The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Changing an open-chain hydrocarbon to a closed ring. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Methods used for the chemical synthesis of compounds. Included under this heading are laboratory methods used to synthesize a variety of chemicals and drugs.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Techniques used to synthesize chemicals using molecular substrates that are bound to a solid surface. Typically a series of reactions are conducted on the bound substrate that results in either the covalent attachment of specific moieties or the modification of existing function groups. These techniques offer an advantage to those involving solution reactions in that the substrate compound does not have to be isolated and purified between the reaction steps.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A technology, in which sets of reactions for solution or solid-phase synthesis, is used to create molecular libraries for analysis of compounds on a large scale.
Hydrocarbons with at least one triple bond in the linear portion, of the general formula Cn-H2n-2.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Compounds with a 5-membered ring of four carbons and an oxygen. They are aromatic heterocycles. The reduced form is tetrahydrofuran.
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A group of compounds consisting in part of two rings sharing one atom (usually a carbon) in common.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION, when an amino acid is transferred from its cognate TRANSFER RNA to the lengthening chain of PEPTIDES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Adenosine molecules which can be substituted in any position, but are lacking one hydroxyl group in the ribose part of the molecule.
Phosphate esters of THYMIDINE in N-glycosidic linkage with ribose or deoxyribose, as occurs in nucleic acids. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1154)
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
doi:10.1016/S0024-3841(97)00021-1. Goldsmith, John A. (1979). The aims of autosegmental phonology. In D. A. Dinnsen (Ed.), ... Goldsmith, John A. (1989). Autosegmental and metrical phonology: A new synthesis. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Goldsmith, John A. ( ...
Mayell, Hillary (February 10, 2005). "Cobras Spit Venom at Eyes With Nearly Perfect Aim". National Geographic. O. Wilson, ... Edward (2000). Sociobiology: the New Synthesis. Harvard University Press. pp. 302-305. ISBN 9780674000896. Sherbrooke, W.C. ( ...
She aims to develop novel antimicrobials that can target the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway. She uses the model organisms ... In 2019, she won the Infosys Prize in Life Sciences for her work on bacterial cell wall structure and synthesis. She is a ... "Peptidoglycan hydrolase of an unusual cross-link cleavage specificity contributes to bacterial cell wall synthesis." ... "Peptidoglycan hydrolase of an unusual cross-link cleavage specificity contributes to bacterial cell wall synthesis". ...
Diogenes aims to offer a publication outlet for scientific information and intellectual synthesis. The journal publishes work ...
If uncontrolled during the synthesis of melanin, it results in increased melanin synthesis. Decreasing tyrosinase activity has ... Some insecticides are aimed to inhibit tyrosinase.[14] References[edit]. .mw-parser-output .reflist{font-size:90%;margin-bottom ... See Template:Leucine metabolism in humans - this diagram does not include the pathway for β-leucine synthesis via leucine 2,3- ... The enzyme is mainly involved in two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis otherwise known as the Raper Mason pathway. ...
This was the first major collaborative synthesis presenting the current state of knowledge of Japanese history. The series aims ...
The project aims to be a new synthesis and fusion among different art forms. A modern melodrama, in the most extended sense of ... with the aim of promoting international theatre, with young people and for young people, through a working method and a ...
An important point is that the approach is aimed at the synthesis of unlabeled Petri nets only. A region of a transition system ... As such, it aims at recovering concurrent, independent behaviour from transitions between global states. Theory of regions ...
The program was aimed at Ukrainian refugees and immigrants. The ambitious program hopes to resettle 150,000 Ukrainian ... improper synthesis?] Many however, were unaware of their location upon their arrival, in one case, immigrants from Ukraine ...
The choice of the topics exposed has been made under this only aim: to offer the scholar the fundamental principles, analyze ... Each of them represented an almost perfect synthesis of the professional figures of the engineer and of the mathematician". ( ... All the topics which best suit this aim are developed thoroughly. Other topics, intrinsically not less important, but less ... it deliberately aims to purposes of higher learning, and only subject to, professional training. ...
One of the aims of PBL is the development of self-directed learning (SDL) skills. In Loyens, Magda & Rikers' discussion, SDL is ... Synthesis is the re-integration of the parts in a way that helps better understand the whole. Communication is the translation ... The tutor aims to build students' confidence when addressing problems, while also expanding their understanding. This process ... In Malaysia, an attempt was made to introduce a problem-based learning model in secondary mathematics, with the aim of ...
It aims at explanation, i.e. the cognitive analysis and subsequent syntheses of complex facts. Example: An essay on "Rhetoric: ...
Chapter 2: Cultural family therapy: a new synthesis Outlines a synthesis of family therapy with transcultural psychiatry, ... CFT is aimed at understanding and change. Neither one alone suffices, as each of them produces only part of the solution. The ... Chapter 3: The presenting culture: a context for family therapy An update of the synthesis, reframing the presenting issue in ... Cultural family therapy (CFT) is a synthesis of family therapy and transcultural psychiatry. CFT is an interweaving of "stories ...
