Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.SmokeSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.CaliforniaPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.AcroleinTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.GeorgiaComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.MexicoHousing: Living facilities for humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)West VirginiaBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.TaiwanEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.New JerseyRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.United StatesRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Los AngelesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.New York CityRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.TexasDichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.ItalyPentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.GermanyIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/1747)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (2/1747)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (3/1747)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (4/1747)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting. (5/1747)

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.  (+info)

Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms. (6/1747)

BACKGROUND: To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. RESULTS: During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). CONCLUSIONS: N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.  (+info)

Exposure of medical personnel to methylmethacrylate vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty. (7/1747)

The occupational exposure to methylmethacrylate (MMA) vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty was determined. During five vertebroplasty procedures, air-sampling pumps were attached to medical personnel. MMA vapor levels in the samples were then quantified using gas chromatography. The samples collected yielded MMA vapor levels of less than five parts per million (ppm). The MMA vapor concentrations measured were well below the recommended maximum exposure of 100 ppm over the course of an 8-hour workday.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (8/1747)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

*Particulates

"National standards for criteria air pollutants in Australia - Air quality fact sheet". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 1 February ... Dis., 136 (1987), p. 1117 Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J. (2003). Exposure Assessment in Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology. ... Absorption is also dependent upon air flow rates and the partial pressure of the gases in the inspired air. The fate of a ... Electrostatic precipitators electrically charge the dirty air as it passes through. The now charged air then passes by large ...

*Indoor air quality

Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) considers that indoor air concentrations of carbon dioxide ... The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ... When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and ...

*Persistent organic pollutant

Several studies have shown that indoor (air and dust) POP levels to exceed outdoor (air and soil) POP concentrations. Current ... For humans not exposed to POPs through accidental or occupational means, over 90% of exposure comes from animal product foods ... Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Resources on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Monarpop.at, POP ... Chlordane air pollution is believed the primary route of humane exposure. Dieldrin, a pesticide used to control termites, ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 --- air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 --- endocrine ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 --- air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888.284.101.143.631 --- oxidants, ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 --- soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 --- water pollutants MeSH ... D27.888.284.903.655 --- water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888. ...

*Asbestos and the law (United States)

National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Regulations ... However, asbestos was one of the first hazardous air pollutants regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of 1970, and ... The Clean Air Act requires that asbestos be wetted during removal and strictly contained, and that workers wear safety gear and ... Adamo was one of a number of demolition contractors indicted throughout the country for the alleged violation of the Clean Air ...

*Air pollutant concentrations

... environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. Such regulations involve a number of different ... Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ...

*Environmental impact of mining

There are many diseases that can come from the pollutants that are released into the air and water during the mining process. ... Metals are usually emitted into the air as particulates. There are also many occupational health hazards. Most of the miners ... For example, during smelting operations enormous quantities[clarification needed] of air pollutants, such as the suspended ... Air, & Soil Pollution. 125 (1): 231-241. Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M. (2004). "Macroinvertebrate ...

*United States emission standards

Energy portal Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors ... environmental and occupational health regulation Vehicle emissions control "US EPA approves California auto emissions standard ... EPA's air pollution score represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. ... "ADEQ: Air Quality Division: Vehicle Emissions: What Vehicles Need to be Tested?". Azdeq.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-22. "ADEQ: Air ...

*Useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling

... with occupational safety and health have promulgated regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in ... This article presents a set of useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling of atmospheric pollutants and for ... More conversions and formulas useful in air dispersion modeling are available in the feature articles at www.air-dispersion.com ... gram mole Atmospheric pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m³, µg/m³, etc.) ...

*Nitrogen dioxide poisoning

In 2008, the report of United Kingdom committee on the medical effects of air pollutants (COMEAP) suggested that air pollution ... Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and it is often high for farmers especially those that deal with ... It is one of the major air pollutant capable of causing severe heath hazards such as coronary artery disease as well as stroke ... Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant of the mucous membrane linked with another air pollutant that causes pulmonary diseases such as ...

*Tapered element oscillating microbalance

Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. "Machine- ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...

*Microbalance

Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ... Gilliam, Joseph H.; Hall, Eric S. (2016-07-13). "Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality ...

*Air quality law

U.S. EPA, What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants? U.S. EPA, Original list of hazardous air pollutants. U.S. EPA, Air Pollutants ... Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ... Air quality standards are legal standards or requirements governing concentrations of air pollutants in breathed air, both ...

*2-Butoxyethanol

"List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petition Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source Category List; Petition To Delist of ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0070". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "2-Butoxyethanol ... Environmental Protection Agency's list of hazardous air pollutants in 2004. The EPA currently lists it in the context of ... "Air Foam HD Material Data Safety Sheet". Product Safety. AquaClear, Inc. Retrieved 4 June 2010. Gift, J. S. (2005). "U.S. EPA's ...

*Propene

... as a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. With a relatively short half-life, it is not expected to bioaccumulate. ... was established for occupational (8-hour time-weighted average) exposure. It is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) ... Observed concentrations have been in the range of 0.1-4.8 parts per billion (ppb) in rural air, 4-10.5 ppb in urban air, and 7- ... 260 ppb in industrial air samples. In the United States and some European countries a Threshold Limit Value of 500 parts per ...

*Risk assessment

Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life ... Hallenbeck, William H. Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers ... The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) supports a qualitative risk framework for public health ... Further investigation identifies options such as separating noninfectious from infectious wastes, or air pollution controls on ...

*Pyridine

doi:10.1016/0045-6535(80)90079-X. Hawthorne, Steven B.; Sievers, Robert E. (1984). "Emissions of organic air pollutants from ... National Occupational Exposure Survey 1981-83. Cincinnati, OH: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, ... For comparison, indoor air contaminated with tobacco smoke may contain up to 16 µg·m−3 of pyridine, and one cigarette contains ... Pyridine has a flash point (the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air) of only 17 °C ...

*Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ... California Public Smog South Coast Air Quality Management District Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health ... The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for ... Implement the requirements of the California Clean Air Act and 1990 Amendments to the federal Clean Air Act. Continue public ...

