The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.
Techniques used in microbiology.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Hospital facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Blocking of a blood vessel by air bubbles that enter the circulatory system, usually after TRAUMA; surgical procedures, or changes in atmospheric pressure.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
The motion of air currents.
The contamination of indoor air.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The maintenance of certain aspects of the environment within a defined space to facilitate the function of that space; aspects controlled include air temperature and motion, radiant heat level, moisture, and concentration of pollutants such as dust, microorganisms, and gases. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.
Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.
Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the U.S. federal government.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic, coccoid bacteria that is part of the normal flora of humans. Its organisms are opportunistic pathogens causing bacteremias and soft tissue infections.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and genitourinary tract. Some species are primary pathogens for humans.
Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/924)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

How a fungus escapes the water to grow into the air. (2/924)

Fungi are well known to the casual observer for producing water-repelling aerial moulds and elaborate fruiting bodies such as mushrooms and polypores. Filamentous fungi colonize moist substrates (such as wood) and have to breach the water-air interface to grow into the air. Animals and plants breach this interface by mechanical force. Here, we show that a filamentous fungus such as Schizophyllum commune first has to reduce the water surface tension before its hyphae can escape the aqueous phase to form aerial structures such as aerial hyphae or fruiting bodies. The large drop in surface tension (from 72 to 24 mJ m-2) results from self-assembly of a secreted hydrophobin (SC3) into a stable amphipathic protein film at the water-air interface. Other, but not all, surface-active molecules (that is, other class I hydrophobins and streptofactin from Streptomyces tendae) can substitute for SC3 in the medium. This demonstrates that hydrophobins not only have a function at the hyphal surface but also at the medium-air interface, which explains why fungi secrete large amounts of hydrophobin into their aqueous surroundings.  (+info)

Contaminations occurring in fungal PCR assays. (3/924)

Successful in vitro amplification of fungal DNA in clinical specimens has been reported recently. In a collaboration among five European centers, the frequency and risk of contamination due to airborne spore inoculation or carryover contamination in fungal PCR were analyzed. The identities of all contaminants were specified by cycle sequencing and GenBank analysis. Twelve of 150 PCR assays that together included over 2,800 samples were found to be contaminated (3.3% of the negative controls were contaminated during the DNA extraction, and 4.7% of the PCR mixtures were contaminated during the amplification process). Contaminants were specified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acremonium spp. Further analysis showed that commercially available products like zymolyase powder or 10x PCR buffer may contain fungal DNA. In conclusion, the risk of contamination is not higher in fungal PCR assays than in other diagnostic PCR-based assays if general precautions are taken.  (+info)

Density and molecular epidemiology of Aspergillus in air and relationship to outbreaks of Aspergillus infection. (4/924)

After five patients were diagnosed with nosocomial invasive aspergillosis caused by Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus, a 14-month surveillance program for pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungal conidia in the air within and outside the University Hospital in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) was begun. A. fumigatus isolates obtained from the Department of Hematology were studied for genetic relatedness by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. This was repeated with A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media in the microbiology laboratory. The density of the conidia of nonpathogenic fungi in the outside air showed a seasonal variation: higher densities were measured during the summer, while lower densities were determined during the fall and winter. Hardly any variation was found in the numbers of Aspergillus conidia. We found decreasing numbers of conidia when comparing air from outside the hospital to that inside the hospital and when comparing open areas within the hospital to the closed department of hematology. The increase in the number of patients with invasive aspergillosis could not be explained by an increase in the number of Aspergillus conidia in the outside air. The short-term presence of A. flavus can only be explained by the presence of a point source, which was probably patient related. Genotyping A. fumigatus isolates from the department of hematology showed that clonally related isolates were persistently present for more than 1 year. Clinical isolates of A. fumigatus obtained during the outbreak period were different from these persistent clones. A. fumigatus isolates contaminating culture media were all genotypically identical, indicating a causative point source. Knowledge of the epidemiology of Aspergillus species is necessary for the development of strategies to prevent invasive aspergillosis. RAPD fingerprinting of Aspergillus isolates can help to determine the cause of an outbreak of invasive aspergillosis.  (+info)

Microscopic fungi in dwellings and their health implications in humans. (5/924)

The article reviews the quantitative and qualitative incidence of microscopic filamentous fungi in dwellings, methods for their detection, mycotoxins, glucans and volatile organic compounds produced by microscopic fungi in the indoor air of homes. Characteristics and properties of the most important species of fungi in dwellings (Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Stachybotrys spp., and Wallemia spp.) and the health problems of occupants of the "moldy homes are also discussed.  (+info)

