Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The contamination of indoor air.
Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.
Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.
Relating to the size of solids.
Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The motion of air currents.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
The status of health in urban populations.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Living facilities for humans.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
All deaths reported in a given population.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Chemical reactions effected by light.
The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/3303)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (2/3303)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (3/3303)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/3303)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (5/3303)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. (6/3303)

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (7/3303)

We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions.  (+info)

Cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium of people exposed to urban pollution. (8/3303)

The nasal passages are a common portal of entry and are a prime site for toxicant-induced pathology. Sustained increases in regenerative cell proliferation can be a significant driving force in chemical carcinogenesis. The atmosphere in Mexico City contains a complex mixture of air pollutants and its residents are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants and potential carcinogens. We were concerned that exposure to Mexico City's atmosphere might induce cytotoxicity and increase nasal respiratory epithelial cell proliferation. Nasal biopsies were obtained for DNA cell cycle analysis from 195 volunteers. The control population consisted of 16 adults and 27 children that were residents in a Caribbean island with low pollution. The exposed Mexico City population consisted of 109 adults and 43 children. Sixty-one of the adult subjects were newly arrived in Mexico City and were followed for 25 days from their arrival. Control children, control adult and exposed Mexico City children all had similar percentages of cells in the replicative DNA synthesis phase (S phase) of the cell cycle (%S). A significant increase in %S in nasal epithelial cells was seen in exposed adult residents in Mexico City biopsied at three different dates compared with control adults. Newly arrived adults exhibited a control level of cell turnover at day 2 after coming to the city. However, at days 7, 14 and 25 they exhibited significant increases in %S. These data demonstrate an increased and sustained nasal cell turnover rate in the adult population observable in as little as 1 week of residence in Mexico City. This increase in cell proliferation is in agreement with other reports of induced pathological changes in the nasal passages of Mexico City dwellers. These observations suggest an increased potential risk factor of developing nasal neoplasms for residents of large cities with heavy pollution.  (+info)

The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as criteria air pollutants) are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
Meteorological parameters play a significant role in affecting ambient air quality of an urban environment. As Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh, is one of the air pollution hotspot among the megacities in the world, however the potential meteorological influences on criteria air pollutants for this megacity are remained less studied. The objectives of this research were to examine the relationships between meteorological parameters such as daily mean temperature (o C), relative humidity (%) and rainfall (mm) and, the concentration of criteria air pollutants (SO2, CO, NOx, O3, PM2.5 and PM10) from January, 2013 to December, 2017. This study also focused on the trend analysis of the air pollutants concentration over the period. Spearman correlation was applied to illustrate the relationships between air pollutants concentration and temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Multiple linear and non-linear regressions were compared to explore potential role of meteorological parameters on air
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify new at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click Selective Export button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using volunteers in western New York for a period of three ...
This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for stationary combustion turbines. We have identified stationary combustion turbines as major sources of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) emissions such as formaldehyde, toluene, benzene, and acetaldehyde. The NESHAP will implement section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) by requiring all major sources to meet HAP emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) for combustion.. ...
Toxic air pollutants, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants, are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease. They can be found in gaseous, aerosol, or particulate forms. Some toxic air pollutants (e.g., mercury) are persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which means they are stored indefinitely in the body and increase over time. These toxics can deposit onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants and are ingested by animals, with concentrations increasing as the toxics move up through the food chain to humans. Toxic air pollutants include, among others, formaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; naphthalene; arsenic and metals, such as cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead. Sources of hazardous air pollutants include stationary sources, such as power plants, factories, dry cleaners, and hospitals, as well as mobile sources such as cars, ...
Detailed information about the health effects of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is available in separate fact sheets, for nearly every HAP specified in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. These substances include certain volatile organic chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, and radionuclides that present tangible hazard, based on scientific studies of exposure to humans and other mammals. There is uncertainty in the precise degree of hazard, and readers are cautioned that the fact sheets may be revised as additional data become available. The available fact sheets are listed below, alphabetically by chemical name, along with the Chemical Abstract Service Number (CAS No.), where available. ...
In this paper, it is shown that there are great differences in seasonal variations of concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants in various parts of a large urban territory. The city of Krasnoyarsk is used as an example. For this, an observation method proposed by the authors is used. The detected differences in seasonal variations are a consequence of the microclimatic inhomogeneities of the city territory. They show the effects of breeze and orographic-type circulations on the space-time distribution of atmospheric pollutants. The investigation of the seasonal variability of concentrations of atmospheric pollutants in various parts of the city has made it possible to obtain some useful characteristics for the estimation of population exposure. ...
Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency price comparison. Find great prices for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The state hazardous air pollutant rules at A.A.C. R18-2-1701 to R18-2-1709 are unenforceable as a result of the final judgment of the Maricopa County Superior Court in Oak Canyon Manufacturing, et al. v. Arizona State Department of Environmental Quality, CV 2006-018439. The rules apply solely to emissions of federally listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) that exceed the de minimis amounts specified in the rule. The superior court, however, held that ADEQ does not have the authority to adopt de minimis amounts for federal HAPs.. ADEQ retains the statutory authority to designate state HAPs under A.R.S. § 49-426.04 ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); NESHAP; NESHAPS; Emission Stand
Current Affairs, GK & News related notes on Hazardous air pollutants topic for UPSC, Civil Services, Banking and other Competitive Examinations of India. Best current affairs & GK article on Hazardous air pollutants
WEDNESDAY, May 5, 2021 (HealthDay News) - Among children and adolescents, short- and long-term exposure to some ambient air pollutants may increase blood pressure, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis published online May 4 in the Journal of the American Heart Association.. Miao Huang, M.D., from the Third Xiangya Hospital in Changsha, China, and colleagues examined the association between short- and long-term ambient air pollutant exposure and BP values among children and adolescents in a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fourteen articles were included in the meta-analysis.. The researchers observed a significant association between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter ⠤10 µm and elevated systolic BP values (à = 0.267). Long-term exposure to PM with diameter ⠤2.5 µm, PM with diameter ⠤10 µm, and nitrogen dioxide was associated with systolic BP values (à = 1.809, 0.526, and 0.754, respectively); long-term exposure to PM with ...
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied backwards to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies used to estimate the emissions for a specific time period will continue ...
A mothers exposure to urban air pollutants known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can adversely affect a childs intelligence quotient or IQ, a study reports.
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health impacts that may result from breathing it ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for gold ore processing and production facilities, the seventh largest source of mercury air emission in the United States.. EPA estimates that the final rule will reduce mercury emissions by 1,460 pounds per year (down to about 1,200 pounds per year), or about a 77 percent reduction from 2007 levels.. Gold ore processing and production facilities extract gold from mined ore. ...
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative. ...
Boiler Tune up Guide National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources Industrial Commercial and Institutional Boilers CFR Part Subpart JJJJJJ Wh at is a boiler tune up boil PowerPoint Presentation - In this Guide the term boiler tune up specifically refers to the activity to meet the requirements in the Boiler Area Source Rule 40 CFR Part 63 Subpart JJJJJJ The tune up activity is the act of reestablishing the air fuel mixture for the operating ID: 4591 Download Pdf
This presentation highlights several technologies used for emissions testing that deliver part per trillion level detection limits for a variety of hazardous air pollutants. These technologies have been incorporated into mobile vans so we can offer real-time results using MAX™, StarBoost™ and PTR. Download this presentation to see the overview of these technologies and the pros and cons of each.. ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
Local communities facing exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants. Its a key ongoing political issue that all companies emitting VOCs must tackle
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant levels than cyclists traveling in the same streets. ...
The overall objective of this dissertation was to examine the utility of incorporating source-meteorological interaction information from two commonly employed atmospheric dispersion models into the land use regression technique for predicting ambient NO2 and PM2.5. Ultimately, we are interested in obtaining highly resolved spatiotemporal pollutant estimates to examine the attenuation of health effect estimate bias that may result from exposure model misspecification. A multi-pollutant sampling campaign was conducted across six successive weekly sampling sessions in the summer and winter seasons of 2011-2013 in Pittsburgh, PA. As a preliminary investigation, predictions from a roadway dispersion model (Caline3) were included as an independent predictor in pre-constructed winter season LUR models for NO2. Caline3 output improved out-of-sample model fitness and added an additional portion of unexplained variation (3-10% by leave-one-out cross-validated R2) in NO2 observations compared to the ...
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
A new study found dramatic variation in air pollutions health effects among neighborhoods in the Bay Area. California Bay Areas air pollution.
Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution in a spatio-temporal ecological study requires representative concentrations of air pollutants to be constructed for each geographical unit and time period. Averaging concentrations in space and time is commonly carried out, but little is known about how robust the estimated health effects are to different aggregation functions. A second under researched question is what impact air pollution is likely to have in the future. We conducted a study for England between 2007 and 2011, investigating the relationship between respiratory hospital admissions and different pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2); ozone (O3); particulate matter, the latter including particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and less than 10 micrometers (PM10); and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Bayesian Poisson regression models accounting for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of pollution on disease
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. But when matter is transformed from one state to another, in the process of production, the earth is not capable of absorbing and assimilating many waste that are dumped on it. This results in pollution. Furthermore, an increase in the level of pollution over time may create problems for sustainable economic development. Therefore, the society has to find ways and means to resolve the conflict, between the increase in production on the one hand and the preservation of the environment on the other, when considering the inter-generational equity with respect to environmental quality.. This paper deals with industrial air pollutant which is a fund pollutant. Fund pollutants are pollutants for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Therefore the aim of pollution control, when dealing with air pollutants, is to keep the level of pollutants below the absorptive capacity of the environment. The paper deals with the various policy instruments, ...
This website was created to stimulate a dialogue on issues of concern to all of us in the form of a symposion. You are invited to contribute your thesis and anti-thesis to initiatives presented, and to include your proposal for best alternatives, based on regional and national conditions. Different perspectives will generate beneficial debate.. ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
Background & Aims: There is on-going and growing concern regarding acute and chronic human health effects associated with exposure to combustion-related air pollutants. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of novel methods for assessing exposure to combustion-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM),black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] in indoor and outdoor environments.Methods: The methods that were developed and evaluated included: mass and darkness/colour analysis of airborne particle samples; passive samplers; portable real time monitors; and GC-MS analysis of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs). These methods were used to measure PM, BC and NO₂ in indoor offices and outdoor streets in Glasgow city centre, and an industrial hydraulic fracturing test site in Poland.Results: Detailed evaluation and calibration of novel methods for darkness measurement of low mass particulate material specimens collected on filters were completed to ...
Introduction. The direct and indirect adverse effects caused by atmospheric pollution on the environment and human health necessitate the measurement and reporting of air quality on local, regional and global scales. The measurement and improvement of air quality in developed countries are considered a priority. In developing countries less emphasis is placed on environmental issues, because resources are mostly utilised for economic growth. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with elements of a developed country. Globally, southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollutants, for example a prominent NO2 hotspot is seen on global maps of NO2 satellite retrievals over the South African Highveld; based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect.1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised4 and are now ...
Laurent Alleman, associate professor, IMT Lille Douai, discusses how French scientists ranked the beauty contest of worst air pollutants. In its report published on June 28, 2018, the French Agency for Health Safety (ANSES) presented a list of 13 new priority air pollutants to monitor. Several air pollutants that are harmful…
In the metropolitan area of Barcelona, as well as in other Spanish cities, air quality is getting worse by the year. At the same time, projections of temperature and rainfall alert us to future increases in both parameters.1 In this context, studies assessing the influence of climate and air pollution in children, particularly in relation to respiratory diseases, are necessary. A recent systematic review confirmed the association between exposure to air pollutants (particulate matter with diameters ,2.5μm [PM2.5] and ,10μm [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulfur dioxide [SO2]) and the risk of hospital admission due to bronchiolitis.2 A study conducted in primary health care centres in Madrid concluded that NO2 levels (particularly those exceeding 40μg/m3) were associated with increases in paediatric respiratory disease.3 To our knowledge, no similar studies have been done in Barcelona.. As a pilot study, we analysed data for 391 patients from the metropolitan area of Barcelona admitted with ...
These Regulations implement Community legislation on ambient air quality assessment and management, air pollution and air quality standards. They require the attainment of air quality standards in respect of the concentration of various pollutants in ambient air and designate the National Assembly of Wales as the competent authority for purposes of ambient air quality assessment and management. They define functions of the National Assembly in relation to the attainment of standards and make pro
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
Increased use of active transportation can make direct and indirect contributions toward addressing both the health concerns arising from sedentary lifestyles and other societal transportation issues including congestion, environmental, and equity problems. However, in the process of cycling for transportation, cyclists themselves are exposed to multiple pollutants that could adversely impact their health. Although it has been found that the health benefits of cycling on an individual basis outweigh air pollution and safety impacts, pollutant exposure during a typical trip can be almost double depending on the mode of transport and specific route. The goal of this study is to better understand local cyclist exposure to air pollutants, specifically PM₂.₅. This mapping of pollutant exposure along cyclist routes at different times of day and with varying traffic volumes, can allow better planning of cyclist infrastructure and routing of cyclists in trip planners to minimize pollutant exposure ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. T2 - Milestone 2: Setting-up domains and approaches for the four target domains Trbovlje, Celje, Murska Sobota and Ljubljana. AU - Uhrner, Ulrich. AU - Jost, Silvia. AU - Reifeltshammer, Raphael Jakob. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. M3 - Bericht für Auftraggeber. BT - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. ER - ...
Topic : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition. Presented by : Dr. Pandurangappa C, C M Suresha, Lakshminarayanachari K, M Siddalinga Prasad. Other Details : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition International journal of engineering, sciences and Technology Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35-143.. Category : ...
Throughout the world, urban and agricultural communities have become more spatially intertwined resulting in blurred land use boundaries. Thousands of persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from primary and secondary sources.
Lung health is directly impacted by the air we breathe; learn about air pollutant health risks and the Clean Air Act from the Firm today.
This webinar showcases data disclosed by subnational governments on short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) action from the Europe region to CDP, and is the first in series of webinars providing feedback from 3 regions around the world. Information will also be shared on how cities, states and regions can join the BreatheLife campaign to raise awareness of the health and climate benefits from reducing SLCPs and other air pollutants.. CDP is the official reporting platform for C40 Cities, supporting almost 90% of C40 cities in annual reporting. In addition, CDP also serves as an official reporting platform for the Compact of Mayors and the Under2 Coalition.. The reporting of actions taken by states and regions to reduce short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) emissions directly supports the implementation of the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, country action plans (including Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs) and sectoral plans to effectively tackle climate change and air ...
