Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.SmokeSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chlorophyll Binding Proteins: A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.CaliforniaPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.AcroleinTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.GeorgiaComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.MexicoHousing: Living facilities for humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)West VirginiaBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.TaiwanEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.New JerseyRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.United StatesRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Los AngelesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.New York CityRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.TexasDichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.ItalyPentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.GermanyIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/3303)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (2/3303)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (3/3303)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/3303)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (5/3303)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. (6/3303)

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (7/3303)

We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions.  (+info)

Cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium of people exposed to urban pollution. (8/3303)

The nasal passages are a common portal of entry and are a prime site for toxicant-induced pathology. Sustained increases in regenerative cell proliferation can be a significant driving force in chemical carcinogenesis. The atmosphere in Mexico City contains a complex mixture of air pollutants and its residents are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants and potential carcinogens. We were concerned that exposure to Mexico City's atmosphere might induce cytotoxicity and increase nasal respiratory epithelial cell proliferation. Nasal biopsies were obtained for DNA cell cycle analysis from 195 volunteers. The control population consisted of 16 adults and 27 children that were residents in a Caribbean island with low pollution. The exposed Mexico City population consisted of 109 adults and 43 children. Sixty-one of the adult subjects were newly arrived in Mexico City and were followed for 25 days from their arrival. Control children, control adult and exposed Mexico City children all had similar percentages of cells in the replicative DNA synthesis phase (S phase) of the cell cycle (%S). A significant increase in %S in nasal epithelial cells was seen in exposed adult residents in Mexico City biopsied at three different dates compared with control adults. Newly arrived adults exhibited a control level of cell turnover at day 2 after coming to the city. However, at days 7, 14 and 25 they exhibited significant increases in %S. These data demonstrate an increased and sustained nasal cell turnover rate in the adult population observable in as little as 1 week of residence in Mexico City. This increase in cell proliferation is in agreement with other reports of induced pathological changes in the nasal passages of Mexico City dwellers. These observations suggest an increased potential risk factor of developing nasal neoplasms for residents of large cities with heavy pollution.  (+info)

The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as "criteria air pollutants") are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify "new" at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using volunteers in western New York for a period of three ...
Toxic air pollutants, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants, are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory disease. They can be found in gaseous, aerosol, or particulate forms. Some toxic air pollutants (e.g., mercury) are persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which means they are stored indefinitely in the body and increase over time. These toxics can deposit onto soils or surface waters, where they are taken up by plants and are ingested by animals, with concentrations increasing as the toxics move up through the food chain to humans. Toxic air pollutants include, among others, formaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; naphthalene; arsenic and metals, such as cadmium, mercury, chromium and lead. Sources of hazardous air pollutants include stationary sources, such as power plants, factories, dry cleaners, and hospitals, as well as mobile sources such as cars, ...
In this paper, it is shown that there are great differences in seasonal variations of concentrations of the main atmospheric pollutants in various parts of a large urban territory. The city of Krasnoyarsk is used as an example. For this, an observation method proposed by the authors is used. The detected differences in seasonal variations are a consequence of the microclimatic inhomogeneities of the city territory. They show the effects of breeze and orographic-type circulations on the space-time distribution of atmospheric pollutants. The investigation of the seasonal variability of concentrations of atmospheric pollutants in various parts of the city has made it possible to obtain some useful characteristics for the estimation of population exposure. ...
Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency price comparison. Find great prices for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Process Units in the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry Background Information for Final Standards, Vol. 2A - Created by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
... ; National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP); NESHAP; NESHAPS; Emission Stand
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied backwards to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies used to estimate the emissions for a specific time period will continue ...
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health impacts that may result from breathing it ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative. ...
This presentation highlights several technologies used for emissions testing that deliver part per trillion level detection limits for a variety of hazardous air pollutants. These technologies have been incorporated into mobile vans so we can offer real-time results using MAX™, StarBoost™ and PTR. Download this presentation to see the overview of these technologies and the pros and cons of each.. ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant levels than cyclists traveling in the same streets. ...
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
Estimating the long-term health impact of air pollution in a spatio-temporal ecological study requires representative concentrations of air pollutants to be constructed for each geographical unit and time period. Averaging concentrations in space and time is commonly carried out, but little is known about how robust the estimated health effects are to different aggregation functions. A second under researched question is what impact air pollution is likely to have in the future. We conducted a study for England between 2007 and 2011, investigating the relationship between respiratory hospital admissions and different pollutants: nitrogen dioxide (NO2); ozone (O3); particulate matter, the latter including particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5), and less than 10 micrometers (PM10); and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Bayesian Poisson regression models accounting for localised spatio-temporal autocorrelation were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of pollution on disease
Matter can neither be created nor destroyed. But when matter is transformed from one state to another, in the process of production, the earth is not capable of absorbing and assimilating many waste that are dumped on it. This results in pollution. Furthermore, an increase in the level of pollution over time may create problems for sustainable economic development. Therefore, the society has to find ways and means to resolve the conflict, between the increase in production on the one hand and the preservation of the environment on the other, when considering the inter-generational equity with respect to environmental quality.. This paper deals with industrial air pollutant which is a fund pollutant. Fund pollutants are pollutants for which the environment has some absorptive capacity. Therefore the aim of pollution control, when dealing with air pollutants, is to keep the level of pollutants below the absorptive capacity of the environment. The paper deals with the various policy instruments, ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
Background & Aims: There is on-going and growing concern regarding acute and chronic human health effects associated with exposure to combustion-related air pollutants. This thesis describes the development and evaluation of novel methods for assessing exposure to combustion-related air pollutants [particulate matter (PM),black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)] in indoor and outdoor environments.Methods: The methods that were developed and evaluated included: mass and darkness/colour analysis of airborne particle samples; passive samplers; portable real time monitors; and GC-MS analysis of particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs). These methods were used to measure PM, BC and NO₂ in indoor offices and outdoor streets in Glasgow city centre, and an industrial hydraulic fracturing test site in Poland.Results: Detailed evaluation and calibration of novel methods for darkness measurement of low mass particulate material specimens collected on filters were completed to ...
