Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Natural and man-made environments and their impact on public health.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The contamination of indoor air.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Living facilities for humans.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/3303)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (2/3303)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (3/3303)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/3303)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (5/3303)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. (6/3303)

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (7/3303)

We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions.  (+info)

Cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium of people exposed to urban pollution. (8/3303)

The nasal passages are a common portal of entry and are a prime site for toxicant-induced pathology. Sustained increases in regenerative cell proliferation can be a significant driving force in chemical carcinogenesis. The atmosphere in Mexico City contains a complex mixture of air pollutants and its residents are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants and potential carcinogens. We were concerned that exposure to Mexico City's atmosphere might induce cytotoxicity and increase nasal respiratory epithelial cell proliferation. Nasal biopsies were obtained for DNA cell cycle analysis from 195 volunteers. The control population consisted of 16 adults and 27 children that were residents in a Caribbean island with low pollution. The exposed Mexico City population consisted of 109 adults and 43 children. Sixty-one of the adult subjects were newly arrived in Mexico City and were followed for 25 days from their arrival. Control children, control adult and exposed Mexico City children all had similar percentages of cells in the replicative DNA synthesis phase (S phase) of the cell cycle (%S). A significant increase in %S in nasal epithelial cells was seen in exposed adult residents in Mexico City biopsied at three different dates compared with control adults. Newly arrived adults exhibited a control level of cell turnover at day 2 after coming to the city. However, at days 7, 14 and 25 they exhibited significant increases in %S. These data demonstrate an increased and sustained nasal cell turnover rate in the adult population observable in as little as 1 week of residence in Mexico City. This increase in cell proliferation is in agreement with other reports of induced pathological changes in the nasal passages of Mexico City dwellers. These observations suggest an increased potential risk factor of developing nasal neoplasms for residents of large cities with heavy pollution.  (+info)

Some common examples of respiratory tract diseases include:

1. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
2. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways (bronchi) that can cause coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing.
3. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive condition that makes it difficult to breathe due to damage to the lungs over time.
5. Tuberculosis: An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs.
6. Laryngitis: Inflammation of the voice box (larynx) that can cause hoarseness and difficulty speaking.
7. Tracheitis: Inflammation of the trachea, or windpipe, that can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
8. Croup: An infection of the throat and lungs that can cause a barky cough and difficulty breathing.
9. Pleurisy: Inflammation of the lining around the lungs (pleura) that can cause chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Pertussis (whooping cough): An infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis that can cause coughing fits and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of the many different types of respiratory tract diseases that exist. Each one has its own unique symptoms, causes, and treatment options.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Some common examples of respiration disorders include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition that causes inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A progressive lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe, caused by exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can cause fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchitis: Inflammation of the airways that can cause coughing and difficulty breathing.
5. Emphysema: A condition where the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Sleep apnea: A sleep disorder that causes a person to stop breathing for short periods during sleep, leading to fatigue and other symptoms.
7. Cystic fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory system and digestive system, causing thick mucus buildup and difficulty breathing.
8. Pulmonary fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
9. Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs and can cause coughing, fever, and difficulty breathing.
10. Lung cancer: A type of cancer that originates in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.

These are just a few examples of respiration disorders, and there are many other conditions that can affect the respiratory system and cause breathing difficulties. If you are experiencing any symptoms of respiration disorders, it is important to seek medical attention to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

Some common types of lung diseases include:

1. Asthma: A chronic condition characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.
2. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A progressive condition that causes chronic inflammation and damage to the airways and lungs, making it difficult to breathe.
3. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
4. Bronchiectasis: A condition where the airways are damaged and widened, leading to chronic infections and inflammation.
5. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A condition where the lungs become scarred and stiff, making it difficult to breathe.
6. Lung Cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the lungs, often caused by smoking or exposure to carcinogens.
7. Cystic Fibrosis: A genetic disorder that affects the respiratory and digestive systems, leading to chronic infections and inflammation in the lungs.
8. Tuberculosis (TB): An infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, which primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
9. Pulmonary Embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, often caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body.
10. Sarcoidosis: An inflammatory disease that affects various organs in the body, including the lungs, leading to the formation of granulomas and scarring.

These are just a few examples of conditions that can affect the lungs and respiratory system. It's important to note that many of these conditions can be treated with medication, therapy, or surgery, but early detection is key to successful treatment outcomes.

Clinical Significance:
Respiratory sounds can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. By listening to the sounds of a patient's breathing, healthcare providers can identify abnormalities in lung function, airway obstruction, or inflammation.

Types of Respiratory Sounds:

1. Vesicular Sounds:
a. Inspiratory wheeze: A high-pitched whistling sound heard during inspiration, usually indicative of bronchial asthma or COPD.
b. Expiratory wheeze: A low-pitched whistling sound heard during expiration, typically seen in patients with chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
c. Decreased vocal fremitus: A decrease in the normal vibratory sounds heard over the lung fields during breathing, which can indicate fluid or consolidation in the lungs.
2. Adventitious Sounds:
a. Crackles (rales): High-pitched, bubbly sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, indicating fluid or air in the alveoli.
b. Rhonchi: Low-pitched, harsh sounds heard during inspiration and expiration, often indicative of bronchitis, pneumonia, or COPD.
c. Stridors: High-pitched, squeaky sounds heard during breathing, commonly seen in patients with inflammatory conditions such as pneumonia or tuberculosis.

It's important to note that the interpretation of lung sounds requires a thorough understanding of respiratory physiology and pathophysiology, as well as clinical experience and expertise. A healthcare professional, such as a nurse or respiratory therapist, should always be consulted for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

There are several types of hypersensitivity reactions, including:

1. Type I hypersensitivity: This is also known as immediate hypersensitivity and occurs within minutes to hours after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the release of histamine and other chemical mediators from immune cells, leading to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing. Examples of Type I hypersensitivity reactions include allergies to pollen, dust mites, or certain foods.
2. Type II hypersensitivity: This is also known as cytotoxic hypersensitivity and occurs within days to weeks after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the immune system producing antibodies against specific proteins on the surface of cells, leading to their destruction. Examples of Type II hypersensitivity reactions include blood transfusion reactions and serum sickness.
3. Type III hypersensitivity: This is also known as immune complex hypersensitivity and occurs when antigens bind to immune complexes, leading to the formation of deposits in tissues. Examples of Type III hypersensitivity reactions include rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
4. Type IV hypersensitivity: This is also known as delayed-type hypersensitivity and occurs within weeks to months after exposure to the allergen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Examples of Type IV hypersensitivity reactions include contact dermatitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis.