There are presently no non-biological chemical syntheses which achieve this aim. Some atomic placement has been achieved with ... In conventional chemical synthesis or chemosynthesis, reactive molecules encounter one another through random thermal motion in ... Mechanosynthesis is a term for hypothetical chemical syntheses in which reaction outcomes are determined by the use of ... and selection of appropriate synthesis reactions. Some suggest attempting to develop a specialized, very small (roughly 1,000 ...
The highest aim of performers is to put beauty into every motion. Indeed, performers are strictly criticized for lacking beauty ... Additionally, performers are taught to create a synthesis between the different aspects of Peking opera. The four skills of ... Peking opera does not aim to accurately represent reality. Experts of the art form contrast the principles of Peking opera with ... Of course, the aesthetic principle of synthesis frequently leads to the use of these contrasting elements in combination, ...
One aim is the efficient synthesis of these extremely complex natural products. In addition, we hope that our explorations into ... Target-Oriented Synthesis. In order to test the scope and the utility of newly developed methods, we strive to employ them in ... research program focuses on the development of new methods of organic synthesis and their implementation in the total synthesis ... such as fragment coupling or macrocyclization operations at a late stage in synthesis. Tim currently serves as the Associate ...
Roland Pierik presents a synthesis combining the two branches. In his synthesis, he argues that instead of focusing on ... As Elizabeth Anderson defines it, "the positive aim of egalitarian justice create a community in which people stand in ... Developing responsibility-sensitive egalitarianism: A synthesis of five decades of liberal-egalitarian theorizing. University ...
The Autonomous College aims to expand its list of offered courses in the near future. The Nanotechnology Research Institute of ... specifically in the area of advanced robust and intelligent control synthesis and analysis methodologies. In addition to the ... it recently became successful in offering a degree programme in Kurdish Language and Literature at undergraduate level and aims ... the University of Kurdistan conducts research and provides guidance on synthesis and applications of nanomaterials. This ...
Current research also aims to produce these biogenic substances on a commercial level using metabolic engineering techniques. ... While Studier et al.'s (1968) simulations of the synthesis of isoprenoids in abiogenic conditions did not produce the long- ... Canizal G, Schabes-Retchkiman PS, Pal U, Liu HB, Ascencio JA (2006). "Controlled synthesis of Zn0 nanoparticles by bioreduction ... Another application of biogenic substances is in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. The current chemical and physical ...
Thus, much effort has been aimed at the synthesis of new molecular precursors. A productive overview is provided by several ...
The reforms which were to be put in place were essentially a synthesis between historic and progressive concepts. Their aim was ... Its aims included linking the state and middle class society to the law and to civil rights, but at the same time it retained ... His main aim was to drive out the French occupiers. In close contact with Stein, Scharnhorst managed to convince the king that ... The state would not seek to form citizens at all costs to serve it, but it did not entirely let go of that aim: Each [student] ...
Performance arts aim to empower man to experience this rasa, or re-experience it. Actors aim to journey the spectator to this ... Rasa is prepared, states Natya Shastra, through a creative synthesis and expression of vibhava (determinants), anubhava ( ... The playwright, the actors and the director (conductor) all aim to transport the spectator to an aesthetic experience within ...
The NCCMH aims to promote the role of evidence synthesis in making informed judgments about healthcare policy. The NCCMH has a ...
This 'Rossellian' synthesis is that "[parliamentary] liberalism is the method, Socialism is the aim". The Marxist-Leninist idea ... he rejected in favour of a revolution that-as famously put in the GL program-is a coherent system of structural reforms aimed ... a creative synthesis of the democratic socialist revisionism (Bernstein, Turati and Treves) and of classical Italian Liberalism ...
... and synthesis". Anastasi's (1983) essay "What Do Intelligence Tests Measure?" aimed to correct misinterpretations regarding the ...
His work, aimed at synthesis of philosophy and Sufism, paved the way for the work of Ibn Sina (Avicenna).[12] ... Atomistic philosophies are found very early in Islamic philosophy, and represent a synthesis of the Greek and Indian ideas. ... and they devoted much discussion to the question of the subject matter and aims of logic in relation to reasoning and speech. ...
Synthesis of 19-Nor-17α-ethynyltestosterone and 19-Nor-17α-methyltestosterone" (PDF). J Am Chem Soc. 76 (16): 4089-4091. doi: ... Luis Ernesto Miramontes Cárdenas" aimed to recognize outstanding Mexicans in Chemical Engineering R&D .[21] ... The Synthesis Of 19-Nor-Progesterone[22]. *Sandoval A; Miramontes L; Rosenkranz G; Djerassi C. 1951 Journal of the American ... Invention and synthesis of norethisterone[edit]. The scientific contributions of Luis Miramontes are extensive, including ...
