Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The contamination of indoor air.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Living facilities for humans.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Methodological issues in biomonitoring of low level exposure to benzene. (1/1747)

Data from a pilot study on unmetabolized benzene and trans,trans muconic acid (t,t-MA) excretion in filling station attendants and unexposed controls were used to afford methodological issues in the biomonitoring of low benzene exposures (around 0.1 ppm). Urinary concentrations of benzene and t,t-MA were measured by dynamic head-space capillary GC/FID and HPLC, respectively. The accuracy of the HPLC determination of t,t-MA was assessed in terms of inter- and intra-method reliability. The adequacy of urinary t,t-MA and benzene as biological markers of low benzene exposure was evaluated by analysing the relationship between personal exposure to benzene and biomarker excretion. Filling station attendants excreted significantly higher amounts of benzene, but not of t,t-MA, than controls. Adjusting for occupational benzene exposure, smokers excreted significantly higher amounts of t,t-MA, but not of unmetabolized benzene, than nonsmokers. A comparative analysis of the present and previously published biomonitoring surveys showed a good inter-study agreement regarding the amount of t,t-MA and unmetabolized benzene excreted (about 0.1-0.2 mg/l and 1-2 micrograms/l, respectively) per unit of exposure (0.1 ppm). For each biomarker, based on the distribution of parameters observed in the pilot study, we calculated the minimum sample size required to estimate the population mean with given confidence and precision.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (2/1747)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (3/1747)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Hierarchical cluster analysis applied to workers' exposures in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. (4/1747)

The objectives of this study were to explore the application of cluster analysis to the characterization of multiple exposures in industrial hygiene practice and to compare exposure groupings based on the result from cluster analysis with that based on non-measurement-based approaches commonly used in epidemiology. Cluster analysis was performed for 37 workers simultaneously exposed to three agents (endotoxin, phenolic compounds and formaldehyde) in fiberglass insulation manufacturing. Different clustering algorithms, including complete-linkage (or farthest-neighbor), single-linkage (or nearest-neighbor), group-average and model-based clustering approaches, were used to construct the tree structures from which clusters can be formed. Differences were observed between the exposure clusters constructed by these different clustering algorithms. When contrasting the exposure classification based on tree structures with that based on non-measurement-based information, the results indicate that the exposure clusters identified from the tree structures had little in common with the classification results from either the traditional exposure zone or the work group classification approach. In terms of the defining homogeneous exposure groups or from the standpoint of health risk, some toxicological normalization in the components of the exposure vector appears to be required in order to form meaningful exposure groupings from cluster analysis. Finally, it remains important to see if the lack of correspondence between exposure groups based on epidemiological classification and measurement data is a peculiarity of the data or a more general problem in multivariate exposure analysis.  (+info)

Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting. (5/1747)

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters.  (+info)

Causes of nitrous oxide contamination in operating rooms. (6/1747)

BACKGROUND: To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. METHODS: Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. RESULTS: During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). CONCLUSIONS: N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.  (+info)

Exposure of medical personnel to methylmethacrylate vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty. (7/1747)

The occupational exposure to methylmethacrylate (MMA) vapor during percutaneous vertebroplasty was determined. During five vertebroplasty procedures, air-sampling pumps were attached to medical personnel. MMA vapor levels in the samples were then quantified using gas chromatography. The samples collected yielded MMA vapor levels of less than five parts per million (ppm). The MMA vapor concentrations measured were well below the recommended maximum exposure of 100 ppm over the course of an 8-hour workday.  (+info)

Potential effects of gas hydrate on human welfare. (8/1747)

For almost 30 years. serious interest has been directed toward natural gas hydrate, a crystalline solid composed of water and methane, as a potential (i) energy resource, (ii) factor in global climate change, and (iii) submarine geohazard. Although each of these issues can affect human welfare, only (iii) is considered to be of immediate importance. Assessments of gas hydrate as an energy resource have often been overly optimistic, based in part on its very high methane content and on its worldwide occurrence in continental margins. Although these attributes are attractive, geologic settings, reservoir properties, and phase-equilibria considerations diminish the energy resource potential of natural gas hydrate. The possible role of gas hydrate in global climate change has been often overstated. Although methane is a "greenhouse" gas in the atmosphere, much methane from dissociated gas hydrate may never reach the atmosphere, but rather may be converted to carbon dioxide and sequestered by the hydrosphere/biosphere before reaching the atmosphere. Thus, methane from gas hydrate may have little opportunity to affect global climate change. However, submarine geohazards (such as sediment instabilities and slope failures on local and regional scales, leading to debris flows, slumps, slides, and possible tsunamis) caused by gas-hydrate dissociation are of immediate and increasing importance as humankind moves to exploit seabed resources in ever-deepening waters of coastal oceans. The vulnerability of gas hydrate to temperature and sea level changes enhances the instability of deep-water oceanic sediments, and thus human activities and installations in this setting can be affected.  (+info)

EMD Millipore Glass Fiber Filters without Binders Grade: APFB; Diameter: 47mm EMD Millipore Glass Fiber Filters without Binders Glass Fibre Filters and...
TAC - Toxic Air Contaminants. Looking for abbreviations of TAC? It is Toxic Air Contaminants. Toxic Air Contaminants listed as TAC
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Definition of Area Sample in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Area Sample? Meaning of Area Sample as a finance term. What does Area Sample mean in finance?
This is the most frequent question that clients asks us. The most accurate way to know what medicals should be done is to first do a hygiene survey. During the Hygiene survey the AIA Consultant will do varies of screening in your workplace and based on the exposure that gests detected during the survey. We can do a health risk assessment in the workplace to determine the exposures and to decide what medicals should be suitable. There is general conditions that requires medicals. The Following is good examples: This is the most frequent question that clients asks us. The most accurate way to know what medicals should be done is to first do a hygiene survey. During the Hygiene survey the AIA Consultant will do varies of screening in your workplace and based on the exposure that gests detected during the survey. We can do a health risk assessment in the workplace to determine the exposures and to decide what medicals should be suitable. There is general conditions that requires medicals. The ...
Objectives : The use of anti-neoplastic drugs is increasing and nursing staff are evidently concerned about the risk of hazardous exposure. General methods are available for measuring exposure to carcinogens. These methods, however, lack specificity. One group of anti-neoplastic drugs, based on cisplatin derivatives, contain platinum, which can...
NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 FINAL #1 RATS Facility: Battelle Northwest Chemical CAS #: 1321-74-0 Lock Date: 04/16/02 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion b Average severity grade (1-minimal;2-mild;3-moderate;4-marked) Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 88004-05 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT18 Study Type: CHRONIC WITH AVERAGE SEVERITY GRADES[b] Date: 12/17/03 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY DIVINYLBENZENE Time: 12:01:01 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FISCHER 344 RATS FEMALE CONTROL 100 PPM 200 ...
A meta description is an HTML tag in the HTML code of your website, which allows you to customize a section of text that describes the page itself. It plays a role in how your page is seen by search engine crawlers, and how it appears in SERPs
Results for air contaminant from leading brands for air and climate. Compare and contact a supplier near you on (air and climate) - Environmental XPRT
Results for air contaminant scrubbing technology from leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near you on Environmental XPRT
Significantly expanded and completely updated, this revision of the 1985 text provides an in-dept look at particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment.
INTRODUCTION Introduce the techniques available for Industrial Hygienists to evaluate exposures to particulates in occupational settings. Inhaled particles may react with or be absorbed through tissues to cause adverse health effects. Variables include: - size, shape, and density; - chemical properties; - airborne concentration and time of exposure, and other factors, etc.; so, - health effects - irritation, illness, disease.
Bus services remain paralysed for the fifth consecutive day on Monday with no resolution in sight with the Madras High Court ordering the transport employees to return to work immediately. But the High Court also issued a directive to the TN government not to terminate workers without its consent.. The transport unions disregarded the order of the Madras High Court and said the strike will continue until the government gave in to the workers demands in toto. Opposition DMK, Congress and IUML demanded an immediate solution for the problem by talks with the striking workers representatives.. If it is not resolved before Pongal, it will leave thousands of people disappointed as they cannot travel to their homes and participate in the annual harvest festival.. The government did its best to bring the situation to normal by hiring temporary drivers, but the problems only multiplied with couple of such drivers causing accidents. One driver was arrested in Chennai on Monday for causing death on ...
Lyrics to Born On Monday by Children: Born on Monday, / Fair in face; / Born on Tuesday, / Full of Gods grace; / Born on Wednesday, / Sour
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation ...
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the occupation is less prevalent in the area than average. ...
Second and third shift considerations are important for production planning and scheduling in most manufacturing facilities. A careful literature survey revealed that multiple workshift considerations have not been previously discussed for general aggregate production planning models. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer logic for permitting the opening or closing of second and third shifts of production within a generic model having linear and quadratic cost components. We illustrate the results of the model on a hypothetical data set. The model permits different costs for opening and closing the extra shifts and provides for a minimum required work force size for the extra shifts.
1) Estimates for detailed occupations do not sum to the totals because the totals include occupations not shown separately. Estimates do not include self-employed workers.. (2) Annual wages have been calculated by multiplying the hourly mean wage by a year-round, full-time hours figure of 2,080 hours; for those occupations where there is not an hourly mean wage published, the annual wage has been directly calculated from the reported survey data.. (3) The relative standard error (RSE) is a measure of the reliability of a survey statistic. The smaller the relative standard error, the more precise the estimate.. (7) The value is less than .005 percent of industry employment.. (8) Estimate not released.. (9) The location quotient is the ratio of the area concentration of occupational employment to the national average concentration. A location quotient greater than one indicates the occupation has a higher share of employment than average, and a location quotient less than one indicates the ...
The Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety has released its draft recommendations on occupational exposure limits for bisphenol A and for cadmium and its inorganic compounds. Regarding bisphenol A, DECOS considered there to be very limited evidence to support a non-monotonic dose-response relationship and therefore recommended a health‑based recommended occupational exposure limit (HBROEL) of 3.3 mg/m3 (inhalable fraction), based on a 13‑week inhalation study in rats, the critical effect being local toxicity in the nasal cavity. For cadmium and its inorganic compounds, DECOS reviewed the 2017 recommendation of the Scientific Committee for Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL), and considered the scientific basis of its OEL (of 1 µg/m3, inhalable fraction) to be insufficient. DECOS instead supported a previously‑defined biological limit value in the urine of 2 µg cadmium/g creatinine for the protection against kidney effects, and an OEL of 4 µg/m3 to prevent adverse effects on the ...
Get Glass Fiber Filters at Spectrum Chemical. carries a full line of fine chemicals, lab appliances and lab supplies. Spectrum Chemical has a complete line of laboratory supplies, equipment and safety items.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Advanced REACH tool. T2 - a Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment. AU - McNally, Kevin. AU - Warren, Nicholas. AU - Fransman, Wouter. AU - Entink, Rinke Klein. AU - Schinkel, Jody. AU - Van Tongeren, Martie. AU - Cherrie, John W.. AU - Kromhout, Hans. AU - Schneider, Thomas. AU - Tielemans, Erik. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on interand intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible ...
SUMMARY: The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is sponsoring a technical panel to discuss ventilation engineering controls for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the hospitality sector. This meeting, which is in the form of a workshop, will be moderated by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The workshop proceedings on recommended and feasible ventilation engineering controls for the reduction of occupational ETS exposures in the hospitality industry will be published by ACGIH for the public.. DATES: The workshop will be held on June 7, 8, and 9, 1998, beginning at 8:30 a.m. each day and ending at approximately 5:00 p.m.. ADDRESSES: The workshop will be held at the Drawbridge Inn, I-75 at Buttermilk Pike, Fort Mitchell, Kentucky 41017 (Phone 606-341-2800). The conference contact is Alexis Callender, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1330 Kemper Meadow Dr., Suite 600, Cincinnati, Ohio 45240; Phone: ...
6 Soldering: 1.Total Dust and Elements - 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) 2. Alcohols on 3M 3500 Organic Vapor Monitors (OVM)- Soldering flux and Flux-Off 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) 3. Hydrocarbons on separate 3M 3500 OVM - 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate 2 personal samples and field blank (3 samples) Epoxy: 1.Crystalline Silica as Quartz from Epoxy Hardener 1 sample and a field blank (2 samples) 2.Talc and Titanium Dioxide from Epoxy Resin 1 sample and a field blank (2 samples) Conformal Coat: 1.Xylene and 2-butanone - Full-shift samples 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 2.Xylene and 2-butanone - STEL work task samples 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) Parts Cleaning: 1. Hydrocarbons on 3M 3500 OVM - 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 2.1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane on separate 3M 3500 OVM 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) 3.Sodium carbonate as alkaline dust - 2 samples and a field blank (3 samples) MONITORING ...