The diagnosis of hypersensitivity often involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and elimination diets or challenges. Treatment depends on the specific type of hypersensitivity reaction and may include avoidance of the allergen, medications such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory therapy.

Respiratory hypersensitivity can be diagnosed through medical history, physical examination, and allergy testing. Treatment options include avoidance of allergens, medication, such as antihistamines or corticosteroids, and immunotherapy, which involves exposing the person to small amounts of the allergen over time to build up their tolerance.

Some people with respiratory hypersensitivity may experience more severe symptoms, such as asthma, which can be life-threatening if left untreated. It is important for individuals with respiratory hypersensitivity to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and prevent complications.

1. Coronary artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart.
2. Heart failure: A condition in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body's needs.
3. Arrhythmias: Abnormal heart rhythms that can be too fast, too slow, or irregular.
4. Heart valve disease: Problems with the heart valves that control blood flow through the heart.
5. Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy): Disease of the heart muscle that can lead to heart failure.
6. Congenital heart disease: Defects in the heart's structure and function that are present at birth.
7. Peripheral artery disease: The narrowing or blockage of blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients to the arms, legs, and other organs.
8. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in a deep vein, usually in the leg.
9. Pulmonary embolism: A blockage in one of the arteries in the lungs, which can be caused by a blood clot or other debris.
10. Stroke: A condition in which there is a lack of oxygen to the brain due to a blockage or rupture of blood vessels.

Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can affect various aspects of the child's development, including:

1. Physical growth and development: PDEDs can lead to changes in the child's physical growth patterns, such as reduced birth weight, short stature, or delayed puberty.
2. Brain development: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect brain development, leading to learning disabilities, memory problems, and cognitive delays.
3. Behavioral and emotional development: Children exposed to PDEDs may exhibit behavioral and emotional difficulties, such as anxiety, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
4. Immune system functioning: Prenatal exposure to certain substances can affect the immune system's development, making children more susceptible to infections and autoimmune diseases.
5. Reproductive health: Exposure to certain chemicals during fetal development may disrupt the reproductive system, leading to fertility problems or an increased risk of infertility later in life.

The diagnosis of Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects often requires a comprehensive medical history and physical examination, as well as specialized tests such as imaging studies or laboratory assessments. Treatment for PDEDs typically involves addressing the underlying cause of exposure and providing appropriate interventions to manage any associated symptoms or developmental delays.

In summary, Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects can have a profound impact on a child's growth, development, and overall health later in life. It is essential for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential risks and to monitor children exposed to substances during fetal development for any signs of PDEDs. With early diagnosis and appropriate interventions, it may be possible to mitigate or prevent some of these effects and improve outcomes for affected children.

Acute bronchitis is a short-term infection that is usually caused by a virus or bacteria, and can be treated with antibiotics and supportive care such as rest, hydration, and over-the-counter pain relievers. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that is often associated with smoking and can lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Bronchitis can cause a range of symptoms including:

* Persistent cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Shortness of breath or wheezing
* Fatigue and fever
* Headache and body aches

The diagnosis of bronchitis is usually made based on a physical examination, medical history, and results of diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays and pulmonary function tests. Treatment for bronchitis typically focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the underlying cause, such as a bacterial infection or smoking cessation.

Bronchitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Viral infections, such as the common cold or flu
* Bacterial infections, such as pneumonia
* Smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants
* Asthma and other allergic conditions
* Chronic lung diseases, such as COPD

Preventive measures for bronchitis include:

* Quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to secondhand smoke
* Getting vaccinated against flu and pneumonia
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Avoiding exposure to environmental pollutants
* Managing underlying conditions such as asthma and allergies.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

