Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.TennesseeLaboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.IllinoisNuclear Energy: Energy released by nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.San FranciscoNuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Consultants: Individuals referred to for expert or professional advice or services.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Electric Power Supplies: Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.Gas, Natural: A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Maps as Topic: Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of material or abstract features on the surface of the earth, the heavens, or celestial bodies.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Trustees: Board members of an institution or organization who are entrusted with the administering of funds and the directing of policy.PennsylvaniaPlastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Sanitary Engineering: A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.Lead PoisoningNitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.ConnecticutAir Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Diagnostic Techniques, Radioisotope: Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.InkClick Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)EssaysGlobal Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)LuxembourgRadon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.BelgiumSoil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.KazakhstanThermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Radioactive Fallout: The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Antimony: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)EssaysMethane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Radon and lung cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis. (1/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cost-effectiveness of general and targeted strategies for residential radon testing and mitigation in the United States. METHODS: A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing radon-associated deaths from lung cancer. RESULTS: For a radon threshold of 4 pCi/L, the estimated costs to prevent 1 lung cancer death are about $3 million (154 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $480,000 per life-year saved, based on universal radon screening and mitigation, and about $2 million (104 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $330,000 per life-year saved, if testing and mitigation are confined to geographic areas at high risk for radon exposure. For mitigation undertaken after a single screening test and after a second confirmatory test, the estimated costs are about $920,000 and $520,000, respectively, to prevent a lung cancer death with universal screening and $130,000 and $80,000 per life-year for high risk screening. The numbers of preventable lung cancer deaths are 811 and 527 for universal and targeted approaches, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest possible alternatives to current recommendations.  (+info)

Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in Missouri. (2/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk, using both standard radon dosimetry and a new radon monitoring technology that, evidence suggests, is a better measure of cumulative radon exposure. METHODS: Missouri women (aged 30 to 84 years) newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer during the period January 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994, were invited to participate in this population-based case-control study. Both indoor air radon detectors and CR-39 alpha-particle detectors (surface monitors) were used. RESULTS: When surface monitors were used, a significant trend in lung cancer odds ratios was observed for 20-year time-weighted-average radon concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: When surface monitors were used, but not when standard radon dosimetry was used, a significant lung cancer risk was found for radon concentrations at and above the action level for mitigation of houses currently used in the United States (148 Bqm-3). The risk was below the action level used in Canada (750 Bqm-3) and many European countries (200-400 Bqm-3).  (+info)

Chromosome breakage at sites of oncogenes in a population accidentally exposed to radioactive chemical pollution. (3/92)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the population of an area polluted with radionuclides, following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant. We carried out the micronucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of the 1246 inhabitants of the settlement of Samus examined, 148 showed a significantly increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes and were selected for chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out on 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from a non-polluted area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3p14-25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency to preferential involvement of q21-25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in the radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage was located near oncogene loci, which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals.  (+info)

Radon testing in households with a residential smoker--United States, 1993-1994. (4/92)

Epidemiologic investigations of underground miners and studies of alpha particle carcinogenesis among laboratory animals suggest that exposure to the radioactive decay products (progeny) of radon is an important risk factor for lung cancer. Persons who smoke cigarettes and are exposed to these radon progeny have a substantially greater risk for developing malignancy than nonsmokers. Residential radon concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action level of 4 pCi/L are the primary sources of exposure among the general population. EPA and the Public Health Service promote home testing for radon, especially in households with a person who smokes. However, it is unknown whether households that contain smokers are more likely than those without smokers to test for radon. To characterize radon testing practices of households that contain a person who smokes within the dwelling (i.e., residential smoker), CDC analyzed survey data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of this analysis, which indicates that households with a residential smoker are significantly less likely to test for radon than those without smokers.  (+info)

Environmental radioactivity, population exposure and related health risks in the east Baltic region. (5/92)

The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and its decay products. The Chernobyl accident brought an additional dose of about 0.5 mSv in southern Finland and 1.4 mSv in the most contaminated districts of the Leningrad region, Russia. Both external and internal exposure via contaminated food contributed. Currently, significant long-term radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident include persistent radioactive contamination of natural terrestrial (forest) and freshwater (oligotrophic lakes) ecosystems and food products. Radiation health risks are lung cancer among the general population from indoor exposure to radon, acute radiation syndrome from occupational exposure, thyroid cancer among children in heavily contaminated non-Baltic areas, and mutations among offspring of exposed parents.  (+info)

Indoor residential radon exposure and risk of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. (6/92)

Exposure to radon has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in uranium miners, but evidence of adverse health effects due to indoor radon exposure is inconsistent. Ecological studies have suggested a correlation between indoor radon levels and leukaemia incidence. We evaluated the risk associated with indoor residential radon exposure within a larger interview-based case-control study of risk factors for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A total of 173 cases and 254 controls met the eligibility criteria, and information was collected through telephone interviews with parents and analysis of alpha-track radon detectors placed in the home for a period of 1 year. No association was observed between radon exposure and risk of AML, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.8) for 37-100 Bq m(-3) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6-2.0) for > 100 Bq m(-3) compared with < 37 Bq m(-3). Although there was an inverse association between radon level and AML risk among children < 2 years at diagnosis, among children > or = 2 years, AML risk was increased among those with higher radon exposure. The observed association after age 2 is most likely due to chance. Overall, there was no association between residential radon and risk of childhood AML.  (+info)

Evaluation of the impact of Chernobyl on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in 16 regions of Europe. EUROCAT Working Group. (7/92)

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data from population-based congenital anomaly registers in 16 regions of Europe (mainly Western Europe) were analysed to assess the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of selected congenital anomalies. METHODS: Three cohorts of pregnancies were defined: those exposed during the first month following Chernobyl (External Exposure Cohort), the first year (Total Exposure Cohort) and the two subsequent years (Control Cohort). Expected numbers of congenital anomalies in these cohorts were calculated from 1980-1985 baseline rates. Registries were grouped into three exposure categories according to first-year exposure estimates. RESULTS: There was no overall or dose-related increase in prevalence in the two exposed cohorts for Down's Syndrome, neural tube defects, other central nervous system defects or eye defects. There was a statistically significant overall 22% (95% CI: 13-31%) excess of Down's Syndrome in the Control Cohort, with no dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Chernobyl had no detectable impact on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Western Europe, suggesting that in retrospect the widespread fear in the population about the possible effects of exposure on the unborn fetus was not justified. An increasing prevalence of Down's Syndrome in the 1980s, probably unrelated to Chernobyl, merits further investigation.  (+info)

Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. (8/92)

Exposure to high concentrations of radon progeny (radon) produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally exposed laboratory animals. To determine the risk posed by residential radon exposure, the authors performed a population-based, case-control epidemiologic study in Iowa from 1993 to 1997. Subjects were female Iowa residents who had occupied their current home for at least 20 years. A total of 413 lung cancer cases and 614 age-frequency-matched controls were included in the final analysis. Excess odds were calculated per 11 working-level months for exposures that occurred 5-19 years (WLM(5-19)) prior to diagnosis for cases or prior to time of interview for controls. Eleven WLM(5-19) is approximately equal to an average residential radon exposure of 4 pCl/liter (148 Bq/m3) during this period. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, the authors found excess odds of 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.004, 1.81) and 0.83 (95% percent confidence interval: 0.11, 3.34) using categorical radon exposure estimates for all cases and for live cases, respectively. Slightly lower excess odds of 0.24 (95 percent confidence interval: -0.05, 0.92) and 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval: 0.03, 1.84) per 11 WLM(5-19) were noted for continuous radon exposure estimates for all subjects and live subjects only. The observed risk estimates suggest that cumulative ambient radon exposure presents an important environmental health hazard.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D20)

... air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.555 --- radioactive fallout MeSH D20.693.638 --- radioactive waste MeSH D20.693.756 ... soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.903 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.721.500 --- humic substances MeSH ... radioactive waste MeSH D20.944.420 --- industrial waste MeSH D20.944.460 --- medical waste MeSH D20.944.460.150 --- dental ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 --- air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 --- endocrine ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 --- soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 --- water pollutants MeSH ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 --- air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888.284.101.143.631 --- oxidants, ... D27.888.284.903.655 --- water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888. ...

*List of atmospheric dispersion models

... tracking radioactive emissions and volcanic ash discharges; analysis of accidental air pollutant releases and assisting in ... SAFE AIR II (Italy) - The simulation of air pollution from emissions II (SAFE AIR II) was developed at the Department of ... It was designed for evaluating the impact of industrial pollutant releases and for air quality assessments. It is a Gaussian ... These models are large-scale air quality models that simulate the changes of pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere by ...

*National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air ... The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in ... The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that ... The USEPA regulates the following hazardous air pollutants via the MACT standards: For all listings above which contain the ...

*Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency

... "air pollutant" causing "air pollution" as defined by the CAA. If carbon dioxide is not an air pollutant causing air pollution, ... radioactive . . . substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air,..." Both sides agreed that CO2 ... The law's definition of air pollutant contains "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, ... "any air pollutant" from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment cause[s], or contribute[s] to, air ...

*PUREX

... of radioactive iodine-131 had been released into the river and air from the Hanford site between 1944 and 1947.[citation needed ... Greenpeace measurements in La Hague and Sellafield indicated that radioactive pollutants are steadily released into the sea, ... The first cycle PUREX raffinate is very radioactive. It has almost all of the fission products, corrosion products such as iron ... and the air. Therefore, people living near these processing plants are exposed to higher radiation levels than the naturally ...

*Marcellus natural gas trend

Residents are also exposed to a myriad of air pollutants through mechanisms such as well-venting and flaring. Volatile organic ... Produced water includes naturally occurring radioactive materials, as well as high levels of brine, barium, strontium, and ... Early experiments in Mount Pleasant Township led to lengthy legal battles over pollution of well water and air. Range Resources ... The two most common pollutants associated with spills are total dissolved solids and conductivity; the increase in conductivity ...

*21st-century fossil fuel regulations in the United States

People who come in contact with these air pollutants can have severe health problems such as respiratory issues, cardiovascular ... These chemicals can be radioactive materials, methane, other gases, and carcinogenic chemicals. However, the industry has ... While the Clean Air Act postulates regulations and rules limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases, other laws are concerned ... A study has found that people within half a mile from a gas well site were more likely to have health problems from air ...

