Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The contamination of indoor air.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Living facilities for humans.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Radon and lung cancer: a cost-effectiveness analysis. (1/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the cost-effectiveness of general and targeted strategies for residential radon testing and mitigation in the United States. METHODS: A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing radon-associated deaths from lung cancer. RESULTS: For a radon threshold of 4 pCi/L, the estimated costs to prevent 1 lung cancer death are about $3 million (154 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $480,000 per life-year saved, based on universal radon screening and mitigation, and about $2 million (104 lung cancer deaths prevented), or $330,000 per life-year saved, if testing and mitigation are confined to geographic areas at high risk for radon exposure. For mitigation undertaken after a single screening test and after a second confirmatory test, the estimated costs are about $920,000 and $520,000, respectively, to prevent a lung cancer death with universal screening and $130,000 and $80,000 per life-year for high risk screening. The numbers of preventable lung cancer deaths are 811 and 527 for universal and targeted approaches, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest possible alternatives to current recommendations.  (+info)

Residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer in Missouri. (2/92)

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk, using both standard radon dosimetry and a new radon monitoring technology that, evidence suggests, is a better measure of cumulative radon exposure. METHODS: Missouri women (aged 30 to 84 years) newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer during the period January 1, 1993, to January 31, 1994, were invited to participate in this population-based case-control study. Both indoor air radon detectors and CR-39 alpha-particle detectors (surface monitors) were used. RESULTS: When surface monitors were used, a significant trend in lung cancer odds ratios was observed for 20-year time-weighted-average radon concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: When surface monitors were used, but not when standard radon dosimetry was used, a significant lung cancer risk was found for radon concentrations at and above the action level for mitigation of houses currently used in the United States (148 Bqm-3). The risk was below the action level used in Canada (750 Bqm-3) and many European countries (200-400 Bqm-3).  (+info)

Chromosome breakage at sites of oncogenes in a population accidentally exposed to radioactive chemical pollution. (3/92)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the level of aberrations at fragile sites of chromosomes in peripheral blood lymphocytes of the population of an area polluted with radionuclides, following an accident at the Siberian Chemical Plant. We carried out the micronucleus test to screen people with radiation-related cytogenetic effects. Of the 1246 inhabitants of the settlement of Samus examined, 148 showed a significantly increased frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes and were selected for chromosome analysis as a radiation-exposed group. Additional analysis was carried out on 40 patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis with stage II-III epithelial dysplasia. Eighty six individuals from a non-polluted area were used as a control group. Chromosomal breaks and exchanges occurred preferentially in chromosomes 3 and 6 among radiation-exposed persons and patients. The regions 3p14-25 and 6p23 were damaged most often. There was a tendency to preferential involvement of q21-25 of chromosome 6 in patients with gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis. Specific damage at certain chromosome sites was observed in the radiation-exposed population as well as in patients with gastric cancer. Most often this damage was located near oncogene loci, which could imply that chromosome damage induced by radiation is likely to be a predisposing factor to the expression of oncogenes and malignant transformation of cells in exposed individuals.  (+info)

Radon testing in households with a residential smoker--United States, 1993-1994. (4/92)

Epidemiologic investigations of underground miners and studies of alpha particle carcinogenesis among laboratory animals suggest that exposure to the radioactive decay products (progeny) of radon is an important risk factor for lung cancer. Persons who smoke cigarettes and are exposed to these radon progeny have a substantially greater risk for developing malignancy than nonsmokers. Residential radon concentrations above the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) action level of 4 pCi/L are the primary sources of exposure among the general population. EPA and the Public Health Service promote home testing for radon, especially in households with a person who smokes. However, it is unknown whether households that contain smokers are more likely than those without smokers to test for radon. To characterize radon testing practices of households that contain a person who smokes within the dwelling (i.e., residential smoker), CDC analyzed survey data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). This report summarizes the results of this analysis, which indicates that households with a residential smoker are significantly less likely to test for radon than those without smokers.  (+info)

Environmental radioactivity, population exposure and related health risks in the east Baltic region. (5/92)

The paper considers radioactive contamination of the east Baltic region, population exposures, and the risk of damage to human health. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3 mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and its decay products. The Chernobyl accident brought an additional dose of about 0.5 mSv in southern Finland and 1.4 mSv in the most contaminated districts of the Leningrad region, Russia. Both external and internal exposure via contaminated food contributed. Currently, significant long-term radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident include persistent radioactive contamination of natural terrestrial (forest) and freshwater (oligotrophic lakes) ecosystems and food products. Radiation health risks are lung cancer among the general population from indoor exposure to radon, acute radiation syndrome from occupational exposure, thyroid cancer among children in heavily contaminated non-Baltic areas, and mutations among offspring of exposed parents.  (+info)

Indoor residential radon exposure and risk of childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. (6/92)

Exposure to radon has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in uranium miners, but evidence of adverse health effects due to indoor radon exposure is inconsistent. Ecological studies have suggested a correlation between indoor radon levels and leukaemia incidence. We evaluated the risk associated with indoor residential radon exposure within a larger interview-based case-control study of risk factors for childhood acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). A total of 173 cases and 254 controls met the eligibility criteria, and information was collected through telephone interviews with parents and analysis of alpha-track radon detectors placed in the home for a period of 1 year. No association was observed between radon exposure and risk of AML, with adjusted odds ratios of 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-1.8) for 37-100 Bq m(-3) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.6-2.0) for > 100 Bq m(-3) compared with < 37 Bq m(-3). Although there was an inverse association between radon level and AML risk among children < 2 years at diagnosis, among children > or = 2 years, AML risk was increased among those with higher radon exposure. The observed association after age 2 is most likely due to chance. Overall, there was no association between residential radon and risk of childhood AML.  (+info)

Evaluation of the impact of Chernobyl on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in 16 regions of Europe. EUROCAT Working Group. (7/92)

BACKGROUND: Surveillance data from population-based congenital anomaly registers in 16 regions of Europe (mainly Western Europe) were analysed to assess the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the prevalence of selected congenital anomalies. METHODS: Three cohorts of pregnancies were defined: those exposed during the first month following Chernobyl (External Exposure Cohort), the first year (Total Exposure Cohort) and the two subsequent years (Control Cohort). Expected numbers of congenital anomalies in these cohorts were calculated from 1980-1985 baseline rates. Registries were grouped into three exposure categories according to first-year exposure estimates. RESULTS: There was no overall or dose-related increase in prevalence in the two exposed cohorts for Down's Syndrome, neural tube defects, other central nervous system defects or eye defects. There was a statistically significant overall 22% (95% CI: 13-31%) excess of Down's Syndrome in the Control Cohort, with no dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Chernobyl had no detectable impact on the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Western Europe, suggesting that in retrospect the widespread fear in the population about the possible effects of exposure on the unborn fetus was not justified. An increasing prevalence of Down's Syndrome in the 1980s, probably unrelated to Chernobyl, merits further investigation.  (+info)

Residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer: the Iowa Radon Lung Cancer Study. (8/92)

Exposure to high concentrations of radon progeny (radon) produces lung cancer in both underground miners and experimentally exposed laboratory animals. To determine the risk posed by residential radon exposure, the authors performed a population-based, case-control epidemiologic study in Iowa from 1993 to 1997. Subjects were female Iowa residents who had occupied their current home for at least 20 years. A total of 413 lung cancer cases and 614 age-frequency-matched controls were included in the final analysis. Excess odds were calculated per 11 working-level months for exposures that occurred 5-19 years (WLM(5-19)) prior to diagnosis for cases or prior to time of interview for controls. Eleven WLM(5-19) is approximately equal to an average residential radon exposure of 4 pCl/liter (148 Bq/m3) during this period. After adjustment for age, smoking, and education, the authors found excess odds of 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.004, 1.81) and 0.83 (95% percent confidence interval: 0.11, 3.34) using categorical radon exposure estimates for all cases and for live cases, respectively. Slightly lower excess odds of 0.24 (95 percent confidence interval: -0.05, 0.92) and 0.49 (95 percent confidence interval: 0.03, 1.84) per 11 WLM(5-19) were noted for continuous radon exposure estimates for all subjects and live subjects only. The observed risk estimates suggest that cumulative ambient radon exposure presents an important environmental health hazard.  (+info)

氡是從鐳-226的放射性衰變所產生的。鐳-226出現在鈾礦、磷鹽岩、頁岩以及花崗岩、片麻岩和片岩等火成岩及變質岩中。石灰石等較常見岩石中則含有較少量的氡。[62]每平方英里、深6英尺(2.6平方公里、深15厘米)的地表土壤內含有約1克的鐳,這些鐳向大氣釋放少量的氡。[3]全球土壤每年估計釋放24億居里(90 TBq)的氡。[63]. 不同地方的氡濃度可以有巨大的差異。戶外空氣中濃度介乎1至100 Bq/m3,在海面則更低(0.1 Bq/m3)。在洞穴、通風的礦井以及不通風的房屋內,濃度可高達20至2,000 Bq/m3。[64]美國鈾礦作業守則規定氡濃度須在一個「工作水平」以下。中国铀矿冶EJ/T378-89规定工作场所氡浓度≤3700Bq/m3,即相当于美国的1WL。1976年至1985年所測量數據顯示,第95百分位水平可以高達近3個工作水平(每升空氣含546 pCi氡-222,即20.2 ...
Indoor radon concentrations are presented as means with standard deviations and geometric means. To consider repeated measures within the same residence, a generalized estimating equation with a linear model was applied according to individual residential environments. To identify factors affecting higher indoor radon concentrations, we divided residences into five groups according to radon concentrations based on indoor radon reference levels as international standards (,74 Bq/m3, 74100 Bq/m3, 100-148 Bq/m3, 148-200 Bq/m3, and ≥200 Bq/m3) and applied a generalized estimating equation based on a multinomial probability distribution with a cumulative probit link function. Spearmans rho was used to analyze correlations among greenery ratio, impermeable layer ratio, and indoor radon concentrations. Decision tree analysis was conducted to highlight factors and to suggest optimal cut point of each parameter affecting high indoor radon concentrations by exhaustive chisquared automatic interaction ...
A radon alleviation framework is any structure or steps proposed to diminish radon focuses in the indoor idea of a building.. The EPA prescribes Radon Mitigation make a move to reduce your homes indoor radon levels, Radon close me if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher.. Radon Framework. A secured level of radon gas is no radon gas. Radon gas is a disease causing professional which causes lung tumor. The US EPA has put it evidently, passing on, Any radon introduction has some peril of causing lung change. The lower the radon levels in your home, the lower your familys danger of lung hazard. The standard individual gets higher estimations of radiation from the radon levels in their home than from their joined preamble to all other radiation sources, conventional or man-made. Radon Mitigation is a routinely happening aftereffect of the radioactive demolish of Uranium in the earth. Subordinate upon your geographic zone, Radon close me the radon levels of the air you take in outside of ...
Digital Continuous Radon Gas Monitoring with Home Radon Alarm Protect your family from lung cancer from radon gas exposure with the only EPA evaluated radon gas alarm, the Safety Siren Pro 3 Electronic Radon Gas Detector from Family Safety Products. As seen on TV, this is not like a single use radon test detection kit: this digital radon gas monitor for home testing is a continuous radon tester that performs continuous radon gas monitoring. The clear, easily read digital radon level display shows short-term radon levels as well as long-term radon level averages. The Safety Siren electronic radon monitor gives its first radon reading after 48 hours of radon gas sampling. Radon gas in air or water is a health hazard resulting from uranium breaking down in soil. Exposure to radon can cause lung cancer. Continuous home radon monitoring is recommended in high radon areas or when radon mitigation systems are used. Radon gas levels change according to humidity and season. See in.Radon Facts in. below ...
Mike Adams. November is radon awareness month so it is the perfect time of year to consider testing your home. Radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. It may contribute to as much as 16% of all lung cancers. Radon, when combined with tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, can increase the risk substantially. Health Canada estimates that one in three smokers exposed to high radon levels will develop lung cancer.. Radon is a naturally occurring gas found in the ground throughout the world. Most homes that are in contact with the ground will contain some amount of radon gas. Radon becomes more of a concern when it reaches high levels. According to Health Canada about seven per cent of the Canadian homes have radon levels that may be putting residents at risk. Here in the B.C. Interior we have some hot spot areas with high radon levels in approximately 40 per cent of homes.. Radon gas is colourless, odourless and tasteless, so the only way to know if the radon ...