This polygon shapefile identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the 2006 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for fine particulate matter (PM-2.5) and have been designated nonattainment. This category of particle pollution measurement monitors fine particles, such as those found in smoke and haze, that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter or smaller. These particles can be directly emitted from sources such as forest fires, or they can form when gases emitted from power plants, industries and automobiles react in the air. The EPA Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six principal pollutants, which are called criteria pollutants. Under provisions of the Clean Air Act, which is intended to improve the quality of the air we breathe, EPA sets limits on how much of a pollutant can be in the air anywhere in the United States. This ensures that all Americans have the same basic health and ...
Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Risk and Exposure Assessments for Secondary (Welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide Integrated Science Assessment for Secondary (Welfare-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Sensitivity of hazardous air pollutant emissions to the combustion of blends of petroleum diesel and biodiesel fuel. AU - Magara- Gomez, Kento T.. AU - Olson, Michael R.. AU - Okuda, Tomoaki. AU - Walz, Kenneth A.. AU - Schauer, James J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2012 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Emission rates and composition of known hazardous air pollutants in the exhaust gas from a commercial agriculture tractor, burning a range of biodiesel blends operating at two different load conditions were investigated to better understand the emission characteristics of biodiesel fuel. Ultra-Low Sulfur Petroleum Diesel (ULSD) fuel was blended with soybean oil and beef tallow based biodiesel to examine fuels containing 0% (B0), 50% (B50) and 100% (B100) soybean oil based biodiesel, and 50% (B50T) and 100% (B100T) beef tallow biodiesel. Samples were collected using a dilution source sampler to simulate atmospheric dilution. Particulate matter and ...
Indoor Air Pollutants. An indoor air pollutant is a substance that is present inside buildings that has a harmful health effect on the occupants of the building. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental hazard.. Indoor air pollutants have become a serious problem in recent years due to efforts by builders to make homes and other buildings more energy efficient. Modern buildings are built to restrict the flow of air from the inside out and vice versa. These new building practices work well to save energy. However, reduced airflow in a building can cause air quality problems in three ways.. ...
Perth, Western Australia represents an area where pollutant concentrations are considered low compared with international locations. Land Use Regression (LUR) models for PM10, PM2.5 and PM2.5 Absorbance (PM2.5Abs) along with their elemental components: Fe, K, Mn, V, S, Zn and Si were developed for the Perth Metropolitan area in order ... read more to estimate air pollutant concentrations across Perth. The most important predictor for PM10 was green spaces. Heavy vehicle traffic load was found to be the strongest predictor for PM2.5Abs. Traffic variables were observed to be the important contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 elements in Perth, except for PM2.5??V which had distance to coast as the predominant predictor. Open green spaces explained more of the variability in the PM10 elements than for PM2.5 elements, and population density was more important for PM2.5 elements than for PM10 elements. The PM2.5 and PM2.5Abs LUR models explained 67% and 82% of the variance, respectively, but the PM10 ...
and HCHO/NO2 indicate VOC-limited chemistry in major urban areas throughout the year and in other non-urban areas in winter, but NOX-limited chemistry in most areas in summer.. 1. Introduction. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) or air toxics are the pollutants known to cause serious effects on human health, such as cardiovascular, neurological, and other organ system problems and adverse environmental issues. 188 air toxics are identified and regulated under the 1990 Clean Air Act. HAPs are emitted from a variety of sources, including large manufacturing facilities, combustion facilities, small commercial, and both onroad and nonroad mobile sources [1]. In contrast with criteria air pollutants CAPs such as O3 and PM2.5, HAPs are normally controlled by state or local air toxics monitoring programs rather than the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) [2]. In recent years, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has launched several programs (e.g., National Air Toxics Assessment), in ...
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711. Re: Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter, Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2015-0072. Dear Dr. Jenkins,. The Clean Air Act (CAA) and its Amendments (CAAA) mandate the use of the latest science in establishing National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) and other so-called criteria pollutants. That science has been the foundation of 50 years of EPA policies to clean and protect the air we breathe.. The Administrators proposal, submitted on April 14, 2020, refuses to improve the NAAQS for PM and does not follow in the tradition of the NAAQS review and decision process as required under the CAA. The normal review process typically takes years to complete, but the Administrators deeply flawed process was done in a matter of months. This is insufficient time to consider the full body of diverse scientific evidence. Historically, the agency assembles a panel of expert scientists to help review the recent ...
The World Health Organization has developed ambient air quality guidelines at levels considered to be safe or of acceptable risk for human health. These gu
Based on air pollution levels at 5 a.m on Sept. 4, a Stage 1 Air Pollution Health Advisory has been issued for Mono County communities by the local air pollution control district. Due to elevated particulate pollution levels, children, the elderly, people with heart or lung problems, or people with current illnesses such as the flu, are advised to stay indoors and avoid strenuous outdoor activities in the impacted areas.. Smoke conditions may change quickly. Both Mono County and Owens Valley communities may have impacts throughout the holiday weekend. If you have any questions please visit or call the Great Basin Air Pollution Control District office in Bishop at 760-872-8211.. Health advisories on the web: Rough Fire air impacts: Rough Fire Air Quality Report: US Forest Service BlueSky smoke forecast: ...
Castle Hayne 2005 SO2 Monitoring Data (Sorted by Date) 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/11/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.83 23 96 04 5 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/12/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 4.35 23 96 09 21 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/13/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.87 23 96 14 7 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/14/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.00 23 96 20 8 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/15/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 0.60 20 83 03 2 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/16/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 4.83 23 96 12 20 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/17/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.13 23 96 10 4 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/18/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 1.83 23 96 10 9 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/19/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 1.57 23 96 11 4 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/20/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 3.96 23 96 12 19 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/21/2005 1 HOUR Parts per billion 2.91 23 96 08 13 Y 37 129 New Hanove 0002 42401 2/22/2005 1 HOUR ...
The Air Pollution Control Act of 1955 (Pub.L. 84-159, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322) was the first Clean Air Act (United States) enacted by Congress to address the national environmental problem of air pollution on July 14, 1955. This was an act to provide research and technical assistance relating to air pollution control. The act left states principally in charge of prevention and control of air pollution at the source. The act declared that air pollution was a danger to public health and welfare, but preserved the primary responsibilities and rights of the states and local government in controlling air pollution. The act put the federal government in a purely informational role, authorizing the United States Surgeon General to conduct research, investigate, and pass out information relating to air pollution and the prevention and abatement thereof. Therefore, The Air Pollution Control Act contained no provisions for the federal government to actively combat air pollution by punishing ...
The human health effects of exposure to tropospheric outdoor air pollutants, which include both particulate matter and gaseous contaminants, have gained prominence as a global public health concern. Indeed, the most recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report lists outdoor air pollution as a leading cause of death and lost disability-adjusted life years, accounting for an estimated ,3 million premature deaths per year globally [1, 2], as well as similarly large numbers of deaths associated with indoor air pollution exposures (e.g. biomass and coal burning smoke). However, outdoor air pollution exposures and trends are quite disparate in different parts of the globe: the principal community air pollutants monitored for regulatory purposes, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide, particulate matter (PM) and ozone, have generally (but not universally) shown declining concentrations in the developed nations in recent years, while in the low- and middle-income countries ...
The Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) of EPA recently made available a draft report, Policy Assessment for the Review of the Secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Oxides of Nitrogen and Oxides of Sulfur: Second External Review Draft (75 FR 57463, September 21,...
BACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohns disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment. Air pollution data were obtained from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. Residential exposure was assessed with land-use regression models for particulate matter with diameters of |10 μm (PM10), |2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Although air pollution was not significantly
Kathmandu Valley is one of the largest and most polluted metropolitan regions in the Himalayan foothills. Rapidly expanding urban sprawl and a growing fleet of vehicles, and industrial facilities such as brick factories across the valley have led to conditions where ambient concentrations of key gaseous air pollutants are expected to exceed Nepals National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. In order to understand the spatial variation of the trace gases in the Kathmandu Valley, passive samples of SO2, NOx, NO2, NH3, and O3 were collected simultaneously from fifteen locations between March and May 2013. A follow-up study during two separate campaigns in 2014 sampled these gases, except ammonia, one site at a time from thirteen urban, suburban and rural stationary sites. In 2013, urban sites were observed to have higher weekly averaged NO2 and SO2 (22.4 ± 8.1 μg m-3 and 14.5 ± 11.1 μg m-3, respectively) than sub-urban sites (9.2 ± 3.9 μg ...
Research Report 196, Developing Multipollutant Exposure Indicators of Traffic Pollution: The Dorm Room Inhalation to Vehicle Emissions (DRIVE) Study, describes a study by Dr. Jeremy A. Sarnat that evaluated single- and multipollutant metrics of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants near and farther away from a major highway in Atlanta, as well as biological markers in a
Traffic-related air pollution is a main contributor to unhealthy ambient air quality, particularly in urban areas with high traffic volume. Within urban areas, traffic is a major source of local variability in air pollution levels, with the highest concentrations and risk of exposure occurring near roads. Motor vehicle emissions represent a complex mixture of criteria air pollutants, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM), as well as hydrocarbons that react with NOx and sunlight to form ground-level ozone. Individually, each of these pollutants is a known or suspected cause of adverse health effects (1-4). Taking into consideration the entire body of evidence on primary traffic emissions, a recent review determined that there is sufficient evidence of a causal association between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and asthma exacerbation and suggestive evidence of a causal association for onset of childhood asthma, nonasthma respiratory ...
The aim of this thesis is to enhance the knowledge on exposure to size fractions of airborne particulate matter and their components and to find more intensive information on sources of indoor and outdoor size fractionated particles. In the first part of the study, the physical and chemical characteristics of indoor, outdoor, and personal quasi-ultrafine ...
If youre planning to exercise, which is really important, maybe take into account what the air quality alert is for that day, and if its going to be a high pollution day, dont exercise outside, she says. Exercise inside or rearrange your schedule to exercise at the time of day when air pollution is lower or in a park thats not close to a busy roadway. If youre at home and its a hot day out, rather than opening the windows, turn on the air conditioning to keep pollution out ...
The 1970 Clean Air Act required states to develop State Implementation Plans for how they would meet new national ambient air quality standards by 1977[52]. Although the 1990 Clean Air Act is a federal law covering the entire country, the states do much of the work to carry out the Act. The EPA has allowed the individual states to elect responsibility for compliance with and regulation of the CAA within their own borders in exchange for funding. For example, a state air pollution agency holds a hearing on a permit application by a power or chemical plant or fines a company for violating air pollution limits. However, election is not mandatory and in some cases states have chosen to not accept responsibility for enforcement of the act and force the EPA to assume those duties. In order to take over compliance with the CAA the states must write and submit a state implementation plan (SIP) to the EPA for approval. A state implementation plan is a collection of the regulations a state will use to ...
This may not come as a surprise to many people, but the closer you are to a major road, the higher your exposure to air contaminants. In fact, according to a new report from the Metro Vancouver Regional District multiple traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) have been identified with adverse health effects. Living and spending time near a major roadway has been identified as a risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular problems.. Approximately half the population of Metro Vancouver lives near a major roadway.. Major roadways have more than 15,000 vehicles per day using them. In Langley, examples include 200th Street, 208th Street, the Langley Bypass, and Fraser Highway.. ...
Footnote: Ground-level ozone is formed from pollutants emitted from cars, power plants, and other sources. The national ambient air quality standard for ozone is 0.070 parts per million (ppm); concentrations above 0.070 ppm are considered unhealthy, especially for sensitive groups such as children, asthmatics, and the elderly. Ozone concentrations are measured and averaged over 8-hour testing periods; then, the number of days per year exceeding the standard is calculated. For counties with more than one monitoring site, data are reported for sites recording the most days above 0.070 ppm. Data are limited because (i) monitoring stations are usually in urban areas, and (ii) ozone samples are taken every three days or during times of the year when air pollution is very high. In addition, not all counties are monitored, and data are only provided for counties with monitors that meet completeness criteria. State-level data are averaged from county-level data and should be treated with caution. N/A ...
While there are various types and degrees of Air Pollution, only those communities formally classified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as Nonattainment or Maintenance Areas, or those communities / areas that regularly exceed or are near violating the health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are listed on this web page.. The two main EPA criteria pollutants (pollutants that have EPA standards) impacting Alaska are Carbon Monoxide and Particulate Matter.. ...
Hoboken may not be a polluted city to live in, but your house here very well could be. Most homeowners dont realize that their indoor air is being contaminated by certain pollutants which lead to a list of allergies and other health issues. It is because of this ignorance that indoor air pollutants continue to cause harm in homes across the globe.. We often take the quality of indoor air lightly because we believe that bad air only exists outside. However, it takes some steps to create a healthy home environment for you and your family to live. The first step is to identify indoor air pollutant before taking steps to tackle and keep them at bay. ...
Air pollutants can cause adverse health effects worldwide (14, 91-94). Outdoor air pollution frequently occurs as a mixture of natural pollutants (e.g., from wildfires, volcanoes, biological decay, dust storms) and human-made pollutants (e.g., from motor vehicles, biomass burning, power plants, industrial facilities, waste incinerators, pesticides) (Figure 2 and refs. 9, 91, 95). Sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM) are typical outdoor air pollutants from fuel combustion or motor vehicle emissions.. Concern is increasing over indoor air pollution since some societies spend up to 90% of time inside exposed to pollutants from tobacco smoke, solid fuels, stoves, construction materials, ambient PM, and biological materials (mold spores, viruses and bacteria, animal dander, and HDMs) (91, 96). Indoor air pollution is determined partly by outdoor air quality depending on ventilation systems and cleaning practices. Additional environmental chemical ...
Maintaining indoor air quality has become a complicated challenge in todays world. In fact, in most cases we are our own worst enemy because many of the products we use are actually introducing toxins into the air we breathe! Every year, more people reporting lung disease, heart disease and other serious diseases due to exposure to airborne carcinogens.. In past decades, you might have thought you could get away from the toxins by going inside and shutting the door. But recent reports indicate our indoor air is now up to five times more toxic than our outdoor air.. This means the real fight to purify your air is going to take place indoors. One of the best ways to maintain good indoor air quality is to install the latest technology AC units such as ducted air conditioning Sydney.. In this post, meet nine of the most concerning airborne toxins and learn how to remove them from your indoor air supply. Some of the indoor air pollutants are discussed below:. ...