*Butanone

Emission of butanone was regulated in the US as a hazardous air pollutant, because it is a volatile organic compound ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0069". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency removed butanone from the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Butane n- ... Concentrations in the air high enough to be flammable are intolerable to humans due to the irritating nature of the vapor. ...

*Value of life

As an example, the EPA's retrospective study of the clean air act, which focused "primarily on the criteria pollutants sulfur ... frequently include wage data from the Current Population Survey and workplace risk data from the Census of Fatal Occupational ... From the EPA's: Beginning in 2004 EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) used an estimate of $5.5 million (1999 dollars; $6.6 ... The estimates are based on the assumption that correlations between increased air pollution exposures and adverse health ...

*Caprolactam

... it was included on the list of hazardous air pollutants by the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990. It was subsequently removed from the ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0097". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Josef Ritz; Hugo ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(00)00218-0. EPA - Modifications To The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants "Agents Classified by the IARC ...

*Paul J. Lioy

Toxic air pollution : a comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-057-6 ... International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, (Elected) 1999-Present Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational ... This standard for protection of public health was tightened to 0.75 ppm but remains as an 8-hour contact with the air pollutant ... Lioy has been a central figure in understanding exposure to the air pollutant tropospheric ozone, chloroform and other toxicant ...

*Dish, Texas

The state installed an air quality monitoring station at DISH, which showed that, as of 2012, air pollutants were generally ... and consumer or occupational/hobby related products could explain many of the findings. ... In response to concerns about the town's air quality, the Texas Department of State Health Services conducted air quality tests ... A article about the air quality in DISH by NPR in 2012 stated that "better studies are needed" to test for the health effects ...

*Vinyl chloride

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, ... It is volatile, so the primary exposure is via inhalation as against food or water with occupational hazards being highest. ... As a gas mixed with air, VCM is a fire and explosion hazard. On standing VCM can form peroxides, which may then explode. VCM ... According to OSHA, the flash point of vinyl chloride is −78 °C (−108.4 °F). Its flammable limits in air are: lower 3.6 volume% ...

*Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

Hazardous Air Pollutants as a volatile hazardous air pollutant of potential concern. The Superfund Amendment Reauthorization ... classified among the dirty dozen in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Occupational exposure to ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2002;59:362-368 Associations of diet with body burden of dibenzo-p-dioxins and ... California's Air Toxics "Hot Spots" List (Assembly Bill). Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds Polychlorinated biphenyl " ...

*Triphenyl phosphate

As with many other phosphorus-containing flame retardants, TPhP has been found widely in sediment, soil, indoor dust, and air. ... In contrast to many persitent organic pollutants, TPHP has limited affinity for lipids. Still, bioaccumulation of the compound ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0644". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "Triphenyl ... phosphate". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...