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Air Quality Expert Group (AQEG) "Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants". Retrieved 24 August 2021. Date, ... "Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants". Retrieved 24 August 2021. "Committee on the Medical Effects of Air ... Cardiovascular Disease and Air Pollution (2006) Guidance on the Effects on Health of Indoor Air Pollutants (2001) The ... Air Pollution: Cognitive Decline and Dementia (2022) Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease (2018) Long-term Exposure to Air ...
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"Nitrogen oxides , Air pollutants". Retrieved 2020-07-03. Haynes, William M., ed. (2011). CRC Handbook of ... The influence of indoor air pollutants on health is important because the majority of people in the world spend more than 80% ... Additionally, because home insulation is improving, this can result in greater retention of indoor air pollutants, such as NO 2 ... Hazardous air pollutants, Smog, Free radicals, Food additives, Gases with color). ...
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National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES-Water ... Criteria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016-12-20. "Ozone Protection under Title VI of the Clean Air Act". EPA. 2016-12-09. "Superfund ... EPA promulgated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to establish basic air pollution control requirements across ... This includes the minimization of waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. Design ...
"Criteria Air Pollutants". US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 18 August 2021. "Ambient (outdoor) air pollution". ... but to the maximum allowed or recommended concentrations of different pollutants in the air. During 1900-1905, Ringelmann wrote ... such as the World Health Organization's air pollution guidelines and the US Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality ... Bachmann, John (24 February 2012). "Will the Circle Be Unbroken: A History of the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards ...
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"Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ... PCBs Air: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, asbestos, ground-level ozone, lead (from ... "Basic Information about Lead Air Pollution." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Mar. 2017. Web. Beaubier, Jeff, and Barry ...
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"NAAQS Table". Crieria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016. "Fact Sheets-National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP ... and the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) in Canada compile annual emissions of air pollutants that contribute to smog, ... addressed additional toxic wastewater pollutants, and regulated hazardous air pollutant emissions as well. Because both air and ... The air emission regulations in the CR, a component of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) ...
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Under the CAA, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) are air pollutants other than those for which NAAQS exist, which ... The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) govern how much of 187 toxic air pollutants are allowed ... are allowed in the outdoor air. The NAAQS set the acceptable levels of certain air pollutants in the ambient air in the United ... EPA pages: "Criteria Air Pollutants". April 9, 2014. "NAAQS". September 9, 2016. See "EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory ...
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Minor air pollutants include: A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the ... The risk of air pollution is determined by the pollutant's hazard and the amount of exposure to that pollutant. Air pollution ... Global warming portal Air pollutant concentrations Air pollution measurement Air stagnation ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary ... "World Air Map: Live air quality everywhere in the world". Plume Labs Air Report. Retrieved 20 December 2021. "Live Animated Air ...
"Air Pollutant Report , ECHO , US EPA". Retrieved 2018-07-19. Settegast - Houston HOPE B.C. Elmore Elementary School B.C. Elmore ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. *US EPA Air Pollution Training Institute developed in collaboration ... As the gas swirls around the chamber, pollutants are removed when they impact on liquid droplets, are thrown to the walls, and ... They use the features of both the dry cyclone and the spray chamber to remove pollutants from gas streams. Generally, the inlet ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. Cyclonic ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016-04-25). "Health Effects Notebook For Hazardous Air Pollutants". Retrieved ... "Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants - US EPA". 2016-04-25. Retrieved 17 October 2017. Coordinates: 40 ...
... the deadliest type of air pollutant, was 0.0066 milligrams per cubic metre (6.6×10−9 oz/cu ft) for the South Shore, 12% less ...
These Climate Pollutants Also Must Be Cut to Keep Global Warming to 1.5 Degrees". InsideClimate News. Retrieved 2018-10-10. A ... using global mean surface air temperature (GSAT); or 770 and 570 GtCO2, for 50% and 66% probabilities, using global mean ...
... regulated asbestos-containing materials in violation of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. ... Perry, Tony, "$55 Million Awarded In Marine Air Crash", Los Angeles Times, September 4, 2008, p. B3. Vives & Blankstein, "1.4 ...
It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing ... "Short-lived pollutants" step)." The warning also says it this will "free up croplands for growing much-needed human plant food ... contaminates the air, and emits a major amount of gas that directly affects global warming. As most livestock are raised in ... air pollution, land degradation, energy use, deforestation, and biodiversity decline. The FAO report estimates that the ...
... the participants were told about the concepts of air quality management and various methods for monitoring air quality. In the ... the different pollutants harming the environment, the ways to monitor the environment and our contribution towards protecting ... Air quality: air pollution, Energy and environmental impacts Of infrastructure systems, Sustainable transportation planning, ... Sustainable environment, Reliability and risk analysis, pollutant transport and contaminant Transport Modeling were included. ...
... fresh air supply improves respiratory health and can help prevent exposure to other indoor air pollutants Maintained: poorly ... Some actions taken by the program to improve air quality in homes enrolled in their program have been: air filters for furnaces ... The program checks for excess moisture and humidity levels, which can be caused by poor air flow or ventilation and create an ... The program also checks the carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide levels for rooms, which provide more information about air flow ...
The measure is intended to cut greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions, and relief traffic congestion. As of November 2015[ ... if manufacturing or transportation cause air pollution imposing costs on others when making use of public air. Congestion ... The economic rationale for this pricing scheme is based on the externalities or social costs of road transport, such as air ... The law also seeks to encourage the use of public transportation and reduce air pollution. According to the law, revenues from ...
The country has 75 networked automatic weather stations distributed across the country UAE, 7 air quality stations, a Doppler ... The increased concentration of particulate matter, or micro-pollutants, increases risk for respiratory illnesses.[citation ... of electric-charge emission instruments and customized sensors that fly at low altitudes and deliver an electric charge to air ... weather radar network of five stationary and one mobile radar, and six Beechcraft King Air C90 aircraft distributed across the ...
The quality of surface water is based on the chemical inputs from the surrounding elements such as the air and the nearby ... Water portal Environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutant Meltwater Optimum water content for tillage Water resources ...
... and funds are being appropriately used to help these communities have better air quality and less environmental pollutants. ... "Coalition for Clean Air". "Letter to California Air Resources Board" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 3, 2016. ... The Clean Air Coalition, along with many other groups, wrote a letter to Mary Nichols, the Chairman of the California Air ... socioeconomic and health indicators such as Ozone concentrations in air PM2.5 concentrations in air Diesel particulate matter ...