*Mesoporous organosilica

Candidate adsorbants include toxic heavy metals, radioactive material, and various organic pollutants have been synthesized. ... Mesoporous organosilicas can be functionalized give sorbants, for removal specific contaminants from air and water. ... Mesoporous organosilicas have been used to sense a wide variety of analytes: metals, industrial pollutants, small organic ... nanoengineered materials for removal of organic and inorganic pollutants". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 20: 4478-4511. doi: ...

*Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee

Air Resources Laboratory AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Atmospheric dispersion modeling Category: ... Although the ADMLC was initially formed to consider primarily radioactive releases from the nuclear industry, it has expanded ... ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) Air Quality Modeling ... Accidental release source terms Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Air pollution dispersion terminology Air ...

*Air pollution

Odours - such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ... Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each ...

*Greenaction for Health and Environmental Justice

One example of many effects is that fine particulates in the air have been associated with a higher prevalence of asthma, and ... Current policy states that incinerators do not have to report bypass emissions during startup and shutdown, when pollutants are ... radioactive materials, and naturally-occurring asbestos. The Navy has been trying to address the shipyard's wasted nature since ... In Utah, citizens gathered to protest an incinerator owned by Stericycle because of a report from the Utah Division of Air ...

*United States Department of Energy

... or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or significantly improved ... radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics; the Human Genome Project ... The blue field represents air and water, green represents mineral resources and the earth itself, and gold represents the ... designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive ...

*Geoprofessions

... and risks of pollutants on the environment, including soil, water, and air. Wetlands science is a geoprofessional pursuit that ... radioactive release) and are not of natural origin. Environmental chemistry assesses interactions or these compounds with soil ... These compounds are categorized as pollutants or contaminants when introduced into the environment by human factors (e.g., ...

*Tobacco smoke

... , besides being an irritant and significant indoor air pollutant, is known to cause lung cancer, heart disease, ... The radioactive element polonium-210 is also known to occur in tobacco smoke. The chemical composition of smoke depends on puff ... Flue-cured ("bright") tobacco typically produces acidic smoke, whereas air-cured ("burley") tobacco typically produces basic ...

*Lung cancer

Asbestos can also cause cancer of the pleura, called mesothelioma (which is different from lung cancer). Outdoor air pollutants ... Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence. Rarely, removal of a whole ... Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of ... For nitrogen dioxide, an incremental increase of 10 parts per billion increases the risk of lung cancer by 14%. Outdoor air ...

*Fossil fuel

Combustion of fossil fuels also produces other air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic ... Fossil fuels also contain radioactive materials, mainly uranium and thorium, which are released into the atmosphere. In 2000, ... Moreover, these environmental pollutions impacts on the human beings because its particles of the fossil fuel on the air cause ... Oil refineries also have negative environmental impacts, including air and water pollution. Transportation of coal requires the ...

*Hazardous waste

Using this technology, it is possible to control the combustion rate of the waste and therefore reduce the air pollutants ... Ammunition Radioactive wastes (some home smoke detectors are classified as radioactive waste because they contain very small ... Starved air incineration is an improvement of the traditional incinerators in terms of air pollution. ... radioactive/hazardous) National Priorities List (in the US) Pollution Radioactive waste Recycling Retail hazardous waste ...

*Environmental impact assessment

... of the club's request to issue a supplemental EIS addressing air emissions of particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants ... Specific pollution threats include acid rain, radioactive contamination, debris in outer space, stratospheric ozone depletion ... Primary data are those collected in the field to define the status of the environment (like air quality data, water quality ... The main laws in action are the Water Act(1974), the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), the Air (Prevention and Control ...

*Timeline of history of environmentalism

The Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution is established to reduce air pollutant emissions and acid rain. - ... Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 1981 - Lois Gibbs founds the Citizens' Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste 1982 - ... 1963 - The Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is signed by the U.S., the U.K. and the U.S.S.R. - Clean Air Act 1964 - Norman ... 1872 - The term acid rain is coined by Robert Angus Smith in the book Air and Rain. - World's first national park, Yellowstone ...

*Alternative fuel

Because natural gas emits little pollutant when combusted, cleaner air quality has been measured in urban localities switching ... As an alternative to uranium fuelled nuclear reactors, thorium has been proven to add to proliferation, produces radioactive ... The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. Unlike hydrogen, compressed air is about one- ... Hydrogen and natural gas are both lighter than air and can be mixed together. Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed ...

*Raw water

Dissolved air molecules, especially oxygen Salt, which makes water brackish, having more salinity than fresh water, but not as ... Perfluorinated alkyl acids, such as perfluorooctanoic acid, which are group of pollutants that have been found in wastewater ... Other, less common, contaminants of raw water include: Natural radioactive particles. ... Many contaminants, including iron, manganese, ammonium, traces of pesticides and medicines, organic micro pollutants, and ...

*Eville Gorham

... and discovered correlations between three lung diseases and different air pollutants. Bronchitis was common in urban/industrial ... Gorham credits his discoveries in radioactive fallout to the milkshakes at a drugstore in Halifax. He became fond of the ... Lung cancer was correlated with tar emitted to the air by industrial plants. This resulted in two publications in the British ... This suggested that the radiation was not the result of the Windscale fire, but rather was global radioactive fallout. Gorham ...

*Radon mitigation

Aeration systems move the radon from the water to the air. Radon gas discharged into the air is the release of a pollutant, and ... amount of radiation accumulates over time and the filter material may reach the level of requiring disposal as a radioactive ... It controls the air delivery rate so that the air conditioner is never overloaded with more moisture than it can effectively ... Delta t (Δt), which is the amount that the air is cooled as it is passed through the air conditioner's cooling coils. A good Δt ...

*Environmental engineering science

This can include classes in water chemistry, sanitation, combustion, air pollution and radioactive waste management. Using ... water and air pollution, remediation and hazardous substance control, human exposure to pollutants, environmental biotechnology ... preparing environmental impact assessments or helping to mitigate air pollution from specific point sources. Meanwhile, the ...