*Ramboll Environ

"Air Quality Management: Modeling Hong Kong Air Quality" ENVIRON. Retrieved 2013-07-12. "VOC Biotreat: A cost-effective solution ... In 2003 ENVIRON merged with Applied Epidemiology, Inc., a provider of epidemiological consulting services in occupational ... and other pollutants due to local sources, as well as transport from China and other areas in Asia. Ramboll Environ was engaged ... "Officials: Air OK in mobile classrooms" The Courier-News - Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2013-07-30. "Beverage patterns may make ...
EMD Millipore Glass Fiber Filters without Binders Grade: APFB; Diameter: 47mm EMD Millipore Glass Fiber Filters without Binders Glass Fibre Filters and...
TAC - Toxic Air Contaminants. Looking for abbreviations of TAC? It is Toxic Air Contaminants. Toxic Air Contaminants listed as TAC
An in depth industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Micro- Biotrol Company (SIC-2099), Chicago, Illinois, to assess the extent of ethylene-oxide (75218) (EtO) exposure for workers. Micro-Biotrol is engaged in the contract treatment of spices and mixtures, including sterilization with EtO. Average EtO exposure levels ranged from less than 0.11 parts per million (ppm) to 4.03ppm during Septem
An industrial hygiene survey was conducted at the Intermediates Division, Tenneco Chemicals, Inc., (SIC-2865) Reading, Pennsylvania, on March 29, 1973, and was concerned primarily with the receipt and handling of benzidine (92875) prior to reaction. A detailed description is given of the storage, handling, opening, stirring, emptying, decontamination, and disposal of drums containing benzidine-sul
Definition of Area Sample in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Area Sample? Meaning of Area Sample as a finance term. What does Area Sample mean in finance?
Objectives : The use of anti-neoplastic drugs is increasing and nursing staff are evidently concerned about the risk of hazardous exposure. General methods are available for measuring exposure to carcinogens. These methods, however, lack specificity. One group of anti-neoplastic drugs, based on cisplatin derivatives, contain platinum, which can...
Get the latest workplace air (health and safety) news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Find workplace air monitor articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 FINAL #1 RATS Facility: Battelle Northwest Chemical CAS #: 1321-74-0 Lock Date: 04/16/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion b Average severity grade (1-minimal;2-mild;3-moderate;4-marked) Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FISCHER 344 RATS FEMALE CONTROL 100 PPM 200 ...
Significantly expanded and completely updated, this revision of the 1985 text provides an in-dept look at particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment.
INTRODUCTION Introduce the techniques available for Industrial Hygienists to evaluate exposures to particulates in occupational settings. Inhaled particles may react with or be absorbed through tissues to cause adverse health effects. Variables include: - size, shape, and density; - chemical properties; - airborne concentration and time of exposure, and other factors, etc.; so, - health effects - irritation, illness, disease.
Lyrics to Born On Monday by Children: Born on Monday, / Fair in face; / Born on Tuesday, / Full of Gods grace; / Born on Wednesday, / Sour
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the ...
Provided is a personal sampler for PM that allows separation of airborne particles in several size ranges and operates at a high flow rate (9 L/min) by personal sampling standards that makes chemical analysis of the size-fractionated particles possible within a period of 24 hours or less.
Both the metaboHsm of a material and its potential to cause toxic injury may vary with the route of exposure, although the magnitude of the dose and duration of dosing may influence this relationship. For example, materials that are metaboHcally activated by the Hver are likely to exhibit a comparatively greater degree of toxicity when given peroraHy than when absorbed in the lung or across the skin. This is largely related to the anatomical routes of transport. Thus, the greatest proportion of material absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract passes via the portal vein direcdy to the Hver. In contrast, materials absorbed as a result of respiratory exposure or skin contact initially pass to the lung and then into the systemic circulation, with only a small fraction of the cardiac output being deHvered to the Hver through the hepatic artery (Fig. 3). By similar reasoning, materials that are detoxified by the Hver may be significantly less toxic by swallowing than by either inhalation or ...
NEW YORK, Dec. 19, 2014-- Ohr Pharmaceutical, Inc., a research and development company with a primary focus in ophthalmology, today announced that it will report its financial results for the 2014 fiscal year ended September 30, 2014 after the close of the market and host a corporate update conference call and webcast on Monday, December 22, 2014 at 5:00pm Eastern...
LHC Group (NASDAQ:LHCG) is set to issue its quarterly earnings data after the market closes on Monday, November 6th. Analysts expect the company to announce earnings of $0.60 per share for the quarter. LHC Group has set its FY17 guidance at $2.30-2.40 EPS. LHC Group (NASDAQ:LHCG) last issued its quarterly earnings results on Wednesday, August […]
We wish everyone sitting on Monday well. Youve been working hard now for months and now is the time you get to show off all your knowledge and understanding! Remember to read every SAQ carefully so that everything you write is answering the question. Write in point form and leave lots of empty lines on…
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
LONDON Jan 7 (Reuters) - Britains FTSE 100 index is seen opening down 3 to 4 points lower, or as much as 0.1 percent lower on Monday, according to...
For a list of bills passed in the Assembly on Monday, June 22 please click here. As of today, the Assembly has passed a total of 1,252 bills this legislative session. Last week, the Assembly convened for a total of 25 hours and 13 minutes over 4 days, and acted on a total 317 bills while holding a total of 45 committee meetings. ...
THE BUSINESS TIMES Technology - [WASHINGTON] Comcast Corp and Charter Communications Inc will announce a wireless partnership as soon as Monday, according to a source familiar with the matter.. Read more at The Business Times.
This three-volume set bridges the gap between the classroom and the practice setting. All three volumes are well illustrated, contain over 1000 references each, and contain questions at the end of every chapter.
Labor" began at 8:05 PM with my water breaking, and ended with Charlottes appearance at 1:25 AM. It was quick, but far from painless. Ill write her birth story soon. Thank you for all the good wishes!! I can hardly believe shes here ...
Two words those who move to France quickly learn are interdire and interdiction: to forbid and ban. I walked my 3- and 5-year-old sons across the playground of their maternity school when we first arrived here
HOSPITALS should schedule operations on the day of the week that gives patients the best chances of survival, a top Scottish surgeon says.
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water. ...
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water. ...
Students work with measurements of length, area, and volume capacity of a liquid. They watch a teacher demonstration of both English and metric units before they estimate and take actual measurements of assigned items a three different work stations.
Ask the Doc will commence at 2:30 on Mondays, with the guidance of Mark Kalina, M.D. We will review the latest research and complementary/integrative approaches. Class sessions are usually 90 minutes in duration, so bring your health questions! -
We are committed to continually enhancing your online experience.. This is accomplished by occasional system updates.. Please be aware that on Monday, October 23rd 6:00AM until Monday October 23rd at 7:00AM ET, we will be performing maintenance updates. You may experience brief system interruptions during this time.. ...
started my cycle on monday and im not sure if im doing something wrong or if i havent given it long enough to kick in, i worked out monday and tuesday
You provide values for these that make the most sense for you and your application. For example, context1 might a type of network service and context2 might be the specific host name being used to provide that service.. DashProfiler::Sample. To add timing samples you need to use a Sampler. A Sampler is a code reference that when called creates a new DashProfiler::Sample object and returns a reference to it. Samplers are factories for creating samples. The Sampler code reference is customized (curried) to contain the value for ...
