Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Oxidants, Photochemical: Compounds that accept electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction. The reaction is induced by or accelerated by exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the spectrum of visible or ultraviolet light.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Respiratory Tract DiseasesWater Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cities: A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Meteorological Concepts: The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.SmokeSoil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Tillandsia: A plant genus of the family BROMELIACEAE. Members contain 3-methoxy-5-hydroxyflavonols.Embolism, Air: Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Poisson Distribution: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.Extraction and Processing Industry: The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.CaliforniaPolychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.AcroleinTobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.GeorgiaComplex Mixtures: Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.MexicoHousing: Living facilities for humans.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.HydrocarbonsCarcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Air Conditioning: The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)West VirginiaBiodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.TaiwanEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.DNA Adducts: The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.New JerseyRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.United StatesRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hexachlorobenzene: An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Los AngelesChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.New York CityRespiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.TexasDichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene: An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Air Ionization: The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.ItalyPentachlorophenol: An insecticide and herbicide that has also been used as a wood preservative. Pentachlorphenol is a widespread environmental pollutant. Both chronic and acute pentachlorophenol poisoning are medical concerns. The range of its biological actions is still being actively explored, but it is clearly a potent enzyme inhibitor and has been used as such as an experimental tool.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.GermanyIndustrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.EuropeTemperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/3303)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Asthma visits to emergency rooms and soybean unloading in the harbors of Valencia and A Coruna, Spain. (2/3303)

Soybean unloading in the harbor of Barcelona, Spain, has been associated with large increases in the numbers of asthma patients treated in emergency departments between 1981 and 1987. In this study, the association between asthma and soybean unloading in two other Spanish cities, Valencia and A Coruna, was assessed. Asthma admissions were retrospectively identified for the period 1993-1995, and harbor activities were investigated in each location. Two approaches were used to assess the association between asthma and soybean unloading: One used unusual asthma days (days with an unusually high number of emergency room asthma visits) as an effect measure, and the other estimated the relative increase in the daily number of emergency room visits by autoregressive Poisson regression, adjusted for meteorologic variables, seasonality, and influenza incidence. No association between unusual asthma days and soya unloading was observed in either Valencia or A Coruna, except for one particular dock in Valencia. When the association between unloaded products and the daily number of emergency asthma visits was studied, a statistically significant association was observed for unloading of soya husk (relative risk = 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.94) and soybeans (relative risk = 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.59) in A Coruna. In Valencia, a statistical association was found only for the unloading of soybeans at two particular docks. Although these findings support the notion that asthma outbreaks are not a common hidden condition in most harbors where soybeans are unloaded, the weak associations reported are likely to be causal. Therefore, appropriate control measures should be implemented to avoid soybean dust emissions, particularly in harbors with populations living in the vicinity.  (+info)

Quantitative structure-activity relationships for nasal pungency thresholds of volatile organic compounds. (3/3303)

A model was developed for describing the triggering of nasal pungency in humans, based on the partition of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) between the air phase and the biophase. Two partition parameters are used in the model: the water-air partition coefficient and the octanol-water partition coefficient. The model was validated using data from the literature, principally on alcohols, acetates and ketones. The model suggests that all test compounds, regardless of their chemical functional groups, bind to a common receptor site within the hydrophobic interior of the bilayer membrane of the trigeminal nerve endings. There is probably only a slight, non-specific interaction between the VOC molecule and the receptor molecule, whereas this type of non-specific interaction for the detection of odor is much stronger. In practical terms, the suggestion that all VOCs share a common irritation receptor site implies that nasal-pungency thresholds of individual VOCs may be additive. Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for nasal-pungency thresholds were also developed from the model, which can be used to predict nasal-pungency thresholds of common VOCs. Although the present model does not offer additional precision over that of M.H. Abraham et al., 1996, Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 31, 71-76, it requires fewer descriptors and offers a physiological basis to the QSAR. Another advantage of the present model is that it also provides a basis for comparison between the olfactory process and nasal pungency.  (+info)

Indoor, outdoor, and regional summer and winter concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO4(2)-, H+, NH4+, NO3-, NH3, and nitrous acid in homes with and without kerosene space heaters. (4/3303)

Twenty-four-hour samples of PM10 (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm), PM2.5, (mass of particles with aerodynamic diameter < or = 2.5 microm), particle strong acidity (H+), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), ammonia (NH3), nitrous acid (HONO), and sulfur dioxide were collected inside and outside of 281 homes during winter and summer periods. Measurements were also conducted during summer periods at a regional site. A total of 58 homes of nonsmokers were sampled during the summer periods and 223 homes were sampled during the winter periods. Seventy-four of the homes sampled during the winter reported the use of a kerosene heater. All homes sampled in the summer were located in southwest Virginia. All but 20 homes sampled in the winter were also located in southwest Virginia; the remainder of the homes were located in Connecticut. For homes without tobacco combustion, the regional air monitoring site (Vinton, VA) appeared to provide a reasonable estimate of concentrations of PM2.5 and SO42- during summer months outside and inside homes within the region, even when a substantial number of the homes used air conditioning. Average indoor/outdoor ratios for PM2.5 and SO42- during the summer period were 1.03 +/- 0.71 and 0.74 +/- 0.53, respectively. The indoor/outdoor mean ratio for sulfate suggests that on average approximately 75% of the fine aerosol indoors during the summer is associated with outdoor sources. Kerosene heater use during the winter months, in the absence of tobacco combustion, results in substantial increases in indoor concentrations of PM2.5, SO42-, and possibly H+, as compared to homes without kerosene heaters. During their use, we estimated that kerosene heaters added, on average, approximately 40 microg/m3 of PM2.5 and 15 microg/m3 of SO42- to background residential levels of 18 and 2 microg/m3, respectively. Results from using sulfuric acid-doped Teflon (E.I. Du Pont de Nemours & Co., Wilmington, DE) filters in homes with kerosene heaters suggest that acid particle concentrations may be substantially higher than those measured because of acid neutralization by ammonia. During the summer and winter periods indoor concentrations of ammonia are an order of magnitude higher indoors than outdoors and appear to result in lower indoor acid particle concentrations. Nitrous acid levels are higher indoors than outdoors during both winter and summer and are substantially higher in homes with unvented combustion sources.  (+info)

Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints. (5/3303)

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children. (6/3303)

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

Asthma-like disease in the children living in the neighborhood of Mt. Sakurajima. (7/3303)

We conducted self-administered questionnaire surveys of school children living in the vicinity of Mt. Sakurajima using ATS-DLD questionnaire. In this paper, we report the results of analysis comparing the proportion of children with asthma-like disease in the area exposed to the volcanic ash and gases released by Mt. Sakurajima and control areas. Asthma-like disease was ascertained using ATS-DLD questionnaire and the definition proposed by the study group established by Environmental Protection Agency in Japan. The proportion of children with asthma-like disease was not different between the exposed and control groups. The odds ratio of asthma-like disease comparing the exposed and control groups was 1.1 and its 95% confidence interval was 0.7-1.8 (P = 0.583). When the exposed area was divided into Tarumizu city. Sakurajima town and Kagoshima city, none of them showed an elevated proportion of children with asthma-like disease when compared with the control area. In the entire study population including both the exposed and control groups, the proportion of children with asthma-like disease was 6 and 3% in boys and girls, respectively. These values were quite similar to those obtained from a survey of 45,674 school children in western districts in Japan in 1992. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the proportion of children with asthma-like disease is not elevated in the exposed area. Further investigations are necessary to confirm our conclusions.  (+info)

Cell proliferation in nasal respiratory epithelium of people exposed to urban pollution. (8/3303)

The nasal passages are a common portal of entry and are a prime site for toxicant-induced pathology. Sustained increases in regenerative cell proliferation can be a significant driving force in chemical carcinogenesis. The atmosphere in Mexico City contains a complex mixture of air pollutants and its residents are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants and potential carcinogens. We were concerned that exposure to Mexico City's atmosphere might induce cytotoxicity and increase nasal respiratory epithelial cell proliferation. Nasal biopsies were obtained for DNA cell cycle analysis from 195 volunteers. The control population consisted of 16 adults and 27 children that were residents in a Caribbean island with low pollution. The exposed Mexico City population consisted of 109 adults and 43 children. Sixty-one of the adult subjects were newly arrived in Mexico City and were followed for 25 days from their arrival. Control children, control adult and exposed Mexico City children all had similar percentages of cells in the replicative DNA synthesis phase (S phase) of the cell cycle (%S). A significant increase in %S in nasal epithelial cells was seen in exposed adult residents in Mexico City biopsied at three different dates compared with control adults. Newly arrived adults exhibited a control level of cell turnover at day 2 after coming to the city. However, at days 7, 14 and 25 they exhibited significant increases in %S. These data demonstrate an increased and sustained nasal cell turnover rate in the adult population observable in as little as 1 week of residence in Mexico City. This increase in cell proliferation is in agreement with other reports of induced pathological changes in the nasal passages of Mexico City dwellers. These observations suggest an increased potential risk factor of developing nasal neoplasms for residents of large cities with heavy pollution.  (+info)

*Air Pollution Control Act

The National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants program was created to expand much broader industries and ... The next Congressional statement on air pollution would come with the Clean Air Act of 1963. The Air Pollution Control Act was ... In 1967, the Air Quality Act of 1967 was passed. In 1967, the Air Quality Act was enacted in order to expand federal government ... Prior to the Air Pollution Control Act of 1955, little headway was made to initiate this air pollution reform. U.S. cities ...

*Air Pollution Index

The air quality in Malaysia is reported as the API (Air Pollutant Index) or in Malay as IPU (Indeks Pencemaran Udara). Four of ... Air pollution Air quality index Atmospheric dispersion modeling Emission standard European emission standards Haze Pollutant ... The index and the air quality objectives were set in 1987; and pollutant levels are measured over varying periods, in μg/m3. ... "General Information of Air Pollutant Index". Department of Environment, Malaysia. Archived from the original on 21 February ...