Long-term exposure to elevated indoor radon concentrations has been determined to be the second leading cause of lung cancer in adults after tobacco smoking. With the establishment of a National Radon Program in Canada in 2007 thousands of homes across the country have been tested for radon. Although the vast majority of people are exposed to low or moderate radon concentrations; from time to time; there are homes found with very high concentrations of radon. Among those living in homes with very high radon concentrations, it is typically parents of young children that demonstrate a great deal of concern. They want to know the equivalent risk in terms of the lifetime relative risk of developing lung cancer when a child has lived in a home with high radon for a few years. An answer to this question of risk equivalency is proposed in this paper. The results demonstrate clearly that the higher the radon concentration; the sooner remedial measures should be undertaken; as recommended by Health Canada in the
Transport of Radon in soil Part of the radon originating from the decay of radium located in rocks and soil particles is emitted in the pore volume of soil and stones. Due to atmospheric conditions (temperature, air pressure, weather), the radon concentration in a depth of less than one meter varies considerably. With increasing depth, the radon concentration rises to a saturation value.. The permeability of the soil plays a decisive role. Generally, starting from a depth of one meter, the radon concentration in the soil air changes only in a minor way. Due to the half-life (circa 1,600 years) of Radium-226, the parent of radon, the radon soil air concentration is stable over a long term. If the radon concentration of a particular site is known, new measurements are only necessary after significant interventions done in the underground.. Cracks and rifts simplify the transport of radon in the underground. Therefore the local radon concentration can be much higher in the proximity of chasms, ...
The radon concentration in air at the workplace is determined primarily using a radon measurement box (integrating measurement) that is kept at the workplace for a minimum of two months between the beginning of September and the end of May. The radon measurement box indicates the long-term average concentration. After this, if necessary, time-associated variations in the radon concentration can be analyzed with so-called continuous radon measurement.. A key point in radon control at workplaces is that a reliable method of measurement is used when determining the radon concentration. Radon measurement can be ordered from a company that uses a method of measurement approved by STUK.. ...
Research has shown that ionizing radiation (measured by the radon exposure inside ones home) is linked to having high blood pressure in non-pregnant people. Researchers in this study want to extend this finding into pregnant populations - asking if there could be a link between radon exposure and risk for developing a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (including preeclampsia). To answer this question, researchers used medical record data from over 975,000 women from the Massachusetts Birth Registry and matched them to an average radon level from the zip code each pregnant woman lived in when she was pregnant (this let them estimate each womans radon exposure). Out of the 975,000 women, 36,000 developed a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, and researchers found that higher radon levels in homes did indeed increase odds of having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. As we learn more about what increases risks for preeclampsia, it is incredibly important that we continue the search for risk ...
Research has shown that ionizing radiation (measured by the radon exposure inside ones home) is linked to having high blood pressure in non-pregnant people. Researchers in this study want to extend this finding into pregnant populations - asking if there could be a link between radon exposure and risk for developing a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (including preeclampsia). To answer this question, researchers used medical record data from over 975,000 women from the Massachusetts Birth Registry and matched them to an average radon level from the zip code each pregnant woman lived in when she was pregnant (this let them estimate each womans radon exposure). Out of the 975,000 women, 36,000 developed a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, and researchers found that higher radon levels in homes did indeed increase odds of having a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. As we learn more about what increases risks for preeclampsia, it is incredibly important that we continue the search for risk ...
As a standard instrument to calibrate the radon monitors, radon chamber is in urgent need with the deepening study on Radon and its progeny. According to the requirement of calibrating the radon monitors and radon detectors, the multifunctional and automatic controlled radon chamber is designed and constructed. By the reason of radon decay, the radon concentration in the chamber is continuously changing. The radon concentration must keep stability and homogeneity in order to calibrate the radon monitors and bio-culture. The supply and control of radon in the chamber is a critical problem in the design of Radon chamber. The paper introduced the mathematic model of dynamic radon replenishment according to the law of radon decay, three time parameters to replenish radon is discussed. The related automatic monitor and control system is developed by this mathematic model, the expected radon concentration can keep stability and homogeneity controlled by the system. The structure of radon chamber and ...
Radon is a deadly gas that can easily accumulate in your newer or older home, whether you have a full or partial basement, crawl space, or cement slab. You may be breathing harmful levels of radon and not know it. Have you tested your house for radon? Purchase a radon test kit today. WHAT IS RADON? Radon is a colorless, odorless tasteless radioactive gas Radon comes from naturally decaying uranium 289 in soil, rocks and water Radon is a known carcinogen Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer, next to smoking 1 in 15 homes in the U.S. has high levels of radon Radon is found in all 50 states Radon accumulates in poorly ventilated areas of the home such as basements and crawlspaces No level of radon is safe in your home. Upon receiving test results and learning of elevated radon levels, mitigation solutions are your next step. Suncourt Radon Fans (TF104-W) or kits (RDN04) are used as the front line of defense against elevated radon levels in the home. Suncourts radon
You may or may not have heard of Radon gas. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is everywhere. Radon is odorless, colorless, and tasteless. The Radon levels in your neighbors house arent related to the Radon levels in your house. The only way to know how much Radon is in your house is to test for it. Soil type determines in part how much Radon gets into your house, with construction also playing a role.. Weve all heard of someone who has been diagnosed with lung cancer, and they have never smoked a day in their life. Dont let that be anyone you know! Radon is documented to be the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking, causing approximately 21,000 deaths each year. Radon testing is easy and affordable, with accurate results usually produced within 48-72 hours of the start of a test. The piece of mind from knowing your Radon level is PRICELESS!. When having a Radon test performed, make certain that you use a testing or mitigation specialist who is certified ...
Radon is present in all dwellings, thus posing a major health problem. For rooms used more frequently than on a temporary basis, it is therefore required to keep radon concentrations as low as possible. The amount of radon entering a dwelling with the outdoor air during air exchange and being released from building materials can hardly be reduced. It is therefore not generally feasible to reach radon levels below 100 Bq/m³ indoors in Germany. Such a situation is to be found in areas with increased radon concentrations in outside air and in dwellings with an above-average release of radon from construction material. Measures to reduce radon concentrations should always be considered with levels exceeding 100 Bq/m³.. ...
Radon is a naturally-occurring radioactive gas found in air, soil, rocks, and water. The main source of indoor radon is from soil gas entering homes through foundation cracks. Approximately 6% of US homes have radon levels above the Environmental Protection Agency recommended levels. Radon decay products enter the human body mostly by inhalation and deliver radiation doses to various organs including the breast. This could cause DNA damage.Although this is a possible mechanism by which radon exposure could bring about cancerous changes in the breast, there have been very few studies looking at whether the two are linked. Researchers in the US have conducted a study to look at the association between environmental radon exposure and breast cancer incidence in US women. They recently published the results in the journal Environmental Health.. ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of deaths from lung cancer related to radon in the home and to explore the cost effectiveness of alternative policies to control indoor radon and their potential to reduce lung cancer mortality. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. SETTING: United Kingdom. DATA SOURCES: Epidemiological data on risks from indoor radon and from smoking, vital statistics on deaths from lung cancer, survey information on effectiveness and costs of radon prevention and remediation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimated number of deaths from lung cancer related to indoor radon, lifetime risks of death from lung cancer before and after various potential interventions to control radon, the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from different policies for control of radon, and the potential of those policies to reduce lung cancer mortality. RESULTS: The mean radon concentration in UK homes is 21 becquerels per cubic metre (Bq/m(3)). Each year around 1100 deaths from lung cancer (3.3% of
Editorial Note: The elevated radon levels near the eastern border of Pennsylvania are associated with natural uranium deposits that extend into northern New Jersey and southern New York. Since similar geologic deposits are found throughout the country, the elevated radon levels in Pennsylvania may indicate a much broader national problem. Radon enters a building through cracks, such as those in a basement floor, and through openings around pipes and wiring. Once inside, the radon builds up in the air, particularly in poorly ventilated houses. As radon daughters are formed, they attach to airborne particulates. When inhaled, these particulates can deliver a substantial dose of radiation to the bronchial epithelium. No exposure limit has been established for indoor levels of radon from natural sources; however, EPA is now developing guidelines that will define action levels concerning houses with high concentrations of radon and is developing and evaluating mitigation strategies. Exposure to radon ...
If the SWAT Environmental test determines that there is no danger of high radon levels in your house, you should continue to have it tested at regular intervals. Although a negative test result is certainly good news, it does not mean that radon could not become an issue in your house later on. If the test does determine that your house contains dangerous radon levels, you can have SWAT Environmentals experts install a mitigation system to correct the problem. This system will be completely customized to your houses specific requirements. Generally, it will employ a multi-front strategy designed to remove any radon gas currently in your home, replace it with fresh, clean air and prevent the gas from returning. With this type of system in place, you will no longer need to worry about the health impact of the air your family breathes.. ...
Denman, Antony R., Crockett, Robin G.M., Groves-Kirkby, Christopher J., Phillips, Paul S. and Gillmore, Gavin K. (2019) Exploring the relationship between social deprivation and domestic radon levels in the East Midlands, UK. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 199, pp. 84-98. ISSN (print) 0265-931X ...
I was just wondering if anybody knew how long it shoud take to lower the radon level in my basement after installing mitigation system. First let me
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommends a tested radon level of less than 4 picocuries per liter of volume in homes. Levels of 4 picocuries per liter or above should prompt the...
Radon is a colorless, odorless, naturally occurring radioactive gas found in our rocks and soils. It enters homes through cracks and other openings in foundations, said Guy Delius, director of the Division of Public Health Protection and Safety. Any home can have elevated levels of radon. The only way to know about your home is to test.. Radon can certainly be a threat to public health and is a risk factor for lung cancer. It is extremely important to have radon levels tested in your homes, said DPH Commissioner William Hacker, M.D. In some instances, radon exposure over an extended period of time can cause serious adverse health effects. According to the National Academy of Sciences, exposure to indoor radon gas is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States after smoking. The Surgeon General issued a health advisory in 1988 emphasizing the need to test for indoor radon and correct the problem when elevated levels are found. Fortunately, most homes with elevated levels ...
Rutgers Radon Measurement Proficiency Course (9/24-25/12) by Rutgers Office of Continuing Professional Education (OCPE). Radon Measurement Proficiency ...
If your radon tests show that you have high levels of radon gas, you will need to contact a professional immediately. If your test shows low levels, then no further action is required. If your levels are high, be sure to call S.W.A.T. Environmental. We are local to the Charlotte, NC area, and will be glad to help you with your Charlotte radon mitigation needs. We have all of needed certifications and knowledge to reduce your radon levels by as much as 99%. When it comes to Charlotte radon mitigation, dont play around. This gas has killed more than 20,000 people every year. Radon gas is now the second leading cause of lung cancer, making it one of the most dangerous gases in America. Do not let your Charlotte home fall victim to this horrible gas. Call us today for a free quote on a new radon mitigation system.. S.W.A.T. Environmental is the nations most trusted radon mitigation company, and we are able to provide you with the much needed Charlotte radon mitigation. We always offer a free ...
There is misinformation about how radon gas travels. Too many people think that if their neighbor has a low radon level in their home it means they must too. It doesnt work that way. Radon concentrations are a combination of soil decay, construction methods and materials used in building each home, and the occupants use of the house. Together these factors contribute to elevated radon levels. For these reasons and more, MN now requires disclosure of any radon testing that has occurred in a home being offered for sale. Unfortunately, there are no rules regulating radon testers; that part is still buyer beware.. ...
Your house type will affect the kind of radon reduction system that will work best. Houses are generally categorized according to their foundation design. For example: basement, slab-on-grade (concrete poured at ground level), or crawlspace (a shallow unfinished space under the first floor). Some houses have more than one foundation design feature. For instance, it is common to have a basement under part of the house and to have a slab-on-grade or crawlspace under the rest of the house. In these situations a combination of radon reduction techniques may be needed to reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L.. There are several methods that a contractor such as D Radon Mitigation & Plumbing can use to lower radon levels in your home. Some techniques prevent radon from entering your home while others reduce radon levels after it has entered. the EPA generally recommends methods that prevent the entry of radon.. In many cases, simple systems using underground pipes and an exhaust fan may be used to ...
Radon gas typically enters your home through the basement, from cracks in your homes foundation, dirt floors, floor drains, and pores in block walls. Other sources of radon in the home may include the radon gas in water supply and building materials.. Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year- the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. Radon is the leading cause of lung cancer among non-smokers. Thats because when you breathe air containing radon, you can get lung cancer. In fact, the Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths. If you smoke and your home has high radon levels, your risk of lung cancer is especially high.. ...
Until early 1980s we have lived without thinking that radon ruins our health. But, scientists knew truth that radon radioactive danger is bedeviling on indoor that we live for a long time. Specially, interest about effect that get in danger and injury for Radon and human body is inactive in our country. Recently, with awareness for Radon contamination, We inform about importance and danger of Radon in some station of the Seoul subway, indoor air of school facilities and We had interest with measure and manages. Usually, Radon gas emitted in base of building enters into indoor through building floor split windage back among radon or indoor air of radon daughter nucleus contamination is increased. Therefore, indoor radon concentration rises as there are a lot of windages between number pipe of top and bottom and base that enter crack from estrangement of the done building floor, underground to indoor. Thus, Radon enters into indoor through architecture resources water as well as, kitchen natural ...
Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas. You cant see radon. And you cant smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon comes from the natural (radioactive) breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water and gets into the air you breathe. It can get into any type of building-homes, offices, and schools-and result in a high indoor radon level. You and your family are most likely to get your greatest exposure at home, where you spend most of your time. Radon has been found in every county in California. Every Californian is encouraged to test their home.. The Surgeon General has warned that radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States today. Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths.. According to EPA estimates, exposure to radon is responsible for about 21,000 lung cancer deaths every year, more than drunk driving, household falls, drowning, or home fires. Thats because when you breathe air containing radon, you can get lung cancer. Not everyone ...
Our data indicate a small increase in lung cancer risk as a result of residential radon that is consistent with the findings of previous indoor radon and miner studies.
Radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin that tends to accumulate in buildings. Although the levels recorded can be reduced, this requires the co-operation of residents, and the French population has a very poor understanding of radon-induced risk. The justification for keeping a close watch on indoor radon concentrations is the underlying risk of lung cancer as a consequence of exposure to high levels. Two official statements dealing with radon risk management were issued in 1999 in France to define the thresholds that should not be exceeded. The results of measurement campaigns, the number of buildings where concentrations above these thresholds are likely to occur, the identification of high radon potential areas and the actions taken locally together with the way that the risk from radon and remedial actions are perceived are reviewed herein ...
Due to the unique considerations of real estate transactions involving multiple parties, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has enacted special protocols for radon testing involving real estate transactions. The Illinois Emergency Management Agency (IEMA-Division of Nuclear Safety) has adapted these protocols to conform with national radon regulations. In this environment, Illinois real estate professionals need honest, reliable, and affordable service providers like Midwest Radon Services to help guide them through the complexities and concerns of radon detection and mitigation.. We have provided links below to many useful resources for real estate professionals and their clients.. Real Estate Guidelines. Homeowners/Buyers FAQ. Radon Science. Radon-Resistant Building Codes Task Force. Radon Guide for Tenants EPA Radon. CDC Radon We can reduce radon concentrations to EPA approved levels and assist you with the documentation you need to complete your transaction in the quickest, ...
Posted By Joshua on Jul 6, 2017. Systemair HP 190 Radon Mitigation Fan 4/5″ ( Inch) Duct, 157 CFM Reviews Here we bring to you Systemair HP 190 Radon Mitigation Fan 4/5″ ( Inch) Duct, 157 CFM Reviews which is user-friendly and residential duct fan - HP 190 for better performance and increased usefulness. WHAT IS SYSTEMAIR HP190 RADON FAN? This is a Fantech HP 190 radon mitigation fan. The product is capable of effectively eliminating the radon levels from.... ...
Posted By Joshua on Apr 17, 2017. Are you aware of the term Radon? Maybe yes as in the past few years there were many talks on the radon issues. Many conversations, researchers and also media talks surround this sphere of the noble gas section. So, whether you are willing to sell your home or staying in a radon area, you need to go through a certified inspection. There may be some who are not aware of the term radon, so to help them out and thus to provide further.... ...
January is National Radon Month. The purpose of the month is to draw attention to radon as a serious public health issue and to motivate Americans to take action to protect themselves from radon health effects. In the state of Kentucky, Bullitt County is located in ZONE 1, which has the highest potential for exposure.
The Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA), Section 306, and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), Section 10, authorizes EPA to assist States and Federally Recognized Indian Tribes in the development and implementation of programs and projects reducing radon risks. Funding Priority: Specifically, EPA will award funds to: 1) establish effective radon programs among States, Territories, and Federally Recognized Indian Tribes; 2) increase the number of homes, schools, and other buildings tested and mitigated for radon; 3) encourage radon testing and disclosure in connection with real estate transfers; 4) implement radon resistant construction standard in high risk areas; and 5) promote environmental justice through programs and outreach efforts directed at low-income and/or culturally-diverse populations.. ...
Patient Presentation A 2-year-old female came to clinic for her health supervision visit. The family had just moved into an old home. During the interview the mother noted that they had had the home checked for lead and for radon. The radon test said it was normal, she said. The pertinent physical exam was normal…
Radon levels in Bloomfield are known to be above the national average. Have your Michigan radon levels reduced by SWAT Environmental today!
Find Chariton, Iowa radon levels and get your home tested for radon by a licensed Chariton, Iowa radon mitigation contractor with our nationwide radon directory. Chariton radon testing and mitigation services provided by licensed radon contractors.
Find Lamont, Iowa radon levels and get your home tested for radon by a licensed Lamont, Iowa radon mitigation contractor with our nationwide radon directory. Lamont radon testing and mitigation services provided by licensed radon contractors.
Almost every home in Canada has some level of radon. But the levels vary from one house to another, even if they are next door to each other. The only way to know if you have a radon problem in your home is to have it tested. The test is simple and inexpensive.. The best time of year to test for radon is during the winter months when the windows and doors are normally kept closed and radon levels are at their highest.. For residents of Windsor, Ontario, Seacliff Inspections makes it easy and convenient to have your home tested for radon. Simply call us for an appointment to perform a long term test over the next 3 to 6 months. We will review the best location in your home for testing, install and pick up the test canisters as required after the recommended exposure time, and send them to the lab for analysis. Seacliff Inspections will then review the lab results with you so you clearly understand whether a radon problem exists or does not exist in your home, and what steps should be taken if a ...
According to results of the survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, indoor radon concentrations above the city average level have been found in each of the studied buil
Radon testing is the only way to detect indoor radon levels in your Atlanta, GA home or business, and ensure you are safe from radon gas.
Radon testing is the only way to detect indoor radon levels in your Silver Springs, Maryland home or business, and ensure you are safe from radon gas.
Exposure to radon gas is the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. A large number of studies have reported that exposure to indoor radon, even at low concentrations, is associated with lung cancer in the general population. This paper reviewed studies from several countries to assess the attributable risk (AR) of lung cancer death due to indoor radon exposure and the effect of radon mitigation thereon. Worldwide, 3-20 % of all lung cancer deaths are likely caused by indoor radon exposure. These values tend to be higher in countries reporting high radon concentrations, which can depend on the estimation method. The estimated number of lung cancer deaths due to radon exposure in several countries varied from 150 to 40,477 annually. In general, the percent ARs were higher among never-smokers than among ever-smokers, whereas much more lung cancer deaths attributable to radon occurred among ever-smokers because of the higher rate of lung cancers among smokers. Regardless of smoking status,
Recent epidemiologic investigations of the relationship between residential radon gas exposure and lung cancer relied on contemporary radon gas measurements to estimate past radon gas exposures. Significant uncertainties in these exposure estimates can arise from year-to-year variation of indoor radon concentrations and subject mobility. Surface implanted 210Po has shown potential for improving retrospective radon gas exposure estimates. However, in previous studies, the ability of implanted 210Po activity to reconstruct cumulative radon gas exposure was not tested because glass was not available from homes with known radon-gas concentration histories. In this study, we tested the validity of the retrospective radon gas reconstruction using implanted 210Po surface activity by measuring glass surfaces from homes whose annual-average radon gas concentrations had been measured almost every year during two decades. Regression analysis showed a higher correlation between measured surface activity and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trends in research on indoor radon exposure and lung cancer in South Korea. AU - Kang, Dae Ryong. AU - Kang, Dongmug. AU - Min, Kyoung Bok. AU - Kim, Changsoo. AU - Oh, Sung Soo. AU - Koh, Sang Baek. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1186/s40557-016-0100-9. DO - 10.1186/s40557-016-0100-9. M3 - Editorial. AN - SCOPUS:84996590434. VL - 28. JO - Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. JF - Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. SN - 2052-4374. IS - 1. M1 - 10. ER - ...
Comprehensive results from miners cohort studies had been published on the risk of lung cancer death associated to radon exposure. However a large proportion of these miners had cumulated high radon exposure and often during a short period of exposure. A European collaborative work on uranium miners has been initiated in 1996, with the objectives to estimate the risk of lung cancer linked to radon when low cumulative exposures are protracted over large periods, and to test the influence of other components present in the mining atmosphere. The project includes a total of several tens of thousands of miners from Czech republic, France and Germany. This paper presents results from the French cohort and the framework of the European project. The French cohort includes 5098 miners employed at least one year since 1947, and followed up to 1994. The number of lung cancer deaths is 126, for a total of 133,500 person-years. Mean cumulative exposure to radon is 36.5 WLM, protracted over a mean duration ...
RV2 Radon Ventilation Fan - According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over 20,000 deaths each year are radon related and as many as 8 million homes throughout the United States have elevated radon levels.  On average 1 in every 5 homes have elevated radon gas levels.  Dont let yours be one of them. Use this radon ventilation fan to ventilate radon out of your crawl space which means it wont seep into your home. This radon fan not only exhausts radon but also other harmful soil gases and replaces them with fresh air.  This radon ventilation fan moves 220 CFM and one RV2 radon ventilation fan can ventilate a 20 x 40 x 3 crawl space over five times an hour.  This radon fan does so while only using 40 watts, so you dont have to worry about your electric bill rising greatly. This radon fan is easily installed - you just mount it against a vent opening with the hardware thats included in the box, and plug it in.  For more benefit, you can run more than one fan.
Radon and radon progeny were sampled biweekly from January through June, 1984 in outside air and five representative buildings at Chadron in northwestern Nebraska. The buildings were constructed of a variety of materials. Radon averaged from a low of 0.2 pCi/L in outside air to a high of 5.3 pCi/L in an energy-efficient home. Radon daughters ranged from 0.001 WL in outside air to a high of 0.014 WL, again in the energy-efficient home. A strong positive correlation existed between radon and radon progeny. Health risks associated with elevated levels of radon and radon progeny are discussed and assessed.
Yes, you can. Its a very radioactive gas. Over 40,000 people in US and Europe die yearly from lung cancer caused by radon gas. But its not like in those Horror movies where your body melts away. It does not kill you instantly. You cant see, smell or taste radon gas. And because of that, many people live in houses full of radon without being aware of it. You should do a radon test (link under Sources and related links below this answer) to find out if theres radon in your house. Amazon also sells radon test kits, and you should also check in your local area.yes
The following is a list of radon measurement companies located in Oregon with at least one radon measurement technician on staff who has been certified by the National Radon Proficiency Program (NRPP) or the National Radon Safety Board (NRSB). Current listings of certified measurement technicians, including those in neighboring states, can be found at their respective web sites, and This list should be used for informational purposes only and is not intended to be an endorsement by the Oregon Health Authority of any measurement company. These organizations are not the only sources of radon testing services. There are additional organizations outside Oregon that can provide radon testing devices or services.. For information on how to test your home yourself, visit our Testing page. ...
Recent observations have suggested that radon in the ambient air may cause cancers at sites other than the lung, but the evidence is indirect. We have studied site-specific cancer mortality in 4320 uranium miners in West Bohemia who have been followed-up for an average of 25 years, and in whom a four-fold radon-related excess of lung cancer has already been established. For all cancers other than lung cancer the number of deaths observed was slightly greater than that expected from national rates, but the increase was not significant statistically (ratio of observed to expected deaths [O/E] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.98-1.24) and mortality did not increase with duration of employment underground or with cumulative exposure to radon. Non-lung cancer mortality was significantly raised among men who started mining work aged under 25 but the increase was not related to cumulative radon exposure. When twenty-eight individual sites and types of cancer were examined, significantly increased risks
Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. The mean (range) concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4) Becquerel/liter (Bq/L). Separately, springs and wells means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5
Radon is a naturally occurring gas that comes from the decay of uranium in soil. Radium is a product that comes from the decay of uranium, and the resultant gas is radon. Radon has no color or odor and is invisible. An increased incidence of lung cancer has been found in some people who experience chronic exposure to high levels of radon. There are a number of ways to test for radon, but the simplest is a kit that is used at home and then sent to a lab. There are both long- and short-term kits available. The longer the test, the more accurate the result.. ...
Case studies have shown that radon gas can accumulate within domestic properties at sufficiently high levels that it can cause lung cancer, and recent studies have suggested that this risk remains significant below the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m−3. Raised radon levels can be reduced by engineering measures, and it has been shown that domestic radon remediation programmes in UK Affected Areas can result in reduced risks to the population and can be cost-effective. We consider here the benefits and costs of the domestic radon remediation programme in Northamptonshire, UK, and consider the implications for that programme of reducing the UK Action Level below its present value. A radon remediation programme based on an Action Level above 200 Bq m−3 will cost less and will target those most at risk, but will be less cost-effective and will lead to higher residual dose and greater risk of cancer in the remaining population. Reducing the Action Level below 200 Bq m−3 will prevent more ...
In this WP comparisons will be performed, which will allow the operators of radon calibration facilities to reduce the relative uncertainties related to their facilities below 5 % (k = 1). These international comparisons will fulfil the need to provide confidence in the capability of European radon calibration facilities in the field of radon activity concentration measurements in air. The traceability of calibrations for radon activity concentration in air measurement to European radon calibration facilities (national or international standards) will be established by using existing primary radon gas standards and the new radon activity standards traceable to primary standards developed in WP1, and two different approaches for validation will be used: The first way is to calibrate the secondary standard devices used by European radon calibration facilities in the same place with traceability to the new radon gas standards. The other way of validation is for one reference device calibrated with ...