Rosu has also founded Runtime Verification, Inc., a company aimed at commercializing runtime verification technology. Rosu ... efficient monitor synthesis,Runtime predictive analysis, and monitoring-oriented programming. ...
The design and synthesis of a "smart" antifouling biocide is the aim of another project. Antifouling compounds must be potent ... The first in the series was "The aims and ideals of the Cawthron Institute" by Thomas Easterfield, one of the founding ... A study of the factors influencing the feed conversion efficiency of farmed Chinook salmon aims to improve husbandry, health ... The Shellfish Aquaculture Platform aims to enhance the sustainable growth of New Zealand's shellfish aquaculture industry ...
This research aims to develop medications that target and interfere with the hormones that are known to increase sebum ... oily sebum synthesis.[46][47] Acne can be a side effect of testosterone replacement therapy or anabolic steroid use.[1][48] ... It has a slight skin-lightening effect due to its ability to inhibit melanin synthesis. Therefore, it is useful in treating ...
The medical decision-making (MDM) process involves analysis and synthesis of all the above data to come up with a list of ... and many developing countries provide medical services through a system of universal health care that aims to guarantee care ...
An early tomato was developed that contained an antifreeze gene (afa3) from the winter flounder with the aim of increasing the ... Good, X.; Kellogg, J. A.; Wagoner, W.; Langhoff, D.; Matsumura, W.; Bestwick, R. K. (1994). "Reduced ethylene synthesis by ... Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits or be more nutritious. As well as aiming ... "Control of Ethylene Synthesis by Expression of a Bacterial Enzyme in Transgenic Tomato Plants". The Plant Cell. 3 (11): 1187- ...
The final step aims to remove charred organic residue formed in the porous structure in the previous stage and re-expose the ... It is reported about synthesis of activated carbon with chemically grafted superacid sites -CF2SO3H.[57] ...
Synthesis of UHTCs by boron carbide reduction is one of the most popular methods for UHTC synthesis. The precursor materials ... Three decades later, however, research interest was rekindled by a string of 1990s era NASA programs aimed at developing a ... 2007). "In situ synthesis mechanism of ZrB2-ZrN composite". Materials Science and Engineering: A. 452: 130-134. doi:10.1016/j. ... Synthesis of diboride (Zr, Hf, Ti) UHTCs[edit]. UHTCs possess simple empirical formulas and thus can be prepared by a wide ...
2012). The beginnings of ancient Kurdistan (c. 2500-1500 BC) : a historical and cultural synthesis. Leiden University, pp. 502- ... Through these measures, the Young Turk leaders aimed at weakening the political influence of the Kurds by deporting them from ... The Ottoman centralist policies in the beginning of the 19th century aimed to remove power from the principalities and ...
Steiner aims to show that these two aspects of inner and outer freedom are integral to one another, and that true freedom is ... Combinations and syntheses of determinist theses, such as bio-environmental determinism, are even more common. ...
Ghanbarpour A, Hadizadeh F, Piri F, Rashidi-Ranjbar P (April 1997). "Synthesis, conformational analysis and antidepressant ... Treatment is largely symptomatic and should be aimed at maintenance of the vital functions. ...
The comprehensive curriculum of Test Pilot School is the synthesis of decades of successful of flight test and evaluation ...
Sartre's Existential Marxism and the Quest for Humanistic Authenticity essay by Daniel Jakopovich in the journal Synthesis ... with the aim of making Europe a single force between the blocs, not a third bloc, but an autonomous force which will refuse to ...
... anarchists criticise most Marxists for advocating a transitional phase under which the state is used to achieve this aim. ...
The aim was to protect the range from degradation caused by the heavy human traffic as a result of its proximity to large ... The flora and fauna of the Sierra de Guadarrama is very diverse, reflecting something of a synthesis between species common to ...
The twin aims of treating membranous nephropathy are first to induce a remission of the nephrotic syndrome and second to ... the epithelial cells also seem to secrete an unknown mediator that reduces nephrin synthesis and distribution. ...
Neoconservatism, a modern form of conservatism that supports a more assertive, interventionist foreign policy, aimed at ... "Postwar conservatives set about creating their own synthesis of free-market capitalism, Christian morality, and the global ... to serve the ideological aims of a conservative and repressive Anglo hegemony. [...] In an array of reactions against the race ...
In 2015, he proposed an initiative that has since become Cyber Valley, which aims to make the Stuttgart-Tübingen region of ... Classical methods for analysis by synthesis formulate an objective function and then differentiate it. The OpenDR [34] ...