*Air pollution on vegetation

Medical symptoms like lung irritation can be observed with the increase in air pollutants. Crop yields are also stunted. Hand ... "Air Quality Testing, Monitoring, Air Quality Measurement". www.tsi.com. Retrieved 2016-10-08. "Atmotube: The Portable Air ... This project and future comparative studies will show how air pollutants affect topical scorching on plant leaf and stunted ... This follows many features in national broadcasters that highlight the increase in health problems attributed to air pollutants ...

*Air pollution in the United States

Air pollutants can also cause other types of cancer. Another study found that the hazardous air pollutant (HAP) can cause ... The Clean Air Act sets numerical limits on the concentrations of a basic group of air pollutants and provide reporting and ... Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of developing respiratory infections and cancers. Inhaled air pollutants damage ... Missing or empty ,title= (help) project, The World Air Quality Index. "Air Pollution in California: Real-time Air Quality Index ...

*Air pollution sensor

Air pollution is responsible for 7 million premature deaths around the world each year. When pollutants enter the body through ... Air and Climate Change Bureau, Air Quality Programs Division, Policy, Planning and Coordination. "Air Pollution and Health - ... Air and Climate Change Bureau, Air Quality Programs Division, Policy, Planning and Coordination. "Cardiovascular Effects of Air ... Air pollution sensors are devices that detect and monitor the presence of air pollution in the surrounding area. They can be ...

*Air pollution in India

... methane and other air pollutants. These pollutants are emitted in large quantities in India every day from incomplete and ... Air quality in Delhi List of Kerala cities by ambient air quality Petroleum coke "Urban Air Pollution, Catching gasoline ad ... At such speeds, vehicles in India emit air pollutants 4 to 8 times more than they would with less traffic congestion; Indian ... Over 1995-2008, average nationwide levels of major air pollutants have dropped by between 25-45 percent in India. India's ...

*Particulates

"National standards for criteria air pollutants in Australia - Air quality fact sheet". Environment.gov.au. Retrieved 1 February ... Absorption is also dependent upon air flow rates and the partial pressure of the gases in the inspired air. The fate of a ... Electrostatic precipitators electrically charge the dirty air as it passes through. The now charged air then passes by large ... Increased levels of fine particles in the air as a result of anthropogenic particulate air pollution "is consistently and ...

*BenMAP

Air Pollution Change. The air quality change is calculated as the difference between the starting air pollution level, also ... It accomplishes this by running health impact functions, which relate a change in the concentration of a pollutant with a ... The mortality effect estimate is an estimate of the percentage change in mortality due to a one unit change in ambient air ... The exposed population is the number of people affected by the air pollution reduction. The government census office is a ...

*Indoor air quality

Dilution of indoor pollutants with outdoor air is effective to the extent that outdoor air is free of harmful pollutants. Ozone ... The use of air filters can trap some of the air pollutants. The Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ... When outdoor air is polluted, then bringing in more outdoor air can actually worsen the overall quality of the indoor air and ... Outdoor air used for ventilation may have sufficient ozone to react with common indoor pollutants as well as skin oils and ...

*Air Pollution in Canada

A study was conducted to measure 13 priority pollutants that travelled by air and water surrounding the Alberta oil sands. All ... "Alberta's oilsands are a top producer of harmful air pollutants, study finds". CBC News. Retrieved 2017-03-30. "Alberta on ... Air pollution in Canada arises from the increasing airborne chemicals, matter and biological materials in the air. These ... Air pollution in Canada "The air we breathe". David Suzuki Foundation. Retrieved 2017-03-30. Winters, Nicholas; Goldberg, Mark ...

*Persistent organic pollutant

Several studies have shown that indoor (air and dust) POP levels to exceed outdoor (air and soil) POP concentrations. Current ... Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants Resources on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Monarpop.at, POP ... Chlordane air pollution is believed the primary route of humane exposure. Dieldrin, a pesticide used to control termites, ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, ...

*Mobile source air pollution

Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants From Mobile Sources:Early Credit Technology Requirement Revision Air Pollution Emissions ... Some make up a large portion of the total air concentration for that particular pollutant while others do not make up as much ... Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are a precursor to ground-level ozone, a serious air pollutant in cities across the United States. A ... Air Toxics: The EPA lists over 1100 individual compounds which are classified as air toxics. These compounds are emitted by ...

*Criteria air pollutants

... (CAP), or criteria pollutants, are a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, and other health ... The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants ... Petitioners proposed that EPA list carbon dioxide as a criteria air pollutant, as outlined in the Clean Air Act. They also ... air_act/pdfs/Petition_GHG_pollution_cap_12-2-2009.pdf. US Environmental Protection Agency - Criteria Air Pollutants European ...

*Air pollutant concentrations

... , as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ... mole percent and many others may also be used for gaseous pollutants. Particulate matter (PM) in the atmospheric air or in any ...

*National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

The standards are for air pollutants not covered by National Ambient Air Quality Standards-NAAQS, that may cause an increase in ... The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments direct EPA to set standards for all major sources of air toxics (and some area sources that ... The USEPA regulates the following hazardous air pollutants via the MACT standards: For all listings above which contain the ... The National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, also using the acronym NESHAP, are emissions standards set by ...

*AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors

Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ... The fugitive air pollutant emission factors from relief valves, piping valves, open-ended piping lines or drains, piping ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the US Public Health Service in 1968. In 1972, ... Table 5.1.2 includes the emission factors for the fugitive air pollutant emissions from the large wet cooling towers in ...

*Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

These short-lived climate pollutants are also dangerous air pollutants, with various detrimental impacts on human health, ... Centro Mario Molina Chile Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities, Inc. Clean Air Institute Clean Air Task Force Climate Markets ... The Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (CCAC) was launched by the United Nations ... Short-lived climate pollutants are largely to blame. Fast actions on short-lived climate pollutants, such as the widespread ...

*Design for the Environment

needs update] "NAAQS Table". Criteria Air Pollutants. EPA. 2016-12-20. "Ozone Protection under Title VI of the Clean Air Act". ... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES-Water ... EPA promulgated the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to establish basic air pollution control requirements across ... This includes the minimization of waste and hazardous by-products, air pollution, energy expenditure and other factors. Design ...

*Exemptions for hydraulic fracturing under United States federal law

However, under the act, major sources of hazardous air pollutants are required to obtain a "Title V" permit to ensure that the ... "Overview of the Clean Air Act and Air Pollution". EPA. 2017-04-28. "Operating Permits Issued under Title V of the Clean Air Act ... Any major pollution sources must abide by the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), by using the ... EPA (2012). "National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Oil and Natural Gas Production Facilities." Code of ...

*Pollutant

Clean Air Act standards. Under the Clean Air Act, the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are developed by the ... Surface pollutants cause damage by concentrations of the pollutant accumulating near the Earth's surface Global pollutants ... Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants are additional emission standards that are set by EPA for toxic air pollutants ... The damage they cause increases as more pollutant is emitted, and persists as the pollutant accumulates. Stock pollutants can ...

*Toxicity

"Criteria Air Pollutants." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 2 Mar. 2017. Web. "USEPA List of Priority Pollutants." The ... These hazards can be physical or chemical, and present in air, water, and/or soil. These conditions can cause extensive harm to ... PCBs Air: particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, asbestos, ground-level ozone, lead (from ... "Basic Information about Lead Air Pollution." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, 17 Mar. 2017. Web. Beaubier, Jeff, and Barry ...

*Electronic waste in the United States

"Recycling of Electronic Wastes in China and India: Workplace and Environmental Contamination" (PDF). "Air Pollutants Report". ... Some open air workshops in China use acid to recover valuable materials from e-waste and wastewater is transported to drainage ... Cadmium is a rare metal that is very toxic to plants, animals, and humans and is released into the air by incineration or ... As one of the most toxic and popular metals used in electronic products, mercury is an e-waste pollutant that one can be ...

*Paperless office

"Air Pollutants of Concern". New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Retrieved January 26, 2013. http://www.cpima. ... Paper production also leads to air pollution, as paper manufacturing releases nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ... and dissolved organic matter that are classified as pollutants. Nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus can cause or ...

*Non-methane volatile organic compound

"The Key Air Pollutants". Air-Quality.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-15. ... In absence of more detailed data, this can be a very coarse parameter for pollution (e.g. for summer smog or indoor air ... An important subset of NMVOCs are the non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Methane is excluded in air-pollution contexts because ...

*Global terrestrial stilling

... dispersion of air pollutants; among many other socioeconomic and environmental spheres. However, for wind energy near-surface ... Mazzarella A (2007) The 60-year solar modulation of global air temperature: the Earth́s rotation and atmospheric circulation ... or air quality and human health, among many others. The attribution of this weakening of terrestrial near-surface wind speed is ...

*San Diego Gas & Electric

... regulated asbestos-containing materials in violation of the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. ... 55 Million Awarded In Marine Air Crash", Los Angeles Times, September 4, 2008, p. B3. Vives & Blankstein, "1.4 million without ...