SMPDs are efficient at absorbing pollutants with a log Kow of 4-8. This slightly overlaps with the range of contaminants ... The first passive sampling devices were developed in the 1970s to determine concentrations of contaminants in the air. In 1980 ... SPMD samplers are most effective at absorbing hydrophobic pollutants with an octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) ranging ... from 4-8. As the global emission of bioconcentratable persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was shown to result in adverse ...
Using an air-tight stove initially requires leaving the damper and air vents open until a bed of coals has been formed. After ... while producing fumes that cause significant indoor and environmental pollutants. The World Health Organization has documented ... Air is provided for the combustion by an electric blower. The ignition is automatic, using a stream of air heated by an ... Brown coal and lignites evolve more combustible gases than say anthracite and so need more air above the fire. The ratio of air ...
The dolphins would swim up behind enemy divers and attach a buoy to their air tank, so that they would float to the surface and ... Other pollutants such as oil, plastic debris and sewage threaten the livelihood of marine mammals. Noise pollution from ... Polar bears hunt primarily at the interface between ice, water, and air; they only rarely catch seals on land or in open water ... Sounds are generated by passing air from the bony nares through the phonic lips.: p. 112 These sounds are reflected by the ...
Pollutants found in the air can interact with materials on woodblock prints and cause them to deteriorate at a quicker rate. ... A good integrated pest management system as well as an HVAC system that filters for common pollutants have been known to reduce ... This print was brittle, acidic, discolored, and tearing due to light and pollutants exposure as well as a previous restoration ...
Wolverton, B. C.; McDonald, Rebecca C.; Watkins, E. A. (1984). "Foliage plants for removing indoor air pollutants from energy- ... The NASA Clean Air Study determined that this plant was effective at removing common household air toxins formaldehyde and ... Spider plants have been shown to reduce indoor air pollution in the form of formaldehyde, and approximately 70 plants would ... List of air-filtering plants "Chlorophytum comosum". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research ...
Exhaust gases from ships are considered to be a significant source of air pollution, both for conventional pollutants and ... Ships are responsible for more than 18 percent of some air pollutants.[which?] As for greenhouse gas emissions, the ... Air pollution from ships is generated by diesel engines that burn high sulfur content fuel oil, also known as bunker oil, ... Of total global air emissions, marine shipping accounts for 18 to 30 percent of the nitrogen oxides and 9% of the sulfur oxides ...
848,000 federal Clean Air Act violation judgment The Ogden Standard-Examiner, accessed 30 July 2020 Diesel Brothers at IMDb ( ... the truck produced 36 times the pollutants and 21 times the particulate matter compared to a stock truck. In June 2018, after ... Air pollution in the United States, Television shows set in Utah, 2020s American reality television series). ... Shelby determined they had violated the Clean Air Act on hundreds of occasions and also had violated the earlier injunction. ...
In all cases these types of stove are designed to produce lower emissions of particulates and other pollutants than the open ... They have been proposed for introduction to developing countries, particularly the cooking type in order to improve air quality ... Parikh, Jyoti; Smith, Kirk; Laxmi, Vijay (1999). "Indoor Air Pollution: A Reflection on Gender Bias". Economic and Political ... income countries they did not appear to be effective at reducing illnesses such as pneumonia induced by breathing polluted air ...
He measured pollutant levels in new cars that were sufficient to cause similar effects within minutes in controlled experiments ... A 1995 analysis of the air from a new Lincoln Continental found over 50 volatile organic compounds, which were identified as ... "New Ecology Center Guide to Toxic Chemicals in Cars Helps Consumers Avoid a Major Source of Indoor Air Pollution" (Press ... Air pollution, Transport and the environment, Car ownership). ...
... avoiding deforestation also allows forests to sequester carbon and scrub the air of pollutants. Beyond protecting our air ... The nine episode series aired in Spring 2014. The show won the 2014 Emmy Award for Outstanding Documentary or Best Nonfiction ... "Scientists Explore Using Forests to Scrub Pollution Out of the Air". NBC News. 9 June 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2016. Robbins ...
"Air Pollution Impacts". Air resources. National Park Service. June 14, 2011. Archived from the original on February 20, 2013. ... The station is designed to check for various pollutants as well as ozone levels and weather. A 2005 study of the water of ... Grand Teton National Park is more than 100 mi (160 km) air distance from any major urban or industrial area, and localized ... Grand Teton National Park, in partnership with other agencies, erected the first air quality monitoring station in the park in ...
... the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Forest Hills and Rego Park is 0.0075 milligrams per cubic metre (7.5×10−9 oz/cu ft), ...
Hazardous air pollutants, IARC Group 3 carcinogens). ... commercial samples can appear grey-brown owing to air oxidation ...
... it creates several air pollutants such as particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur ... Pollutants like pesticides and clothing manufacturing chemicals cling to particles that accumulate in the waters ecosystem and ... These fibers end up in the soil, air, lakes, and oceans. Microfiber pollution has existed as long as the textile industry has, ... These fish are then consumed by humans, which leads to the absorption of micro pollutants in the fish in a process called ...
CO2 is a pollutant. Global warming will cause more storms and other weather extremes. Receding glaciers and the calving of ice ... MacRae, Allan M.R. (1 September 2002). "Kyoto Hot Air Can't Replace Fossil Fuels". Calgary, Alberta: Calgary Herald. Archived ... the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and NASA. Madhav Khandekar, retired as research scientist with Environment Canada ...
Sediment operates as a pollution inventory and pollutants are moved to the next basin with the first flush. Their vulnerability ... Effects of climate change such as higher air temperatures are predicted to accelerate drying and cause more intermittency in ... Air, and Soil Pollution. 138 (1): 61-78. Bibcode:2002WASP..138...61B. doi:10.1023/A:1015573621474. S2CID 94632994. Döll, Petra ... resulting in nutrients and organic pollutants accumulating in the sediment. ...
Coal contributes to air pollution in big cities. Air pollution from some large coal-fired power stations is publicly visible in ... The OECD has also recommended Turkey create and publish a pollutant release and transfer register. Flue gas emission limits in ... It is estimated that in 2019, air pollution from coal-fired power stations in Turkey caused almost 5,000 premature deaths and ... However, due to energy poverty, some of those people still used coal and the resulting air pollution causes illness and ...
Neutropenic) whereby controlled quality air is sent into the room to prevent random (an potentially polluted) air entering the ... Industrial use of positive pressure systems are commonly used to ventilate confined space with dust, fumes, pollutants and/or ... Air will flow out of the room instead of in, so that any airborne microorganisms (e.g., bacteria) that may infect the patient ... This is in contrast to a negative pressure room, where air is sucked in. Use is also made of positive pressure to ensure there ...
As with many other phosphorus-containing flame retardants, TPhP has been found widely in sediment, soil, indoor dust, and air. ... In contrast to many persistent organic pollutants, TPHP has limited affinity for lipids. Still, bioaccumulation of the compound ...
They found no pollutants, but a recently passed state law calling for the removal of abandoned boats and barges in Washington ... They were to be assisted by the Air Search Group, composed of twenty PBYs and one B-17 Flying Fortress. Together these forces ... But by September 1941, Sitka, Kodiak, and Dutch Harbor had been commissioned as Naval Air Stations, and both Kodiak and Sitka ... Essentially, the Aleutian battle was a contest of air power, as was Midway. Weather consistently aided the offensive by ...