Exposure to airborne microorganisms and volatile organic compounds in different types of waste handling. (6/924)

Occupational exposure of workers to airborne microorganisms and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in different types of waste treatment situations was examined during summer time. Microorganisms were collected as stationary samples using a six-stage Andersen impactor, while for VOCs both personal and stationary sampling was conducted. The exposure at the waste handling facility was considerably greater than at landfill sites or in waste collection. The concentrations of viable fungi were maximally 10(5) cfu/m3, and the concentrations of both total culturable bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria exceeded the proposed occupational exposure limit values (OELV), being 10(4) and 10(3) cfu/m3, respectively. Exposure to VOCs in the waste handling facility was three times higher than at the landfill sites, being at highest 3000 microg/m3, considered to be the limit for discomfort. The use of personal protective equipment at work, thorough hand washing and changing clothes after the work shift are strongly recommended in the waste handling facility and the landfill sites.  (+info)

Application of the classic Limulus test and the quantitative kinetic chromogenic LAL method for evaluation of endotoxin concentration in indoor air. (7/924)

The classic (gel-clot procedure) Limulus test (CLT) and the quantitative kinetic chromogenic LAL method (KQCL) used for the evaluation of bacterial endotoxin concentration in the indoor air of dwellings were compared. The scientific procedure included analyses of 40 air samples supplemented by the analysis of 20 sample duplicates (selected at random) which were taken during the fall season from 10 flats located in 3 towns of the Upper Silesian region (southern Poland). The particulate aerosol probes were sampled by Harvard impactor and Casella sampler. The same samples were analyzed in the Netherlands using the quantitative kinetic chromogenic LAL method, and in Poland using the classic Limulus test. Comparison of both methods revealed that the quantitative kinetic chromogenic LAL method was more precise, with better reproducibility (the coefficient of variation between analyses of the main probe and its duplicate was over two times smaller in the KQCL method than in the CLT method), fully automated in the phase of analysis and data reading, and faster and more effective than the classic Limulus test. Nevertheless, on the basis of the obtained results, the usefulness of the classic Limulus method for assessment of the degree of pollution of indoor air with bacterial endotoxin seems to be confirmed as in the majority of examined samples (21 out 40) the results obtained by both methods were of the same order of magnitude, and in the remaining 19 samples did exceed one order of magnitude. Thus, the data received by means of the classic Limulus test may be regarded as acceptable.  (+info)

Risk of infection from heavily contaminated air. (8/924)

In a factory processing shea nuts the dust concentrations were found to be up to 145 mg/m3 [80% respirable (1--5 micrometer)]. Bacterial examination of the dust revealed that under the worst conditions observed a worker might inhale 350,000 bacteria per 8 h. Of these, 3,000 were Ps. aeruginosa and 1,500 Salmonella spp. of nine different types. The possible health effects of these findings are discussed.  (+info)

A blockage caused by air bubbles in the bloodstream, which can occur after a sudden change in atmospheric pressure (e.g., during an airplane flight or scuba diving). Air embolism can cause a variety of symptoms, including shortness of breath, chest pain, and stroke. It is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Note: Air embolism can also occur in the venous system, causing a pulmonary embolism (blockage of an artery in the lungs). This is a more common condition and is discussed separately.

Some common examples of bacterial infections include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.

In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.

A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a healthcare worker or laboratory personnel while working in a laboratory setting, typically with infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These infections can be acquired through exposure to infected samples, equipment, or surfaces in the laboratory.

The risk of laboratory infection is higher in settings where high-risk agents are handled, such as in the study of highly infectious diseases like Ebola or SARS. The transmission of infectious agents in laboratories can occur through various routes, including:

1. Direct contact with infected samples or materials.
2. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment.
3. Inhalation of aerosols generated during procedures such as centrifugation or pipetting.
4. Exposure to infected personnel or animals in the laboratory.

To prevent laboratory infections, healthcare workers and laboratory personnel must follow strict safety protocols, including wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, and masks, and adhering to proper sterilization and decontamination techniques. Laboratories should also have ventilation systems that filter out infectious agents and should be designed with containment levels to minimize the risk of exposure.

Laboratory infections can have serious consequences for both the individuals involved and the broader community, including the potential for transmitting infectious diseases to others outside of the laboratory setting. Therefore, it is essential to have strict safety protocols and proper training for laboratory personnel to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections.

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.

Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:

* Pneumonia
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Meningitis
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis

Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:

* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis

Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.

Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.

Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.