*Cyclonic spray scrubber

Control Techniques for Particulate Air Pollutants. AP-51. *US EPA Air Pollution Training Institute developed in collaboration ... As the gas swirls around the chamber, pollutants are removed when they impact on liquid droplets, are thrown to the walls, and ... They use the features of both the dry cyclone and the spray chamber to remove pollutants from gas streams. Generally, the inlet ... This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. Cyclonic ...
The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants. These commonly found air pollutants (also known as "criteria air pollutants") are found all over the United States. The criteria air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and lead. These pollutants can harm your health and the environment, and cause property damage.. ...
EPA awarded five grants in 2011 to use existing datasets from health studies, to analyze health outcomes for which the link to air pollution is not well established, or to identify "new" at-risk populations. These projects are providing scientists and policy decision makers with a better understanding of the health effects of exposure to air pollution, improving health risk assessments and cost-benefit analyses.. ...
The funding mechanism for all awards issued under STAR solicitations will consist of assistance agreements from the EPA. All award decisions are subject to the availability of funds. In accordance with the Federal Grant and Cooperative Agreement Act, 31 U.S.C. 6301 et seq., the primary purpose of an assistance agreement is to accomplish a public purpose of support or stimulation authorized by federal statute, rather than acquisition for the direct benefit or use of the Agency. In issuing a grant, the EPA anticipates that there will be no substantial EPA involvement in the design, implementation, or conduct of the research. However, the EPA will monitor research progress through annual reports provided by grantees and other contacts, including site visits, with the Principal Investigator(s).. If you wish to submit applications for more than one STAR funding opportunity you must ensure that the research proposed in each application is significantly different from any other that has been submitted ...
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format. By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items. To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export. The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export. After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format. ...
Abstract: Measuring human exposures to ambient air pollutants is challenging, particularly in large epidemiologic studies in which direct monitoring is not feasible. Thus, several exposure estimation methods, including land use regression and Kriging, have been developed to estimate individual exposures within urban areas. A major limitation of these methods is their use of residential address to estimate exposures. Because of the variation in air pollutant concentrations within an urban area, a residential exposure may differ substantially from exposures experienced while away from home.. We are developing an innovative, feasible and cost-effective method to measure time-activity data, i.e. human movement over time, and incorporate these data into current residence-based methods of air pollutant exposure estimation. We will use cellphones equipped with global positioning system (GPS) to measure the daily movements of 40 cellphone-using volunteers in western New York for a period of three ...
Air pollution is considered a risk factor for asthma. In this paper, we analyze the association between daily hospital admissions for asthma and ambient air pollution concentrations in four New York City counties. Negative binomial regression is used to model the association between daily asthma hospital admissions and ambient air pollution concentrations. Potential confounding factors such as heat index, day of week, holidays, yearly population changes, and seasonal and long-term trends are controlled for in the models. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) show the most consistent statistically significant associations with daily hospitalizations for asthma during the entire period (1996-2000). The associations are stronger for children (0 - 17 years) than for adults (18 - 64 years). Relative risks (RR) for the inter-quartile range (IQR) of same day 24-hour average pollutant concentration and asthma hospitalizations for children for the four county hospitalization
Current emission trends data and the documentation of estimation methods are available via the links below. The latest version of the 1970 - 2016 data show the trends for Tier 1 categories which distinguish pollutant emission contributions among major source types. The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. Lead emissions sharply declined after it was eliminated from gasoline and have remained low. As inventory methods are improved over time, for some emission sources and improved estimation method may be applied backwards to previous year trend estimates.. Average Annual Emissions(1 pg, 97 K) Criteria pollutants National Tier 1 for 1970 - 2016. State Average Annual Emissions Trend(1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016.. Trends Procedural Documentation - Any changes in the data or methodologies used to estimate the emissions for a specific time period will continue ...
Adverse health effects from air pollutants remain important, despite improvement in air quality in the past few decades. The exact mechanisms of lung injury from exposure to air pollutants are not yet fully understood. Studying the genome (e.g. single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) ), epigenome (e.g. methylation of genes), transcriptome (mRNA expression) and microRNAome (microRNA expression) has the potential to improve our understanding of the adverse effects of air pollutants. Genome-wide association studies of SNP have detected SNP associated with respiratory phenotypes; however, to date, only candidate gene studies of air pollution exposure have been performed. Changes in epigenetic processes, such DNA methylation that leads to gene silencing without altering the DNA sequence, occur with air pollutant exposure, especially global and gene-specific methylation changes. Respiratory cell line and animal models demonstrate distinct gene expression signatures in the transcriptome, arising from ...
Delfino, R. J., Gong, H., Linn, W. S., Pellizzari, E., & Hu, Y. (2003). Asthma symptoms in Hispanic children and daily ambient exposures to toxic and criteria air pollutants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 647-656. ...
The prevalence and incidence of allergic diseases, including asthma, have been increasing worldwide since the 1960s [17, 18]. While asthma prevalence has plateaued in developed countries, in developing countries where the prevalence was previously low, allergic diseases are on the rise [19]. Environmental changes are suspected to be the major driver of this increasing trend [20], with air pollution identified as an important exposure [21]. Motor vehicles produce a complex mixture of air pollutants including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (PM) of varying size, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs-e.g. benzo(a)pyrene), volatile organic compounds (VOCs-e.g. benzene, acetaldehyde) and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Collectively referred to as traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), these are the primary source of intraurban variability in air pollutant concentrations [1].. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that TRAP can decrease lung function and trigger asthma ...
Hypertension is a major disease of burden worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that air pollution might be a risk factor for hypertension, but the results were controversial. To fill this gap, we performed a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies to investigate the associations of short-term and long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants with hypertension. We searched all of the studies published before September 1, 2015, on the associations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO2 and NOX), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) with hypertension in the English electronic databases. A pooled odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in association with each 10 μg/m3 increase in air pollutant was calculated by a random-effects model (for studies with significant heterogeneity) or a fixed-effect model (for studies without significant heterogeneity). A total of 17 studies examining the effects of short-term (n=6) and long-term exposure (n=11) to air ...
Today we review a nation-wide assessment of the impact of fireworks on local air quality in the USA. Results indicate tht the particulates emitted during these displays increased particulate pollution by 42% on average, although individual cities had increases of 400% temporarily and other venues such as the International Fireworks Competition in Montreal and New Years Eve in Germany showed increases of 40 to 50 times more. As the particulate emissions from these eruptions last only for a few hours, the higher pollution levels are not counted in either the national air quality regulations (such as National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 in the USA or European Union PM10 air quality standard). Clearly short term air quality forecasts could be improved using the results from this study. In addition, spectators would be well advised to stay upwind from the fireworks to avoid polluted air and the health impacts that may result from breathing it ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
RIN: 2060-AQ58). (i) Cost-benefit analysis. EPA states that the final amendments are expected to reduce the overall cost of the original 2010 RICE NESHAP amendments. EPA estimates that with these final amendments incorporated, the total annual cost of the rule for existing stationary RICE will be $115 million for SI engines and $373 million for CI engines (2010 dollars), and total capital costs will be $103 million for SI engines and $740 million for CI engines (2010 dollars). EPA includes for comparison the costs that EPA previously estimated for the 2010 amendments to the RICE NESHAP. EPA did not estimate costs associated with the changes to the new source performance standards (NSPS) for stationary CI and SI engines. According to EPA, the changes to the NSPS are minor and are not expected to impact the costs of those rules.. EPA states that emission controls installed to meet the requirements of this final rule will generate benefits by reducing emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) as ...
The health risks associated with air pollution may be nearly three times greater than previously thought, according to a new report.
Each potential source of Nevada Test Site (NTS) emissions was characterized by one of the following methods: (1) monitoring methods and procedures previously developed at the NTS; (2) a yearly radionuclide inventory of the source, assuming that volatile radionuclide are released to the environment; (3) the measurement of tritiated water (as HTO or T{sub 2}O) concentration in liquid effluents discharged to containment ponds and assuming all the effluent evaporates over the course of the year to become an air emission; or (4) using a combination of environmental measurements and CAP88-PC to calculate emissions. The emissions for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) reporting are listed. They are very conservative and are used in Section 3 to calculate the EDE to the maximally exposed individual offsite. Offsite environmental surveillance data, where available, are used to confirm that calculated emissions are, indeed, conservative. ...
Belnap, J., 1990, Effects of air pollutants on cold-desert cyanobacterial-lichen crusts and rock lichens: Chlorophyll degradation, electrolyte leakage and nitrogenase activity, Proceedings: Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, Environmental Protection Agency/Air & Waste Management Association International Symposium, April 30-May 4, 1990, Raleigh, North Carolina: Raleigh, North Carolina, Environmental Protection Agency, p. 661-666.. ...
National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Shipbuilding and Ship Repair (Surface Coating) Operations, 78369-78374 [E6-22426]
EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0058 - Supporting Documents for National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial / Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters at Notice and Comment.
Hazardous Air Pollutants, advertising, book, business development, conference, engineering, flare gas recovery, marketing, clean power, emissions abatement, net zero energy and renewble energy solutions
California Hazardous Air Pollutants federal, national and state compliance resources - regulations, laws, and state-specific analysis for employers and environmental professionals
Active commuting has great health, environment, economic, and social benefits. However, cyclists are at risk for exposure to vehicle-related air pollutants due to their proximity to vehicle traffic and elevated respiratory rates. Consequently, more information on differences in inhaled doses between different transport modes is needed. The aim of this study is to assess and map the exposure of travelers to air pollutants using different transportation modes and to consider minute ventilation variablity and travel duration for the calculation of inhaled dose. Particulate matter (PM10, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1), CO, volatile organic compound (VOC), CO2, and O3 were measured between December 2013 and March 2014 in a total of 75 travels performed by bus, metro, car, bicycle, and motorcycle at five periods of the day (8, 11, 14, 17:30, and 21 h). Results showed that car drivers and bus passengers in urban streets may be exposed to higher pollutant levels than cyclists traveling in the same streets. ...