Introduction. The direct and indirect adverse effects caused by atmospheric pollution on the environment and human health necessitate the measurement and reporting of air quality on local, regional and global scales. The measurement and improvement of air quality in developed countries are considered a priority. In developing countries less emphasis is placed on environmental issues, because resources are mostly utilised for economic growth. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with elements of a developed country. Globally, southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollutants, for example a prominent NO2 hotspot is seen on global maps of NO2 satellite retrievals over the South African Highveld; based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect.1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised4 and are now ...
HEUSCHNUPFEN + POLLENALLERGIE (PATHOLOGIE); STAUB (LUFTVERUNREINIGUNG); WIRKUNG VON UNGEWÖHNLICHER LUFTZUSAMMENSETZUNG UND LUFTFREMDSTOFFEN AUF DAS ATMUNGSSYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGIE); HAY FEVER + POLLEN ALLERGY (PATHOLOGY); DUST (AIR POLLUTION); EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL AIR COMPOSITION AND AIR POLLUTANTS ON RESPIRATION AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGY ...
In the metropolitan area of Barcelona, as well as in other Spanish cities, air quality is getting worse by the year. At the same time, projections of temperature and rainfall alert us to future increases in both parameters.1 In this context, studies assessing the influence of climate and air pollution in children, particularly in relation to respiratory diseases, are necessary. A recent systematic review confirmed the association between exposure to air pollutants (particulate matter with diameters ,2.5μm [PM2.5] and ,10μm [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2] and sulfur dioxide [SO2]) and the risk of hospital admission due to bronchiolitis.2 A study conducted in primary health care centres in Madrid concluded that NO2 levels (particularly those exceeding 40μg/m3) were associated with increases in paediatric respiratory disease.3 To our knowledge, no similar studies have been done in Barcelona.. As a pilot study, we analysed data for 391 patients from the metropolitan area of Barcelona admitted with ...
On June 12, 2008, EPA issued final national air toxics standards for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the plating and polishing industry. The requirements of this final rule apply to existing and new area sources in the plating and polishing industry. The final rule will affect an estimated 2,900 existing plating and polishing facilities and applies to plating and polishing tanks, dry mechanical polishing operations, and thermal spraying operations that use or emit compounds of one or more of the following metal toxic air pollutants: cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. The final rule includes management practices such as the use of wetting agent/fume suppressants. It requires equipment standards such as the use of tank covers or control devices, and the capture and control of emissions from thermal spraying and dry mechanical polishing. EPA amended this final rule in September 2011 to clarify certain aspects of the 2008 rule.. ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. T2 - Milestone 2: Setting-up domains and approaches for the four target domains Trbovlje, Celje, Murska Sobota and Ljubljana. AU - Uhrner, Ulrich. AU - Jost, Silvia. AU - Reifeltshammer, Raphael Jakob. PY - 2019/11/15. Y1 - 2019/11/15. M3 - Bericht für Auftraggeber. BT - Activity Report ARSO SINICA - Implementa-tion & Validation of high resolution flow field & air pollutant dispersion models. ER - ...
Topic : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition. Presented by : Dr. Pandurangappa C, C M Suresha, Lakshminarayanachari K, M Siddalinga Prasad. Other Details : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition International journal of engineering, sciences and Technology Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35-143.. Category : ...
Throughout the world, urban and agricultural communities have become more spatially intertwined resulting in blurred land use boundaries. Thousands of persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from primary and secondary sources.
Lung health is directly impacted by the air we breathe; learn about air pollutant health risks and the Clean Air Act from the Firm today.
This webinar showcases data disclosed by subnational governments on short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) action from the Europe region to CDP, and is the first in series of webinars providing feedback from 3 regions around the world. Information will also be shared on how cities, states and regions can join the BreatheLife campaign to raise awareness of the health and climate benefits from reducing SLCPs and other air pollutants.. CDP is the official reporting platform for C40 Cities, supporting almost 90% of C40 cities in annual reporting. In addition, CDP also serves as an official reporting platform for the Compact of Mayors and the Under2 Coalition.. The reporting of actions taken by states and regions to reduce short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) emissions directly supports the implementation of the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, country action plans (including Nationally Determined Contributions - NDCs) and sectoral plans to effectively tackle climate change and air ...