Define direct-reading. direct-reading synonyms, direct-reading pronunciation, direct-reading translation, English dictionary definition of direct-reading. adj calibrated so that a given quantity to be measured can be read directly off the scale without the need of a multiplying constant Collins English...
Even during the current epidemic, duty-holders still have a legal responsibility to maintain work equipment and carry out thorough examinations, written schemes and Statutory Inspections. These legal duties exist to help manage the significant hazard that the failure of such equipment can pose. Not complying with these duties can significantly increase the risk of harm to workers and members of the public. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is not considering issuing exemptions or relaxation of these requirements. HSE state that even if businesses are currently closed to meet COVID-19 related government advice or restrictions, access should still be given to inspectors to undertake thorough examinations.. Our Occupational Hygiene team are well placed to support you to ensure the reopening of your establishment is a safe and healthy one. To understand how we can support you visit our Local exhaust ventilation testing and inspection page. ...
ILEVE has been established to promote air quality in the workplace and to reduce ill health and death due to airborne contamination and hazardous substances in the working environment.
INFORMATIVE DIGEST OF PROPOSED ACTION/PLAIN ENGLISH OVERVIEW. Section 5155, Airborne Contaminants.. Section 5155, Airborne Contaminants, establishes minimum requirements for controlling employee exposure to specific airborne contaminants. This Section specifies several types of airborne exposure limits, requirements for control of skin and eye contact, workplace environmental monitoring through measurement or calculation, and medical surveillance requirements. California periodically amends the airborne contaminants table (Table AC-1) in this regulation to keep the standard consistent with current information regarding harmful effects of exposure to these substances and other new substances not listed. The standard was last revised in 1994. In this revision, the substances chosen for review were taken from the 1993-1994, 1995-1996, and the 1996-1997 editions of the Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) published by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Additionally, the ...
This leaflet is for employers to help them buy the right type of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) for their workplace. It tells them how to choose a supplier, what documentation is required, and how to check, use and maintain it properly.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals. T2 - Part II: Expert Division of Occupational hygiene & Ergonomics, the Japan society for Occupational Health, The Committee for personal exposure monitoring. AU - Hashimoto, Haruo. AU - Yamada, Kenichi. AU - Hori, Hajime. AU - Kumagai, Shinji. AU - Murata, Masaru. AU - Nagoya, Toshio. AU - Nakahara, Hirohiko. AU - Mochida, Nobuyuki. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - This Document, Guidelines for personal exposure monitoring of chemicals (this Guideline), has been prepared by The Committee for Personal Exposure Monitoring(the Committee) of the Expert Division of Occupational Hygiene & Ergonomics, Japan Society for Occupational Health. Considering the background of the growing importance of personal exposure monitoring in risk assessment and the need to prepare for the introduction of monitoring using personal samplers from an administrative perspective in recent years, the Committee was organized in November ...
These columns can be used with methodologies designed to monitor workplace air quality.For US EPA Method IP-8, choose SLB-5msFor NIOSH Method 1003, choose VOCOLFor NIOSH Method 1403, choose Equity-1For NIOSH Method 1500/1501, choose Equity-1For NIOSH Method 2530, choose SLB-5msFor NIOSH Method 2542, choose Equity-1For NIOSH Method 5503, choose SLB-5msFor OSHA Method 52, choose SUPELCOWAX 10For OSHA Method 53, choose Equity-1For OSHA Method 56, choose Equity-1For OSHA Method 62, choose SLB-5msFor OSHA Method 80, choose SUPELCOWAX 10
The global respiratory protective equipment market size is anticipated to reach USD 13.58 billion by 2027, expanding at a 9.4% CAGR during the forecast period, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Favorable occupational safety regulations focused on ensuring worker safety across various industries are expected to drive the demand for respiratory protective equipment (RPE) over the forecast period.. In addition, factors including rising concerns over exposure to radioactive and toxic air pollutants coupled with increasing instances of infectious biological hazards are anticipated to augment the demand for RPE over the forecast period. Moreover, the recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is expected to have a positive impact on the market growth.. Surging demand for N95 respirators, especially from the healthcare sector during the COVID-19 pandemic to avoid infection has led to their shortage owing to which key players such as 3M and Honeywell International, Inc. have ramped up ...
MENGISTU, H et al. Diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) as risk assessment and management tools in the Central Witwatersrand Goldfield, South Africa. Water SA [online]. 2012, vol.38, n.1, pp.15-22. ISSN 1816-7950.. Diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) technology was used to monitor bio-available metals and the tool was developed for risk-based pollution assessment and liability apportionment in the Witwatersrand Goldfields, South Africa, where there is widespread mine-related pollution. DGT technology is a passive sampling technique whereby metal species are selectively diffused from polluted water through a diffusion layer and trapped by an inner chelating resin, giving rise to time-weighted average concentrations. The results show that the concentrations of most hazardous metals recorded from grab samples are higher than values recorded from DGT samplers, resulting in inaccurate input information to risk assessors, the public and decision makers. DGT samplers deployed along upper, middle ...
This study measured the formaldehyde exposure through ambient and personal air sampling, assessed the symptoms of poor health as well as estimating the health risk among hospital workers. The respiratory system: asthma, bronchitis and pulmonary edema arise. ; Med Pr (1998; 49(6)). Poisoning may also occur when the chemical is being administered directly to a patient as formalin soaked packs for cysts. ; Biomed Environ Sci (Dec 1997; 10(4)). Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of FA during systemic and respiratory exposures in rats. Breathing becomes difficult and blood may appear in sputum. In more severe cases, the symptoms of exposure to formaldehyde can escalate to include chest congestion and tightness, eye infections, bronchitis, and even asthma. Formaldehyde is toxic over a range of doses; chances of exposure and subsequent harmful effects are increased as (room) temperature increases, because of FAs volatility. 1. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep (Jun 20 1986; 35(24)). ...
Provides an air sampling and consultancy service covering mainstream occupational hygiene practice mainly to clients in a broad range of manufacturing industry. Main areas of work are the assessment of exposure to noise, dust, fumes, gases and bio-aerosols, together with the testing of local exhaust ventilation systems. Own laboratory facilities include gravimetry, gas chromatography and colorimetric methods.. This company also provides the following services: ...
When exposed to them, isocyanates can induce serious injuries in the respiratory tract and irritation on the skin and in the eyes. They are therefore interesting from the point of view of occupational health. The purpose of this thesis was to collect isocyanates in air with impinger-filter samplers and solvent free samplers. Furthermore the isocyanates were to be analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The solvent free sampler consists of a polypropylene tube and filter holder fitted with glass fiber filters impregnated with derivatization reagent, coupled with a pump. The impinger-filter sampler was made out of an impinger flask, containing a derivatization solution, coupled in series with a filter holder and a pump. Di-n-butylamine was used as derivatization reagent in both samplers to stabilize the reactive isocyanates and to enable mass spectrometric detection. The solvent free sampler is highly advantageous because of its user friendliness during field measurements, as ...
ISO 9487 : Workplace Air - Determination of Vaporous Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Charcoal Tube/Solvent Desorption/ Gas Chromatographic Method
The SidePak™ Personal Aerosol Monitor AM510 is a rugged, lightweight, belt mounted laser photometer, weighing as little as 16 ounces. It is compact and quiet, minimizing interference and worker discomfort. The built-in sampling pump lets you attach a wide variety of size-selective inlet conditioners for worker breathing zone, or area measurements with a respirable cyclone, or one of the three integrated impactors. The AM510 comes with TSIs Smart Battery Management System™, which includes long-running NiMH or alkaline battery packs and provides precise run time information in minutes remaining.. The AM510 personal aerosol monitors easy-to-read display shows your data in both real-time aerosol mass concentration and eight-hour time-weighted average (TWA). With its convenient data logging and long battery life, the monitor is also ideal for extended sampling. Easy-to-use TrakPro™ data analysis software lets you pre-program sampling events and create effective graphs and reports. Available ...
Results: The sampling and analytic methodology used in the study presents the potential to characterize nanoparticle exposure for a variety of operational processes. We found the highest mass exposure occurred at bagging job whereas the highest number and surface area concentration was found at modification. Modification is suspected to be the primary emission source. It is discovered nanoparticles in the size range of 20-300nm dominate in this workplace, which consists of 90-98% of particle counts in the respirable fraction. Based on the sampling results from 2012, there was a strong relationship between number concentration in 5-25um range and the respirable mass concentration (r= 0.908); however, no such correlation was found between number concentration in nanoscale and respirable mass (r= 0.018). The deposited surface area in TB (r=0.66) and alveolar region (r=0.46) was modestly correlated with number concentration of particles in the nanoscale ...
A proposed ASTM International standard will protect workers healthby monitoring the levels of hydrogen sulfide gas in workplace air.
NTP Experiment-Test: 05158-04 INCIDENCE RATES OF NEOPLASMS BY ANATOMIC SITE (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) (a) Report: PEIRPT05 Study Type: CHRONIC MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE Date: 04/04/96 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY Time: 02:35:24 Facility: Battelle Northwest Chemical CAS #: 1313-27-5 Lock Date: 07/13/93 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: All Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include All a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 05158-04 INCIDENCE RATES OF NEOPLASMS BY ANATOMIC SITE (SYSTEMIC LESIONS ABRIDGED) (a) Report: PEIRPT05 Study Type: CHRONIC MOLYBDENUM TRIOXIDE Date: 04/04/96 Route: RESPIRATORY EXPOSURE WHOLE BODY Time: 02:35:24 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ B6C3F1 MICE FEMALE CONTROL 10 MG/M3 30 MG/M3 100 MG/M3 ...
The review of the Oil and Gas plant studies has allowed us to identify an opportunity to enhance the initial exposure information by recommending the next steps for industrial hygiene and occupational exposure information by recommending the next steps for industrial hygiene and occupational exposure assessment. A cumulative assessment should be performed that groups the chemical substances identified at Oil and Gas plant into two groups. Group 1 would be chemicals that exhibit classic dose response curves and are non-carcinogenic. The other group, group 2, would be identified carcinogens. Chemicals in Group 1 should be further assessed and subdivided into chemicals published TLVs and those without, and then grouped by systemic toxicology class to allow for the calculation of a cumulative exposure. Control banding methods can then be applied to estimate and assign an exposure hazard category.. Group 2 chemicals, the carcinogens, could be analysed and evaluated using method applied in Chen et ...
Prof du Plessis holds a BSc, BSc Hons (Physiology), MSc (Physiology) and PhD (Occupational Hygiene) degrees. He received a Y2 research rating from the National Research Foundation in 2014. His teaching-learning experience is in physiology, toxicology and occupational hygiene. To date he has supervised 30 Masters and PhD students and authored more than 30 papers published in accredited journals. His research focus and expertise is on exposure to chemical stressors in the workplace. This includes assessing the potential risk of exposure, assessing actual levels of exposure and controlling the level of exposure. Another research interest is regulatory toxicology, in particular occupational exposure limits.. ...
Use in a variety of applications, including laboratories, wood processing, carpet manufacturing, and primary metals manufacturing. When properly fitted, helps provide respiratory protection from formaldehyde and certain organic vapors at concentrations up to 10 times the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) with half face pieces or 50 times PEL with full face pieces. Full face pieces must be quantitatively fit tested to claim assigned protection factor above 10 in negative pressure mode. Not for use. ...
Søg efter bøger af American Industrial Hygiene Association Respiratory Protection Committee og find de billigste priser online på
Iluka undertakes occupational exposure monitoring and health surveillance across the business to assess potential exposure to identified contaminants, assess the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies and proactively identify any potential adverse health outcomes.. Monitoring programmes are based on qualitative and quantitative risk assessments and are guided by our standards and guidelines. Based on our operational risk profile, programs typically focus on monitoring exposure to airborne contaminants including respirable dust, respirable crystalline silica, inhalable dust, noise and radiation. Management plans are developed and implemented at site level for significant occupational hygiene risks and include detail on risk controls, monitoring programs, designated responsibilities, objectives, targets and timeframes.. ...
TSI Incorporated announced it has expanded its line of SidePak™ Personal Aerosol Monitors with the introduction of the SidePak AM520i Personal Aerosol Monitor for explosive environments. The SidePak AM520i Monitor provides real-time monitoring of respirable dust exposure, and has intrinsically safe certifications for use in potentially explosive or volatile environments. The SidePak AM520i is the industrys smallest and lightest personal exposure monitor on the global market with a certified intrinsically safe design. Measuring PM10, PM4 (respirable), PM2.5, PM1 and 0.8µm for diesel particulate matter (DPM) . . .