Particulate pollutant gives harmful effects to our environment as well as human beings and became one of the main causes of the cultural heritage deterioration. The research is focuses on the particulates at the Jabalpur city. The BAM (Beta Attenuation Monitoring) instrument is used for analyzing sample coarse and fine particulate matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Jabalpur it is a fast growing city and in one of five biggest city of Madhya Pradesh air quality parameter as PM10 and PM2.5 was analyzed at sampling station at Jabalpur results shows increased values of parameters at severed sampling station. ...
Analyses of the primary ambient air pollutants are presented. Discussion of their emission, reactions and rate, in the ambient air are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to their significance in an environmental impact study of highway construction.. ...
The predicted increases in emissions of primary pollutants in many rapidly industrializing countries may have severe consequences for the health and productivity of forest trees and agricultural crops. This paper presents a review of air pollution impacts on vegetation in developing countries by summarising information describing the direct impacts to vegetation caused by a number of air pollutants (sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3) and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)). This information has been collected by experts from a number of rapidly industrializing countries in Asia, Latin America and Africa and includes observations of visible injury in the field and the use of transect studies and controlled experimental investigations to ascribe damage to different pollutant concentrations. The ability to synthesise this information to define exposure-response relationships and subsequent air quality guidelines similar to those established in North America and Europe is ...
Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed
This report describes a study that assessed levels of ultrafine particles and other pollutants around diesel engine school buses and identified factors contributing to those levels. Dr. Yifang Zhu at the University of California-Los Angeles, a recipient of HEIs Walter A. Rosenblith New Investigator Award, measured pollutant levels in and around school buses while driving, while idling, before and after retrofitting with a diesel particle filter and/or oxidation catalyst, and before and after installing an in-cabin filtration system.
Introduction. The direct and indirect adverse effects caused by atmospheric pollution on the environment and human health necessitate the measurement and reporting of air quality on local, regional and global scales. The measurement and improvement of air quality in developed countries are considered a priority. In developing countries less emphasis is placed on environmental issues, because resources are mostly utilised for economic growth. South Africa is regarded as a developing country with elements of a developed country. Globally, southern Africa is a significant source region of atmospheric pollutants, for example a prominent NO2 hotspot is seen on global maps of NO2 satellite retrievals over the South African Highveld; based on 1990 statistics South Africa was the ninth highest atmospheric sulphur emitting country and biomass burning emissions from this region are known to have a global effect.1,2,3 In the last decade, South African ambient air quality standards were revised4 and are now ...
HEUSCHNUPFEN + POLLENALLERGIE (PATHOLOGIE); STAUB (LUFTVERUNREINIGUNG); WIRKUNG VON UNGEWÖHNLICHER LUFTZUSAMMENSETZUNG UND LUFTFREMDSTOFFEN AUF DAS ATMUNGSSYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGIE); HAY FEVER + POLLEN ALLERGY (PATHOLOGY); DUST (AIR POLLUTION); EFFECTS OF ABNORMAL AIR COMPOSITION AND AIR POLLUTANTS ON RESPIRATION AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM (PHYSIOLOGY ...
On June 12, 2008, EPA issued final national air toxics standards for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the plating and polishing industry. The requirements of this final rule apply to existing and new area sources in the plating and polishing industry. The final rule will affect an estimated 2,900 existing plating and polishing facilities and applies to plating and polishing tanks, dry mechanical polishing operations, and thermal spraying operations that use or emit compounds of one or more of the following metal toxic air pollutants: cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, and nickel. The final rule includes management practices such as the use of wetting agent/fume suppressants. It requires equipment standards such as the use of tank covers or control devices, and the capture and control of emissions from thermal spraying and dry mechanical polishing. EPA amended this final rule in September 2011 to clarify certain aspects of the 2008 rule.. ...
Prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can adversely affect a childs intelligence quotient or IQ, according to new research by the the Columbia Center for Childrens Environmental Health at the Mailman School of Public Health.
Topic : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition. Presented by : Dr. Pandurangappa C, C M Suresha, Lakshminarayanachari K, M Siddalinga Prasad. Other Details : Advection-Diffusion Numerical Model Of An Air Pollutant Emitted From An Area Source Of Primary Pollutant With Wet Deposition International journal of engineering, sciences and Technology Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35-143.. Category : ...
Throughout the world, urban and agricultural communities have become more spatially intertwined resulting in blurred land use boundaries. Thousands of persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere from primary and secondary sources.
... RELATES TO: KRS 224.10-100, 224.20-100, 224.20-110, 224.20-120. STATUTORY AUTHORITY: KRS 224.01-400, 224.10-100, 224.20-100, 224.20-110, 224.20-120. NECESSITY, FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: KRS 224.10-100 requires the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet to prescribe administrative regulations for the prevention, abatement, and control of air pollution. There is no federal mandate for this administrative regulation. This administrative regulation provides for the control of emissions of toxic air pollutants.. Section 1. A source in existence on the effective date of this administrative regulation which was issued a permit pursuant to 401 KAR 50:035 with conditions based on this administrative regulation or 401 KAR 63:022 shall continue to comply with all conditions based on this administrative regulation or 401 KAR 63:022 unless it can demonstrate that a condition is no longer necessary to protect human health and the ...
Lung health is directly impacted by the air we breathe; learn about air pollutant health risks and the Clean Air Act from the Firm today.
The EPA is proposing amendments to the national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for chemical recovery combustion sources at kraft, soda, sulfite, and stand-alone semichemical pulp mills, which were issued on January 12, 2001 under section 112 of the Clean Air Act. This...
This action proposes national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) for the pesticide active ingredient (PAI) production source category under section 112 of the Clean Air Act as amended (CAA). The intent of the proposed standard is to reduce emissions of hazardous air...
Toxic Air Pollutants Sources Abstract: There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or sectors.
Since 1985, CCAP has been a recognized world leader in climate and air quality policy and is the only independent, nonprofit think tank working exclusively on those issues at the local, U.S. national and international levels. Learn More ». ...
Methods for estimating cumulative ambient air pollution concentrations for individuals enrolled in an epidemiological cohort study are described and studied. Monthly interpolations from fixed-site monitoring stations in California to zip code centroids were used. The precision of the interpolation methods for total suspended particulates and...
Since implementation of the Clear Air Act of 1970 people across the country breathe healthier air because of much lower concentrations of carbon monoxide, acidic gases of sulfur and nitrogen, lead, particulates, and ozone. Furthermore, ecosystems in the eastern United States are recovering from the effects of acidic precipitation. Why was it so successful?
in this issue in one of the current articles in focus (Ref. 3, see p. L724 in this issue), Pourazar et al. provide the first human in vivo evidence to support the concept that air pollutants target the airways through induction of oxidative stress (3). The last decade has seen a deluge of reports illustrating the health effects of air pollution (1). The most prominent effect seems to be on the respiratory system, and exposure to either gaseous pollutants (such as ozone or nitrogen dioxide) or particulate pollutants (such as diesel) can lead to exacerbation of asthma, bronchitis, wheezing, or to slowing of childrens lung development. In addition, it can interact with allergen to worsen allergic symptoms, increase allergic antibody production, and augment allergic sensitization.. The mechanisms by which these adverse outcomes occur are a focus of intense investigation by many groups worldwide. Despite the distinct nature of the different components of air pollution, it seems that both particulate ...
On October 8, 2014, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for the Manufacture of Amino/Phenolic Resins (APR). Subsequently, the EPA received three petitions for reconsideration of the final rule. The EPA is reconsidering and requesting public comment on issues related to the maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards for continuous process vents (CPVs) at existing affected sources. The EPA is proposing to revise the MACT standard for back-end CPVs at existing affected sources based on hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions test data for back-end CPVs at existing sources for this source category submitted by petitioners. The EPA is also soliciting comments regarding the need to revise the standard for front-end CPVs at existing sources, and to extend the compliance date for the proposed revised emission limit for back-end CPVs at existing sources. Additionally, the EPA is proposing ...
Free Online Library: Influence of urbanicity and county characteristics on the association between ozone and asthma emergency department visits in North Carolina.(Research, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Air pollution Health aspects Air pollution research Air quality Asthma Environmental aspects Hospital emergency services Hospitals Emergency service Rural areas Sparsely populated areas Urban ecology
(Medical Xpress) -- A study by the University of Otago, Wellington has found that smoking on city street footpaths increases the amount of dangerous fine particulates in city air.
Various epidemiological and clinical studies have shown the correlation between ambient air particle concentration and adverse respiratory health effects throughout the industrialized world [1-3]. It is considered that individuals with impaired lung physiology are at higher risk to various respiratory diseases like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) which are accelerated due to chronic exposure to environmental stressors like ultrafine particles/nano particles [4-6]. Therefore, individuals having a favorable lung physiology are considered to be at lower risk to various obstructive lung diseases probably due to efficient control of inflammatory and/repair processes. In addition to the widely accepted adverse health effects of anthropogenic airborne particulate pollution, the increasing use of engineered nanopaticles in all spheres of life has also become a new source of human exposure [7]. Carbon nanoparticles (CNP) regardless of their different sources, as combustion-derived ...
Air Pollutants II (CH4, CO, CH-CH3,H2,CH3-CH2-OH) Gas Sensor The TGS2600-B00 sensor shows sensitivity to the variation of the concentration of numerous gases that are not usually found in the composition of the atmosphere and which are considered contaminants. Among these would be mainly Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) and Isobutane (C 4 H 10 ) and, with less response, Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Methane (CH 4 ). This sensor is also sensitive to variations in the concentration of Hydrogen (H 2 ). The sensors resistance in air may vary between 10 and 90 kΩ, with a ratio of sensitivity between 0.3 and 0.6 for an H2 concentration of 10ppm. Because of this variability, it is recommended to calibrate the sensor before including it in your application. Air Contaminants Sensor Features Gases: C 4 H 10 , CH 3 CH 2 OH, CO, CH 4 Measurement range: 1 to 100 ppm Resistance in normal air: 10 to 90 kΩ Sensitivity: 0.3 to 0.6 (ratio between the resistance in 10ppm H 2 and in normal air) Supply volta
Air Pollutants I (NH3, H2S, CH3-CH2-OH, C6H5CH3) Gas Sensor The TGS2602-B00 sensor varies its resistance in the presence of contaminant gases, mainly Toluene (C 6 H 5 CH 3 ), Hydrogen Sulfide (H 2 S), Ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH), Ammonia (NH 3 ) and, to a lesser extent, Hydrogen (H 2 ). The sensors resistance in air may vary between 10 and 100 kΩ, with a ratio of sensitivity between 0.15 and 0.5 for a CH 3 CH 2 OH concentration of 10ppm. Because of this variability, it is recommended to calibrate the sensor before including it in your application. Air Contaminants Sensor Features Gases: C 6 H 5 CH 3 , H 2 S, CH 3 CH 2 OH, NH 3 , H 2 Measurement range: 1 to 30 ppm Resistance in normal air: 10 to 100 kΩ Sensitivity: 0.15 to 0.5 (ratio between the resistance in 10ppm Ethanol and in normal air) Supply voltage: 5V 0.2V DC Operating temperature: 10 to 50 C Storage temperature: -20 to +60 C Response time: 30 seconds Minimum load resistance: 0.45kΩ Average consumption: 61mA TG