*Soil gas

... es can diffuse into buildings, the chief concerns among these pollutants are radon which is radioactive and causes ... Composition of air in soil and atmosphere: Nitrogen: Soil Air: 79.2% Atmosphere: 79.0% Oxygen: Soil Air: 20.6% Atmosphere: 20.9 ... Soil gases are the gases found in the air space between soil components. The primary natural soil gases include nitrogen, ... Not only are both soil air and soil water very dynamic parts of soil, but both are often inversely related. ...
Indoor radon concentrations are presented as means with standard deviations and geometric means. To consider repeated measures within the same residence, a generalized estimating equation with a linear model was applied according to individual residential environments. To identify factors affecting higher indoor radon concentrations, we divided residences into five groups according to radon concentrations based on indoor radon reference levels as international standards (,74 Bq/m3, 74100 Bq/m3, 100-148 Bq/m3, 148-200 Bq/m3, and ≥200 Bq/m3) and applied a generalized estimating equation based on a multinomial probability distribution with a cumulative probit link function. Spearmans rho was used to analyze correlations among greenery ratio, impermeable layer ratio, and indoor radon concentrations. Decision tree analysis was conducted to highlight factors and to suggest optimal cut point of each parameter affecting high indoor radon concentrations by exhaustive chisquared automatic interaction ...
Indoor radon levels were measured in different seasons throughout 1995 in selected dwellings of coastal Karnataka using LR-115 type II peelable films. Seasonal variations were studied. The arithmetic mean value of radon levels during winter was found to be about 35% higher than the annual average value. The annual average radon levels were...
A radon alleviation framework is any structure or steps proposed to diminish radon focuses in the indoor idea of a building.. The EPA prescribes Radon Mitigation make a move to reduce your homes indoor radon levels, Radon close me if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher.. Radon Framework. A secured level of radon gas is no radon gas. Radon gas is a disease causing professional which causes lung tumor. The US EPA has put it evidently, passing on, "Any radon introduction has some peril of causing lung change. The lower the radon levels in your home, the lower your familys danger of lung hazard." The standard individual gets higher estimations of radiation from the radon levels in their home than from their joined preamble to all other radiation sources, conventional or man-made. Radon Mitigation is a routinely happening aftereffect of the radioactive demolish of Uranium in the earth. Subordinate upon your geographic zone, Radon close me the radon levels of the air you take in outside of ...
Digital Continuous Radon Gas Monitoring with Home Radon Alarm Protect your family from lung cancer from radon gas exposure with the only EPA evaluated radon gas alarm, the Safety Siren Pro 3 Electronic Radon Gas Detector from Family Safety Products. As seen on TV, this is not like a single use radon test detection kit: this digital radon gas monitor for home testing is a continuous radon tester that performs continuous radon gas monitoring. The clear, easily read digital radon level display shows short-term radon levels as well as long-term radon level averages. The Safety Siren electronic radon monitor gives its first radon reading after 48 hours of radon gas sampling. Radon gas in air or water is a health hazard resulting from uranium breaking down in soil. Exposure to radon can cause lung cancer. Continuous home radon monitoring is recommended in high radon areas or when radon mitigation systems are used. Radon gas levels change according to humidity and season. See in.Radon Facts in. below ...
Mike Adams. November is radon awareness month so it is the perfect time of year to consider testing your home. Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. It may contribute to as much as 16% of all lung cancers. Radon, when combined with tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, can increase the risk substantially. Health Canada estimates that one in three smokers exposed to high radon levels will develop lung cancer.. Radon is a naturally occurring gas found in the ground throughout the world. Most homes that are in contact with the ground will contain some amount of radon gas. Radon becomes more of a concern when it reaches high levels. According to Health Canada about seven per cent of the Canadian homes have radon levels that may be putting residents at risk. Here in the B.C. Interior we have some "hot spot" areas with high radon levels in approximately 40 per cent of homes.. Radon gas is colourless, odourless and tasteless, so the only way to know if the radon ...
Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the
Transport of Radon in soil Part of the radon originating from the decay of radium located in rocks and soil particles is emitted in the pore volume of soil and stones. Due to atmospheric conditions (temperature, air pressure, weather), the radon concentration in a depth of less than one meter varies considerably. With increasing depth, the radon concentration rises to a saturation value.. The permeability of the soil plays a decisive role. Generally, starting from a depth of one meter, the radon concentration in the soil air changes only in a minor way. Due to the half-life (circa 1,600 years) of Radium-226, the parent of radon, the radon soil air concentration is stable over a long term. If the radon concentration of a particular site is known, new measurements are only necessary after significant interventions done in the underground.. Cracks and rifts simplify the transport of radon in the underground. Therefore the local radon concentration can be much higher in the proximity of chasms, ...
As a standard instrument to calibrate the radon monitors, radon chamber is in urgent need with the deepening study on Radon and its progeny. According to the requirement of calibrating the radon monitors and radon detectors, the multifunctional and automatic controlled radon chamber is designed and constructed. By the reason of radon decay, the radon concentration in the chamber is continuously changing. The radon concentration must keep stability and homogeneity in order to calibrate the radon monitors and bio-culture. The supply and control of radon in the chamber is a critical problem in the design of Radon chamber. The paper introduced the mathematic model of dynamic radon replenishment according to the law of radon decay, three time parameters to replenish radon is discussed. The related automatic monitor and control system is developed by this mathematic model, the expected radon concentration can keep stability and homogeneity controlled by the system. The structure of radon chamber and ...
Radon is a deadly gas that can easily accumulate in your newer or older home, whether you have a full or partial basement, crawl space, or cement slab. You may be breathing harmful levels of radon and not know it. Have you tested your house for radon? Purchase a radon test kit today. WHAT IS RADON? Radon is a colorless, odorless tasteless radioactive gas Radon comes from naturally decaying uranium 289 in soil, rocks and water Radon is a known carcinogen Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, next to smoking 1 in 15 homes in the U.S. has high levels of radon Radon is found in all 50 states Radon accumulates in poorly ventilated areas of the home such as basements and crawlspaces No level of radon is safe in your home. Upon receiving test results and learning of elevated radon levels, mitigation solutions are your next step. Suncourt Radon Fans (TF104-W) or kits (RDN04) are used as the front line of defense against elevated radon levels in the home. Suncourts radon
You may or may not have heard of Radon gas. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is everywhere. Radon is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. The Radon levels in your neighbors house arent related to the Radon levels in your house. The only way to know how much Radon is in your house is to test for it. Soil type determines in part how much Radon gets into your house, with construction also playing a role.. Weve all heard of someone who has been diagnosed with lung cancer, and they have "never smoked a day in their life". Dont let that be anyone you know! Radon is documented to be the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking, causing approximately 21,000 deaths each year. Radon testing is easy and affordable, with accurate results usually produced within 48-72 hours of the start of a test. The piece of mind from knowing your Radon level is PRICELESS!. When having a Radon test performed, make certain that you use a testing or mitigation specialist who is certified ...
Radon is present in all dwellings, thus posing a major health problem. For rooms used more frequently than on a temporary basis, it is therefore required to keep radon concentrations as low as possible. The amount of radon entering a dwelling with the outdoor air during air exchange and being released from building materials can hardly be reduced. It is therefore not generally feasible to reach radon levels below 100 Bq/m³ indoors in Germany. Such a situation is to be found in areas with increased radon concentrations in outside air and in dwellings with an above-average release of radon from construction material. Measures to reduce radon concentrations should always be considered with levels exceeding 100 Bq/m³.. ...
Radon is a naturally-occurring radioactive gas found in air, soil, rocks, and water. The main source of indoor radon is from soil gas entering homes through foundation cracks. Approximately 6% of US homes have radon levels above the Environmental Protection Agency recommended levels. Radon decay products enter the human body mostly by inhalation and deliver radiation doses to various organs including the breast. This could cause DNA damage.Although this is a possible mechanism by which radon exposure could bring about cancerous changes in the breast, there have been very few studies looking at whether the two are linked. Researchers in the US have conducted a study to look at the association between environmental radon exposure and breast cancer incidence in US women. They recently published the results in the journal Environmental Health.. ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: United Kingdom. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated number of deaths from lung cancer related to indoor radon, lifetime risks of death from lung cancer before and after various potential interventions to control radon, the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from different policies for control of radon, and the potential of those policies to reduce lung cancer mortality. RESULTS: The mean radon concentration in UK homes is 21 becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m(3)). Each year around 1100 deaths from lung cancer (3.3% of
Department of Environmental Quality - The Michigan Indoor Radon Program is a non-regulatory program. Its purpose is to increase awareness of the health risk associated with exposure to elevated indoor radon levels, to encourage testing for radon, and to also encourage citizens to take action to reduce their exposure once elevated radon levels are found.
Editorial Note: The elevated radon levels near the eastern border of Pennsylvania are associated with natural uranium deposits that extend into northern New Jersey and southern New York. Since similar geologic deposits are found throughout the country, the elevated radon levels in Pennsylvania may indicate a much broader national problem. Radon enters a building through cracks, such as those in a basement floor, and through openings around pipes and wiring. Once inside, the radon builds up in the air, particularly in poorly ventilated houses. As radon daughters are formed, they attach to airborne particulates. When inhaled, these particulates can deliver a substantial dose of radiation to the bronchial epithelium. No exposure limit has been established for indoor levels of radon from natural sources; however, EPA is now developing guidelines that will define action levels concerning houses with high concentrations of radon and is developing and evaluating mitigation strategies. Exposure to radon ...
It is well known that inhalation of 222Rn and 222Rn decay products increases the risk of lung cancer. While the occurrences of high radon areas in the United States are generally known, studies examining the temporal yearly radon variation in homes across different regions are lacking. This information is essential to assess the ability of a year-long radon measurement to predict the future radon
If the SWAT Environmental test determines that there is no danger of high radon levels in your house, you should continue to have it tested at regular intervals. Although a negative test result is certainly good news, it does not mean that radon could not become an issue in your house later on. If the test does determine that your house contains dangerous radon levels, you can have SWAT Environmentals experts install a mitigation system to correct the problem. This system will be completely customized to your houses specific requirements. Generally, it will employ a multi-front strategy designed to remove any radon gas currently in your home, replace it with fresh, clean air and prevent the gas from returning. With this type of system in place, you will no longer need to worry about the health impact of the air your family breathes.. ...
Suggested link between radon and skin cancer. A new study published this week suggests that a link may exist between radon exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer. Researchers from the European Centre for Environment & Human Health (part of the Peninsula College of Medicine & Dentistry) have detected a connection following analysis of data on radon exposure and skin cancer cases from across southwest England. The study, which looked at small geographical areas across Devon and Cornwall, builds upon a similar study conducted 15 years ago.. Radon is a naturally occurring, radioactive gas found in soil and bedrock common in parts of the southwest. It has been recognised as a minor contributor to cases of lung cancer, but so far there has been no firm evidence to suggest it has wider health implications.. Whilst both radon levels and skin cancer incidence in the southwest are amongst the highest in the UK, the study found no association between household radon levels and malignant melanoma, or the ...
I was just wondering if anybody knew how long it shoud take to lower the radon level in my basement after installing mitigation system. First let me
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends a tested radon level of less than 4 picocuries per liter of volume in homes. Levels of 4 picocuries per liter or above should prompt the...