My co-worker managed to complete the stats. With all the interruptions, it took at least the entire day. Im very certain he started working on the stats on Monday. My company and my co-worker failed to use todays technology to calculate stats monthly, quarterly, and yearly quickly, efficiently, and accurately. If our competitors know about the weakness, my company is screwed. Furthermore, my company talks about the latest technology and how technology is important to stay ahead of the curve. To me, its all talk because my company fails to use the latest technology to smash our competitors and to create a more efficient and more productive company. For example, my company has a new database which became online in March 2006. Today is January 2007 and the database has gone at least 30 revisions (I lost count). And there are still bugs and improvements needed. The database was never beta tested ...
Village Hospital will open a new catheterization lab in Greer on Monday. While procedures offered at the lab will initially be limited to diagnostic procedures, additional services will be added as the program grows.. "Before this cath lab opened, there was no other such facility in Greer, which meant patients would have to travel to either Spartanburg or Greenville for this type of service," Anthony (Tony) Kouskolekas, President of Village Hospital, said. "This latest expansion of our services is further proof of our commitment to the Greer community that expert medical care need not be a long drive away to another city. Its right in our own backyard at Village Hospital.". Read More. ...
Then Tuesday the Farmer and I headed south to see Heidi. We were a bit anxious to see how far we had come in the last week since the contractions had not really fully stopped since we saw Bethany on Monday. My weight had gone up quite a bit, but I knew that was because of the fluid I felt in my legs and feet. My blood pressure was up a bit as well but still acceptable (130/80). Sarahs heart beat was around 155 and she is measuring 38 weeks. She also was about 2 inches lower but still freely floated when Heidi pushed on her head. My cervix was anterior now (a good thing) and I was an open 1 cm dilated. Other than being anterior now, I was also glad to hear Heidi say I was alot more effaced. So progress is definitely being made...just not as much as I had hoped for ...
I found an echo reading Lucy Kellaways article in the FT on Monday debunking the "sentimental pap" that no-one ever says on their death bed, "I wish Id spent more time in the office". Now I am a huge fan of hers, indeed she is the only columnist I have actually written fan mail to (and received a response which surprised me). But it is easy to stand on the side and chuck rocks and I think there are more people with a dysfunctional relationship with work that hurts their life than there are rounded, complete individuals who just happen to get their completeness from work ...
A UCLA professor was one of five women inducted into Women in Technology Internationals Hall of Fame on Monday. Thelma Estrin, assistant dean for the School of Engineering and Applied Science and
Helping Hands Humane Society will host the third installment in their Paws for a Cause Seminar Series on Monday September 30, 2013.
This week has been good. I had a new paper officially accepted and a preprint go up on Monday. Today I discovered another new paper had moved from "in press" to "published." That journal, The Journal of Crustacean Biology, doesnt "do" preprints, which means Ive had two new papers hit in one week. Perhaps more importantly ...
What time forex market opens on monday #### FOREX HAFTAYA BAKIS Is forex trading a waste of time #### Liczby fibonacciego na rynku forex pdf
The classes will be identical on Monday evenings at 6:30 p.m. and Tuesday mornings at 10:30 a.m. You may choose which time fits your schedule each week ...
My wife had her first round of chemotherapy on Monday and Tuesday. It went as well as one can expect this sort of thing to go - they were long, tiring days but she doesnt appear to feel any worse from it. After another round or two (the treatments will be monthly) her energy level…
If you are reading this and you have ever considered being a doctor then here is your chance to diagnose someone. Im taking the weekend off but will check back on Monday morning to see if anyone wants to give it a shot AND Ill tell you what the doctor has speculated about so far but these are only his speculations so YOU have the chance to diagnose me first ...
General Motors Co passed an environmental milestone of sorts in March, when it became the first U.S. automaker to sell, in a single month, more than 100,000 cars that can achieve 30 miles per gallon in highway driving, the automaker said on Monday.
Case No. 14-CV-09600RGK (June 15, 2015 Decision) On Monday, Judge Klausner of the United States District Court for the Central District of California…
I couldnt see a thread for the new BFPs so thought I would add one. Im currently 4w 3d due 21 July. This is my 3rd IVF, 1st cycle gave me my handsome DS and cycle 2 ended in chemical pregnancy. I got my official bloods on Monday at - page 32
This is going to be a long, hard chapter in my life. I can tell already. At ARDORs insistence, Ive begun sibling counseling with my stupid sister Viva. On Monday, we met with Tak Ishii, one of the most esteemed … Continue reading → ...
Back to Photos This entry was posted on Monday, June 14th, 2010 at 1:33 pm. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site. ...
3xfa8546rg. This entry was posted on Monday, August 17th, 2009 at 3:23 pm and is filed under Uncategorized. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed. ...
The Senate adjourned at 6:30 P.M. to meet again on Monday, January 11, 2016 (SESSION/Committees at the Call of the Senate President ...
Jermain Defoe did not harbour any doubts over the teams ability to bounce back after going a goal down to West Brom on Monday night.
REMINDERSMEETING CANCELLATION. The Hampton Branch of the NAACP will not hold a regular meeting during the month of August. The next scheduled meeting will be on Monday, Sept. 8, 1997 at 7:30 p.m.,
So I am turning 39 weeks tomorrow and I am desperate to have this baby. I just had a dream of her last night and I was wondering if any of you have had dreams of your babies and have they looked how they did in your dream? This is baby #4 but it is my only girl. I have 3 boys and I am so anxious to meet her. Scheduled for c-sec on Monday 27 so I am almost there.
I will be finishing my Lean Xtreme/Basic cuts stack tomorrow. On Monday I wanted to start bulking and use the RPM/Drive stack Ive had for a few
So on Monday, August 21, 2006 we found out my wife was pregnant again. It was a very happy day, and a happy week. We told everybody, Yay, were having o...
Guess it was just one of those days for Dan Hawkins on Monday. He has them occasionally, days when he decides to be a little more forthcoming and straightforward than usual.
Ive transferred to another site, so Ill no longer be posting on blogger. Come join me at WWW.KRISTALLEEROMANCES.COM on Monday, August 8, 2011and check out my new digs ...
Ive transferred to another site, so Ill no longer be posting on blogger. Come join me at WWW.KRISTALLEEROMANCES.COM on Monday, August 8, 2011and check out my new digs ...
6 Soldering: 1.Total Dust and Elements - 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) 2. Alcohols on 3M 3500 Organic Vapor Monitors (OVM)- Soldering flux and Flux-Off 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) 3. Hydrocarbons on separate 3M 3500 OVM - 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) Epoxy: 1.Crystalline Silica as Quartz from Epoxy Hardener 1 sample and a field blank (2 samples) 2.Talc and Titanium Dioxide from Epoxy Resin 1 sample and a field blank (2 samples) Conformal Coat: 1.Xylene and 2-butanone - Full-shift samples 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 2.Xylene and 2-butanone - STEL work task samples 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) Parts Cleaning: 1. Hydrocarbons on 3M 3500 OVM - 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 2.1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane on separate 3M 3500 OVM 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 3.Sodium carbonate as alkaline dust - 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) MONITORING ...
... OF PROPOSED ACTION/PLAIN ENGLISH OVERVIEW. Section 5155, Airborne Contaminants.. Section 5155, Airborne Contaminants, establishes minimum requirements for controlling employee exposure to specific airborne contaminants. This Section specifies several types of airborne exposure limits, requirements for control of skin and eye contact, workplace environmental monitoring through measurement or calculation, and medical surveillance requirements. California periodically amends the airborne contaminants table (Table AC-1) in this regulation to keep the standard consistent with current information regarding harmful effects of exposure to these substances and other new substances not listed. The standard was last revised in 1994. In this revision, the substances chosen for review were taken from the 1993-1994, 1995-1996, and the 1996-1997 editions of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Additionally, the ...