Examples of communicable diseases include:

1. Influenza (the flu)
2. Measles
3. Tuberculosis (TB)
5. Malaria
6. Hepatitis B and C
7. Chickenpox
8. Whooping cough (pertussis)
9. Meningitis
10. Pneumonia

Communicable diseases can be spread through various means, including:

1. Direct contact with an infected person: This includes touching, hugging, shaking hands, or sharing food and drinks with someone who is infected.
2. Indirect contact with contaminated surfaces or objects: Pathogens can survive on surfaces for a period of time and can be transmitted to people who come into contact with those surfaces.
3. Airborne transmission: Some diseases, such as the flu and TB, can be spread through the air when an infected person talks, coughs, or sneezes.
4. Infected insect or animal bites: Diseases such as malaria and Lyme disease can be spread through the bites of infected mosquitoes or ticks.

Prevention and control of communicable diseases are essential to protect public health. This includes:

1. Vaccination: Vaccines can prevent many communicable diseases, such as measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), and influenza.
2. Personal hygiene: Frequent handwashing, covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of diseases.
3. Improved sanitation and clean water: Proper disposal of human waste and adequate water treatment can reduce the risk of disease transmission.
4. Screening and testing: Identifying and isolating infected individuals can help prevent the spread of disease.
5. Antibiotics and antiviral medications: These drugs can treat and prevent some communicable diseases, such as bacterial infections and viral infections like HIV.
6. Public education: Educating the public about the risks and prevention of communicable diseases can help reduce the spread of disease.
7. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has a communicable disease can help prevent further transmission.
8. Quarantine and isolation: Quarantine and isolation measures can be used to control outbreaks by separating infected individuals from those who are not infected.
9. Improved healthcare infrastructure: Adequate healthcare facilities, such as hospitals and clinics, can help diagnose and treat communicable diseases early on, reducing the risk of transmission.
10. International collaboration: Collaboration between countries and global organizations is crucial for preventing and controlling the spread of communicable diseases that are a threat to public health worldwide, such as pandemic flu and SARS.

Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:

* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)

The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Weakness
* Confusion
* Shortness of breath

Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for bacteremia include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures

Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

The most common types of mycoses include:

1. Ringworm: This is a common fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin. It can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, torso, and face.
2. Athlete's foot: This is a common fungal infection that affects the feet, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
3. Jock itch: This is a fungal infection that affects the groin area and inner thighs, causing itching, redness, and cracking of the skin.
4. Candidiasis: This is a fungal infection caused by Candida, a type of yeast. It can affect various parts of the body, including the mouth, throat, and vagina.
5. Aspergillosis: This is a serious fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the lungs, sinuses, and brain.

Symptoms of mycoses can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include itching, redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin. Treatment for mycoses usually involves antifungal medications, which can be applied topically or taken orally. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Preventive measures for mycoses include practicing good hygiene, avoiding sharing personal items such as towels and clothing, and using antifungal medications as prescribed by a healthcare professional. Early diagnosis and treatment of mycoses can help prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission to others.

There are several types of abscesses, including:

1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.

The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:

* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)

If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:

* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.

Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.

It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.

Ethmoid sinusitis is often caused by viral or bacterial infections, allergies, or other factors that block the normal drainage of the sinuses. Treatment options may include antibiotics, decongestants, nasal sprays, and saline irrigations to help clear out the infection and promote healing. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain the sinuses or remove any blockages.

It is important for individuals with ethmoid sinusitis to seek medical attention if they experience persistent or severe symptoms, as untreated sinusitis can lead to more serious complications such as abscesses or meningitis.

Symptoms of wound infection may include:

* Redness, swelling, or increased pain around the wound
* Increased drainage or pus from the wound
* Bad smell or discharge from the wound
* Fever or chills
* Swollen lymph nodes

Treatment of wound infection usually involves antibiotics and may require surgical intervention to remove infected tissue. It is important to practice good wound care, such as keeping the wound clean and dry, changing dressings regularly, and monitoring for signs of infection to prevent the development of a wound infection.

Preventive measures include:

* Proper sterilization and technique during surgery or medical procedures
* Keeping the wound site clean and dry
* Removing any dead tissue or debris from the wound
* Using antibiotic ointment or cream to prevent infection
* Covering the wound with a sterile dressing

If you suspect that you have a wound infection, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate the wound and provide appropriate treatment to prevent further complications.

