ACTINON was see RADON 1978-93; THORON (ELEMENT) was indexed under RADON 1983-93 ... A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, and atomic number 86. It is a member of the noble gas family found in ... A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, and atomic number 86. It is a member of the noble gas family found in ...
... or air." The policy defines pollutants as "any solid, liquid, gaseous, thermal, or radioactive irritant or contaminant, ... Definition of Pollutants," replaces the definition of "pollutants" in the standard pollution exclusion with a different, more ... "pollutants"...." and defines "pollutants" as "any solid, liquid, gaseous or thermal irritant or contaminant, including smoke ... then lists four categories of examples of substances that are defined to be pollutants: "Pollutants" includes: a. Petroleum or ...
Air pollution also affects the cardiovascular system, but the effects depend on the individuals exposure to the pollutants. ... smoke produced by explosives and other radioactive particles (e.g. Radon gas is released into the atmosphere because of ... Air Pollution. Air Pollution is the contamination of air in the atmosphere that is important for every living being on the ... The common air pollutants (the substances which cause pollution) include smoke and harmful gases from industries, CFCs and ...
It filters out pollutants and toxins in the air coming from outside, thereby ensuring the cleanliness and safety of the air ... With the right modifications, it will keep out biological and chemical contaminants as well as radioactive matter. Sources ... A basic charcoal live-vent will filter out almost everything, including radioactive particles from nuclear fallout. ...
to regulate air pollutants, The Clean Air Act directs the governmeint radioactive substance or including any physical, ... change is included as a possible harmito gases will be classified as air The case could resolve whether greenhouse pollutants. ... Because the states air aggressive state on matters of air policy. it has the authority to set its own policies predated the ... Center on Clean Air Policy- State Roundtable On Global ClimateObama White House728. visualizações•3. slides ...
Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas. According to the EPA, breathing radon over time increases the risk of lung ... People sometimes confuse air filtration with air purification. The basic difference is that air filters trap certain dust and ... The best way to positively improve your indoor air quality is to upgrade your air filtration. Central air filtration systems ... While the primary job of air filters is to keep your air and cooling system running smoothly and efficiently, air filters also ...
... there are also radioactive pollutants, helium and its daughters.. If you are interested in this, please contact us for more ... air cleaner air filter air freshener air Humidifier air purification air purifier air purifier china air purifier cleaner air ... air cleaner Air Filter air purification air purifier Air purifier allergies air purifier factory Air Purifier for asthma Air ... 3, the purchase of air purifier / air cleaner, air purifier / air cleaner or air in the interior Fengbi case can purify the air ...
... data updated monthly from one of the cleanest air sources in the world. ... Air pollutants including natural and anthropogenic aerosols (particles such as sea salt, mineral dust and black carbon) and ... Electrons from a radioactive source in the ECD ionize molecules like nitrous oxide, which interfere with the standing current ... Not all air arriving at Kennaook / Cape Grim comes from the baseline sector. Other wind directions bring air masses that carry ...
Europe is known to be a significant source of pollutants in the Arctic, contaminating the region via long-range air and water ... European nuclear reprocessing plants are the second largest source of historical radioactive contamination in the Arctic. There ... and volatile persistent organic pollutants and mercury, which are deposited in the Arctic via condensation from cold air masses ... Many persistent organic pollutants are now found concentrated in the fatty tissues of animals that indigenous peoples rely on ...
Pharmacological Actions : Air Pollutants: Radioactive, Antioxidants. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts. [+] Tarragon, sweet ...