Illinois Hazardous Air Pollutants federal, national and state compliance resources - regulations, laws, and state-specific analysis for employers and environmental professionals
India cannot afford to ignore the ominous evidences any more. There is enough evidence for us to act urgently to reduce the public health risks to children, elderly, poor and all of us. India will have to take action now to reverse the trend of short term effects as well as the long term toxic effects. Stringency and pace of action should be guided by the health risks consideration. The ongoing preparation for the 12th five year plan, expansion of the air quality monitoring programme, city initiatives on clean air action plans, framing of the post-2010 emissions regulations for vehicles are the opportunities to integrate health criteria to make air quality management more relevant to public health. Set targets to meet air quality standards in cities: Enforce National Ambient Air Quality Standards. The quantum of central assistance to states for implementation of the city action plan for clean air should be linked with the progress in implementation of pollution control measures. For this ...
Cycling and other forms of active transportation provide health benefits via increased physical activity. However, direct evidence of the extent to which these benefits may be offset by exposure and intake of traffic-related air pollution is limited. The purpose of this study is to measure changes in endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, and lung function in healthy participants before and after cycling along a high- and low- traffic route. Participants (n = 38) bicycled for 1 h along a Downtown and a Residential designated bicycle route in a randomized crossover trial. Heart rate, power output, particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and particle number concentration (PNC) were measured. Lung function, endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were assessed within one hour pre- and post-trial. Geometric mean PNC exposures and intakes were higher along the Downtown (exposure =
Article Common Indoor Air Pollutants. Is the indoor air you breathe healthy? According to the World Health Organization, 40% of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollutio...
In consideration of the adverse health effects of diesel exhaust, Civic Exchange submitted a document to the Subcommittee on Air Pollution Control (Air Pollutant Emission) (Controlled Vehicles) Regulation, urging the members of the Councils to pass the Regulation without delay, in order to protect the health of people in Hong Kong.. ...
Public concern regarding air pollution has increased rapidly in recent years. Because air pollution may present special problems in the pediatric age group, available information on the effects of various air pollutants on children has been reviewed with the purpose of: (1) defining the potential ill effects of air pollution in this age group, (2) making information regarding these effects readily accessible to pediatricians, and (3) delineating further areas of study which may be necessary to safeguard child health from this environmental hazard.. Three general conclusions became apparent to the Committee after reviewing more than 100 publications from the world literature dealing specifically with the health effects of air pollution on children * The first is that children as a group may serve to delineate more clearly the effect of air pollution on health. They (1) spend most of their lives and attend school in limited geographical areas where air quality and meteorological effects can be ...
Chapter 1 Air Pollution 1] Background 49 2] Diagnosis: Air Quality 52 3] Causes: Air Pollutant Emissions 60 4] Actions: Air Pollution Control chapter 1 air pollution Air Quality PM2.5 Maximum Permissible
TY - JOUR. T1 - Organized lymphatic tissue (BALT) in lungs of rhesus monkeys after air pollutant exposure. AU - Pabst, Reinhard. AU - Miller, Lisa A.. AU - Schelegle, Edward. AU - Hyde, Dallas M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - The presence of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) and its size in humans largely depends upon age. It is detected in 35% of children less than 2 years of age, but absent in the healthy adult lung. Environmental gases or allergens may have an effect on the number of BALT. Lungs of rhesus macaque monkeys were screened by histology for the presence, size, and location of BALT after exposure to filtered air for 2, 6, 12, or 36 months or 12 and 36 months to ozone or 2, 12, or 36 months of house dust mite or a combination of ozone and house dust mite for 12 months. In the lungs of monkeys housed in filtered air for 2 months, no BALT was identified. After 6, 12, or 36 months, the number of BALT showed a significantly increased correlation with age in monkeys housed in ...
With an increased awareness of health and economic costs associated with air pollution exposures - from direct health impacts (e.g. 3.1 million deaths per year worldwide), to repercussions on workforce productivity (e.g. projected 82 million lost workdays in Europe in 2025), and difficulties in attracting qualified workforce and tourists in highly polluted cities - there is a real need to tackle air pollution problems in cities more efficiently.. The AirMAP method combines big data from mobile phones and vehicle fleet GPS tracking with air pollution maps to estimate exposures to air pollution in the population. With the proposed approach, we are thus able to assess exposures accounting for peoples movement in space and time, rather than with the usual static approach whereby people are assumed to spend their whole lives at home. This novel approach can enable policy makers to target much more efficiently and cost-effectively air pollution reductions efforts to protect people from air ...
The mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter collected in 17 towns of Italy in 1990 was assessed using the Ames test. The mutagenicity of crude extract correlated with amount of lead, suggesting the direct contribution of gasoline car exhausts. Mo
Famously, the use of caged birds to alert miners to the invisible dangers of gases such as carbon monoxide gave rise to the cautionary metaphor canary in a coal mine.
In order to assess the seasonal variations, potential sources, and health risks of heavy metals in fine particulate matter (PM2.5), PM2.5 samples (n = 96) were collected between March 2015 and February 2016 in Ningbo, China. Twelve heavy metals (Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn, Ni, Se, Tl, Al, Be, and Hg) found in the PM2.5 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We used enrichment factors and principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) to determine the sources of these heavy metals, and models from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess both the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks to adults and children. Results showed that the average annual mass concentration of the PM2.5 was 62.7 µg m-3, which exceeded the limit specified in the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The average annual concentrations of the Pb, Cd, and As were 57.2 ng m-3, 1.5 ng m-3, and 4.7 ng m-3, respectively, which were below
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Unless more stringent policies are adopted, findings point to a significant increase in global emissions and concentrations of air pollutants, with severe impacts on human health and the environment. The market impacts of outdoor air pollution are projected to lead to significant economic costs, which are illustrated at the regional and sectoral levels, and to substantial annual global welfare costs.
Free Books | Nonfiction | Politics | General | Research Priorities For Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities And A Long-range Research Portfolio
The Independent Particulate Matter Review Panel has released their consensus recommendations to the EPA administrator on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter. The group of 20 independent experts, that were disbanded by Administrator Wheeler last October and reconvened last week, hosted by Union of Concerned Scientists
ESPLUGUES, Ana et al. Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development: Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project). Gac Sanit [online]. 2007, vol.21, n.2, pp.162-171. ISSN 0213-9111.. Introduction: The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. Methods: The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological ...
As an air pollutant[edit]. Sulfur dioxide is a noticeable component in the atmosphere, especially following volcanic eruptions. ... Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health.[40] In addition, the concentration of ... Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air.[15] ... Shah PS, Balkhair T, Knowledge Synthesis Group on Determinants of Preterm/LBW Births (2011). "Air pollution and birth outcomes ...
"Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ... Air: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, asbestos, ground-level ozone, lead (from aircraft ... "Basic Information about Lead Air Pollution." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Mar. 2017. Web. Beaubier, Jeff, and Barry ...
"Air Pollutants of Concern". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved 26 January 2013.. ... Some paper production outside of North America may lead to air pollution with the release of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur ... and dissolved organic matter that are classified as pollutants. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or ...
"Air Pollutants of Concern". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved 26 January 2013.. ... Paper production also leads to air pollution, as paper manufacturing releases nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2),[7] ... and dissolved organic matter that are classified as pollutants. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or ...
National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES-Water ... Criteria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016-12-20. "Ozone Protection under Title VI of the Clean Air Act". EPA. 2016-12-09. "Superfund ... EPA promulgated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to establish basic air pollution control requirements across ... This includes the minimization of waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. Design ...
EPA, OAR, US (2014-04-09). "Criteria Air Pollutants". Retrieved 2017-03-31. Li, Xiangyu; Huang, Shuqiong; Jiao, ... "CDC - Air Quality - Particle Pollution". Retrieved 2017-03-31. Erickson, Anders C.; Arbour, Laura (2014-11-26). " ... Because a majority of pregnant women in developing countries, where rate of LBW is high, are heavily exposed to indoor air ... Environmental risk factors include smoking, lead exposure, and other types of air pollutions. The mechanism of preterm birth is ...
"NAAQS Table". Crieria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016. "Fact Sheets-National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP ... and the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) in Canada compile annual emissions of air pollutants that contribute to smog, ... addressed additional toxic wastewater pollutants, and regulated hazardous air pollutant emissions as well. Because both air and ... The air emission regulations in the CR, a component of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) ...
"Recycling of Electronic Wastes in China and India: Workplace and Environmental Contamination" (PDF). "Air Pollutants Report". ... Some open air workshops in China use acid to recover valuable materials from e-waste and wastewater is transported to drainage ... Cadmium is a rare metal that is very toxic to plants, animals, and humans and is released into the air by incineration or ... As one of the most toxic and popular metals used in electronic products, mercury is an e-waste pollutant that one can be ...
"Nitrogen oxides , Air pollutants". Retrieved 2020-07-03. Kile, Molly L.; Coker, Eric S.; Smit, Ellen; Sudakin, ... The influence of indoor air pollutants on health is important because the majority of people in the world spend more than 80% ... Additionally, because home insulation is improving, this can result in greater retention of indoor air pollutants, such as NO 2 ... Health Aspects of Air Pollution (2003) (PDF) and "Answer to follow-up questions from CAFE (2004) (PDF) Nitrogen Dioxide Air ...
... although studies on the link between depression and some air pollutants are not consistent. Air pollution has also been linked ... "Emissions of air pollutants". GOV.UK. "2.4 times more PM2.5 pollution from domestic wood burning than traffic". April 30, 2021 ... "Air pollution particles in young brains linked to Alzheimer's damage". the Guardian. October 6, 2020. "Air Pollution May Damage ... "Air pollution and health" (PDF). Retrieved 2021-05-02. US EPA, OAR (May 28, 2013). "Wood Smoke and Your ...
... is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health.[39] In addition, the concentration of ... Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air.[15] ... Shah PS, Balkhair T, Knowledge Synthesis Group on Determinants of Preterm/LBW Births (2011). "Air pollution and birth outcomes ...
"EPA Plain English Guide to the Clean Air Act".. *^ US EPA Publication AP 42, Fifth Edition, Compilation of Air Pollutant ... Health and Air Pollution Publication of the California Air Resources Board. *. Cone, Tracie (13 November 2008). "California Air ... Hazardous air pollutants (toxics)Edit. Chronic (long-term) exposure to benzene (C6H6) damages bone marrow. It can also cause ... See also: Air suction valve. Emission standards focus on reducing pollutants contained in the exhaust gases from vehicles as ...
Measures have been taken starting in the 1970s to start to reduce the amount of pollutants in the air, thus aiming to improve ... All six of the criteria air pollutants are created either directly or indirectly from combustion reactions of fossil fuels. ... US EPA, OAR (2014-04-09). "Criteria Air Pollutants". US EPA. Retrieved 2019-02-25. "Catalytic converter". Encyclopedia ... Commercial air travel ranks as the safest form of transportation in terms of deaths per billion miles traveled, with .07 deaths ...
"The Key Air Pollutants". Retrieved 2013-08-15. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Goldstein, Allen H ... In absence of more detailed data, this can be a very coarse parameter for pollution (e.g. for summer smog or indoor air ... An important subset of NMVOCs are the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Methane is excluded in air-pollution contexts because ...
... dispersion of air pollutants; among many other socioeconomic and environmental spheres. However, for wind energy near-surface ... Mazzarella A (2007) The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: the Earth́'s rotation and atmospheric circulation ... or air quality and human health, among many others. The attribution of this weakening of terrestrial near-surface wind speed is ...
"Air Pollutant Report , ECHO , US EPA". Retrieved 2018-07-19. Settegast - Houston HOPE B.C. Elmore Elementary School B.C. Elmore ...
"The Grasshopper Effect and Tracking Hazardous Air Pollutants". The Science and the Environment Bulletin. Environment Canada ( ... Persistent organic pollutants under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution ... "Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants" (PDF).. *^ "WHO. Strengthening malaria control while reducing reliance ... DDT is a persistent organic pollutant that is readily adsorbed to soils and sediments, which can act both as sinks and as long- ...
"WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... "WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.. ... Persistent organic pollutants under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution ... Emissions from vehicles such as cars and trucks can be a substantial outdoor source of PAHs in particulate air pollution.[28][ ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. *US EPA Air Pollution Training Institute developed in collaboration ... As the gas swirls around the chamber, pollutants are removed when they impact on liquid droplets, are thrown to the walls, and ... They use the features of both the dry cyclone and the spray chamber to remove pollutants from gas streams. Generally, the inlet ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. Cyclonic ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2016-04-25). "Health Effects Notebook For Hazardous Air Pollutants". Retrieved ... "Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants - US EPA". 2016-04-25. Retrieved 17 October 2017. Coordinates: 40 ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. Institute of Clean Air Companies - national trade association ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. A number of ... Air Pollution Control Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. McIlvaine Company. 1974. The Wet Scrubber Handbook. ... Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control. They are very similar to spray towers in design and ...
"2 Major Air Pollutants Increase in Beijing". The New York Times. 3 April 2013. Archived from the original on 4 April 2013. ... China's Environmental Movement Air Pollution in China A flash animation assessing air degree of pollution in China A Short ... It increased mortality from extreme weather events, infectious disease, poor air and water quality. The effects of air ... Ambient air pollution is measured by the amount of particulate matter in the air. This is a result of burning fossil fuels. " ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. *US EPA Air Pollution Training Institute developed in collaboration ... they can also remove gaseous pollutants that are present in the exhaust stream. Bethea, R. M. 1978. Air Pollution Control ... Some gaseous pollutants and particles are initially removed as they pass over the liquid sprays. The liquid droplets then ... A centrifugal-fan scrubber can serve as both an air mover and a collection device. Figure 1 shows such a system, where water is ...
"Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants". Retrieved 2020-03-03. "Chemical Sampling Information - Chromium ...