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Radon gas comes from the ground where uranium is known to find home in soils. As the uranium breaks down, it creates radon gas. As this is a gas, it can quickly find its way through foundations, and into homes, schools, or office buildings. Additionally, it may enter through water supply, or other areas, wrecking havoc throughout our Charlotte schools. Radon mitigation in schools may reduce levels by as much as 99% if a properly trained, certified, and experienced professional is installing the air purification system.. It may seem like there is no help for all of our schools with high levels of radon gas. Fortunately, a bill is being proposed by a congressman in Iowa that can change all of this. The bill if passed all schools in America would receive grant funding to test for radon gas. The important part about testing is that without a test, it is impossible to determine whether or not an area is contaminated as this gas is both invisible and odorless. Additional funding would be made ...
Scientific evidence suggests that lung cancer (LC) in never-smokers is a different molecular entity to LC in smokers.1,2 The Lung Cancer Risk in Never-Smokers (LCRINS) study, a multicenter case control study competitively funded by the Government of Galicia, began in January 2011. Ten hospitals participated in 3 autonomous communities (Galicia, Asturias, and Madrid). The aim of the study was to determine LC risk factors in never-smokers, looking particularly at residential radon, and the initial results were published in Archivos de Bronconeumología in 2012.3. Six years later, this study has recruited more than 400 cases of LC in never-smokers with an equal number of controls, making it an important source of epidemiological data in this subgroup of LC cases. Moreover, the study provides a model that might serve as a basis for other multicenter studies, a highly desirable design in the investigation of rare diseases. The main findings of the LCRINS study, focusing primarily on residential ...
Scientific studies have shown that Radon gas is a known human lung carcinogen. Prolonged exposure to high levels of Radon gas can cause lung cancer. Millions of homes and buildings contain high levels of radon gas. The Radon Potential Index is a result of the combined efforts of the USGS and EPA to ascertain a radon potential for the US. Important, this index should be used only as a guide. The only real way in knowing if a home or area has unhealthy levels of radon is specific testing. The following is a brief summary of the study performed by the USGS on behalf of the EPA ...
Within the last decade, the comet assay has been used with increasing popularity to investigate the level of DNA damage in terms of strand breaks and alkaline labile sites in biomonitoring studies. The assay is easily performed on WBCs and has been included in a wide range of biomonitoring studies of occupational exposures encompassing styrene, vinyl chloride, 1,3-butadiene, pesticides, hair dyes, antineoplastic agents, organic solvents, sewage and waste materials, wood dust, and ionizing radiation. Eleven of the occupational studies were positive, whereas seven were negative. Notably, the negative studies appeared to have less power than the positive studies. Also, there were poor dose-response relationships in many of the biomonitoring studies. Many factors have been reported to produce effects by the comet assay, e.g., age, air pollution exposure, diet, exercise, gender, infection, residential radon exposure, smoking, and season. Until now, the use of the comet assay has been hampered by the ...
Long-term radon exposure is considered to be the leading cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers and the second leading cause of lung cancer in smokers. Of the homes currently tested for radon in Kentucky, over 40 percent have radon levels higher than what is recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Despite these facts, many Kentuckians still choose to ignore the health warnings about radon potentially increasing their risk for radon-induced lung cancer. ...
Drilled wells that are deep enough to penetrate the bedrock are liable to pull a significant amount of radon into the house along with the water. Any cracks or gaps in the bedrock allow radon to dissolve into the water supply, and pose a risk to those who use that water in their homes. Water that comes from a lake or reservoir is considered surface water and is much less likely to contain radon. The radon present in surface water is usually released into the air before it reaches the pipes that pump it into a house.. Drinking water that contains radon may cause stomach cancer occasionally, but that is actually not the biggest health concern in most cases. The chances of developing stomach cancer by ingesting radon are fairly small. A much greater concern is airborne radon in water. After the radon escapes the water, you can significantly increase your risk of lung cancer by inhaling it. Any time radon in water is used inside the home, radon particles are released into the air and become ...
In addition, EPA also supports operation of the Safe Drinking Water Hotline which answers questions about radon in drinking water. EPAs Indoor Environments Division provides a Web site regarding indoor air quality issues, including radon, asthma, and environmental tobacco smoke/secondhand smoke. Their radon page addresses issues including EPAs position on radon, health risks, radon resistant new construction, and their former National Radon Proficiency Program (RPP). Many radon documents are also available there. You can call the EPAs Safe Drinking Water Hotline, (800) 426-4791, for information on radon in water. It also provides information that can help you identify a laboratory to assist with testing drinking water. EPAs Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water provides information on radon in drinking water. On November 2, 1999, they published a proposed rule on radon in drinking water. EPA is soliciting formal comment by publishing the proposed regulation in the Federal Register for a ...
The county statistics, as found in Table 5, reflect high arithmetic means in Stutsman and Bowman Counties and low arithmetic means in Ward and Wells Counties. The database contained 402 samples whose arithmetic mean was 18.8 pCi/l with a standard deviation of 22.2. There were 352 (87.6%) samples with a radon concentration greater than 4 pCi/l. For concentrations greater than 20 pCi/l, the 120 samples represented 29.9% of the samples. The high percentages of samples greater than 4 or 20 pCi/l in the basements indicates that basements should perhaps be tested whether or not people live in the basement. Table 5, the city/county statistics for the Cluster Survey reveals that many cities have high averages, yet it must be remembered that the cluster homes were all located close to a home that was found to have a high radon concentration in the 1988 Home Study. FIGURE 2 - Log Normal Distribution Graph. ...
Pennsylvania Residents Urged to Test Homes for Radon. HARRISBURG -- The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) today urged all Pennsylvanians to test their homes for radon, a deadly radioactive gas thats the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers in the United States. DEP also urged residents to take action to reduce radon levels in their homes if they are high.. Due to our geology, radon is found everywhere in Pennsylvania. For that reason, we urge residents to test their homes to protect themselves and their familys health, said DEP Secretary John Quigley. Winter is the best time to test your home for radon because doors and windows are typically closed and tightly sealed, producing the most accurate results.. Read Article. ...
This thesis presents a method for predicting radon (222Rn) levels in groundwater on a general scale, within an area of approximately 185 x 145 km2. The method applies to Swedish conditions, where 222Rn is the main contributor to natural radioactivity. Prediction of radon potential in groundwater is complex because there are many different factors affecting radon content, including geochemical and flow processes. The proposed method is based on univariate and multivariate statistical analyses and investigated the influence of different factors such as bedrock, soils, uranium distribution, altitude, distance to fractures and land use. A statistical variable based method (the RV method) was used to estimate risk values related to different radon concentrations. The method was calibrated and tested on more than 4400 drilled wells in Stockholm County. The weighted index (risk value) estimated by the RV method provided a fair prediction of radon potential in groundwater on a general scale. The RV ...
The most common method for mitigation is an active sub-slab depressurization system. This system most commonly involves a hole being cored into the basement floor slab. A PVC pipe is then run into that hole going deep enough to reach the sub-slab aggregate. The PVC pipe runs continuous to the exterior of the home, up an exterior wall and above the roof line. On the exterior near ground level there will be an in-line fan, which draws any potential radon gas from the ground under the slab, through the pipe and to the exterior of the home, thus preventing any radon gas from entering the home.. There is also an active sub-membrane depressurization system which is used when crawlspaces are involved. This system is similar to the sub-slab system, but instead a perforated PVC pipe is run horizontally along the surface of the crawlspace. The crawlspace is then completely covered with a radon resistant plastic membrane which will run up and be sealed to the walls, thus forcing any radon gas coming into ...
In a commentary recently published in Environmental Health Review, the Canadian Environmental Law Association (CELA) joined the Canadian Partnership for Childrens Health and Environment (CPCHE), the Canadian Child Care Federation, public officials, and radon experts in calling for mandatory action on radon in child care settings.. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive soil gas that can build up to harmful levels in indoor spaces. It is a known carcinogen and the second leading cause of lung cancer in Canada. Despite its known risks and the availability of testing and remediation measures, most child care facilities in Canada are not tested to ensure that radon levels are below the Canadian guideline.. Keep reading on ...
Radon is a cancer-causing, radioactive gas. You cant see radon. And you cant smell it or taste it. But it may be a problem in your home. Radon is estimated to cause many thousands of deaths each year. Radon can be found all over the U.K. You should test for radon. Testing is the only way to know if you and your family are at risk from radon. Testing is inexpensive and easy - it should only take a few minutes of your time. You can fix a radon problem.
Radon gas is a colourless, odourless, radioactive gas that is released during the decay of uranium in rocks and soils. Radon levels outdoors are generally low, but radon gas indoors poses more of a… ...
The study titled Effects of Radon and UV Exposure on Skin Cancer Mortality in Switzerland is published in the scientific peer-reviewed journal Environmental Health Perspectives. It examines the impact of radon and UV exposure on mortality due to malignant skin cancer in Switzerland.. The study analysed 1,900 deaths due to malignant melanoma which occurred throughout Switzerland between 2000 and 2008 in people aged 20 years and above. The residential radon ex-posure was modelled on the basis of 45,000 measurements and accounted for the housings characteristics and the geological conditions of the area.. Radon more dangerous for young people. Our study shows that, when radon decays, radioactive alpha particles not only destroy lung tissue but can also affect the skin. This has rarely been researched in the past, says Martin Röösli, professor for environmental epidemiology at Swiss TPH, who wrote the study together with Danielle Vienneau, senior scientific collaborator at the ...
This morning I was on my treadmill in the basement watching the news on NBC. The report that caught my eye, Is your child breathing radon gas at school?. At first I was excited to see national attention being given to a problem that is a major health hazard in homes and buildings throughout the country. My excitement quickly turned to disappointment after watching the general lack of interest public officials have in addressing this problem. We all need to take action and check for ourselves.. ...
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... tracking radioactive emissions and volcanic ash discharges; analysis of accidental air pollutant releases and assisting in ... SAFE AIR II (Italy) - The simulation of air pollution from emissions II (SAFE AIR II) was developed at the Department of ... ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Air Dispersion Modeling at Curlie Air Quality Modeling - From the website of Stuff in the Air The Model ... It was designed for evaluating the impact of industrial pollutant releases and for air quality assessments. It is a Gaussian ...
Greenpeace measurements in La Hague and Sellafield indicated that radioactive pollutants are steadily released into the sea, ... and the air. Therefore, people living near these processing plants are exposed to higher radiation levels than the naturally ... The first cycle PUREX raffinate is very radioactive. It has almost all of the fission products, corrosion products such as iron ... "Recent advances on the chemistry of solvent extraction applied to the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels and radioactive ...
Residents are also exposed to a myriad of air pollutants through mechanisms such as well-venting and flaring. Volatile organic ... Produced water includes naturally occurring radioactive materials, as well as high levels of brine, barium, strontium, and ... Early experiments in Mount Pleasant Township led to lengthy legal battles over pollution of well water and air. Range Resources ... The two most common pollutants associated with spills are total dissolved solids and conductivity; the increase in conductivity ...
... "air pollutant" causing "air pollution" as defined by the CAA. If carbon dioxide is not an air pollutant causing air pollution, ... radioactive ... substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air, ..." Both sides agreed that CO2 ... The law's definition of air pollutant contains "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, ... "any air pollutant" from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment cause[s], or contribute[s] to, air ...
... which leads to the creation of air pollutants. The main source of air pollutants comes from the transportation of minerals, but ... The exposed dust may be toxic or radioactive, making it a health concern for the workers and the surrounding communities.[16] ... These type of pollutants cause significant damage to public health and safety in addition to damaging the air quality. The ... If the ore contains sulfides it is usually covered with a layer of clay to prevent access of rain and oxygen from the air, ...
... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 - air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 - endocrine disruptors ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 - soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 - water pollutants MeSH D27.888. ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 - air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888. - oxidants, photochemical ... 284.903.655 - water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 - water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.569.035 - ...
... air-borne pollutants (acid rain, smog from vehicle emissions, excess nitrogen deposition, radioactive fallout, wind dispersion ... It can cause problems with food, water and humanity's air supply. 4. To fix the problem, humanity will need a transformative ... Ainsworth, Elizabeth A.; Long, Stephen P. (18 November 2004). "What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment ( ... Factors contributing to habitat loss include: overconsumption, overpopulation, land use change, deforestation, pollution (air ...
... air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.555 - radioactive fallout MeSH D20.693.638 - radioactive waste MeSH D20.693.756 - soil ... pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.693.903 - water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D20.721.500 - humic substances MeSH D20.749.354 ... radioactive waste MeSH D20.944.420 - industrial waste MeSH D20.944.460 - medical waste MeSH D20.944.460.150 - dental waste MeSH ...
... and subsequently air pollutants, will travel. HYSPLIT is also capable of calculating air pollutant dispersion, chemical ... Back trajectory analysis to establish source-receptor relationships Tracking and forecasting radioactive material Real-time ... including secondary formation of air pollutants) at a large scale. Air pollution dispersion terminology Atmospheric dispersion ... these lower air currents carry polluted air from major urban areas. But further inland, the air from higher up mixes more, so ...