  • Indoor air pollutants can include volatile organic compounds, mold, radioactive radon, combustion gases like carbon monoxide, rodent and insect debris, dust and dander, and other unwanted particles. (gofundme.com)
  • Radon gas is released into the atmosphere because of radioactive decay within the Earth's crust) being released into the atmosphere. (ukessays.com)
  • Radon is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • An indoor air quality monitor can tell you if you have potentially dangerous levels of radon. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • The best indoor air quality monitors keep track of pollutants like carbon dioxide, particulates, VOCs, and other hazards such as radon. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) also contributes to the atmospheric composition program, measuring the naturally occurring radioactive gas 222 Radon. (www.csiro.au)
  • Radon is a radioactive gas that is formed in the dirt. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • This study investigated how the increasing time indoor influenced exposure to natural radioactive substances, such as radon gas. (bvsalud.org)
  • Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that can seep into homes, potentially causing lung cancer. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Industrial air pollution source. (citizendium.org)
  • ADMS 4: Modeling the dispersion of industrial air pollution emissions . (citizendium.org)
  • ADMS-Screen: Screening model for industrial air pollution emissions. (citizendium.org)
  • ADMS-Fire: Modelling the dispersion and deposition of air pollution from fires. (citizendium.org)
  • ADMS 4 is the primary tool used for modeling of the environmental impact of air pollution emissions from existing or proposed industrial facilities. (citizendium.org)
  • When it comes to our health, the air we breath is just as important as the food we eat and the water we drink, but because we can't see it, most of us don't think about air pollution indoors. (gofundme.com)
  • Components of industrial air pollution control plant which minimise the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. (apec.org)
  • Rising air pollution levels and the increasing prevalence of airborne diseases have been the main reasons behind the growth of this market for residential air purifiers. (factmr.com)
  • The global population is also becoming more health conscious due to the improving standard of living as well as rising incomes Thus there is a growing awareness regarding the harmful effects of air pollution, particularly in developing regions across the globe. (factmr.com)
  • Increasing awareness about air pollution is driving the demand for residential air purifiers, particularly in industrialized nations in the Asia-Pacific region. (factmr.com)
  • The popularity of air purifiers is likely to grow as more people move to urban areas with more pollution. (factmr.com)
  • Growing air pollution across the globe is a major growth driver for the global residential air purifier market. (factmr.com)
  • Indoor air pollution is primarily caused by the burning of solid fuels for household lighting, cooking, and heating. (factmr.com)
  • It is estimated that outdoor and indoor air pollution result in around 7 million premature deaths a year, including 3.8 million deaths caused by indoor air pollution. (factmr.com)
  • The court concluded that the bacteria allegedly dispersed or released by the foundry and inhaled by Connors were "contaminants," which are defined to be "pollutants" under the pollution exclusion. (justia.com)
  • 2 We conclude that the pollution exclusion in the foundry's policy, which is considerably more detailed than the standard pollution exclusion in many commercial general liability policies, is ambiguous on the question of whether the bacteria are "pollutants" in the context of the occurrence alleged here. (justia.com)
  • Air Pollution is the contamination of air in the atmosphere that is important for every living being on the planet to sustain life. (ukessays.com)
  • The common air pollutants (the substances which cause pollution) include smoke and harmful gases from industries, CFCs and oxides produced by the automobiles, the burning of solid wastes, i.e. sulphur oxides, CO, CO2, particulate matter, NH3, smoke produced by explosives and other radioactive particles (e.g. (ukessays.com)
  • Air Pollution can also be a consequence of the natural disasters such as a volcanic eruption. (ukessays.com)
  • Air pollution causes depletion of the protective ozone layer. (ukessays.com)
  • Air pollution also affects the cardiovascular system, but the effects depend on the individual's exposure to the pollutants. (ukessays.com)
  • Since some of the reasons of air pollution are natural, there is hardly any sort of possible human control. (ukessays.com)
  • But, for the human caused pollution, one of the finest ways to stop air pollution is to walk more or cycle more, rather than driving cars and other motor vehicles, because the emission from them is the most prominent form of air pollution in today's context. (ukessays.com)
  • However, a large number of survey data at home and abroad have confirmed such a disturbing fact: the indoor air pollution level is 5-10 times higher than the outdoor, the indoor pollutant concentration is 2-5 times higher than the outdoor, and the indoor air pollution is more than the air pollution. (olansiglobal.com)
  • At present, the number of excess deaths caused by indoor air pollution in China has reached 1.11 million, and the number of emergency evacuations has reached 4.3 million. (olansiglobal.com)
  • In recent years, indoor air pollution has received widespread attention. (olansiglobal.com)
  • Due to indoor introduction of pollution sources that release harmful substances or indoor environment poor wind, causing harmful substances in indoor air, regardless of quantity or type increased and caused a series of discomfort symptoms, indicating that the indoor air has been contaminated dye. (olansiglobal.com)
  • As far as the impact of environmental pollution on human health is concerned, people live and work long time in indoor environment, poor indoor ventilation, not conducive to thinning of pollutants interpretation, self-purification, etc., indoor environmental quality is more than outdoor environmental quality important. (olansiglobal.com)
  • Indoor air pollution and air pollution are different due to their environment features are also different. (olansiglobal.com)