These columns can be used with methodologies designed to monitor workplace air quality.
  • For US EPA Method IP-8, choose SLB-5ms
  • For NIOSH Method 1003, choose VOCOL
  • For NIOSH Method 1403, choose Equity-1
  • For NIOSH Method 1500/1501, choose Equity-1
  • For NIOSH Method 2530, choose SLB-5ms
  • For NIOSH Method 2542, choose Equity-1
  • For NIOSH Method 5503, choose SLB-5ms
  • For OSHA Method 52, choose SUPELCOWAX 10
  • For OSHA Method 53, choose Equity-1
  • For OSHA Method 56, choose Equity-1
  • For OSHA Method 62, choose SLB-5ms
  • For OSHA Method 80, choose SUPELCOWAX 10
MENGISTU, H et al. Diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) as risk assessment and management tools in the Central Witwatersrand Goldfield, South Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.1, pp.15-22. ISSN 1816-7950.. Diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) technology was used to monitor bio-available metals and the tool was developed for risk-based pollution assessment and liability apportionment in the Witwatersrand Goldfields, South Africa, where there is widespread mine-related pollution. DGT technology is a passive sampling technique whereby metal species are selectively diffused from polluted water through a diffusion layer and trapped by an inner chelating resin, giving rise to time-weighted average concentrations. The results show that the concentrations of most hazardous metals recorded from grab samples are higher than values recorded from DGT samplers, resulting in inaccurate input information to risk assessors, the public and decision makers. DGT samplers deployed along upper, middle ...
Provides an air sampling and consultancy service covering mainstream occupational hygiene practice mainly to clients in a broad range of manufacturing industry. Main areas of work are the assessment of exposure to noise, dust, fumes, gases and bio-aerosols, together with the testing of local exhaust ventilation systems. Own laboratory facilities include gravimetry, gas chromatography and colorimetric methods.. This company also provides the following services: ...
When exposed to them, isocyanates can induce serious injuries in the respiratory tract and irritation on the skin and in the eyes. They are therefore interesting from the point of view of occupational health. The purpose of this thesis was to collect isocyanates in air with impinger-filter samplers and solvent free samplers. Furthermore the isocyanates were to be analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The solvent free sampler consists of a polypropylene tube and filter holder fitted with glass fiber filters impregnated with derivatization reagent, coupled with a pump. The impinger-filter sampler was made out of an impinger flask, containing a derivatization solution, coupled in series with a filter holder and a pump. Di-n-butylamine was used as derivatization reagent in both samplers to stabilize the reactive isocyanates and to enable mass spectrometric detection. The solvent free sampler is highly advantageous because of its user friendliness during field measurements, as ...
ISO 9487 : Workplace Air - Determination of Vaporous Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Charcoal Tube/Solvent Desorption/ Gas Chromatographic Method
threshold limit value (TLV): Concentration in air of a substance to which it is believed that most workers can be exposed daily without adverse effect (the threshold between safe and dangerous concentrations). These values are established (and revised annually) by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) and are time-weighted concentrations for a 7 or 8 hour workday and a 40 hour workweek. For most substances the value may be exceeded, to a certain extent, provided there are compensatory periods of exposure below the value during the workday (or in some cases the week). For a few substances (mainly those that produce a rapid response) the limit is given as a ceiling concentration (maximum permissible concentration - designated by "C") that should never be exceeded ...
Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification. Modification is suspected to be the primary emission source. It is discovered nanoparticles in the size range of 20-300nm dominate in this workplace, which consists of 90-98% of particle counts in the respirable fraction. Based on the sampling results from 2012, there was a strong relationship between number concentration in 5-25um range and the respirable mass concentration (r= 0.908); however, no such correlation was found between number concentration in nanoscale and respirable mass (r= 0.018). The deposited surface area in TB (r=0.66) and alveolar region (r=0.46) was modestly correlated with number concentration of particles in the nanoscale ...
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) advised in February 2013 that it had adopted the proposed change to the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for manganese.
A proposed ASTM International standard will protect workers healthby monitoring the levels of hydrogen sulfide gas in workplace air.
NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: LITRI NICKEL OXIDE DATE: 05/20/95 EXPERIMENT: 05123 TEST: 06 TIME: 05:42:10 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE PAGE: 1 CONT: Y0-ES-30108 ROUTE: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY NTP C#: C00862 PATHOLOGIST: P. HALEY CAS: 1313-99-1 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ REASONS FOR REMOVAL: ALL REMOVAL DATE RANGE: ALL TREATMENT GROUPS: INCLUDE ALL NTP STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY TUMORS REPORT: PEIRPT08 LAB: LITRI NICKEL OXIDE DATE: 05/20/95 EXPERIMENT: 05123 TEST: 06 TIME: 05:42:10 TEST TYPE: CHRONIC CAGES FROM 0000 TO LAST CAGE CONT: Y0-ES-30108 ROUTE: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY NTP C#: C00862 PATHOLOGIST: P. HALEY CAS: 1313-99-1 MICE(B6C3F1) ---------------------------- FOR ALL DOSES THE TUMOR RATES IN THE FOLLOWING TISSUES/ORGANS ARE BASED ON NUMBER OF TISSUES EXAMINED. IN OTHER TISSUES/ORGANS, RATES ARE BASED ON ...
When assessing occupational exposures, repeated measurements are in most cases required. Repeated measurements are more resource intensive than a single measurement, so careful planning of the measurement strategy is necessary to assure that resources are spent wisely. The optimal strategy depends on the objectives of the measurements. Here, two different models of random effects analysis of variance (ANOVA) are proposed for the optimization of measurement strategies by the minimization of the variance of the estimated log-transformed arithmetic mean value of a worker group, i.e. the strategies are optimized for precise estimation of that value. The first model is a one-way random effects ANOVA model. For that model it is shown that the best precision in the estimated mean value is always obtained by including as many workers as possible in the sample while restricting the number of replicates to two or at most three regardless of the size of the variance components. The second model introduces ...
The athletes greatest adversary is not the guy on the next lane or the one ahead; it is and always has been himself-the greatest foe. Thats why it is important for an athlete to constantly challenge and always stay one step ahead of him through training backed up by a reliable way to monitor and record performance. And so far theres no other more accurate and reliable training partner than the new and updated Ripxx Personal Measurement Device.. The Ripxx GPS tracker can unbelievably send 10 tracking signals every second making it more accurate than most run of the mill cell phone or automotive GPS systems. To give you an eagle eyes view, the GPS data will then display your movements on a realistic map. Its not only about the GPS, distance and best time either; location, orientation, acceleration, velocity, altitude, max speed, air time, lap time, and number of jumps can all be measured. Ripxx features an advanced accelerometer to offer an additional benchmark for recording and improving ...
TestAmerica offers one of the most comprehensive Industrial Hygiene programs of any commercial laboratory in the US. View our common panels and profiles for Industrial Hygiene testing.