Espenshade PJ, Hughes AL (2007). "Regulation of sterol synthesis in eukaryotes". Annu. Rev. Genet. 41: 401-27. doi:10.1146/ ... Those wishing to reduce their cholesterol through a change in diet should aim to consume less than 7% of their daily calories ... It plays a central role in many biochemical processes, such as the building of cell membranes and the synthesis of steroid ... About 20-25% of total daily production (~1 g/day) occurs in the liver; other sites of high synthesis rates include the ...
The raw material is gasified into synthesis gas, which after purification is converted by the Fischer-Tropsch process to a ... Engine accessories such as vaporizers and radiator shrouds were also used, both with the aim of capturing heat, because when ...
The aim of the act was to establish a uniform two tier system across the country. Onto the blank canvas, new counties were ... Fox interprets the process by which English came to dominate this region as "a synthesis of mass-migration and elite-takeover ... The rate-capping rebellion was a campaign within English local councils in 1985 which aimed to force the Conservative ...
The aim of life was happiness, he wrote his fiancée, making it impossible "that a person must beg from and bargain with fancied ... a leading figure in the mid-twentieth century evolutionary synthesis, Secretary of the Zoological Society of London (1935-1942 ... "just the same ideas and aims as Ferrer.". ... concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis.[232] ...
Witt D (2008). "Recent developments in disulfide bond formation". Synthesis. 2008 (16): 2491-2509. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1067188. ... Increasingly sophisticated computational and evolutionary biology models aim to describe the effects of epistasis on a genome- ...
"Synthesis Report - Question 9". Retrieved 20 May 2016.. *^ a b "Synthesis report", Sec 6.1. Observed changes in ... Origins and aimsEdit. The IPCC developed from an international scientific body, the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases set up ... Synthesis Report Archived 17 June 2005 at the Wayback Machine, IPCC. *^ a b "Question 2", Box 2-1: Confidence and likelihood ... Sub-report 2.1B of Synthesis and Assessment Product 2.1 by the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on ...
Some gasification processes aims at refining out corrosive ash elements such as chloride and potassium, allowing clean gas ... The resulting gas mixture is called syngas (from synthesis gas) or producer gas and is itself a fuel. The power derived from ... The project has prompted the construction of a £25million commercial facility that aims to generate 22GWh per annum of grid- ... The advantage of gasification is that using the syngas (synthesis gas H2/CO) is potentially more efficient than direct ...
A substantial hurdle to this aim is the difficulty of working out how old fossils are. Beds that preserve fossils typically ... ". In Briggs, D.E.G.; Crowther, P.R. Palaeobiology II: A Synthesis. Blackwell. pp. 71-74. ISBN 0-632-05149-3.. ... This means that it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes.[5] Hence it has three main elements: ... led first to the development of population genetics and then in the mid-20th century to the modern evolutionary synthesis, ...
He was invited to Yale to found an interdisciplinary program combining anthropology, linguistics and psychology, aimed at ... Darnell, R. (1998), Camelot at Yale: The Construction and Dismantling of the Sapirian Synthesis, 1931-39. American ...
Psychotropics can either be sedative or stimulant; sedatives aim at damping down the extremes of behavior. Stimulants aim at ... It describes plant-based drugs to counter diseases.[31] The earliest foundations of ayurveda were built on a synthesis of ... Regulation is aimed at ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of the therapeutic goods which are covered under the scope of ... Since sequencing of the human genome which allowed rapid cloning and synthesis of large quantities of purified proteins, it has ...
This transformation aims to capture as high a variance as possible, accounting for as much of the variability in the data ... Circa 2001, Vasilescu reframed the data analysis, recognition and synthesis problems as multilinear tensor problems based on ... "Human Motion Signatures: Analysis, Synthesis, Recognition," Proceedings of International Conference on Pattern Recognition ( ...
Valproate enhances GABA synthesis and release leading to augmented GABAergic functions in some areas of the brain. Successful ... Potential treatment modalities into biochemical and neurological correction should aim to reduce one or both while not ...
DeLamater, John (1 March 2012). "Sexual Expression in Later Life: A Review and Synthesis". J Sex Res. 49 (2-3): 125-141. doi: ... Those who see them as symbols of disability reject them.[173] However, organizations like Love for the Elderly aim to combat ...
... is a field of biology that aims to examine and explain social behavior in terms of evolution. It draws from ... For the book by E. O. Wilson, see Sociobiology: The New Synthesis. ... The New Synthesis in 1975. The new field quickly became the subject of controversy. Critics, led by Richard Lewontin and ... The New Synthesis, which sparked an intense controversy. Since then "sociobiology" has largely been equated with Wilson's ...
The synthesis of aniline was used to make mauveine (aniline purple) dye and the synthesis of quinine was used to make indigo ... Scholars believe that starting in the 2nd century BC the Chinese established a commercial network aimed at exporting silk to ...