  • That is, indoor air is circulated 52 times in the human body during the day, so indoor air pollution forms a cumulative effect in the human body. (olansiglobal.com)
  • Monthly mean baseline greenhouse gas concentrations measured at the Kennaook / Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station, Tasmania. (www.csiro.au)
  • We now call the observatory Kennaook / Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station. (www.csiro.au)
  • As a result, the Kennaook / Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station (KCG BAPS) first began measuring the composition of the atmosphere in April 1976 and has been in continuous operation since that date. (www.csiro.au)
  • The World Health Organization estimates that air pollution causes about 7 million deaths per year worldwide. (allperfecthealth.com)
  • Air pollution causes lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (allperfecthealth.com)
  • Poor indoor air quality is caused by indoor air pollution. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • An air pollution abatement device that removes pollutants from motor vehicle exhaust, either by oxidizing them into carbon dioxide and water or reducing them to nitrogen. (frtr.gov)
  • Indoor air pollution is one risk that you can do something about. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greater due to exposure to air pollution indoors than outdoors. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • In addition, people who may be exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods of time are often those most susceptible to the effects of indoor air pollution. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • While pollutant levels from individual sources may not pose a significant health risk by themselves, most homes have more than one source that contributes to indoor air pollution. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • This safety guide was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help you decide whether to take actions that can reduce the level of indoor air pollution in your own home. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • This power point presentation contains the contents of Unit 1 of CE8005 Air pollution and Control as per the Anna University curriculum. (slideshare.net)
  • HEPA may not be right for you if you are concerned about other sources of indoor air pollution such as VOCs, viruses and bacteria. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • By using an indoor air purifier you can eliminate most sources of pollution and improve air quality dramatically because a HEPA air purifier is basically a large fan that draws air through a filter there are none of the problems related to electronic air purifiers that create ozone. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • the need to monitor, analyze and assess the indoor and outdoor air quality, provide detailed characterization of pollution sources and their radiological and health impacts under various conditions (urban, industrial, etc). (demokritos.gr)
  • Determination of air pollution from airborne particulate matter (PM) including a unique in the region (SE Europe) research station for the measurement of climate change related aerosol parameters, integrated into the global database for atmospheric and climatic parameters as part of the Global Atmosphere Watch programme (WMO). (demokritos.gr)
  • Although air pollution has decreased in many parts of the world, it represents a major and growing health problem for the residents of some cities in certain industrializing countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Conversely, those with preexisting heart and lung disease, children, and older adults have an increased risk for adverse health effects from even short-term exposure to air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • 80 countries around the world, and the World Health Organization posts historical data on outdoor air pollution in urban areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Travelers should be mindful of, and limit exposures to, outdoor and indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide ( Table 4-02 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Secondhand smoke from smoking tobacco is a primary contributor to indoor air pollution. (cdc.gov)
  • Coronavirus outbreaks have significantly boosted the popularity of air purifiers, because these devices purify the air going through them by removing pollutants and contaminants. (factmr.com)
  • With the right modifications, it will keep out biological and chemical contaminants as well as radioactive matter. (newstarget.com)
  • Indoor air contains two to five times and in several cases, as much as 100 times more contaminants than outdoor air, according to the EPA. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #65b Indoor Air Quality: Mould and Other Biological Contaminants . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Our Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) services are designed to enhance the quality of the air you breathe within your home by eliminating odors and removing contaminants, both organic and non-organic alike. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • For these reasons both Edwards and Sublett recommend omitting ionizing air purifiers in favor of mechanical purifiers or those that draw air through a filter designed to trap and retain harmful particles and contaminants. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Smart air purifiers use several technologies together to oxidize and filter contaminants in the room based on sensors that measure air quality at all times. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Respirators are specifically designed to remove contaminants from the air or to provide clean respirable air from another source. (cdc.gov)
  • Standards for exposure to radioactive contaminants have to be in accord with the most recent federal guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • The dispersion module is a puff model that determines concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) or other gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) from vehicle emissions at receptors within 500 meters of the roadway intersections. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-efficiency particulate air" is what HEPA stands for. (ushomefilter.com)