Find radon level articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring radioactive gas found in our rocks and soils. "It enters homes through cracks and other openings in foundations," said Guy Delius, director of the Division of Public Health Protection and Safety. "Any home can have elevated levels of radon. The only way to know about your home is to test.". "Radon can certainly be a threat to public health and is a risk factor for lung cancer. It is extremely important to have radon levels tested in your homes," said DPH Commissioner William Hacker, M.D. "In some instances, radon exposure over an extended period of time can cause serious adverse health effects." According to the National Academy of Sciences, exposure to indoor radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States after smoking. The Surgeon General issued a health advisory in 1988 emphasizing the need to test for indoor radon and correct the problem when elevated levels are found. "Fortunately, most homes with elevated levels ...
Rutgers Radon Measurement Proficiency Course (9/24-25/12) by Rutgers Office of Continuing Professional Education (OCPE). Radon Measurement Proficiency ...
If your radon tests show that you have high levels of radon gas, you will need to contact a professional immediately. If your test shows low levels, then no further action is required. If your levels are high, be sure to call S.W.A.T. Environmental. We are local to the Charlotte, NC area, and will be glad to help you with your Charlotte radon mitigation needs. We have all of needed certifications and knowledge to reduce your radon levels by as much as 99%. When it comes to Charlotte radon mitigation, dont play around. This gas has killed more than 20,000 people every year. Radon gas is now the second leading cause of lung cancer, making it one of the most dangerous gases in America. Do not let your Charlotte home fall victim to this horrible gas. Call us today for a free quote on a new radon mitigation system.. S.W.A.T. Environmental is the nations most trusted radon mitigation company, and we are able to provide you with the much needed Charlotte radon mitigation. We always offer a free ...
There is misinformation about how radon gas travels. Too many people think that if their neighbor has a low radon level in their home it means they must too. It doesnt work that way. Radon concentrations are a combination of soil decay, construction methods and materials used in building each home, and the occupants use of the house. Together these factors contribute to elevated radon levels. For these reasons and more, MN now requires disclosure of any radon testing that has occurred in a home being offered for sale. Unfortunately, there are no rules regulating radon testers; that part is still buyer beware.. ...
Radon gas typically enters your home through the basement, from cracks in your homes foundation, dirt floors, floor drains, and pores in block walls. Other sources of radon in the home may include the radon gas in water supply and building materials.. Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year- the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. Thats because when you breathe air containing radon, you can get lung cancer. In fact, the Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.. ...
Radon typically moves through the ground to the air in your home through cracks and holes in the foundation. Any home, new or old, can have a radon problem.. What are the effects of radon? The only known effect of radon is lung cancer. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking. The EPA estimates that about 20,000 lung cancer deaths are caused by radon each year in the United States.. What is considered a "safe" level of radon? A safe level of radon is between 2 and 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) or lower. If your home has a radon level of 4 pCi/L or greater, its recommended that you fix your home to bring the level down. ...
Radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin that tends to accumulate in buildings. Although the levels recorded can be reduced, this requires the co-operation of residents, and the French population has a very poor understanding of radon-induced risk. The justification for keeping a close watch on indoor radon concentrations is the underlying risk of lung cancer as a consequence of exposure to high levels. Two official statements dealing with radon risk management were issued in 1999 in France to define the thresholds that should not be exceeded. The results of measurement campaigns, the number of buildings where concentrations above these thresholds are likely to occur, the identification of high radon potential areas and the actions taken locally together with the way that the risk from radon and remedial actions are perceived are reviewed herein ...
Posted By Joshua on Jul 6, 2017. Systemair HP 190 Radon Mitigation Fan 4/5″ ( Inch) Duct, 157 CFM Reviews Here we bring to you Systemair HP 190 Radon Mitigation Fan 4/5″ ( Inch) Duct, 157 CFM Reviews which is user-friendly and residential duct fan - HP 190 for better performance and increased usefulness. WHAT IS SYSTEMAIR HP190 RADON FAN? This is a Fantech HP 190 radon mitigation fan. The product is capable of effectively eliminating the radon levels from.... ...
Posted By Joshua on Apr 17, 2017. Are you aware of the term Radon? Maybe yes as in the past few years there were many talks on the radon issues. Many conversations, researchers and also media talks surround this sphere of the noble gas section. So, whether you are willing to sell your home or staying in a radon area, you need to go through a certified inspection. There may be some who are not aware of the term radon, so to help them out and thus to provide further.... ...
January is National Radon Month. The purpose of the month is to draw attention to radon as a serious public health issue and to motivate Americans to take action to protect themselves from radon health effects. In the state of Kentucky, Bullitt County is located in ZONE 1, which has the highest potential for exposure.
Lackawanna County Controller Gary DiBileos office is finally on the move.. The office is scheduled to relocate Saturday from leased space in the Scranton Electric Building to the basement of the county-owned Gateway Center at 135 Jefferson Ave.. The last hurdle to the move was removed when environmental testing found that radon levels in the new space are well within the acceptable range, administration officials said Tuesday.. There are no radon concerns, Chief of Staff Maria Elkins said.. Efforts to reach Mr. DiBileo were unsuccessful.. The controllers office was originally scheduled to relocate to the Gateway Center in May, but the county delayed the move pending testing to allay fears among employees about possibly elevated radon levels.. The testing was performed by TCI Environmental Services Inc., which collected 13 samples at various locations in the basement space over four days in early June.. Ms. Elkins said the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends remedial action when ...
The Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA), Section 306, and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), Section 10, authorizes EPA to assist States and Federally Recognized Indian Tribes in the development and implementation of programs and projects reducing radon risks. Funding Priority: Specifically, EPA will award funds to: 1) establish effective radon programs among States, Territories, and Federally Recognized Indian Tribes; 2) increase the number of homes, schools, and other buildings tested and mitigated for radon; 3) encourage radon testing and disclosure in connection with real estate transfers; 4) implement radon resistant construction standard in high risk areas; and 5) promote environmental justice through programs and outreach efforts directed at low-income and/or culturally-diverse populations.. ...
Patient Presentation A 2-year-old female came to clinic for her health supervision visit. The family had just moved into an old home. During the interview the mother noted that they had had the home checked for lead and for radon. The radon test said it was normal, she said. The pertinent physical exam was normal…
Radon levels in Bloomfield are known to be above the national average. Have your Michigan radon levels reduced by SWAT Environmental today!
Find Van Wert, Iowa radon levels and get your home tested for radon by a licensed Van Wert, Iowa radon mitigation contractor with our nationwide radon directory. Van Wert radon testing and mitigation services provided by licensed radon contractors.
Find Belle Plaine, Iowa radon levels and get your home tested for radon by a licensed Belle Plaine, Iowa radon mitigation contractor with our nationwide radon directory. Belle Plaine radon testing and mitigation services provided by licensed radon contractors.
Almost every home in Canada has some level of radon. But the levels vary from one house to another, even if they are next door to each other. The only way to know if you have a radon problem in your home is to have it tested. The test is simple and inexpensive.. The best time of year to test for radon is during the winter months when the windows and doors are normally kept closed and radon levels are at their highest.. For residents of Windsor, Ontario, Seacliff Inspections makes it easy and convenient to have your home tested for radon. Simply call us for an appointment to perform a long term test over the next 3 to 6 months. We will review the best location in your home for testing, install and pick up the test canisters as required after the recommended exposure time, and send them to the lab for analysis. Seacliff Inspections will then review the lab results with you so you clearly understand whether a radon problem exists or does not exist in your home, and what steps should be taken if a ...
Radon testing is the only way to detect indoor radon levels in your Atlanta, GA home or business, and ensure you are safe from radon gas.
Radon testing is the only way to detect indoor radon levels in your Silver Springs, Maryland home or business, and ensure you are safe from radon gas.
Four Triangle counties, including Wake County, have some of the states highest levels of radon, an odorless, invisible gas that can cause lung cancer.
Radon is a cancer-causing natural radioactive gas that you cant see, smell or taste. Its presence in your home can pose a danger to your familys health. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in America and claims about 20,000 lives annually. Test Your Home for Radon - Its easy and inexpensive Fix your home if you have a radon level of 4 pCi/L or more ...
Although elevated radon levels in the home are a known cause of lung cancer and public outreach efforts promote radon testing and mitigation when unsafe levels are found, radon data are not standardized among states. This presentation shares the results of a collaborative feasibility study for a publicly accessible database that would standardize state and local radon data sources into a nationally consistent radon information resource. Could a national tracking database drive targeted public health actions in your geographic area?
Radon is a naturally occurring, odorless, radioactive gas that can seep into a house through the foundation, causing cancer. Every region of Wisconsin has some homes with elevated radon levels. The only way to find out if you have elevated radon levels in your home is to measure it. Continue reading... ...
Principal Investigator:MATSUZAWA Takao, Project Period (FY):1998 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:地球化学
Radon is an odorless, colorless radioactive gas found in our environment. Cortland County has the highest average indoor radon level in the New York State.
This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.. ...
Radon is a colourless, odourless gas that is released from the degradation of uranium naturally present in rock and soil. Radon levels outdoors are generally low; however, radon can enter buildings and homes through cracks and openings in the foundation and levels can become much higher indoors, especially in basements and lower floors.. ...
Dear Dr. Gofman: Thank you for kindly sending me a copy of your recent book entitled `Radiation from Medical Procedures in the Pathogenesis of Cancer and Ischemic Heart Disease. "Your observations are impressive and are consistent with the linear-nonthreshold dose-response hypothesis for the genetic and carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and they support the wisdom of the ALARA principle [As Low As Reasonably Achievable] in radiation protection. "At the same time, however, the associations you have so skillfully demonstrated cannot be taken as proof of causal relationships, owing to the possible influence of confounding variables. Just as the inverse relationship between lung cancer rates and county residential radon levels, as reported by Bernard Cohen, does not suffice to prove that low-level exposure to radon protects against lung cancer, neither do your observations suffice to establish medical radiation as a causal factor in the associations you have identified. "Nevertheless, I ...
I use Radalink Telemonitors (continuous monitoring devices) for radon testing. These devices take radon concentration air sampling measurements once an hour for
Radon levels in the Southern Lehigh School District were lower during follow-up testing in the past three weeks, but two buildings still have concentrations of the gas above the states acceptable
Radon test kits are available free from the Grey Bruce Health Unit as part of November Radon Awareness Month. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking. An estimated 20%
Radon is tasteless, odorless and invisible, but the radioactive gas still kills more Americans every year than drunk driving-one reason why University of Georgia Cooperative Extension experts advise Georgians to test their homes. It is the most common cause of lung cancer among non-smokers and causes about 21,000 deaths a year.
Exposure to radon gas is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. A large number of studies have reported that exposure to indoor radon, even at low concentrations, is associated with lung cancer in the general population. This paper reviewed studies from several countries to assess the attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer death due to indoor radon exposure and the effect of radon mitigation thereon. Worldwide, 3-20 % of all lung cancer deaths are likely caused by indoor radon exposure. These values tend to be higher in countries reporting high radon concentrations, which can depend on the estimation method. The estimated number of lung cancer deaths due to radon exposure in several countries varied from 150 to 40,477 annually. In general, the percent ARs were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers, whereas much more lung cancer deaths attributable to radon occurred among ever-smokers because of the higher rate of lung cancers among smokers. Regardless of smoking status,