Super Savings Item! Save 34% on the 3M Inhalation Valve 7582, Respiratory Protection Replacement Part (Case of 10) by 3M Personal Protective Equipment at American Trade System. MPN: 051131527541. Hurry! Limited time offer. Offer valid only while supplies last. This is a replacement inhalation valve designed for 3M Half Facepiece Respirators 7501, 7502, and 7503.Approved 3M replacement part. Designed for use with 3M Half Facepiece 7500 Series (sold separately). Easy installation allows for quick replacement
Up to eight hours of battery service Intrinsically safe Comfortable and well-balanced Headgear meets the requirements of ANSI Z87.1-2003 (Eye and Face Protection) and ANSI Z89.1-2003 Type I, Class C (Industrial Head Protection) Potential applications include smelting, foundry and metalworking This comfortable, lightweight powered air purifying respirator system can help provide respiratory protection against particles. Intrinsically safe Headgear-mounted powered air purifying respirators eliminate the need to wear a motorized blower unit at the waist. Powered air purifying respirators (PAPR) are motorized systems powered by a battery pack which draw air through a filter or cartridge to help provide respiratory protection to the wearer. Potential benefits include:• Certain PAPR systems may provide a higher level of respiratory protection than non-powered air filtering respirators• Constant flow of air can provide greater comfort for the wearer• Loose-fitting headgear can provide respiratory
Introduction: To date, occupational exposure assessment of electromagnetic fields (EMF) has relied on occupation-based measurements and exposure estimates. However, misclassification due to between-worker variability remains an unsolved challenge. A source-based approach, supported by detailed subject data on determinants of exposure, may allow for a more individualized exposure assessment. Detailed information on the use of occupational sources of exposure to EMF was collected as part of the INTERPHONE-INTEROCC study. To support a source-based exposure assessment effort within this study, this work aimed to construct a measurement database for the occupational sources of EMF exposure identified, assembling available measurements from the scientific literature. Methods: First, a comprehensive literature search was performed for published and unpublished documents containing exposure measurements for the EMF sources identified, a priori as well as from answers of study subjects. Then, the ...
Looking for propylen glycol monoethyl ether? Here you can find the lowest price products about propylen glycol monoethyl ether. We Provide for you about propylen glycol monoethyl ether page1
Engineering Controls: Ventilation: Provide general or local exhaust ventilation systems to maintain airborne concentrations below OSHA PELs (Sec. 2). Local exhaust ventilation is preferred because it prevents contaminant dispersion into the work area by controlling it at its source.. Administrative Controls: Respiratory Protection: Seek professional advice prior to respirator selection and use. Follow OSHA respirator regulations (29 CFR 1910.134) and, if necessary, wear a MSHA/NIOSH-approved respirator. Select respirator based on its suitability to provide adequate worker protection for given working conditions, level of airborne contamination, and presence of sufficient oxygen. For emergency or nonroutine operations (cleaning spills, reactor vessels, or storage tanks), wear an SCBA. Warning! Air-purifying respirators do not protect workers in oxygen-deficient atmospheres. If respirators are used, OSHA requires a written respiratory protection program that includes at least: medical ...
Loi sur la santé et la sécurité au travail. R.R.O. 1990, REGULATION 833. CONTROL OF EXPOSURE TO BIOLOGICAL OR CHEMICAL AGENTS. Historical version for the period July 1, 2010 to November 4, 2010.. Last amendment: O. Reg. 491/09.. This Regulation is made in English only.. 1. In this Regulation,. ACGIH means the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists; ACGIH Table means the table entitled Adopted Values shown at pages 10 to 61 of the publication entitled 2009 Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices published by ACGIH and identified by International Standard Book Number 978-1-882417-95-7; C or ceiling limit means the maximum airborne concentration of a biological or chemical agent to which a worker may be exposed at any time;. chemical agent includes a chemical substance;. exposure means exposure by inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption or skin contact;. Ontario Table means Table 1 to this Regulation;. STEL or short-term exposure limit means ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inflammation but no DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage in mice exposed to airborne dust from a biofuel plant. AU - Madsen, Anne Mette. AU - Saber, Anne Thoustrup. AU - Nordly, Pernille. AU - Sharma, Anoop Kumar. AU - Wallin, Hakan. AU - Vogel, Ulla Birgitte. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Objectives Particles in ambient air are associated with such health effects as lung diseases and cancer of the lung. Exposure to bioaerosols has been found to be associated with respiratory symptoms. The toxic properties of exposure to combustion and bioaerosol particles from biofuel plants have not been studied in detail. This study investigated whether exposure to dust from biofuel plants induces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage and inflammation in exposed mice. Methods DNA damage and inflammation were evaluated in mice exposed through the intratracheal installation of airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant at the straw storage hall and in the boiler room. The mice were given either a single ...
This track is designed specifically for and limited to graduates of undergraduate Industrial Hygiene programs financially supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Graduates of these programs have received basic courses from NIOSH, peer-reviewed and approved Industrial Hygiene curricula, and are qualified to practice Industrial Hygiene. The Accelerated Program in Industrial Hygiene will broaden the students public health knowledge and skills while also preparing students to take leadership roles in Industrial Hygiene.. Admission: Students who have graduated from a NIOSH funded and ABET accredited undergraduate Industrial Hygiene program and who meet the minimum requirements for admission to the School of Public Health. ABET is the Applied Science Accreditation Commission of the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology. Students without previous experience, but who have a strong commitment to occupational health and safety, may be admitted. In ...
A solution to avoid unsafe storage of ethylene cylinders Ethylene is the simplest unsaturated hydrocarbon and one of the chemical most used worldwide. Like all hydrocarbons, it is asphyxiating and flammable. Whatever the final employment, ethylene is distributed, stored and consumed in airtight systems always at high pressure. The fact that ethylene is asphyxiating, extremely flammable and explosive at 27.000 ppm renders the usage of ethylene quite dangerous. (Sigma-Aldrich MSDS sheet) (R A Strehlow, INT SYMP ON COMB, 14(1):1189-1200, 1973) Ethylene handling requires many precautions: the employees of every manufacturing facility must attend an advanced training program, unnecessary ethylene exposure must be limited and safety equipment have to be present in every facility for this reason. Because of ethylene asphyxiating characteristic, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists adopted a Threshold Limit Value of 200 ppm for ethylene as an 8-hour time-weighted average. ...
For researches on toxic chemicals in settled indoor dust, selection of dust fraction is a critical influencing factor to the accuracy of human exposure risk assessment results. However, analysis of the selection of dust fraction in recent studies revealed that there is no consensus. This study classified and presented researches on distribution of toxic chemicals according to dust particle size and on relationship between dust particle size and human exposure possibility. According to the literature, beyond the fact that there were no consistent conclusions on particle size distribution of adherent fraction, dust with particle size less than 100 mu m should be paid more attention and that larger than 250 mu m is neither adherent nor proper for human exposure risk assessment. Calculation results based on literature data show that with different selections of dust fractions, analytical results of toxic chemicals would vary up to 10-fold, which means that selecting dust fractions arbitrarily will ...
Introduction. The common approach in risk assessment of water bodies is to collect a sample of the water, which is then analysed for potential pollutants in the laboratory. This approach, among other advantages, provides manageable control over accuracy and precision of the results. However, information obtained from spot water samples is only about concentration levels at the time of sampling and may fail to account for episodic contamination. This can be addressed by collecting a series of samples over a time period to obtain a more representative picture of water quality, but the cost of analysis is then increased. An alternative and more cost-effective approach is to obtain time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of pollutants using passive samplers. Passive samplers are now seen as an alternative to conventional spot samples. This is seen by a number of recent reviews on passive samplers (Vrana et al., 2005; Lu et al., 2002; Petty et al., 2000; Stuer-Lauridsen, 2005; Chimuka and ...
3M White Respirator Hood, Respiratory Protection BE-10-20 (Formerly 522-01-11R20), Regular 20/cs - This lightweight, comfortable respirator hood helps provide respiratory protection for a wide range of applications. Used with 3M Air-Mate and Breathe Easy Powered Air Purifying Respirators (PAPR) and 3M Supplied Air Hood Systems BE-Series ...
We are reviewing the Workplace exposure standards for airborne contaminants to ensure they are based on the highest quality, contemporary evidence and supported by a rigorous, scientific approach.. The draft evaluation reports for each chemical will be available for public comment. Chemicals will be released alphabetically throughout 2019 and 2020. Public comment will be open for each release for a period of four weeks on Engage.. The chemical release groups and the anticipated dates for opening public comment are outlined below. Please note these dates are indicative only. For the latest information please continue to visit Engage.. ...
was provided a list of 66 chemicals used by FIS personnel in their laboratory work. The primary sources of information used to evaluate carcinogenicity potential was to identify the chemicals that have already been evaluated and classified by government and non-government agencies, such as Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS), the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs, the National Toxicology Programs Report on Carcinogens (NTP RoC), European Commissions Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), California Environmental Protection Agency - Proposition 65: List of Chemicals Known to Cause Cancer (CalEPA Prop 65), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists - Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices (ACGIH, 2009), and Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR). If a chemical was not listed in any of these databases, further searches of publicly available ...
Smoke, paint fumes, cleaning agents, and lead paint dust are a few of the many airborne-contaminants that can cause serious occupational-related disease to exposed workers. When airborne contaminants cannot be controlled by engineering means, respirators may used to reduce worker exposure to airborne inhalation hazards. When properly selected, fitted, and used, respirators can be an effective method of controlling worker exposure to air contaminants that pose a hazard.. Unfortunately, respirator use often occurs without the proper preparation. When used incorrectly, respirators will provide a false sense of security for the worker and may put the user at a serious health risk.. This CIRMA training and education program provides a thorough reviews of the OSHA respirator standard and guides municpal employers on the proper use of respirators and the establisment of a respirator prorgam.. ...
The standard provides a comprehensive and complex regulatory scheme for protecting construction workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica containing dust. The scope of the standard applies to all occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica and significantly lowers the permissible exposure limit (PEL) from 250 micrograms/m3 to 50 micrograms/m3. In addition to the new PEL, contractors will also have to comply with a host of ancillary provisions such as respiratory protection (when required by the standard), housekeeping, medical surveillance, and recordkeeping ...
This track is designed to provide an intensive educational experience for students without previous experience but who have a strong commitment to occupational health and safety and hazardous substances. Calculus, although not required, is highly recommended.. The MPH in industrial hygiene combines didactic research instruction and applied research experience for students with or without previous work experience. The industrial hygiene program is designed to develop the students understanding of the interrelationships between the basic sciences and the causes and prevention of occupational related diseases. Graduates of the program will be capable of developing systematic approaches to identifying and controlling problems in industrial hygiene, designing and implementing research programs to measure the level of work exposure to hazardous agents, and instituting necessary control measures.. The industrial hygiene program is a component of the Deep South Center for Occupational Health and ...
Although U.S. OSHA updated its occupational silica standard in 2016 for the first time in 45 years, relatively few countries have followed suit. Aside from a handful of European countries, some Canadian Provinces and Mexico, most other countries do not have as stringent of a standard as the current U.S. Permissible Exposure Limit of 0.05 mg/. In fact, most low and middle-income countries have no regulatory limits for respirable crystalline silica in the workplace. Globally, occupational exposure standards for silica vary considerably and few have . . .
Organic dust consists of particles with a biological origin. Airborne levels of bacteria, fungi, endotoxins, and glucans have been investigated in epidemiological studies of mucous membrane irritation, inflammation, and airway obstruction. Organic dust can be measured by gravimetry of filter samples. Microorganisms can be quantified by culture, microscopic, and DNA-based methods. Culture methods underestimate microbial exposure and have poor precision. However, high sensitivity and identification of species that indicate fungal contamination have advantages in indoor air studies. Microscopic and DNA-based methods quantify microorganisms independent of cultivability. Specific organisms can even be quantified with molecular techniques. Quantification of specific organic dust components is preferred to dust levels. However, no occupational exposure limits exist for specific agents, although criteria for endotoxin and fungal spores have been proposed. In exposure assessments of microbial agents, ...
respiratory protection program and comply with all applicable provisions of the program 5 3 Voluntary Use of Respirators When an employee chooses to use a disposable filtering facepiece respirator (e g N-95 respirator) for comfort and not for protection against levels of contaminants that would require respiratory protection the employee does not need training or fit testing but must ...
Ventilation tips for engineers looking for solutions to control airborne pollutants. Ventilation topics: / Welding / Machining / VOCÆs / Vehicle emissions / Laboratory / Pharmaceutical / Explosive/Flammable applications
The authorities have received several inquiries related to placing respiratory protective equipment and face masks on the market. Despite the current high demand for protective equipment, the sale...