  • This mode effectively neutralizes pollutants in the car's air, including radioactive gases, particulate matter, and second-hand smoke. (binize.com)
  • To capture both the particulate matter and chemicals released from combustion, the air purifier must use both HEPA and activated carbon - especially when it comes to dioxins. (austinair.com)
  • Particulate matter, or PM, is the mixture of tiny solid and liquid matter that collects on surfaces and floats in the air. (fox8.com)
  • As with the majority of incinerators, the health consequences aren't as much the high-volume pollutants, like particulate matter, ozone, NOx or SO2, but the amount of the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that are designated as such by the EPA because of their high level of toxicity, even at minute concentrations. (clovereps.com)
  • Assessment of indoor/outdoor air quality and pollutants emissions from industries (measurements of physical properties and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter, volatile organic and inorganic compounds, isokinetic sampling from industrial stacks. (demokritos.gr)
  • A basic charcoal live-vent will filter out almost everything, including radioactive particles from nuclear fallout. (newstarget.com)
  • Particulates (also known as atmospheric aerosols) are microscopic particles of solids and/or liquids suspended in air. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • Air pollutants including natural and anthropogenic aerosols (particles such as sea salt, mineral dust and black carbon) and reactive gases are also measured along with weather and climate indicators like wind speed and direction, rainfall, temperature, humidity and solar radiation. (www.csiro.au)
  • Combustion Pollutants are the gases or particles that come from burning materials. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • A tugging air stream's inertia will cause small particles that can pass through the gap to adhere to the side of the fiber. (ushomefilter.com)
  • In contrast to the US, where requirements are stricter and HEPA filters must collect 99.97% of airborne particles larger than 0.3 microns and are mostly used in US air filter systems , European HEPA filters must capture 99.95% of these particles. (ushomefilter.com)
  • Combustion pollutants are the gases and particles produced when burning any fuel - wood, natural gas, kerosene, charcoal, etc. (austinair.com)
  • Some common combustion pollutants include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine and ultrafine particles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and formaldehyde. (austinair.com)
  • Shielding can help keep radiation contained, but irradiated dust and moisture particles could spread radioactive contamination through air ducts and walkways. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • To keep potentially radioactive particles contained, HEPA filters were developed and have been used in a variety of industries and applications ever since. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Negative ion generators or ionizing air purifiers whatever you call them are used to clean the air of airborne particles such as pollen dust etc. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Aerosol - a suspension of solid and/or liquid particles in a gas (like air). (cdc.gov)
  • Air filters are least efficient for particle sizes of about 0.3 microns and collect smaller and larger particles more efficiently. (cdc.gov)
  • Corrections can be applied for this self-absorption of alpha particles in some samples (e.g. air filters). (cdc.gov)
  • Air sampling methods and instruments discussed included personal samplers, sampling train, particle size separation, aerosol particles, sampling for gases and vapors, and viable aerosols. (cdc.gov)
  • Ionizing radiation is energy that is carried by several types of particles and rays given off by radioactive material, x ray machines, and fuel elements in nuclear reactors. (cdc.gov)
  • ADMS 5 - Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling System (ADMS 5) is an advanced dispersion model developed in the United Kingdom for calculating concentrations of pollutants emitted both continuously from point, line, volume and area sources, or discretely from point sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • ISC3 - A Gaussian model used to assess pollutant concentrations from a wide variety of sources associated with an industrial complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long-term presence of compounds such as radioactive isotopes has been documented by scientists in high concentrations of lichen foliage, serving as evidence of human-caused trauma in the environment. (proyectoace.org)
  • The composition of the air arriving at Kennaook / Cape Grim is analysed to determine concentrations of more than 80 different greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and synthetic GHGs such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). (www.csiro.au)
  • High temperature and humidity levels can also increase concentrations of some pollutants. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • This study examined the contribution of individual climate variables on the ground level air pollutants concentrations and COVID-19 disease severity. (bvsalud.org)
  • although it naturally exists in the air we breathe, its concentrations tend to be very low. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPCs) of Pollutants in the Air of Urban and Rural Settlements. (rudn.ru)
  • OCD - Offshore and coastal dispersion model (OCD) is a Gaussian model developed to determine the impact of offshore emissions from point, area or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • HYROAD - The hybrid roadway model integrates three individual modules simulating the pollutant emissions from vehicular traffic and the dispersion of those emissions. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADMS-Roads: Modeling the dispersion of air pollutant emissions from road traffic. (citizendium.org)
  • ADMS-Airport: Modeling the dispersion of air pollutant emissions from airplane traffic at airports. (citizendium.org)
  • Other wind directions bring air masses that carry the signals from the land surface and human emissions, from cities, agriculture, and other activities. (www.csiro.au)
  • Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor pollutant levels by not bringing in enough outdoor air to dilute emissions from indoor sources and by not carrying indoor air pollutants out of the home. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Russian Federation of June 06, 2017 No. 273 On approval of calculation methods for dispersion of emissions of harmful (polluting) substances in the atmospheric air. (rudn.ru)