Dr Lena Weissert from University of Auckland explains her research to better measure our exposure to air pollutants as we go about our daily lives.
Information on the environment for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public
Toxic Air Pollutants Sources Abstract: There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or sectors.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" by people in this website by year, and whether "Air Pollutants, Radioactive" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Air pollution now ranks as the worlds fourth leading cause of death. About 5.5 million deaths in 2013 trace to just one type, called particulates.
This thesis focuses on some of the limitations and difficulties that exist when it comes to quantifying the human health effects that arise as a result of air pollution exposure. The following four issues are particularly analysed and discussed: 1) The measurement techniques used for carbonaceous particles and their lack of consistency; 2) Do the health risks associated with exposure to PM10 depend on the content of elemental carbon in the aerosol?; 3) Trends in air pollutants and the health effects that arise as a result of changed exposure to the measured pollutants; 4) The associations between the measured concentrations of different air pollutants in Stockholm and the daily number deaths; 5) Air quality indicators and health outcomes as basis for an air quality health index (AQHI).. The method that has been used is largely based on empirical data analysis, where further statistical processing has been used in order to clarify the scientific issues. The overall conclusions are the following: ...
Geosyntec aids clients in determining the performance and cost of air pollution control techniques designed to reduce or eliminate their emissions of...
Methods for estimating cumulative ambient air pollution concentrations for individuals enrolled in an epidemiological cohort study are described and studied. Monthly interpolations from fixed-site monitoring stations in California to zip code centroids were used. The precision of the interpolation methods for total suspended particulates and...
Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants accelerates the development of emphysema and age-related decline in lung function, new research shows. The 18-year study involving 5780 adults across several centres in the US found a statistically significant association between baseline ambient concentrations of ambient ozone (O3; 0.13 per 3 parts per billion), fine particulate matter (PM2.5; .... ...
This action promulgates national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for existing and new facilities that apply surface coatings to large appliances. These final standards implement section 112(d) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) which requires the Administrator to regulate...
Since implementation of the Clear Air Act of 1970 people across the country breathe healthier air because of much lower concentrations of carbon monoxide, acidic gases of sulfur and nitrogen, lead, particulates, and ozone. Furthermore, ecosystems in the eastern United States are recovering from the effects of acidic precipitation. Why was it so successful?
The provisions of Part 61, Chapter 1, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations in effect October 12, 1983, are hereby adopted by reference and made a part of these rules and regulations. For the purpose of this rule, the word Administrator as used in these national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants shall mean the Control Officer of the District. Category types subject to NESHAPS are as follows:. ...
Establishing an optimal indicator to communicate health risks of multiple air pollutants to public is much important. The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) has been developed in many countries as a communication tool of multiple air pollutants related health risks. However, the current AQHI is based on the sum of the excess health risks which are typically derived from the single-pollutant statistical models. Such a strategy may overestimate the joint effect of multiple pollutants. We proposed an improved strategy to construct the AQHI based on a Bayesian multipollutant weighted model. Using this strategy, two improved indices - Bayesian multipollutant AQHI (BMP-AQHI) and Bayesian multipollutant AQHI with seasonal specificity (SBMP-AQHI) were calculated to present the multiple pollutants related health risks to the cardiovascular system based on data collected in Chengdu, China during 2013 to 2018. The two improved indices were compared to current Air Quality Index (AQI) and AQHI to evaluate the ...
On October 8, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins (APR). Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for reconsideration of the final rule. The EPA is reconsidering and requesting public comment on issues related to the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards for continuous process vents (CPVs) at existing affected sources. The EPA is proposing to revise the MACT standard for back-end CPVs at existing affected sources based on hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions test data for back-end CPVs at existing sources for this source category submitted by petitioners. The EPA is also soliciting comments regarding the need to revise the standard for front-end CPVs at existing sources, and to extend the compliance date for the proposed revised emission limit for back-end CPVs at existing sources. Additionally, the EPA is proposing ...
We continue to work on ways to make this report better for the users and to provide more explanations as to how the data are collected, limitations, caveats, etc. Please provide any comments or suggestions to EIUG Reports [email protected] Thank you ...
We continue to work on ways to make this report better for the users and to provide more explanations as to how the data are collected, limitations, caveats, etc. Please provide any comments or suggestions to EIUG Reports [email protected] Thank you ...
This report is the first revision of CONCAWE Report 3/07, which itself replaced Report No. 9/05R Air Pollutant Emission Estimation Methods for EPER and PRTR Reporting by Refineries. It provides algorithms to permit emission estimates to be made by refineries to meet the reporting requirements of the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) regarding pollutant emissions to air. ...
needs update] "NAAQS Table". Criteria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016-12-20. "Ozone Protection under Title VI of the Clean Air Act". ... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES-Water ... EPA promulgated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to establish basic air pollution control requirements across ... This includes the minimization of waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. Design ...
However, under the act, major sources of hazardous air pollutants are required to obtain a "Title V" permit to ensure that the ... "Overview of the Clean Air Act and Air Pollution". EPA. 2017-04-28. "Operating Permits Issued under Title V of the Clean Air Act ... Any major pollution sources must abide by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), by using the ... EPA (2012). "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities." Code of ...
"Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ... PCBs Air: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, asbestos, ground-level ozone, lead (from ... "Basic Information about Lead Air Pollution." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Mar. 2017. Web. Beaubier, Jeff, and Barry ...
"NAAQS Table". Crieria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016. "Fact Sheets-National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP ... and the Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (APEI) in Canada compile annual emissions of air pollutants that contribute to smog, ... addressed additional toxic wastewater pollutants, and regulated hazardous air pollutant emissions as well. Because both air and ... The air emission regulations in the CR, a component of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) ...
"Recycling of Electronic Wastes in China and India: Workplace and Environmental Contamination" (PDF). "Air Pollutants Report". ... Some open air workshops in China use acid to recover valuable materials from e-waste and wastewater is transported to drainage ... Cadmium is a rare metal that is very toxic to plants, animals, and humans and is released into the air by incineration or ... As one of the most toxic and popular metals used in electronic products, mercury is an e-waste pollutant that one can be ...
As an air pollutant[edit]. Sulfur dioxide is a noticeable component in the atmosphere, especially following volcanic eruptions. ... Sulfur dioxide is a major air pollutant and has significant impacts upon human health.[40] In addition, the concentration of ... Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air.[15] ... Shah PS, Balkhair T, Knowledge Synthesis Group on Determinants of Preterm/LBW Births (2011). "Air pollution and birth outcomes ...
"Air Pollutants of Concern". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved January 26, 2013. http://www.cpima. ... Paper production also leads to air pollution, as paper manufacturing releases nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ... and dissolved organic matter that are classified as pollutants. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or ...
"The Key Air Pollutants". Air-Quality.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-15. ... In absence of more detailed data, this can be a very coarse parameter for pollution (e.g. for summer smog or indoor air ... An important subset of NMVOCs are the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Methane is excluded in air-pollution contexts because ...
... dispersion of air pollutants; among many other socioeconomic and environmental spheres. However, for wind energy near-surface ... Mazzarella A (2007) The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: the Earth́s rotation and atmospheric circulation ... or air quality and human health, among many others. The attribution of this weakening of terrestrial near-surface wind speed is ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. *US EPA Air Pollution Training Institute developed in collaboration ... As the gas swirls around the chamber, pollutants are removed when they impact on liquid droplets, are thrown to the walls, and ... They use the features of both the dry cyclone and the spray chamber to remove pollutants from gas streams. Generally, the inlet ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. Cyclonic ...
"Health Effects Notebook For Hazardous Air Pollutants". Epa.gov. Retrieved 21 September 2017. New Jersey State Department of ... "Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants - US EPA". Epa.gov. Retrieved 17 October 2017. ...
Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. Institute of Clean Air Companies - national trade association ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. A number of ... Air Pollution Control Technology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. McIlvaine Company. 1974. The Wet Scrubber Handbook. ... Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control. They are very similar to spray towers in design and ...
"2 Major Air Pollutants Increase in Beijing". The New York Times. 3 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. John Upton (25 July 2013 ... China's Environmental Movement Air Pollution in China A flash animation assessing air degree of pollution in China A Short ... As of 2013 Beijing, which lies in a topographic bowl, has significant industry, and heats with coal, is subject to air ... Fighting for Breath: Living Morally and Dying of Cancer in a Chinese Village (University of Hawaii Press, 2013) Real-time air ...
"2 Major Air Pollutants Increase in Beijing". The New York Times. April 3, 2013. Retrieved April 4, 2013. Bloomberg News (14 ... As of 2013, Beijing, which lies in a topographic bowl, has significant industry, and heats with coal, is subject to air ... According to Jared Diamond, the six main categories of environmental problems of China are: air pollution, water problems, soil ... Many of the Chinese citizens started to wonder if air pollution is the cause of the increase of lung cancer. This question ...
Anthropogenic pollutants reduce air quality and visibility. Climate change caused by human activities that emit greenhouse ... A hot surface warms the air above it causing it to expand and lower the density and the resulting surface air pressure. The ... Air pressure and wind. Retrieved on 8 May 2008. Carlyle H. Wash, Stacey H. Heikkinen, Chi-Sann Liou, and Wendell A. Nuss. A ... The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983. The ...
Verones, B; Oortgiesen, M (December 2001). "Neurogenic inflammation and particulate matter (PM) air pollutants". ...
VOCs are common air pollutants found in America. ("Volatile Organic Compounds", 2017) The VOCs and SVOCs found on site included ...
"Tianjin detects harmful air pollutants, Beijing stays clear". China Daily. 13 August 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015. "Timeline ... Government personnel set up twelve temporary monitoring stations near the blast site with above-normal levels of pollutants ... It handles hazardous chemicals within the Port of Tianjin, such as compressed air, flammable and corrosive substances, ... Julia Glum (15 August 2015). "Tianjin 'A Ghost Town' After Explosions, Evacuations Amid Concern Over Chemicals in Air". ...
WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization. Kim, K-H; Jahan, S A; Kabir, E ( ... WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization. Johnsen, Anders R.; Wick, Lukas ... Substantially higher outdoor air, soil, and water concentrations of PAHs have been measured in Asia, Africa, and Latin America ... Vane, C.H.; Harrison, I.; Kim, A.W.; Moss-Hayes, V.; Vickers, B.P.; Horton, B.P. (2008). "Status of organic pollutants in ...