C)_The Air Pollution Control Officer will include in any Authority to Construct that is issued for the project a condition(s) requiring implementation of the future potentially feasible cancer risk reduction measures the project applicant committed to implement pursuant to the requirement of Subsection (d)(1)(iii) (B)(10)(vi). (D)_If the project is a modification of an existing stationary source emitting one or more toxic air contaminant(s), T-BACT shall be installed on all permitted emission units at the stationary source that have a maximum incre-mental cancer risk impact of greater than 10 in one million at any receptor location where the increase in maximum incremental cancer risk as a result of the project is greater than 10 in one million. The Air Pollution Control Officer shall not consider emission units modified to comply with this requirement as part of the project unless specifically requested to do so by the project applicant. Emissions and risk impact data to be used for such impact ...
Background According to the ECHA Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment - Chapter R.8 (Version 2.1, Nov 2012), a national occupational exposure limit (OEL) can be used as a surrogate for a DNEL under certain circumstances (R.8.1.1). APPENDIX R. 8-13 is specifying the derivation of DNELs, when a community/national occupational exposure limit (OEL) is available. For 4,4´-MDI and pMDI the German MAK Commission established a purely health based OEL (MAK-Value) of 0.05 mg/m3for inhalable aerosol referring to an 8-hour exposure period, that is the basis for the official national OEL in Germany (listed in TRGS 900). This OEL is used as a surrogate DNEL for long-term exposure. A ceiling limit value of 0.1 mg/m3was settled. This ceiling limit is used as a surrogate DNEL for short-term exposure. Since irritation to the respiratory tract is the most sensitive health effect these DNELs apply for local effect, in absence of any systemic toxicity no additional systemic DNELs need ...
Seton UK has a huge variety of respiratory protection equipment. Stock up on respiratory protection masks today and avail of our great prices!
Looking for new ways to optimize your production processes? Time to upgrade your production to industry scale? Or looking for a production location? Foodvalley Facilities gives you access to production plants and industrial installations at many different scales.. For agrifood companies specializing in plant-based proteins, Foodvalley Facilities maintains the Protein Facility Map.. This online search tool helps companies choose from facilities at every scale, for the production of sustainable, plant-protein ingredients, semi-finished items and consumer-ready products.. Not sure which production plant best fits your needs? Cannot find the production plant you are looking for? Or do you want to make your production facility available to other Foodvalley members?. Contact us.. ...
Residents experienced their first snow in Toronto, but as it turned out, the snowflakes that fell on Thursday was nothing compared to what awaits the city on Monday.. According to The Weather Network meteorologists are now tracking a cold front to the South of the US border, which can move to Toronto at the beginning of next week.. According to estimates, the southern part of Ontario and Quebec, including the greater Toronto area can fill up with snow.. And, unfortunately, the temperature will be lower than usual. According to the Hydrometeorological centre of Canada, the highs will remain slightly above freezing this weekend before you reach -1 C on Monday and Tuesday.. And Monday will not be the only snow day next week. Snowfall can be Monday, Tuesday and Thursday.. And I think its time to get some warm boots because, apparently, winter has come and will stay for a long time.. ...
Where can I find some general guidelines for welding ventilation? What types of ventilation can be used to remove air contaminants from a welders breathing zone? What are some examples of Local Exhaust Ventilation?
On Monday 19 April 2021, Luxembourgs Ministry of Health reported 30 new COVID-19 (coronavirus) infections; there have been 786 fatalities (one new death since Sunday) resulting from the virus to date.. 30 Luxembourg residents tested positive on Monday from a total of 1,609 tests carried out the day before, representing 4.79 people per 100,000 inhabitants. The positivity rate was 1.86%. Wednesday 18 November 2020 marked the record daily high of 891 new cases. The average daily increase (over a 7-day period) is currently 157.14. The lowest (since the most recent wave started mid-October) was 113.00 on 19 January.. A total of 116 people are in hospital with the virus, including 37 patients (with one coming from the Grand Est in France) in intensive care. As per figures from Sunday 18 April 2021, there are currently 2,819 active infections known, whilst a total of 61,539 people have recovered from the virus to date. The effective reproductive rate in Luxembourg stands at 0.92.. As of Sunday, a ...
Vikings head coach Mike Zimmer told ESPN that he anticipates Bradford will be ready to go for the Week 5 divisional matchup.. Chicago Bears fans will get their first taste of what Mitchell Trubisky can do when he makes his regular season debut on Monday night, but there will be at least one more reason to tune into the game.. Otherwise, Case Keenum will start.. The Bears cornerback has been targeted frequently through Chicagos first four games, and either Keenum or Bradford could look to go after Fuller on Monday night with either Stefon Diggs or Adam Thielen lined up across from the corner.. The Mike Glennon experiment - despite the $18.5 million guaranteed the Bears gave him to sign in the offseason - appears to be over after just four games, during which he turned the ball over eight times. Mitch Trubisky can escape from pressure and keep plays alive. McKinnon will have 50 yards rushing also. Join the With the First Pick team! Running backs Jordan Howard and Tarik Cohen will have a rough ...
China Stone Production Plant Machine manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Stone Production Plant Machine products in best price from certified Chinese Paper Production Machinery manufacturers, High Precision Machine Parts suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
"WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... through air pollution or parental occupational exposure, with poor fetal growth, reduced immune function, and poorer ... "WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... Persistent organic pollutants under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution ...
"Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants". Retrieved 2020-03-03. "Chemical Sampling Information - Chromium ... VI) (Hexavalent Chromium) - Occupational Safety and Health Administration". Archived from the original on 2016-03 ...
occupational air pollutants (en) , Estrogens, Non-Steroidal (en) eta free radical scavengers (en) ...
... water and air pollutants. He guided the United States to establish their National Water Programmes. His work has influenced the ... 13 October 1994). Declaration on Occupational Health For All (PDF). Beijing, Geneva: WHO Collaborating Centres in Occupational ... 2018). "The 95th anniversary of the world's oldest scientific institution for occupational diseases". Occupational and ... This occupational medicine was integrated with the public health system and with the general sanitary hygiene services. ...
"WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... through air pollution or parental occupational exposure, with poor fetal growth, reduced immune function, and poorer ... "WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... "International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 27 (2): 314-25. doi:10.2478/s13382-014-0250-3. ISSN ...
Cannabis plants produce volatile organic compound in great enough amounts to increase the criteria air pollutants in indoor and ... This creates an occupational health hazard in areas with large numbers of plants. Cannabis in California is a frequent focus of ...
"Criteria Air Pollutants". 2014-04-09. "Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) regulations for ozone. , ... Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone ... The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ... Ozone is on the list of six criteria air pollutant list. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required the United States Environmental ...
In 2008, the report of United Kingdom committee on the medical effects of air pollutants (COMEAP) suggested that air pollution ... Occupational exposures constitute the highest risk of toxicity and it is often high for farmers especially those that deal with ... It is one of the major air pollutants capable of causing severe health hazards such as coronary artery disease as well as ... Nitrogen dioxide is an irritant of the mucous membrane linked with another air pollutant that causes pulmonary diseases such as ...
There are many diseases that can come from the pollutants that are released into the air and water during the mining process. ... Metals are usually emitted into the air as particulates as well. There are also many occupational health hazards that miners ... For example, during smelting operations large quantities of air pollutants, such as the suspended particulate matter, SOx, ... Air pollution is increasing in numbers of toxins such as mercury, lead, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other heavy metals ...
Air monitoring is ongoing. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0133". National Institute for Occupational Safety and ... Due to its volatility and extreme reactivity, the threat of chloroprene exists predominantly as an air pollutant and is not ... Chloroprene release is predominately as an air pollutant, but other feasible fates and transport of chloroprene in the ... the half-life time differences between chloroprene in air, water and soil were highlighted. In the air, chloroprene "reacts ...
This occurs through exposure to lead in paint and lead contaminated soil as well as indoor air pollutants such as second-hand ... In addition, occupational hazards can add to the detrimental effects of poor housing conditions. It has been reported that a ... This is also true of the difference between mortality across all occupational classes in highly equal Sweden as compared to ... Such examples include higher rates of morbidity and mortality for those in lower occupational classes than those in higher ...
Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. "Machine- ... U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. July 1997. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Ray, Alison E.; Vaughn, David L. ( ... It is important that the air conditioning system not cycle over the same period as the TEOM instrument, because this can cause ... TEOM devices operate continuously and do not need filter changes as frequently as high-volume air samplers. Mechanical noise ...
Criteria Air Pollutants - Volume I". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 10, 24, 32. Retrieved 2017-06-28. v t e. ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. 2016-12-30. Retrieved 2017-06-28. Gilliam, Joseph H.; Hall, Eric S. ( ... TEOM-based devices have been approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental air quality monitoring, and ... 2016-07-13). "Reference and Equivalent Methods Used to Measure National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ...
... which lower the PEL to 50 micrograms per cubic meter of silica in the air. A study by National Institute for Occupational ... contained known or possible human carcinogens regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act or listed as hazardous air pollutants ... 2013). "Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing". Journal of Occupational and ... In 2013 the United States the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute for Occupational ...
Prior to the Air Sample study, a team of researchers from the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health at the ... One of the most common types of pollutants released into the air from fracking is methylene chloride, thought to be one of the ... Methylene Chloride was one of the most concerning and prevalent (in 73% of all the weekly air samples), pollutants found. The ... and control of air pollutants). A compromise called, "cooperative federalism" has been proposed like an approach used for coal ...
... air pollutants, occupational MeSH D27.888.284.101.393 - air pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.295 - endocrine disruptors ... air pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.101.143 - air pollutants, environmental MeSH D27.888. - oxidants, photochemical ... soil pollutants MeSH D27.888.284.756.674 - soil pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.284.903 - water pollutants MeSH D27.888. ... 284.903.655 - water pollutants, chemical MeSH D27.888.284.903.821 - water pollutants, radioactive MeSH D27.888.569.035 - ...
... with occupational safety and health have promulgated regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in ... This article presents a set of useful conversions and formulas for air dispersion modeling of atmospheric pollutants and for ... More conversions and formulas useful in air dispersion modeling are available in the feature articles at ... gram mole Atmospheric pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) ...
"List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petition Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source Category List; Petition To Delist of ... 0070". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "2-Butoxyethanol". Immediately Dangerous to Life or ... Environmental Protection Agency's list of hazardous air pollutants in 2004. The safety of products containing 2-butoxyethanol ... Air Foam HD Material Data Safety Sheet. Product Safety. AquaClear, Inc. Retrieved 4 June 2010. Gift, J. S. (2005). "U.S. EPA's ...
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) and OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Regulations ... However, asbestos was one of the first hazardous air pollutants regulated under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of 1970, and ... The Clean Air Act requires that asbestos be wetted during removal and strictly contained, and that workers wear safety gear and ... Adamo was one of a number of demolition contractors indicted throughout the country for the alleged violation of the Clean Air ...
National Ambient Air Quality Standards) NESHAP (National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) Pollution in ... California Public Smog South Coast Air Quality Management District Timeline of major US environmental and occupational health ... The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for ... Implement the requirements of the California Clean Air Act and 1990 Amendments to the federal Clean Air Act. Continue public ...
Acid gas H-Bio AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors API oil-water separator Biorefinery Ethanol fuel Butanol ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration". Retrieved 2018-11-18. "Safety and Health Topics , Occupational ... The refining process releases a number of different chemicals into the atmosphere (see AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant ... In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), National Institute for Occupational Safety and ...
EPA's air pollution score represents the amount of health-damaging and smog-forming airborne pollutants the vehicle emits. ... environmental and occupational health regulation Vehicle emissions control Stern, Arther C. (1982). "History of Air Pollution ... Haagen-Smit found these air pollutants photoreacted with sunlight to form ozone which contributed to the formation of the smog ... The Clean Air Act of 1963 (CAA) was passed as an extension of the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, encouraging the federal ...
U.S. EPA, What Are the Six Common Air Pollutants? U.S. EPA, Original list of hazardous air pollutants. U.S. EPA, Air Pollutants ... Another set of standards, for indoor air in employment settings, is administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health ... Air quality laws govern the emission of air pollutants into the atmosphere. A specialized subset of air quality laws regulate ... Air quality standards are legal standards or requirements governing concentrations of air pollutants in breathed air, both ...
... as a hazardous air pollutant under the Clean Air Act. With a relatively short half-life, it is not expected to bioaccumulate. ... was established for occupational (8-hour time-weighted average) exposure. It is considered a volatile organic compound (VOC) ... Observed concentrations have been in the range of 0.1-4.8 parts per billion (ppb) in rural air, 4-10.5 ppb in urban air, and 7- ... 260 ppb in industrial air samples. In the United States and some European countries a threshold limit value of 500 parts per ...