... the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and ... Aim-less translation: loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation factor mIF3/Aim23 leads to ... orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. mIF3 was thought to be absent in ... unbalanced protein synthesis Sci Rep. 2016 Jan 5;6:18749. doi: 10.1038/srep18749. ...
Aims. The purpose of this Faraday Discussion meeting is bring together a diverse group of scientists to discuss the latest ... Nanoparticle Synthesis and Assembly: Faraday Discussion. 20 - 22 April 2015, Lemont, IL, United States ... There are many open questions in the field of nanoparticle synthesis and assembly.. For example: *How does the nanoparticle- ... Nanoparticle synthesis - physical chemistry of nanoparticle shape and ligand control. *Theoretical insights into nanoparticle ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: PI(3,4,5)P3 produced by PI3-kinase seems to be a key mediator for insulins metabolic actions. We have ... The role of SHIP2 in insulin-induced glycogen synthesis was studied by expressing wild-type (WT)-SHIP2 and a 5-phosphatase ... SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 negatively regulates insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in L6 myotubes.. Sasaoka T1, Hori ... GSK3 beta located downstream of Akt is an important molecule to further transmit insulin signal for glycogen synthesis in ...
AIM: To report an alternative approach, using the nutriceutical agent N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc), an amino-sugar directly ... A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic ...
Industrial fermentation aims to produce valuable products from cheap feedstocks by utilizing diverse microbial functions ... the reducing power is mostly directed to product synthesis rather than being oxidized, resulting in a higher yield of target ... products [11]. For example, organic acids such as lactic Itraconazole synthesis and succinic acid are efficiently produced ...
AIM) is for registered nurses who hold a hospital diploma or associate degree in nursing and would like to obtain their ... Capstone Synthesis Practicum. Students in this course apply the MSN curriculum experience by translating knowledge into ... RN to BSN Accelerated into Masters (AIM). As a nurse, you have the potential to shape the future of patient care. Through the ... RN to BSN Accelerated into Masters (AIM): Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) - Leadership and Management. With this MSN ...
Aims and Objectives. Learning Outcomes. Learning Outcomes. Having successfully completed this module you will be able to:. * ... This is a research-led module and the lectures cover the synthesis of a selection of natural products and pharmaceuticals. Each ... Demonstrate your understanding of the principles behind enantioselective synthesis. *Problems of an unfamiliar nature are ... including all areas involving molecular synthesis. Some examples are: process development chemistry, medicinal chemistry, ...
Aims. This unit aims to:. * Help students develop understanding of and skills in chemical process synthesis, design, evaluation ... Part 2: Process Synthesis (10 credits). This part of the unit builds on knowledge and skills of core chemical engineering ... A design exercise carried out during the first week of Semester 1 aims to consolidate learning from Year 2 relevant to process ... Part 2: Process Synthesis. Lectures, problem-solving exercises, self-assessment quizzes/tests, eLearning in Blackboard ( ...
Aim 2: synthesis of outcomes for LTC. Preventable conditions. The reported prevalence of untreated decay in LTC facility ... For Aim 2, we calculated the median, mean, and ranges of the 3 indicators of preventable oral health conditions and the 4 ... The aims of this study were to systematically review publicly available state BSS reports to 1) assess heterogeneity in the ... Aim 1b: heterogeneity in reporting oral health outcomes. All states reported the prevalence of untreated decay. One state ...
Aim. The aim of the systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for the treatment of ... Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PEDro synthesis) ... Effectiveness of physical therapy interventions for pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PEDro synthesis) ...
Exercise therapy is a beneficial intervention for chronic fatigue syndrome (PEDro synthesis) ... Exercise therapy is a beneficial intervention for chronic fatigue syndrome (PEDro synthesis) ... Aim. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise for CFS.. Searches and inclusion criteria. Three databases were searched up to ...
Current Organic Synthesis should prove to be of great interest to synthetic chemists in academia and industry who wish to keep ... abreast with recent developments in key fields of organic synthesis. ... Aims & Scope. Current Organic Synthesis publishes in-depth/mini reviews, original research articles and letter/short ... Current Organic Synthesis. Volume 16, 8 Issues, 2019. ISSN: 1875-6271 (Online). ISSN: 1570-1794 (Print). This journal supports ...
Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry Conference scheduled on June 21-22, 2021 in June 2021 in Venice is for the researchers ... International Conference on Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry aims to bring together leading academic scientists, ... Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry. ICAMSC 2021: 15. International Conference on Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry ... ICAMSC 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry. A number of selected high- ...
Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts Conference scheduled on July 22-23, 2021 in July 2021 in Berlin is for the researchers, ... International Conference on Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts aims to bring together leading academic scientists, ... Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts. ICASB 2021: 15. International Conference on Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts July ... ICASB 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts. A number of selected high- ...