"2 Major Air Pollutants Increase in Beijing". The New York Times. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. Bloomberg News (14 ... As of 2013, Beijing, which lies in a topographic bowl, has significant industry, and heats with coal, is subject to air ... According to Jared Diamond, the six main categories of environmental problems of China are: air pollution, water problems, soil ... Many of the Chinese citizens started to wonder if air pollution is the cause of the increase of lung cancer. This question ...
Anthropogenic pollutants reduce air quality and visibility. Climate change caused by human activities that emit greenhouse ... A hot surface warms the air above it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure. The ... 1] Air pressure and wind. Retrieved on 8 May 2008. Carlyle H. Wash, Stacey H. Heikkinen, Chi-Sann Liou, and Wendell A. Nuss. A ... The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983. The ...
EVs release no tailpipe air pollutants; however, EVs are charged with electricity that is generated by means that have health ... Silicon-air, aluminum-air and other metal-air fuel cells look promising candidates for swap batteries.[unreliable source] Any ... Overall, the air emissions from producing and operating an EV can be less than or greater than those of producing and operating ... One policy that is linked to this commitment is the introduction of clean air zones in 5 cities and 23 local authorities in the ...
... air pollutants" (PDF). Neurotoxicology. 22 (6): 795-810. doi:10.1016/S0161-813X(01)00062-6. PMID 11829413.. ...
Moridi, M; Ziaei, S; Kazemnejad, A (March 2014). "Exposure to ambient air pollutants and spontaneous abortion". The Journal of ... Some additional articles are: "Air Pollution Linked with Stillbirth Risk", "Air pollution exposure in early ... "Pereira LA, Loomis D, Conceicao GM, Braga AL, Arcas RM, Kishi HS: Association between air pollution and intrauterine mortality ... " "World Bank: Air quality analysis of Ulaanbaatar: improving air quality to reduce health impacts, Main Report 2011. " ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *IARC Group 3 carcinogens. *Commodity chemicals. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi script errors ...
Rubidium and caesium must be kept away from air, even under oil, because even a small amount of air diffused into the oil may ... caesium is not a major chemical environmental pollutant.[243] The median lethal dose (LD50) value for caesium chloride in mice ... Lithium burns in air to form lithium oxide, but sodium reacts with oxygen to form a mixture of sodium oxide and sodium peroxide ... x ions.[133] They may be obtained directly from the elements in liquid ammonia or when air is not present, and are colourless, ...
The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in East New York is 0.0077 milligrams per ... "THE FRESH AIR FUND; Black Cowboys Share Their Art With Urban Children". New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2012 ...
... that greenhouse gases were air pollutants, and that the EPA was authorized to regulate them.[7]. The majority opinion stated ... Regulation of greenhouse gases under the Clean Air Act. References[edit]. *^ a b Ellison, Katherine (2012-05-09). "An ... In a case modeled on Juliana, the Philadelphia-based Clean Air Council filed a lawsuit in 2017 on behalf of two minors as the ... a challenge to the EPA's subsequent regulations on greenhouse gases was upheld in part and denied in part in Utility Air ...
Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in ... air filters in respirators, filters in compressed air, teeth whitening, production of hydrogen chloride and many other ... Air is then introduced to burn out the gasses, creating a graded, screened and de-dusted form of activated carbon. This is ... Activated carbon is used in methane and hydrogen storage,[1][2] air purification, solvent recovery, decaffeination, gold ...
Breathing involves expelling stale air from the blowhole, forming an upward, steamy spout, followed by inhaling fresh air into ... These pollutants can cause gastrointestinal cancers and greater vulnerability to infectious diseases.[102] They can also be ... In humans, the middle ear works as an impedance equalizer between the outside air's low impedance and the cochlear fluid's high ... As such whales must breathe air regularly, although they can remain submerged under water for long periods of time. Some ...
US maximum allowed exposure in air (40 h/week) is 1900 mg/m³ for ethanol, 900 mg/m³ for gasoline, and 1260 mg/m³ for methanol. ... existing pollutants or flammables in the fire (such as tires or asphalt) will color and enhance the visibility of the fire. ... Since methanol vapor is heavier than air, it will linger close to the ground or in a pit unless there is good ventilation, and ... However, its low energy content of 19.7 MJ/kg and stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio of 6.42:1 mean that fuel consumption (on ...
The total emissions of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides will rise due the growing use of bio-ethanol. There is an ... Air pollution[edit]. Main articles: Biomass § Environmental damage, and Ethanol_fuel § Air_pollution ... WHO , Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health *^ Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan ... In high-altitude (thin air) locations, some states mandate a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to reduce ...
Koeman, J. H., Hadderingh, R. H., & Bijleveld, M. F. I. J. (1972). Persistent pollutants in the white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus ... In one instance, a mallard was caught while flying in mid-air, but usually the much larger eagle is unable to capture ducks in ... air particles and pollution run-off water have caused huge concentrations in fish of many different areas, which continues to ... Other environmental pollutants affecting the species include heavy metals which affect individuals through bioaccumulation. The ...
The epoxy is applied around the edges of the device, preventing air from entering or leaving the interior.[citation needed] ... "National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System-Final Regulations To Establish Requirements for Cooling Water Intake Structures ... A T-Line is used to remove trapped air bubbles from the circulating water. It is made with a t-connector and a capped-off ... Water cooling usually uses a water block, a water pump, and a water-to-air heat exchanger. By transferring device heat to a ...
Phytoremediation (removal of pollutants by bioaccumulation in plants). References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size: ... air or water), it is referred to as bioconcentration.[1] Biomagnification is another process related to bioaccumulation as the ... "Bioaccumulation of Marine Pollutants [and Discussion]". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, ...
Environmental pollutants include both poor indoor and outdoor air quality.[63] Exposure to personal smoke and second-hand smoke ... Air pollution[edit]. Both indoor and outdoor air quality can be improved, which may prevent COPD or slow the worsening of ... resulting in an increase in the total volume of air in the lungs at any given time, a process called hyperinflation or air ... People who live in large cities have a higher rate of COPD compared to people who live in rural areas.[54] While urban air ...
... namely cleaning agents to increase pollutants such as formaldehyde (importantly, this study had as its objective the testing of ... Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:601-610. May 2006.. *^ "Indoor Air Chemistry: Cleaning Agents, Ozone and Toxic Air Contaminants" ... Air ionisers are used in air purifiers to remove particles from air.[1] Airborne particles become charged as they attract ... "Aerosol and Air Quality Research. doi:10.4209/aaqr.2010.06.0048.. *^ McDowell, Natasha (3 January 2003). "Air ionisers wipe out ...
As cities struggle to comply with air quality standards, trees can help to clean the air. The most serious pollutants in the ... Removing pollutants from the air, urban forests can lower risks of asthma and lung cancer.[25][26] Communities that rely on ... Removing pollutants and greenhouse gases from the air is one key reason why cities are adopting the practice. ... With an extensive and healthy urban forest air quality can be drastically improved. Trees help to lower air temperatures and ...
They thus use less fuel than rich burn spark ignition engines which use a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (just enough air to ... "National Pollutant Inventory. Retrieved 2017-03-03.. *^ "Thousands of UK motorists removing diesel particulate filters". Auto ... Diesel engines are lean burn engines,[30] burning the fuel in more air than is needed for the chemical reaction. ... This is particularly noted where diesel engines are run at part-load; as their air supply is not throttled as in a petrol ...
... as well as mixture penetration with air during the ignition delay period.[61] Another study noted that this ignition delay may ... to be transferred to kinetic energy while avoiding combustion and pollutant byproducts. The hand-sized square piece of metal ... analysis by the California Air Resources Board found that biodiesel had the lowest carbon emissions of the fuels tested, those ... "The Smell of Change is in the Air with Renewable Biodiesel from Sewage". Scientific American ...
Before his work, though, many important discoveries had been made, specifically relating to the nature of 'air' which was ... how atmospheric ozone is formed and how environmental pollutants are degraded (ecology), the properties of the soil on the moon ... Identifiable molecules compose familiar substances such as water, air, and many organic compounds like alcohol, sugar, gasoline ... air, earth and water were the fundamental elements from which everything is formed as a combination. Greek atomism dates back ...
In the province of Khuzestan it has led to the severe reduction of air quality. The amount of pollutants in the air has ... Dust kicked up by vehicles traveling on roads[7] may make up 33% of air pollution.[8] Road dust consists of deposits of vehicle ... Saharan dust in particular can be transported and deposited as far as the Caribbean and the Amazon basin, and may affect air ... In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, in very rare circumstances, it can create an ...
Theories that the crashes are related in some way to the United States Air Force's Area 51, or to the activities of extra- ... and other pollutants went into streams and rivers.[53]:32-36 As of 1999[update], many areas still bear the scars of hydraulic ...
... which is defined by manifestations of symptomatic illness as a result of poor indoor air quality and pollutant exposures .[14] ... AirEdit. Main article: Indoor air quality. Prevention of mold exposure and its ensuing health issues begins with prevention of ... Heseltine, Elisabeth; Rosen, ed., Jerome (2009). WHO guidelines for indoor air quality: dampness and mould (PDF). p. 93. ISBN ... Davis, Pamela (2001). Molds, Toxic Molds, and Indoor Air Quality. California State Library. ISBN 978-1-58703-133-5. .. ...
In the gasification of fine, undensified biomass such as rice hulls, it is necessary to blow air into the reactor by means of a ... Gasification can generate lower amounts of some pollutants as SOx and NOx than combustion.[5] ... In essence, a limited amount of oxygen or air is introduced into the reactor to allow some of the organic material to be " ... The fuel is fluidized in oxygen and steam or air. The ash is removed dry or as heavy agglomerates that defluidize. The ...
National Pollutant Inventory - Cyclohexane fact sheet. *NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards ... Kelarutan dalam air. Immiscible Indeks bias (nD) 1.4262 Viskositas 1.02 cP pada 17 °C ...
... the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the combustion air combine to form nitrogen oxide pollutants); it also avoids the ash melting ... Jets of air suspend the mixture of sorbent and burning coal during combustion, converting the mixture into a suspension of red- ... More than 95% of the sulfur pollutants in coal can be captured inside the boiler by the sorbent. The reductions may be less ... The PFBC burns the char to produce steam and to heat combustion air for the gas turbine. The fuel gas from the carbonizer burns ...
He was a doctoral student in Air Resources at New York University, where he completed everything except his dissertation.[8] ... CO2 is not a pollutant, but a naturally occurring gas. Together with chlorophyll and sunlight, it is an essential ingredient in ...
Despite the amount of pollutant, state health officials could not verify whether air or water pollution in Endicott has ... benzene and perchloroethene to the air and allegedly caused several cancer cases among the townspeople. IBM Endicott has been ...
Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-Range Transmission of Air pollutants in Europe (EMEP) http:// ... Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) International Red Cross and Red Crescent ... Eurocontrol (European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation) ...
Free flow air supply overcomes these problems by providing so much air that the mask is constantly flushed. The cost is high ... Gas mask - A mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases, most gas masks are full-face ... which directs a flow of dry air over the inner surface of the faceplate. This facility uses a lot of air, and is usually only ... Some British Army and Russian gas masks are designed so that when the wearer breathes in, the inflow of air blows over the ...
Aerodynamics dynamics of gases; science of movement in a flow of air or gas ... Koniology study of atmospheric pollutants and dust. *Ktenology science of putting people to death ...
... the air quality around these whales deteriorates and impacts their health. Air pollutants that bind with exhaust fumes are ... A direct correlation between activation of this gene and the air pollutants can not be made because there are other known ... This may involve throwing it in the air, slapping it with their tails, ramming it, or breaching and landing on it.[123] In the ... The World Health Organization has set air quality standards in an effort to control the emissions produced by these vessels.[ ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *Hypnotics. *Sedatives. *5-HT3 agonists. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links ...
... air pollutants because it regulates them by developing human health-based and/or environmentally-based criteria (science-based ... The EPA has identified six pollutants as criteria ... Air Pollutants. *Wildfire Smokeplus icon*Guidance for Health ... EPA Criteria Pollutants. The EPA has identified six pollutants as "criteria" air pollutants because it regulates them by ... These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as ...
This chart names some common pollutants, their sources, and their effect on the environment.PollutantSourcesEffectsOzone. ... Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead to-among other things-global warming, acid rain, ... Many toxic air pollutants can also enter the food and water supplies.. Toxic air pollutants can cause cancer. Some toxic air ... Major Air Pollutants. Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead to-among other things- ...
Contact for Criteria Air Pollutants. MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact Phone Mark Wert Call MassDEP Federal Air ... Criteria Air Pollutants. Learn about six common air pollutants that are found everywhere and emitted from a range of sources: ... and science-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants that contribute to smog, acid rain, ... Learn more about lead in the air and how it affects our health and environment from EPA: Lead (Pb) Air Pollution ...
There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or ... Connecticuts Management of Toxic Air Pollutants. Air Toxic Pollutants Sources. There are many sources of toxic air pollutants ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants , What Connecticut is Doing About Air Toxics ... of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources.. Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than ...
... these are pollutants that at sufficient concentrations and exposure are known or suspected to cause cancer, other serious ... Toxic Air Pollutants Also known as air toxics, these are pollutants that at sufficient concentrations and exposure are known or ... has established health-based National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) addressing more than 180 air ... MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact Phone Mark Wert Call MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact, Mark Wert at ...
Many toxic air pollutants can also enter the food and water supplies.. Toxic air pollutants can cause cancer. Some toxic air ... Major Air Pollutants. Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead toâ among other thingsâ ... Toxic air pollutants. A large number of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause cancer. Some important pollutants in ... Some toxic air pollutants, like asbestos and formaldehyde, can be found in building materials and can lead to indoor air ...
Join environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air pollutants management. This year in ... Save the date for the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants Conference!. We are excited to announce that the Odors and Air Pollutants ... The official Odors and Air Pollutants Conference hashtag is #WEFOdorsAir. Be sure to use it in your social media posts, and ... We are calling the water sectors thought-leaders and experts to share their knowledge at the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants ...
Learn about dangerous air pollutants that can cause physical harm to Iowans and our nearby environments. The Iowa DNR offers ... Air Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants. The Clean Air Act regulates six common air pollutants: particle pollution (particulate ... These pollutants are called hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or air toxics. Air toxics are generally more localized than the ... Hazardous Air Pollutants. U.S. EPA and Iowa DNR regulate 187 air pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious ...
Air pollution: the "classical" pollutants Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 :1074 ... Air pollution: the "classical" pollutants. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 doi: ( ...
