Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.SmokeSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.CaliforniaPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.AcroleinTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.GeorgiaComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.MexicoHousing: Living facilities for humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)West VirginiaBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.TaiwanEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.New JerseyRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.United StatesRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Los AngelesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.New York CityRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.TexasDichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.ItalyPentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.GermanyIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/1747)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (2/1747)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (3/1747)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (4/1747)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting. (5/1747)

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.  (+info)

Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms. (6/1747)

BACKGROUND: To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. RESULTS: During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). CONCLUSIONS: N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.  (+info)

Exposure of medical personnel to methylmethacrylate vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty. (7/1747)

The occupational exposure to methylmethacrylate (MMA) vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty was determined. During five vertebroplasty procedures, air-sampling pumps were attached to medical personnel. MMA vapor levels in the samples were then quantified using gas chromatography. The samples collected yielded MMA vapor levels of less than five parts per million (ppm). The MMA vapor concentrations measured were well below the recommended maximum exposure of 100 ppm over the course of an 8-hour workday.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (8/1747)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

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TAC - Toxic Air Contaminants. Looking for abbreviations of TAC? It is Toxic Air Contaminants. Toxic Air Contaminants listed as TAC
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Definition of Area Sample in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Area Sample? Meaning of Area Sample as a finance term. What does Area Sample mean in finance?
This is the most frequent question that clients asks us. The most accurate way to know what medicals should be done is to first do a hygiene survey. During the Hygiene survey the AIA Consultant will do varies of screening in your workplace and based on the exposure that gests detected during the survey. We can do a health risk assessment in the workplace to determine the exposures and to decide what medicals should be suitable. There is general conditions that requires medicals. The Following is good examples: This is the most frequent question that clients asks us. The most accurate way to know what medicals should be done is to first do a hygiene survey. During the Hygiene survey the AIA Consultant will do varies of screening in your workplace and based on the exposure that gests detected during the survey. We can do a health risk assessment in the workplace to determine the exposures and to decide what medicals should be suitable. There is general conditions that requires medicals. The ...
Objectives : The use of anti-neoplastic drugs is increasing and nursing staff are evidently concerned about the risk of hazardous exposure. General methods are available for measuring exposure to carcinogens. These methods, however, lack specificity. One group of anti-neoplastic drugs, based on cisplatin derivatives, contain platinum, which can...
NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 FINAL #1 RATS Facility: Battelle Northwest Chemical CAS #: 1321-74-0 Lock Date: 04/16/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion b Average severity grade (1-minimal;2-mild;3-moderate;4-marked) Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FISCHER 344 RATS FEMALE CONTROL 100 PPM 200 ...
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Results for air contaminant from leading brands for air and climate. Compare and contact a supplier near you on (air and climate) - Environmental XPRT
Results for air contaminant scrubbing technology from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT
Significantly expanded and completely updated, this revision of the 1985 text provides an in-dept look at particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment.
INTRODUCTION Introduce the techniques available for Industrial Hygienists to evaluate exposures to particulates in occupational settings. Inhaled particles may react with or be absorbed through tissues to cause adverse health effects. Variables include: - size, shape, and density; - chemical properties; - airborne concentration and time of exposure, and other factors, etc.; so, - health effects - irritation, illness, disease.
Bus services remain paralysed for the fifth consecutive day on Monday with no resolution in sight with the Madras High Court ordering the transport employees to return to work immediately. But the High Court also issued a directive to the TN government not to terminate workers without its consent.. The transport unions disregarded the order of the Madras High Court and said the strike will continue until the government gave in to the workers demands in toto. Opposition DMK, Congress and IUML demanded an immediate solution for the problem by talks with the striking workers representatives.. If it is not resolved before Pongal, it will leave thousands of people disappointed as they cannot travel to their homes and participate in the annual harvest festival.. The government did its best to bring the situation to normal by hiring temporary drivers, but the problems only multiplied with couple of such drivers causing accidents. One driver was arrested in Chennai on Monday for causing death on ...