... systematic review and narrative synthesis - Volume 199 Issue 6 - Mary Leamy, Victoria Bird, Clair Le Boutillier, Julie Williams ... Aims To synthesise published descriptions and models of personal recovery into an empirically based conceptual framework. ... Conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis. * Mary Leamy (a1), ... Conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis. * Mary Leamy (a1), ...
Home » Processors/Controllers » Mediatek Aims Helio P90 at China. Mediatek Aims Helio P90 at China. Article By : Rick Merritt * ...
Data analysis and synthesis. We plan to synthesise findings using a narrative approach.40 We chose a narrative synthesis method ... Aim. To synthesise qualitative research that has explored clinician, patient or general public beliefs about diagnostic imaging ... Developing a preliminary synthesis. We will perform a preliminary synthesis of the findings by reading a diverse subset of ... We will provide a structured summary of synthesis findings in the form of a table (table 2). The table will include a summary ...
Aims. The conference will bring together exceptional researchers - all leading names in their field - for an outstanding ... Fundamental research in synthesis is leading to innovation through process improvement and invention of new types of ... 2020 RSC Emerging Investigator Forum ꟷ New Horizons in Organic Synthesis & Energy Conversion. 26 - 27 September 2020, Suzhou, ...
The synthesis aims.... *. West and Central Africa - Markets Update, 2017. Highlights: Cereal production is expected to be ... This Synthesis of Operations Evaluations for the West and Central Africa Region brings together the findings of fifteen ... Four Evaluations of the Impact of WFP Programmes on Nutrition in Humanitarian Contexts in the Sahel: A Synthesis. ... The terms of reference of the Niger PRRO 200961 decentralized evaluation aim to inform stakeholders about the evaluation, ...
Aims. This review aimed to examine the range of guidelines that have been developed and how these have been implemented in ... Synthesis of 29 studies identified the following key influences on involvement: patients capability, desire and expectation ... Aims. We aim to develop mapping algorithms from two widely used depression scales; the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS- ... Aims. We aimed to examine if there is any relationship between religiosity during childhood and adolescence, and drug ...
The synthesis aims to:. *Enhance efficient and effective use of evaluation evidence and learning in programme development ... The Synthesis of Operations Evaluations for the Latin America and Caribbean Region brings together the findings of seven ... Operation Evaluations Series, Regional Synthesis 2013-2017: Latin America and the Caribbean Region ...
Aim. In this realist synthesis we aimed to develop a coherent and transferable framework of the threats behind a legislative ... During data synthesis we would then aim to provide an explanation of this demi-regularity through the identification mechanism( ... Data synthesis was undertaken either by RP and/or GW and synthesis results were regularly shared and discussed within the ... This realist synthesis was run independently by the authors and the funders played no role at any stage of the synthesis other ...
Aims A non-neuronal cholinergic program continues to be described in epithelial. * Post author By conferencedequebec ... Aims A non-neuronal cholinergic program continues to be described in epithelial cells including that of the urinary bladder ( ... 2000 Dysfunction in synthesis or release mechanisms associated with the non-neuronal cholinergic system T-705 has been ... Wessler and Kirkpatrick 2008 The enzymes necessary for synthesis (choline acetyltransferase) and metabolism ( ...
Aims. The aim of this module is to provide an up to date understanding of how the use of model organisms representative of the ... 1. Module Introduction and seminar; Bacterial cell wall synthesis. 2. Bacterial cell wall architecture and coordination ...
Organic synthesis and analytical studies. *Biological and pharmacological activities. *Pharmacokinetic studies. *Delivery ... Aims and scope. The Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia-Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy is a periodical dedicated to the ...
Steroid Synthesis Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Estrogen Antagonists. Hormone ... This Study in Patients With Different Types of Cancer (Solid Tumours) Aims to Find a Safe Dose of Xentuzumab in Combination ...
Interventions aimed at preventing and reducing overweight/obesity among children and adolescents: a meta-synthesis. Kobes, A., ... Interventions aimed at preventing and reducing Final publishers version, 424 KB, PDF document ... To tackle this problem, a meta-synthesis was conducted to draw informed conclusions about the state of the effectiveness of ... The results of the quantitative synthesis of 26 meta-analyses resulted in a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.12 (95%CI ...
... synthesis, characterization and applications of zeolites.. The journal publishes primarily reports of original research and ... Aims and scope. The Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry is the premier interdisciplinary publication ...
Aim of systematic search of literature. The aim of this research is to deepen understanding of the relationship between team ... Analysis and synthesis processes. Data analysis and synthesis was initially undertaken by the primary researcher. Using context ... Realist synthesis: illustrating the method for implementation research. Implement Sci. 2012;7:33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Team-training in healthcare: a narrative synthesis of the literature. BMJ Qual Saf. 2014;23:359-72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
A meta-synthesis was conducted to explore womens constructions of anorexia nervosa and childhood trauma. Following a ... The aim of this synthesis was to explore womens intrapsychic, material/societal, and discursive processes following childhood ... Meta-synthesis. A meta-synthesis can complement existing research by isolating and linking individual accounts across multiple ... the target of a meta-synthesis, exist in the real world and can be subject to synthesis. ...