  • Permissible emissions of radioactive and harmful chemicals into the surface layer of the atmosphere. (rudn.ru)
  • Some of the most common water pollutants include industrial wastes (which are directly dumped into the sea of lakes making the water unfit for fishes and other organisms living in the water), domestic and farm wastes, oil spills, pesticides, as well as mining and agricultural wastes. (ukessays.com)
  • Researchers with the EPA have also found that some VOCs can remain in indoor air for several hours at levels up to 1,000 times the levels outdoors. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • VOCs, evaporate into the air when these products are used and, at times, when they are stored. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • Proper ventilation can improve air quality, reducing exposure to PM, VOCs and infectious respiratory agents. (bvsalud.org)
  • The pollutants include heavy metals and organic chemicals, which do not breakdown easily in the environment, and volatile persistent organic pollutants and mercury, which are deposited in the Arctic via condensation from cold air masses and photochemical reactions. (europa.eu)
  • Many persistent organic pollutants are now found concentrated in the fatty tissues of animals that indigenous peoples rely on for food, with the result that the Inuit peoples of Greenland and Canada have some of the highest exposures to mercury and POPs in the world. (europa.eu)
  • the need to develop analytical protocols and risk assessment methods for existing and new POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants), to monitor levels in food, environment and population (blood and breast milk), to evaluate human exposure and examine public health issues related to POPs. (demokritos.gr)
  • Development of new methodology for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds using GC-MS/MS. Development of analytical methodologies for the determination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), belonging to the group of dioxins, in environmental, biological and food samples. (demokritos.gr)
  • It releases radioactive substances. (commondreams.org)
  • Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS. (bvsalud.org)
  • Understanding and controlling common pollutants indoors can help reduce your risk of indoor health concerns. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • Various items in the room, including building decoration materials, furniture, carpets, etc. may release certain chemicals.They will gradually accumulate indoors, causing the concentration of pollutants to increase, forming a body hazard. (olansiglobal.com)
  • More than 80% of people spend their time indoors, even if the concentration of very low pollutants, after long-term effects on the human body,also affects human health. (olansiglobal.com)
  • Knowing possible causes will help you improve the quality of the air you breathe indoors. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • While you may take great care in creating a cozy and inviting space, one often overlooked aspect is the quality of the air you breathe indoors. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • However, the air you breathe indoors can have a profound impact on your well-being. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Anytime we are outdoors, we breathe in carbon monoxide and other air pollutants. (cdc.gov)
  • However, you do want an indoor air quality monitor to measure carbon dioxide as a way to evaluate your home ventilation system. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • Increase air ventilation by way of opening a few windows daily for five to ten minutes, preferably on both sides of the house. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • HEPA filters can be found in air purifier system, vacuum cleaners, air conditioners, home air purifiers, dehumidifiers, humidifiers , ventilation systems, and other equipment that needs clean air for use in the home. (ushomefilter.com)
  • Because so many Americans spend a lot of time in offices with mechanical heating, cooling, and ventilation systems, there is also a short section on the causes of poor air quality in offices and what you can do if you suspect that your office may have a problem. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Unless they are built with special mechanical means of ventilation, homes that are designed and constructed to minimize the amount of outdoor air that can "leak" into and out of the home may have higher pollutant levels than other homes. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Development and maintenance of state-of-the-art software for simulating atmospheric dispersion and transformations of air pollutants (photochemical, radioactive) in complex terrains from local to regional scales, and for diagnostic and prognostic meteorology. (demokritos.gr)
  • In addition to causing respiratory and heart diseases, cancer, fatigue, dizziness, and eye irritation, elevated indoor pollutants and PM2.5 levels also trigger other ailments. (factmr.com)
  • Indoor air quality, which directly affect the health of these people, poor air quality, indoor workers likely to cause chest tightness, influenza, respiratory diseases, and so on. (olansiglobal.com)
  • Chemical pollutants cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema. (allperfecthealth.com)
  • Secondhand smoke is a known indoor air pollutant, leading to respiratory issues and other health problems. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Specific effects of a HEPA air purifier may include throat irritation, cough, chest pain and shortness of breath, as well as an increased risk of respiratory infections. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • His waterways and the air he breathes contain not only the toxic wastes of the more familiar industries but radioactive pollutants, the byproducts of peacetime uses of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons tests. (social-ecology.org)
  • CIA director Robert Gates confirmed at the hearing that wide stretches of the former Soviet Union were contaminated by radioactive waste from Soviet nuclear weapons programs. (loe.org)