Recent epidemiologic investigations of the relationship between residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer relied on contemporary radon gas measurements to estimate past radon gas exposures. Significant uncertainties in these exposure estimates can arise from year-to-year variation of indoor radon concentrations and subject mobility. Surface implanted 210Po has shown potential for improving retrospective radon gas exposure estimates. However, in previous studies, the ability of implanted 210Po activity to reconstruct cumulative radon gas exposure was not tested because glass was not available from homes with known radon-gas concentration histories. In this study, we tested the validity of the retrospective radon gas reconstruction using implanted 210Po surface activity by measuring glass surfaces from homes whose annual-average radon gas concentrations had been measured almost every year during two decades. Regression analysis showed a higher correlation between measured surface activity and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trends in research on indoor radon exposure and lung cancer in South Korea. AU - Kang, Dae Ryong. AU - Kang, Dongmug. AU - Min, Kyoung Bok. AU - Kim, Changsoo. AU - Oh, Sung Soo. AU - Koh, Sang Baek. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84996590434&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84996590434&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1186/s40557-016-0100-9. DO - 10.1186/s40557-016-0100-9. M3 - Editorial. AN - SCOPUS:84996590434. VL - 28. JO - Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. JF - Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. SN - 2052-4374. IS - 1. M1 - 10. ER - ...
Radon is a radioactive gas, whose decay particles cling to dust and can mutate lung tissue. The concentration of radon varies widely, both regionally and within regions. Energy conservation work probably has little effect on radon concentrations. However, all housing specialists should be aware of radons danger, radon testing procedures, and radon mitigation strategies. The EPA believes that any home with a radon concentration above 4 pico-Curies per liter (pC/l) of air should be modified to reduce the concentration. There are several common and reliable tests for radon, which are performed by health departments and private consultants throughout the U.S. The least expensive test equipment is charcoal canisters, which are placed indoors for 2-to-7 days, and then sent to a lab for analysis. Another common test is the alpha-track canister, which is set indoors for 1-to-12 months. A film suspended inside the canister is pierced by alpha particles from decaying radon. A more expensive type of ...
Comprehensive results from miners cohort studies had been published on the risk of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure. However a large proportion of these miners had cumulated high radon exposure and often during a short period of exposure. A European collaborative work on uranium miners has been initiated in 1996, with the objectives to estimate the risk of lung cancer linked to radon when low cumulative exposures are protracted over large periods, and to test the influence of other components present in the mining atmosphere. The project includes a total of several tens of thousands of miners from Czech republic, France and Germany. This paper presents results from the French cohort and the framework of the European project. The French cohort includes 5098 miners employed at least one year since 1947, and followed up to 1994. The number of lung cancer deaths is 126, for a total of 133,500 person-years. Mean cumulative exposure to radon is 36.5 WLM, protracted over a mean duration ...
Radon and radon progeny were sampled biweekly from January through June, 1984 in outside air and five representative buildings at Chadron in northwestern Nebraska. The buildings were constructed of a variety of materials. Radon averaged from a low of 0.2 pCi/L in outside air to a high of 5.3 pCi/L in an energy-efficient home. Radon daughters ranged from 0.001 WL in outside air to a high of 0.014 WL, again in the energy-efficient home. A strong positive correlation existed between radon and radon progeny. Health risks associated with elevated levels of radon and radon progeny are discussed and assessed.
Radon is a naturally occurring gas that comes from the decay of uranium in soil. Radium is a product that comes from the decay of uranium, and the resultant gas is radon. Radon has no color or odor and is invisible. An increased incidence of lung cancer has been found in some people who experience chronic exposure to high levels of radon. There are a number of ways to test for radon, but the simplest is a kit that is used at home and then sent to a lab. There are both long- and short-term kits available. The longer the test, the more accurate the result.. ...
Case studies have shown that radon gas can accumulate within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can cause lung cancer, and recent studies have suggested that this risk remains significant below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m−3. Raised radon levels can be reduced by engineering measures, and it has been shown that domestic radon remediation programmes in UK Affected Areas can result in reduced risks to the population and can be cost-effective. We consider here the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, UK, and consider the implications for that programme of reducing the UK Action Level below its present value. A radon remediation programme based on an Action Level above 200 Bq m−3 will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost-effective and will lead to higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the remaining population. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq m−3 will prevent more ...
Take steps immediately to reduce radon gas buildup if your home tests high. Knowing the available radon mitigation methods and costs will help you make the best choice.
Find the best radon gas - testing service professionals in Scottdale, GA. See reviews, portfolios & more for the best radon gas - testing contractors in Scottdale, GA.
Find the best radon gas - abatement service professionals in Estherwood, LA. See reviews, portfolios & more for the best radon gas - abatement contractors in Estherwood, LA.
Alpha Track Test Kit at RadonZone.com. Your source for Alpha Track Detector, Alpha Track Radon Test Kit, Radon Gas Test, and Radon Testing Kit
Radon gas comes from the ground where uranium is known to find home in soils. As the uranium breaks down, it creates radon gas. As this is a gas, it can quickly find its way through foundations, and into homes, schools, or office buildings. Additionally, it may enter through water supply, or other areas, wrecking havoc throughout our Charlotte schools. Radon mitigation in schools may reduce levels by as much as 99% if a properly trained, certified, and experienced professional is installing the air purification system.. It may seem like there is no help for all of our schools with high levels of radon gas. Fortunately, a bill is being proposed by a congressman in Iowa that can change all of this. The bill if passed all schools in America would receive grant funding to test for radon gas. The important part about testing is that without a test, it is impossible to determine whether or not an area is contaminated as this gas is both invisible and odorless. Additional funding would be made ...
Scientific evidence suggests that lung cancer (LC) in never-smokers is a different molecular entity to LC in smokers.1,2 The Lung Cancer Risk in Never-Smokers (LCRINS) study, a multicenter case control study competitively funded by the Government of Galicia, began in January 2011. Ten hospitals participated in 3 autonomous communities (Galicia, Asturias, and Madrid). The aim of the study was to determine LC risk factors in never-smokers, looking particularly at residential radon, and the initial results were published in Archivos de Bronconeumología in 2012.3. Six years later, this study has recruited more than 400 cases of LC in never-smokers with an equal number of controls, making it an important source of epidemiological data in this subgroup of LC cases. Moreover, the study provides a model that might serve as a basis for other multicenter studies, a highly desirable design in the investigation of rare diseases. The main findings of the LCRINS study, focusing primarily on residential ...
Scientific studies have shown that Radon gas is a known human lung carcinogen. Prolonged exposure to high levels of Radon gas can cause lung cancer. Millions of homes and buildings contain high levels of radon gas. The Radon Potential Index is a result of the combined efforts of the USGS and EPA to ascertain a radon potential for the US. Important, this index should be used only as a guide. The only real way in knowing if a home or area has unhealthy levels of radon is specific testing. The following is a brief summary of the study performed by the USGS on behalf of the EPA ...
Scientific studies have shown that Radon gas is a known human lung carcinogen. Prolonged exposure to high levels of Radon gas can cause lung cancer. Millions of homes and buildings contain high levels of radon gas. The Radon Potential Index is a result of the combined efforts of the USGS and EPA to ascertain a radon potential for the US. Important, this index should be used only as a guide. The only real way in knowing if a home or area has unhealthy levels of radon is specific testing. The following is a brief summary of the study performed by the USGS on behalf of the EPA ...
Long-term radon exposure is considered to be the leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and the second leading cause of lung cancer in smokers. Of the homes currently tested for radon in Kentucky, over 40 percent have radon levels higher than what is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Despite these facts, many Kentuckians still choose to ignore the health warnings about radon potentially increasing their risk for radon-induced lung cancer. ...
Drilled wells that are deep enough to penetrate the bedrock are liable to pull a significant amount of radon into the house along with the water. Any cracks or gaps in the bedrock allow radon to dissolve into the water supply, and pose a risk to those who use that water in their homes. Water that comes from a lake or reservoir is considered surface water and is much less likely to contain radon. The radon present in surface water is usually released into the air before it reaches the pipes that pump it into a house.. Drinking water that contains radon may cause stomach cancer occasionally, but that is actually not the biggest health concern in most cases. The chances of developing stomach cancer by ingesting radon are fairly small. A much greater concern is airborne radon in water. After the radon escapes the water, you can significantly increase your risk of lung cancer by inhaling it. Any time radon in water is used inside the home, radon particles are released into the air and become ...
In addition, EPA also supports operation of the Safe Drinking Water Hotline which answers questions about radon in drinking water. EPAs Indoor Environments Division provides a Web site regarding indoor air quality issues, including radon, asthma, and environmental tobacco smoke/secondhand smoke. Their radon page addresses issues including EPAs position on radon, health risks, radon resistant new construction, and their former National Radon Proficiency Program (RPP). Many radon documents are also available there. You can call the EPAs Safe Drinking Water Hotline, (800) 426-4791, for information on radon in water. It also provides information that can help you identify a laboratory to assist with testing drinking water. EPAs Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water provides information on radon in drinking water. On November 2, 1999, they published a proposed rule on radon in drinking water. EPA is soliciting formal comment by publishing the proposed regulation in the Federal Register for a ...
The county statistics, as found in Table 5, reflect high arithmetic means in Stutsman and Bowman Counties and low arithmetic means in Ward and Wells Counties. The database contained 402 samples whose arithmetic mean was 18.8 pCi/l with a standard deviation of 22.2. There were 352 (87.6%) samples with a radon concentration greater than 4 pCi/l. For concentrations greater than 20 pCi/l, the 120 samples represented 29.9% of the samples. The high percentages of samples greater than 4 or 20 pCi/l in the basements indicates that basements should perhaps be tested whether or not people live in the basement. Table 5, the city/county statistics for the Cluster Survey reveals that many cities have high averages, yet it must be remembered that the cluster homes were all located close to a home that was found to have a high radon concentration in the 1988 Home Study. FIGURE 2 - Log Normal Distribution Graph. ...
Pennsylvania Residents Urged to Test Homes for Radon. HARRISBURG -- The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) today urged all Pennsylvanians to test their homes for radon, a deadly radioactive gas thats the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in the United States. DEP also urged residents to take action to reduce radon levels in their homes if they are high.. "Due to our geology, radon is found everywhere in Pennsylvania. For that reason, we urge residents to test their homes to protect themselves and their familys health," said DEP Secretary John Quigley. "Winter is the best time to test your home for radon because doors and windows are typically closed and tightly sealed, producing the most accurate results.". Read Article. ...
This thesis presents a method for predicting radon (222Rn) levels in groundwater on a general scale, within an area of approximately 185 x 145 km2. The method applies to Swedish conditions, where 222Rn is the main contributor to natural radioactivity. Prediction of radon potential in groundwater is complex because there are many different factors affecting radon content, including geochemical and flow processes. The proposed method is based on univariate and multivariate statistical analyses and investigated the influence of different factors such as bedrock, soils, uranium distribution, altitude, distance to fractures and land use. A statistical variable based method (the RV method) was used to estimate risk values related to different radon concentrations. The method was calibrated and tested on more than 4400 drilled wells in Stockholm County. The weighted index (risk value) estimated by the RV method provided a fair prediction of radon potential in groundwater on a general scale. The RV ...
The most common method for mitigation is an active sub-slab depressurization system. This system most commonly involves a hole being cored into the basement floor slab. A PVC pipe is then run into that hole going deep enough to reach the sub-slab aggregate. The PVC pipe runs continuous to the exterior of the home, up an exterior wall and above the roof line. On the exterior near ground level there will be an in-line fan, which draws any potential radon gas from the ground under the slab, through the pipe and to the exterior of the home, thus preventing any radon gas from entering the home.. There is also an active sub-membrane depressurization system which is used when crawlspaces are involved. This system is similar to the sub-slab system, but instead a perforated PVC pipe is run horizontally along the surface of the crawlspace. The crawlspace is then completely covered with a radon resistant plastic membrane which will run up and be sealed to the walls, thus forcing any radon gas coming into ...
In a commentary recently published in Environmental Health Review, the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) joined the Canadian Partnership for Childrens Health and Environment (CPCHE), the Canadian Child Care Federation, public officials, and radon experts in calling for mandatory action on radon in child care settings.. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive soil gas that can build up to harmful levels in indoor spaces. It is a known carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer in Canada. Despite its known risks and the availability of testing and remediation measures, most child care facilities in Canada are not tested to ensure that radon levels are below the Canadian guideline.. Keep reading on HazMatMag.com ...
Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas. You cant see radon. And you cant smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year. Radon can be found all over the U.K. You should test for radon. Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. Testing is inexpensive and easy - it should only take a few minutes of your time. You can fix a radon problem.
After we stratified for study, age, sex, region of residence, and smoking the risk of lung cancer increased by 8.4% (95% confidence interval 3.0% to 15.8%; P = 0.0007) per 100 Bq/m3 increase in measured radon concentration. We stratified for smoking by first subdividing the individuals into seven categories (lifelong non-smokers, current smokers of , 15, 15-24, or ≥ 25 cigarettes a day, ex-smokers for , 10 years or ≥ 10 years, and others) and then further subdividing each group of current smokers by theage at which they started smoking (, 15, 15-17, 18-20, or ≥ 21 years or unknown) and each group of ex-smokers by amount previously smoked (, 15, 15-24, or ≥ 25 a dayor unknown). If smoking had been omitted from the stratification, the risk of lung cancerwould have increased by only 2.3% per 100 Bq/m3 increase in measured radon, andif it had been included with only seven categories, the estimated increase would have been 5.2%. In all subsequent analyses we used the full smoking ...
Radon - For Professionals Abstract: Lists of Nationally Certified Radon Professionals Resources Training Realtor Course InformationHow to Become Listed as a Qualified Measurement Professional in CT (pdf) How to Become Listed as a Qualified Mitigation Professional in CT (pdf)Lists of Nationally Certified Radon Professionals Nationally_Certified_Measurement_Professionals (pdf) Qualified Professionals for Schools (pdf)Nationally_Certified_Mitigation_Professionals (pdf) ResourcesClick on the links below to find out more about radon:Consumers Guide to Radon Reduction Home Buyers and Sellers Guide to Radon National Radon Program Services ...
Epidemiology 2001;12: 396-404. Lubin JH, Boice JD Jr, Edling C, et al. Lung melanoma in radon-exposed miners and estimation of hazard from indoor publicity. J Natl melanoma Inst 1995;87:817-827. Lubin JH, Boice JD Jr. Lung melanoma probability from residential radon: metaanalysis of 8 epidemiologic reports. J Natl melanoma Inst 1997;89:49-57. Axelson O, Andersson ok, Desai G, et al. Indoor radon publicity and energetic and passive smoking when it comes to the prevalence of lung melanoma. Scand J paintings Environ health and wellbeing 1988;14:286-292. Pershagen G, Akerblom G, Axelson O, et al. Residential radon publicity and lung melanoma in Sweden. N Engl J Med 1994;330:159-164. bankruptcy 1 , THE ETIOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY OF LUNG melanoma eighty five. 86. 87. 88. 89. ninety. ninety one. ninety two. ninety three. ninety four. ninety five. ninety six. ninety seven. ninety eight. ninety nine. a hundred. one hundred and one. 102. 103. 104. one zero five. 106. 107. 108. 109. a hundred and ten. ...
Radon gas is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer in the USA. Researchers and scientists estimate 20,000 deaths occur each year as a result of exposure to this known carcinogenic. The only way to determine if Radon gas levels are elevated in your home is to have radon testing done. ...
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas released in rock, soil and water from the decay of uranium. While levels outside pose a relatively low risk, radon can build up inside buildings to dangerous levels. Odorless and colorless, radon is known as a silent killer because its the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking.
The U.S. Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, next to smoking. In Cedar Hills, one out of every two homes may have high levels of radon. The only way to know is to test. Test kits can be purchased at most hardware stores or ordered online through radon.utah.gov. The Utah County Health Department offers test kits for $10 at either of their locations in American Fork or Provo. Kits for $6 are available at Habitat for Humanity ReStores in Orem or Spanish Fork. Lab fees and instructions are included in the cost of all kits. The health department personnel will be happy to "walk" you through the process of using the kit. For more information, call Marla Brannum at the Utah County Health Department at 801-851-7513.. Cedar Hills has a Radon Awareness page on its website. It was created for the city by Spencer Anderson for his Eagle Scout project. To view the page and learn more visit: cedarhills.org/radon.. ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! A specialized survey of Maine households responses to information about the risks associate d with radon concentrations in their homes and water supplies was use d to evaluate how they form risk perceptions. The findings support a modified form of a Bayesian learning model to describe how individual s used the information to revise their risk perceptions. Moreover, in dividuals who took some mitigating actions reported lower risk percep tions after that action. The overall results are potentially importan t to the use of information programs as policy instruments for risk r eduction because they indicate that new information can affect risk p erceptions in a systematic way. Copyright 1988 by MIT Press.
Zone 1 counties have a predicted average indoor radon screening level at greater than 4 picocuries per liter. In non-scientific terms, that means they have the highest potential for having radon gas levels above the amount considered safe. ...
Air Chek, Inc. surveyed over 16,000 households that have tested for radon gas to try and determine the correlation between elevated levels of radon and instances of lung cancer
Industrial living is caused much people do live and work in closed and confined places; offices and residential buildings. This is why in this new world more fresh air which is generally provided by forced ventilation plays a vital role in living of human being. Furthermore because of many different indoor pollutants, like radon and artificial pollutants, the amount of fresh air and in turn the energy consumption has increased. This energy consumption related to ventilation has reached up to about 30 percent of energy used of building section. So making interaction between indoor air quality (IAQ) and optimization of energy saving is a necessary work. Radon as a natural pollutant is occurred in environment and in many countries threatens people health whereas is called the second causes of cancer. For reducing radon concentration in residential building at the acceptable level forced ventilation is used usually. Ventilation can improve IAQ but in the other side would increase the energy ...
State of the Laboratory-1986: ORNL Engages in Collaborative Research. ORNL is performing an increasing amount of work jointly with technical groups in industry, universities, other national laboratories, and laboratories in foreign countries. This collaborative research includes a physics experiment at an accelerator in Switzerland, applications. of surface-modification techniques, studies of radon in the home, the Integrated Forest Study, breeder fuel-reprocessing tests in Japan, development and testing of SDI optical components, modeling of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and tests of superconducting magnets and pellet fueling for fusion energy ...
State of the Laboratory-1986: ORNL Engages in Collaborative Research. ORNL is performing an increasing amount of work jointly with technical groups in industry, universities, other national laboratories, and laboratories in foreign countries. This collaborative research includes a physics experiment at an accelerator in Switzerland, applications. of surface-modification techniques, studies of radon in the home, the Integrated Forest Study, breeder fuel-reprocessing tests in Japan, development and testing of SDI optical components, modeling of the Chernobyl reactor accident, and tests of superconducting magnets and pellet fueling for fusion energy ...
Radon Mitigation Fans are used to eliminate the level of Radon in your home, basement, and garages to ensure the health and safety of your family. These fans are typically placed in basements to ensure maximum proficiency. Canarsees Radon Mitigation Fans
LAS CRUCES - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently awarded $221,158 to the New Mexico Environment Department to combat residents exposure to harmful pollutants.
January is National Radon Action Month. Residents are encouraged to take a stand to protect their families by testing their homes for an odorless, colorless, tasteless pollutant that can cause lung cancer. That pollutant, radon gas, is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the first leading cause of lung cancer in individuals who have never smoked. EPA estimates 21,000 lung cancer deaths each year are radon-related.
The Village of New Denver would like to remind residents to be aware of the options available for radon testing and mitigation. The Village office has 2 different types of tests available for residents. Contact the office for further information in person, by phone or by email. Telephone: 250-358-2316 Email:
High levels of radioactive gas may be in up to 25 percent of all U.S. homes, the article includes where does radon come from, levels of radon in the home, and Radon abatement techniques.
Bloomfield radon mitigation is needed in order to reduce the level of gas in your home in conjunction with recent radon regulations.
January is National Radon Month and the EPA is encouraging everyone to test and take preventive measures to reduce the radon threat. Radon is an invisible radioactive gas that travels up from undergro...
RADON is a colorless and odorless radioactive gas that has been estimated to cause 5,000 to 20,000 lung cancer deaths yearly. It is second only to smoking as a cause of lung cancer. It has been estimated that nearly 1 out of every 15 homes in the US has elevated radon levels. Radon is produced when small amounts of uranium and radium in soil and rocks decay. Radon gas will also decay into smaller and radioactive particles that can be inhaled into the lungs where it can damage cells and cause lung cancer. Radon is mainly released from soil, water and natural gas which have already been exposed to radon, from solar-heating systems that use radon-emitting rocks, and from uranium or phosphate mine tailings. Radon is naturally released in low concentrations, but inside your house, radon gas can become more concentrated. Lack of ventilation exhaust fans that bring in air from outside can increase the amount of radon in your home. The Environmental Protection Agency suggests that homes be tested for ...
Investigations of radon in natural water and its relation to physical and chemical parameters are outlined in this thesis. In particular, a method for measuring 222Rn in water at low concentrations (~20 mBq.l-1) is described, followed by discussions concerning the design and its application to study both radon and parameters influencing radon levels in natural waters. A topic considered is the impact of fluoride and other aquatic parameters on radon in water. Moreover, variables such as uranium series radionuclides and stable elements in water, bedrock and sediment radioactivity and geology are investigated in two case studies. This was performed by employing radiometric-, chemical-, statistical- and GIS & geostatistical- analyses. The general water chemistry and presence of some elements such as fluoride was observed to influence radon levels in water. Health aspects of radon in drinking water are discussed based on radiation dose assessments. The radiation doses are compared with and added to ...
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With the aim of studying the radon distribution in the territory of Azerbaijan, the Institute of Geology of the National Academy of Sciences (Russia) has started maintaining a project with the help of a grant from the Swiss National Scientific Foundation (SNSF). During the funded period which started in 2010, 2500 radon detectors "Gammadata" supplied by SNSF, have been used to identify radon occurrences; in addition, maps of radon activity concentration for Azerbaijan were created and dangerous blocks of living quarters were identified. The aim of the second phase of the research was to formalise the use of Swiss technology for anomaly radon concentrations treatment in living quarters. The mutual initiative of scientists from Azerbaijan and Switzerland was supported again by SNSF headquarters. Further work on the radon problem in Azerbaijan was continued in 2013. The aim of a new project is to use the Swiss technology to ensure radiation safety of populations through reduction of radon ...
Reducing the Risk of Nuclear War in Europe Requires Dialogue. This is the overarching conclusion of the latest PISM report "Options for Transparency and Confidence-Building Measures Related to Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Cost-Benefit Matrix".. The Ukrainian crises highlighted the role nuclear weapons still play in Europe. Russia has conducted a series of nuclear forces exercises, signalling to NATO members that any escalation of tensions could have dramatic consequences. NATOs nuclear capability, in turn, was emphasized with deployments of U.S. strategic bombers to Europe. Nuclear weapons will always be more or less in the background of future NATO-Russia crises. Threats to use nuclear weapons or actual use resulting from a miscalculation by one side cannot be excluded. Todays nuclear threats in Europe could be reduced by NATO and Russia agreement on transparency and confidence-building measures (TCBMs) related to non-strategic nuclear weapons in Europe, including the exchange of ...
Statement: Japanese civil society requests that the reports of the United Nations Scientific Committee on Fukushima be revised 日本の64の市民団体が福島事故に関しての国連科学の報告内容を改訂するよう要請 www.http://hrn.or.jp/eng/a tivity/area/worldwide/japanese-civil-society-requests-that-the-reports-of-the-united-nations-scientific-committee-on-fukus/ Anand Grover, Esq., UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, criticizes UNSCEAR report on Fukushima -10/24/2013 (1 of 4)国連「健康に対する権利「の特別報告者のアナンドヵグローバー氏: 国連科学の報告を批判 Video - http://vimeo.com/78483070 October 24, 2013 (NYC, NY) *Medical experts criticize UNSCEAR report for playing down consequences of Fukushima nuclear accident ドイツの専門家が国連科学の報告書を 。福島事故の影響を過小評価している。と批判! ...
Radon mitigation, radon gas reduction - testing: Denver, Boulder, Colorado Springs, Milford, New Haven, Stamford, Connecticut CT, Wilmington Delaware, Indianapolis, South Bend, Fort Wayne, Bloomington, Indiana, Lexington, Louisville, Kentucky KY, Baltimore Maryland MD, Boston, Worcester, Massachusetts, Lansing, Ann Arbor, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids, Brighton Michigan, New York, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Allentown, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania PA, West Virginia, Madison, Milwaukee, Janesville, Wisconsin