  • Methods and analysis We will perform a qualitative evidence synthesis of relevant qualitative research exploring clinician, patient and general public beliefs about diagnostic imaging for low back pain. (
  • To determine adherence to clinical practice guidelines in the medical, physiotherapy and chiropractic professions for acute and subacute mechanical low back pain through best-evidence synthesis of the healthcare literature. (
  • A structured best-evidence synthesis of the relevant literature through a literature search of relevant databases for peer-reviewed papers on adherence to clinical practice guidelines from 1995 to 2013. (
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at JBI Evidence Synthesis. (
  • During this workshop participants will have an opportunity to learn about systematic reviews, and to discuss the pros and cons of novel quantitative and qualitative evidence synthesis methods. (
  • The NIHR School for Primary Care Research Evidence Synthesis Working Group (ESWG) is a collaboration of all nine primary care research centres that are members of the School. (
  • We are funded to deliver an ambitious programme of 20 high quality evidence synthesis reviews under four work streams . (
  • For information about all the reviews and all work streams, see the NIHR School for Primary Care Research Evidence Synthesis Working Group website. (
  • Collectively, the ESWG supports the School's ongoing capacity development programme by providing training in evidence synthesis across the School. (
  • We conceptualised legislative interventions as a complex social interventions and so used the realist synthesis method to systematically review the literature for evidence. (
  • Policy and decisions makers do frequently want their 'breaking ideas' tested and it is possible to review interventions that are in their infancy using realist synthesis. (
  • Realist synthesis is a theory-driven and interpretive type of systematic review method. (
  • This realist synthesis of the literature explores the relationship between team interventions, underlying teamwork mechanisms generated by those interventions, and the resultant impact on patient outcomes in an acute hospital context. (
  • The advantage of using realist synthesis to extrapolate data from the literature is that it considers the context and mechanisms that will impact effectiveness of healthcare team interventions. (
  • To address hearing-related communication in care homes, we conducted a realist synthesis (RS). (
  • Forty-three papers were selected for the realist synthesis. (
  • The study used as the illustrative example is a realist synthesis of the hearing-related communication needs of care home residents living with dementia. (
  • Translation initiation in mitochondria is assisted by two general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. (
  • Here we show that, surprisingly, loss of mIF3/Aim23 in S. cerevisiae does not indiscriminately abrogate mitochondrial translation but rather causes an imbalance in protein production: the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) is repressed. (
  • When inhibitors of protein synthesis are added to BALB/c mouse cells in culture, induction of naturally integrated C-type RNA virus occurs in a high percentage of cells. (
  • The action of protein synthesis inhibitors differs from that of halogenated pyrimidines, another class of virus inducers, in their effects on biologically distinguishable viruses. (
  • Overview of FeS protein synthesis in model organisms. (
  • We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data that examined changes in skeletal muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and/or muscle protein breakdown (MPB) in response to insulin infusion. (
  • The effects of electroshock on brain seizure activity and brain protein synthesis were studied in male mice. (
  • A significant but short-lasting inhibition of brain protein synthesis and an increase in the amount of free leucine were produced by electroshock at intensities above the brain seizure threshold. (
  • Electroshock at intensities below the brain seizure threshold did not affect brain protein synthesis. (
  • After HKC cells were stimulated by aldosterone with different concentrations for various time and periods, the gene expression and protein synthesis of collagen I, II, III and IV were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot, respectively. (
  • The surprising thing is you can't at least not yet," said Dr. Karen Cranston of the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center. (
  • synthesis, characterization and applications of zeolites. (
  • Abstract-Analog synthesis tools have traditionally traded quality for speed, substituting simplified circuit evaluation methods for full simulation in order to accelerate the numerical search for solution candidates. (
  • To tackle this problem, a meta-synthesis was conducted to draw informed conclusions about the state of the effectiveness of interventions targeting child and adolescent overweight. (
  • A meta-synthesis was conducted to explore women's constructions of anorexia nervosa and childhood trauma. (
  • This is a course for students who are interested to pursue a career in synthetic organic chemistry (including all areas involving molecular synthesis. (
  • Current Organic Synthesis publishes in-depth/mini reviews, original research articles and letter/short communications on all areas of synthetic organic chemistry i.e. asymmetric synthesis, organometallic chemistry, novel synthetic approaches to complex organic molecules, carbohydrates, polymers, protein chemistry, DNA chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition and new synthetic methods in organic chemistry. (
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry. (
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (
  • ICAMSC 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Amorphous Metals Synthesis in Chemistry . (