Symptoms of maxillary sinusitis may include:

* Pain or pressure in the cheekbones or forehead
* Swelling of the eyelids or face
* Yellow or green nasal discharge
* Fever
* Cough
* Headache
* Toothache

Maxillary sinusitis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate any underlying infections, along with pain management and drainage of mucus from the sinuses. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to address any anatomical issues or abscesses that have developed.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated maxillary sinusitis can lead to complications such as meningitis or osteomyelitis (infection of the bone). With prompt and appropriate treatment, however, most cases of maxillary sinusitis can be effectively managed and resolved with minimal long-term consequences.

Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:

1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.

Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.

Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Suppuration is a process of pus formation that occurs in response to an infection or inflammation. It is a natural defense mechanism of the body, which helps to eliminate pathogens and protect the surrounding tissues from further damage. Suppuration involves the accumulation of pus, a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris, within a specific area of the body.

Suppuration can occur in various parts of the body, such as the skin, lungs, and joints, and is typically associated with bacterial or fungal infections. The process of suppuration involves several stages, including:

1. Inflammation: The body's response to an initial injury or infection, characterized by increased blood flow, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area.
2. Neutrophil migration: White blood cells called neutrophils migrate to the site of infection and engulf the pathogens, releasing enzymes that help to break down the bacterial cell walls.
3. Bacterial killing: The neutrophils and other immune cells work together to kill the invading bacteria, releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other chemicals that damage the bacterial cell membranes.
4. Pus formation: As the bacteria are killed, the dying cells and their components, such as lipopolysaccharides, are engulfed by the neutrophils and other immune cells. This material is then converted into pus, which is a mixture of dead white blood cells, bacteria, and other debris.
5. Resolution: The suppuration process eventually resolves as the pus is either absorbed by the body or drained through natural openings (such as the skin) or medical intervention (such as drainage).

Suppuration is a natural process that helps to protect the body from infection and promotes healing. However, if the process becomes chronic or excessive, it can lead to complications such as abscesses or sepsis.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from person to person, but may include:

* Persistent coughing and wheezing
* Thick, sticky mucus that clogs airways and can lead to respiratory infections
* Difficulty gaining weight or growing at the expected rate
* Intestinal blockages or digestive problems
* Fatty stools
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Rectal prolapse
* Increased risk of liver disease and respiratory failure

Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in infancy, and treatment typically includes a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care. Management of the disease focuses on controlling symptoms, preventing complications, and improving quality of life. With proper treatment and care, many people with cystic fibrosis can lead long, fulfilling lives.

In summary, cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems, causing thick and sticky mucus to build up in these organs, leading to serious health problems. It can be diagnosed in infancy and managed with a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care.