Candidate adsorbants include toxic heavy metals, radioactive material, and various organic pollutants have been synthesized. ... Mesoporous organosilicas can be functionalized give adsorbants, for removal specific contaminants from air and water. ... Mesoporous organosilicas have been used to sense a wide variety of analytes: metals, industrial pollutants, small organic ... nanoengineered materials for removal of organic and inorganic pollutants". Journal of Materials Chemistry. 20 (22): 4478-4511. ...
People who come in contact with these air pollutants can have severe health problems such as respiratory issues, cardiovascular ... These chemicals can be radioactive materials, methane, other gases, and carcinogenic chemicals. However, the industry has ... While the Clean Air Act postulates regulations and rules limiting the emissions of greenhouse gases, other laws are concerned ... A study has found that people within half a mile from a gas well site were more likely to have health problems from air ...
5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air ... Office of Air Quality Planning and. "Modifications To The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants , Technology Transfer Network Air ... The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in ... The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that ...
Air Resources Laboratory AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors Atmospheric dispersion modeling Category: ... Although the ADMLC was initially formed to consider primarily radioactive releases from the nuclear industry, it has expanded ... ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling Liaison Committee Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) Air Quality Modeling ... Accidental release source terms Bibliography of atmospheric dispersion modeling Air pollution dispersion terminology Air ...
In 1970, Louisiana deployed the Comprehensive Toxic Air Pollutant Emission Control Program to satisfy the Federal Act. This ... Radioactive Waste Management Emergency Preparedness and Response Programs Protective Action Guides And Planning Guidance for ... Flatt, Victor Byers (2006). "Gasping for Breath: The Administrative Flaws of the Federal Hazardous Air Pollutant Program". SSRN ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Source Category: Pulp and Paper Production." Proposed rules. ...
These materials met DoD's VOC objective of 1.8 lb/gal and contained no hazardous air pollutants. The impetus for improved CARC ... These topcoats produced a non-porous finish that acted as a protectant against radioactive, biological and chemical ... MCU materials offered both lower levels of volatile organic compounds and elimination of hazardous air pollutants. 2) Two- ... air pollution regulations required reformulation of the coating's solvent content to reduce the emission of hazardous air ...
Hence, the use of CCS entails a reduction in air quality. Type and amount of air pollutants still depends on technology. CO 2 ... so have compared CCS technology to storing dangerous radioactive waste from nuclear power stations. The use of CCS could reduce ... "increase such emissions and of air pollutants per unit of net delivered power and will increase all ecological, land-use, air- ... The Fluor system also will be designed to remove residual quantities of remnant air pollutants from stack gases as part of the ...
One example of many effects is that fine particulates in the air have been associated with a higher prevalence of asthma, and ... Current policy states that incinerators do not have to report bypass emissions during startup and shutdown, when pollutants are ... radioactive materials, and naturally-occurring asbestos. The Navy has been trying to address the shipyard's wasted nature since ... In Utah, citizens gathered to protest an incinerator owned by Stericycle because of a report from the Utah Division of Air ...
Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear events, war explosives, and natural processes such as the ... Pollutants. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse ... Minor air pollutants include: *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ...
Odors - such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes Radioactive pollutants - produced by nuclear explosions, nuclear ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ... Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each ...
A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air, water, or soil. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its ... The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination, which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of ... The Rossby waves impact on air pollution has been observed in the daily fluctuations in surface air pollution. Thus, the impact ... radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, and water pollution. Air pollution has always accompanied ...
Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels Agricultural biodiversity Forestry Air engine Air pollution Air ... Schmeiser Periodicals Permaculture Permanent crop Permeable paving Persistent Organic Pollutant Persistent organic pollutants ... Australia Rachel Carson Radiative forcing Radical environmentalism Radio Frequency Interference Radioactive decay Radioactive ... Clean Air Act (1990) Clean Air Act 1956 Clean Development Mechanism Clean Up Australia Clean Water Act Clear Skies Act ...
... or sequester air pollutants or anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases" and "employ new or significantly improved ... radioactive waste disposal, and domestic energy production. It also directs research in genomics; the Human Genome Project ... The blue field represents air and water, green represents mineral resources and the earth itself, and gold represents the ... designed to provide a forum to share best practices in strengthening the security and safety of nuclear and radioactive ...
... and risks of pollutants on the environment, including soil, water, and air. Wetlands science is a geoprofessional pursuit that ... radioactive release) and are not of natural origin. Environmental chemistry assesses interactions or these compounds with soil ... These compounds are categorized as pollutants or contaminants when introduced into the environment by human factors (e.g., ...
Air pollution[edit]. Outdoor air pollutants, especially chemicals released from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the risk ... Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence. Rarely, removal of a whole ... Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution[4][5]. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, tissue biopsy[6 ... Radon is a colorless and odorless gas generated by the breakdown of radioactive radium, which in turn is the decay product of ...
Because natural gas emits little pollutant when combusted, cleaner air quality has been measured in urban localities switching ... As an alternative to uranium-fuelled nuclear reactors, thorium has been proven to add to proliferation, produces radioactive ... The air engine is an emission-free piston engine using compressed air as fuel. Unlike hydrogen, compressed air is about one- ... Hydrogen and natural gas are both lighter than air and can be mixed together. Nuclear power is any nuclear technology designed ...
Plants with air pollution controls such as wet scrubbers typically transfer the captured pollutants to the wastewater stream. ... and other naturally occurring radioactive isotopes whose release into the environment leads to radioactive contamination. While ... This technology does not treat dissolved pollutants. Power stations use additional technologies to control pollutants, ... Usually all of the carbon dioxide and some of the other pollution is discharged to the air. Solid waste ash from coal-fired ...
Aeration systems move the radon from the water to the air. Radon gas discharged into the air is the release of a pollutant, and ... amount of radiation accumulates over time and the filter material may reach the level of requiring disposal as a radioactive ... It controls the air delivery rate so that the air conditioner is never overloaded with more moisture than it can effectively ... Delta t (Δt), which is the amount that the air is cooled as it is passed through the air conditioner's cooling coils. A good Δt ...
... of the club's request to issue a supplemental EIS addressing air emissions of particulate matter and hazardous air pollutants ... Specific pollution threats include acid rain, radioactive contamination, debris in outer space, stratospheric ozone depletion ... Primary data are those collected in the field to define the status of the environment (like air quality data, water quality ... The main laws in action are the Water Act(1974), the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act (1972), the Air (Prevention and Control ...
... , besides being an irritant and significant indoor air pollutant, is known to cause lung cancer, heart disease, ... The radioactive element polonium-210 is also known to occur in tobacco smoke. The chemical composition of smoke depends on puff ...
... and all isotopes of francium are radioactive.[92] Caesium was also thought to be radioactive in the early 20th century,[93][94] ... Rubidium and caesium must be kept away from air, even under oil, because even a small amount of air diffused into the oil may ... caesium is not a major chemical environmental pollutant.[243] The median lethal dose (LD50) value for caesium chloride in mice ... Radioactive: 40K, t1/2 1.25 × 109 years; 87Rb, t1/2 4.9 × 1010 years; 223Fr, t1/2 22.0 min. ...
Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in ... Activated carbon filters are used to retain radioactive gases within the air vacuumed from a nuclear boiling water reactor ... air filters in respirators, filters in compressed air, teeth whitening, production of hydrogen chloride and many other ... Air is then introduced to burn out the gasses, creating a graded, screened and de-dusted form of activated carbon. This is ...
When the number of atoms on either side is unequal, the transformation is referred to as a nuclear reaction or radioactive ... Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, specifically relating to the nature of 'air' which was ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline ...
Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army ... and m-xylene using ion mobility spectrometers with a radioactive and UV ionization source". Analytical Chemistry. 75 (6): 1483- ... oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne pollutants. For example, in Southern ... Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army ...
... a high-risk area for radon as an indoor air pollutant.[33] From the surface exposures along the northern and eastern margins, ... and the radioactive decay of the uranium-238 (238U) makes it a source rock for radioactive radon gas (222Rn).[16] ... These fragments may have rust stains from exposure of pyrite to air, and tiny gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) crystals from the reaction ... allowing air and water into the unexcavated rock, resulting in acidic surface runoff after precipitation events.[136] Acidic ...
Another air separation method is forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high ... However, ozone present at the surface is a byproduct of smog and thus a pollutant. ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 27 s and the majority of these have half-lives ... 2 is usually obtained by the fractional distillation of liquefied air.[46] Liquid oxygen may also be condensed from air using ...
... gases can seep out of the landfill and into the surrounding air and soil. Methane is a greenhouse gas, and is ... Eventually, every landfill liner will leak,[5] allowing pollutants to contaminate groundwater. ... High-level radioactive waste management. *History of waste management. *Landfill fire. *Sewage regulation and administration ...
The flame tree Delonix regia does not rely on fire but shoots its seeds through the air when the two sides of its long pods ... The tests to demonstrate this networking are performed by injecting chemicals, sometimes radioactive, into a tree, and then ... They can provide shade and cooling through evapotranspiration, absorb greenhouse gases and pollutants, intercept rainfall, and ... Charcoal can be made by slow pyrolysis of wood by heating it in the absence of air in a kiln. The carefully stacked branches, ...
These are pollutants which emit radioactive materials, such as alpha and beta particles, posing danger to human health and the ... and fates of chemical species in the air, soil, and water environments; and the effect of human activity on these. ... "Sustainable Table: Dictionary." Pollutant.. *↑ Harrison, R.M (edited by). Understanding Our Environment, An Introduction to ... Typical pollutants include gasoline, motor oil and other hydrocarbon compounds, metals, nutrients and sediment (soil).[8] ...
Pollutants[edit]. The composition of wastewater varies widely. This is a partial list of pollutants that may be contained in ... High-level radioactive waste management. *History of waste management. *Landfill fire. *Sewage regulation and administration ... Air. *Acid rain. *Air quality index. *Atmospheric dispersion modeling. *Chlorofluorocarbon. *Indoor air ... Biological pollutants[edit]. If the wastewater contains human feces, as is the case for sewage, then it may also contain ...
The term environment refers not only to air, water, and soil but also to substances and conditions at home and at the workplace ... However, radiation and radioactive drugs are normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 ... exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants.[3] In the developing world, 15% of cancers are due to infections ... but since everyone has a small chance of developing lung cancer as a result of air pollution or radiation, the cancer may have ...
This arrangement prevents the introduction of ozone into the treated air. Likewise, air may be treated by passing by a single ... Scott, KJ; Wills, RBH (1973). "Atmospheric pollutants destroyed in an ultra violet scrubber". Laboratory Practice. 22 (2): 103- ... and radioactive materials can produce levels that will activate a UV detection system. The presence of UV-absorbing gases and ... "US Air Force. Retrieved 24 June 2017.. *^ Escobar, David (20 April 2015). "Oxygen Cleaning: A Validated Process is Critical for ...
Dissolved air flotation. When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation (DAF) is ... Radium Removal: Some groundwater sources contain radium, a radioactive chemical element. Typical sources include many ... or environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants. The choice of method will depend on the quality of the water being ... Prior to this step, compressed air may be blown up through the bottom of the filter to break up the compacted filter media to ...
Sebagian besar membentuk larutan tak berwarna dalam air. Sebagian besar membentuk larutan berwarna dalam air ... United States Government 2014, Toxic Pollutant List, Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR 401.15., accessed 27 March 2016. ... Sanders R. 2003, "Radioactive potassium may be major heat source in Earth's core," UCBerkelyNews, 10 December, accessed 17 July ... Sulfida logam golongan 1 dan 2, serta aluminium, dihidrolisis oleh air;[162] skandium,[163] yttrium[164] dan titanium sulfida[ ...
"National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 8 November 2018.. *^ Assfalg, M; Banci, L; Bertini, I; ... The chromite ore is heated with a mixture of calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of air. The chromium is ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 24 hours and the majority less than 1 minute. ... Chromium metal left standing in air is passivated, i.e. forms a thin, protective, surface layer of oxide. This layer has a ...
... of solid radioactive mill waste and 94 million US gallons (360,000 m3) of acidic, radioactive tailings solution into the Puerco ... and rain transported leftover pollutants downstream into Arizona.[18][35] New Mexico ordered United Nuclear to monitor pools ... Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Radiation Protection Division, April 2008, pp. Appendix IV, p. 7. ... of solid radioactive mill waste and about 93 million US gallons (350,000 m3) of acidic, radioactive tailings solution flowed ...
For example, Thorotrast, a (incidentally radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is ... Acharya, PV Narasimh; Irreparable DNA-Damage by Industrial Pollutants in Pre-mature Aging, Chemical Carcinogenesis, and Cardiac ... and outdoor air pollution (1-2%).[35] Tobacco smoke is a complex mixture of more than 5,300 identified chemicals. The most ... Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for ...