This is a list of United States Code sections, Statutes at Large, Public Laws, and Presidential Documents, which provide rulemaking authority for this CFR Part.. This list is taken from the Parallel Table of Authorities and Rules provided by GPO [Government Printing Office].. It is not guaranteed to be accurate or up-to-date, though we do refresh the database weekly. More limitations on accuracy are described at the GPO site. ...
|p| 大気汚染防止法第22条に基づき、地方公共団体では有害大気汚染物質の大気環境モニタリングを実施しています。今般、平成22年度の調査結果について、環境省が行った大気環境モニタリングの調査結果と併せて取りまとめました。調査は21物質を対象としています。|/p|
A. The air we breathe contains apart from oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, a few precious gases and a percentage of humidity, a range of pollutants. These pollutants take three physical states: solid (e.g. dust, allergens, bacteria, viruses), liquid (e.g. mist, fog, aerosol-sprays) and gaseous (e.g. VOCs, formaldehyde). The technology needed in an air cleaner to remove gaseous pollutants and odors is entirely different to that need to filter dust particles and aerosols.. While solid and liquid particles can be effectively removed by media filters, such as a good HEPA filter, gaseous pollutants and odors, due to their physical state and extremely small size (, 0.001 microns) cannot. In fact HEPA filters have 0% efficiency for gaseous chemical compounds. These compounds simply pass through the HEPA filter.. In order to filter gaseous pollutants and odors effectively there are a number of filter technologies. The most common in air purifiers is activated carbon. Activated carbon consists of ...
Lecture 32 - Air Pollutants and Meteorology Part - 2 This video is part of Lecture Series on Fundamentals of Environmental...
We present sensitivity calculations where we set different upper limits for the annual mean PM2.5 concentration (X in equation 1) based on air quality standards and regulations. To estimate potential reductions in mortality rates we take into consideration the deaths that cannot be avoided after implementation of the PM2.5 upper limits, due to the contribution of natural sources to the total PM2.5 and therefore to mortality (mainly airborne desert dust and natural biomass burning).. First, based on Table 1, we assume that all current national regulations and proposed limits for annual mean PM2.5 are fully implemented. The estimated global premature mortality is reduced by 9 % from 3.15 million to 2.86 million per year [CI95: 1.38-4.17M]. The main contributors to this reduction are the standards implemented in China causing about 16 % less deaths, Pakistan with 34 % less deaths, Bangladesh with 41 % less deaths and the US with 4 % less deaths.. In a second sensitivity calculation we apply the ...
Introduction Dairy operations can affect air quality through emissions of gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide as well as particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, hazardous air pollutants, and odor. These pollutants and compounds have a number of environmental and human health effects. They also produce carbon dioxide, methane, and oxides of nitrogen that have been associated with climate change.
Details on OEHHAs work on health-based recommendations for Californias Ambient Air Quality Standards on the common criteria air pollutants.
Applications and Air Pollutants Removed in the Sand and Rock Products Industries - Air and Climate by Bionomic Industries Inc.. Removal of silica sand from dryers. Crushing and material handling operations.
This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and quantile regression (QR) for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05), and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01). Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range,
The presence of airborne pollutants in indoor environments has been associated with occupants discomfort and/or adverse health effects. This study investigates occupational exposure in relation to indoor air mixing and source location relative to a human body. Experimental and computational methods were used to provide information about the pollutant distribution in the vicinity of the human body
In a new large-scale prospective study led by the Barcelona Institute of Global Health (ISGlobal), researchers observed an association between some air pollutants and mortality from kidney, bladder and colorectal cancer.
We know the dangers of breathing in hazardous levels of air pollution and how it affects our overall health, but more and more research has surfaced that links
The national air quality rules were agreed at an executive meeting of the state council presided over by the premier, Wen Jiabao, on 1 March, a statement on its website said.. […] To "help allay public concern over official air quality readings", levels of ozone and PM2.5 particles must be included. PM2.5 particulate matter is below 2.5 micrometres in diameter, or 1/30th the width of an average human hair, and easily penetrates lung tissue.. "This is a major step forward in terms of Chinas process to combat urban air pollution," said Ma Jun, director of the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs. "The prerequisite for mobilising our people is to let them know what is going on.. […] State media also acknowledged the role of bloggers: "A stirring campaign on the countrys social network websites since last autumn seemed to have gained a satisfying response from the countrys policymakers," Xinhua news agency said. ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Costa, Daniel L. / Foster, W. Michael (eds.) - Air Pollutants and the Respiratory Tract. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9780824723736
Learn How To Keep Your Home Free of Toxic Air Pollutants is an informative guide to safer, cleaner and toxic free living in your own home.
McCrone, W.C. and Palenik, S. (1977) In the study of air pollutants chemical microscopy lets us see: The Solids We Breathe. Industrial Research, April.. Published on: 4/1/1977. ...
Pig Stockmanship Standards - Air Pollutants - A compilation of Pig Stockmanship Standards written by John Carr and the Garth Veterinary Group, published by 5M Enterprises Limited and available on thePigSite.com.
Get the latest air pollutant news on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Background: Fine particle (PM2.5) pollution related to combustion sources has been linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Although poorly understood, it is possible that organic carbon (OC) species, particularly those from combustion-related sources, may be partially responsible for the observed toxicity of PM2.5. The toxicity of the OC species may be related to their chemical structures; however, few studies have examined the association of OC species with health impacts. Methods: We categorized 58 primary organic compounds by their chemical properties into 5 groups: n-alkanes, hopanes, cyclohexanes, PAHs and isoalkanes. We examined their impacts on the rate of daily emergency hospital admissions among Medicare recipients in Atlanta, GA and Birmingham, AL (2006-2009), and Dallas, TX (2006-2007). We analyzed data in two stages; we applied a case-crossover analysis to simultaneously estimate effects of individual OC species on cause-specific hospital admissions. In the second stage we ...
There are only so many ways that you can "clean" air of particles and volatile organic chemicals (VOC), bacteria, virus and mould. In general these include: • Filtration • Adsorption • Ionization to generate charged particles • Photolysis to generate free radicals Removing particles from air requires the use of high performance filters, which are […]. ...
There are only so many ways that you can "clean" air of particles and volatile organic chemicals (VOC), bacteria, virus and mould. In general these include: • Filtration • Adsorption • Ionization to generate charged particles • Photolysis to generate free radicals Removing particles from air requires the use of high performance filters, which are […]. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Air pollution particles linked to Alzheimers found in human brain," Sky News reports after new research found tiny particles of magnetite - a potentially toxic by-product of traffic pollution - in samples of brain tissue.. The samples, obtained after death, were taken from 29 people from Mexico City and eight people from Manchester.. Magnetite is formed naturally in small quantities in the body, but the shapes of the naturally formed particles are jagged and irregular, while the particles found in the brain samples were spherical with smooth, fused surfaces.. Magnetite may increase oxidative damage - damage caused at the molecular level - to brain cells, especially in the presence of amyloid beta protein, a key protein linked to Alzheimers disease.. While its worrying to think pollution particles can enter the brain, its unclear what role, if any, these particles really have in the development of the disease.. The people studied did not have Alzheimers disease, although some of the eight ...
LED manufacturers estimate the useful lifetimes of the High-Power white LED between 35000 h and 50000 h. However, LED lifetimes are highly dependent on the junction temperature, applied current and environmental conditions like humidity, corrosive gas and air pollutant exposure. This work studies the effects of common air pollutants in different concentrations on the lifetime of different commercial LED types and analyses the observed degradation mechanisms on the AlGaInN LED chips, the metallization and the package components. A special focus is put on the effects of hydrogen sulfide.. Measurement setup: The reactor chambers are glass vials sealed to the printed circuit board over each individual LED. The PCB with the vials is put into an aluminum frame with PFTE coated walls to homogenize and guide the LED light to a photodiode mounted opposite to each individual LED. To produce the desired pollutant atmosphere, a solution is prepared, which is introduced to the vials through holes in the PCB. ...
LED manufacturers estimate the useful lifetimes of the High-Power white LED between 35000 h and 50000 h. However, LED lifetimes are highly dependent on the junction temperature, applied current and environmental conditions like humidity, corrosive gas and air pollutant exposure. This work studies the effects of common air pollutants in different concentrations on the lifetime of different commercial LED types and analyses the observed degradation mechanisms on the AlGaInN LED chips, the metallization and the package components. A special focus is put on the effects of hydrogen sulfide.. Measurement setup: The reactor chambers are glass vials sealed to the printed circuit board over each individual LED. The PCB with the vials is put into an aluminum frame with PFTE coated walls to homogenize and guide the LED light to a photodiode mounted opposite to each individual LED. To produce the desired pollutant atmosphere, a solution is prepared, which is introduced to the vials through holes in the PCB. ...
The COMPLY computer program may be used to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) in 40 CFR 61, Subpart I. It has various levels of complexity, the simplest being ...
Air pollutants are any unwanted chemicals or other materials found in the ambient air, which at high enough concentrations, are harmful to human health andor the environment.
Any business in Colorado that emits air pollution may be required to report its emissions and apply for a construction permit to emit. The type of permit needed is determined by the volume and type of emissions. For more information: ...
THE HEART OF IT ALL. When we inhale fine particulate matter, it penetrates deep into our lungs, hurting our lung function. The presence of particulates in our lungs also harms our cardiovascular system three main ways: (1) by causing oxidative stress and inflammation; (2) by shifting the balance of our autonomic nervous system to a fight-or-flight state; and (3) by these toxins being transmitted into the bloodstream. This can lead to high blood pressure, heart attack, heart failure, stroke, high cholesterol, arrhythmia, and insulin resistance.. We are all at risk for the health harms caused by air pollution. And some communities bear more of the burden of unhealthy air, putting some more at risk health for problems. Children are especially vulnerable to harmful air pollutants because their organ systems are still developing. Many elderly people have pre-existing health conditions that are worsened by the impacts of climate change. Communities of color are more likely to be exposed to ...
Health-damaging atmospheric pollutants, which the World Health Organization warned Tuesday affected nine out of every 10 people, originate mainly from industry, heating and transport.
Due to its dependence on fossil fuels and the fact that it is one of the least regulated emission sources, emissions from the marine transport sector contribute significantly and increasingly to air pollution and climate change.
Air Toxics Compliance Assurance Abstract: The Connecticut DEP has been aggressively pursuing compliance with both state and federal regulations on toxic air pollutants.
DRAFT AGENDA. Coordinators meeting. Thursday 23 January 2014, 9.00 - 10.00 (in camera). Brussels. Room: József Antall (4Q2). In camera. Decisions on procedure. Reports. 1. Reduction of national emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants and amending Directive 2003/35/EC. ENVI/7/14902. ***I 2013/0443(COD) COM(2013)0920 - C7-0004/2014. ...