The standard setting for a hot air oven is at least two hours at 160 °C (320 °F). A rapid method heats air to 190 °C (374 °F) ... Forced ventilation of hot air can be used to increase the rate at which heat is transferred to an organism and reduce the ... Ozone is used in industrial settings to sterilize water and air, as well as a disinfectant for surfaces. It has the benefit of ... Gravity displacement cycles rely on the lower density of the injected steam to force cooler, denser air out of the chamber ...
... or aquatic microbiology): The study of those microorganisms that are found in water. Aeromicrobiology (or air microbiology): ... Soil microbiology: the study of those microorganisms that are found in soil. Veterinary microbiology: the study of the role of ... The branches of microbiology can be classified into pure and applied sciences. Microbiology can be also classified based on ... Nano microbiology: the study of those microscopic organisms on nano level. Predictive microbiology: the quantification of ...
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... air and fire.: 88 Jain scriptures describe nigodas which are sub-microscopic creatures living in large clusters and having a ... you can learn more and teach others about Microbiology at the Department of Microbiology Media related to Microbiology at ... Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur and in medical microbiology Robert Koch ... Wainwright M (2003). An Alternative View of the Early History of Microbiology. Advances in Applied Microbiology. Vol. 52. pp. ...
It is then hung to air for another period of time. The duration of the curing process varies by the type of ham. For example, ... Applied Microbiology. 6 (5): 323-327. doi:10.1128/AM.6.5.323-327.1958. PMC 1057423. PMID 13571973. Toldrá, F.; Reig, M. (2016 ... prosciutto crudo' is raw, air-dried pork (although safe and ready to eat thanks to the curing process) Deibel, RH; Niven, CF ( ...
In more complicated cases, various methods of adding nutrients, air, or exogenous microorganisms to the contaminated site can ... Petroleum microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms that can metabolize or alter ... "Applied Microbiology_Petroleum and Hydrocarbon Microbiology" (PDF). Magot, Michel; Ollivier, Bernard; K.C. Patel, Bharat (Feb ... Petroleum Microbiology. Editions OPHRYS. ISBN 978-2710811350. Ollivier, Bernard; Magot, Michel (2005). Petroleum Microbiology_ ...
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Textbook of Microbiology by Prof. C P Baveja, ISBN 81-7855-266-3 Textbook of Microbiology by Ananthanarayan and Panikar, ISBN ... There is also an air filled space in between to aid insulation. An air circulating fan helps in uniform distribution of the ... The standard settings for a hot air oven are: 1.5 to 2 hours at 160 °C (320 °F) 6 to 12 minutes at 190 °C (374 °F) the ... Hot air ovens are electrical devices which use dry heat to sterilize. They were originally developed by Louis Pasteur. ...
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For services to medicine and microbiology. B. A. Wasantha Kumarasiri. For services to business, air transport and the community ... Air Vice-Marshal Nigel Alexander Bairsto, MBE, Royal Air Force. Air Vice-Marshal Paul David Rawson, Royal Air Force. Civil ... Royal Air Force Air Commodore Gregory Jack Bagwell, (8027917R). Air Commodore David John Foster (5202166J). Civil Division ... Military Division Air Marshal Barry Michael Thornton, CB, Royal Air Force. Civil Division Paul David Grenville Hayter, LVO, ...
It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through air from the vomit of an infected person. Risk factors include ... Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 48 (3): 915-920. doi:10.1128/JCM.01664-09. PMC 2832421. PMID 20053852. Carlsson B, Kindberg E ... infection can follow eating food or breathing air near an episode of vomiting, even if cleaned up. The viruses continue to be ... Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Vaccines for Mutual Protection: Selected Proceedings from the 3rd ESCMID Conference on ...
He partially decomposed a sample of cerium nitrate by roasting it in air and then treating the resulting oxide with dilute ... Environmental Microbiology. 16 (1): 255-64. doi:10.1111/1462-2920.12249. PMID 24034209. Kang, L., Shen, Z. & Jin, C. Neodymium ... It is a hard, slightly malleable, silvery metal that quickly tarnishes in air and moisture. When oxidized, neodymium reacts ...
... processes sterilize using hot air that is heavily laden with water vapor, which plays the most ... C P Baveja (1940), "Textbook of Microbiology", Nature, 146 (3692): 149, Bibcode:1940Natur.146..149H, doi:10.1038/146149a0, ISBN ... and the chamber is closed and heated so that steam forces air out of the vents or exhausts. Pressure is then applied so that ... and for sterilization of materials for microbiology and other fields calling for aseptic technique.[citation needed] In cases ...
This food microbiology and biology knowledge becomes biological engineering when systems and processes are created to maintain ... Modified atmosphere (MA) storage refers to any atmosphere different from normal air, typically made by mixing CO2, O2, and N2. ... Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage refers to atmospheres that are different than normal air and strictly controlled at all ... Perry, J.D.; Freydière, A.M. (2007). "The application of chromogenic media in clinical microbiology". Journal of Applied ...
In 1952, he moved to Warsaw to become the Director of the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the Mother and Child ... Fresh Air, NPR books author interviews, July 22, 2014. 'Listen to the Story' for excerpts related to Ludwik Fleck (Articles ... Between 1945 and 1952, he served as the head of the Institute of Microbiology of the School of Medicine of Maria Sklodowska- ...