Lyrics to Born On Monday by Children: Born on Monday, / Fair in face; / Born on Tuesday, / Full of Gods grace; / Born on Wednesday, / Sour
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the ...
Provided is a personal sampler for PM that allows separation of airborne particles in several size ranges and operates at a high flow rate (9 L/min) by personal sampling standards that makes chemical analysis of the size-fractionated particles possible within a period of 24 hours or less.
Both the metaboHsm of a material and its potential to cause toxic injury may vary with the route of exposure, although the magnitude of the dose and duration of dosing may influence this relationship. For example, materials that are metaboHcally activated by the Hver are likely to exhibit a comparatively greater degree of toxicity when given peroraHy than when absorbed in the lung or across the skin. This is largely related to the anatomical routes of transport. Thus, the greatest proportion of material absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract passes via the portal vein direcdy to the Hver. In contrast, materials absorbed as a result of respiratory exposure or skin contact initially pass to the lung and then into the systemic circulation, with only a small fraction of the cardiac output being deHvered to the Hver through the hepatic artery (Fig. 3). By similar reasoning, materials that are detoxified by the Hver may be significantly less toxic by swallowing than by either inhalation or ...
NEW YORK, Dec. 19, 2014-- Ohr Pharmaceutical, Inc., a research and development company with a primary focus in ophthalmology, today announced that it will report its financial results for the 2014 fiscal year ended September 30, 2014 after the close of the market and host a corporate update conference call and webcast on Monday, December 22, 2014 at 5:00pm Eastern...
We wish everyone sitting on Monday well. Youve been working hard now for months and now is the time you get to show off all your knowledge and understanding! Remember to read every SAQ carefully so that everything you write is answering the question. Write in point form and leave lots of empty lines on…
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
A CBO aide said the agency will not release its analysis of the revised healthcare bill drafted by Senate Republicans on Monday, following a vote delay.
For a list of bills passed in the Assembly on Monday, June 22 please click here. As of today, the Assembly has passed a total of 1,252 bills this legislative session. Last week, the Assembly convened for a total of 25 hours and 13 minutes over 4 days, and acted on a total 317 bills while holding a total of 45 committee meetings. ...
Hi Keep Pounding Rob Team! We wanted to post some brief information about the stem cell transplant and the high dose chemo, which Rob will begin Monday. Weve used two sites to help explain the information, Cancercompass.com and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (links below). Below is a chart from the website Cancercompass.com, and it…
Labor" began at 8:05 PM with my water breaking, and ended with Charlottes appearance at 1:25 AM. It was quick, but far from painless. Ill write her birth story soon. Thank you for all the good wishes!! I can hardly believe shes here ...
Two words those who move to France quickly learn are interdire and interdiction: to forbid and ban. I walked my 3- and 5-year-old sons across the playground of their maternity school when we first arrived here
HOSPITALS should schedule operations on the day of the week that gives patients the best chances of survival, a top Scottish surgeon says.
I went to the doctor on Monday. I have a yeast infection. He gave me diflocan which I took on Monday. Today I notice a rash on the inside of my legs. It doesnt itch. Could this be from the yeast or an allergic reaction to the medicine. I feel like Im going in circles. He did give me a prescriptio...
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water. ...
The (chemical, physical or biological) agents mentioned have effect in the workplace; not only directly for workers who perform a particular task, but also for people from other areas that are part of that environment. Moreover, the presence of these agents also affects the external environment of the company like nearby businesses, nearby communities and in general the soil, air and water. ...
Have you heard that the highest number of heart attacks occur on Monday mornings? Instead of a thrombosis, start your week with a Monday Morning Moment.
ow reduced to twenty thousand men, to watch and hold in check Hookers seventy-five or eighty thousand, while he concentrated the divisions of Anderson, McLaws and Early, of twenty-two or twenty-three thousand, against Sedgwick. This plan was carried out on Monday. Early came up behind Sedgwick; Anderson and McLaws pressed him from the Chancellorsville side. Much time was occupied in getting the troops into position. McLawss movements were very slow. But at 6 P. M. Monday Early and Anderson attacked Sedgwick, and by nightfall the Sixth Federal corps had been forced back, with heavy loss, to Banks Ford, under cover of the batteries on the north side ...