Criteria air pollutants List of highly toxic gases - Wikipedia list article Smoker's paradox Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical ... "MSHA - Occupational Illness and Injury Prevention Program - Health Topics - Carbon Monoxide". Archived from ... formed by combustion of carbon in air at high temperature when there is an excess of carbon. In an oven, air is passed through ... Carbon monoxide has a molar mass of 28.0, which, according to the ideal gas law, makes it slightly less dense than air, whose ...
... environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. Such regulations involve a number of different ... Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, μg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ...
Moridi, M; Ziaei, S; Kazemnejad, A (March 2014). "Exposure to ambient air pollutants and spontaneous abortion". The Journal of ... Kumar, S. (2011). "Occupational, Environmental and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Spontaneous Abortion". Reproductive ... Some additional articles are: "Air Pollution Linked with Stillbirth Risk", "Air pollution exposure in early ... "Pereira LA, Loomis D, Conceicao GM, Braga AL, Arcas RM, Kishi HS: Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality ...
Pollutants. Main articles: Pollutant and Greenhouse gas. An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse ... Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/03/01. *The Mortality Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Air ... Minor air pollutants include: *A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution exposure can ...
Emission of butanone was regulated in the US as a hazardous air pollutant, because it is a volatile organic compound ... 0069". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). "butan-2-one_msds". "Safety Data Sheet - Klean Strip - ... In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency removed butanone from the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Butane n- ... Concentrations in the air high enough to be flammable are intolerable to humans due to the irritating nature of the vapor. ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *IARC Group 3 carcinogens. *Commodity chemicals. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi script errors ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. Authority control *GND: 4346494-4 ...
Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in ... air filters in respirators, filters in compressed air, teeth whitening, production of hydrogen chloride and many other ... Air is then introduced to burn out the gasses, creating a graded, screened and de-dusted form of activated carbon. This is ... Activated carbon is used in methane and hydrogen storage,[1][2] air purification, solvent recovery, decaffeination, gold ...
Phytoremediation (removal of pollutants by bioaccumulation in plants). References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size: ... air or water), it is referred to as bioconcentration.[1] Biomagnification is another process related to bioaccumulation as the ... "Bioaccumulation of Marine Pollutants [and Discussion]". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, ... Occupational toxicology. *Entomotoxicology. *Environmental toxicology. *Forensic toxicology. *Medical toxicology. *In vitro ...
Environmental pollutants include both poor indoor and outdoor air quality.[63] Exposure to personal smoke and second-hand smoke ... occupational. lung disease. Pneumoconiosis Aluminosis. Asbestosis. Baritosis. Bauxite fibrosis. Berylliosis. Caplan's syndrome ... Air pollution[edit]. Both indoor and outdoor air quality can be improved, which may prevent COPD or slow the worsening of ... resulting in an increase in the total volume of air in the lungs at any given time, a process called hyperinflation or air ...
"Occupational Health Guideline for Ozone" (PDF). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. ... namely cleaning agents to increase pollutants such as formaldehyde (importantly, this study had as its objective the testing of ... Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:601-610. May 2006.. *^ "Indoor Air Chemistry: Cleaning Agents, Ozone and Toxic Air Contaminants" ... Air ionisers are used in air purifiers to remove particles from air.[1] Airborne particles become charged as they attract ...
They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Retrieved 2017-03-03.. *^ "Thousands of UK motorists removing diesel particulate filters". Auto ... U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust ... Diesel engines are lean burn engines,[30] burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. ...
"California Occupational Guide Number 22: Chemists". 1999-10-29. Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. ... Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, specifically relating to the nature of 'air' which was ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline ...
In the province of Khuzestan it has led to the severe reduction of air quality. The amount of pollutants in the air has ... Occupational dust exposure. *Sawdust. Notes. *^ "Dust". Merriam-Webster. Archived from the original on 2017-03-14.. ... Dust kicked up by vehicles traveling on roads[7] may make up 33% of air pollution.[8] Road dust consists of deposits of vehicle ... Saharan dust in particular can be transported and deposited as far as the Caribbean and the Amazon basin, and may affect air ...
... which is defined by manifestations of symptomatic illness as a result of poor indoor air quality and pollutant exposures .[14] ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. August 1, 2008. *^ Wood, Robert A.; Terr, Abba I.; Saxon, Andrew; ... AirEdit. Main article: Indoor air quality. Prevention of mold exposure and its ensuing health issues begins with prevention of ... Heseltine, Elisabeth; Rosen, ed., Jerome (2009). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould (PDF). p. 93. ISBN ...
Despite the amount of pollutant, state health officials could not verify whether air or water pollution in Endicott has ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved May 27, 2009.. *^ Sadeghpour, Nura (January 6, 2014). "NIOSH ... Following an initial feasibility assessment, in 2008 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) began a ... benzene and perchloroethene to the air and allegedly caused several cancer cases among the townspeople. IBM Endicott has been ...
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ Manfred Rossberg, Wilhelm Lendle, Gerhard Pfleiderer, Adolf ... Hazardous air pollutants. *Hypnotics. *Sedatives. *5-HT3 agonists. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser- ...
Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has also designated gasoline as a carcinogen.[91]Physical ... oxygenate blending is mandated by EPA regulations to reduce smog and other airborne pollutants. For example, in Southern ... Army Air Forces Historical Studies: No. 65, Aviation Gasoline Production and Control, Air Historical Office Headquarters, Army ...
2,000 gallons of Corexit was air-dropped onto oil which leaked from the SS Puerto Rican as she sank off San Francisco later ... Organic pollutants (PAHs) stay above carcinogenic levels by NIH and OSHA standards due to Corexit inhibiting the microbial ... percent of offshore workers had levels of 2-Butoxyethanol two times higher than the level certified as safe by the Occupational ... sprayed from the air. At the beginning of the Gulf spill, the proprietary composition was not public, but the manufacturer's ...
Hueper [author of Occupational Tumors and Allied Diseases] now gives DDT the definite rating of a "chemical carcinogen."[30] ... The Silent Spring of Rachel Carson (CBS Reports, with Erik Sevareid, aired on Apr 3, 1963, published to YouTube on Jan 28, 2017 ... that banned most uses of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides-the 2001 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants ...
The Scottish Government has commissioned the Institute of Occupational Medicine to undertake a review of methods to assess risk ... A. Agarwal, Y. Zhou, Y. Liu (2016) Remediation of oil contaminated sand with self-collapsing air microbubbles. Environmental ... Health consequences from exposure to soil contamination vary greatly depending on pollutant type, pathway of attack and ... Aeration of soils at the contaminated site (with attendant risk of creating air pollution) ...
a b Claes Bernes: Persistent organic pollutants. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm 1998. ISBN 91-620-1189-8. ... Historically occupational exposure to dioxins has been a major problem.[28] Dioxins are formed as important toxic side products ... Quass U, Fermann M, Bröker G (March 2004). "The European dioxin air emission inventory project--final results". Chemosphere. 54 ... Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are compounds that are highly toxic environmental persistent organic pollutants (POPs ...
Sebagian besar membentuk larutan tak berwarna dalam air. Sebagian besar membentuk larutan berwarna dalam air ... United States Government 2014, Toxic Pollutant List, Code of Federal Regulations, 40 CFR 401.15., accessed 27 March 2016. ... The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 307-323, doi:10.1093/annhyg/meu097. ... Sulfida logam golongan 1 dan 2, serta aluminium, dihidrolisis oleh air;[162] skandium,[163] yttrium[164] dan titanium sulfida[ ...
Use of sentinel health events (occupational) in computer assisted occupational health surveillance. Stockwell JR, Adess ML, ... Some of these risk factors, for instance, air-pollution, are well known, while others such as altered microbial exposure are ... and Persistent organic pollutant ... air & light & noise pollution, and reduced "green" space are ... Occupational) [SHE(O)] published by the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH), September, 1983. ...
... the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has designated an air permissible exposure limit (PEL) in the ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 8 November 2018.. *^ Assfalg, M; Banci, L; Bertini, I; ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Chromium Page. *Chromium at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ Dayan, AD; Paine, AJ (2001). "Mechanisms of chromium ...
Committee on Risk Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council (1994). ... Research projects may range from assessing the effects of toxic pollutants on the environment to evaluating how the human ... such as environmental pollutants and pharmaceuticals.[34] Within the Toxicology in the 21st Century project,[35][36] the best ...
These factors include occupational exposure to carcinogens (about 9-15%), radon (10%) and outdoor air pollution (1-2%).[35] ... Acharya, PV Narasimh; Irreparable DNA-Damage by Industrial Pollutants in Pre-mature Aging, Chemical Carcinogenesis, and Cardiac ... Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several specific work-locations ... International journal of occupational and environmental health. 6 (3): 187-193. doi:10.1179/oeh.2000.6.3.187. PMID 10926722.. ...
Air pollution[edit]. Outdoor air pollutants, especially chemicals released from the burning of fossil fuels, increase the risk ... Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 37 (1): 5-14. doi:10.1093/annhyg/37.1.5. PMID 8460878.. ... Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution[4][5]. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, tissue biopsy[6 ... Avoidance of risk factors, including smoking and air pollution, is the primary method of prevention.[17] Treatment and long- ...
"National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser- ... usually from the surrounding air) and water: 4 Au + 8 KCN + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 K[Au(CN)2] + 4 KOH. A similar process uses NaCN to ... National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide compounds fact sheet. *NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards ...
It is lighter than air, its density being 0.589 times that of air. It is easily liquefied due to the strong hydrogen bonding ... National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0028". National ... Ammonia neutralizes the nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollutants emitted by diesel engines. This technology, called SCR (selective ... except under narrow fuel-to-air mixtures of 15-25% air.. Combustion. When mixed with oxygen, it burns with a pale yellowish- ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *Commodity chemicals. *Vicinal diols. Hidden categories: *CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ Elert, Glenn. "Viscosity". The Physics Hypertextbook. ... Ethylene glycol is also commonly used in chilled-water air-conditioning systems that place either the chiller or air handlers ... With pure MEG that hot spot has to get to 200 °C. Cooling due to other effects such as air draft from fan etc. (not considered ...
Jika kromium(III) klorida bebas air yang berwarna hijau dilarutkan dalam air, larutan hijau berubah menjadi ungu setelah ... "National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).. *^ "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0141". National ... National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants (1974). Chromium. National Academy of ... air tawar ,10 ugˑL−1; air laut ,1 ugˑL−1; sedimen ,80 mgˑkg−1.[9] ...
Occupational noise. References[edit]. *^ Senate Public Works Committee. Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1972. S. Rep. No. ... "Ambient Air Pollution, Noise, and Late-Life Cognitive Decline and Dementia Risk". Annual Review of Public Health. 40 (1): 203- ... Pollutant release and transfer register. *Polluter pays principle. *Pollution control. *Pollution prevention ... Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the U.S. and worldwide.[17] ...
"Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995). 56 (5): 675-83. doi:10.1080/10473289.2006.10464474. PMID 16739805.. ... Dalton, P (2002). "Odor, irritation and perception of health risk". International Archives of Occupational and Environmental ... Salthammer, Tunga; Bahadir, Müfit (2009). "Occurrence, Dynamics and Reactions of Organic Pollutants in the Indoor Environment ... The collection of odor samples is more easily accomplished for a source emission than for odor in the ambient air.[26] ...
This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. ... Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the ... The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants discomfort and/or adverse health ... Airborne-particles; Air-contamination; Air-flow; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Breathing-zone; Environmental-factors; Exposure- ...
... air quality continued to improve, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson said yesterday. ... at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. ... Six Air Pollutants Down Sharply Since 1970: EPA. *May 01, 2007 ... What EPA called "an early look" at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. air quality continued to improve, EPA ... and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. ...
Aims: To investigate the association between personal exposure to a group of air pollutants and severity of DNA damage in ... Conclusions: With this approach, the effects of some air pollutants could be correlated with biological endpoints from the ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2006; 63 227-229 Published Online First: 23 Mar 2006. doi: 10.1136/oem.2005.025502 ... Background: Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for ...
How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? ... although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. ... Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2002; 59 714-720 Published Online First: 01 Oct 2002. doi: 10.1136/oem.59.10.714 ...
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs P. ... Occupational and indoor air exposure to persistent organic pollutants: A review of passive sampling techniques and needs ... Air quality standards (indoor, outdoor and occupational) for PAHs and other POPs will also be applied in the EU in the future. ...