In Britain, 14 carcinogenic agents and occupational circumstances currently account for 86% of estimated occupation attributable cancer. The future burden associated with these carcinogens has been forecast, using attributable fractions for forecast scenarios representing patterns of past and predicted future exposure, and exposure levels representing the introduction of new occupational exposure limits, increased levels of compliance with these limits and other reductions in worker exposure. Without intervention occupational attributable cancers are forecast to remain at over 10,000 by 2060. With modest intervention nearly 2,500, or with stricter interventions over 8,100 cancers could be avoided by 2060 although due to long latency no impact will be seen until at least 10 years after intervention. Effective interventions assessed in this study include reducing workplace exposure limits and improving compliance with these limits. Cancers associated with asbestos, DEE, polycyclic aromatic ...
Working with the University Divisional Safety Officer and the anatomy class lecturer at the beginning of the project helped to fully understand the processes, classroom activity, interaction with formaldehyde solution and the controls already in place. Previous symptoms of ill health and ongoing issues were also discussed at this time.. A sampling programme was then carried out which involved collecting personal samples, fixed point samples and the use of a direct-reading instrument. Observations were made during the simulations to understand and visualise potential sources of exposure, including looking at the enclosure designs of storage tanks, cupboards and the cadaver benches.. At the end of the monitoring period, RPS highlighted the findings of the study to the Client, clarified the concerns initially raised and identified the sources of exposure. A report was issued on our findings along with recommendations. RPS Occupational Hygiene team will return to site to carry out further ...
Rep. Anthony Weiner (D-N.Y.) pauses during a news conference in New York on Monday, after acknowledging inappropriate online communications with women ...
I had unprotected oral sex last friday. On Monday, I started to freak out that I had an STI. There is no discharge, - Answered by a verified Health Professional
BASIC PRINCIPLES IN OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE. Day 2. Physical States. Physical States. Vapour - the gaseous state of a substance which is liquid at 25°C and 760 mm Hg (STP). Mist - liquid particles, large size generally produced by bubbling, splashing or boiling of a liquid. Slideshow 537178 by mirit
Originally published as a series of articles in Applied Industrial Hygiene, this book has been revised and updated for the new Millennium.
Get the facts about Black Hills State University industrial hygiene. Nursing is one of the fastest-growing job areas, and for good reason. As the population ages, medical care will continue to expand rapidly.
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Information about Birmingham-Southern College industrial hygiene. Whether you are considering an associates degree (CNA, LVN, or LPN), or a bachelor of science in nursing (RN), you will find many doors opening after graduation.
Find your next Labourer - Production Facility job in North Bay, ON. This Labourer - Production Facility is a Contract , Full-Time in the Manufacturing and Production industry with ManpowerUSA.
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BACKGROUND:. Epidemiologic analysis of acute, reversible respiratory health effects is uncommonly performed, yet these are important health outcomes because acute responses by the respiratory defense system appear to represent one end of the continuum toward progressive, chronic and potentially disabling physiologic changes. Repeatable epidemiologic studies of dose-response relationships necessitate accurate measures of dose. However, in occupational and environmental settings, exposure to a toxin is seldom found at identical concentrations and/or particle sizes among persons with the same activity patterns. In addition, air concentration does not account for factors such as clearance or metabolism which may alter the biologically effective tissue dose. These factors cause the target tissue dose of the toxin to vary greatly despite exposure to similar air concentrations.. DESIGN NARRATIVE:. The results of these toxicokinetic models were individual measures of tissue dose used in a 2-stage ...
Introduction: To date, occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has relied on occupation-based measurements and exposure estimates. However, misclassification due to between-worker variability remains an unsolved challenge. A source-based approach, supported by detailed subject data on determinants of exposure, may allow for a more individualized exposure assessment. Detailed information on the use of occupational sources of exposure to EMF was collected as part of the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study. To support a source-based exposure assessment effort within this study, this work aimed to construct a measurement database for the occupational sources of EMF exposure identified, assembling available measurements from the scientific literature. Methods: First, a comprehensive literature search was performed for published and unpublished documents containing exposure measurements for the EMF sources identified, a priori as well as from answers of study subjects. Then, the ...
The Community indicative occupational exposure limit values are established as implementation of Council Directive 98/24/EC.Member States shall establish national occupational exposure limit values for the chemical agents listed in the Annex, taking into account the Community values.
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Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal exposure to PAHs was urinary 1-OH-pyrene concentration. Measurements on exposure pads at six skin sites showed that mean total skin contamination of the 12 workers ranged between 21 and 166 micrograms pyrene a day. The dermal uptake of pyrene ranged between 4 and 34 micrograms/day, which was about 20% of the pyrene contamination on skin. The mean concentration of total pyrene in the breathing zone air of the 12 coke oven workers ranged from 0.1 to 5.4 micrograms/m3. The mean respiratory uptake of pyrene varied ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has maintained that "there is no safe level of asbestos exposure for any type of asbestos fiber," but despite these warnings, asbestos is still legal and still used in the United States. Different government agencies have their own rules and regulations for asbestos control to maintain exposure levels in the workplace and the environment. Those who work directly with asbestos consistently have a higher chance of contracting an asbestos-related disease than those who do not. Regulations and guidelines have been installed to keep the level of asbestos exposure at a minimum and are necessary among those who are in danger of being exposed in the work place.. Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) ...
Fibre concentrations of asbestos were measured in the air of a communal dining room in which the damaged ceiling had a sprayed on coating of insulation containing asbestos. The average concentration of crocidolite asbestos fibres was 4 f/cm3, 20 times the highest air concentration that appears to have been reported previously for a public building. It is concluded that although air concentrations of asbestos fibres in public buildings containing asbestos insulation materials are usually low, high concentrations can occur. This may have implications for the risk of exposed persons developing diseases associated with asbestos.. ...
1965 w. SCHEERMESSER 3,222,697 PROFILED POLYURETHANE FOAM ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE Filed June 29, 1956 6 SheetsSheet 1 I N VE N TOR Wf/fie/m JMee/mexer mww w ATTORNEYS Dec. 14, 1965 PROFILED Filed June 29, 1956 w. SCHEERMESSER 3,222,697 POLYURETHANE FOAM ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VENTOR ATTORNEYS D 1955 w. SCHEERMESSER 3,222,697 PROFILED POLYURETHANE FOAM ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE Filed June 29, 1956 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 I N VEN TOR M/fie/m idea/messy BY w w ATTORNEYS 1965 w. SCHEERMESSER 3,222,697 PROFILED POLYURETHANE FOAM ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE Filed June 29, 1956 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR VIM/Wm jafieermesser ATTORNEYS Dec. 14, 1965 w. SCHEERMESSER 3,222,697 PROFILED POLYURETHANE FOAM ARTICLES OF MANUFACTURE Filed June 29, 1956 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR ATTORNEYJ United States Patent O M 3,222,697 PRUFILED PGLYURETHANE FGAM ARTICLES F MANUFAtITURlE Wilhelm Scheermesser, Earl Honnef, Germany, assignor to Mobay Chemical Company, a corporation of Deliaware Filed June 29, 1956, Ser. ...
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DNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants | Occupational & Environmental MedicineDNA damage in outdoor workers occupationally exposed to environmental air pollutants | Occupational & Environmental Medicine