The HAZ-DUST IV is a real-time particulate monitor with instant display of breathing zone measurements, and built-in data logging for subsequent analysis/reporting. The lightweight unit is supplied with a detachable thoracic impactor. Optional interchangeable inhalable and respirable samplers are available.
Ask the Doc will commence at 2:30 on Mondays, with the guidance of Mark Kalina, M.D. We will review the latest research and complementary/integrative approaches. Class sessions are usually 90 minutes in duration, so bring your health questions! -
I had my progesterone checked via request a test Monday. It is down to 9. I am waiting to hear back from my OB but I am very nervous. My hcg went up to 1306. I am now 5w6d. my hcg doubling time is still with in 72 hours but it keeps slowing down. It went from 37.76 hours to 52.77 hours to 61.04 hours. My progesterone was 13 on Monday. I ordered all of the tests except the first 2 myself and I just got the last results so I have not spoke with my OB yet. I am not hopeful about doing do as she absolutely refused to rechexk my progesterone even though it was 12.2 and I asked for a recheck. Thoughts? Advice?
started my cycle on monday and im not sure if im doing something wrong or if i havent given it long enough to kick in, i worked out monday and tuesday
You provide values for these that make the most sense for you and your application. For example, context1 might a type of network service and context2 might be the specific host name being used to provide that service.. DashProfiler::Sample. To add timing samples you need to use a Sampler. A Sampler is a code reference that when called creates a new DashProfiler::Sample object and returns a reference to it. Samplers are factories for creating samples. The Sampler code reference is customized (curried) to contain the value for ...
My co-worker managed to complete the stats. With all the interruptions, it took at least the entire day. Im very certain he started working on the stats on Monday. My company and my co-worker failed to use todays technology to calculate stats monthly, quarterly, and yearly quickly, efficiently, and accurately. If our competitors know about the weakness, my company is screwed. Furthermore, my company talks about the latest technology and how technology is important to stay ahead of the curve. To me, its all talk because my company fails to use the latest technology to smash our competitors and to create a more efficient and more productive company. For example, my company has a new database which became online in March 2006. Today is January 2007 and the database has gone at least 30 revisions (I lost count). And there are still bugs and improvements needed. The database was never beta tested ...
Village Hospital will open a new catheterization lab in Greer on Monday. While procedures offered at the lab will initially be limited to diagnostic procedures, additional services will be added as the program grows.. "Before this cath lab opened, there was no other such facility in Greer, which meant patients would have to travel to either Spartanburg or Greenville for this type of service," Anthony (Tony) Kouskolekas, President of Village Hospital, said. "This latest expansion of our services is further proof of our commitment to the Greer community that expert medical care need not be a long drive away to another city. Its right in our own backyard at Village Hospital.". Read More. ...
Then Tuesday the Farmer and I headed south to see Heidi. We were a bit anxious to see how far we had come in the last week since the contractions had not really fully stopped since we saw Bethany on Monday. My weight had gone up quite a bit, but I knew that was because of the fluid I felt in my legs and feet. My blood pressure was up a bit as well but still acceptable (130/80). Sarahs heart beat was around 155 and she is measuring 38 weeks. She also was about 2 inches lower but still freely floated when Heidi pushed on her head. My cervix was anterior now (a good thing) and I was an open 1 cm dilated. Other than being anterior now, I was also glad to hear Heidi say I was alot more effaced. So progress is definitely being made...just not as much as I had hoped for ...