... ... The Effects of Early-Life Air Pollution Exposure on Brain Development * Enhancing Vesicular Packaging May Offer New Therapeutic ... This inexpensive food-based intervention may provide a way to decrease the long-term health risks of air pollution. ... Rapid and Sustainable Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial ...
Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... Cancer Risk from Traffic-Emitted Air Pollutants. In: Gryning SE., Chaumerliac N. (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its ... Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... E.P.A., 1984, Review and evaluation of the evidence for cancer associated with air pollution, EPA-450/5-83-006R.Google Scholar ...
ProPublica and The Times-Picayune and The Advocate sent the EPA a copy of the new analysis on hazardous air pollutants, which ... While researchers are not sure how this happens, they believe air pollutants could prevent the bodys immune system from being ... Under the Clean Air Act, industrial facilities emitting these pollutants are subject to regulations. ... said that short-term declines in air pollutants in New York City due to lockdown measures in March and April did little to ...
We really need to conduct more experiments to find out if these pollutants, or even certain plants, might similarly disrupt ... The total combination of dynamic odors, including floral signature odors as well as anthropogenic pollutants, can affect the ... and even pollutants given off from vehicle exhaust, can disrupt the moths behavior, University of Washington biology ...
... conference will once again bring together environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air ... pollutants management. The biennial Odor Conference is designed to educate practitioners, facility owners, operators, ... I. Odor and Air Regulation. J. Utility Odor Management and Planning. K. Community Relations and Odor Complaints. L. Odor/Air ... B. Air Dispersion Modeling. C. Collection System Odor Control. D. Biological Odor Control. E. Corrosion Control. F. ...
... silicon and other fibers and measuring only one to three millimeters thickthat captures fine air pollutants and heavy metals ...
... will help reduce the worlds levels of poor air quality and cut down on air pollutants in homes. ... IKEA has discovered a unique way to decrease indoor pollutants with a new air purifying curtain. The Sweden-based company has ... IKEA hopes that its new curtain, called the GUNRID, will help reduce those numbers and cut down on air pollutants in homes. ... IKEA has discovered a unique way to decrease indoor pollutants with a new air purifying curtain. The Sweden-based company has ...
Odors and Air Pollutants Conference 2020 Technical Program We are pleased to be hosting 10 technical sessions and two pre- ... conference workshops at the Odors and Air Pollutants Conference, taking place March 15-18, 2020, in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Richard Pope, Hazen and Sawyer; Ryan Cassel, Hartzell Air Movement *10:45 AM: Corrosive odors and their successful conveyance. ... Richard Pope, Hazen and Sawyer; Ryan Cassel, Hartzell Air Movement *10:45 AM: Corrosive odors and their successful conveyance. ...
... pollutants from everyday objects and appliances in their homes, claims landmark new report ... Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including ... Secret air pollutants in our homes claim thousands of lives. Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, ... Thousands more people than previously thought are dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including pollutants ...
Things that pollute the air at home, work, or outdoors may bother your lungs if you have asthma. These things are hard to avoid ... Smog: Read/listen to local air quality reports. Stay indoors during poor air quality control. Use air conditioning instead of ... Things that pollute the air at home, work, or outdoors may bother your lungs if you have asthma. These things are hard to avoid ... Other Irritants: Wear a mask when doing tasks that dirty the air (dusting, sweeping, gardening, working in the yard). If you ...
Air Pollutants. Air pollutants can come from point source emissions (large stationary such as fossil fuel fired power plants, ... Air Pollutants. Back. Air Pollutants. *Greenhouse Gas Emissions. *Mobile Sources. *State & Local Emissions Inventory System ( ...
... , Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution. ... Outdoor Air Pollutants Aka: Outdoor Air Pollutants, Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index * Carbon Monoxide ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index ...
Dyson Air Purifying Fans Launch Ahead Of Spring. Appliances by Roma Christian. August 24, 2018. ...
Air pollutants are an important new risk factor. They found that from 2000- to 2013, 4.2% of women and girls in the studied ... Study is first to show that air pollutants increase risk of painful periods for women Peer-Reviewed Publication Frontiers ... We dont yet know the underlying mechanism, but emotional stress in women exposed to air pollutants, or higher average levels ... Study is first to show that air pollutants increase risk of painful periods for women. Frontiers ...
AIR AND HEALTH. Air pollutants and global effects While most pollution can be said to be of "local" - or national - origin, ... Wet deposition occurs when pollutants are carried in rain, snow, mist and low cloud; pollutants may be wet-deposited after ... including long range transboundary air pollution". The protocols under the Convention aim to reduce emissions of pollutants ... The Convention on the Long Range Transport of Air Pollution was adopted in 1979. The Convention covers Europe and North America ...
New version data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-8/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-2 was ... Transport emissions of air pollutants This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ...
... Dr. Christian Flatz Büro für Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Universität ... a specially developed mass spectrometer that can detect even the smallest concentrations of these chemical compounds in air. ...
EPA tracks trends in six key pollutants called criteria air pollutants.. Explore air quality trends interactively - Our ... National Air Quality: Status and Trends of Key Air Pollutants. Contact Us ... Our Nations Air: Status and Trends Through 2019. (link will open in a new tab or window) ... Nations Air: Status and Trends Through 2019. (link will open in a new tab or window) ...
Results for hazardous air pollutants services from Resource Recovery Solutions and other leading brands. Compare and contact a ... Hazardous Air Pollutants. Hazardous air pollutants are air pollutants that are defined by the Federal Clean Air Act as being a ... Air Testing. contaminants including: volatile compounds, semi-volatiles (Dioxin/Furan and PCBs), hazardous air pollutants, air ... for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS),Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD),Title III - Air Toxics/Hazardous Air ...
This helps in the prevention of deadly harmful effects of air pollution. ... Cryogenics in air purifiers freeze the outdoor air pollutants and purify it. ... Air Pollution. Nearly 2.4 million deaths every year are attributable to air pollution. Air pollutants may be solid particles, ... Breathing Dirty Air may Lead to Kidney Failure. Breathing in unclean air due to increasing air pollution could cause kidney ...
... developed a list of 37 substances which are subject to review as hazardous air pollutants; (2) the procedures and practices ... involvement in the hazardous air pollutant program; and (4) EPA progress in establishing standards.EPA developed a list of 43 ... potentially hazardous air pollutants based on a contractor study. ... Delays in EPAs Regulation of Hazardous Air Pollutants. RCED-83 ... EPA developed a list of 43 potentially hazardous air pollutants based on a contractor study. This list was refined to 37 by ...
  • These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as particulate matter), and sulfur oxides. (
  • Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead to-among other things-global warming, acid rain, and the deterioration of the ozone layer. (
  • Carbon monoxide levels tend to be higher during cold winter weather, when vehicles work harder and burn fuel less efficiently, and a strong inversion layer in the atmosphere traps pollution near the ground and prevents it from mixing with cleaner air above. (
  • Despite great gains in fuel economy and the efficacy of air pollution control equipment over the past twenty years, the EPA estimated in 1990 that mobile sources emit 39% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (
  • Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead toâ among other thingsâ global warming, acid rain, and the deterioration of the ozone layer. (
  • The Clean Air Act regulates six common air pollutants: particle pollution (particulate matter), ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. (
  • E.P.A., 1984, Review and evaluation of the evidence for cancer associated with air pollution, EPA-450/5-83-006R. (
  • Chaumerliac N. (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its Application XII. (
  • LeBlanc, who has asthma, believes the symptoms she experienced while sick with the coronavirus were made worse by decades of breathing in toxic air pollution. (
  • The analysis examined air pollution and coronavirus deaths in the roughly 3,100 U.S. counties and found a close correlation between levels of hazardous pollutants and the per-capita death rate from COVID-19. (
  • Hazardous air pollution may help explain the disproportionate number of COVID-19 deaths in communities like West Baton Rouge Parish, home to Port Allen. (
  • The coronavirus pandemic, which has claimed over 189,000 lives across the country, including more than 4,900 in Louisiana, offers a rare opportunity to study the public health outcomes of both short- and long-term air pollution exposure. (
  • Because the virus affects the respiratory system, researchers have rushed to study the potential association between mortality rates and air pollution. (
  • Last year, The Times-Picayune and The Advocate and ProPublica published the series Polluter's Paradise, which used data from an EPA model to quantify levels of hazardous air pollution along the lower Mississippi River's industrial corridor. (
  • The SUNY-ProPublica analysis uses pollution information from the EPA's 2014 National Air Toxics Assessment , a screening tool aimed at helping state agencies identify and measure the sources of HAPs. (
  • Besides enabling people to breathe better air at home, we hope that GUNRID will increase people's awareness of indoor air pollution , inspiring behavioral changes that contribute to a world of clean air," Lena Pripp-Kovac, IKEA's head of sustainability, shared. (
  • The furniture outlet has also put in place several initiatives to combat air pollution . (
  • Air fresheners and household cleaning products were at the centre of a new health scare last night as report warns that of the hidden threat of air pollution in our homes. (
  • The report warns that at least 40,000 deaths a year can be linked to the effect of air pollution, with thousands more deaths across Europe. (
  • But while the danger of outdoor air pollution has been well documented in recent years, the report will highlight the dangers from the secret killers in our homes, schools and workplaces. (
  • The report, Every Breath We Take: the lifelong impact of air pollution , to be published this week by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH), will point to the danger of potentially fatal carbon monoxide from faulty boilers and heaters, along with particulates and nitrogen oxides from heating and cooking appliances which can damage the lungs and heart. (
  • But among the most disturbing aspects of air pollution highlighted by the report is that posed by such common items as air fresheners and personal hygiene, DIY and cleaning products. (
  • The RCP and RCPCH warn the problem of indoor air pollution is compounded by the drive towards reducing draughts and ventilation and improving insulation in the home in order to cut energy bills. (
  • The report warns that while young children and the elderly are particularly sensitive to air pollution, it can have an adverse impact across our entire lifespan. (
  • Professor Stephen Holgate, chairman of the report's working party, said: "We now know that air pollution has a substantial impact on many chronic long term conditions, increasing strokes and heart attacks in susceptible individuals. (
  • We know that air pollution adversely effects the development of the foetus, including lung development. (
  • And now there is compelling evidence that air pollution is associated with new onset asthma in children and adults. (
  • Dr Andrew Goddard, the Royal College of Physicians lead for the report, said: "Taking action to tackle air pollution in the UK will reduce the pain and suffering for many people with long term chronic health conditions, not to mention lessening the long term demands on our NHS. (
  • Professor Jonathan Grigg, Professor of Paediatric Respiratory and Environmental Medicine at Queen Mary University of London and the Vice Chair of the working party, called on the Government to monitor exposure to air pollution more effectively in order to help identify those children and young people who are most at risk. (
  • But here we demonstrate for the first time another important risk factor for developing dysmenorrhea: air quality, in particular long-term exposure to pollution. (
  • This is a clear illustration of the need to for actions by governmental agencies and citizens to reduce air pollution, in order to improve human health," concludes Prof Hsu. (
  • While most pollution can be said to be of "local" - or national - origin, requiring local solutions, air pollution can also be a transboundary problem requiring agreement by governments world-wide or regionally on measures to deal with it. (
  • Using cryogenic condenser to freeze the pollutants that seep indoors can prevent the deadly outdoor air pollution. (
  • Air pollution is known to cause more than three million premature deaths worldwide every year from seeping indoors by 99 per cent. (
  • Hazardous outdoor air pollution has severely affected indoor air quality, threatening the health of billions of people," said Professor Robert Mortimer, Dean of the School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences at Nottingham. (
  • Outdoor air pollution in cities is a global problem. (
  • When outdoor air quality is poor, people tend to spend even more time indoors - but outdoor pollution also leads to indoor pollution and people are still impacted. (
  • By controlling indoor air pollution and improving air quality in this way, this work could be greatly beneficial for public health," added Gang Pan, Professor at the varsity. (
  • Nearly 2.4 million deaths every year are attributable to air pollution. (
  • Proper planning methods should be adopted to reduce air pollution. (
  • Breathing in unclean air due to increasing air pollution could cause kidney damage with resultant kidney failure according to a recent epidemiologic study. (
  • According to the World Health Organisation, air pollution was estimated to cause nearly 4.2 million premature deaths worldwide in 2016. (
  • In India, around 600,000 deaths annually are attributed to air pollution, and some of the world's highest levels can be found in Delhi city. (
  • In a study published in Sustainable Cities and Society, a team led by Surrey's Global Centre for Clean Air Research (GCARE) gathered and analysed four years of pollution data from 12 sites across Delhi, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh, with the aim of understanding how particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and gases (oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) impact this area of India. (
  • The results of the team's analysis suggest that local sources of pollution, such as traffic, construction, and domestic heating, influenced pollutant levels more than regional sources (air pollution from long-range traffic). (
  • Our analysis of Delhi's air pollution data over a significant period of time confirms that local sources of pollution - such as traffic and the heating of homes - are having a tremendous impact on air quality in the Delhi region. (
  • The currently configured network of air pollution monitors does not permit the evaluation of long-range transport between Delhi and the NCR (and vice versa), highlighting a need for well-thought-out planning to expand the current network in the future. (
  • on the other hand, there is a need for coordination with surrounding regions for effective control of air pollution sources. (
  • Indoor air pollution and exposure to hazardous substances in the home are risks we can do something about. (
  • Thus, for many people, the risks to health from exposure to indoor air pollution may be greater than risks from outdoor pollution. (
  • Numerous forms of indoor air pollution are possible in the modern home. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, 40% of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. (
  • The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollution problem inAmerica. (
  • A big one, strongly associated with congested urban areas like cities, is air pollution. (
  • Air pollution is a complex and pervasive public health problem," notes John Groopman, PhD, Anna M. Baetjer Professor of Environmental Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and one of the study's co-authors. (
  • Air pollution, an increasing global problem, causes as many as seven million deaths a year worldwide, according to the World Health Organization, and has in recent years reached perilous levels in many parts of China. (
  • Last year, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified air pollution and particulate matter (PM) from air pollution as carcinogenic to humans. (
  • This study points to a frugal, simple and safe means that can be taken by individuals to possibly reduce some of the long-term health risks associated with air pollution," notes Thomas Kensler, PhD, professor at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School and one of the study's co-authors. (
  • This book is a must for everyone who is closely involved in or remotely related to science and policy on air pollution emissions. (
  • Suggested activity: If you're a GLOBE school in an area that sees seasonal fluctuations in air quality, you can perform your own research study to see the affect that air pollution has on your local temperature, cloud type and cloud cover. (
  • The findings point to the effectiveness of smart public health policy - in other words, even as southern California experienced increases in traffic and commerce, aggressive air pollution policies resulted in cleaner air and healthier kids. (
  • Washington, D.C. - April 13, 2007) U.S. EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson and the Honorable John Baird, Canada's Minister of the Environment, announced today that Canada and the United States will begin negotiation of an annex to the U.S.-Canada Air Quality Agreement aimed at reducing the cross-border flow of air pollution and its impact on the health and ecosystems of Canadians and Americans. (