  • GATES: Radioactive waste resulting from the extraction of plutonium for the USSR's first nuclear weapons at Chelyabinsk-65 were discharged directly into the Techav River, resulting in severe contamination of the watershed for thousands of kilometers downstream. (loe.org)
  • According to Dr. Lyn Patrick, board advisor of the National Association of Environmental Medicine (NAEM) and cofounder of Environmental Medicine Education International (EMEI), dioxins and difurans are the most toxic synthetic chemicals produced gram per gram next to radioactive nuclear waste. (austinair.com)
  • oddly enough that the Department of Energy created an air filtration standard, HEPA was first developed in the 1940s for use in nuclear power plants. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • In course of time if an accident occurs in the Nuclear plant due to several reasons like in Fukushima or Chernobyl, the poisonous pollutants are thrown into the atmosphere and they kill thousands of people slowly and inflict cancer to millions of people living downstream upto hundreds of Kilometers as in case of Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents. (pratirodh.com)
  • OBODM - A model for evaluating the air quality impacts of the open burning and detonation (OB/OD) of obsolete munitions and solid propellants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Othet risk factors include exposure to carcinogenic and industrial air pollutants (asbestos, arsenic, chromium, radioactive dust). (family-health-information.com)
  • Health effects from indoor air pollutants may be experienced soon after exposure or, possibly, years later. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • Long-term exposure to this naturally occurring radioactive gas can cause lung cancer. (fox8.com)
  • One source of exposure is from hazardous waste sites that contain radioactive waste. (cdc.gov)
  • A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, and atomic number 86. (nih.gov)
  • Alpha particle ( ionizing radiation ) - two neutrons and two protons bound as a single particle (a helium nucleus) that is emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes in the process of disintegration. (cdc.gov)
  • Background radioactivity - radioactive elements in the natural environment including those in the crust of the earth (like radioactive potassium, uranium, and thorium isotopes) and those produced by cosmic rays. (cdc.gov)
  • Beta particle ( ionizing radiation ) - a charged particle emitted from the nucleus of certain unstable atomic nuclei (radioactive isotopes), having the charge and mass of an electron. (cdc.gov)
  • All isotopes of an element, even those that are radioactive, react chemically in the same way. (cdc.gov)
  • Indoor air quality monitors also keep track of other common household irritants such as pollen and dust. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • From dust and fungi to chemical fumes and dander, inside air carries so many allergens that determining the cause of your discomfort can be a challenge. (fox8.com)
  • Dust masks, surgical masks, and bandanas offer limited protection against severely polluted air. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, you may need to use a Hepa air purifier to help control the mold bacteria which could be airborne in your home. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • Combustion creates airborne pollutants - whether from a wildfire or factory explosion. (austinair.com)
  • HEPA air purifiers purify the air in your home, office or vehicle by removing smoke and other airborne pollutants. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Anisokinetic sampling - a sampling condition that involves a mismatch between the air or \fluid velocity in the sampling probe and that in the stack releasing airborne effluents. (cdc.gov)
  • The Central Intelligence Agency is now confirming reports of massive radioactive contamination in the former Soviet Union. (loe.org)
  • In the article the prediction of ecological consequences of contamination of components of the landfill gas air to a residential building, located on the territory close to the landfill. (rudn.ru)
  • The global residential air purifier market was valued at US$ 3.8 Bn in 2021 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 6.3% between 2022 and 2032. (factmr.com)
  • According to Fact.MR, a market research and competitive intelligence provider, from 2015 to 2021, the global market for residential air purifier expanded at a CAGR rate of 5.2% . (factmr.com)
  • Accordingly, the air purifier market worldwide is expected to grow. (factmr.com)
  • Companies are launching new products as air purifier sales increase. (factmr.com)
  • What are the specific drivers of the Residential Air Purifier Market? (factmr.com)
  • But not just any air purifier will do. (austinair.com)
  • Austin Air even goes a step further when it comes to chemicals, as our HealthMate Plus air purifier has potassium iodide-impregnated carbon to remove even more chemicals, including formaldehyde, sulfur (11) and elemental mercury. (austinair.com)
  • If you want to keep a record of your air quality over time so you can see progress or work on improving it with a purifier or other means, buy a monitor that stores its readings in the form of charts and graphs. (fox8.com)
  • What are the Side Effects of a HEPA Air Purifier? (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Your air purifier can aggravate many of the health problems you expected it to solve. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • However, it can be difficult to know what is true and what is not when reading about the side effects of the HEPA air purifier. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • If your home doesn't have a forced air system or if you're looking for something for your workplace, both Sublett and Edwards recommend a portable air purifier that has a built-in replaceable HEPA filter. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • No. 2014AP2990 ¶1 BLANCHARD, J. Patrick Connors alleges that a foundry where he had been employed negligently allowed bacteria to be dispersed or released into the air, that he inhaled some of these bacteria while visiting the foundry, and that this resulted in illness causing bodily injury. (justia.com)
  • Our homes and offices contain pollutants in the air that we inhale (such as chemicals, gases, and living organisms like bacteria, mold, and pests) which could put us at risk for health problems. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • to regulate air pollutants, The Clean Air Act directs the governmeint radioactive substance or including 'any physical, chemical, bio~logical enters ambient air' if they 'may matter which is emitted into or other;4ise health or welfare. (slideshare.net)