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He has utilised many approaches to study asthma including epidemiology, genetics, pathology, microbiology and immunology, ... and asthma and air pollution, based at the University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, ...
External loop reactor uses current created by air bubbles flowing through the reactor to create a flow that brings the reactor ... Schügerl, Karl; Hubbuch, Jürgen (June 2005). "Integrated bioprocesses". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 8 (3): 294-300. doi: ...
Cole, JJ (1999). "Aquatic microbiology for ecosystem scientists: New and recycled paradigms in ecological microbiology". ... The brumation period is anywhere from one to eight months depending on the air temperature and the size, age, and health of the ...
The mold lives in soil, surviving off dead plant and animal matter, but spreads through the air via airborne conidia. This ... Microbiology. 153 (6): 1677-1692. doi:10.1099/mic.0.2007/007641-0. PMID 17526826. "Aspergillus flavus :: Center for Integrated ...
At the same time, he attended the specialization course in microbiology at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. In 1930 he became ... Evandro Chagas died at an air crash in Rio de Janeiro on November 8, 1940, aged 35. "Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Ciência e Saúde ...
... may react with oxygen in the air. The black silver sulfide (Ag2S) is among the most insoluble salts in aqueous solution, a ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 86 (6): e02479-19. doi:10.1128/AEM.02479-19. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 7054089. PMID 31953329 ...
This species is able to cause rot in foods such as Kola nuts and is a common air contaminant. It can be parasitized by other ... Khan (1975). "Wall Structure and Germination of Spores in Cunninghamella echinulata". Journal of General Microbiology. 90: 115- ... C. echinulata is a common air contaminant, and is currently of interest to the biotechnology industry due to its ability to ... Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease. 76 (4): 506-509. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.03.009. ISSN 1879-0070. PMID ...
In treatment of sewage one process used is the activated sludge process in which air is passed through a mixture of sewage and ... Handbook of water and wastewater microbiology. Academic Press. ISBN 9780124701007. Orris E. Albertson (1992). "Control of ...
On a typical street in downtown Cairo, one can find many vendors and open-air cafés selling the drink. In Egypt, karkadeh is ... Physics and Microbiology: General Aspects. Academi c Press. pp. 11, 20. ISBN 978-0-08-050093-5. Alderman, Harold; Braun, ...
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The Alchemy of Air was a finalist for the National Academies Communication Award; listed among the "Best Books of The Year" by ... An Oregon native, Hager started his writing career after earning a master's degree in medical microbiology and immunology from ... Hager, Thomas (2008). The alchemy of air : a Jewish genius, a doomed tycoon, and the scientific discovery that fed the world ... ISBN 978-0671724764 Perry, Douglas (September 4, 2008). "How to turn air into bread and explosives". Retrieved ...
Ozone can kill microorganisms in air, water and process equipment and has been used in settings such as kitchen exhaust ... Louis Pasteur's work in microbiology also led to the development of many vaccines for life-threatening diseases such as anthrax ... Cowan MM (October 1999). "Plant products as antimicrobial agents". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (4): 564-82. doi:10.1128/ ... Letters in Applied Microbiology. 26 (2): 118-22. doi:10.1046/j.1472-765x.1998.00303.x. PMID 9569693. S2CID 39803630. Kalemba D ...
It was hosted by the Institute of Microbiology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMCAS). The WFCC communicates via a regular ... WFCC WFCC-MIRCEN World Data Centre for Microorganisms CABRI International Congress of Culture Collections The International Air ...
Spatial variations in tradewinds result in cooler air temperatures in the western North Pacific and milder air temperatures in ... Frontiers in Microbiology. 3: 202. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00202. PMC 3392650. PMID 22787456. Martin, John (1992). Primary ...
Applying microbiology to biomass conversion, the University of Maine will study the use of bacteria to create biofuels from ... "EPA Proposes New Regulations for the National Renewable Fuel Standard Program for 2010 and Beyond , Transportation & Air ... Most of the projects will involve microbiology, including the University of Georgia and Montana State University projects, ... which amended the Clean Air Act by establishing the first national renewable fuel standard. The U.S. Congress gave the U.S. ...
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Washington, D.C.: American Society of Microbiology. doi:10.1128/9781555818272. ISBN 978-1-55581-143-3. Weiss, Robin A. (2005 ... to allow for air flow over the culture and prevent water condensation. Some Petri dishes, especially plastic ones, usually ... Microbiology equipment, German inventions, 1887 in science, 1887 in Germany). ...
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The enrichment must contain the proper sulfide-oxygen interface that can be possible only if air is introduced, for example, by ... ISBN 978-0-387-25496-8. Reichenbach H (1981-10-01). "Taxonomy of the gliding bacteria". Annual Review of Microbiology. 35 (1): ... On the contrary, for the freshwater strains isolation it's necessary to perform under oxic conditions (air atmosphere) using a ... from Monterey Canyon, California, with Thioploca spp". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 65 (1): 270-7. Bibcode:1999ApEnM ...