  • Reductions in air pollution can be achieved by a variety of methods, including control technologies and control measures and can be implemented through regulatory, market-based or voluntary programs. (
  • A control strategy may include a combination of different voluntary measures or mandatory controls, may focus on one or several pollutants or sources of air pollution and can be implemented on a local, regional, national or international scale. (
  • Air pollution control technologies have achieved impressive results in reducing emissions from the industrial and mobile source sectors by as much as 90 to 99 percent. (
  • Continuing advances in air pollution control technology should enable further emissions reductions to offset increased emissions caused by continued population growth and worldwide economic development. (
  • Particle pollution - known as particulate matter (PM) - is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. (
  • NACAA is the national, non-partisan, non-profit association of air pollution control agencies in 40 states, the District of Columbia, four territories and 116 metropolitan areas. (
  • CATF applauds Congressional leaders for introducing a resolution to reverse a 2020 rescission of methane and other air pollution regulations for the oil and natural gas sector. (
  • Turns out, air pollution is associated with cancer mortality beyond lung cancer. (
  • First author Michelle Turner explained that although a number of studies associate lung cancer with air pollution, there is still little evidence for associations at other cancer sites. (
  • This research suggests that air pollution was not associated with death from most non lung cancers, but the associations with kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer deserve further investigation," she added. (
  • Motor vehicles are significant sources of toxic air pollution, so programs to reduce emissions from cars, trucks and buses also decrease concentrations of toxic air pollutants. (
  • We've focused a lot of effort in the last decades on controlling the big sources of air pollution and on the chemicals in consumer products that contribute to outdoor ozone formation. (
  • To comply with its mandate to protect public health and welfare, for the past four decades the California Air Resources Board (ARB) has been developing and implementing regulatory programs to reduce air pollution in the state. (
  • In particular, air pollution can worsen existing conditions, such as asthma and heart disease, as well as drive daily changes in ozone and fine particulate matter that are associated with increased hospital admissions, medical visits, and premature deaths. (
  • Yet environmental policies tend to separate the two issues, with measures that fight air pollution not always bringing climate benefits and vice-versa. (
  • In the EU, the reduction in life expectancy due to air pollution was 7.5 months in 2010, and legislation already in place to improve air quality aims to reduce this loss to 5.2 months by 2030. (
  • A new study of 60 newborns in New York City reveals that exposure of expectant mothers to combustion-related urban air pollution may alter the structure of babies' chromosomes while in the womb. (
  • Researchers then calculated the concentration of air pollution to which each pregnant woman and her baby were exposed. (
  • Study participants exposed to air pollution levels below the average were designated as having "low exposure," while those exposed to pollution levels above the average were designated as having "high exposure. (
  • g) The term "air pollutant" means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. (
  • It is commonly used for measuring the density of clouds and pollution in the air, but can't determine the actual identity of the particles or gases. (
  • Studies from all around the world, including China, Europe and India, have found major drops in the level of air pollution. (
  • We expect our approach to guide effective policy on air pollution," she said. (
  • Exposure to air pollution may cause heart problems in humans, according to a study conducted at U.S. EPA's National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory in Research Triangle Park, N.C. (
  • Metals have been suggested as a cause of observed cardiovascular effects in humans from air pollution. (
  • The provisions of Part 61, Chapter I, Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR Part 61), which are in effect on July 1, 1996, are incorporated herein as part of the Rules and Regulations of the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District. (
  • All stationary sources of air pollution to which any Subpart listed below applies shall comply with the standards, criteria, and requirements set forth herein. (
  • For the purpose of this Rule, the word 'Administrator' as used in 40 CFR Part 61 shall mean the Air Pollution Control Officer (APCO) of the District, except where the reference to 'Administrator' relates to approval of alternate or equivalent test methods or alternative work practices. (
  • Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or corrected to be expressed as required by the regulations issued by various governmental agencies. (
  • Some governmental regulatory jurisdictions require industrial sources of air pollution to comply with sea level standards corrected for altitude. (
  • In other words, industrial air pollution sources located at altitudes well above sea level must comply with significantly more stringent air quality standards than sources located at sea level (since it is more difficult to comply with lower standards). (
  • Two weeks after Diwali, the capital is still reeling with unprecedented amount of air pollution. (
  • According to the National Air Quality Index , the pollution levels in the capital have been as much as 14-16 times the limit prescribed by the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • The demand for anti-pollution masks has spiked after the recent episode of high air pollution in New Delhi. (
  • Air pollution masks, thus, cannot be a permanent solution. (
  • They may not be an effective long-term solution to the problem of increasing air pollution, but their effectiveness cannot be denied. (
  • To understand how indoor air pollution occurs, researchers from the University of Toronto and Bucknell University in Pennsylvania used an environmental chamber to trigger a reaction between limonene and the chlorine gas and hypochlorous acid produced by bleach cleaning products. (
  • Finnish Environment Institute SYKE maintains air pollutant emission inventories and acts as the National Inventory Agency in reporting under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention (CLRTAP) and the EU National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD). (
  • Impacts of air pollution to the environment are monitored through measuring emission deposits and environmental concentrations. (
  • Air quality in Finland is generally good although air pollution may temporarily deteriorate the air quality. (
  • Pollution regulations in the United States typically reference their pollutant limits to an ambient temperature of 20 to 25 °C as noted above. (
  • According to the Environmental Defense Fund, more than 1 million pounds of air pollution have been released into the air as petrochemical plants were forced to shut down by the storm. (
  • In the recent past, air pollution in the US has significantly reduced. (
  • This essay critically focuses on the efforts made by the US in an attempt to counter air pollution. (
  • Programs and processes that lead to the reduction of air pollution have also been exhaustively analyzed. (
  • The essay also discusses the possible ways to reduce air pollution even to lower levels. (
  • The Clean Air Act amendment of 1970 was the principal tool that led to the reduction of air pollution in the United States. (
  • This act also created other programs to counter air pollution in the 1970 amendment. (
  • It is possible to curtail the level of air pollution in the United States to a lower level than it is currently. (
  • For example, since people do not suffer from diseases associated with air pollution such as cancer, they provide a healthy and energetic labor force which is extremely influential in economic growth (Jacobson, 2012). (
  • Also, these attempts to reduce the air pollution become functionally necessary, because they preserve the ozone layer. (
  • From the foregoing, it is undoubtedly clear and vivid that pollution and its long-term effects have been reduced by the Clean Air Act. (
  • A lot of scientific ideas about plans and methods to counter air pollution should be encouraged in the United States. (
  • 1] Air pollution in the United States EPA: Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Standards, US EPA, OAR, Office of Air Quality Planning and. (
  • The annual EU-27 emission inventory reported to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Convention confirms a long-term trend of decline for most air pollutants. (
  • The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) aims to limit and, as far as possible, gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution. (
  • Although degraded air quality is nearly always dominated by local emissions, the influence of non-domestic pollution sources may grow as emissions from developing countries increase and become relatively more important as a result of tightening environmental protection standards in industrialized countries. (
  • Current limitations in modeling and observational capabilities make it difficult to determine how global sources of pollution affect air quality and ecosystems in downwind locations and distinguish the domestic and foreign components of observed pollutants. (
  • To enhance understanding of long-range transport of pollution and its impacts, the committee recommended a variety of research initiatives, such as advancing "fingerprinting" techniques to better identify source-specific pollutant characteristics, and examining how emissions from ships and aircraft affect atmospheric composition and complicate the detection of pollution from land-based sources. (
  • The association between ambient air pollution and adverse health effects, such as emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, has been studied extensively in many countries, including Canada. (
  • Recently, studies conducted in China, the Czech Republic, and the United States have related ambient air pollution to adverse pregnancy outcomes. (
  • In conclusion, relatively low concentrations of gaseous air pollutants are associated with adverse effects on birth outcomes in populations experiencing diverse air pollution profiles. (
  • The agency locked in current thresholds for fine particle pollution for another five years, despite mounting evidence linking air pollution with illness and death. (
  • A year of data, gathered with the support of the Environmental Defense Fund and Texas Southern University, brought worrisome results: the concentration in the air of fine particle pollution, known as soot, averaged 12 micrograms per cubic meter. (
  • Many activists and public health experts have pushed for stricter national soot standards, saying that a mounting body of scientific evidence linking air pollution to lethal outcomes from respiratory diseases, including covid-19. (
  • Poor and minority communities in the United States tend to be exposed to greater air pollution, including soot, often because they often are located close to highways and industrial facilities. (
  • A 2019 study by the Union of Concerned Scientists found that on average, communities of color in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic breathe 66 percent more air pollution from vehicles than White residents. (
  • Read our simple and effective tips for protecting you and your family from the dangers of air pollution. (
  • Find out what makes indoor air unhealthy and how pollution can hurt your body. (
  • Olmedo Pineda development focuses on solving the problem of air pollution in companies dedicated to handling inks or solvents, which have a contaminated workplace. (
  • Along with esters and ethers, they are major components of indoor air pollution and are therefore important for industrial hygiene applications. (
  • Now, for the first time, researchers from China Medical University Hospital in Taiwan have shown that long-term exposure to air pollutants such as nitrogen and carbon oxides and fine particulate matter greatly raises the risk of developing dysmenorrhea. (
  • The study found that combined exposure to two pollutants harmful to human health - nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) - declined by about 40 percent for the 2007-2011 cohort when compared to the 1994-1998 cohort. (
  • There are many types of air pollutants regulated under the Clean Air Act, including six "criteria' or generally pervasive pollutants - carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, lead and ozone - as well as 187 hazardous air pollutants specifically listed in the statute. (
  • The six criteria air pollutants are ozone (commonly referred to as smog), particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and lead. (
  • The term " particulate matter " (PM) includes extremely small solid particles and liquid droplets that circulate in the air. (
  • The study, conducted in collaboration with Harvard University School of Public Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, sheds light on how air pollutants may cause illness or death from heart disease and is part of a major research initiative by the EPA to better understand the health effects from particulate matter on susceptible populations such as the elderly and young. (
  • Animals prone to heart disease in the study showed heart muscle inflammation, degeneration and scarring when exposed to particulate matter, but no changes when exposed to filtered air. (
  • Particulate matter (PM) in the atmospheric air or in any other gas cannot be expressed in terms of ppmv, ppbv, volume percent or mole percent. (
  • The chief pollutants in the atmosphere currently are particulate matter (PM) 2.5 and PM 10. (
  • Similarly, emissions of other key pollutants from the electricity generating sector also fell significantly in 2009 - for example, NO x and primary particulate matter (PM) both by around 10 % between 2008 and 2009. (
  • While the amount of ozone and particulate matter transported on international scales is generally quite small compared with domestic sources, neither of these pollutants has a known "threshold," or concentration below which exposure poses no risk for health impacts. (
  • Like nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide reacts with compounds in the air to form fine particulate matter, which can embed in the lungs, and aggravate skin or heart conditions. (
  • Particulate matter (PM) is the tiny solid or liquid particles that float in the air. (
  • Ultimately, Wheeler decided this spring to maintain the existing standards for fine particulate matter - the nation's most widespread deadly pollutant. (
  • The independent variables were the concentration of fine particulate, estimated by a mathematical model, temperature and relative air humidity, controlled by short and long-term trends. (
  • 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Particulate matter is among these pollutants. (
  • Particulate matter is a mixture of liquid and solid particles suspended in the air, whose composition and size depend on the emission source. (
  • Air concentrations of carbon monoxide can be particularly high in areas with heavy traffic congestion. (
  • Also known as air toxics, these are pollutants that at sufficient concentrations and exposure are known or suspected to cause cancer, other serious health problems, or damage to the environment. (
  • In the EU as a whole, emissions also fell (24 to 33 % for the above pollutants), mostly as a result of increasing use of catalytic converters and reduced sulphur concentrations in fuels. (
  • For the measurements, the researchers used a specially developed mass spectrometer that can detect even the smallest concentrations of these chemical compounds in air. (
  • Washington D.C. [USA], Jan 10 (ANI): A new comprehensive study revealed that construction activities and vehicular traffic contribute significantly to the Delhi National Capital Region's high concentrations of harmful air pollutants and gases. (
  • Interested in seeing trends in ambient concentrations of the six Criteria Pollutants established by the Clean Air Act to protect public health? (
  • High CO concentrations are a health concern because the pollutant is readily absorbed through the lungs into the blood, where it binds with hemoglobin and reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen. (
  • The Sac Metro Air District measures CO concentrations at multiple monitoring stations. (
  • People who spend time on or near major roadways can experience short-term NO2 exposures considerably higher than the concentrations measured at ambient air monitoring stations. (
  • Several mechanisms are involved in the incidence of these diseases, with the most well-known being the exacerbation of viral infection, increased concentrations of stimulating gases in the air (such as ozone), and changes in the concentrations of allergens and microparticles of dust [ 6 - 8 ]. (
  • All of the concentrations and concentration corrections in this article apply only to air and other gases. (
  • Although ppmv and mg/m3 have been used for the examples in all of the following sections, concentrations such as ppbv (i.e., parts per billion by volume), volume percent, mole percent and many others may also be used for gaseous pollutants. (
  • Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, μg/m3, etc.) at sea level will decrease with increasing altitude. (
  • In 2012, annual arsenic concentrations in Wainuiomata (7.1 ng/m 3 (nanograms per cubic metre of air)), near Wellington, exceeded the annual health-based guideline set out in the Ministry for the Environment's Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (2002) of 5.5 ng/m 3 by 29 percent. (
  • Since petrol in New Zealand became lead free in 1996, lead concentrations have been well below the health-based guideline set out in the Ambient Air Quality Guidelines (2002). (
  • The committee found evidence, including satellite observations, that these four types of pollutants can be transported aloft across the Northern Hemisphere, delivering significant concentrations to downwind continents. (
  • The current national standards limit annual concentrations of soot to 12 micrograms per cubic meter of air. (
  • Murray has suffered headaches when the air quality worsens, which is permissible given that daily concentrations are legally permitted to spike up to 35 micrograms per cubic meter. (
  • An option is using mathematical models that estimate the concentrations of air pollutants, such as the Coupled Chemistry Aerosol and Tracer Transport model to the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS), which considers atmospheric dynamics. (
  • The proposed Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) will impose mandatory national performance standards on specific sector/equipment groups and establish consistent emissions limits for regulated industries across the country. (