... air pollutants because it regulates them by developing human health-based and/or environmentally-based criteria (science-based ... The EPA has identified six pollutants as criteria ... Air Pollutants. *Wildfire Smokeplus icon*Guidance for Health ... EPA Criteria Pollutants. The EPA has identified six pollutants as "criteria" air pollutants because it regulates them by ... These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as ...
The mercury rule would also reduce conventional air pollutants.. In June, EPA released a notice of proposed rulemaking for ... To topple climate rules, officials erase air pollutants. By Scott Waldman , 10/05/2018 07:08 AM EDT ... It is just a way to make these rules look less cost-effective, said Janet McCabe, acting EPA air chief under former President ... The monetized benefits from one of the pollutants being directly regulated (i.e., mercury) were significantly lower than the ...
Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Onshore Oil and Gas Exploitation and Production Industry - policy from the IEA Policies ...
26 Jun 2013 - Air pollutant emissions data viewer (LRTAP Convention) - Manual 26 Jun 2013 - Air pollutant emissions data viewer ... National emissions reported to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP Convention) * Air pollutant ... national-emissions-reported-to-the-convention-on-long-range-transboundary-air-pollution-lrtap-convention-10/air-pollutant- ... national-emissions-reported-to-the-convention-on-long-range-transboundary-air-pollution-lrtap-convention-9/air-pollutant- ...
Broccoli Sprout Dose Response: Bioavailability and Effects of Air Pollutants. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... Modulation of Air Pollutant Excretion in Sequential Overnight 12-Hour Urine Samples [ Time Frame: 10 days ]. Benzene- ... study will examine the extent to which lower doses of a broccoli-derived beverage enhance the detoxication of air pollutants ... Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial ...
... a commercial CFD model PANACHE with PANEPR developed by Fluidyn is implemented to study the micro-scale dispersion of air ... "Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region," Open Journal of Air Pollution, Vol. 1 No. 2 ... Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region () ... U. Leenes and A. Pinhas, "The Coastal Boundary Layer and Air Pollution-A High Temporal Resolution Analysis in the East ...
provides air testing services, sampling supplies and test kits to identify respiratory allergens and irritants ... Are Outdoor Pollens or Indoor Air Quality Pollutants Causing Your Allergy Symptoms?. ... Are Outdoor Pollens or Indoor Air Quality Pollutants Causing Your Allergy Symptoms?. ... provides air testing services, sampling supplies and test kits to identify respiratory allergens and irritants.. ...
Hire them to filter pollutants from the indoor air now! ... cleaners effectively filter pollutants and allergens from air? ... Most ionic air filters release ozone into the air as a byproduct of the air purification process. Cheaper units can release ... Air purifiers have become a common household solution to removing harmful and irritating allergens and pollutants from the ... There are a wide variety of air purifier technologies to chose from to improve the indoor air quality of your home. Some can be ...
This collaboration brings together indoor and outdoor air pollution experts who can measure key pollutants that may impact ... a team of researchers on a project which aims to measure the concentrations of key chemical and biological pollutants indoors, ...
Case study on designing a scenario-modelling tool to inform Defra policy on air pollutant emissions ... Designing a scenario-modelling tool to inform policy on air pollutant emissions. Ricardos experts develop a modelling tool to ... It also has ambitious plans to tackle a wide range of air pollution sources set out in the UKs Clean Air Strategy. Ricardo is ... Investigate the impact of different emission reduction policies and measures on key air pollutant emissions. ...
Assessment of the direct toxicity to air pollutants is generally assessed by comparing measured pollutant air concentrations ... Air pollutant impacts occur either in relation to:. * exposure to toxic pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere (direct ... In contrast, the deposition of pollutants is assessed using "critical loads".). In principle, direct toxicity of air pollutants ... which are set for a range of air pollutants. Critical levels have been quantified for sulphur dioxide, oxidised nitrogen, ozone ...
Associations between other air pollutants and disease-related mortalities need to be investigated in further studies. ... Multivariate beta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations between air pollutant concentrations and ... whereas other air pollutants had null associations. For CVD, SO2 and PM10 concentrations were significantly associated with a ... We investigated whether living in an administrative district with heavy air pollution is associated with an increased risk of ...
The Air Pollutant Report presents ten years of EPA air emissions data from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI), Greenhouse ... Differences in pollutant amounts across data programs could be a function of those differing requirements. See Air Pollutant ... Where the same pollutant exists in multiple programs, the Air Pollutant Report will list each programs emissions estimates. ... the Air Pollutant Report provides a single source for users looking to understand a facilitys full suite of pollutants and the ...
Ecology of the cardiovascular system: Part II - A focus on non-air related pollutants basics By: Argacha JF, Mizukami T, ...
What are short-lived climate pollutants?*What are short-lived climate pollutants? ... Why reduce short-lived climate pollutants?*Why reduce short-lived climate pollutants? ... air pollution carbon carbon dioxide climate change climate change mitigation co-benefits emissions global climate greenhouse ... The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) relevant content in the NDCs ...
Home Pollutants Air Filter attracts and captures microscopic particles like bacteria, particles that can carry viruses, and ... The Filtrete™ Smart Premium Allergen & Home Pollutants Air Filter attracts and captures microscopic particles like bacteria, ... OUTDOOR WEATHER & AIR QUALITY, see outdoor air quality information for your neighborhood and other chosen locations ... FROM THE #1 RATED HVAC Air Filter Brand**. The Filtrete™ Smart Allergen, Bacteria & Virus Air Filter attracts and captures ...
Check out out post to learn about these two air pollutants, their symptoms and what you can do about it. ... Get an air purifier. Although we recommend speaking to a professional about air quality, getting an air purifier can surely ... With an air quality monitor, you can see the exact levels of pollutants which will allow you to address the issue in the ... The quality of the air that we breathe can drastically affect health-be it bringing in pollutants that irritate the respiratory ...
Natural pollutants such as pollen grains and bacteria. 2. Suspended particles in air (aerosols) such as fog, ... 3 Types of Air Pollutants. Geography. Excessive concentration of foreign particles or substances into the air which adversely ... Smog is formed as a result of air pollution. Smog is an air pollutant that is a mixture of fog, smoke, and dust particles. It ... Types of Air Pollutants. *Natural pollutants such as pollen grains and bacteria. ...
Why Buses Are Being Equipped with Commercial Air Filtration Systems By Camfil Air Filters , Automotive, Commercial Office ... Learn why eco-friendly buses equipped with commercial air filtration systems are being used as solutions to maintain good ... Diseases Caused By Air Pollution - Risk Factors and Control Methods February 9, 2018 ...
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... optical sensors to measure air pollutants and special fibers for biosensing. ... Bastian created a compact multimode optical fibre to measure relative air humidity. A gold coating was applied to the core of ... to transform pollutants and to respond to other emerging needs. ... Optical Sensors for Biomaterials and Air Pollutants - By : Bora ...
Importance of individual air pollutants confirmed. Air pollution in London is two to three times World Health Organisation (WHO ... We hope, therefore, that the action to clean the air in London, and in all Europe, will address all hazardous air pollutants, ... "WHO GUIDELINES CONFIRM IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUAL AIR POLLUTANTS". "The personal letter to the Campaign for Clean Air in London ... plans that will show how all hazardous air pollutants will be tackled to meet EU legal limits for each such air pollutant by a ...