Key terms air pollutant; editorial; IHD; inflammation; ischemic heart disease; occupational exposure ... Inhalation of several occupational air pollutants causes chronic bronchitis and lung function impairment. Chronic bronchitis ( ... Studies of the relationship between occupational air pollutants and inflammatory markers, as well as IHD, will increase our ... air pollutants to IHD via a possible inflammatory response is meager compared with the evidence regarding urban air pollutants ...
Environmental toxicology Toxicology Air Chemicals TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING Air Pollutants, Occupational Occupational Exposure ...
... the aim of this study was to evaluate the workers occupational exposure, compare the results obtained in order to perceive what ... DOI link for Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants. Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants book ... DOI link for Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants. Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants book ... Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants ... Occupational exposure to car workshops air pollutants ...
... industrial and occupational pollutants, food additives and preservatives, drugs such as aspirin, and emotional stress. Asthma ... Indoor Air Pollution. Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. Air pollutant levels in the home ... Indoor pollutants can be placed into two groups, biologic and chemical.. Biologic Pollutants. Biologic pollutants include ... poor air circulation, soil air entry into basements, contact of humid unconditioned air with cooled interior surfaces, and poor ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Air Pollutants, Occupational Subjects Motor Vehicles ✖Remove ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Weapons. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 7. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Firearms. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 8. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Weapons. Motor Vehicles. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 9. Project no. 3 -- ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Air Pollutants, Occupational Subjects Motor Vehicles ✖Remove ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Weapons. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 2. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Motor Vehicles. Firearms. Ventilation. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 3. Report ... Air Pollutants, Occupational. Weapons. Motor Vehicles. Military Personnel. World War II. United States. 4. Project no. 3 -- ...
... aggressive air pollution policies resulted in cleaner air and healthier kids. ... researchers have found that improved air quality in southern California had a direct effect on childrens respiratory health. ... Earlier this year, Canadian occupational health and safety officials brought charges against the company,… ... Study: Declines in air pollutants had direct positive effect on childrens health * facebook ...
Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health ... Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant ... SES indicator: parents occupational prestige. Modifying effects by SES were observed for IQ and blood lead, but interaction ... Susceptibility and vulnerability factors considered for evaluation of the criteria air pollutants.. Criteria air pollutant. ...
View our complete catalog of authoritative Occupational & Environmental Medicine related book titles and textbooks published by ... Air Pollutants and the Respiratory Tract. An Applied Approach By W. Michael Foster. , Daniel L. Costa. ... Parkes Occupational Lung Disorders. By Anthony Newman Taylor. , Paul Cullinan. , Paul Blanc. , Anthony Pickering. ...
Read chapter 5 Health Effects of Air Pollutants Detected at Joint Base Balad: Many veterans returning from the conflicts in ... Occupational & Environmental Medicine 53(9):606-612.. Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. ... 5 pollutants), eye (8 pollutants), skin (5 pollutants) and spleen (1 pollutant). The presence of multiple pollutants in the air ... 15 pollutants), liver (15 pollutants), lungs/respiratory (11 pollutants), kidney (12 pollutants), blood (7 pollutants), heart ...
Air pollutants may damage fetal cardiovascular development Microscopic particles in air pollution inhaled by pregnant women may ... Study evaluates impact of air-exchange rates on respiratory health in low-income homes A team of investigators from the ... The report "Sécurité des couches pour bébé", published by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Act, referred to in subsec. (r)(6)(C)(ii), (K), (L), probably means the Occupational Safety ... 6) Hazardous air pollutant The term "hazardous air pollutant" means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b). ... b) List of pollutants (1) Initial list The Congress establishes for purposes of this section a list of hazardous air pollutants ... a hazardous air pollutant or pollutants cannot be emitted through a conveyance designed and constructed to emit or capture such ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis. California. Carbon / analysis. Child. Environment*. Environmental Exposure*. Humans. ... 0/Air Pollutants, Occupational; 0/Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; 10102-44-0/Nitrogen Dioxide; 7440-44-0/Carbon ... Title: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) Volume: 55 ISSN: 1096-2247 ISO Abbreviation: J Air Waste Manag ... Across all of the pollutants, mean concentrations during bus commutes were higher than in any other microenvironment. Mean ...
Guidelines for air quality  World Health Organization. Occupational and Environmental Health Team (‎WHO/SDE/OEH/00.02, 2000)‎ ... The use of chemical and microbial indoor air pollutants was high in 87.5% and 67.5% of the women respectively. Also, 27.5% of ... This study determined the relationship between womens use of indoor air pollutants and sociodemographic variables and illness ... Rural womens use of indoor air pollutants in Alexandria Governorate: relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and ...
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants From: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Written by admin on June 1, 2012. · Leave ... Building occupants may be the source of indoor air pollutants; such pollutants include perfumes or colognes. ... Outside air intakes placed near sources where pollutants are drawn back into the building (e.g., idling vehicles, products of ... In such cases, there may be infiltration of outdoor pollutants such as particulates, vehicle exhaust, humid air, parking garage ...
Sales of home air fresheners and scented candles are on the rise and so are respiratory problems in homes where these products ... Occupational Asthma. If you experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness or shortness of breath at work, you may have ... Unplug indoor pollutants for a breath of fresh air. Allergists say home fragrance products may cause respiratory problems. ... "The safest option is to avoid exposure to pollutants that air fresheners emit. ...
Occupational and Community Exposure Risks to Phenol in Puerto Rico. Apr. 26, 2021. A study was conducted several years ago that ... air pollution air pollutant indoor air quality indoor air tobacco smoke IAQ product dust pollution indoor environmental pollen ... No comments were found for Asthma and Air Pollutants Discussed in New Video. Be the first to comment! ... Air purification is just one step to the organization`s "Met-ticulously" clean program to help welcome people back to the ...
Results of search for su:{Air pollutants, Occupational.} and location:ONLINE-IRIS ... Détermination de la concentration des fibres en suspension dans l air : méthode recommandée : la microscopie optique en ... air : méthode recommandée : la microscopie optique en contraste de phase (comptage sur membrane filtrante).Online access: Full ...
Silvermans research involves the design and conduct of epidemiologic investigations to evaluate occupational, environmental, ... Outdoor air pollution also causes lung cancer but the specific pollutant driving the risk is unknown. Dr. Silverman, in ... the NIOSH Alice Hamilton Science Award for Occupational Safety and Health, and the British Occupational Hygiene Society Award ... Carcinogenicity of Diesel Exhaust and Outdoor Air Pollutants. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Full Text Sources. *HighWire. *Ovid Technologies, Inc. ... Among 1754 with complete occupational data, any past occupational exposure to VGDF carried an adjusted excess risk for report ...
3.1 Air Pollutants 31. 3.2 Water and Soil Pollutants 38. 3.3 Occupational Toxicants 42 ... 3. Exposure Classes, Toxicants in Air, Water, Soil, Domestic, and Occupational Settings 31. W. Gregory Cope ...
Air Pollutants, Occupational. LinkOut - more resources. Medical. *Occupational Health - MedlinePlus Health Information ... Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. The ...
Results of search for su:{Air pollutants, Occupational.} and su-to:Environmental monitoring ... Workplace air, determination of vinyl, charcoal tube/gas chromatographic method = Air des lieux de travail, détermination du ... Air des lieux de travail, détermination du chlorure de vinyle, méthode par tube à charbon actif/chromatographie en phase ... Détermination de la concentration des fibres en suspension dans l air : méthode recommandée : la microscopie optique en ...
Occupational exposure to air pollutants: particulate matter and respiratory symptoms affec Occupational exposure to air ... Air Pollutants/adverse effects , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Exposure/adverse ... Air Pollutants / Air Pollution / Particulate Matter / Occupational Diseases Type of study: Prevalence_studies Clinical aspect: ... Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Colombia/epidemiology , ...
Air Pollutants / adverse effects * Air Pollutants, Occupational / adverse effects * Asthma / etiology * Bronchiectasis / ...
  • Regulatory agencies are under increased pressure to consider broader public health concerns that extend to multiple pollutant exposures, multiple exposure pathways, and vulnerable populations. (
  • Occupational exposures are higher than those of the general population, especially among miners, transportation workers and other operators of diesel powered equipment. (
  • She is also the NCI principal investigator of a hospital-based case-control study of bladder cancer in Spain to clarify the etiologic role of suspected occupational carcinogens and to evaluate a variety of non-occupational exposures, including genetic susceptibility markers, and gene-environment interactions. (
  • Mean exposures (mean concentration times time spent in a particular microenvironment) in bus commutes were between 50 and 200 times greater than those for the loading/unloading microenvironment, and 20-40 times higher than those for the bus stops, depending on the pollutant. (
  • Self-reports are frequently used to assess occupational exposures in epidemiological studies on asthma, but the validity and influence of asthma status on performance is unclear. (
  • Data on self-reported exposure to air pollutants were obtained for 16,752 randomly selected working individuals from 40 study centers, and compared to exposures obtained by a job exposure matrix (JEM). (
  • The prevalence of self-reported occupational exposures seems to depend on asthmatic health status at both the individual and the community level. (
  • He has investigated the acute effects of inhalation exposures to ambient air pollutants in his human exposure laboratory at San Francisco General Hospital and the chronic effects of such exposures in epidemiological studies with collaborators at the University of California, San Francisco and the University of California, Berkeley. (
  • For instance Cape Town reported very high levels of previous tuberculosis and occupational exposures, as well as high smoking rates. (
  • Lung function decline, chronic bronchitis, and occupational exposures in young adults. (
  • Reviews current scientific data on health effects related to occupational exposures to asphalt, describes further research needs in this area, and suggests measures to minimize worker exposures while studies continue. (
  • The study protocol included the following objectives: develop and field test new methods to assess asphalt fume exposures, characterize and compare occupational exposures to crumb-rubber modified (CRM) asphalt and conventional (CONV) asphalt and evaluate potential health effects associated with CRM asphalt and CONV asphalt. (
  • Although this decrement is insufficient to cause symptoms, the possibility that it may increase susceptibility to COPD with other agents in adult life, e.g. active smoking or occupational exposures, needs investigation. (
  • 1 Environmental exposures to fumes, gases, air pollutants, and occupational dusts contribute to impaired lung function. (
  • Findings of higher breast cancer risk in urban areas have given focus to exposures in urban settings such as air pollution. (
  • Although the composition of air pollution and exposure levels vary widely from place to place, IARC says its assessment is applicable worldwide and notes that exposures in rapidly industrializing countries with large populations have increased significantly in recent years. (
  • Of these deaths, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 are a result of cancers related to occupational chemical exposures. (
  • Each of the six key pollutants -- nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and lead -- fell by at least 20 percent from 1980 to 2006, the agency said. (
  • For example, in a recent study of the daily mortality and hospital admissions in the West Midlands of the UK, the exposure of the 2.3 million people in the study area to particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and other pollutants was defined by data from between one and three monitoring stations. (
  • The study found that combined exposure to two pollutants harmful to human health - nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) - declined by about 40 percent for the 2007-2011 cohort when compared to the 1994-1998 cohort. (
  • The committee considers several of the air pollutants highlighted in Chapter 4 to be of concern because of their association with burn pit emissions (dioxins and dioxin-like compounds) and because some of the concentrations exceeded U.S. air quality standards (for example, particulate matter [PM]) or were in excess of concentrations found in polluted urban environments worldwide. (
  • Effects of pollution are biologically plausible given emerging evidence from human experimental, animal, and in vitro studies suggesting that ambient particulate matter and gaseous co-pollutants cause oxidative stress and inflammation, which are important features of asthma pathogenesis ( 13 ). (
  • Methods: Air sampling of particulate matter less than 2.5microm in diameter (PM2.5) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was completed at four fire stations in Spring, 2016. (
  • Upadhyay, Swapna;Palmberg, Lena 2018-03-09 00:00:00 Abstract Air pollution leads to inhalation of several pulmonary stimulants that includes particulate matter, and gaseous substances contributing significantly to the development of chronic lung diseases. (
  • air-liquid interface, air pollution, pulmonary toxicity Series of epidemiological studies reported that inhalation exposure to air pollutants (particles: particulate matter [PM] and gases) causes pulmonary toxicity and onset of chronic lung diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis and asthma (Esposito et al. (
  • IARC also evaluated particulate matter, a major component of air pollution, and concluded that it too is a human carcinogen. (
  • Researchers found that lung growth between ages 11 and 15 was more than 10 percent greater for the children exposed to lower levels of nitrogen dioxide from 2007 to 2011 compared to children breathing higher levels of the air pollutant from 1994 to 1998. (
  • Many studies have also shown that contact with pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates smaller than 10 microns can cause or exacerbate allergic and respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis [ 10 - 13 ]. (
  • 2013). Respirable PM have been identified as a "criteria air pollutant" along with carbon monoxide, ground level ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and lead by the U.S.-Environmental Protection Agency (Lenz et al. (
  • The method described in this paper could also be extended to setting limits for ambient air contaminants where risk perception plays a dominant role in whether the public views the exposure as being reasonable or safe. (
  • This pilot study aimed to describe air quality within a few fire stations in and around Boston, Massachusetts, and to investigate physical and organizational factors that may influence levels of contaminants in stations. (