I found an echo reading Lucy Kellaways article in the FT on Monday debunking the "sentimental pap" that no-one ever says on their death bed, "I wish Id spent more time in the office". Now I am a huge fan of hers, indeed she is the only columnist I have actually written fan mail to (and received a response which surprised me). But it is easy to stand on the side and chuck rocks and I think there are more people with a dysfunctional relationship with work that hurts their life than there are rounded, complete individuals who just happen to get their completeness from work ...
LogicLibrary and AgilePath announced on Monday that the two companies will incorporate AgilePaths SOA Playbook methodology into Logidexs metadata repository. The combined offering is intended to be an out-of-the-box solution for service identification and modeling combined with SOA governance and enablement.
This week has been good. I had a new paper officially accepted and a preprint go up on Monday. Today I discovered another new paper had moved from "in press" to "published." That journal, The Journal of Crustacean Biology, doesnt "do" preprints, which means Ive had two new papers hit in one week. Perhaps more importantly ...
What time forex market opens on monday #### FOREX HAFTAYA BAKIS Is forex trading a waste of time #### Liczby fibonacciego na rynku forex pdf
The classes will be identical on Monday evenings at 6:30 p.m. and Tuesday mornings at 10:30 a.m. You may choose which time fits your schedule each week ...
My wife had her first round of chemotherapy on Monday and Tuesday. It went as well as one can expect this sort of thing to go - they were long, tiring days but she doesnt appear to feel any worse from it. After another round or two (the treatments will be monthly) her energy level…
If you are reading this and you have ever considered being a doctor then here is your chance to diagnose someone. Im taking the weekend off but will check back on Monday morning to see if anyone wants to give it a shot AND Ill tell you what the doctor has speculated about so far but these are only his speculations so YOU have the chance to diagnose me first ...
General Motors Co passed an environmental milestone of sorts in March, when it became the first U.S. automaker to sell, in a single month, more than 100,000 cars that can achieve 30 miles per gallon in highway driving, the automaker said on Monday.
"WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... through air pollution or parental occupational exposure, with poor fetal growth, reduced immune function, and poorer ... "WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... "International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 27 (2): 314-25. doi:10.2478/s13382-014-0250-3. ISSN ...
There are many diseases that can come from the pollutants that are released into the air and water during the mining process. ... Metals are usually emitted into the air as particulates. There are also many occupational health hazards. Most of the miners ... For example, during smelting operations enormous quantities[clarification needed] of air pollutants, such as the suspended ... Air, & Soil Pollution. 125 (1): 231-241. Gerhardt, A.; Janssens de Bisthoven, L.; Soares, A.M.V.M. (2004). "Macroinvertebrate ...
In 2008, the report of United Kingdom committee on the medical effects of air pollutants (COMEAP) suggested that air pollution ... Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and it is often high for farmers especially those that deal with ... It is one of the major air pollutant capable of causing severe heath hazards such as coronary artery disease as well as stroke ... Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant of the mucous membrane linked with another air pollutant that causes pulmonary diseases such as ...
Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. "Machine- ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. ... "CPDM Helps Coal Miners Avoid Hazardous Dust". U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ... Gilliam, Joseph H.; Hall, Eric S. (2016-07-13). "Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality ...
... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 --- air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 --- endocrine ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 --- air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888.284.101.143.631 --- oxidants, ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 --- soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 --- water pollutants MeSH ... D27.888.284.903.655 --- water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 --- water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888. ...
... with occupational safety and health have promulgated regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in ... This article presents a set of useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling of atmospheric pollutants and for ... More conversions and formulas useful in air dispersion modeling are available in the feature articles at www.air-dispersion.com ... gram mole Atmospheric pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m³, µg/m³, etc.) ...
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Regulations ... However, asbestos was one of the first hazardous air pollutants regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of 1970, and ... The Clean Air Act requires that asbestos be wetted during removal and strictly contained, and that workers wear safety gear and ... Adamo was one of a number of demolition contractors indicted throughout the country for the alleged violation of the Clean Air ...
U.S. EPA, What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants? U.S. EPA, Original list of hazardous air pollutants. U.S. EPA, Air Pollutants ... Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ... Air quality standards are legal standards or requirements governing concentrations of air pollutants in breathed air, both ...