... 114(6). Leem, Jong-Han et al. "Exposures to Air Pollutants ... Title : Exposures to Air Pollutants during Pregnancy and Preterm Delivery Personal Author(s) : Leem, Jong-Han;Kaplan, Brian M.; ... Adverse Birth Outcomes Air Pollutants Environmental Exposure Exposure Female Geographic Information System GIS Humans Korea ... "Exposures to Air Pollutants during Pregnancy and Preterm Delivery" vol. 114, no. 6, 2006. Export RIS Citation Information.. ...
Air pollutants -- adverse effects , Air pollution, IndoorNLM classification: WA 754Online resources: Click here to access ... EURO SERIAL GER Indoor air pollutants : EURO SERIAL GER Nuclear power : EURO SERIAL GER Public health aspects of alcohol and ... Indoor air pollutants : exposure and health effects, report on a WHO meeting, Nördlingen, 8-11 June 1982. Contributor(s): World ... Regional Office for Europe , Working Group on Assessment and Monitoring of Exposure to Indoor Pollutants (1982 : Nördlingen) ...
... and space heaters are all sources of combustion pollutants that are commonly used as the weather gets cooler. ... Once pollutants enter a building they reduce indoor air quality as they are circulated throughout the building. Indoor sources ... Pinpointing the source of pollutants and taking steps to eliminate them from your home is the best way to improve indoor air ... While you may believe that combustion pollutants are primarily an outdoor problem, the fact is that outdoor air pollution often ...
Report: UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2002 This report is not the most recent version.. Please see the document ... The latest estimates of pollutant emissions to air in the UK (1970 - 2002), together with an overview of the major sources ... UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2003. 01/10/2004. ► UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2002. ... UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2009. 04/08/2010. UK Emissions of Air Pollutants 1970 to 2008. ...
We calculate for energy scenarios developed by the MESSAGE model future emissions of air pollutants (SO2, NOx, PM, BC/OC, NH3, ... In contrast, a climate stabilization scenario highlights synergies from the co-control of air pollutant and greenhouse gas ... Emissions of air pollutants implied by global long-term energy scenarios. IIASA Interim Report. IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria: IR- ... Such a linkage is relevant for estimating impacts of global long-term climate change scenarios on local and regional air ...
The World Health Organization released new air pollution guidelines, saying the pollutants inflict damage on human health at ... EPA Air Quality Report: National particulate pollution down, but other pollutant levels rising. ... nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide allowed into the air, its first air quality guidelines since 2005. ... "The last time WHO published air quality guidelines was in 2006. In the 15 years since, there has been a substantial increase in ...
  • Hypospadias Risk from Maternal Residential Exposure to Heavy Metal Hazardous Air Pollutants. (
  • Investigate whether residential prenatal exposure to heavy metal hazardous air pollutants (HMHAPs) is associated with an increased risk of hypospadias . (
  • These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as particulate matter), and sulfur oxides. (
  • The association between long-term exposure to air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter 10 μm or less in diameter (PM 10 ), and mortality by ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (CVD), pneumonia (PN), and chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) is unclear. (
  • However, there is a knowledge gap regarding whether exposure to higher concentrations of air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and PM 10 in a residential district in South Korea over a long term, such as 19 years, would be associated with higher cardiopulmonary mortality. (
  • Carbon monoxide is a colorless, odorless gas that can be present in the air even when there are no visible signs of combustion. (
  • Under the B2 scenario global emissions of sulfur, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide decline continuously between 2000 and 2100, largely due to widespread implementation of air pollution control technologies. (
  • Travelers should be mindful of, and limit exposures to, outdoor and indoor air pollution and carbon monoxide ( Table 4-02 ). (
  • The Trump administration might be weakening the case for future climate change policy by removing an important metric that lowers the cost of reducing carbon: simultaneous cuts to conventional air pollution. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • By keeping in view of the requirement for the micro-scale dispersion, a commercial CFD model PANACHE with PANEPR developed by Fluidyn is implemented to study the micro-scale dispersion of air pollution over an urban setup at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam a coastal station in the east coast of India under stable atmospheric conditions. (
  • S. Madala, A. Satyanarayana and V. Prasad, "Micro-scale Dispersion of Air Pollutants over an Urban Setup in a Coastal Region," Open Journal of Air Pollution , Vol. 1 No. 2, 2012, pp. 51-58. (
  • U. Leenes and A. Pinhas, "The Coastal Boundary Layer and Air Pollution-A High Temporal Resolution Analysis in the East Mediterranean Coast," Atmospheric Science Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012, pp. 9-18. (
  • A. Bass, "Modeling Long-Range Transport and Diffu- sion," Proceedings of the 2nd Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, New Orleans, 24-27 March 1980, pp. 193-215. (
  • This collaboration brings together indoor and outdoor air pollution experts who can measure key pollutants that may impact health indoors, particularly the vulnerable. (
  • It also has ambitious plans to tackle a wide range of air pollution sources set out in the UK's Clean Air Strategy. (
  • It is a powerful tool for informing policy development at national and local scales, supporting delivery of objectives set out in the Clean Air Strategy and the National Air Pollution Control Plan. (
  • We investigated whether living in an administrative district with heavy air pollution is associated with an increased risk of mortality by the diseases through an ecological study using South Korean administrative data over 19 years. (
  • This may be partly because collecting and analyzing long-term air pollution and cardiopulmonary mortality data together are relatively difficult than collecting and analyzing short-term data together. (
  • Excessive concentration of foreign particles or substances into the air which adversely affects the atmosphere is known as air pollution. (
  • Smog is formed as a result of air pollution. (
  • Air pollution in London is two to three times World Health Organisation (WHO) recommended levels in some of the busiest streets and resulted in the deaths of over 1,000 people in 2005 (which is more than four times the number that died from road traffic accidents). (
  • For far too long, air pollution policy has failed to tackle air quality holistically (or fast enough). (
  • By confirming the importance of individual air pollutants and the need to adopt a comprehensive approach to address particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone if the health impacts of the pollution are to be eliminated, Dr Krzyzanowski has again made a major contribution to the understanding of crucial air quality issues. (
  • There is no longer any excuse for political leaders and other policy setters to fail to tackle air pollution urgently and holistically. (
  • The WHO Air Quality Guidelines address, traditionally, individual chemical compounds, such as ozone, or indicators of pollution mix, such as PM 10 or PM 2.5 . (
  • Throughout the year, using a gas stove can create indoor air pollution. (
  • While you may believe that combustion pollutants are primarily an outdoor problem, the fact is that outdoor air pollution often contaminates buildings when windows and doors are left open. (
  • The EPA highlights the importance of keeping sources of indoor air pollution properly maintained to reduce emissions. (
  • Such a linkage is relevant for estimating impacts of global long-term climate change scenarios on local and regional air pollution in the next few decades. (
  • We present a methodology for the linkage that combines results from two models developed at IIASA: the GAINS air pollution model and the MESSAGE model of long-term energy system dynamics. (
  • We calculate for energy scenarios developed by the MESSAGE model future emissions of air pollutants (SO2, NOx, PM, BC/OC, NH3, VOC and CO), taking into account air pollution control legislation that is in place in the various countries. (
  • These new AQGs provide clear evidence of the damage air pollution inflicts on human health, at concentrations even lower than previously understood. (