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Air Pollutants, Radioactive (1) • Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity. MeSH ... Air Pollutants, Environmental (0) see Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants, Occupational (4) • Air pollutants found in the work area ... Air Pollutants (14) • Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Air Pollutants, Radioactive (1) • Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity. MeSH ... Air Pollutants, Environmental (0) see Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants, Occupational (4) • Air pollutants found in the work area ... Air Pollutants (14) • Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/drugNamesAndCategories.jsp

Committee: Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation
		Committee: Supplemental Treatment of Low-Activity Waste at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation

The major emphases of his work have been radioactive wastes, hazardous air pollutants and environmental mercury. He has served ... She is a fellow of the American Concrete Institute, where she served as chair of Committee 227 on Radioactive and Hazardous ... He has also served as a member of several National Academies committees examining radioactive waste management issues at the US ... DeVol has over 60 refereed publications and over 160 presentations in the field of detection of radioactive materials. He holds ...
more infohttps://www8.nationalacademies.org/cp/CommitteeView.aspx?key=49905

Hurst Exponent Analysis of Indoor Radon Profiles of Greek Apartment
Dwellings | OMICS InternationalHurst Exponent Analysis of Indoor Radon Profiles of Greek Apartment Dwellings | OMICS International

... are important indoor radioactive air pollutants with impact to humans. Radon is an inert gas that enters buildings from .. ... Radon and progeny (218Po, 214Pb, 214Bi and 214Po) are important indoor radioactive air pollutants with impact to humans. Radon ... Appleton JD (2005) Radon in air and water. In: Selinus O, Alloway B, Centero J, Finkelman R, Fuge R, Lindh U, Smedley P (Eds ... Hence, inhalable indoor radioactive mixtures are created which enter human lungs and irradiate tissues. The radiation exposure ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/hurst-exponent-analysis-of-indoor-radon-profiles-of-greek-apartment-dwellings-2161-0398.1000168.php?aid=36585

DAV CollegeDAV College

Air Pollutants, Radioactive/analysis. *. 2. Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis. *. 2. Antioxidants/pharmacology ...
more infohttps://search.wellspringsoftware.net/organization/dav-college

Across US, Health Concerns Vie with Fracking Profits | Common DreamsAcross US, Health Concerns Vie with Fracking Profits | Common Dreams

... health risks associated with fracking include hazardous air pollutants; improper disposal of radioactive wastewater; and ... Mall cited ways to capture air pollutants, encase wastewater in steel tanks, use less toxic chemicals in fluids and keep ...
more infohttps://www.commondreams.org/news/2013/03/08/across-us-health-concerns-vie-fracking-profits?quicktabs_1=0

Indoor Air Pollutants: Where To Find Them and What To Do<...Indoor Air Pollutants: Where To Find Them and What To Do<...

Radioactive Contaminates. Radon. *Floor drains and sumps. *Joints where basement walls and floor come together ... Indoor Air Pollutants: Where To Find Them and What To Do. greenbuilding. June 5, 2017. green home improvement ... Tags:green childrens room, green energy retrofitting, green home improvement, Indoor Air Pollutants ... Remove obstacles obstructing air flow in damp areas. *Eliminate piles of newspapers, clothing and other materials in damp areas ...
more infohttp://www.greenbuilding.com/wp/indoor-air-pollutants-where-to-find-them-and-what-to-do-2/

Air Quality Standards | Indoor Air Quality Association | IntechOpenAir Quality Standards | Indoor Air Quality Association | IntechOpen

The book presents the outdoor and indoor air quality association. ,Intechopen ... Different countries have different air quality standards based on economic growth goal. ... air pollution chemistry; b) air pollutant emission control; c) radioactive pollution and d) indoor air quality. ... Air Quality in Rural Areas by J.P. Majra * Chapter 24 CFD Analyses of Methods to Improve Air Quality and Efficiency of Air ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/chemistry-emission-control-radioactive-pollution-and-indoor-air-quality/

Lung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them | The BMJLung cancer deaths from indoor radon and the cost effectiveness and potential of policies to reduce them | The BMJ

... a ubiquitous natural air pollutant arising from radioactive decay of the uranium-238 present throughout the earths crust. ... WHO indoor air quality guidelines: dampness, mould and ventilation. www.euro.who.int/air/activities/20070814_1. 2008. ... Chilton S, Covey J, Jones-Lee MW, Loomes GC, Metcalf H. Valuation of health benefits associated with reductions in air ... or willingness to pay for improved air quality, also give values per year of life in the range £27 500-£35 000.23 24 Hence we ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.a3110.long

DEEP: Toxic Air Pollutants SourcesDEEP: Toxic Air Pollutants Sources

There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or ... Another example is radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas which comes from rocks containing uranium. Radon can pose ... Connecticuts Management of Toxic Air Pollutants. Air Toxic Pollutants Sources. There are many sources of toxic air pollutants ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants , What Connecticut is Doing About Air Toxics ...
more infohttp://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2684&q=322234&deepNav_GID=1619

A Survey of Nuclear Chemistry | Teen InkA Survey of Nuclear Chemistry | Teen Ink

Nuclear is a "clean" source of energy in that it gives off no greenhouse gases or other air pollutants, but radioactive fission ... Radioactive decay, the breaking down of a radioactive element over time, can occur in three forms: alpha decay, beta decay, and ... Radioactive decay, the breaking down of a radioactive element over time, can occur in three forms: alpha decay, beta decay, and ... radioactive dating is one of these, used to find the ages of rocks and organic matter. There are several types of radioactive ...
more infohttp://www.teenink.com/books/academic/book/179147/A-Survey-Of-Nuclear-Chemistry/1

List of MeSH codes (D20) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D20) - Wikipedia

... air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.555 --- radioactive fallout MeSH D20.693.638 --- radioactive waste MeSH D20.693.756 ... soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.903 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.721.500 --- humic substances MeSH ... radioactive waste MeSH D20.944.420 --- industrial waste MeSH D20.944.460 --- medical waste MeSH D20.944.460.150 --- dental ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D20)

Global Warming - Essay about Climate history, Climate changeGlobal Warming - Essay about Climate history, Climate change

Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A ... Air Pollution. Air Pollution CFish Mr. Nollen Biology 2B 8 May, 1996 The Problem Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, ... Numerical climate models predict that by the year 2100 the greenhouse gases will warm the surface air of the earth by two to ... New laws like the 1963 Clean Air Act and the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act forged new ground in political environmentalism. ...
more infohttps://digitaltermpapers.com/essays/global-warming

42 U.S. Code § 7412 -  Hazardous air pollutants | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute42 U.S. Code § 7412 - Hazardous air pollutants | U.S. Code | US Law | LII / Legal Information Institute

6) Hazardous air pollutant The term "hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b). ... b) List of pollutants (1) Initial list The Congress establishes for purposes of this section a list of hazardous air pollutants ... a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such ... tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants ...
more infohttps://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/7412

Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies. - Nuffield Department of...Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies. - Nuffield Department of...