Trends of air pollutant concentrations that influence the incidence of respiratory diseases and might be influential for respiratory hypersensitivity are presented and discussed. Data for these trends are collected in UNEP/WHO s Global Environmental Monitoring System GEMS/Air which recently has been revitalized and redirected to become a tool...
From September 16, 2009 through December 9, 2009, a monitor collected air samples near the school. During the monitoring period, EPA evaluated the concentrations to see if there was an issue with short-term exposures to acetaldehyde and other air toxics. Once the monitoring was complete, EPA analyzed the results to see if there was a concern from long-term exposures. In order to keep the community informed, EPA posted individual air sample results on its website throughout the monitoring period. ...
Winds may be light enough and incoming background levels high enough for the daily PM2.5 AQI to reach "Moderate" levels in the Houston and El Paso areas today. Afternoon winds may be strong enough to generate blowing dust in parts of the Panhandle, but the duration and intensity are not likely to be enough to raise the daily PM10 AQI beyond the "Good" range. Elsewhere in the state, moderate winds and lower incoming background levels should help to keep air quality in the "Good" range.. ...
Environmental air samples were analyzed for air contaminants at the National Center for Health Statistics (SIC-9431) in Hyattsville, Maryland, on May 21, 1981. An unidentified individual requested the evaluation on behalf of an unspecified number of workers. No substance was detected which exceeded any of the evaluation criteria. Ozone (10028156) and carbon-monoxide (630080) concentrations were be
An electronic communication unit such as a mobile phone comprises a processor for operating said unit; and an ambient air quality monitoring sensor; characterized in that said processor is configured to operate said unit in a first mode of operation during which a) monitoring of said air quality occurs and a level of air quality is assessed against pre-determined levels; and b) ordinary communication routines are activated provided an acceptable category of pre-determined levels is identified; and in a second mode of operation during which a) monitoring of said air quality occurs and a level of air quality is assessed against pre-determined levels; and b) an alarm routine is launched interrupting the ordinary communication routines once a level of ambient air quality is assessed to warrant the users attention.
2. Tadah air paip dalam besen/baldi (separuh saja). Kemudian letakkan di tengah rumah. Kalau dalam bilik ada bau asap. Letakkan satu baldi dalam bilik. Kuasa alam iaitu air itu sendiri akan meneutralkan udara dalam rumah kita. Besar rumah banyakkan lagi air tadahan ...
From July 30, 2009, through April 2, 2010, a monitor collected air samples near Whitwell Elementary and the other three schools looking mainly for arsenic, benzene, benzo(a)pyrene and manganese were the pollutants of interest. During the monitoring period, EPA evaluated the concentrations to see if there was a concern over short-term exposure to these pollutants. Once the monitoring was complete, EPA analyzed the results to see if there was a concern over long-term exposure. In order to keep the community informed, EPA posted individual air sample results on its website throughout the monitoring period. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
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Pollutants follow various subsurface and surface water pathways from sources within a catchment to its outlet and may cause detrimental effects on downstream water quality and ecosystems. Along their different transport pathways through a catchment, pollutants may be attenuated subject to different physical and biogeochemical processes. In this thesis, physical process effects on such catchment-scale pollutant transport and attenuation, resulting coastal pollutant loading and its efficient abatement are investigated. For this purpose, pollutant transport-attenuation is modeled both generically using a Lagrangian Stochastic Advective-Reactive (LaSAR) approach and site specifically for the Swedish Norrström basin using the GIS-based dynamic nitrogen transport-attenuation model POLFLOW. Furthermore, the role of such modeling for catchment-scale pollutant abatement is also investigated by use of economic optimization modeling.. Results indicate that appropriate characterization of catchment-scale ...
The one thing that a lot of individuals do not know, is that there usually are numerous air pollutants, right inside our homes. These pollutants may be the supply of disease and also health issues for you as well as people in your family. By not using a h... Read , ...
MADISON, Wis. (AP) - The Latest on a bill that would prohibit Wisconsin environmental officials from regulating air pollutants not covered by federal regulations (all times local)
TestAmericas comprehensive ambient air testing capabilities far surpass any other laboratory in the environmental testing industry. We rent summa canisters, flow controllers and other sampling equipment used for ambient air testing.
The nature of different pollutants and their distribution and fate in the environment is complex, requiring an understanding of the physical environment and the best available methodology for monitoring and analyses of all environmental compartments. There is a clear coupling between chemical and biological monitoring and the use and development of modeling tools for predictive assessment of fate and effects of pollutants in the environment.. Our key areas are;. ...
Key points From February 2016 onwards data collection moved from a statistical month to a calendar month basis. Year on year comparisons are therefore calculated using the daily average for throughput...
From the American Chemical Society Green plants reduce city street pollution up to 8 times more than previously believed Trees, bushes and other greenery growing in the concrete-and-glass canyons of cities can reduce levels of two of the most worrisome air pollutants by eight times more than previously believed, a new study has found. A…
The IQAir® GC Series is the worlds most effective compact room air purifier for the control of gaseous chemicals. The GC Series relies on an interchangeable cartridge design for optimized gaseous pollutant control. Thanks to its selectable cartridges, the IQAir® GC Series is able to meet almost any moderate gas phase removal need in residential or commercial environments.
... An indoor air pollutant is a substance that is present inside buildings that has a harmful health effect on the occupants of the building. Since most people spend more time indoors than outdoors, exposure to indoor air pollutants is an important environmental hazard.. Indoor air pollutants have become a serious problem in recent years due to efforts by builders to make homes and other buildings more energy efficient. Modern buildings are built to restrict the flow of air from the inside out and vice versa. These new building practices work well to save energy. However, reduced airflow in a building can cause air quality problems in three ways.. ...
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Centre for Air Quality and Health Research and Evaluation (CAR) Review of the health impacts of emission sources, types and levels of particulate matter air pollution
Background: Urban air pollution can trigger asthma exacerbations, but the effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on lung function, or onset of airway disease and allergic sensitization in children is less clear. Methods: All 2107 children aged 9-14 from 40 schools in Rome in 2000-2001 were included in a cross-sectional survey. Respiratory symptoms were assessed on 1760 children by parental questionnaires (response rate=83.5%). Allergic sensitization was measured by skin prick tests and lung function was measured by spirometry on 1359 children (77.2%). Three indicators of traffic-related air pollution exposure were assessed, i.e. self-reported traffic outside the childs home, the measured distance between the childs home and busy roads, and the residential nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels estimated by a land-use regression model (R2=0.69). Results: We found a strong association between estimated NO2 exposure per 10 μg/m3 and lung function, especially expiratory flows, in ...
BACKGROUND: Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.. METHODS: Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.. RESULTS: Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimers disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be ...
Elevated indoor air pollution levels due to the burning of biomass in developing countries are well established. Few studies have quantitatively assessed air pollution levels of improved cookstoves and examined these measures in relation to health effects. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 79 Honduran women cooking with traditional or improved cookstoves. Carbon monoxide and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were assessed via indoor and personal monitoring. Pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms were ascertained. Finger-stick blood spot samples were collected to measure C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The use of improved stoves was associated with 63% lower levels of personal PM2.5, 73% lower levels of indoor PM2.5, and 87% lower levels of indoor carbon monoxide as compared to traditional stoves. Women using traditional stoves reported symptoms more frequently than those using improved stoves. There was no evidence of associations between cookstove type or air ...
The only single-source reference available on atmospheric chemistry, aerosols, and atmospheric models This fully revised and expanded version of John H. Seinfelds successful Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution provides a rigorous, comprehensive treatment of the chemistry of the atmosphere. With new chapters on such important topics as cloud physics, nucleation, and wet deposition, this book offers a truly up-to-date examination of atmospheric chemistry today, including: * Chemistry of the stratosphere and troposphere * Formation, growth, dynamics, thermodynamics, and properties of aerosols * Meteorology of air pollution * Transport, diffusion, and removal of species in the atmosphere * Formation and chemistry of clouds * Interaction of atmospheric chemistry and climate * Radiative and climatic effects of gases and particles * Formulation of mathematical chemical/transport models of the atmosphere. Complete with solved examples, problems graded according to difficulty, and hundreds of
Beyond Pesticides, July 27, 2009) A mothers exposure to urban air pollutants known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can adversely affect a childs intelligence quotient or IQ, according to the new study "Prenatal Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5 Years." PAHs are widespread in urban environments and throughout the world as they have many sources, several of which are related to pesticides, including creosote used for wood preservation, burning pesticide-laden grass seed fields, and exposure to organochlorine pesticides whether banned, yet ubiquitous DDT or the still used insecticide dicofol. Other sources include synthetic turf fields and the burning of coal, diesel, oil and gas, or other organic substances such as tobacco. PAHs have been known to be bioaccumulative, carcinogenic and disrupt the endocrine system. The new study, funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), a branch of the National Institutes of Health, ...
Air pollution, containing high-level of ultrafine particles (UFP) and benzene, is a prominent environmental health problem in many cities of the World. We investigated the level of oxidative DNA damage in mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) by the comet assay as DNA strand breaks (SB) and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sensitive sites in residents from three urban locations in Cotonou, Benin (taxi-moto drivers, subjects living near roads with intense traffic and suburban residents) and rural residents. Exposure was characterized by urinary excretion of S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), a biomarker of benzene exposure, and by ambient UFP. There were clear stepwise gradients with respect to ambient UFP, S-PMA excretion and oxidative DNA damage with rural subjects , suburban subjects , residents living near highly trafficed roads,taxi-moto drivers. Polymorphisms in glutathione peroxidase (GPX), NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were assessed for ...
Seasonal cambial activity and xylem anatomy were studied in Prosopis spicigera Linn. (Mimosaceae) growing under the influence of combined air pollutants. Cambial cell division and differentiation of secondary xylem began in April, reached a peak in July-August and ceased in October in trees (normal) growing in a relatively unpolluted locality. In contrast, in trees (affected) growing near a fertilizer complex, the initiation of cambial activity was delayed by one month and the cambium ceased to divide in September. Considerable variations were noticed in the structure and arrangement of xylem derivatives between affected and normal trees. The vessel lumen diameter was reduced and vessel frequency was significantly higher in the affected trees. Axial parenchyma was aliform to confluent in normal trees compared to mainly vasicentric parenchyma with heavy accumulation of tannin contents in affected trees. Cambial activity and xylem development did not show any correlation with the phenology of affected