  • Around 7 million people die every year from diseases and infections related to indoor and outdoor air pollution worldwide. (
  • In 2016, about 425,000 deaths were attributable to ambient air pollution in the African region. (
  • WHO has frequently highlighted that ambient air pollution is one of the strategic focal areas to combat root causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. (
  • Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. (
  • Ozone , a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. (
  • When ozone forms air pollution, it's also called smog. (
  • People with heart or lung disease, older adults and children are at greater risk from air pollution. (
  • Air pollution isn't just outside - the air inside buildings can also be polluted and affect your health. (
  • Although air pollution has decreased in many parts of the world, it represents a major and growing health problem for the residents of some cities in certain industrializing countries. (
  • Conversely, those with preexisting heart and lung disease, children, and older adults have an increased risk for adverse health effects from even short-term exposure to air pollution. (
  • 80 countries around the world, and the World Health Organization posts historical data on outdoor air pollution in urban areas. (
  • Secondhand smoke from smoking tobacco is a primary contributor to indoor air pollution. (
  • Joint WHO/Convention Task Force on the Health Aspects of Air Pollution (‎ World Health Organization. (
  • Air pollution level in Addis Ababa is presumed to be high due to the prevalence of old vehicles and substandard road infrastructures. (
  • This study assessed CO concentration as a measure of traffic air pollution. (
  • The consistency in spatial and temporal profiles and the variation on both on-road and road side traffic lines imply that vehicles are the main source of traffic air pollution. (
  • Urban air pollutant as measured by pollution in Ethiopia. (
  • The present study focused on the exploration of the level, inventories from world wide mega cities indicated that temporal, spatial variations of traffic air pollution as urban air pollution due to vehicular emissions is evident measured by CO in selected air sampling sites along the in developing countries (5). (
  • was used as a cutoff for measuring traffic air pollution in The City had annual rainfall of 1175.8mm rainfall. (
  • Air pollution in the United States poses a public health threat affecting potentially millions of people throughout the country. (
  • At a basic level, they let us know how clean or polluted the air is, help us track progress in reducing air pollution, and inform the public about air quality in their communities. (
  • CDC works closely with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Weather Service to provide air quality data on the Tracking Network and to better understand how air pollution affects our health. (
  • After careful study, EPA and CDC found that air pollution modeled predictions are very similar to actual monitor data in areas where the two can be compared. (
  • To calculate these data, CDC is using EPA's BenMAP with modeled air data for fine particulates, death data from CDC's National Center for Health Statistics , population data from the U.S. Census Bureau , and information from scientific literature about the relationship between change in air pollution and how that influences health effects. (
  • The forecasts included in this indicator can help decision-makers and other stakeholders anticipate harmful air pollution exposures several days in advance. (
  • Dr Nicola Carslaw (York) is coordinating a team of researchers on a project which aims to measure the concentrations of key chemical and biological pollutants indoors, many of which have only previously been inferred by modelling studies. (
  • These concentrations will then be compared to those in a new and old building, as building practices (i.e. ventilation rates, materials) affect pollutant concentrations. (
  • Assessment of the direct toxicity to air pollutants is generally assessed by comparing measured pollutant air concentrations with "critical levels", which are set for a range of air pollutants. (
  • Multivariate beta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the associations between air pollutant concentrations and mortality rates, after adjusting for confounding factors including altitude, population density, higher education rate, smoking rate, obesity rate, and gross regional domestic product per capita. (
  • For IHD, higher SO 2 concentrations were significantly associated with a higher mortality rate, whereas other air pollutants had null associations. (
  • In the subgroup analysis, positive associations between SO 2 concentrations and IHD mortality were consistently observed in all subgroups, while other pollutant-disease pairs showed null, or mixed associations. (
  • The guidelines aim at the assessment of health hazards specific to each of these pollutants independently, and recommend that the air people breathe contains EACH of the pollutants in concentrations lower that the guideline level. (
  • Average exposure concentrations of HMHAPs were obtained from the 2005 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment and categorized into quintiles. (
  • They can trap most of the particles in your air. (
  • Smog is an air pollutant that is a mixture of fog, smoke, and dust particles. (
  • PM2.5 particles are air pollutants with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers. (
  • Wildfire smoke can affect people even if they are not near the fire source, due to exposure to particles of PM 2.5 , which are inhalable air pollutants with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 microns. (
  • A 2017 update to a 2016 background paper prepared by the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP) for the CCAC Science Policy Dialogue in Washington DC, March 31, 2016. (
  • In the African region, the population lives in cities that already exceeded the 2005 WHO AQGs, and data released by WHO in 2018 show that the health burden attributable to exposure to atmospheric pollutants is serious. (
  • These systems work with your heating and cooling system to trap and eliminate dirt, debris, and airborne pollutants from the air as it is being conditioned. (
  • Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is one of many airborne pollutants emitted by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). (
  • This also means that achievement of the guideline level for one pollutant should NOT be done with an increase of other pollutant concentration above its guideline level. (
  • In some areas, the modeled data underestimates or overestimates the air pollutant concentration levels when compared to the Air Quality System (AQS) monitoring data. (
  • The Air Pollutant Report presents ten years of EPA air emissions data from the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) , Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program , Toxics Release Inventory , and Clean Air Markets Programs for a selected facility. (
  • By consolidating emissions data from four different EPA programs into one report, the Air Pollutant Report provides a single source for users looking to understand a facility's full suite of pollutants and the range of possible emissions associated with a given pollutant depending on the emissions program. (
  • Martoma witnessed that they have download Organic indoor air pollutants: occurrence, measurement, evaluation 1999 after details of the American Academy of Neurology. (
  • The mixing of gases and dusts with ventilating air, and dispersion of these pollutants in mine airways, are important flow or transfer problems. (
  • Exposure to air pollutants in wildfire smoke can irritate the lungs, cause inflammation, alter immune function, and increase susceptibility to respiratory infections, likely including COVID-19. (
  • The quality of the air that we breathe can drastically affect health-be it bringing in pollutants that irritate the respiratory system, or bacterias that can cause great damage to our overall health. (
  • The monetized benefits from one of the pollutants being directly regulated (i.e., mercury) were significantly lower than the estimated costs of the rule, and the quantified benefits in the regulatory impact analysis outweighed the costs because of the benefits from reductions in ambient fine particulate matter,' officials wrote. (
  • Ricardo is working with Defra to develop a scenario modelling tool (SMT) that enables policy makers to investigate the impact of different emissions reduction policy interventions on key air pollutants (ammonia, oxides of nitrogen, particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10), sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds) and three of the main greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide). (