  • The frequently asked questions (FAQs) below are meant to provide Canadians and businesses with basic information about Environment and Climate Change Canada's Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations. (
  • The Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (i.e., the Regulations) require owners and operators of specific industrial facilities and equipment types to meet consistent performance standards across the country. (
  • The GCARE results show a clear trend with significantly higher levels of air pollutants in winter months than in summer or monsoon periods, with the exception of ozone levels. (
  • Air pollutants can come from fine particles, like vehicle exhaust and soot, gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide, smoke from tobacco and stoves, as well as fumes released from the burning of coal, oil, kerosene, everyday household cleaning products and paints. (
  • Ozone in the ambient air - commonly referred to as smog - is not emitted directly by any source. (
  • The scientific team examined associations of mortality from cancer at 29 sites with long-term residential exposure to three ambient pollutants: PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). (
  • Ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by a chemical reaction between two precursors - oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) - in the presence of sunlight. (
  • Exposure levels to some of the pollutants - and to the secondary pollutants formed when some of the products mix with ozone - may exceed regulatory guidelines when a large surface is cleaned in a small room or when the products are used regularly, resulting in chronic exposure, according to the study. (
  • Four years in the making, the team's 330-page study and report, "Indoor Air Chemistry: Cleaning Agents, Ozone and Toxic Air Contaminants," was posted online by the ARB on Wednesday, May 10. (
  • The primary constituent of smog, ozone enters the indoor environment from infiltration of outdoor air, but is also produced indoors by some office machines such as copiers or printers, and by some devices marketed as "air purifiers" that purposely emit ozone into the indoor environment. (
  • Ozone, methane and aerosols (tiny pollutant particles) remain in the atmosphere for a shorter time than CO 2 , but can affect both the climate and air quality. (
  • Methane, for example, is the second strongest contributor to climate warming after CO 2 and is also an ozone precursor: chemical reactions in the atmosphere involving methane produce ozone, a pollutant that presents significant health risks. (
  • We have found that the measures to reduce methane and other ozone precursors would significantly improve the ozone air quality, especially over northern continents. (
  • misc{etde_7233984, title = {Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract} author = {Omachi, S, and Kita, H} abstractNote = {The effect of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, and formaldehyde on the ciliary activity of an excised specimen of the trachea of a guinea pig was investigated. (
  • Many studies have also shown that contact with pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates smaller than 10 microns can cause or exacerbate allergic and respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis [ 10 - 13 ]. (
  • The main focus will be on particles including soot, but we will also be looking at ground-level ozone and other air pollutants. (
  • Ground-level ozone is a secondary pollutant produced when nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. (
  • Ozone in the troposphere (ground-level) visibly contaminates the air, contributing to the hazy smog that characterizes many major urban areas. (
  • Interested in what WEF Odors and Air Pollutants offered in 2020? (
  • Registration for Odors and Air Pollutants 2021 will open Winter 2020! (
  • We are pleased to be hosting 10 technical sessions and two pre-conference workshops at the Odors and Air Pollutants Conference, taking place March 15-18, 2020, in Cincinnati, Ohio. (
  • However, in the long run (up to 2020) transport pollutant emissions are projected to decline significantly, provided fleet renewal continues (OECD, 2002a). (
  • The 2020 Odors and Air Pollutants Specialty Conference has something for everyone who is dealing with odors, air pollutants, and corrosion. (
  • Vaughan Harshman , left, and Mark Perkins are co-chairs of the 2020 Odors and Air Pollutants Conference. (
  • There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. (
  • In 1990, the EPA estimated that major sources emit 30% of all man-made air toxic emissions in the United States. (
  • However, due to several factors, including new regulations, process changes and economic factors, the latest information from 1999 indicates that only 6% of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources. (
  • Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than major sources, which emit less than 10 tons per year of any single air toxic or less than 25 tons per year of combined air toxics. (
  • Mobile sources emit toxic air pollutants through the incomplete combustion of fuel and through the evaporation of fuel. (
  • However, estimates based on 1999 information indicate that 64% of toxic air pollutant emissions originate from mobile sources, 38% from on-road and 26 % from non-road. (
  • Generally, the toxic air pollutants of greatest concern are those released in amounts large enough to create a risk to human health or in areas where many people are likely to be exposed. (
  • Some air toxic, such as mercury, can deposit onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants, ingested by animals and fish, and work their way up the food chain. (
  • MassDEP operates a National Air Toxics Trends Station (NATTS) in Boston that is designed to collect and quantify a number of toxic air pollutants including carbonyls, black carbon, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). (
  • Each toxic air pollutant comes from a slightly different source, but many are created in chemical plants or are emitted when fossil fuels are burned. (
  • Because of the difficulty in assessing air toxic health risks with the original Clean Air Act enacted in 1970, Congress amended the Clean Air Act in 1990 to emphasize controlling emissions of air toxics through available control technology, and then periodically evaluating any remaining risk from air toxics. (
  • In addition, there are 187 toxic or "hazardous" air pollutants (HAPs). (
  • Some toxic air pollutants (e.g., mercury) are persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which means they are stored indefinitely in the body and increase over time. (
  • Toxic air pollutants, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants, are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease. (
  • From soot to toxic heavy metals, dirty coal and fossil fuel smoke stacks emit vast quantities of dangerous pollutants that are well known to cause disease and death. (
  • Until stronger standards to reduce toxic emissions from coal and fossil fuel burning industries are implemented, harmful toxic chemicals will continue to be released into the air of our communities, threatening public health. (
  • By UC Berkeley, When used indoors under certain conditions, many common household cleaners and air fresheners emit toxic pollutants at levels that may lead to health risks, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (
  • They are classified as hazardous air pollutants under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and as toxic air contaminants by California's Air Resources Board. (
  • This comes as state officials shut off air quality monitors to protect them from storm-related damage, and are relying on facilities to self-report any toxic fumes they release. (
  • There are two types of stationary sources that generate routine emissions of air toxics: "Major" sources are defined as sources that emit 10 or more tons per year of any of the listed toxic air pollutants, or 25 or more tons per year of a mixture of air toxics. (
  • These sources may release air toxics from equipment leaks, when materials are transferred from one location to another, or during discharge through emission stacks or vents "Area" sources consist of smaller-size facilities that release lesser quantities of toxic pollutants into the air. (
  • Area sources are defined as sources that do not emit more than 10 tons per year of a single air toxic or more than 25 tons per year of a combination of air toxics. (
  • 12/14/05) After an extensive, multi-year scientific and technical review, EPA has removed methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) from the Clean Air Act list of toxic air pollutants. (
  • Although removed from the list of toxic air pollutants, MEK remains regulated as a volatile organic compound. (
  • Delisting a toxic air pollutant is a rigorous process that involves in-depth analyses and independent scientific peer review to demonstrate there are adequate data to determine that emissions may not reasonably be anticipated to cause adverse health effects. (
  • Public comment is also an important component in the decision whether to delist a toxic air pollutant. (
  • EPA has removed three other toxic air pollutants from the list: ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (2004), long chain glycol ethers (2000), and caprolactam (1996). (
  • The idea is a prototype filter with peanut shells, which cultivates the microorganisms to degrade toxic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water, thereby achieving clean air. (
  • Major sources of air toxics are stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons or more per year of any one of the 188 air toxics listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Act), or 25 tons or more per year of combined air toxics. (
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (
  • Estimates from 1999 show that approximately 30% of air toxics are emitted from area sources. (
  • Natural sources of air toxics are diverse and numerous. (
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (
  • While everyone is at risk from exposure to air toxics, many factors determine how seriously any pollutant will affect a person or at-risk population. (
  • Like people, animals may experience health problems if exposed to sufficient quantities of air toxics over time. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established health-based National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) addressing more than 180 air toxics. (
  • In Massachusetts, meanwhile, the Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) has developed recommended Ambient Air Exposure Limits (AALs) and Threshold Effects Exposure Limits (TELs) for air toxics. (
  • EPA conducts a periodic National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) focused on air toxics that are of greatest concern to public health. (
  • According to NATA, air toxics found at unhealthy levels in specific Massachusetts locations include formaldehyde, acrolein, and benzene. (
  • These pollutants are called hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or air toxics. (
  • Air toxics are generally more localized than the criteria pollutants and the highest levels are close to their sources. (
  • Most air toxics originate from man-made sources, including cars and trucks, factories, power plants and refineries, as well as some building materials and cleaning solvents. (
  • contaminants including: volatile compounds, semi-volatiles (Dioxin/Furan and PCBs), hazardous air pollutants , air toxics (HAPS), metals and particulates. (
  • Sources - there are 187 chemicals on the U.S. EPA's list of air toxics, most of them originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (building materials and activities such as cleaning). (
  • Sources: USEPA's original list & Modifications Most air toxics originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (e.g., cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (e.g., factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (e.g., building materials and activities such as cleaning). (
  • The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that are of particular concern). (
  • Overview, a brief description of the sections of the Clean Air Act related to air toxics as well as further links to relevant rules, reports, and programs. (
  • Save the date for the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants Conference! (
  • The official Odors and Air Pollutants Conference hashtag is #WEFOdorsAir. (
  • We are calling the water sector's thought-leaders and experts to share their knowledge at the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants Conference. (
  • To remain in the air, particles usually must be less than 0.1-mm wide and can be as small as 0.00005 mm. (
  • The authors looked for a long-term association between the risk of dysmenorrhea and air quality, in particular the mean exposure over the years to air pollutants - nitrogen oxide (NO x ), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), and particles smaller than 2.5 μm in diameter ('PM2.5') - obtained from the 'Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database' (TAQMD) of the Environmental Protection Agency. (
  • The team found that as they circulated haze-polluted air through a cryogenic condenser, the finer particles stuck together in the condenser tube before dropping out by gravity, and emerging as clean air. (
  • The experiments, reported in the journal Science of the Total Environment, showed that by simply circulating polluted air through a small freezing chamber we can remove most of the fine particles and gas pollutants. (
  • Air pollutants may be solid particles, liquid droplets or gases. (
  • Air is made up of a mixture of gases and particles that can vary by season, location, altitude, and various weather and atmospheric conditions. (
  • People are resorting to masks and respirators that can filter out harmful particles from the air, making it relatively breathable. (
  • Air pollutant emissions are acidifying compounds, particles, volatile and persistent organic compounds and heavy metals. (
  • The legend is scaled according to the total emissions of the specific pollutant, thus the absolute emission levels vary from those of acidifying substances and particles (kilotons) to those of heavy metals and persistent organic compounds (tons, kilograms or grams). (
  • Learn about six common air pollutants that are found everywhere and emitted from a range of sources: homes, motor vehicles, industry, power plants, and more. (
  • U.S. EPA is responsible for setting national standards for regulating sources of HAP, called National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP). (
  • COVID-19 can be made more serious - and, in some cases, more deadly - by a specific type of industrial emission called hazardous air pollutants, or HAPs, according to new peer-reviewed research by ProPublica and researchers at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry. (
  • The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. (
  • This book is divided into four clearly defined parts: measuring organic indoor pollutants, investigation concepts and quality guidelines, field studies, and emission studies. (
  • The authors cover physico-chemical fundamentals of organic pollutants, relevant definitions and terminology, emission sources, sampling techniques and instrumentation, exposure assessment as well as methods for control. (
  • National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants" (NESHAPS) have been established for industries emitting the listed pollutants and generally require the use of "Maximum Achievable Control Technology" (MACT). (
  • The Government of Canada has proposed, for the first time, industrial air pollutant emission legislation for some sectors of the economy, including certain categories of stationary engines. (
  • As detailed in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics study, the team looked into emission scenarios for various short-lived pollutants and into climate models to find out what the impact of specific emission reductions on climate would be. (
  • The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. (
  • The air pollutant emission inventory is carried out according to the Guidebook by the EMEP and the European Environment Agency . (
  • Emissions can be searched by pollutant, year and emission source. (
  • The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, also using the acronym NESHAP, are emission standards set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency-EPA. (
  • The term " modification " means any physical change in, or change in the method of operation of, a major source which increases the actual emissions of any hazardous air pollutant emitted by such source by more than a de minimis amount or which results in the emission of any hazardous air pollutant not previously emitted by more than a de minimis amount. (
  • Under the Clean Air Act, industrial facilities emitting these pollutants are subject to regulations. (
  • The provisions of Part 61, Chapter I, Title 40, of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), in effect July 1, 1984, applicable to the subparts listed in this Regulation were adopted by the South Coast Air Quality Management District on the date shown and were made part of the Rules and Regulations of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. (
  • Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air are issued by various national and state (or provincial) environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. (
  • The Regulations are part of the federal government's contribution to the implementation of the Air Quality Management System (AQMS) under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). (
  • These standards are authorized by Section 112 of the 1970 Clean Air Act and the regulations are published in 40 CFR Parts 61 and 63. (
  • WASHINGTON - The Trump administration on Monday rejected setting tougher standards on soot, the nation's most widespread deadly air pollutant, saying the existing regulations remain sufficient even as some public health experts and environmental justice communities had pleaded for stricter limits. (
  • NATA combines information on pollutants that affect the respiratory system into a variable called the "respiratory hazard index. (
  • In the first study of its kind, researchers have found that improved air quality in southern California had a direct effect on children's respiratory health. (
  • These pollutants are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. (
  • Many people with a healthy respiratory system rarely think about what is in the air they breathe. (
  • Omachi, S, and Kita, H. Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract. (
  • The results suggest that certain pollutants and weather variables are associated with the risk of emergency respiratory admissions during epidemic periods. (
  • Air masks can only give partial protection, additionally those who are going through some respiratory conditions will find it difficult to use the masks for prolonged periods as it hinders breathing and oxygen intake," says Anumita Roychowdhury, executive director of Research and Advocacy at Center for Science and Environment (CSE). (