"The Grasshopper Effect and Tracking Hazardous Air Pollutants". The Science and the Environment Bulletin. Environment Canada ( ... DDT is a persistent organic pollutant that is readily adsorbed to soils and sediments, which can act both as sinks and as long- ... The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which took effect in 2004, put a global ban on several persistent ... A worldwide ban on agricultural use was formalized under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, but its ...
... and estimation of gaseous pollutants in air". Anal. Chem. 23 (10): 1431-1440. doi:10.1021/ac60058a020. Haagen-Smit, A. J. (June ... and estimation of gaseous pollutants in air". Anal. Chem. 23 (10): 1431-1440. doi:10.1021/ac60058a020. Social Security ... This research produced valuable information about the presence and types of hydrocarbons in Los Angeles air, and about the ...
The air pollutants are from cars and wood burning. The common measured air pollutants are Carbon Monoxide and Sulfur Dioxide. ... "Environmental issues: air." [1][permanent dead link] Canada, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. [2][permanent dead link] www.ec.gc.ca[ ... Environmental issues in Canada include air and water pollution, climate change, mining and logging. As with many other ... countries air pollution is a problem in metropolitan areas. ...
There are active trading programs in several air pollutants. For greenhouse gases, which cause climate change, permit units are ... Global warming portal Ecology portal Environment portal Acid Rain Retirement Fund AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission ... "Emissions Trading Worldwide ICAP Status Report 2015" (PDF). "Acid Rain Program 2007 Progress Report". Clean Air Markets - Air ... because the impact of these pollutants may differ by location. The same amount of a regional pollutant can exert a very high ...
Higher Air Pollution Scores indicate vehicles that emit lower amounts of pollutants that cause smog relative to other vehicles ... "Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)". Advisorybodies.doh.gov.uk. 2009-11-26. Retrieved 2010-12-12. ... To earn the SmartWay designation, a vehicle must earn at least a 6 on the Air Pollution Score and at least a 6 on the ... Vehicle pollutants have been linked to human ill health including the incidence of respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease and ...
Biomonitoring of air pollutants can be passive or active. Passive methods observe plants growing naturally within the area of ... Active methods detect the presence of air pollutants by placing test plants of known response and genotype into the study area ... Tingey, David T. (1989). "Bio indicators in Air Pollution Research - Applications and Constraints". Biologic Markers of Air- ... A Foliose Lichen as a Potential Bio-indicator/Bio-monitor of Air Pollution in Philippines: An Update by Isidro A. T. Savillo ...
Hazardous air pollutants. *IARC Group 3 carcinogens. *Commodity chemicals. Skauk't categeries: *Pages wi script errors ...
Acid rain is created when rain mixes with pollution in the air. Pollution fills the air with an invisible gas called sulfur ... These pollutants cause acid rain.. Content for this question contributed by David Cayer, resident of, Springfield, Hampden ... This gas is mainly a result of coal burning.) Sulfur dioxide combines with water in the air and sunlight to form a weak ... Over the past few decades, humans have released so many different chemicals into the air that they have changed the mix of ...
EPA Criteria Pollutants. The EPA has identified six pollutants as "criteria" air pollutants because it regulates them by ... These six pollutants are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ground-level ozone, particle pollution (often referred to as ... The EPA has identified six pollutants as ... Air Pollutants. * Wildfire Smokeplus icon *Guidance for Health ...
Contact for Criteria Air Pollutants. MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact Phone Mark Wert Call MassDEP Federal Air ... Criteria Air Pollutants. Learn about six common air pollutants that are found everywhere and emitted from a range of sources: ... and science-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants that contribute to smog, acid rain, ... Learn more about lead in the air and how it affects our health and environment from EPA: Lead (Pb) Air Pollution ...
There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or ... Connecticuts Management of Toxic Air Pollutants. Air Toxic Pollutants Sources. There are many sources of toxic air pollutants ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants , What Connecticut is Doing About Air Toxics ... of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources.. Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than ...
... these are pollutants that at sufficient concentrations and exposure are known or suspected to cause cancer, other serious ... Toxic Air Pollutants Also known as air toxics, these are pollutants that at sufficient concentrations and exposure are known or ... has established health-based National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) addressing more than 180 air ... MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact Phone Mark Wert Call MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact, Mark Wert at ...
Many toxic air pollutants can also enter the food and water supplies.. Toxic air pollutants can cause cancer. Some toxic air ... Major Air Pollutants. Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead toâ among other thingsâ ... Toxic air pollutants. A large number of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause cancer. Some important pollutants in ... Some toxic air pollutants, like asbestos and formaldehyde, can be found in building materials and can lead to indoor air ...
Join environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air pollutants management. This year in ... Save the date for the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants Conference!. We are excited to announce that the Odors and Air Pollutants ... The official Odors and Air Pollutants Conference hashtag is #WEFOdorsAir. Be sure to use it in your social media posts, and ... We are calling the water sectors thought-leaders and experts to share their knowledge at the 2021 Odors and Air Pollutants ...