  • The chemical, metal, gas, radiation, or other environmental toxin can travel from the source to you in the air, water, or soil or in food or beverages you consume. (cdc.gov)
  • The latter factor has drawn attention to indoor air quality and the impact on human health, particularly for chemical pollutants. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Austin Air Bedroom Machine uses a HEGA cloth that was developed by the British Armed Forces in the 1970s as protection against chemical and gas warfare. (austinair.com)
  • In fact the radioactive pollutants are a million to billion times more toxic than many chemical poisons. (pratirodh.com)
  • Radioactive atoms that become part of a molecule do not affect the way the molecule behaves in chemical reactions or inside your body. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #65d Indoor Air Quality: Volatile Organic Compounds . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • That is a cause for concern because if carbon dioxide is lingering in the rooms of your house, it means other, more harmful, pollutants are lingering as well. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • For more information, see HealthLinkBC File #65c Indoor Air Quality: Combustion By-products and HealthLinkBC File #30a The Harmful Effects of Second-hand Smoke . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), only 1% of the world breathes clean air, and 78% of people live near a superfund site (a contaminated site that exists due to hazardous waste being dumped). (austinair.com)
  • Part of this commission's decision to grant Foxboro approval was based on discussions with the Division of Air Quality and the Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste. (clovereps.com)
  • Olansi was founded in 2009, that focuses on research and development, design, production and sales of health and environmental protection equipment of household air purification, water purifiers, and hydrogen-rich water series. (olansiglobal.com)
  • You want good health, indoor staff must understand some of the knowledge of indoor air purification. (olansiglobal.com)
  • If exposed to combustion pollutants (which we all are), air purification is a MUST. (austinair.com)
  • True HEPA filters are good for air purification, but they leave some scars on their way to purify the air. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • The top air filtration method is represented by a HEPA filter. (ushomefilter.com)
  • When it comes to air filtration, the True HEPA filter is the best option available. (ushomefilter.com)
  • Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse and, in some cases, how they react in the atmosphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ecological and toxicological analysis of landfill gas taking into account its main components, and also the analysis of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risk at chronic influence on the abstract person living in the room in which the air polluted by landfill gas penetrates is carried out. (rudn.ru)
  • DEGADIS - Dense gas dispersion (DEGADIS) is a model that simulates the dispersion at ground level of area source clouds of denser-than-air gases or aerosols released with zero momentum into the atmosphere over flat, level terrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, an award of $5,000 may include attic air sealing and insulation, while $10,000 may include crawlspace encapsulation or a new energy efficient HVAC system with new air-sealed ductwork. (gofundme.com)
  • Other potential sources of indoor air pollutants include cooking or combustion sources (e.g., kerosene, coal, wood, animal dung). (cdc.gov)
  • It can also be used to assess air quality with respect to the air quality standards such as the European Union Air Quality Directive , [5] the UK Air Quality Strategy , [6] the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) Air Quality Guidelines . (citizendium.org)
  • Ambient air monitoring - monitoring of the air outside of buildings (see effluent monitoring) . (cdc.gov)
  • It is a refined point source Gaussian air quality model for use in all stability conditions (i.e., all conditions of atmospheric turbulence) for complex terrain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This air is free from recent human and terrestrial influences and is very well mixed, meaning it represents the background or 'baseline' atmospheric composition for the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. (www.csiro.au)
  • The term background is also sometimes used in this report to indicate radioactive elements present in the environment that are not a direct result of SRS activities (e.g. atmospheric weapons testing fallout, see definition for fallout ). (cdc.gov)
  • We offer a range of solutions to address common indoor air pollutants and create a more comfortable and safer living environment for you and your family. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Globally, 9 out of 10 people breathe polluted air containing high levels of pollutants, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). (factmr.com)
  • Our extensive indoor air quality solutions are designed to ensure that the air you and your family breathe is cleaner, safer and healthier. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • With our services, you can breathe easier, knowing that your living space is free from pollutants and allergens, and your family is safer and healthier. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Recognizing these dangers is the first step in taking control of your indoor environment and ensuring that the air you breathe is clean, fresh, and healthy. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Studies have shown that our indoor environment and air quality impact things such as productivity, allergies and asthma, concentration and brain function, and even our immune system. (gofundme.com)
  • From the entry of pollutants into the room, the concentration increases, and the concentration is discharged to the outside.Gradually zero, most of them take a long time. (olansiglobal.com)
  • For example, VironAire announced in July 2020 the availability of two affordable air cleaners for hospitals, businesses, and residences that are based on HEPA technology. (factmr.com)