  • In addition to known factors - such as low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding, overcrowded household, and presence of smokers -, exposure to air pollutants is also associated with hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, especially pneumonia. (
  • The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. (
  • The pollutant can be emitted directly at the emissions source, for example, from a smokestack of an electrical power plant or as the result of reactions between chemicals (precursors) as they are transported through the atmosphere. (
  • This research, conducted over the last three years, has shown that emissions of PM and its precursors can significantly affect air quality in both countries. (
  • Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term "air pollutant" is used. (
  • Methane is a terribly harmful climate pollutant - pound for pound, it heats the climate over the next few decades more than eighty times more than carbon dioxide, and it's currently responsible for about a quarter of the warming we are already experiencing, such as more severe droughts, heatwaves, and wildfires. (
  • Based on long-term data on air quality and public health from national databases, they show that the risk to develop dysmenorrhea over a period of 13 years (2000-2013) was up to 33 times higher among Taiwanese women and girls who lived in areas with the highest levels of air pollutants compared to their peers exposed to lower levels of pollutants. (
  • These often use chemicals known as Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which start off as solids or liquids but readily evaporate into the air. (
  • The reasons include high humidity, pollutant buildup, pesticides and VOCs. (
  • While there are some existing technologies to purify indoor air, they can be inefficient, expensive or produce harmful by-products. (
  • The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six criteria pollutants, which are known to be harmful to human health and the environment. (
  • A new study, published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology , found that some commonly used household cleaning products could produce potentially harmful air pollutants. (
  • WASHINGTON -- Plumes of harmful air pollutants can be transported across oceans and continents -- from Asia to the United States and from the United States to Europe -- and have a negative impact on air quality far from their original sources, says a new report by the National Research Council. (
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • This work announced today will complement the concrete actions this government is taking at home to reduce greenhouse gases and the pollutants that cause climate change and smog. (
  • Greenhouse gases and pollutants are up in the atmosphere, so sampling is difficult. (
  • Joshi concurs, "To be able to breathe air that is free of gases like benzene, a person will have to carry respirators which weigh a few tonnes, something that is practically impossible. (
  • This can be achieved by reducing the rate of the gases considered as the key pollutants in the 1970 Clean Air Amendment Act. (
  • The main applications have been for treating off- gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air pollutant emissions. (
  • The CCAC is focusing on the reduction of short lived pollutants by nearly one third to protect and improve human health and agriculture. (
  • A new study looking into short-lived pollutants reveals measures governments could implement to substantially improve air quality as well as fight climate change. (
  • The team says the new measures targeting short-lived pollutants could boost air quality and reduce loss of life expectancy even further: by a month in Europe, about two months in China and one year in India. (
  • Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a method allowing a quantitative evaluation of the number of excess cancer cases caused by individual substances is of great interest. (
  • The 51 Parties of the Convention, including the EU, are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants. (
  • The research, by a team of scientists from the Nottingham Trent University in the UK and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, involved studying the effectiveness of cryogenics for indoor air purification, by removing the gaseous pollutants and tiny particulates caused by haze. (
  • Their method was able to remove 99 per cent of particulates and 98 per cent of nitrogen oxide pollutants. (
  • The emissions of most pollutants like sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide have fallen over the past years. (
  • We will be modelling air pollutants from forest fires, both today and in a changed climate, and we will be studying Sweden's 2018 fires in particular," says Joakim Langner, an air quality researcher at SMHI and coordinator for the Swedish part of the international project. (
  • The exact composition and concentration of pollutants depend on the source, the type of fuel and/or chemicals involved and, in some cases, the meteorological conditions under which the pollutant is emitted. (
  • Air quality in Switzerland has significantly changed for the better in the last 30 years, but there is still room for improvement. (
  • Published earlier this month in the New England Journal of Medicine , the study concluded that air quality improvements in the southern California communities studied were associated with significantly positive effects on lung function growth in children. (
  • Previous studies conducted by Perera and colleagues showed that combustion-related air pollutants significantly reduce fetal growth, which may affect cognitive development during childhood. (
  • However, it is worth noting that although emissions within the EU have fallen significantly, air quality can still be quite low, particularly in urban areas. (
  • If these types of pollutants are reduced quickly, the long-term negative effects of climate change can be reduced by nearly 50% in the next 20-30 years. (
  • MassDEP also enforces its own ambient air quality standards . (
  • As the virus battered many of those same communities this spring, we wanted to determine whether air quality was contributing to high death rates. (
  • The Sweden-based company has developed a material that absorbs and breaks down hazardous substances in a process similar to photosynthesis in order to improve indoor air quality. (
  • Scientists estimate that close to 90 percent of the world's population lives in areas that suffer from poor air quality . (
  • Farmers usually burn rice straw, producing fumes that decrease air quality in regions across the globe. (
  • Thousands more people than previously thought are dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including pollutants from everyday objects and appliances in their homes, the landmark new report is to claim. (
  • It will warn that everyday kitchen products, faulty boilers, open fires, fly sprays and even air fresheners, contribute to poor indoor air quality. (
  • Smog: Read/listen to local air quality reports. (
  • Stay indoors during poor air quality control. (
  • Use air conditioning instead of opening windows during poor air quality days. (
  • Our results study demonstrate the major impact of the quality of air on human health in general, here specifically on the risk of dysmenorrhea in women and girls. (
  • Delhi and the National Capital Region (NCR) on Sunday witnessed "very poor" air quality with the minimum temperature recorded at 12.4 degrees Celsius, two notches below the season's average. (
  • The air-quality across the NCR was very poor, according to System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting And Research. (
  • Air quality has been improving steadily since the 1980s. (
  • However, it doesn't mean we are safe from poor indoor air quality at home. (
  • Poor air quality has been linked to health effects in everyone, especially infants, children, seniors and pets. (
  • The EPA has put indoor air quality on its top five concerns for our overall health. (
  • The objective was to measure the air quality outside and inside the combined showroom and workshop, demonstrating the importance of measuring common traffic-related pollutants indoors as well as outdoors. (
  • What is Indoor Air Quality? (
  • Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the degree of air purity inside buildings that constitute the usual environment in which people carry out activities (offices, homes, schools, shopping and leisure centres, etc. (
  • This while government leaders and policy makers define and implement more effective regulatory policies to improve air quality. (
  • This air quality monitor will keep you safe from the most hazardous pollutants. (
  • The Temptop Air Quality Monitor checks for PM2.5 and AQI, which is considered the most hazardous pollutant to human health. (
  • Those improvements coincided with the enactment of health-driven air quality policies and vehicle emissions standards, which have produced dramatic air quality results. (
  • Indeed, both children with and without asthma experienced better lung function growth as air quality improved. (
  • This study shows an association between secular improvements in air quality in southern California and measurable improvements in lung-function development in children. (
  • These associations were observed in boys and girls, Hispanic white and non-Hispanic white children, and children with asthma and children without asthma, which suggests that all children have the potential to benefit from improvements in air quality. (
  • Canada's new government is committed to improving the quality of the air we breathe,' said Minister Baird. (
  • The U.S.-Canada Air Quality Agreement, negotiated in 1991, marked a new era of cooperation aimed at helping to guarantee cleaner air and a healthier environment for millions of Americans and Canadians. (
  • The annex will result in reductions in PM as well as many of the chemicals that contribute to other air quality issues of concern such as acid rain, regional haze and visibility in the communities along the U.S.-Canada border. (
  • Criteria" air pollutants are those pollutants for which the Clean Air Act directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish air quality criteria in the form of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). (
  • With the quality of indoor air ranking highly in our lives, this second, completely, revised edition now includes 12 completely new chapters addressing both chemical and analytical aspects of organic pollutants. (
  • Forty years of Clean Air Act programs have brought steady and life-saving improvements to our air quality. (
  • However, for the tens of millions of people who suffer from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allergies and other breathing challenges, the quality of the air they are exposed to have a direct impact on their health and well-being. (
  • Understanding how poor air quality can impact our health is important for all of us, said Joseph Frasca, Senior Vice President of Marketing at EMSL Analytical, Inc. At EMSL, we offer comprehensive indoor and outdoor air testing services, sampling supplies and a wide range of air monitoring instruments. (
  • And what is probably even more important: targeting these substances would lead to large improvements in global air quality. (
  • Contaminants released from UOG sites enter the air readily during well pad development and continue for the life of the well, impacting both local and regional air quality. (
  • These confounders affect policy to control air quality" she says. (
  • With the rise of pollutants in the atmosphere, the air quality deteriorated further in the national capital on Thursday. (
  • According to reports, an increase in farm fires in Punjab, Haryana are impacting the air quality in Delhi-NCR. (
  • The Air Quality Index (AQI) is at 366 'very poor' category at ITO. (
  • For the purpose of this Regulation, the word 'Administrator' as used in Part 61, Chapter I, Title 40, of the CFR shall mean the Executive Officer of the South Coast Air Quality Management District, except that the Executive Officer shall not be empowered to approve alternate test methods or opacity limits. (
  • Other deviations from these federal standards as presented in the CFR and which were ordered by the South Coast Air Quality Management District Board to suit the needs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District are noted in the affected subpart. (
  • We currently lack scientific knowledge about how forest fires affect air quality in the surrounding area. (
  • The main goal is to support Swedish national authorities with research and development in the field of Air Quality, which implies involvement in both national and international research projects. (
  • There are air quality target values and the emissions are regulated through restrictions in legislation and international conventions . (
  • The map does not show information on air quality. (
  • The AQMS provides a harmonized approach for governments to work collaboratively to improve air quality in Canada and protect the health of Canadians and the environment. (
  • In addition to the key pollutants covered in this report, we have some background information on other pollutants that affect our air quality. (
  • However, the representativeness, and in some cases, the quality, of the available data does not allow us to draw firm conclusions on the state of these pollutants at the national level. (
  • The other pollutants are compared with the National Environmental Standards for Air Quality (NESAQ) and against the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines where they differ. (
  • Some pollutants are compared with the Ministry for the Environment's Ambient Air Quality Guidelines when they are not included in the NESAQ or WHO guidelines. (
  • These programs include the National Ambient Air Quality Standards whose creation was aimed at preventing six air pollutants. (
  • The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in fatalities or in serious, irreversible, or incapacitating illness. (
  • Poor indoor air quality can cause or contribute to the development of infections, lung cancer and chronic lung diseases such as asthma. (
  • Join over 500,000 people who receive the latest news about lung health, including COVID-19, research, air quality, inspiring stories and resources. (
  • Background: Biomass burning has been shown to be amajor source of poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in developing and higher income countries across the world. (
  • These are called "criteria" air pollutants because the Environmental Protection Agency sets human health-based and environmentally-based criteria for setting limits on the amount of these pollutants that are permissible in the ambient air. (
  • and 2) "secondary," are set at a level "requisite" to protect public welfare from "any known or anticipated effects associated with the pollutant in the ambient air," including effects on vegetation, crops, wildlife, buildings and national monuments and visibility. (
  • Association between gaseous ambient air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes in Vancouver, Canada. (
  • Derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) followed by GC analysis provides a fast and reliable way to quantify aldehydes and ketones in ambient air. (
  • The clinical trial targeting prevention is notable in that it evaluated a possible means to reduce the body burden of toxins following unavoidable exposures to pollutants. (
  • This is the first study to show that environmental exposures to specific combustion pollutants during pregnancy can result in chromosomal abnormalities in fetal tissues," said Kenneth Olden, Ph.D., the director of NIEHS. (
  • For several pollutants the decline was particularly sharp between 2008 and 2009. (
  • These tests and field instruments can be essential for identifying airborne pollutants and protecting the health and safety of people at home, school and in the work environment. (
  • Researchers monitored exposure to airborne pollutants, known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), among non-smoking African-American and Dominican mothers residing in three low-income neighborhoods of New York City - Harlem, Washington Heights and the South Bronx. (
  • Princeton University engineers have developed a new laser sensing technology that may allow soldiers to detect hidden bombs from a distance and scientists to better measure airborne environmental pollutants and greenhouse gasses. (
  • But importantly, the 'hazard ratio' (that is, the age- and year-specific risk) of developing dysmenorrhea increased by 16.7 to 33.1 fold for women and girls from the 25% of areas with the highest yearly exposure to air pollutants, compared to those from the 25% of areas with the lowest exposure. (
  • Large proportions of certain pollutants come from so-called 'diffuse' sources, which are typically emitted over large areas from often indistinct sources. (
  • Driving in cars, flying in airplanes, engaging in recreational activities, and being exposed to environmental pollutants all pose varying degrees of risk. (
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Outdoor Air Pollutants. (
  • Air pollutants can come from point source emissions (large stationary such as fossil fuel fired power plants, smelters, industrial boilers, petroleum refineries, and manufacturing facilities) and non-point (area, on-road mobile, non-road mobile, and biogenic) sources. (
  • The term " major source " means any stationary source or group of stationary sources located within a contiguous area and under common control that emits or has the potential to emit considering controls, in the aggregate, 10 tons per year or more of any hazardous air pollutant or 25 tons per year or more of any combination of hazardous air pollutants . (
  • Conclusions: These findings support the use of high efficiency air filtration units for reducing indoor PM2.5 in homes using a wood stove for primary heating. (
  • The chemicals that filter pollutants are activated via light, both artificial and natural sunlight. (
  • In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. (
  • Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. (
  • Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. (
  • This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. (
  • This "air laser" is a much more powerful tool than previously existed for remote measurements of trace amounts of chemicals in the air. (
  • ExxonMobil says Harvey has damaged at least two of its refineries, causing thousands of pounds of chemicals to be released into the air. (
  • As the Federal Office for the Environment points out, currently nine of the 12 most important air pollutants are under legal limits. (
  • Pollutant limits are kept in check by legislation to ensure that no harm is done to human beings and other living organisms. (
  • In most other nations, the reference ambient temperature for pollutant limits may be 0 °C or other values. (
  • Through the research, Ramanathan and his colleagues discovered that these pollutants are primarily composed of black carbon soot that comes from the burning of fossil fuels and biomass. (
  • But black carbon soot affects more than air temperature - it destroys millions of tons of crops annually and causes human health concerns. (