Learn about dangerous air pollutants that can cause physical harm to Iowans and our nearby environments. The Iowa DNR offers ... Air Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants. The Clean Air Act regulates six common air pollutants: particle pollution (particulate ... These pollutants are called hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or air toxics. Air toxics are generally more localized than the ... Hazardous Air Pollutants. U.S. EPA and Iowa DNR regulate 187 air pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious ...
Air pollution: the "classical" pollutants Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 :1074 ... Air pollution: the "classical" pollutants. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1981; 282 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.282.6269.1074 ( ...
... ... The Effects of Early-Life Air Pollution Exposure on Brain Development * Enhancing Vesicular Packaging May Offer New Therapeutic ... This inexpensive food-based intervention may provide a way to decrease the long-term health risks of air pollution. ... Rapid and Sustainable Detoxication of Airborne Pollutants by Broccoli Sprout Beverage: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial ...
Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... Cancer Risk from Traffic-Emitted Air Pollutants. In: Gryning SE., Chaumerliac N. (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its ... Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... E.P.A., 1984, Review and evaluation of the evidence for cancer associated with air pollution, EPA-450/5-83-006R.Google Scholar ...
We really need to conduct more experiments to find out if these pollutants, or even certain plants, might similarly disrupt ... The total combination of dynamic odors, including floral signature odors as well as anthropogenic pollutants, can affect the ... and even pollutants given off from vehicle exhaust, can disrupt the moths behavior, University of Washington biology ...
... conference will once again bring together environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air ... pollutants management. The biennial Odor Conference is designed to educate practitioners, facility owners, operators, ... I. Odor and Air Regulation. J. Utility Odor Management and Planning. K. Community Relations and Odor Complaints. L. Odor/Air ... B. Air Dispersion Modeling. C. Collection System Odor Control. D. Biological Odor Control. E. Corrosion Control. F. ...
Exposure to air pollutants in English homes.. Raw GJ, Coward SK, Brown VM, Crump DR. ... BRE has conducted a national representative survey of air pollutants in 876 homes in England, designed to increase knowledge of ... the most appropriate approach to reducing the risk of hazardous exposure to air pollutants in homes. ... This would need to be considered when interpreting time series studies of the effect of outdoor air pollution on health. It is ...
... silicon and other fibers and measuring only one to three millimeters thickthat captures fine air pollutants and heavy metals ...
... will help reduce the worlds levels of poor air quality and cut down on air pollutants in homes. ... IKEA has discovered a unique way to decrease indoor pollutants with a new air purifying curtain. The Sweden-based company has ... IKEA hopes that its new curtain, called the GUNRID, will help reduce those numbers and cut down on air pollutants in homes. ... IKEA has discovered a unique way to decrease indoor pollutants with a new air purifying curtain. The Sweden-based company has ...
Odors and Air Pollutants Conference 2020 Technical Program We are pleased to be hosting 10 technical sessions and two pre- ... conference workshops at the Odors and Air Pollutants Conference, taking place March 15-18, 2020, in Cincinnati, Ohio. ... Richard Pope, Hazen and Sawyer; Ryan Cassel, Hartzell Air Movement *10:45 AM: Corrosive odors and their successful conveyance. ... Richard Pope, Hazen and Sawyer; Ryan Cassel, Hartzell Air Movement *10:45 AM: Corrosive odors and their successful conveyance. ...
... pollutants from everyday objects and appliances in their homes, claims landmark new report ... Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including ... Secret air pollutants in our homes claim thousands of lives. Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, ... Thousands more people than previously thought are dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including pollutants ...
Criteria air Pollutants (CAP), or criteria pollutants, are a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, and other health ... The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants ... Petitioners proposed that EPA list carbon dioxide as a criteria air pollutant, as outlined in the Clean Air Act. They also ... air_act/pdfs/Petition_GHG_pollution_cap_12-2-2009.pdf. US Environmental Protection Agency - Criteria Air Pollutants European ...
... , Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution. ... Outdoor Air Pollutants Aka: Outdoor Air Pollutants, Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index * Carbon Monoxide ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index ...
Toxic Air Pollutants Introduction Background Information on Air Toxics Air Toxics Sources What Connecticut Is Doing About Air ... Mobile Source Programs Small Business Assistance Programs Air Toxics Air Pollution Trends The Next Steps For Controlling Air ... Connecticut Air Toxics Control Regulation/Clean Air Act Amendments b. Compliance Assurance c. Monitoring Initiatives d. ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants - Table of contents Abstract: Connecticuts Management of ...
New version data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-8/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-2 was ... Transport emissions of air pollutants This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ...
Enter your email address where to send Air pollutants and global effects PDF when ready. * The email is only used for the ...
EPA tracks trends in six key pollutants called criteria air pollutants.. Explore air quality trends interactively - Our ... National Air Quality: Status and Trends of Key Air Pollutants. Contact Us ... Our Nations Air: Status and Trends Through 2019. (link will open in a new tab or window) ... Nations Air: Status and Trends Through 2019. (link will open in a new tab or window) ...
This helps in the prevention of deadly harmful effects of air pollution. ... Cryogenics in air purifiers freeze the outdoor air pollutants and purify it. ... Air Pollution. Nearly 2.4 million deaths every year are attributable to air pollution. Air pollutants may be solid particles, ... Breathing Dirty Air may Lead to Kidney Failure. Breathing in unclean air due to increasing air pollution could cause kidney ...