Aims: To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in ... Conclusions: With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006; 63 227-229 Published Online First: 23 Mar 2006. doi: 10.1136/oem.2005.025502 ... Background: Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for ...
more infohttps://oem.bmj.com/content/63/4/230.full

How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? | Occupational & Environmental MedicineHow important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? | Occupational & Environmental Medicine

How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2002; 59 714-720 Published Online First: 01 Oct 2002. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.10.714 ...
more infohttp://oem.bmj.com/content/59/10/653

Six Air Pollutants Down Sharply Since 1970: EPA -- Occupational Health & SafetySix Air Pollutants Down Sharply Since 1970: EPA -- Occupational Health & Safety

... air quality continued to improve, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson said yesterday. ... at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. ... Six Air Pollutants Down Sharply Since 1970: EPA. *May 01, 2007 ... What EPA called "an early look" at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. air quality continued to improve, EPA ... and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. ...
more infohttps://ohsonline.com/articles/2007/05/six-air-pollutants-down-sharply-since-1970-epa.aspx

Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants From: Occupational Safety and Health Administration | Building Cleaning ServicesSources of Indoor Air Pollutants From: Occupational Safety and Health Administration | Building Cleaning Services

Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants From: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Written by admin on June 1, 2012. · Leave ... Building occupants may be the source of indoor air pollutants; such pollutants include perfumes or colognes. ... Outside air intakes placed near sources where pollutants are drawn back into the building (e.g., idling vehicles, products of ... In such cases, there may be infiltration of outdoor pollutants such as particulates, vehicle exhaust, humid air, parking garage ...
more infohttps://buildingcleaningservices.net/sources-of-indoor-air-pollutants-from-occupational-safety-and-health-administration/

NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20038286 - Occupational exposure to hazardous airborne pollutants: effects of air mixing and...NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20038286 - Occupational exposure to hazardous airborne pollutants: effects of air mixing and...

This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. ... Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the ... The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants discomfort and/or adverse health ... Airborne-particles; Air-contamination; Air-flow; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Breathing-zone; Environmental-factors; Exposure- ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20038286.html

Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs -...Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs -...

Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs P. ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs ... Air quality standards (indoor, outdoor and occupational) for PAHs and other POPs will also be applied in the EU in the future. ...
more infohttp://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2007/EM/b700627f

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among residents of an historically industrialised area.  - PubMed - NCBIChronic obstructive pulmonary disease among residents of an historically industrialised area. - PubMed - NCBI

Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *HighWire. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... Among 1754 with complete occupational data, any past occupational exposure to VGDF carried an adjusted excess risk for report ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22744883

Problems and perspectives of occupational carcinogenesis].  - PubMed - NCBIProblems and perspectives of occupational carcinogenesis]. - PubMed - NCBI

Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Medical. *Occupational Health - MedlinePlus Health Information ... Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. The ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1758341

Benzene exposure monitoring of Tunisian workers.Benzene exposure monitoring of Tunisian workers.

Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis*. Benzene / analysis*, metabolism. Biological Markers / urine*. Chemical Industry. ... 0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Biological Markers; 0/Petroleum; 110-44-1/Sorbic Acid; 505-70-4/muconic acid; 71-43-2/Benzene ... Biology and Occupational Toxicology Laboratories Department at the Institute of Occupational Health and Safety, Tunisia. r_ ... Title: Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Volume ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Benzene-exposure-monitoring-Tunisian-workers/12500460.html

Nitrous oxide scavenging in dental surgery. I. A comparison of the efficiency of different scavenging devices.Nitrous oxide scavenging in dental surgery. I. A comparison of the efficiency of different scavenging devices.

Air Pollutants* / analysis. Air Pollutants, Occupational* / analysis. Air Pollution / prevention & control*. Anesthesia, Dental ... 0/Air Pollutants; 0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 10024-97-2/Nitrous Oxide ... The experimental model of measuring occupational nitrous oxide exposure during a 25-minute standardised dental treatment showed ... five out of seven systems might have good possibilities of meeting Swedish standards of occupational exposure (nitrous oxide ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Nitrous-oxide-scavenging-in-dental/6217569.html

TNO Repository search for: subject:Central Nervous SystemTNO Repository search for: subject:'Central Nervous System'

... occupational exposure · peripheral nervous system · Adult · Air Pollutants, Occupational · Human · Lead · Male · Middle Age · ... Chemicals/CAS: lead, 7439-92-1; Air Pollutants, Occupational; Lead, 7439-92-1 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons ... The human models were validated with blood and alveolar air kinetics of TMB and NDEC, measured in human volunteers. Using these ... Levels of cyclohexane in blood and exhaled air are measured in human volunteers and compared with model values. The model ...
more infohttps://repository.tudelft.nl/search/tno/?q=subject:%22Central%20Nervous%20System%22

Parental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence | PNASParental stress increases the effect of traffic-related air pollution on childhood asthma incidence | PNAS