The states, Indian tribes, and federal government are all engaged in efforts to restore and improve the water, land, and air ... By 1957, the eight plutonium production reactors at Hanford dumped a daily average of 50,000 curies of radioactive material ... In addition to concerns about nuclear waste, numerous other pollutants are found in the river. These include chemical ... of highly radioactive waste is traveling through groundwater toward the Columbia River. This waste is expected to reach the ...
"Ambient Air Pollution, Noise, and Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk". Annual Review of Public Health. 40 (1): 203- ... Radioactive contamination. *Actinides in the environment. *Bioremediation of radioactive waste. *Environmental radioactivity ... Pollutant release and transfer register. *Polluter pays principle. *Pollution control. *Pollution prevention ...
Acid rain - Air pollution - Anabolic steroids - Asbestos - Aspartame - Aspirin - CFCs - Cholesterol - Carbohydrates - Carbon ... On Earth it is created by the radioactive decay of much heavier elements (alpha particles are helium-4 nuclei produced by alpha ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... Radioactive waste - Smog - Soil contamination - Sugar - Tamiflu - Viagra - Vitamins. ...
Radioactive nickel-56 is produced by the silicon burning process and later set free in large quantities during type Ia ... National Pollutant Inventory - Nickel and compounds Fact Sheet Archived December 8, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ... Nickel is slowly oxidized by air at room temperature and is considered corrosion-resistant. Historically, it has been used for ... All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives that are less than 60 hours and the majority of these have half-lives ...
Other pollutants[edit]. Natural gas produces far lower amounts of sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides than other fossil fuels.[90 ... "Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)". World Nuclear Association. December 2016. Retrieved 22 November 2017.. ... Preliminary results of some air sampling from airplanes done by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration indicated ... Natural gas extraction also produces radioactive isotopes of polonium (Po-210), lead (Pb-210) and radon (Rn-220). Radon is a ...
Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in ... Activated carbon filters are used to retain radioactive gases within the air vacuumed from a nuclear boiling water reactor ... air filters in gas masks and respirators, filters in compressed air, teeth whitening, and many other applications. ... Activated carbon is used in methane and hydrogen storage,[1][2] air purification, decaffeination, gold purification, metal ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *Occupational safety and health. *Pulmonary agents. *Swimming pool equipment ... The other chlorine isotopes are all radioactive, with half-lives too short to occur in nature primordially. Of these, the most ... "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it is a gas (then called "airs") and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as " ... Chlorine, Gas Encyclopaedia, Air Liquide *^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed ...
"WHO - 7 million premature deaths annually linked to air pollution".. *^ "WHO - Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health". ... Dye, S. T. (2012). "Geoneutrinos and the radioactive power of the Earth". Reviews of Geophysics. 50 (3): 3. arXiv:1111.6099. ... Pollutants such as sulphurous oxides (SOx), nitrous oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) are produced from the combustion ... Air flow can be used to run wind turbines. Modern utility-scale wind turbines range from around 600 kW to 9 MW of rated power. ...
"Americium, Radioactive". TOXNET Toxicology Data Network. Archived from the original on 12 October 2016.. ... Air emissions of brominated dioxins, heavy metals, and PAHs. Plastics from printers, keyboards, monitors, etc.. Shredding and ... to produce waste that can be easily recycled which decreases the amount of harmful pollutants in the atmosphere.[83] The excess ... The radioactive source in smoke alarms.. It is known to be carcinogenic.[90]. ...
"THE EFFECTS OF TERRESTRIAL RUNOFF OF SEDIMENTS, NUTRIENTS AND OTHER POLLUTANTS ON CORAL REEFS" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-12-05.. ... A study released in April 2013 has shown that air pollution can also stunt the growth of coral reefs; researchers from ... fossilized remains can be dated using radioactive carbon dating and have been used to reconstruct Holocene sea levels[42] ... The Clean Water Act puts pressure on state government agencies to monitor and limit runoff of pollutants that can cause ocean ...
"Air Pollutants, Radioactive" by people in this website by year, and whether "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" was a major or minor ... "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive*Air Pollutants, Radioactive. *Radioactive Air Pollutants. *Pollutants, Radioactive Air ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" by people in Profiles. ...
1 Abstracts with Air Pollutants: Radioactive Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ...
Radioactive Contaminates. Radon. *Floor drains and sumps. *Joints where basement walls and floor come together ... Indoor Air Pollutants: Where To Find Them and What To Do. greenbuilding. June 5, 2017. green home improvement ... Tags:green childrens room, green energy retrofitting, green home improvement, Indoor Air Pollutants ... Remove obstacles obstructing air flow in damp areas. *Eliminate piles of newspapers, clothing and other materials in damp areas ...
Radioactive Contaminates. Radon. *Floor drains and sumps. *Joints where basement walls and floor come together ... Indoor Air Pollutants: Where To Find Them and What To Do. greenbuilding. April 25, 2017. green home improvement ... Remove obstacles obstructing air flow in damp areas. *Eliminate piles of newspapers, clothing and other materials in damp areas ... Do not hang clothes to dry in the basement unless the area is well ventilated, with stale air being exhausted to the outdoors ...
Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis * Air Pollutants, Radioactive / toxicity * Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis ...
Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis* * Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis* * Background Radiation* * Gamma Rays* ...
... workspace air, ambient air, indoor air, in particular measurement methods for air pollutants (particles, gases, odours, micro- ... Standardization of tools for air quality characterisation of emissions, ... the establishment of limit values for air pollutants; *the air quality in clean rooms; *radioactive substances. ... workspace air, ambient air, indoor air, in particular measurement methods for air pollutants (particles, gases, odours, micro- ...
Miscellaneous radioactive materials tracking (metals, concrete, other). Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) Monitoring: Kristof ... Radiological air monitoring - includes three components: *ORR perimeter (low volume) ambient air monitoring - 12 ... Other incinerators, (e.g., TVA) may have an impact on ambient air around ORR ...
6) Hazardous air pollutant The term "hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b). ... b) List of pollutants (1) Initial list The Congress establishes for purposes of this section a list of hazardous air pollutants ... a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such ... tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants ...
... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... plus indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ... Ninety-two percent of the world population breathes polluted air; a toxic environment is responsible for 1 of every 4 deaths ...
Air Pollutants: Radioactive. 1. 1. mTOR/S6K pathway Activator. 1. 1. Alpha-hemolysin inhibitor. 1. 1. ...
0 (Air Pollutants, Radioactive); 16291-96-6 (Charcoal); 4OC371KSTK (Uranium); 60YU5MIG9W (Thorium); Q74S4N8N1G (Radon). ... 0 (Potassium Radioisotopes); 0 (Soil Pollutants, Radioactive); 60YU5MIG9W (Thorium); W90AYD6R3Q (Radium). [Em] M s de entrada: ... 0 (Potassium Radioisotopes); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants, Radioactive); 60YU5MIG9W (Thorium); W90AYD6R3Q (Radium). ... The study demonstrates the regeneration of charcoal adsorption capacity degraded due to moisture adsorption, by hot air blowing ...
... health risks associated with fracking include hazardous air pollutants; improper disposal of radioactive wastewater; and ... Mall cited ways to capture air pollutants, encase wastewater in steel tanks, use less toxic chemicals in fluids and keep ...
5 A type of atom that spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.. Section 3. List of Categories and Subcategories of Hazardous ... Section 2. List of Hazardous Air Pollutants. The following chemicals are hazardous air pollutants: ... and control of air pollution. This administrative regulation provides the list of hazardous air pollutants pursuant to 42 U.S.C ... List of hazardous air pollutants, petitions process, lesser quantity designations, and source category list. ...
There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or ... Another example is radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas which comes from rocks containing uranium. Radon can pose ... Connecticuts Management of Toxic Air Pollutants. Air Toxic Pollutants Sources. There are many sources of toxic air pollutants ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants , What Connecticut is Doing About Air Toxics ...
The book presents the outdoor and indoor air quality association. ,Intechopen ... Different countries have different air quality standards based on economic growth goal. ... air pollution chemistry; b) air pollutant emission control; c) radioactive pollution and d) indoor air quality. ... Air Quality in Rural Areas by J.P. Majra * Chapter 24 CFD Analyses of Methods to Improve Air Quality and Efficiency of Air ...
Air Pollutants, Radioactive (1) • Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity. MeSH ... Air Pollutants, Environmental (0) see Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants, Occupational (4) • Air pollutants found in the work area ... Air Pollutants (14) • Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, ...
Categories: Air Pollutants, Radioactive Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... and radioactive compounds.. Air Quality Index (AQI):. An index for reporting daily air quality that characterizes air pollution ... hazardous air pollutants:. See air toxics.. hazardous waste:. Waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially ... criteria pollutants:. A group of six widespread and common air pollutants that EPA regulates on the basis of standards set to ... air pollutant:. Any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm human health and the environment and cause ...
... tracking radioactive emissions and volcanic ash discharges; analysis of accidental air pollutant releases and assisting in ... SAFE AIR II (Italy) - The simulation of air pollution from emissions II (SAFE AIR II) was developed at the Department of ... ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. Air Dispersion Modeling at Curlie Air Quality Modeling - From the website of Stuff in the Air The Model ... It was designed for evaluating the impact of industrial pollutant releases and for air quality assessments. It is a Gaussian ...
Fracking pumps hazardous pollutants into the air. Fracking uses over 100 dangerous chemicals known to cause life-threatening ... Fracking produces massive volumes of toxic and radioactive waste. The disposal of this waste is causing earthquakes and putting ...
... air pollution chemistry; b) air pollutant emission control; c) radioactive pollution and d) indoor air quality. (8994 views) ... Chemistry, Emission Control, Radioactive Pollution and Indoor Air Quality. by Nicolas Mazzeo - InTech. The 25 chapters of this ... comprehensive book deal with several air pollution issues grouped into the following sections: a) ...
Although some details about the... Explanation of air-lock ... Find out information about air-lock. see atmosphere atmosphere ... Radioactive air pollutants are particularly dangerous; as a result of the constant movement of air masses, they are global in ... Certain air pollutants cause occupational diseases. The influence of air pollutants on living conditions is extremely great. In ... air. (redirected from air-lock). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. air:. see atmosphereatmosphere. [Gr.,= ...
Although some details about the... Explanation of air gap technique ... Find out information about air gap technique. see atmosphere atmosphere , the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body ... Radioactive air pollutants are particularly dangerous; as a result of the constant movement of air masses, they are global in ... Certain air pollutants cause occupational diseases. The influence of air pollutants on living conditions is extremely great. In ...
5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. Questions concerning the listed HAPs should be directed to ... Original list of hazardous air pollutants. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 List of Hazardous Air Pollutants. CAS. Number. ...
... air emissions of pollutants; groundwater contamination by methane; hydraulic fracturing (fracking) fluids containing hazardous ... naturally occurring radioactive materials; waste framework; water framework; groundwater; substances included under the EUs ... substances; flow-back containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials; accidents harming the environment ...