  • Over the past few decades, humans have released so many different chemicals into the air that they have changed the mix of gases in the atmosphere. (juniorsbook.com)
  • Ozone (O3): Ozone found on the surface-level, also known as tropospheric ozone is also regulated by the NAAQS under the Clean Air Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • The GCARE results show a clear trend with significantly higher levels of air pollutants in winter months than in summer or monsoon periods, with the exception of ozone levels. (yahoo.com)
  • Air pollutants can come from fine particles, like vehicle exhaust and soot, gases such as ozone and carbon monoxide, smoke from tobacco and stoves, as well as fumes released from the burning of coal, oil, kerosene, everyday household cleaning products and paints. (epa.gov)
  • Ozone in the ambient air - commonly referred to as smog - is not emitted directly by any source. (4cleanair.org)
  • The scientific team examined associations of mortality from cancer at 29 sites with long-term residential exposure to three ambient pollutants: PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3). (hindustantimes.com)
  • Ozone is not emitted directly into the air, but is created by a chemical reaction between two precursors - oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) - in the presence of sunlight. (airquality.org)
  • Exposure levels to some of the pollutants - and to the secondary pollutants formed when some of the products mix with ozone - may exceed regulatory guidelines when a large surface is cleaned in a small room or when the products are used regularly, resulting in chronic exposure, according to the study. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Four years in the making, the team's 330-page study and report, "Indoor Air Chemistry: Cleaning Agents, Ozone and Toxic Air Contaminants," was posted online by the ARB on Wednesday, May 10. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The primary constituent of smog, ozone enters the indoor environment from infiltration of outdoor air, but is also produced indoors by some office machines such as copiers or printers, and by some devices marketed as "air purifiers" that purposely emit ozone into the indoor environment. (rxpgnews.com)
  • misc{etde_7233984, title = {Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract} author = {Omachi, S, and Kita, H} abstractNote = {The effect of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, and formaldehyde on the ciliary activity of an excised specimen of the trachea of a guinea pig was investigated. (osti.gov)
  • The main focus will be on particles including soot, but we will also be looking at ground-level ozone and other air pollutants. (smhi.se)
  • Ground-level ozone is a secondary pollutant produced when nitrogen oxides react with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the presence of sunlight. (mapleridge.ca)
  • Ozone in the troposphere (ground-level) visibly contaminates the air, contributing to the hazy smog that characterizes many major urban areas. (mapleridge.ca)
  • However, due to several factors, including new regulations, process changes and economic factors, the latest information from 1999 indicates that only 6% of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources. (ct.gov)
  • By UC Berkeley, When used indoors under certain conditions, many common household cleaners and air fresheners emit toxic pollutants at levels that may lead to health risks, according to a new study by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The idea is a prototype filter with peanut shells, which cultivates the microorganisms to degrade toxic pollutants into carbon dioxide and water, thereby achieving clean air. (nanowerk.com)
  • Apart from the firecrackers, crop burning in Punjab and Haryana have also been identified as major pollutants scouring the air and finding way into the lungs. (org.in)
  • Some major pollutants are not directly poisonous but can harm the environment over a longer period of time . (jrank.org)
  • The petition further explains how reducing emissions of major pollutants from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which are massive industrial facilities confining thousands or even millions of animals in warehouse-like conditions, will improve human health, reduce suffering of farm animals, protect habitat for wildlife, and reduce the effects of climate change and other environmental problems. (commondreams.org)
  • The clinical trial targeting prevention is notable in that it evaluated a possible means to reduce the body burden of toxins following unavoidable exposures to pollutants. (scienceblog.com)
  • This is the first study to show that environmental exposures to specific combustion pollutants during pregnancy can result in chromosomal abnormalities in fetal tissues," said Kenneth Olden, Ph.D., the director of NIEHS. (scienceblog.com)
  • A new article in Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, the scientific journal of the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) shows a significant association between multiple prenatal and early life exposures to indoor pollutants and the degree of allergic sensitivity in 2-year-olds. (enn.com)
  • Because most children are exposed to more than one pollutant or allergen, we examined the relationship between multiple exposures and allergic sensitizations at 2 years of age," says Mallory Gallant, MSc, lead author of the study. (enn.com)
  • Maternal exposures to mean daily air pollutant concentration, derived from 76 fixed air quality monitoring stations within the 12-week period prior to pregnancy and during the 1st and 2nd trimesters, were assessed by the spatial analyst method (i.e., ordinary kriging) with the ArcGIS software. (mdpi.com)
  • The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. (epa.gov)
  • This book is divided into four clearly defined parts: measuring organic indoor pollutants, investigation concepts and quality guidelines, field studies, and emission studies. (ebooks.com)
  • The authors cover physico-chemical fundamentals of organic pollutants, relevant definitions and terminology, emission sources, sampling techniques and instrumentation, exposure assessment as well as methods for control. (ebooks.com)
  • The Government of Canada has proposed, for the first time, industrial air pollutant emission legislation for some sectors of the economy, including certain categories of stationary engines. (dieselnet.com)
  • Because criteria were established to limit their emission , these materials are sometimes referred to as "criteria pollutants. (jrank.org)