ACID RAIN: September 2013ACID RAIN: September 2013

Acid rain is caused by air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide or nitrogen oxide. These chemicals are produced by the burning of ... But even healthy people can have their lungs damaged by acid air pollutants. Acid rain can aggravate a persons ability to ... Labels: Acid precipitation, air pollutants., catalytic converters, coal, government environmental regulations, scrubbers, Steps ... A procedure called over fire air is used to redirect a fraction of the total air in the combustion chamber.. To reduce sulphur ...
more infohttp://worldacidrainsecrets.blogspot.ca/2013/09/

ACID RAIN: Acid Rain Program Benefiting Environment, Human HealthACID RAIN: Acid Rain Program Benefiting Environment, Human Health

Acid rain is formed when air pollutants like SO2 and NOx react with water and other compounds in the atmosphere. A large ... The new report concludes that the Acid Rain Program-created by bipartisan mandate under Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act ... The report notes that additional reductions projected to occur under the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, finalized by the U.S. ... Decades of science has shown that acid rain can damage lakes, streams, and forests; degrade air quality; impair visibility; and ...
more infohttp://worldacidrainsecrets.blogspot.com/2013/10/acid-rain-program-benefiting.html

Sulphur oxides (SOx) definition - Risk.netSulphur oxides (SOx) definition - Risk.net

... ambient air-quality standards have been adopted in many areas to regulate sulphur oxides emissions. * see also nitrogen oxide ... Sulphur oxides such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphates are pollutants that contribute to the formation of smog. Since SO2 ... Sulphur oxides such as sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphates are pollutants that contribute to the formation of smog. Since SO2 ... ambient air-quality standards have been adopted in many areas to regulate sulphur oxides emissions. ...
more infohttps://www.risk.net/definition/sulphur-oxides-sox

Major Air PollutantsMajor Air Pollutants

Many toxic air pollutants can also enter the food and water supplies.. Toxic air pollutants can cause cancer. Some toxic air ... Major Air Pollutants. Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead toâ among other thingsâ ... Toxic air pollutants. A large number of chemicals that are known or suspected to cause cancer. Some important pollutants in ... Some toxic air pollutants, like asbestos and formaldehyde, can be found in building materials and can lead to indoor air ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/major-air-pollutants

Criteria air pollutants - WikipediaCriteria air pollutants - Wikipedia

Criteria air Pollutants (CAP), or criteria pollutants, are a set of air pollutants that cause smog, acid rain, and other health ... The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants ... Petitioners proposed that EPA list carbon dioxide as a criteria air pollutant, as outlined in the Clean Air Act. They also ... air_act/pdfs/Petition_GHG_pollution_cap_12-2-2009.pdf. US Environmental Protection Agency - Criteria Air Pollutants European ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criteria_air_pollutants

Air PollutantsAir Pollutants

Learn about dangerous air pollutants that can cause physical harm to Iowans and our nearby environments. The Iowa DNR offers ... Air Pollutants Criteria Air Pollutants. The Clean Air Act regulates six common air pollutants: particle pollution (particulate ... These pollutants are called hazardous air pollutants (HAP) or air toxics. Air toxics are generally more localized than the ... Hazardous Air Pollutants. U.S. EPA and Iowa DNR regulate 187 air pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious ...
more infohttps://www.iowadnr.gov/idnr/Environmental-Protection/Air-Quality/Air-Pollutants

Criteria Air Pollutants | Mass.govCriteria Air Pollutants | Mass.gov

Contact for Criteria Air Pollutants. MassDEP Federal Air Quality Standards Contact Phone Mark Wert Call MassDEP Federal Air ... Criteria Air Pollutants. Learn about six common air pollutants that are found everywhere and emitted from a range of sources: ... and science-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards for six common air pollutants that contribute to smog, acid rain, ... Learn more about lead in the air and how it affects our health and environment from EPA: Lead (Pb) Air Pollution ...
more infohttps://www.mass.gov/service-details/criteria-air-pollutants

DEEP: Toxic Air Pollutants SourcesDEEP: Toxic Air Pollutants Sources

There are many sources of toxic air pollutants in Connecticut. These sources can be roughly grouped into four categories or ... Connecticuts Management of Toxic Air Pollutants. Air Toxic Pollutants Sources. There are many sources of toxic air pollutants ... CTs Management of Toxic Air Pollutants , What Connecticut is Doing About Air Toxics ... of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources.. Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than ...
more infohttp://www.ct.gov/deep/cwp/view.asp?a=2684&q=322234&deepNav_GID=1619

Air pollutant concentrations - WikipediaAir pollutant concentrations - Wikipedia

Air pollutant concentrations, as measured or as calculated by air pollution dispersion modeling, must often be converted or ... Regulations that define and limit the concentration of pollutants in the ambient air or in gaseous emissions to the ambient air ... Air pollutant concentrations expressed as mass per unit volume of atmospheric air (e.g., mg/m3, µg/m3, etc.) at sea level will ... mole percent and many others may also be used for gaseous pollutants. Particulate matter (PM) in the atmospheric air or in any ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_pollutant_concentrations

Outdoor Air PollutantsOutdoor Air Pollutants

... , Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution. ... Outdoor Air Pollutants Aka: Outdoor Air Pollutants, Air Pollution, Ozone, Particulate Matter Pollution ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index * Carbon Monoxide ... Pathophysiology: Air Pollutants monitored by the EPA as part if Air Quality Index ...
more infohttps://fpnotebook.com/ER/Lung/OtdrArPltnts.htm

Odors and Air Pollutants 2020 ConferenceOdors and Air Pollutants 2020 Conference

... conference will once again bring together environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air ... pollutants management. The biennial Odor Conference is designed to educate practitioners, facility owners, operators, ... I. Odor and Air Regulation. J. Utility Odor Management and Planning. K. Community Relations and Odor Complaints. L. Odor/Air ... B. Air Dispersion Modeling. C. Collection System Odor Control. D. Biological Odor Control. E. Corrosion Control. F. ...
more infohttps://www.wef.org/OdorsAir/

Air Pollutants Thwart Flower-Seeking Bugs - Scientific AmericanAir Pollutants Thwart Flower-Seeking Bugs - Scientific American

We really need to conduct more experiments to find out if these pollutants, or even certain plants, might similarly disrupt ... The total combination of dynamic odors, including floral signature odors as well as anthropogenic pollutants, can affect the ... and even pollutants given off from vehicle exhaust, can disrupt the moths behavior, University of Washington biology ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/air-pollutants-thwart-flower-seeking-bugs/

Air Pollutants - The Pig SiteAir Pollutants - The Pig Site

Air Pollutants - A compilation of Pig Stockmanship Standards written by John Carr and the Garth Veterinary Group, published by ... Air Pollutants Section: Stockmanship Standards Air Pollutants. Air Pollutants Gas. Chemical Formulae. COSHH. Long-Term. Limit ... Air must contain less than 10 mg/m3 of inhaled dust Respirable dust particles are 1.6 to 3 ?m in size. Above this size the ...
more infohttp://www.thepigsite.com/stockstds/34/air-pollutants/

Freezing Air Purifies Outdoor Air PollutantsFreezing Air Purifies Outdoor Air Pollutants

This helps in the prevention of deadly harmful effects of air pollution. ... Cryogenics in air purifiers freeze the outdoor air pollutants and purify it. ... Air Pollution. Nearly 2.4 million deaths every year are attributable to air pollution. Air pollutants may be solid particles, ... Breathing Dirty Air may Lead to Kidney Failure. Breathing in unclean air due to increasing air pollution could cause kidney ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/freezing-air-purifies-outdoor-air-pollutants-183699-1.htm

Cancer Risk from Traffic-Emitted Air Pollutants | SpringerLinkCancer Risk from Traffic-Emitted Air Pollutants | SpringerLink

Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... Cancer Risk from Traffic-Emitted Air Pollutants. In: Gryning SE., Chaumerliac N. (eds) Air Pollution Modeling and Its ... Because of widespread concern about the effects of the exposure of urban populations to a large number of air pollutants, a ... E.P.A., 1984, Review and evaluation of the evidence for cancer associated with air pollution, EPA-450/5-83-006R.Google Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9128-0_72

Air Pollutants | Public SiteAir Pollutants | Public Site

Toxic Air Pollutants Toxic air pollutants, also referred to as hazardous air pollutants, are substances that cause or may cause ... "Criteria" air pollutants are those pollutants for which the Clean Air Act directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA ... There are many types of air pollutants. The exact composition and concentration of pollutants depend on the source, the type of ... In addition, there are 187 toxic or "hazardous" air pollutants (HAPs). These pollutants are substances that cause or may cause ...
more infohttp://4cleanair.org/topics/details/air-pollutants

Ultrathin Membranes Filter Air Pollutants from Smokestacks - Scientific AmericanUltrathin Membranes Filter Air Pollutants from Smokestacks - Scientific American

... silicon and other fibers and measuring only one to three millimeters thickthat captures fine air pollutants and heavy metals ...
more infohttps://www.scientificamerican.com/article/ultrathin-membranes-filte/

MeteoNews: Air pollutants BeromünsterMeteoNews: Air pollutants Beromünster

2017 MeteoNews JCS , About , Sources , Location , Legal Notices. MeteoNews on the web: Other products: meteonews.fm , meteonews.tv , www.saisonwetter.ch. In other countries: Argentina , Österreich , Belgique , Colombia , Deutschland , España , France , Liechtenstein , Nederland , ประเทศไทย , Türkiye. ...
more infohttp://meteonews.ch/en/Air_Pollutants/M06644019/Berom%C3%BCnster