1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 2003) Particulate air pollutants and asthma. A paradigm for the role of oxidative stress in pm-induced adverse health effects. ... Particulate and gaseous air pollutants can promote inflammatory responses in the airways, which are a central feature of asthma ... 2006) Ambient air pollution and asthma exacerbations in children: An eight-city analysis. Am J Epidemiol 164:505-517. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/106/30/12406

Plus itPlus it

Some also adjusted for housing conditions and other indoor air pollutants, occupational exposures, and outdoor air pollutants. ... Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 1993;35:909-915. ... Long-term particulate and other air pollutants and lung function in nonsmokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;158:289-298. ... Factors that were controlled included age, sex, education, occupational exposures, atopy, and outdoor air pollution. Only two ...
more infohttp://erj.ersjournals.com/content/19/1/172

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health - List of articlesScandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health - List of articles

Occupational exposure to air pollutants, inflammation and ischemic heart disease. Sjögren B Editorial 2004;30(5):337-338 pdf ... Expanding research on the economics of occupational health. Leigh JP Supplement article 2005;31 suppl 2:5-10 pdf Occupational ... Role of occupational hygiene research in the control of occupational health risks from engineered nanoparticles. Schneider T ... Advances in occupational traumatic injury research. Lombardi DA Editorial 2017;43(2):97-98 pdf full text Mortality of Shift ...
more infohttps://www.sjweh.fi/index.php?page=list-articles&keyword_id=2951&start=0&show_all=1

Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health - List of articlesScandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health - List of articles

Occupational exposure to air pollutants, inflammation and ischemic heart disease. Sjögren B Supplement 2004;30 suppl 2:91-98 ... Chemical and in vitro toxicologic characterization of wintertime and springtime urban air particles with an aerodynamic ...
more infohttps://www.sjweh.fi/index.php?page=list-articles&keyword_id=276

Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: data from the Third National Health and...Urinary cadmium levels predict lower lung function in current and former smokers: data from the Third National Health and...

Airway wall remodeling induced by occupational mineral dusts and air pollutant particles. Chest2002;122:306-9S. ... 5 Other known risk factors for COPD-including occupational exposure, air pollution, airway hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and ... Urban air pollution and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review. Eur Respir J2001;17:1024-33. ... Occupational or non-vocational exposures to cadmium (such as alloy making, jewellery making, etc) were not specifically asked ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/59/3/194

Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions |...Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions |...

1993) Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in nonsmokers. J Occup Med 35:909-915. ... 1994) Passive smoking exposure in adults and chronic respiratory symptoms (SAPALDIA Study). Swiss Study on Air Pollution and ... The multiphasic health check up questionnaire also contained 10 "Yes/No" items pertaining to self reported ever occupational ... Alcohol consumption, physical activity at work, hypertension, diabetes and occupational hazards according to level of total ...
more infohttp://jech.bmj.com/content/55/10/721

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Air Pollutants, Environmental (0) see Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants, Occupational (4) • Air pollutants found in the work area ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive (1) • Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity. MeSH ... Air Pollutants (14) • Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories

A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of MedicineA Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine

Air Pollutants, Environmental (0) see Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants, Occupational (4) • Air pollutants found in the work area ... Air Pollutants, Radioactive (1) • Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity. MeSH ... Air Pollutants (14) • Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/drugNamesAndCategories.jsp

adenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engineadenoid cystic carcinoma of the maxillary sinus 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0 / Dust. * 5. Al-Sukhun J, Törnwall J, Lindqvist C, Kontio R, ... consumer health - Occupational Health.. *[Email] Email this result item Email the results to the following email address: [X] ... Brusis T: [From the experts office: occupational cancer of the nasal and paranasal cavities. a new grading table for the ... Occupational Activity. B1.3.1. Health Care Activity. B1.3.1.1. Laboratory Procedure. B1.3.1.2. Diagnostic Procedure. B1.3.1.3. ...
more infohttp://www.bmlsearch.com/?kwr=adenoid+cystic+carcinoma+of+the+maxillary+sinus+2005:2010%5Bpubdate%5D&cxts=100&stmp=b0

Laryngeal Cancer | Sky Ridge Medical CenterLaryngeal Cancer | Sky Ridge Medical Center

Occupational exposure to certain air pollutants such as wood dust, chemicals, and asbestos ...
more infohttps://skyridgemedcenter.com/hl/?/11715/Laryngeal-cancer

Ailments causing Bronchial obstruction- Especially, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) | HubPagesAilments causing Bronchial obstruction- Especially, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) | HubPages

The combination effect of occupational exposure to air pollutants and smoking increases the chances of developing COPD. ... When air reaches the air sacs, the oxygen in the air passes through the air sac walls into the blood in the capillaries. At the ... each air sac fills up with air like a small balloon. When you breathe out, the air sacs deflate and the air goes out. ... In healthy people, both the airways and air sacs are springy and elastic. When you breathe in, each air sac fills with air like ...
more infohttps://hubpages.com/health/Ailments-causing-Bronchial-obstruction-Especially-Chronic-Obstructive-Pulmonary-Diseases-COPD
  • 4 Although the daily variation in pollutant concentrations was relatively small (the 90th centile of the 24 hour average PM 10 concentrations was only 38 μg/m 3 ), the authors were still able to identify associations between respiratory and asthma admissions to hospital for young people and various measures of particulate concentration. (bmj.com)
  • Sidestream smoke, emitted directly into the air during burning of a tobacco product between puffs, contains considerably higher concentrations of many carcinogens and toxic substances (table 2 ⇓ ), but is diluted into a larger volume of air. (ersjournals.com)
  • What EPA called "an early look" at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. air quality continued to improve, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson said yesterday. (ohsonline.com)
  • He said emissions of six key pollutants have dropped by 54 percent since 1970, and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. (ohsonline.com)
  • Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (bmj.com)
  • To date, PAS for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. (rsc.org)
  • The data is in and the trends are good: Our nation's air continues to improve because of the Bush Administration's innovative clean air policies," Johnson said. (ohsonline.com)
  • We discuss the potential advantages, limitations and developments needed, so that PAS can be used reliably and routinely indoors and in occupational settings for POPs. (rsc.org)
  • Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the human body for different levels of room air mixing. (cdc.gov)
  • Monitoring can be undertaken either by an active (pumped) method or using a passive (diffusive) air sampling ( PAS ) device. (rsc.org)