  • This year's World Environment Day theme is air pollution and ISO has a range of international standards that help to combat it. (
  • Indoor air pollution can be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. (
  • Airtight modern buildings need to be properly ventilated to prevent or reduce the buildup of indoor air pollution. (
  • 2 Overall, a toxic environment is responsible for at least 1 of every 4 deaths reported worldwide, 3 and air pollution is the greatest contributor to this risk. (
  • According to WHO, air pollution is a major contributor to lung and respiratory infections, heart disease and cancer. (
  • What many fail to consider is that indoor air pollution may actually be as dangerous, or more, than outdoor air pollution. (
  • Indeed, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has noted that indoor air pollution is one of the top public health risks you face on a daily basis. (
  • Recent research 12 demonstrates two widespread pollutants - nitrogen dioxide (traffic-related air pollution) and PM2.5 (fine-particle pollution) - disrupt sleep and decrease sleep efficiency (a measure of the time spent actually sleeping as opposed to lying in bed awake). (
  • What Causes Air Pollution Indoors? (
  • NECESSITY, FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: KRS 224.10-100(5) authorizes the cabinet to promulgate administrative regulations for the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution. (
  • Despite great gains in fuel economy and the efficacy of air pollution control equipment over the past twenty years, the EPA estimated in 1990 that mobile sources emit 39% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (
  • While many of us would consider air pollution to be an issue that the modern world has resolved to a greater extent, it still appears to have considerable influence on the global environment. (
  • In many countries with ambitious economic growth targets the acceptable levels of air pollution have been transgressed. (
  • c) radioactive pollution and d) indoor air quality. (
  • An index for reporting daily air quality that characterizes air pollution levels and associated health effects that might be of concern. (
  • the higher the AQI value, the greater the level of air pollution and the greater the health concern. (
  • EPA's electronic repository of ambient air monitoring data collected by EPA, state, local, and tribal air pollution control agencies from thousands of monitoring stations. (
  • A source of air pollution that is released over an area that cannot be classified as a point source. (
  • Section 202(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. § 7521(a)(1), requires the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") to set emission standards for "any air pollutant" from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines "which in his judgment cause[s], or contribute[s] to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. (
  • Following the advice given will not necessarily provide complete protection in all situations or against all health hazards that may be caused by indoor air pollution. (
  • Indoor air pollution is one risk that you can do something about. (
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health may be greater due to exposure to air pollution indoors than outdoors. (
  • In addition, people who may be exposed to indoor air pollutants for the longest periods of time are often those most susceptible to the effects of indoor air pollution. (
  • While pollutant levels from individual sources may not pose a significant health risk by themselves, most homes have more than one source that contributes to indoor air pollution. (
  • This safety guide was prepared by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to help you decide whether to take actions that can reduce the level of indoor air pollution in your own home. (
  • Indoor pollution sources that release gases or particles into the air are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. (
  • There are many sources of indoor air pollution in any home. (
  • and outdoor sources such as radon, pesticides, and outdoor air pollution. (
  • The major form of Pollution is AIR pollution. (
  • The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. (
  • all kind of pollution such as air, water, noise and so on causes serious harmfull effect to the environment. (
  • Air pollution causes very serious harmfull effect. (
  • The major forms of pollution include: air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. (
  • Motor vehicle emissions are likely the leading cause of air pollution. (
  • The air pollution has caused global warming, hole in the ozone layer and led to changes in climatic conditions adversely affecting growth of crops and plants. (
  • Air pollution in cities is cuased mostly by vehicular traffic and factories which emits pollutants that affecvts one's health and causes dieases like cancer, allergies ,asthma and breathing disorders and respiratory problems, causing both long aterm and short terms ill affects. (
  • The books series will encompass all scientific aspects of environmental chemistry through a multidisciplinary approach: Environmental Engineering/Biotechnology, Waste Management/Waste Technology, Pollution, general, Atmospheric Protection/Air Quality Control/Air Pollution, Analytical Chemistry. (
  • These local air pollutants can be cut with technologies that are already in use around the world at scale, and through existing laws and institutions at the national and regional level that already have the expertise needed to control air pollution. (
  • Our existing air pollution tools can quickly be adapted to become the best short-term climate fighters the world has to slow warming while we continue to build the political will to manage CO 2 emissions," said Durwood Zaelke, President of the Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development (IGSD). (
  • air pollution from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (
  • air pollution, contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health. (
  • The major sources of air pollution are transportation engines, power and heat generation, industrial processes, and the burning of solid waste . (
  • In urban areas like Los Angeles where transportation is the main cause of air pollution, nitrogen dioxide tints the air, blending with other contaminants and the atmospheric water vapor to produce brown smog . (
  • Air pollution from cities also affects rural areas for many miles downwind. (
  • In less developed regions, indoor air pollution from open fires burning wood and other fuels for heating and cooking can be a significant health hazard. (
  • Every industrial process exhibits its own pattern of air pollution. (
  • The dramatic and debilitating effects of severe air pollution episodes in cities throughout the world-such as the London smog of 1952 that resulted in 4,000 deaths-have alerted governments to the necessity for crisis procedures. (
  • Even everyday levels of air pollution may insidiously affect health and behavior. (
  • Indoor air pollution is a problem in developed countries, where efficient insulation keeps pollutants inside the structure. (
  • Air pollution may possibly harm populations in ways so subtle or slow that they have not yet been detected. (
  • For that reason research is now under way to assess the long-term effects of chronic exposure to low levels of air pollution-what most people experience-as well as to determine how air pollutants interact with one another in the body and with physical factors such as nutrition , stress, alcohol, cigarette smoking , and common medicines. (
  • Another subject of investigation is the relation of air pollution to cancer , birth defects , and genetic mutations . (
  • A relatively recently discovered result of air pollution are seasonal "holes" in the ozone layer in the atmosphere above Antarctica and the Arctic, coupled with growing evidence of global ozone depletion. (
  • This 5000 litre detector (on side of building) operates as part of the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, Australia. (
  • The Agency´s Environment programme includes a new project on the use of nuclear techniques for monitoring air pollution and investigating atmospheric processes. (
  • Burning of fossil fuels and other forms of air pollution cause toxic chemicals to mix with water vapors and will precipitate in form of acid rain, contaminating river waters and ground waters. (
  • radioactive pollution. (
  • What Is Air Pollution? (
  • Air pollution in its great magnitude has existed in the 20th century from the coal burning industries of the early century to the fossil burning technology in the new century. (
  • The problems of air pollution are a major problem for highly developed nations whose large industrial bases and highly developed infrastructures generate much of the air pollution. (
  • In the United Kingdom, traffic is the major cause of air pollution in British cities. (
  • In the past, severe pollution in London during 1952 added with low winds and high-pressure air had taken more than four thousand lives and another seven hundred in 1962, in what was called the 'Dark Years' because of the dense dark polluted air. (
  • Indoor air pollution and exposure to hazardous substances in the home are risks we can do something about. (
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health from exposure to indoor air pollution may be greater than risks from outdoor pollution. (
  • Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. (
  • Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases ( chapter 19 ), respiratory diseases in children and adults ( chapters 25 and 35 ), cancers ( chapter 29 ), neurological disorders ( chapter 32 ), and cardiovascular disease ( chapter 33 ), as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues. (
  • Nevertheless, public health practitioners and decision makers in developing countries need to be aware of the potential health risks caused by air and water pollution and to know where to find the more detailed information required to handle a specific situation. (
  • This chapter will not repeat the discussion about indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning ( chapter 42 ) and water pollution caused by poor sanitation at the household level ( chapter 41 ), but it will focus on the problems caused by air and water pollution at the community, country, and global levels. (
  • As the World Health Organization (WHO) points out, outdoor air pollution contributes as much as 0.6 to 1.4 percent of the burden of disease in developing regions, and other pollution, such as lead in water, air, and soil, may contribute 0.9 percent ( WHO 2002 ). (
  • Because of space limitations, this chapter can give only selected examples of air and water pollution health concerns. (
  • Selected Industrial Sectors and Their Contribution to Air and Water Pollution and to Workplace Hazards. (
  • To develop effective strategies for avoiding or eliminating indoor air pollution sources, we need to understand where they come from. (
  • g) The term "air pollutant" means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. (
  • What particles are common in air pollution? (
  • Components of industrial air pollution control plant which minimise the release of pollutants into the atmosphere. (
  • Cities, with their traffic, industrial centers and factories, usually suffer from some degree of air pollution. (
  • Air Pollution, contamination of the atmosphere by gaseous, liquid, or solid wastes or by-products that can endanger human health and the health and welfare of plants and animals, or can attack materials, reduce visibility, or produce undesirable odors. (
  • Aerial radioactive pollution of the vegetative cover near nuclear power stations may have played a decisive role in 137Cs uptake by plants. (
  • While nuclear power produces little pollution under normal operations there is a risk of accidental radioactive releases, and highly radioactive wastes are accumulating for which no generally acceptable disposal route has yet been established. (
  • Air Pollution - Open your windows for 15 minutes each morning and evening (even in winter) to air out your house. (
  • The Act defines "air pollutant" to include "any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive … substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. (
  • Pollution can be of different types based on the part of the environment getting polluted or the major type of pollutant involved. (
  • Air, water, and soil pollution are the three major types of pollution. (
  • Littering and radioactive contamination also causes pollution. (
  • Pollution can be of different types depending on the part of the environment that is getting polluted or the type of pollutants/contaminants causing the pollution. (
  • However, given the wide range of ways in which our species have managed to contaminate the environment, we also have noise, light, radioactive, thermal, and plastic pollution. (
  • Air pollution caused by smoke coming out of two factory chimneys in the industrial zone of Kiev, Ukraine. (
  • Air pollution refers to the release of pollutants like toxic gases, biological molecules, and particulate matter into the atmosphere. (
  • Like air pollution, water pollution is one of the most harmful types of pollution. (
  • When radioactive substances are present in areas where their presence is undesirable or unintended, it results in a type of pollution called radioactive contamination. (
  • List of hazardous air pollutants, petitions process, lesser quantity designations, and source category list. (
  • This administrative regulation provides the list of hazardous air pollutants pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 7412(b) as amended in 40 C.F.R. Part 63, Subpart C and the list of source categories and subcategories. (
  • List of Hazardous Air Pollutants. (
  • Standardization of tools for air quality characterisation of emissions, workspace air, ambient air, indoor air, in particular measurement methods for air pollutants (particles, gases, odours, micro-organisms) and for meteorological parameters, measurement planning, procedures for Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) and methods for the evaluation of results including the determination of uncertainty. (
  • The term " modification " means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which increases the actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant emitted by such source by more than a de minimis amount or which results in the emission of any hazardous air pollutant not previously emitted by more than a de minimis amount. (
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (
  • In 1990, the EPA estimated that major sources emit 30% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (
  • However, due to several factors, including new regulations, process changes and economic factors, the latest information from 1999 indicates that only 6% of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources. (
  • However, estimates based on 1999 information indicate that 64% of toxic air pollutant emissions originate from mobile sources, 38% from on-road and 26 % from non-road. (
  • Inadequate ventilation can increase indoor pollutant levels by not bringing in enough outdoor air to dilute emissions from indoor sources and by not carrying indoor air pollutants out of the home. (
  • The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. (
  • OCD - Offshore and coastal dispersion model (OCD) is a Gaussian model developed to determine the impact of offshore emissions from point, area or line sources on the air quality of coastal regions. (
  • HYROAD - The hybrid roadway model integrates three individual modules simulating the pollutant emissions from vehicular traffic and the dispersion of those emissions. (
  • The dispersion module is a puff model that determines concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) or other gaseous pollutants and particulate matter (PM) from vehicle emissions at receptors within 500 meters of the roadway intersections. (
  • In 1998, the London Metropolitan Police launched the 'Emissions Controlled Reduction' scheme where by traffic police would monitor the amount of pollutants being released into the air by vehicle exhausts. (
  • Air pollutants include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which originate from sources such as vehicle emissions, power plants, refineries, and industrial and laboratory processes. (
  • given pollutant it emits and how hazardous those emissions are. (
  • Facilities seeking a PSD permit must comply with emissions limitations that reflect the "best available control technology" (BACT) for "each pollutant subject to regulation under" the Act and it is unlawful to operate any "major source," wherever located, without a permit. (
  • Facilities seeking to qualify for a PSD permit must, inter alia, comply with emissions limitations that reflect the "best available control technology" (BACT) for "each pollutant subject to regulation under" the Act. (
  • The elevated health risk was associated with exposure to air pollutants from the power plant emissions and to a spectrum of heavy metals and radioactive isotopes in coal ash. (
  • 5 A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay. (
  • All radionuclides go through radioactive decay until they reach a stable state. (
  • Radioactive decay is the process in which a radioactive element turns into another element, releasing radiation in the process. (
  • Radon is a heavy radioactive gas formed by the decay of radium. (
  • Radon 222 Rn) is a naturally occurring radioactive gas generated by the decay of the naturally occurring 238 U series [1,2]. (
  • Because of the industrial processes and raw material used as its source, the fluoride also comes contaminated with radioactive uranium decay compounds, arsenic, lead and mercury. (
  • 1 Most lung cancers are caused by cigarette smoking, but another recognised lung carcinogen 2 is the chemically inert gas radon-222 (half-life four days), a ubiquitous natural air pollutant arising from radioactive decay of the uranium-238 present throughout the earth's crust. (
  • radioactive substances. (
  • These are substances we breathe in: small airborne particulates, tiny suspended droplets of liquid (aerosols), radioactive isotopes, and gases. (
  • Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process (the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories) and secondary pollutants are not emitted directly (they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact). (
  • Air pollutants can include almost any natural or artificial composition of matter capable of being airborne-solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination thereof. (
  • Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it. (