National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ... California Public Smog South Coast Air Quality Management District Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health ... The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for ... Implement the requirements of the California Clean Air Act and 1990 Amendments to the federal Clean Air Act. Continue public ...
Energy portal Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors ... environmental and occupational health regulation Vehicle emissions control "US EPA approves California auto emissions standard ... EPA's air pollution score represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. ... "ADEQ: Air Quality Division: Vehicle Emissions: What Vehicles Need to be Tested?". Azdeq.gov. Retrieved 2012-10-22. "ADEQ: Air ...
... as a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. With a relatively short half-life, it is not expected to bioaccumulate. ... was established for occupational (8-hour time-weighted average) exposure. It is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) ... Observed concentrations have been in the range of 0.1-4.8 parts per billion (ppb) in rural air, 4-10.5 ppb in urban air, and 7- ... 260 ppb in industrial air samples. In the United States and some European countries a Threshold Limit Value of 500 parts per ...
As an example, the EPA's retrospective study of the clean air act, which focused "primarily on the criteria pollutants sulfur ... frequently include wage data from the Current Population Survey and workplace risk data from the Census of Fatal Occupational ... From the EPA's: Beginning in 2004 EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) used an estimate of $5.5 million (1999 dollars; $6.6 ... The estimates are based on the assumption that correlations between increased air pollution exposures and adverse health ...
"List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petition Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source Category List; Petition To Delist of ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0070". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "2-Butoxyethanol ... Environmental Protection Agency's list of hazardous air pollutants in 2004. The EPA currently lists it in the context of ... "Air Foam HD Material Data Safety Sheet". Product Safety. AquaClear, Inc. Retrieved 4 June 2010. Gift, J. S. (2005). "U.S. EPA's ...
Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Commission on Life ... Hallenbeck, William H. Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers ... The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) supports a qualitative risk framework for public health ... Further investigation identifies options such as separating noninfectious from infectious wastes, or air pollution controls on ...
doi:10.1016/0045-6535(80)90079-X. Hawthorne, Steven B.; Sievers, Robert E. (1984). "Emissions of organic air pollutants from ... National Occupational Exposure Survey 1981-83. Cincinnati, OH: Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, ... For comparison, indoor air contaminated with tobacco smoke may contain up to 16 µg·m−3 of pyridine, and one cigarette contains ... Pyridine has a flash point (the lowest temperature at which it can vaporize to form an ignitable mixture in air) of only 17 °C ...
Emission of butanone was regulated in the US as a hazardous air pollutant, because it is a volatile organic compound ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0069". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health ( ... In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency removed butanone from the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Butane n- ... Concentrations in the air high enough to be flammable are intolerable to humans due to the irritating nature of the vapor. ...
... environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. Such regulations involve a number of different ... Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ...
Pollutants. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse ... Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/03/01. *The Mortality Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air ... Minor air pollutants include: *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ...
... it was included on the list of hazardous air pollutants by the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990. It was subsequently removed from the ... "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0097". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Josef Ritz; Hugo ... doi:10.1016/S0040-4020(00)00218-0. EPA - Modifications To The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants "Agents Classified by the IARC ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *Occupational safety and health. *Pulmonary agents. *Swimming pool equipment ... "dephlogisticated muriatic acid air" since it is a gas (then called "airs") and it came from hydrochloric acid (then known as " ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ Winder, Chris (2001). "The Toxicology of Chlorine". ... Chlorine, Gas Encyclopaedia, Air Liquide *^ Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed ...
The state installed an air quality monitoring station at DISH, which showed that, as of 2012, air pollutants were generally ... and consumer or occupational/hobby related products could explain many of the findings. ... In response to concerns about the town's air quality, the Texas Department of State Health Services conducted air quality tests ... A article about the air quality in DISH by NPR in 2012 stated that "better studies are needed" to test for the health effects ...