  • Contaminants released from UOG sites enter the air readily during well pad development and continue for the life of the well, impacting both local and regional air quality. (
  • Source control, filtration, and the use of ventilation to dilute contaminants are the primary methods for improving indoor air quality in most buildings. (
  • contaminants including: volatile compounds, semi-volatiles (Dioxin/Furan and PCBs), hazardous air pollutants , air toxics (HAPS), metals and particulates. (
  • What EPA called "an early look" at air quality and emissions data for 2006 shows U.S. air quality continued to improve, EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson said yesterday. (
  • He said emissions of six key pollutants have dropped by 54 percent since 1970, and the national average concentration for each criteria pollutant is below the level of its air quality standard. (
  • Air pollutant levels in the home increase if not enough outdoor air is brought in to dilute emissions from indoor sources and to carry indoor air pollutants out of the home. (
  • Those improvements coincided with the enactment of health-driven air quality policies and vehicle emissions standards, which have produced dramatic air quality results. (
  • The relative importance of any single source depends on how much of a given pollutant it emits, how hazardous those emissions are, occupant proximity to the emission source, and the ability of the ventilation system (i.e., general or local) to remove the contaminant. (
  • Exposure to both burn pit emissions and air pollutants from other sources in and around JBB will likely be of concern in future epidemiologic studies. (
  • There are an additional four pollutants (1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,3-butadiene, and 1,2-dichlorobenzene) that were detected at JBB although in fewer than 5% of the samples, but they were included in the committee's assessment because they are expected to be present in burn pit emissions on the basis of burn barrel experiments (Lemieux et al. (
  • The term " modification " means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which increases the actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant emitted by such source by more than a de minimis amount or which results in the emission of any hazardous air pollutant not previously emitted by more than a de minimis amount. (
  • Major sources of this carcinogenic air pollution, said the IARC in its announcement, include industrial and agricultural emissions, power generation and transportation. (
  • This means that in addition to visible sources of outdoor air pollution like vehicle exhaust and emissions from factory smoke stacks, this air pollution includes industrial chemicals such as solvents, metals, and numerous different hydrocarbon compounds. (
  • NESHAP-NSPSTrinity tracks the ongoing development and promulgation of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). (
  • 4 Although the daily variation in pollutant concentrations was relatively small (the 90th centile of the 24 hour average PM 10 concentrations was only 38 μg/m 3 ), the authors were still able to identify associations between respiratory and asthma admissions to hospital for young people and various measures of particulate concentration. (
  • Some of the known triggers of intrinsic asthma are infections, such as cold and flu viruses, exercise and cold air, industrial and occupational pollutants, food additives and preservatives, drugs such as aspirin, and emotional stress. (
  • What's even more impressive is that the positive gains in children's lung function were documented even after researchers adjusted for confounding variables, such as tobacco smoke exposure, health insurance status, parental educational attainment, asthma and indoor pollutants, such as pets and mold. (
  • Indeed, both children with and without asthma experienced better lung function growth as air quality improved. (
  • These associations were observed in boys and girls, Hispanic white and non-Hispanic white children, and children with asthma and children without asthma, which suggests that all children have the potential to benefit from improvements in air quality. (
  • If you experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness or shortness of breath at work, you may have occupational asthma. (
  • BOSTON (November 6, 2011) - Sales of home air fresheners and scented candles are on the rise and so are respiratory problems in homes where these products are used, according to allergists at the annual scientific meeting of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) in Boston, Nov 3-8. (
  • About 20 percent of the population and 34 percent of people with asthma report health problems from air fresheners. (
  • We know air freshener fragrances can trigger allergy symptoms, aggravate existing allergies and worsen asthma. (
  • The incidence of asthma has been associated with environmental factors, including combustion products in tobacco smoke, especially in utero, and in air pollution ( 3 - 5 ). (
  • It is generally recognized that air pollution exacerbates asthma in children ( 8 ), and some studies suggest an effect on induction of asthma ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • We have also shown asthma to be associated with another oxidant pollutant, in utero tobacco smoke ( 4 , 14 - 16 ), results which are consistent with other studies of in utero and second hand smoke (SHS) exposure ( 17 , 18 ). (
  • Effects of air pollution on asthma and other respiratory conditions have been found to be greater among individuals of lower SES ( 19 , 20 ). (
  • It is hypothesised that a major proportion of asthma is based on neutrophilic airway inflammation, possibly triggered by environmental exposure to bacterial endotoxin, particulate air pollution, and ozone, as well as viral infections. (
  • Known and suspect occupational bladder carcinogens include aromatic amines, diesel exhaust, cutting oil mist, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aryl hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. (
  • Regulations for OSHA-Designated Occupational Carcinogens. (
  • Sidestream smoke, emitted directly into the air during burning of a tobacco product between puffs, contains considerably higher concentrations of many carcinogens and toxic substances (table 2 ⇓ ), but is diluted into a larger volume of air. (
  • It also adds considerably to the health concerns for people whose work exposes them to chemicals identified as carcinogens - and raises questions about the health risks posed by exposure to multiple carcinogens and to pollutants that can compromise the ability to fight disease and infection. (
  • One place to begin such action would be by reducing and eliminating carcinogens in industrial operations that produce large amounts of hazardous air pollutants. (
  • Chemicals found included hazardous air pollutants, suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals, and known and suspected carcinogens. (
  • Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. (
  • It's a dangerous occupation by its very nature, so it comes with a lot of occupational hazards," Veterans of Foreign Wars (VFW) National Veterans Service Ryan Gallucci told Drugwatch. (
  • Other occupational hazards include exposure to silica and asbestos. (
  • Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. (
  • The process can emit chemicals into the air, sometimes in visible plumes, and can expose workers and the public to a mixture of compounds that can pose potential health hazards, said Andrew Whelton, an assistant professor in Purdue University's Lyles School of Civil Engineering and the Environmental and Ecological Engineering program. (
  • NIOSH is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and has occupational safety and health experts who can investigate workplace hazards. (
  • The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants' discomfort and/or adverse health effects. (
  • Health concerns about the exposure to genotoxic and carcinogenic agents in the air are particularly significant for outdoor workers in less developed countries. (
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that the low levels of air pollution in most industrialised societies are still linked to adverse health outcomes. (
  • In more recent years, the health effects of air pollutants have been studied intensively. (
  • These effects have been found in short-term studies, which relate day-to-day variations in air pollution and health, and in long-term studies, which have followed cohorts of exposed people over time (2). (
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health from exposure to indoor air pollution may be greater than risks from outdoor pollution. (
  • These biologic pollutants can be related to some serious health effects. (
  • The report "Sécurité des couches pour bébé", published by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety, deals with hazardous substances in disposable panty diapers. (
  • In the first study of its kind, researchers have found that improved air quality in southern California had a direct effect on children's respiratory health. (
  • The findings point to the effectiveness of smart public health policy - in other words, even as southern California experienced increases in traffic and commerce, aggressive air pollution policies resulted in cleaner air and healthier kids. (
  • Additionally, we present a summary of studies of potential interactions between social stressors and air pollutants on health as an example of current research that supports the incorporation of non-chemical stressors into risk assessment. (
  • She was a finalist for the NIOSH Alice Hamilton Science Award for Occupational Safety and Health for her research on diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer in truck drivers. (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified diesel exhaust as a human carcinogen in 2012, based in large part on the findings from the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study (DEMS) , which was designed and directed by Dr. Silverman and her colleagues at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (
  • In Chapter 5 , the committee begins its assessment of the potential long-term health effects associated with exposure to those air pollutants. (
  • Health effects associated with these pollutants are well documented. (
  • 2008), or to just the primary target organs for noncancer effects (CHPPM 2009, USAPHC 2010), and therefore specific health effects potentially related to exposure to air pollutants at JBB were not fully presented. (
  • The committee assembled specific health effects data (including all target organs) on the detected air pollutants as a step towards identifying the potential long-term effects of them. (
  • Nearly 200 air toxics have been associated with adverse health effects in occupational studies or laboratory studies, but have not been monitored in general population groups. (
  • Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. (
  • The experimental model of measuring occupational nitrous oxide exposure during a 25-minute standardised dental treatment showed high reproducibility and might be useful for determining whether or not a system has a reasonable chance of meeting the requirements set by different national boards of occupational safety and health. (
  • OBJECTIVES: Setting occupational exposure limits (OELs) for odorous or irrita ting chemicals is a global occupational health challenge. (
  • Department of Occupational Diseases and Environmental Health, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, 91-348 Lodz, Poland, [email protected] (
  • David J. Tollerud, M.D., M.P.H. ( Chair ), is a professor and chair of the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences at the School of Public Health and Information Sciences at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. (
  • Dr. Tollerud has research expertise in environmental and occupational health, epidemiology, and immunology, and consulting experience in the areas of occupational and environmental respiratory disease, medical surveillance, and workplace injury prevention programs. (
  • He served as the chair of the Committee on the Disposition of the Air Force Health Study, and he has served on the IOM's Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice and on a number of IOM committees since 1992. (
  • He is also a professor of environmental health sciences at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Northern California Center for Occupational and Environmental Health. (
  • Dr. Balmes studies the respiratory health effects of various air pollutants. (
  • Jim Fabisiak - Associate Professor of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, School of Public Health. (
  • Air Quality Collaborative, Allegheny Health Network, American Academy of Pediatrics, Pennsylvania Chapter, American Lung Association of the Mid-Atlantic. (
  • HAPs are air pollutants which are not covered by ambient air quality standards but which, as defined in the Clean Air Act, may present a threat of adverse human health effects or adverse environmental effects. (
  • 5.1 Regulations such as those promulgated by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 29 CFR 1910.1000 designate that certain hazardous gases and vapors must not be present in the workplace air at concentrations above specific values. (
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 78-106, (September 1977). (
  • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Publication No. 2001-110, (2001). (
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Workplace Safety and Health Topic. (
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) Report No. HETA-2001-0536-2864, (2001). (
  • NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable bibliographic database of occupational safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (
  • Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a major health hazard. (
  • A report assisted by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance can support in the systematic investigation of individual health problems arising at indoor workplaces, and in the identification of practical solutions. (
  • Indoor combustion, such as for cooking or heating, is a major cause of indoor air pollution and causes significant health harms and premature deaths. (
  • Occupational exposure limit (OEL) values are derived within two legal frameworks that form an integral part of the EU's mechanism for protecting the health of workers. (
  • Occupational health and Safety: Cannabis Industry. (
  • Air pollution isn't just outside - the air inside buildings can also be polluted and affect your health. (
  • This has been the case even for those air pollutant levels which have been considered as safe for the health of the exposed population (1). (
  • Research Title: Occupational Health Assessment with Emphasis on Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis in Queensland and NSW Mining Industries. (
  • Occupational Hygiene and Health Promotion. (
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions. (
  • Firstly, to examine the association between ETS exposure and demographic, socioeconomic, occupational and physiological characteristics and secondly, to ascertain the independent cross sectional association of ETS exposure with self reported common acute and chronic health conditions. (
  • We assigned HAPs from the US Environmental Protection Agency's 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment to 109,239 members of the nationwide, prospective Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). (
  • Safe Shops works to prevent or reduce disproportionate environmental and occupational health effects from the industry on workers and clients, as well as the surrounding neighborhoods. (
  • Workers can also diminish environmental health effects through proper containment of liquid- and air-based pollutants. (
  • The Safe Shops Program aims to mitigate environmental and occupational health effects through outreach and the provision of resources for these businesses. (
  • The influence of different building materials on indoor air quality (IAQ) and subsequently on human health has been documented in various studies. (
  • 2013). Similar to PMs, exposure to toxic gaseous substances also remains an ongoing health concern for the assessment of environmental, occupational (industrial chemicals, cosmetics), intentional (tobacco smoke), and accidental exposure (Fröhlich and Meindl, 2015, Yaghi and Dolovich, 2016). (
  • On October 17, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced that it has classified air pollution as a human carcinogen. (
  • We now know that outdoor air pollution is not only a major risk to health in general, but also a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths," said Dr Kurt Straif of the IARC in the organization's announcement. (