  • ventilation ventilation, process of supplying fresh air to an enclosed space and removing from it air contaminated by odors, gases, or smoke. (
  • Air contains very small quantities of other inert gases, as well as hydrogen (H 2 ), ozone (0 3 ), nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH 3 ), methane (CH 4 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). (
  • The content of nitrogen, oxygen, and inert gases in air is virtually constant, since a constant concentration of oxygen-and in part nitrogen-is maintained by the plants of the earth. (
  • DEGADIS - Dense gas dispersion (DEGADIS) is a model that simulates the dispersion at ground level of area source clouds of denser-than-air gases or aerosols released with zero momentum into the atmosphere over flat, level terrain. (
  • Atmospheric dispersion modelling is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants (including greenhouse gases) move around in the air we breathe. (
  • It has a radioactive half-life of 4 days, it doesn´t participate in chemical reactions with other gases in the air, and it comes from only one place - the land. (
  • and be equally applicable to radioactive gases as well as to particles. (
  • The Clean Air Act does not require a major facility emitting pollutants to get a permit under its Prevention of Significant Deterioration Provisions solely because it is possible that the facility might emit greenhouse gases. (
  • These radionuclides end up naturally in soil, water and air. (
  • The small amounts of airborne radionuclides released from facilities that handle and process radioactive materials can get into the soil, water or air. (
  • It damages not only the air quality, but also the soil and water - in your own backyard. (
  • Radon is an inert gas that enters buildings from outdoor air, water and soil, especially via gaps around pipes and cables and through cracks in floors. (
  • Renewable bamboo-based products are substitutions of wooden necessities.Since bamboo is characterized by short growing cycle, these enviroment-friendly products can save a great deal of water,soil and air resources. (
  • Environmental monitoring is required to protect the public and the environment from toxic contaminants and pathogens that can be released into a variety of media including air, soil, and water. (
  • Radon is a radioactive gas that occurs naturally in the soil. (
  • This method was based on statistical processing of observation data on pollutant concentration in plants, soil and air (or atmospheric precipitation). (
  • CONCLUSION In North Carolina, further studies are required to profile the severity of the cumulative impacts of multiple air, water, and soil contaminants related to coal-burning power plants and coal ash impoundments on human health and the environment. (
  • Industrial and agricultural chemicals are the common pollutants contaminating the soil. (
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (
  • 1980. Analysis of ambient air at New Jersey locations for selected volatile organic compounds. (
  • 1994. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in indoor air- A review. (
  • This is followed by an extensive review of the excellent sensing capabilities of the realized SWCNTs-based chemical nanosensors against volatile organic compounds and other pollutants in different environments (air and water) and operating conditions (room temperature and cryogenic temperatures). (
  • Ambient air is polluted by many semi-Volatile and Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs and VOCs) coming from anthropogenic and natural sources. (
  • Researchers have measured more than 60 air pollutants downwind of natural gas flares including many volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. (
  • Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than major sources, which emit less than 10 tons per year of any single air toxic or less than 25 tons per year of combined air toxics. (
  • Mobile sources emit toxic air pollutants through the incomplete combustion of fuel and through the evaporation of fuel. (
  • Examples of toxic air pollutants include benzene (found in gasoline), perchloroethylene (emitted from some dry cleaning facilities), and methylene chloride (used as a solvent by a number of industries). (
  • Fracking produces massive volumes of toxic and radioactive waste. (
  • I think we should use renewable sources of energy like wind power, solar energy , tidal power, water harvesting, to provide us clean, clear, pollutants free, energy which is not toxic and is environment friendly. (
  • The pro-fluoride people tell us the toxic fluoride, arsenic and radioactive compounds are diluted in the water, therefore they pose no harm. (
  • In addition, factors including rising concerns over exposure to radioactive and toxic air pollutants coupled with increasing instances of infectious biological hazards are anticipated to augment the demand for RPE over the forecast period. (
  • In a report released last year, 'Bringing GE to Light: General Electric's Trail of Radioactive and Toxic Contamination from the Company's Nuclear Weapons Work,' INFACT found that GE's nuclear weapons work has created environment health and safety nightmares across the United States. (
  • Toxic wastes released by industries, pathogens released in sewage, harmful chemicals present in agricultural runoffs, etc., are some of the top water pollutants . (
  • Driving in cars, flying in planes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk. (
  • This section also examines some of the specific toxins but is primarily designed to offer a general program on how to minimize, handle, and protect ourselves from the many environmental pollutants and their effects upon us. (
  • Regular monitoring of environmental pollutants is common practice in many cities and priority pollutants are detected and monitored. (
  • Like photochemical pollutants, sulfur oxides contribute to the incidence of respiratory diseases. (
  • Much of the secondary pollutants PM 2.5 consists of created by the condensation of gaseous pollutants-for example, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ). (
  • While gas-fired plants release fewer air pollutants than coal- or oil-fired plants, they still discharge sulfur dioxide (SO2), are major emitters of nitrogen oxide (NOx), contribute to ground-level ozone and smog, and threaten the environment and human health. (
  • It is caused by the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. (
  • Tiny particles or particulates suspended in the indoor air, including dust and fiber, can cause respiratory, throat, and eye irritation, or illness as the body tries to rid itself of these foreign particles. (
  • This revision was motivated by the availability of increased knowledge of the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract and of the deposition, clearance, and biological effects of inhaled radioactive particles, and by greatly expanded dosimetry requirements. (
  • Most air purifiers are proven to remove 99.7% of all particles found in indoor air. (
  • With an air purifier, these particles and pollutants are absorbed and cannot be circulated throughout the air. (
  • HEPA was invented during World War II to prevent the escape of radioactive particles from laboratories. (
  • In a 1990 review of indoor air pollutants, published by The American Thoracic Society, it was stated that air purifiers containing the HEPA filter are able to remove a significant amount of particles from indoor air, making the air cleaner and safer to breathe. (
  • By eliminating particles in the air that trigger attacks, air purifiers are helping people with asthma to cope with their daily lives. (
  • Although ozone technically clears the air of some particles, most groups do not recommend these. (
  • Air is one of the most important sources of chemical raw materials. (
  • The HYSPLIT model is a complete system for computing simple air parcel trajectories, as well as complex transport, dispersion, chemical transformation, and deposition simulations. (
  • Indoor pollutants can be placed into two groups, biologic and chemical. (
  • Chemical fumes, tobacco smoke and dust can be absorbed into the filter of an air purifier. (
  • This is more true around big cities, but even in the rural sections of this nation, air and water contamination is spreading, and pesticides are a danger everywhere. (
  • The PUREX Plant at the Hanford Site was responsible for producing 'copious volumes of liquid wastes', resulting in the radioactive contamination of groundwater. (
  • Yeah, well, when you choose to store unbelievably radioactive crap in swimming pools, and in a part of the world where there are constant earthquakes, then prepare to watch as earthquake after earthquake causes further and further contamination of the environment. (
  • INFACT charges that GE knowingly contaminated residents of Washington, Oregon and Idaho with radioactive contamination from its Hanford nuclear weapons facility. (
  • Expert collecting water sample for checking radioactive contamination of the water body. (
  • This means your indoor air quality is really important to your long-term health. (
  • Paying careful attention to these two broad categories can go a long way toward improving your indoor air quality. (
  • Yes, say an increasing number of indoor air quality specialists in government agencies, academia, and the emerging industry working to solve these problems. (
  • Decorating Studio Home Decor Article on A Guide To Indoor Air Quality. (
  • are the primary cause of indoor air quality problems in homes. (
  • High temperature and humidity levels can also increase concentrations of some pollutants. (
  • High pollutant concentrations can remain in the air for long periods after some of these activities. (
  • ADMS 3 - Atmospheric dispersion modelling system (ADMS 3) is an advanced dispersion model developed in the United Kingdom for calculating concentrations of pollutants emitted both continuously from point, line, volume and area sources, or discretely from point sources. (
  • ISC3 - A Gaussian model used to assess pollutant concentrations from a wide variety of sources associated with an industrial complex. (
  • The model calculation method is a hybrid between the Lagrangian approach, using a moving frame of reference for the advection and diffusion calculations as the trajectories or air parcels move from their initial location, and the Eulerian methodology, which uses a fixed three-dimensional grid as a frame of reference to compute pollutant air concentrations (The model name, no longer meant as an acronym, originally reflected this hybrid computational approach). (
  • Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse and, in some cases, how they react in the atmosphere. (
  • ADAM - Air force dispersion assessment model (ADAM) is a modified box and Gaussian dispersion model which incorporates thermodynamics, chemistry, heat transfer, aerosol loading, and dense gas effects. (
  • HOTMAC and RAPTAD - HOTMAC is a model for weather forecasting used in conjunction with RAPTAD which is a puff model for pollutant transport and dispersion. (
  • HYSPLIT has also been used in a variety of simulations describing the atmospheric transport, dispersion, and deposition of pollutants and hazardous materials. (
  • The dispersion of a pollutant is calculated by assuming either puff or particle dispersion. (
  • The two local air pollutants are sooty dust known as black carbon and ground-level ozone in the troposphere. (
  • Airborne pollutants from other sources include insecticides , herbicides , radioactive fallout , and dust from fertilizers, mining operations, and livestock feedlots. (
  • Some examples of the applications include tracking and forecasting the release of radioactive material, wildfire smoke, windblown dust, pollutants from various stationary and mobile emission sources, allergens and volcanic ash. (
  • Fracking pumps hazardous pollutants into the air. (
  • Uninsulated high-voltage power lines ionize the adjacent air, forming ozone and other hazardous pollutants. (
  • Nitrogen oxides also react with oxygen in the air to form nitrogen dioxide, a foul-smelling brown gas. (
  • The combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in automobiles , trucks, and jet airplanes produces several primary pollutants: nitrogen oxides, gaseous hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide, as well as large quantities of particulates, chiefly lead. (
  • Radon in the air is useful for studying how pollutants move through the atmosphere. (
  • So much of the air pollutants being released into the atmosphere are all results of man's activities. (
  • In the UK, industries and utilities that use tall smokestacks by means of removing air pollutants only boost them higher into the atmosphere, thereby only reducing the concentration at their site. (
  • The program checks for excess moisture and humidity levels, which can be caused by poor air flow or ventilation and create an atmosphere that allows mold or mildew to develop. (
  • Contaminants released from UOG sites enter the air readily during well pad development and continue for the life of the well, impacting both local and regional air quality. (
  • There are many contaminants in the air that can be asthma triggers. (
  • With these contaminants no longer present in the air, the probability of an asthma attack is very low for the sufferer. (
  • He teaches and has written extensively in the fields of environmental law, administrative law, regulation of chemicals and hazardous wastes, international environmental law, risk assessment, and the management of radioactive waste. (
  • In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. (
  • Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. (
  • Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. (
  • Another example is radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas which comes from rocks containing uranium. (
  • Radon is a natural radioactive gas that gets into homes and buildings. (
  • But the air pollutants released from natural materials pose very little health threat, only the natural radioactive gas radon poses any threat to health. (
  • Any substance in air that could, in high enough concentration, harm human health and the environment and cause property damage. (
  • In addition, high temperature and humidity levels can increase the concentration of some pollutants. (
  • In cities, air may be severely polluted not only by transportation but also by the burning of fossil fuels (oil and coal) in generating stations, factories, office buildings, and homes and by the incineration of garbage. (
  • It is a fluoride-containing air pollutant emission captured by smokestack "scrubber" equipment at phosphate fertilizer factories. (
  • The Clean Air Act requires permits for stationary sources, such as factories and powerplants. (
  • The Clean Air Act imposes permitting requirements on stationary sources, such as factories and powerplants. (
  • The issue of sick building syndrome is complicated by enormous variation in how individuals react to pollutants. (
  • When they sit around, they can leak, corrode, or react with the air when the temperature rises. (
  • Hence, inhalable indoor radioactive mixtures are created which enter human lungs and irradiate tissues. (
  • The term " major source " means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants . (
  • 4) 'NESHAP' means national emission standards for hazardous air pollutant. (
  • 8:45 am] I 40 CFR Part 63 I National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501(a), unless otherwise noted. (
  • SUMMARY: EPA is taking direct final action on amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for shipbuilding and ship repair (surface coating) operations (subpart II) promulgated on December 15, 1995 (60 FR 64330), under the authority of section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act (CAA). (
  • Major sources of air toxics are stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons or more per year of any one of the 188 air toxics listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Act), or 25 tons or more per year of combined air toxics. (
  • The Act's "Prevention of Significant Deterioration" (PSD) provisions make it unlawful to construct or modify a "major emitting facility" in "any area to which [PSD program] applies" without a permit, 42 U.S.C. 7475(a)(1), 7479(2)(C). A "major emitting facility" is a stationary source with the potential to emit 250 tons per year of "any air pollutant" (or 100 tons per year for certain sources). (
  • A "major source" is a stationary source with the potential to emit 100 tons per year of "any air pollutant," under Title V of the Act. (
  • 7475(a)(1), 7479(2)(C). A "major emitting facility" is a stationary source with the potential to emit 250 tons per year of "any air pollutant" (or 100 tons per year for certain types of sources). (
  • It is a refined point source Gaussian air quality model for use in all stability conditions (i.e., all conditions of atmospheric turbulence) for complex terrain. (
  • specific systems such as Atmospheric Air Quality both in predictive as well as real time modes. (
  • 2. Whether the EPA Administrator has authority to regulate carbon dioxide and other air pollutants associated with climate change under section 202(a)(1). (
  • The program also checks the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels for rooms, which provide more information about air flow and ventilation. (
  • Install a ventilation system with a filter for incoming air. (
  • Because so many Americans spend a lot of time in offices with mechanical heating, cooling, and ventilation systems, there is also a short section on the causes of poor air quality in offices and what you can do if you suspect that your office may have a problem. (
  • Common Indoor Air Pollutants: Radon - information on health risks, real estate transactions, and more. (
  • Also, the air and waterways transport industrial and agricultural pollutants, and radioactive fallout may affect living things anywhere. (
  • Air pollutants that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental and ecological effects. (
  • These pollutants are often transported over the North Sea and produce adverse effects in western Scandinavia, where sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide from UK and central Europe are generating acid rain, especially in Norway and Sweden. (
  • We define an indoor air pollutant as something foreign in the indoor air that has an adverse effect on human health. (
  • We must recognize the effects of burning different fuels (e.g. discharges of hot water, air pollutants, mercury in waterways, tritium leaks, etc.) and of power production byproducts (e.g. storing radioactive waste or disposing of obsolete solar panels). (