Toxic air pollution : a comprehensive study of non-criteria air pollutants. Chelsea, MI.: Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-057-6 ... International Academy of Indoor Air Sciences, (Elected) 1999-Present Fellow, Collegium Ramazzini, Environmental & Occupational ... This standard for protection of public health was tightened to 0.75 ppm but remains as an 8-hour contact with the air pollutant ... Lioy has been a central figure in understanding exposure to the air pollutant tropospheric ozone, chloroform and other toxicant ...
"Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... 3.2.2 Occupational hazards *3.2.2.1 Hazards for small businesses. *3.2.2.2 Hazards from medical waste and prescription disposal ... Occupational hazards[edit]. The expression "Mad as a hatter" and the "Mad Hatter" of the book Alice in Wonderland derive from ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ...
"Air Quality Management: Modeling Hong Kong Air Quality" ENVIRON. Retrieved 2013-07-12. "VOC Biotreat: A cost-effective solution ... In 2003 ENVIRON merged with Applied Epidemiology, Inc., a provider of epidemiological consulting services in occupational ... and other pollutants due to local sources, as well as transport from China and other areas in Asia. Ramboll Environ was engaged ... "Officials: Air OK in mobile classrooms" The Courier-News - Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2013-07-30. "Beverage patterns may make ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *IARC Group 3 carcinogens. *Commodity chemicals. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi script errors ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. Authority control *GND: 4346494-4 ...
This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. ... Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the ... The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants discomfort and/or adverse health ... Airborne-particles; Air-contamination; Air-flow; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Breathing-zone; Environmental-factors; Exposure- ...
... air quality continued to improve, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson said yesterday. ... at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. ... Six Air Pollutants Down Sharply Since 1970: EPA. *May 01, 2007 ... What EPA called "an early look" at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. air quality continued to improve, EPA ... and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. ...
Aims: To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in ... Conclusions: With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006; 63 227-229 Published Online First: 23 Mar 2006. doi: 10.1136/oem.2005.025502 ... Background: Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for ...
How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2002; 59 714-720 Published Online First: 01 Oct 2002. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.10.714 ...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs P. ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs ... Air quality standards (indoor, outdoor and occupational) for PAHs and other POPs will also be applied in the EU in the future. ...
Key terms air pollutant; editorial; IHD; inflammation; ischemic heart disease; occupational exposure ... Inhalation of several occupational air pollutants causes chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment. Chronic bronchitis ( ... Studies of the relationship between occupational air pollutants and inflammatory markers, as well as IHD, will increase our ... air pollutants to IHD via a possible inflammatory response is meager compared with the evidence regarding urban air pollutants ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Air Pollutants, Occupational Subjects Motor Vehicles ✖Remove ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Weapons. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 7. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Firearms. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 8. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Weapons. Motor Vehicles. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 9. Project no. 3 -- ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Air Pollutants, Occupational Subjects Motor Vehicles ✖Remove ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Weapons. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 2. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Firearms. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 3. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Weapons. Motor Vehicles. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 4. Project no. 3 -- ...
... industrial and occupational pollutants, food additives and preservatives, drugs such as aspirin, and emotional stress. Asthma ... Indoor Air Pollution. Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. Air pollutant levels in the home ... Indoor pollutants can be placed into two groups, biologic and chemical.. Biologic Pollutants. Biologic pollutants include ... poor air circulation, soil air entry into basements, contact of humid unconditioned air with cooled interior surfaces, and poor ...
View our complete catalog of authoritative Occupational & Environmental Medicine related book titles and textbooks published by ... Air Pollutants and the Respiratory Tract. An Applied Approach By W. Michael Foster. , Daniel L. Costa. ... Parkes Occupational Lung Disorders. By Anthony Newman Taylor. , Paul Cullinan. , Paul Blanc. , Anthony Pickering. ...
Air pollutants may damage fetal cardiovascular development Microscopic particles in air pollution inhaled by pregnant women may ... Study evaluates impact of air-exchange rates on respiratory health in low-income homes A team of investigators from the ... The report "Sécurité des couches pour bébé", published by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & ...