  • Not only would this would improve public health, but it could make much-needed improvements in occupational health. (
  • For despite the advances in workplace safety that have been made in recent decades, the US Occupational Health and Safety Administration estimates that more than 850,000 people in the United States develop new work-related illnesses each year and approximately 60,000 people die from such diseases in the US each year. (
  • The researchers have briefed the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) about their findings. (
  • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic chemicals that have a worldwide impact on human health and the environment. (
  • The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, first held by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in 2001, developed guidelines for the use of key POPs in order to protect human health around the world. (
  • 1.3 The risk characterization addressed in this guide is limited to acute health and irritation effects resulting from short-term exposure to VOCs in indoor air. (
  • Hazardous air pollutants are air pollutants that are defined by the Federal Clean Air Act as being a threat or risk of cancer or other serious adverse health affects. (
  • Similarly, the memorandum addresses worker-protection safety regulations under the Occupational Safety and Health Act and the Toxic Substances Control Act that apply to CERCLA actions. (
  • Turn to OH&S for the latest news in the occupational health & safety industry. (
  • The term " major source " means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants . (
  • The term " hazardous air pollutant " means any air pollutant listed pursuant to subsection (b). (
  • Asbestos is a hazardous air pollutant . (
  • The pollutants listed in Table 5-1 were detected in at least 5% of the air monitoring samples collected at JBB in 2007 and 2009 (n = 47 chemicals). (
  • For example, experience has shown that chemicals with a low odor threshold often require low OELs even though many are not toxic or do not cause irrita tion at those air concentrations. (
  •, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. (
  • In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. (
  • Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. (
  • Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. (
  • Air pollutants, including particles of dirt or industrial chemicals, can cause dark mucus and phlegm. (
  • The goal of the Safe Shops Program is to protect workers and the public from exposure to hazardous chemicals and air pollution in auto shops. (
  • Among the additional pollutants are chemicals in pesticide drift and the invisible molecules of environmentally mobile persistent compounds emanating, not only from waste sites and industrial facilities, but also from finished products as they wear and weather. (
  • A waxy substance was found in the air, and materials engineers determined it was partially cured plastic, styrene monomer, acetone, and unidentified chemicals. (
  • This case documents that sensitization to occupational allergens can induce severe systemic reactions outside the workplace. (
  • Avoid known allergens and air pollutants. (
  • Several mechanisms are involved in the incidence of these diseases, with the most well-known being the exacerbation of viral infection, increased concentrations of stimulating gases in the air (such as ozone), and changes in the concentrations of allergens and microparticles of dust [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • Moreover, thunderstorms and lightening create an electrical charge in the allergens present in the air and facilitate the dispersion and release of microparticles [ 6 , 9 ]. (
  • Thirty-eight volunteers were exposed for 2 hours to either filtered air or particles concentrated from ambient air in Chapel Hill, North Carolina. (
  • Microscopic particles in air pollution inhaled by pregnant women may damage fetal cardiovascular development, according to a study by Rutgers researchers. (
  • An increase of the powder's moisture content resulted in less and smaller particles in the air. (
  • It's a type of fungus that puts tiny particles called spores into the air. (
  • Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. (
  • When a person breathes in smoke, pollutants and other small particles in the smoke get trapped in the mucus and phlegm. (
  • As in people who smoke or breathe in pollutants, the particles from a fire can turn the mucus and phlegm black. (
  • This represents lung as a major port of entry for small-sized particles and other gaseous pollutants to the human body (Ghio et al. (
  • Those working in areas where very fine particles float in the air are at great risk. (
  • Exposure to PM 10 was significantly associated with the blood concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and white cells when measurements of air pollution and blood concentrations were performed the same day. (
  • Across all of the pollutants, mean concentrations during bus commutes were higher than in any other microenvironment. (
  • Air concentrations of TDI and total reactive isocyanate group in three flexible polyurethane manufacturing facilities. (
  • Findings from a recent prospective cohort study in California suggested increased risk of breast cancer associated with higher exposure to certain carcinogenic and estrogen-disrupting hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). (
  • As discussed in Chapter 4 , the committee found the air monitoring data gathered at Joint Base Balad (JBB) in 2007 and 2009 to be useful for identifying the major air pollutants and their sources in and around JBB. (
  • Biomass smoke is one of the major air pollutants and contributors of household air pollution worldwide. (
  • Gr.,=sphere of air], the mixture of gases surrounding a celestial body with sufficient gravity to maintain it. (
  • ventilation ventilation, process of supplying fresh air to an enclosed space and removing from it air contaminated by odors, gases, or smoke. (
  • Air contains very small quantities of other inert gases, as well as hydrogen (H 2 ), ozone (0 3 ), nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH 3 ), methane (CH 4 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). (
  • The content of nitrogen, oxygen, and inert gases in air is virtually constant, since a constant concentration of oxygen-and in part nitrogen-is maintained by the plants of the earth. (
  • Occupational exposure to hazardous airborne pollutants: effects of air mixing and source location. (
  • Results also indicate that an occupant may experience very high acute exposure to airborne pollutants when little air mixing exists in a space and the pollutant source is in the vicinity of the occupant. (
  • Cabinetry or furniture made of certain pressed-wood products may release pollutants into the indoor air. (
  • One of the major initiatives Congress added to the CAA in 1990 is an operating permit program for larger industrial and commercial sources that release pollutants into the air. (
  • Blood obtained 18 hours after exposure to concentrated ambient air contained significantly more fibrinogen relative to that in samples obtained before the exposure (21). (
  • APPENDIX B. National Ambient Air Quality Standards. (
  • Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene 6( 10):53-63. (
  • The buoyancy-driven convective plume around a body seems to have a significant influence on pollutant transport and human exposure, especially in the absence of room air mixing. (
  • Determination of IAQ involves the collection of air samples, monitoring human exposure to pollutants, collection of samples on building surfaces, and computer modelling of air flow inside buildings. (
  • His research interests include but not limited to: air quality control modeling, toxicology and human exposure, indoor air pollution assessment, indoor air analyzing and control, and particle technology. (
  • Workplace air, determination of vinyl, charcoal tube/gas chromatographic method = Air des lieux de travail, détermination du chlorure de vinyle, méthode par tube à charbon actif. (
  • This report presents the criteria and the recommended standard based thereon which were prepared to meet the need for preventing occupational disease and injury arising from workplace exposure to pentane (109660), hexane (110543), heptane (142825), or octane (111659). (
  • How important is personal exposure assessment in the epidemiology of air pollutants? (
  • Much of the recent epidemiology has been based on time-series studies of large urban populations, although there are also a number of small panel studies of groups that may be more susceptible to the effects air pollutants. (
  • Dr. Silverman is chief of the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch within the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI. (
  • Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University. (
  • John R. Balmes, M.D., is a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, and chief of the Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine at San Francisco General Hospital. (
  • His research interests include cardiovascular toxicity of environmental aldehydes, including pollutants such as gasoline vapor, car exhaust, smoke, and smog, among others. (
  • However, the pathophysiological mechanism of air pollutant mediated pulmonary toxicity remains unclear. (
  • Physiologically relevant in vivo-like in vitro models cultured at air-liquid interface (ALI) is therefore becoming a realistic and efficient tool for lung toxicity testing and cell-cell interaction studies following exposure to aerosolized or gaseous form of air pollutants. (
  • This review discusses the current understanding of relevance, benefits and limitations of the ALI models in comparison to the existing in vitro and in vivo exposure system for testing air pollutants mediated pulmonary toxicity. (
  • Established in vitro models are being routinely used to study the air pollution mediated respiratory toxicity and lung diseases to improve our knowledge on molecular and patho-physiological mechanisms. (
  • Study results show that the often used assumption of uniform pollutant distribution in an occupied space is not always appropriate for estimation of inhalation exposure. (
  • The idea that the inhalation of urban air pollutants may provoke an inflammatory process in the lungs and cause an increase in blood coagulability and, as a consequence, coronary heart disease was hypothesized by Anthony Seaton and his co-workers in 1995 (24). (
  • This is primarily due to the lack of efficient test systems, mimicing human inhalation exposure scenarios to air pollutants. (
  • Indoor air pollution and exposure to hazardous substances in the home are risks we can do something about. (
  • Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. (
  • Design and construction flaws may contribute to indoor air pollution. (
  • Disturbing thermal insulation or sprayed-on acoustical material, or the presence of wet or damp structural surfaces (e.g., walls, ceilings) or non-structural surfaces (e.g., carpets, shades), may contribute to indoor air pollution. (
  • A major source of indoor air pollution in developing countries is the burning of biomass (e.g. wood, charcoal, dung, or crop residue) for heating and cooking. (
  • thus, producing high levels of indoor air pollution, where children and women cooking can be found. (
  • He has a particular interest in occupational respiratory disease. (
  • Provides links to documents containing information on occupational exposure to asphalt fumes. (
  • Require service practices that maximize recovery and recycling of ozone-depleting substances (both chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs] and hydrochlorofluorocarbons [HCFCs] and their blends) during the servicing and disposal of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. (
  • The IARC assessment looked at air pollution's whole mix of cancer-causing substances and decided that wherever air is polluted it is potentially carcinogenic. (
  • To date, PAS for POPs have mainly been used as integrating (long-term) samplers for ambient (outdoor) air. (
  • Clapp is an epidemiologist who specializes in environmental and occupational cancer. (
  • Stratospheric Ozone Protection - Since July 1992, it has been unlawful to vent or release to the atmosphere used refrigerants into the atmosphere while maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of air-conditioning or refrigeration equipment (Section 608 of the CAA, 40 CFR Part 82, Subpart F). (
  • Ozone , a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. (
  • Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and related compounds such as PCBs, brominated flame retardants, organochlorine pesticides and PAHs is regarded as an important environmental risk factor for humans. (
  • General: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were widely used after World War II. (
  • Published earlier this month in the New England Journal of Medicine , the study concluded that air quality improvements in the southern California communities studied were associated with significantly positive effects on lung function growth in children. (
  • This study shows an association between secular improvements in air quality in southern California and measurable improvements in lung-function development in children. (
  • He is also the physician member of the California Air Resources Board. (
  • A recent study from the University of California gives tips on how to best clean the air inside your car. (
  • Includes all Chronic Reference Exposure Levels (CRELs) adopted by OEHHA as of August 2003 (, plus draft CRELS proposed through March 2004 ( (
  • National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. (
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission factors AP-42, 5th ed. (
  • This list contains the Annex I pollutants that European Union Member States (MS) must measure and report on as part of their national emission reporting requirements. (
  • RICE NESHAP - EPA promulgated emission standards for generators, known as the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engine (RICE NESHAP), in several stages beginning in 2004 and culminating in March 2010. (
  • Duke University obtained and operates under a Title V air permit that includes information on the emission sources, which pollutants are being emitted and monitored, emission limitations, and any pollution prevention requirements. (
  • This EPA memorandum summarizes the Clean Air Act Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) regulations and clarifies their applicability to cleanups at CERCLA sites. (
  • Dr. Silverman's research involves the design and conduct of epidemiologic investigations to evaluate occupational, environmental, and host determinants of cancer. (
  • Dr. Balmes also is investigating genetic determinants of responses to air pollutants. (
  • These results provide a basis for prioritizing future primary studies regarding the endocrine disrupting properties of UOG air pollutants, including exposure research in wildlife and humans. (
  • Objectives To study the association between daily mortality and short-term increases in air pollutants, both traffic-related and the geothermal source-specific hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). (
  • Main outcome measure Percentage increases in risk of death (IR%) following an interquartile range increase in pollutants. (
  • According to the IARC review of the latest scientific studies, exposure to air pollution increases the risk for lung cancer and for bladder cancer. (
  • Outdoor air pollution also causes lung cancer but the specific pollutant driving the risk is unknown. (
  • Radon is probably the most pervasive serious hazard for indoor air in the United States and Europe, and is probably responsible for tens of thousands of deaths from lung cancer each year. (
  • Though black phlegm is not always a cause for concern, it could be a sign of lung cancer or exposure to a pollutant. (
  • Pollutants, infections, and lung cancer may cause black mucus or phlegm. (
  • IARC notes that in 2010 - the most recent annual data available - approximately 223,000 deaths worldwide resulted from lung cancer prompted by air pollution. (
  • When painting and other renovations are being conducted, dust or other by-products of the construction materials are sources of pollutants that may circulate through a building. (
  • Sometimes, coal miners develop a condition called pneumoconiosis after exposure to coal dust and other air pollutants in the mines. (
  • In addition, high temperature and humidity levels can increase the concentration of some pollutants. (
  • Détermination de la concentration des fibres en suspension dans l' air : méthode recommandée : la microscopie optique en contraste de phase (comptage sur membrane filtrante). (
  • Air pollution and neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Meanwhile air pollution-related respiratory and cardiovascular diseases continue to decrease life expectancy worldwide. (