  • Nevertheless, the EPA does not currently require these animal factories to meet any testing, performance or emission standards under the Clean Air Act. (commondreams.org)
  • Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a method allowing a quantitative evaluation of the number of excess cancer cases caused by individual substances is of great interest. (springer.com)
  • The 51 Parties of the Convention, including the EU, are obliged to report emissions data for a large number of air pollutants. (ecnmag.com)
  • The research, by a team of scientists from the Nottingham Trent University in the UK and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, involved studying the effectiveness of cryogenics for indoor air purification, by removing the gaseous pollutants and tiny particulates caused by haze. (medindia.net)
  • Learn about six common air pollutants that are found everywhere and emitted from a range of sources: homes, motor vehicles, industry, power plants, and more. (mass.gov)
  • The chemicals that filter pollutants are activated via light, both artificial and natural sunlight. (inhabitat.com)
  • The pollutant can be emitted directly at the emissions source, for example, from a smokestack of an electrical power plant or as the result of reactions between chemicals (precursors) as they are transported through the atmosphere. (epa.gov)
  • The annex will result in reductions in PM as well as many of the chemicals that contribute to other air quality issues of concern such as acid rain, regional haze and visibility in the communities along the U.S.-Canada border. (epa.gov)
  • The exact composition and concentration of pollutants depend on the source, the type of fuel and/or chemicals involved and, in some cases, the meteorological conditions under which the pollutant is emitted. (4cleanair.org)
  • Until stronger standards to reduce toxic emissions from coal and fossil fuel burning industries are implemented, harmful toxic chemicals will continue to be released into the air of our communities, threatening public health. (nrdc.org)
  • In addition, a complex mixture of chemicals, including heavy metals, naturally-occurring radioactive chemicals, and organic compounds are released from the formations and can enter air and water. (springer.com)
  • Using systematic methods, electronic searches of PubMed and Web of Science were conducted to identify studies that measured chemicals in air near sites of UOG activity. (springer.com)
  • Evaluation of 48 studies that sampled air near sites of UOG activity identified 106 chemicals detected in two or more studies. (springer.com)
  • This book presents WHO guidelines for the protection of public health from risks due to a number of chemicals commonly present in indoor air. (who.int)
  • This "air laser" is a much more powerful tool than previously existed for remote measurements of trace amounts of chemicals in the air. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ExxonMobil says Harvey has damaged at least two of its refineries, causing thousands of pounds of chemicals to be released into the air. (democracynow.org)
  • Scented detergents and air fresheners may smell good, but they emit dozens of chemicals. (pardeehomes.com)
  • The report also finds long term exposure to chemicals in the air in the industrial area, individually and in combination, is unlikely to cause harmful noncancer health effects. (cdc.gov)
  • ATSDR reviewed outdoor air data gathered in 2000 and 2001 from several locations in the West Louisville area and screened more than 175 chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Joshi concurs, "To be able to breathe air that is free of gases like benzene, a person will have to carry respirators which weigh a few tonnes, something that is practically impossible. (org.in)
  • Exposure to air pollutants in English homes. (nih.gov)
  • It is also of some significance that the critical factors are related much more to sources than to ventilation: source control is therefore, as would be expected, the most appropriate approach to reducing the risk of hazardous exposure to air pollutants in homes. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to known factors - such as low birth weight, lack of breastfeeding, overcrowded household, and presence of smokers -, exposure to air pollutants is also associated with hospitalizations for respiratory diseases, especially pneumonia. (scielo.br)
  • Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air are issued by various national and state (or provincial) environmental protection and occupational health and safety agencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these types of pollutants are reduced quickly, the long-term negative effects of climate change can be reduced by nearly 50% in the next 20-30 years. (globe.gov)
  • These pollutants are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. (4cleanair.org)
  • Omachi, S, and Kita, H. Effect of air pollutants on ciliary activity of respiratory tract. (osti.gov)
  • Air masks can only give partial protection, additionally those who are going through some respiratory conditions will find it difficult to use the masks for prolonged periods as it hinders breathing and oxygen intake," says Anumita Roychowdhury, executive director of Research and Advocacy at Center for Science and Environment (CSE). (org.in)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Outdoor Air Pollutants. (fpnotebook.com)
  • These are called "criteria" air pollutants because the Environmental Protection Agency sets human health-based and environmentally-based criteria for setting limits on the amount of these pollutants that are permissible in the ambient air. (iowadnr.gov)
  • The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as needing standards on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • we encourage our readers to check out what the Environmental Protection Agency suggests that we as consumers can do to reduce transportation-related air pollutants in this Consumer Information Action Guide . (affairs.com)
  • Previous studies conducted by Perera and colleagues showed that combustion-related air pollutants significantly reduce fetal growth, which may affect cognitive development during childhood. (scienceblog.com)
  • After controlling for potential confounders and other air pollutants, an increase in pre-pregnancy exposure of 1 inter-quartile range (IQR) for PM 2.5 and SO 2 was found to associate with a significantly elevated odds ratio (OR) of GDM at 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.18 and 1.37 (95% CI 1.30-1.45), respectively. (mdpi.com)