Results of search for su:{Air pollutants, Occupational.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently available ... Ambient air pollutants from industrial sources : a reference handbook / edited by Michael J. Suess and Klaus Grefen, Dieter W. ... Workplace air, determination of vinyl, charcoal tube/gas chromatographic method = Air des lieux de travail, détermination du ... Air des lieux de travail, détermination du chlorure de vinyle, méthode par tube à charbon actif/chromatographie en phase ...
Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health ... Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant ... SES indicator: parents occupational prestige. Modifying effects by SES were observed for IQ and blood lead, but interaction ... Susceptibility and vulnerability factors considered for evaluation of the criteria air pollutants.. Criteria air pollutant. ...
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants From: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Written by admin on June 1, 2012. · Leave ... Building occupants may be the source of indoor air pollutants; such pollutants include perfumes or colognes. ... Outside air intakes placed near sources where pollutants are drawn back into the building (e.g., idling vehicles, products of ... In such cases, there may be infiltration of outdoor pollutants such as particulates, vehicle exhaust, humid air, parking garage ...
Sales of home air fresheners and scented candles are on the rise and so are respiratory problems in homes where these products ... Occupational Asthma. If you experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness or shortness of breath at work, you may have ... Unplug indoor pollutants for a breath of fresh air. Allergists say home fragrance products may cause respiratory problems. ... "The safest option is to avoid exposure to pollutants that air fresheners emit. ...
Read chapter 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad: Many veterans returning from the conflicts in ... Occupational & Environmental Medicine 53(9):606-612.. Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. ... 5 pollutants), eye (8 pollutants), skin (5 pollutants) and spleen (1 pollutant). The presence of multiple pollutants in the air ... 15 pollutants), liver (15 pollutants), lungs/respiratory (11 pollutants), kidney (12 pollutants), blood (7 pollutants), heart ...
Silvermans research involves the design and conduct of epidemiologic investigations to evaluate occupational, environmental, ... Outdoor air pollution also causes lung cancer but the specific pollutant driving the risk is unknown. Dr. Silverman, in ... the NIOSH Alice Hamilton Science Award for Occupational Safety and Health, and the British Occupational Hygiene Society Award ... Carcinogenicity of Diesel Exhaust and Outdoor Air Pollutants. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Act, referred to in subsec. (r)(6)(C)(ii), (K), (L), probably means the Occupational Safety ... 6) Hazardous air pollutant The term "hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b). ... b) List of pollutants (1) Initial list The Congress establishes for purposes of this section a list of hazardous air pollutants ... a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *HighWire. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... Among 1754 with complete occupational data, any past occupational exposure to VGDF carried an adjusted excess risk for report ...
3.1 Air Pollutants 31. 3.2 Water and Soil Pollutants 38. 3.3 Occupational Toxicants 42 ... 3. Exposure Classes, Toxicants in Air, Water, Soil, Domestic, and Occupational Settings 31. W. Gregory Cope ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Medical. *Occupational Health - MedlinePlus Health Information ... Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. The ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis. California. Carbon / analysis. Child. Environment*. Environmental Exposure*. Humans. ... 0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; 10102-44-0/Nitrogen Dioxide; 7440-44-0/Carbon ... Title: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) Volume: 55 ISSN: 1096-2247 ISO Abbreviation: J Air Waste Manag ... Across all of the pollutants, mean concentrations during bus commutes were higher than in any other microenvironment. Mean ...
Guidelines for air quality  World Health Organization. Occupational and Environmental Health Team (‎WHO/SDE/OEH/00.02, 2000)‎ ... The use of chemical and microbial indoor air pollutants was high in 87.5% and 67.5% of the women respectively. Also, 27.5% of ... This study determined the relationship between womens use of indoor air pollutants and sociodemographic variables and illness ... Rural womens use of indoor air pollutants in Alexandria Governorate: relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and ...