Transport emissions of air pollutants
  -

  European Environment AgencyTransport emissions of air pollutants - European Environment Agency

New version data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-8/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-2 was ... Transport emissions of air pollutants This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ... EU - Transport emissions of air pollutants (acidifying substances, ozone precursors and particulates) 1990-2000 (indexed: 1990= ...
more infohttps://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-2

Common Indoor Air Pollutants on Environmental XPRTCommon Indoor Air Pollutants on Environmental XPRT

... of all buildings pose a serious health hazard due to indoor air pollution. The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollutio ... Is the indoor air you breathe healthy? According to the World Health Organization, 40% ... What is Indoor Air Quality?. Feb. 1, 2017. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the degree of air purity inside buildings that ... The EPA calls indoor air pollution the #1 pollution problem inAmerica. The following is a list of common indoor air pollutants: ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/common-indoor-air-pollutants-474956

Common air pollutants: ammonia - Canada.caCommon air pollutants: ammonia - Canada.ca

Clean Air On Line. CEPA Environmental Registry. Transboundary Air Issues. Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution ... Common air pollutants: ammonia. Ammonia is a colourless gas with a pungent odor that is noticeable at concentrations above 50 ... Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment/Air. Acid Rain. ...
more infohttps://www.canada.ca/en/environment-climate-change/services/air-pollution/pollutants/common-contaminants/ammonia.html

Secret air pollutants in our homes claim thousands of lives - TelegraphSecret air pollutants in our homes 'claim thousands of lives' - Telegraph

... pollutants from everyday objects and appliances in their homes, claims landmark new report ... Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including ... Secret air pollutants in our homes claim thousands of lives. Thousands dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, ... Thousands more people than previously thought are dying each year from the effect of poor air quality, including pollutants ...
more infohttps://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/12166395/Secret-air-pollutants-in-our-homes-claim-thousands-of-lives.html

Sulphur dioxide, air pollutant - PakObserverSulphur dioxide, air pollutant - PakObserver

It is a major air pollutant that is colorless and has a pungent smell, released from the combustion of fossil fuels such as ...
more infohttp://pakobserver.net/sulphur-dioxide-air-pollutant/

air pollutants - Biology-Onlineair pollutants - Biology-Online

air pollutants. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a particular topic. ... concentration of air pollutants highest when? 12 a.m. 6 a.m. 12 noon 6 p.m. ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?t=468

Air pollutant concentrations 2014</span>Air pollutant concentrations 2014</span>

Air pollutant concentrations at station level (statistics) * Air pollutant concentrations 2016 * Air pollutant concentrations ... Air pollutant concentrations 2014 - Dataset by cities (compared to EU values) * Air pollutant concentrations 2014 - Dataset by ... www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/air-pollutant-concentrations-at-station/air-pollutant-concentrations-2014 or scan the QR ... Air pollutant concentrations 2014 This website has limited functionality with javascript off. Please make sure javascript is ...
more infohttps://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/data/air-pollutant-concentrations-at-station/air-pollutant-concentrations-2014
  • Because of the difficulty in assessing air toxic health risks with the original Clean Air Act enacted in 1970, Congress amended the Clean Air Act in 1990 to emphasize controlling emissions of air toxics through available control technology, and then periodically evaluating any remaining risk from air toxics. (iowadnr.gov)
  • However, due to several factors, including new regulations, process changes and economic factors, the latest information from 1999 indicates that only 6% of emissions of air toxic pollutants are from major sources. (ct.gov)
  • For references , please go to https://www.eea.europa.eu/data-and-maps/indicators/transport-emissions-of-air-pollutants-2 or scan the QR code. (europa.eu)
  • Air toxics are generally more localized than the criteria pollutants and the highest levels are close to their sources. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Most air toxics originate from man-made sources, including cars and trucks, factories, power plants and refineries, as well as some building materials and cleaning solvents. (iowadnr.gov)
  • Major sources of air toxics are stationary sources that emit or have the potential to emit 10 tons or more per year of any one of the 188 air toxics listed in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Act), or 25 tons or more per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • These sources emit air toxics through various means, including emissions stacks and vents, fugitive process emissions, equipment leaks, material transfer and handling, or accidental releases. (ct.gov)
  • Area sources of air toxics are stationary sources smaller than major sources, which emit less than 10 tons per year of any single air toxic or less than 25 tons per year of combined air toxics. (ct.gov)
  • Estimates from 1999 show that approximately 30% of air toxics are emitted from area sources. (ct.gov)
  • Natural sources of air toxics are diverse and numerous. (ct.gov)
  • For example, forest fires produce air toxics, such as particulates and volatile organic compounds. (ct.gov)
  • Some toxic air pollutants (e.g., mercury) are persistent bioaccumulative toxics, which means they are stored indefinitely in the body and increase over time. (4cleanair.org)
  • Sources - there are 187 chemicals on the U.S. EPA's list of air toxics, most of them originate from human-made sources, including mobile sources (cars, trucks, buses) and stationary sources (factories, refineries, power plants), as well as indoor sources (building materials and activities such as cleaning). (broward.org)
  • This conference will once again bring together environmental professionals from around the world for a showcase on odors and air pollutants management. (wef.org)
  • The total combination of dynamic odors, including floral signature odors as well as anthropogenic pollutants, can affect the success of olfactory-based resource finding,' University of Arizona researcher Leif Abrell added. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The EPA established the NAAQS according to Sections 108 and 109 of the U.S. Clean Air Act, which was last amended in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, a Lead Staff Paper was prepared by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OPQPS), which was based on information presented in the 1986 Lead/AQCD/Addendum and 1990 Supplement, in addition to other OAQPS sponsored lead exposure/risk analyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • State Average Annual Emissions Trend (1 pg, 2 MB) Criteria pollutants State Tier 1 for 1990 - 2016. (epa.gov)
  • These are called "criteria" air pollutants because the Environmental Protection Agency sets human health-based and environmentally-based criteria for setting limits on the amount of these pollutants that are permissible in the ambient air. (iowadnr.gov)
  • MassDEP also enforces its own ambient air quality standards . (mass.gov)
  • Criteria" air pollutants are those pollutants for which the Clean Air Act directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to establish air quality criteria in the form of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). (4cleanair.org)
  • and 2) "secondary," are set at a level "requisite" to protect public welfare from "any known or anticipated effects associated with the pollutant in the ambient air," including effects on vegetation, crops, wildlife, buildings and national monuments and visibility. (4cleanair.org)
  • The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the six CAPs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of CO emitted into the ambient air is from mobile sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • The trends shown are for criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and precursors covered by the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), excluding lead. (epa.gov)
  • These programs include the National Ambient Air Quality Standards whose creation was aimed at preventing six air pollutants. (essaysprofessors.com)
  • However, in the long run (up to 2020) transport pollutant emissions are projected to decline significantly, provided fleet renewal continues (OECD, 2002a). (europa.eu)
  • The experiments, reported in the journal Science of the Total Environment, showed that by simply circulating polluted air through a small freezing chamber we can remove most of the fine particles and gas pollutants. (medindia.net)
  • The objective was to measure the air quality outside and inside the combined showroom and workshop, demonstrating the importance of measuring common traffic-related pollutants indoors as well as outdoors. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In Massachusetts, the Department of Environmental Protection (MassDEP) is responsible for developing implementation plans outlining how all areas of the state will meet and maintain the federal standards for criteria air pollutants. (mass.gov)
  • The history of each criteria air pollutant is listed below: The six criteria air pollutants were the first set of pollutants recognized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as needing standards on a national level. (wikipedia.org)
  • and (5) to periodically review and revise, as appropriate, the criteria and NAAQS for a given listed pollutant or class of pollutants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lead (Pb): In the mid-1970s, lead was listed as a criteria air pollutant that required NAAQS regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1977, the EPA published a document which detailed the Air Quality Criteria for lead. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some are emitted directly, while others are formed when other pollutants react. (mass.gov)
  • Pollinators like bees, butterflies and moths use their sense of smell to locate flowers from long distances, but we found that scent from neighboring vegetation, and even pollutants given off from vehicle exhaust, can disrupt the moth's behavior,' University of Washington biology professor Jeffrey Riffell said. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To remain in the air, particles usually must be less than 0.1-mm wide and can be as small as 0.00005 mm. (factmonster.com)
  • The team found that as they circulated haze-polluted air through a cryogenic condenser, the finer particles stuck together in the condenser tube before dropping out by gravity, and emerging as clean air. (medindia.net)
  • The proposed Multi-Sector Air Pollutants Regulations (MSAPR) will impose mandatory national performance standards on specific sector/equipment groups and establish consistent emissions limits for regulated industries across the country. (dieselnet.com)
  • The EEA's air quality database consists of a multi-annual time series of air quality measurement data and calculated statistics for a number of air pollutants. (europa.eu)
  • Sources of indoor air pollutants, measurement and detection as well as evaluation are covered filling the gap in the literature caused by this topical subject. (ebooks.com)
  • It is a major air pollutant that is colorless and has a pungent smell, released from the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil, in different industries, and it is also a product of the burning fuels in automobiles released from the vehicular exhausts. (pakobserver.net)
  • U.S. EPA and Iowa DNR regulate 187 air pollutants known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or adverse environmental consequences. (iowadnr.gov)
  • These pollutants are responsible for a wide range of adverse health and environmental effects. (4cleanair.org)
  • Describes SBS, its symptoms and causes, the chemical and biological pollutants likely to be involved, other building-related factors and what can be done. (dmoztools.net)
  • This book is divided into four clearly defined parts: measuring organic indoor pollutants, investigation concepts and quality guidelines, field studies, and emission studies. (ebooks.com)
  • The Government of Canada has proposed, for the first time, industrial air pollutant emission legislation for some sectors of the economy, including certain categories of stationary engines. (dieselnet.com)
  • These pollutants are substances that cause or may cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive, birth or developmental defects, and neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory disease. (4cleanair.org)