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Water Air Soil Pollut. 28:407-425.. *Vaughn JM, Landry EF, Thomas MZ. [1983]. Entrainment of viruses from septic tank leach ... Bitton G. [1994]. Wastewater Microbiology. Wiley-Liss, Inc., New York, NY.. *Sinton LW. [1986]. Microbial contamination of ...
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Microbial-test-systems; Microbiology; Airborne-particles; Inhalation-studies; Air-contamination; Air-quality; Air-samples; Air- ... beta-D-glucan in air samples was analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The concentrations of (13)-beta-D-glucan ... sampling-equipment; Air-sampling; Particulate-dust; Particulate-sampling-methods; Particle-aerodynamics; Sampling-methods; ...
A greater focus on the role of microbiology in agriculture combined with new technologies can help mitigate potential food ... New Sensor System Uses Human Movement to Monitor Air Quality and Breath. April 14, 2023. ... Report proposes microbiologys grand challenge to help feed the world. Print Email ... Home food Report proposes microbiologys grand challenge to help feed the world ...
Microbiology & Public Health for Northern Alberta at the University of Alberta. PBS - NOVA - Killer Disease on Campus (aired ... American Society of Microbiology. Microbiology Video Library - (dead link). "This is a growing collection of Microbiology ... Microbiology Teaching Resources - Microbiology Education. Educational Resources. Biological Science , Microbiology, Educational ... of Microbiology & Immunology. *LabWork - Online Experiments. Experiments include: How Big is a Bug ; Pink Bugs, Purple Bugs ; ...
Immunology & Microbiology. * Air & Water Borne Diseases Open Access Journal * Applied Microbiology: Open Access Open Access ... Clinical Microbiology: Open Access Open Access Journal * Fermentation Technology Open Access Journal, Official Journal of Italo ... Journal of Pharmaceutical Microbiology Open Access Journal * Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Emerging Drugs Hybrid Open ... Microbiology Diabetes & Endocrinology Nursing Healthcare Management Neuroscience Immunology Gastroenterology Genetics & ...
SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance. Jasmin S Kutter, ... SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance ... SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance ... SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 are transmitted through the air between ferrets over more than one meter distance ...
The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg confirmed two of its employees have tested positive for COVID-19. ... Poor air quality, evacuations in multiple provinces due to wildfires Apple unveils sleek Vision Pro goggles. Will it be what ... Microbiology lab employees test positive for COVID-19. Charles Lefebvre CTV News Winnipeg Published Thursday, April 9, 2020 5: ... WINNIPEG -- The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg confirmed two of its employees have tested positive for COVID-19. ...
Microbiology Amphotericin B shows a high order of in vitro activity against many species of fungi. Histoplasma capsulatum, ... At the time of manufacture the air in the vial is replaced by nitrogen. ...
Air Microbiology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore. Chan P. Chan P. Indoor Air. 1999 Dec;9(4):290-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.1999. ... Indoor air controls. Fisk WJ, Grimsrud DT. Fisk WJ, et al. IARC Sci Publ. 1993;(109):72-84. IARC Sci Publ. 1993. PMID: 8514372 ... Respiratory infections during air travel. Leder K, Newman D. Leder K, et al. Intern Med J. 2005 Jan;35(1):50-5. doi: 10.1111/j. ...
MeSH Terms: Air Microbiology; Air Pollution, Indoor; Allergens/immunology*; Alternaria/immunology*; Asthma/epidemiology; Asthma ... Fungal spores were collected by using a Burkard air sampler twice during the school year. Clinical outcomes were evaluated ...
Air Microbiology* Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Cytopathic effects in Vero E6 cells inoculated with material collected from the air during air sampling 1-1. [A] Mock-infected ... Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients John A Lednicky 1 , Michael Lauzard 2 , Z Hugh Fan 3 , ... Viable SARS-CoV-2 in the air of a hospital room with COVID-19 patients John A Lednicky et al. Int J Infect Dis. 2020 Nov. ...
Categories: Air Microbiology Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 31 ...
  • My lab is in the UC Davis Genome Cente r and I hold appointments in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology in the School of Medicine and the Department of Evolution and Ecology in the College of Biological Sciences . (
  • LA Testing offers indoor environmental quality (IEQ) laboratory services, sampling supplies, test kits, building inspection tools and air monitoring instruments to identify a wide range of exposure risks in the built environment. (
  • The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg is shown in a file photo. (
  • WINNIPEG -- The National Microbiology Laboratory in Winnipeg confirmed two of its employees have tested positive for COVID-19. (
  • The National Microbiology Laboratory conducts research on the spread and treatment of infectious diseases. (
  • The type and and receiving the sample in the laboratory number of microorganisms in the air at any never exceeded 1 hour. (
  • Quality of indoor environment in microbiology laboratory buildings. (
  • 3 Microbiology unit, Douala General Hospital Laboratory. (
  • 1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ibb University, Ibb, Yemen (Correspondence to M.F. Al-Shahwani: [email protected]). (
  • Newswise - In their first follow-up to a high-profile 2017 study which showed microbes in Antarctica have a unique ability to essentially live on air, researchers from UNSW Sydney have now discovered this process occurs in soils across the world's three poles. (