Occupational exposure to air pollutants: particulate matter and respiratory symptoms affec Occupational exposure to air ... Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse ... Air Pollutants / Air Pollution / Particulate Matter / Occupational Diseases Type of study: Prevalence_studies Clinical aspect: ... Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , ...
The prevalence of self-reported occupational exposures seems to depend on asthmatic health status at both the individual and ... Methods: Data on self-reported exposure to air pollutants were obtained for 16,752 randomly selected working individuals from ... Conclusions: The prevalence of self-reported occupational exposures seems to depend on asthmatic health status at both the ... Comparison of self-reported occupational exposure with a job exposure matrix in an international community-based study on ...
  • Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. (nih.gov)
  • It's a dangerous occupation by its very nature, so it comes with a lot of occupational hazards," VFW National Veterans Service Director Ryan Gallucci told Drugwatch. (drugwatch.com)
  • Other occupational hazards include exposure to silica and asbestos. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. (bmj.com)
  • They (1) spend most of their lives and attend school in limited geographical areas where air quality and meteorological effects can be measured and school absenteeism may also be ascertained tamed, (2) are more susceptible to most respiratory infections, (3) are not largely affected by smoking because it becomes a factor in only a small subgroup, and (4) are not exposed to the occupational hazards to which many adults are exposed. (aappublications.org)
  • It is one of the major air pollutant capable of causing severe heath hazards such as coronary artery disease as well as stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational disease and injury arising from workplace exposure to pentane (109660), hexane (110543), heptane (142825), or octane (111659). (cdc.gov)
  • This represents lung as a major port of entry for small-sized particles and other gaseous pollutants to the human body (Ghio et al. (deepdyve.com)
  • Both the air quality index (AQI) and indicatory air pollutants of Anqing, Hefei, and Suzhou near central China from 2017 to 2019, and the impact of COVID-19 epidemic prevention and control actions on air quality were investigated. (aaqr.org)
  • This study also investigated and compared the air quality levels in the three cities from January to March 2017-2019 with those in 2020. (aaqr.org)
  • The mean AQI for the 5 days with the highest daily AQI (averaged 122.6) in February 2020 was 45.1% lower than that for February 2017-2019 (averaging 223.2), and the indicatory air pollutant was always PM 2.5 , which decreased by 46.7% (from 173.6 to 92.6 µg m -3 ). (aaqr.org)
  • He has extensive clinical training, with specialty board certifications in internal medicine, pulmonary and critical care medicine, and occupational medicine. (nap.edu)
  • Study results show that the often used assumption of uniform pollutant distribution in an occupied space is not always appropriate for estimation of inhalation exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The idea that the inhalation of urban air pollutants may provoke an inflammatory process in the lungs and cause an increase in blood coagulability and, as a consequence, coronary heart disease was hypothesized by Anthony Seaton and his co-workers in 1995 (24). (sjweh.fi)
  • This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. (deepdyve.com)
  • Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/AllChrels.html, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 (http://www.oehha.ca.gov/air/chronic_rels/index.html. (ewg.org)
  • The first thought that comes to mind concerning air pollution is related to urban centers where automotive exhausts and the industrial chimneys are the most important sources of atmospheric pollutants. (scielo.br)
  • These results provide a basis for prioritizing future primary studies regarding the endocrine disrupting properties of UOG air pollutants, including exposure research in wildlife and humans. (springer.com)
  • The research was conducted by Anne Steinemann, Professor of Civil Engineering and Chair of Sustainable Cities from the University of Melbourne School of Engineering, and published in the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine . (eurekalert.org)
  • Air quality standards (indoor, outdoor and occupational) for PAHs and other POPs will also be applied in the EU in the future. (rsc.org)
  • We collected area air samples for PAHs and PM2.5, during the first 12 days of a wildfire event. (cdc.gov)
  • PAH area air samples were actively collected in 12-hr shifts (day and night) using XAD4-coated quartz fiber filters and XAD2 sorbent tubes and analyzed for 17 individual PAHs. (cdc.gov)