Air Pollutants, Radioactive, Case-Control Studies, Environmental Exposure, Europe, Housing, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Radiometry ...
more infohttps://www.ndph.ox.ac.uk/publications/36914

primary-energy-consumption-by-fuelprimary-energy-consumption-by-fuel

... air pollutant emissions, water pollution, accumulation of radioactive waste, etc., strongly depend on the type and amount of ... Directive 2001/80/EC Directive 2001/80/EC - Directive on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air from ... there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases, and highly radioactive waste (for which no generally acceptable disposal ... the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on the limitation of emissions of certain pollutants into the air ...
more infohttps://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/primary-energy-consumption-by-fuel

air pollution - Everything2.comair pollution - Everything2.com

What Is Air Pollution? Introduction: Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal burning ... But the air pollutants released from natural materials pose very little health threat, only the natural radioactive gas radon ... Other ways of improving the air quality included the restriction on the amounts of air pollutants being released into the ... Air Pollution Safe Limits. Pollutant...........................Safe Exposure (8 h/day, 5 days/wk). Asbestos ...
more infohttps://everything2.com/title/air+pollution

air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.

Read air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. now at Questia. ... air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. ... The EPA also regulated hazardous air pollutants, which in 1992 ... Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides, herbicides, radioactive fallout, and dust from fertilizers, mining ... air pollution. air pollution, contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter ( ...
more infohttps://www.questia.com/read/1E1-airpollu/air-pollution

401 KAR 63:060. List of hazardous air pollutants, petitions process,
lesser quantity designations, and source category list.401 KAR 63:060. List of hazardous air pollutants, petitions process, lesser quantity designations, and source category list.

5 A type of atom that spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.. Section 3. List of Categories and Subcategories of Hazardous ... Section 2. List of Hazardous Air Pollutants. The following chemicals are hazardous air pollutants: ... and control of air pollution. This administrative regulation provides the list of hazardous air pollutants pursuant to 42 U.S.C ... List of hazardous air pollutants, petitions process, lesser quantity designations, and source category list. ...
more infohttp://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/401/063/060.htm

Original list of hazardous air pollutants | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPAOriginal list of hazardous air pollutants | Technology Transfer Network Air Toxics Web site | US EPA

5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. Questions concerning the listed HAPs should be directed to ... Original list of hazardous air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 List of Hazardous Air Pollutants. CAS. Number. ...
more infohttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/atw/orig189.html

Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies. - Oxford Clinical Trial Service...Intercomparison of passive radon-detectors under field conditions in epidemiological studies. - Oxford Clinical Trial Service...

Air Pollutants, Radioactive, Case-Control Studies, Environmental Exposure, Europe, Housing, Humans, Lung Neoplasms, Radiometry ...
more infohttps://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/publications/36914

UPSC Syllabus for IAS Preliminary & Mains- Chemistry exam 2019UPSC Syllabus for IAS Preliminary & Mains- Chemistry exam 2019

1.10 Pollution and its control : Air pollution, types of air pollutants; control of air and water pollution; radioactive ...
more infohttps://www.successcds.net/examsyllabus/upsc-syllabus-for-ias-preliminary-mains-chemistry-exam-2009/10405/

List of MeSH codes (D16) - WikipediaList of MeSH codes (D16) - Wikipedia

... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 --- air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 --- endocrine ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 --- soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 --- water pollutants MeSH ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 --- air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888.284.101.143.631 --- oxidants, ... D27.888.284.903.655 --- water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_MeSH_codes_(D16)

Greenhouse Effect - Essay about Greenhouse gases, Climate changeGreenhouse Effect - Essay about Greenhouse gases, Climate change

Among air pollutants emitted by natural sources, only the radioactive gas radon is recognized as a major health threat. A ... Humans beings are changing the face of the entire planet by destroying the rain forests and pumping our pollutants into the air ... Environmental Air Pollution. Environmental Air Pollution My views of the environment are rooted in my belief in creation. I do ... Air Pollution. Air Pollution CFish Mr. Nollen Biology 2B 8 May, 1996 The Problem Contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, ...
more infohttps://digitaltermpapers.com/essays/greenhouse-effect_1

Exploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction | SpringerLinkExploring the endocrine activity of air pollutants associated with unconventional oil and gas extraction | SpringerLink

In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic ... Determination of endocrine activity of UOG related air pollutants. The list of air pollutants associated with UOG production ... Table S4. List of chemicals reported as detected in air from 48 papers measuring air pollutants attributed to UOG activity. ( ... Many of them are volatile and include several known carcinogens and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed under the Clean Air ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12940-018-0368-z
  • Major sources of air toxics are stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons or more per year of any one of the 188 air toxics listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Act), or 25 tons or more per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (ct.gov)
  • Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than major sources, which emit less than 10 tons per year of any single air toxic or less than 25 tons per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • Estimates from 1999 show that approximately 30% of air toxics are emitted from area sources. (ct.gov)
  • Natural sources of air toxics are diverse and numerous. (ct.gov)
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (ct.gov)
  • Most air toxics originate from man-made sources, including cars and trucks, factories, power plants and refineries, as well as some building materials and cleaning solvents. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Because of the difficulty in assessing air toxic health risks with the original Clean Air Act enacted in 1970, Congress amended the Clean Air Act in 1990 to emphasize controlling emissions of air toxics through available control technology, and then periodically evaluating any remaining risk from air toxics. (iowadnr.gov)
  • These results provide a basis for prioritizing future primary studies regarding the endocrine disrupting properties of UOG air pollutants, including exposure research in wildlife and humans. (springer.com)
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (questia.com)
  • Asbestos exposure mainly occurs in indoor air where it may be released from these materials. (iowadnr.gov)
  • The Administrator may establish a lesser quantity, or in the case of radionuclides different criteria, for a major source than that specified in the previous sentence, on the basis of the potency of the air pollutant, persistence, potential for bioaccumulation, other characteristics of the air pollutant, or other relevant factors. (cornell.edu)
  • Air pollutants can include almost any natural or artificial composition of matter capable of being airborne-solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination thereof. (epa.gov)
  • The new radiation drew the interest of another scientist, Polish-born chemist Marie Curie, who was fascinated by the question of why the uranium emitted "an entirely new form of invisible ray, a narrow beam of energy," which she called radioactive energy. (teenink.com)
  • She analyzed the radioactivity of different substances, learning that a mineral called pitchblende was even more radioactive than the uranium used by Becquerel. (teenink.com)
  • Like photochemical pollutants, sulfur oxides contribute to the incidence of respiratory diseases. (questia.com)
  • In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. (springer.com)
  • Her hypothesis was confirmed by Ernest Rutherford, when he learned that radioactive elements break down by giving off particles which he called alpha and beta particles. (teenink.com)
  • air pollution, contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. (questia.com)
  • A large number of small solid dust particles-from a few million per cu m in clean room air to 100-300 million per cu m in large cities-is always present in air. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The level of nuclear energy consumption provides an indication of the trends in the amount of nuclear waste generated and of the risks associated with radioactive leaks and accidents. (europa.eu)
  • Magma rose from the earth\'s center, shooting 'heat-trapping' Carbon Dioxide molecules into the air, which raises the temperatures. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Composition of air in soil and atmosphere: Nitrogen: Soil Air: 79.2% Atmosphere: 79.0% Oxygen: Soil Air: 20.6% Atmosphere: 20.9% Carbon Dioxide: Soil Air: 0.25% Atmosphere: 0.04% Gas molecules in soil are in continuous thermal motion according to the kinetic theory of gases, there is also collision between molecules - a random walk. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in automobiles , trucks, and jet airplanes produces several primary pollutants: nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, as well as large quantities of particulates, chiefly lead. (questia.com)
  • Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides , herbicides , radioactive fallout , and dust from fertilizers, mining operations, and livestock feedlots. (questia.com)
  • the higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. (epa.gov)
  • Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. (springer.com)
  • The consumption of fossil fuels (such as crude oil, oil products, hard coal, lignite and natural and derived gas) provides a proxy indicator for resource depletion, CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution levels (e.g. (europa.eu)
  • In the UK, industries and utilities that use tall smokestacks by means of removing air pollutants only boost them higher into the atmosphere, thereby only reducing the concentration at their site. (everything2.com)
  • In the presence of sunlight, nitrogen oxides combine with hydrocarbons to form a secondary class of pollutants, the photochemical oxidants, among them ozone and the eye-stinging peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN). (questia.com)
  • These pollutants are often transported over the North Sea and produce adverse effects in western Scandinavia, where sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from UK and central Europe are generating acid rain, especially in Norway and Sweden. (everything2.com)
  • Air pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects. (epa.gov)
  • U.S. EPA and Iowa DNR regulate 187 air pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental consequences. (iowadnr.gov)
  • According to WHO, air pollution is a major contributor to lung and respiratory infections, heart disease and cancer. (mercola.com)
  • Taking into account the molecular weight of each component and its proportion in the composition of air, it is possible to calculate the mean molecular weight of air as 28.966 (approximately 29). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In less developed regions, indoor air pollution from open fires burning wood and other fuels for heating and cooking can be a significant health hazard. (questia.com)
  • Even everyday levels of air pollution may insidiously affect health and behavior. (questia.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 92 percent of the world population breathe polluted air, 1 and about 7 million deaths are attributed to air pollution each year. (mercola.com)
  • An index for reporting daily air quality that characterizes air pollution levels and associated health effects that might be of concern. (epa.gov)
  • EPA's electronic repository of ambient air monitoring data collected by EPA, state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies from thousands of monitoring stations. (epa.gov)
  • The problems of air pollution are a major problem for highly developed nations whose large industrial bases and highly developed infrastructures generate much of the air pollution. (everything2.com)
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (questia.com)
  • In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. (intechopen.com)
  • Renewable energy consumption is a measure of the contribution from technologies that are, in general, more environmentally benign, as they produce no (or very little) net CO2 and usually significantly lower levels of other pollutants. (europa.eu)
  • NECESSITY, FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: KRS 224.10-100(5) authorizes the cabinet to promulgate administrative regulations for the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution. (ky.gov)
  • Hence, inhalable indoor radioactive mixtures are created which enter human lungs and irradiate tissues. (omicsonline.org)
  • Your body is dependent on the air you breathe and poor air quality can cause serious damage to your lungs, heart and other organ systems. (mercola.com)