  • The Outdoor Air Quality - Fine Particulate Matter data available on CDC WONDER are geographically aggregated daily measures of fine particulate matter in the outdoor air, spanning the years 2003-2011. (
  • As the warming month of May causes flowers to bloom and trees, shrubs and all types of plants to release large amounts of pollen into the air, allergy sufferers recognize this as the height of the allergy season in many places. (
  • Natural pollutants such as pollen grains and bacteria . (
  • What Are Combustion Pollutants? (
  • Combustion pollutants are created when fuels are burned. (
  • Indoor sources of combustion pollutants exacerbate the problem. (
  • Fortunately, there are ways to improve indoor air quality by eliminating combustion pollutants from your home. (
  • For more information about keeping your home free from combustion pollutants, check out Lakeside Heating & Air Conditioning's indoor air quality solutions or call (704) 285-1070. (
  • Other potential sources of indoor air pollutants include cooking or combustion sources (e.g., kerosene, coal, wood, animal dung). (
  • On 22 September 2021 WHO updated the Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs). (
  • In this context, the 2021 WHO AQGs are a set of evidence-informed recommendations for specific air pollutants developed to help countries achieve air quality that protects public health. (
  • As part of the capacity-building activities on air quality and health, WHO will host a virtual session on 02 November 2021 from 10:00 am - 11:15 am (Ghana time) to inform key actors and the public on the 2021 WHO AQGs. (
  • ATSDR reviewed outdoor air data gathered in 2000 and 2001 from several locations in the West Louisville area and screened more than 175 chemicals. (
  • The chemicals used in construction materials and household objects can release irritating and possibly dangerous gases into the air in your home through a process called out-gassing. (
  • Also, you can reduce exposure to air pollutants in the home, such as second-hand smoke, and people who are exposed to dust, chemicals, or fumes at work should always use the proper protective equipment. (
  • If you commonly find yourself suffering from allergy symptoms in your home, you could benefit from owning an air purifier. (
  • Are Outdoor Pollens or Indoor Air Quality Pollutants Causing Your Allergy Symptoms? (
  • Classic symptoms of direct pollutant toxicity include leaf tip damage and speckly lesions, as well as decreasing in the vitality and loss of sensitive species, such as lichens. (
  • In order to be able to design an adequate mine ventilation system it is necessary to understand how pollutant masses disperse into turbulent ventilation air streams. (
  • EMSL Analytical, Inc. provides air testing services, sampling supplies and test kits to identify respiratory allergens and irritants. (
  • Other factors that might contribute include air pollutants in the home and workplace and respiratory infections. (
  • Differences in pollutant amounts across data programs could be a function of those differing requirements. (
  • ATSDR recommends that air pollutants in the Rubbertown industrial area be tracked to ensure chemical levels remain below amounts that can cause harmful noncancer health effects. (
  • Data from EPA's National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment ( NATA ) are used to develop the air toxics indicators for the Tracking Network. (
  • Most ionic air filters release ozone into the air as a byproduct of the air purification process. (
  • The EPA has identified six pollutants as "criteria" air pollutants because it regulates them by developing human health-based and/or environmentally-based criteria (science-based guidelines) for setting permissible levels. (
  • With an air quality monitor, you can see the exact levels of pollutants which will allow you to address the issue in the appropriate manner. (
  • The guidelines recommend new air quality levels to protect the health of populations by reducing levels of key air pollutants, some of which also contribute to climate change. (
  • Wildfires produce high volumes of smoke each year, leading to unhealthy air quality levels, sometimes hundreds of miles away from the fire. (
  • Counseling patients on protective measures, including being aware of current and predicted air quality levels, staying indoors, using air filtration , and using properly fitted N95 respirators when outdoors is also important for mitigating adverse effects. (
  • Air purifiers have become a common household solution to removing harmful and irritating allergens and pollutants from the indoor air that you breath. (
  • The report also finds long term exposure to chemicals in the air in the industrial area, individually and in combination, is unlikely to cause harmful noncancer health effects. (
  • Where the same pollutant exists in multiple programs, the Air Pollutant Report will list each program's emissions estimates. (
  • The latest estimates of pollutant emissions to air in the UK (1970 - 2002), together with an overview of the major sources trends. (
  • Dust masks, surgical masks, and bandanas offer limited protection against severely polluted air. (
  • If we've learned anything in the past three years, it's that the air we breathe is as important as any other health concern. (
  • It's not all bad news, though- there are many things you can do to better the quality of the air that you breathe inside your home as we lay out in one of our most popular posts! (
  • Due to the small fibrils that are released into the air when the substance is under stress or agitated, breathing in these microscopic shards can severely damage the lungs. (
  • Two sources of environmental data were used as input to the surfacing algorithm, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System (AQS) PM2.5 in-situ data and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth remotely sensed data. (
  • The AirNow website provides basic information about local air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) ( Table 4-01 ). (
  • Staying aware of current and predicted local air quality conditions using AirNow or other tools. (
  • Learn why eco-friendly buses equipped with commercial air filtration systems are being used as solutions to maintain good indoor air quality. (
  • Ricardo's team includes data scientists, software developers and air quality experts who have in-depth experience of emission inventory development and air quality modelling in the UK, Europe and beyond. (
  • a total of 80 road side and 24 on-road daily traffic air samples during wet and dry seasons of 2007 and 2008, respectively, were taken using CO data logger. (
  • The Tracking Network hosts and uses data from some of these sources to help paint a more complete picture of air quality in the United States. (
  • Therefore, the best way to use modeled air data is in conjunction with actual monitoring data. (
  • Killing germs and bacteria can be accomplished using air filter systems that include and ultraviolet light. (
  • The diverse skills of our team enabled us to create a scientifically robust, intuitive and technologically secure evidence platform for Defra to investigate the future impacts of policies and technologies on air quality. (
  • In principle, direct toxicity of air pollutants may be manifest in terms of different impacts to the indirect long-term effects. (
  • Many allergy sufferers swear by the effectiveness of ionic air purifiers. (
  • accumulated doses by deposition of pollutants from the atmosphere ( indirect effects ). (
  • ATSDR supports these efforts to improve air quality in the Rubbertown area. (
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the Short-lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) relevant content in the NDCs that have been submitted to the UNFCCC. (
  • Also, certain types of air quality benefits are harder to quantify and always have been. (
  • There are 3 types of air pollutants. (
  • Indoor air pollutants : exposure and health effects, report on a WHO meeting, Nördlingen, 8-11 June 1982. (
  • Dry air may worsen inflammation, so the use of humidified oxygen or a room humidifier is recommended. (
  • Pinpointing the source of pollutants and taking steps to eliminate them from your home is the best way to improve indoor air quality and prevent your family from experiencing the negative consequences of dirty air. (
  • The casinos should also eliminate smoking near building entrances and air intakes to prevent tobacco smoke from entering the work environment. (
  • Respirators are specifically designed to remove contaminants from the air or to provide clean respirable air from another source. (
  • There is a limited source of evidence describing urban air countries (1). (
  • Federal, state, local, and tribal air agencies operate and maintain a wide variety of outdoor air monitoring systems across the United States. (