  • The usage of HEPA filters is widespread in equipment that needs to filter air or filters air. (ushomefilter.com)
  • When thinking of air filter maintenance by no means is it impossible to wash the HEPA filter. (ushomefilter.com)
  • 10) Thankfully, Austin Air purifiers use 60 sq. ft. of true medical HEPA and up to 15 lbs. of activated carbon. (austinair.com)
  • HEPA air purifiers are known to be quite loud, and can be so loud that they fall into the category of noise machines. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • These HEPA filters began to appear on the consumer market in the 1960s as filters for HVAC units, vacuums and stand-alone air purifiers. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Here's what you need to know about HEPA air purifiers to see if they have any side effects. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • The density of the HEPA filter is so tight that it does not allow the free flow of air required by the HVAC to operate efficiently. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Our team of building scientists have helped thousands of families in Middle Tennessee solve complicated home performance issues, like poor indoor air quality, comfort challenges, and high energy bills. (gofundme.com)
  • it could also be poor indoor air quality. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • The absolute finest way to clean the air in the home is to prevent the source of poor indoor air quality. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • We have discovered the most common reason for poor indoor air quality in Argyle, TX is mold. (argyletxhvacrepair.net)
  • At Ground Zero Plumbing & AC Gilbert , we understand that indoor air quality is a critical factor in any home, and that poor indoor air quality can have a serious negative impact on your quality of life. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • Asbestos does not cause a health risk unless it is frayed or crumbling and releasing fibers into the air that can be inhaled. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) , "Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • Driving in cars, flying in planes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • dynamic downscaling from global to regional / local scale, in order to assess the environmental (e.g. air quality, land cover), social and economic effects of climate change in the area of Greece and Eastern Mediterranean. (demokritos.gr)
  • Some sources, such as building materials, furnishings, and household products like air fresheners, release pollutants more or less continuously. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • It is accredited according to ISO/EN 17025 by ESYD and participates in the United Nations Laboratories Network for the control of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in food, feed, biological samples and air. (demokritos.gr)
  • If too little outdoor air enters a home, pollutants can accumulate to levels that can pose health and comfort problems. (ateamcomfort.com)
  • Demand for residential air purifiers is expected to rise over the forecast period and the market is projected to gain a global valuation of US$ 4.04 Bn by the end of 2022. (factmr.com)
  • Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, consumers are adopting stand-alone air purifiers to ensure clean air. (factmr.com)
  • Air purifiers are becoming more of an everyday necessity than a luxury item due to rising health consciousness. (factmr.com)
  • The market for residential air purifiers is expected to grow over the forecast period due to declining air quality across major regions and rising awareness about the benefits and necessity of air purifiers. (factmr.com)
  • Hence these are also used in air purifiers to protect Allergies. (ushomefilter.com)
  • Clinically Proven Air Purifiers. (austinair.com)
  • Headaches, sore throat, cough, asthma attacks and shortness of breath are some of the symptoms that some air purifiers can cause. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Fortunately, not all air purifiers cause these difficulties and some work as advertised. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Let's take a look at what makes some types of air purifiers work wonders for your health and well-being, while others can be unsafe. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • there are also a few types of these including HVAC filters, portable air purifiers and ceiling mounted air purifiers. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • Air purifiers have filters, single or multiple, that take in the air, purify it and release comparatively healthy fresh air. (bestairfilterforallergies.com)
  • When was the last time you had your air ducts cleaned? (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • We recommend having your air ducts professionally cleaned every two years, while certain homes may benefit from having this done every year. (groundzeroplumbingac.com)
  • It filters out pollutants and toxins in the air coming from outside, thereby ensuring the cleanliness and safety of the air that reaches the supplies and occupants in the bunker. (newstarget.com)
  • ADAM - Air force dispersion assessment model (ADAM) is a modified box and Gaussian dispersion model which incorporates thermodynamics, chemistry, heat transfer, aerosol loading, and dense gas effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if you aren't having these symptoms, the EPA recommendation is that it is always prudent to try to improve indoor air quality. (ongaroandsons.com)
  • HOTMAC and RAPTAD - HOTMAC is a model for weather forecasting used in conjunction with RAPTAD which is a puff model for pollutant transport and dispersion. (wikipedia.org)
  • ADMSSTAR: Modeling the dispersion of short-term accidental radioactive releases. (citizendium.org)
  • Air filter - a solid matrix used in an air sampler to collect particulates from the air, which is drawn by an air pump through the filter. (cdc.gov)
  • This includes factors such as air quality, water quality, food safety and waste management. (allperfecthealth.com)
  • Sauts AV. Ensuring environmentally safe air regime of buildings located near landfills for solid household and industrial waste (dissertation of cand. (rudn.ru)
  • Future human actions at disposal sites : a report of the NEA working group on Assessment of Future Human Actions at Radioactive Waste Disposal Sites. (who.int)