  • LA Testing provides indoor and outdoor air testing services, sampling supplies, test kits and monitoring instruments to identify and mitigate exposure risks to airborne pollutants. (
  • While the quality of the air people breathe outdoors is often dependent upon where they live, the indoor air quality of. (
  • Indoor air quality : biological contaminants, report on a WHO meeting, Rautavaara, 29 August - 2 September 1988. (
  • Indoor air quality and the law in Singapore. (
  • Chan P. Chan P. Indoor Air. (
  • Indoor Air. (
  • Indoor air controls. (
  • 11th REHVA World Congress and 8th International Conference on Indoor Air Quality, Ventilation and Energy Conservation in Buildings. (
  • As a result of indoor air-quality investigations involving mold and potentially mold-related health effects, mycotoxin analyses of bulk environmental samples are now commercially available through environmental microbiology laboratories in the United States. (
  • Huntington Beach, California, May 23, 2023 Back in 1972, the American Lung Association (ALA) first sponsored Clean Air Week. (
  • This listing appears to cover all aspects of microbiology from the interpretation of straight forward issues concerning environmental monitoring, bioburden results and identifications - through to the more complex issues surrounding virology results for the biologics/biotech people. (
  • It was intended to be a time to educate the public about the connection between clean air and respiratory health. (
  • For example, worsening air pollution levels can have negative impacts on respiratory and cardiovascular conditions 4 . (
  • Respiratory infections during air travel. (
  • The study's senior author Associate Professor Belinda Ferrari, of UNSW Science, said living on air was such a minimalistic way to survive that their findings lent further potential for microbial life to exist on other planets. (
  • A greater focus on the role of microbiology in agriculture combined with new technologies can help mitigate potential food shortages associated with world population increases according to a new report from the American Academy of Microbiology . (
  • How Long Will Coronavirus Live on Surfaces or in the Air Around You? (
  • A new New York Times article of interest on on the new coronavirus and how long it survives on surfaces and in the air. (
  • How can clean room surfaces not be heavily contaminated when the air counts are out of specification? (
  • The Salmonella isolates were also tested for their ability to survive air-drying at stainless steel surfaces, but there were no differences in survival of isolates from fish feed factories compared to isolates of other origin. (
  • In conclusion the Salmonella isolates from fish feed factories were not particularly resistant to disinfection or air-drying at surfaces. (
  • Fungal spores were collected by using a Burkard air sampler twice during the school year. (
  • Every breath of air you take has more than a thousand species of bacteria, fungi, and other microscopic life forms in it. (
  • Only 3 sites, reception hall, hospital pas- sages and outpatient clinic, gave meaningful values for the distribution of bacteria in the atmospheric air. (
  • The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. (
  • Utilisation de la ventilation naturelle pour lutter contre les infections en milieu de soins. (
  • Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings]. (
  • Challenges to ventilation and air-conditioning system. (
  • We offer air proficiency testing material in form of samples of ammonia, fluoride, hydrogen halides/halogens, lead, mercury, metals, NO, SO 2 , H 2 SO 4 , and particulate matter in impinger solution as a concentrate to be diluted with reagent grade water for immediate analysis. (
  • Fungal particles released from these materials were collected size-selectively by a newly developed Fragment Sampling System, and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan in air samples was analyzed by Limulus Amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. (
  • Air samples were collected weekly during documented [ 1 ]. (
  • From each site, samples dispersed in the air as small particles or were collected at 3 times, morning (08.00), droplets over long distances [ 2 ]. (
  • These susceptibles de provoquer des infections included 83.3% of fomites, 37.5% of air samples nosocomiales dans notre environnement de santé. (
  • Results of search for 'su:{Air microbiology. (
  • ABSTRACT A bacteriological distribution analysis of the air was carried out at 8 sites in each of 2 ge- neral hospitals in Ibb during the period February-June 2002. (
  • The quality of the air has a direct impact on everyone's health and well-being. (
  • Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatilities for 2 14 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution. (
  • He has the PhD in Microbiology With over 35 years of experience in Life Sciences and more than 150 publications. (
  • At the time of manufacture the air in the vial is replaced by nitrogen. (
  • The time between sample collection air for a particular pathogen. (
  • I see nothing wrong with Professor Michie being given air time, but it should be in a more balanced way. (
  • The goal of the DLC-ME is to use computers and network technologies to provide students and teachers interested in microbiology and microbial ecology with resources that may aid their learning and teaching. (
  • A/Prof Ferrari said the researchers' findings would change the way scientists thought about the limitations required for life to exist, as well as how microbiology was taught. (
  • In 1994, Clean Air Week was expanded to become Clean Air Month which now takes place each May. (