  • The Bioactive Chemistry and Synthesis grouping aims to address a range of exciting challenges at the interface between chemistry and biology. (
  • Research in the area of Bioactive Chemistry and Synthesis is extremely well supported by state-of-the-art facilities located within the Department. (
  • This provides a unique research environment which supports exciting interdisciplinary collaborations at the Chemistry-Biology interface.The following SBBS and SMPH academic staff located in Chemistry and they are affiliate members of the Bioactive Chemistry and Synthesis research grouping : Dr Tim Blower, Dr Martin Cann, Dr Peter Chivers, Dr Paul Denny, Professor Nigel Robinson, Dr Gary Sharples and Dr Paul Yeo. (
  • A wide range of syntheses has been proposed in the literature but we greatly lack understanding of how synthesis parameters influence the morphology and surface chemistry of the resulting nanostructures. (
  • ICASB 2021 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Asymmetric Synthesis and Biocatalysts . (
  • The aim of the systematic review was to investigate the effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for the treatment of postpartum low back pain (LBP) and PGP. (
  • A comprehensive systematic review of the clinical, patient centred and economic effectiveness of manual lymph drainage (MLD) and other forms of massage that aim to improve lymph uptake. (
  • Although ascorbate did not affect A10 cell proliferation, it stimulated radiolabeled proline incorporation and type I collagen synthesis. (
  • Aldosterone plays a crucial role in renal fibrosis by inducing mesangial cell proliferation and promoting collagen synthesis in renal fibroblasts. (
  • However, renal proximal tubule involvement in aldosterone-induced collagen synthesis has not yet been identified. (
  • The results suggest that aldosterone plays a pivotal role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis by promoting tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition and collagen synthesis in proximal tubular cells. (
  • The design and synthesis of robust sintering-resistant nanocatalysts for high-temperature oxidation reactions remains challenging, even though the strategy of metal-support interactions has been extensively used. (
  • The automation of the chemical synthesis of DNA. (
  • A priori methods will reduce bias related to searching, data extraction, study quality assessment and rating of confidence in synthesis findings. (
  • Aim of this course is make students familiar with modern methods for digital IC design. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured NOx fractional (FSR) and absolute (ASR) synthesis rates in type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and in control subjects, after l -[ 15 N 2 -guanidino]-arginine infusion, and use of precursor-product relationships. (
  • In this respect, chemical methods seem to be efficient synthesis processes which yield not only large quantities but also high quality and advanced material properties. (
  • In order to judge the effectiveness of a synthesis method, organic chemists must analyze their reaction products and by-products intently. (
  • androgen synthesis and release from the myometrium of pigs in vitro. (
  • Consequences of electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation during early pregnancy - androgen synthesis and release from the myometrium of pigs in vitro. (
  • Normal Androgen & Estrogen synthesis. (
  • Androgen synthesis and release are optimal even if only 1% receptors of LH are occupied. (
  • To synthesise the data we will use a narrative synthesis approach that involves developing a theoretical model, conducting a preliminary synthesis, exploring relations in the data, and providing a structured summary. (
  • We aimed to produce a coherent and transferable evidence based framework of threats to legislative interventions to assist the decision making process and to test this through the 'case study' of legislation to ban smoking in cars carrying children. (
  • Overall, the results of this meta-synthesis suggest that interventions result in statistically significant effects albeit of relatively little clinical relevance. (
  • In terms of advanced nanostructure synthesis, microwave method in which copper hydroxide nanostructures are produced in the precursor solution and sequentially transformed by microwave into CuO may be considered as a promising method to explore in the near future. (
  • Compared with other oxides of transition metal such as Fe 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , and ZnO only few reports have described the synthesis strategies adopted for CuO nanostructures along with the introduction of their related applications. (
  • This review aims to provide a critical discussion of the synthesis of CuO nanostructures. (
  • The group is involved in a Newton Fund project ( CHIRP ), which aims to develop a new Point of Care platform for glucose sensing based on oxide nanostructures rather than enzymes. (
  • Our main aim is to further develop existing synthesis routes for oxide nanostructures. (
  • The compounds were synthesized by reaction of nucleophilic attack, Wohler's classical synthesis followed by condensation reaction. (
  • CritCat aims to provide solutions for the substitution of platinum group metals (PGMs), used in heterogeneous and electrochemical catalysis. (
  • Effect of myxothiazol on Leydig cell steroidogenesis: inhibition of luteinizing hormone-mediated testosterone synthesis but stimulation of basal steroidogenesis. (
  • 2000 Dysfunction in synthesis or release mechanisms associated with the non-neuronal cholinergic system T-705 has been associated with pathogenesis in a number of diseases (Gwilt et al. (
  • This Synthesis of Operations Evaluations for the West and Central Africa Region brings together the findings of fifteen operations evaluations, conducted from mid-2013 to mid-2017. (
  • The team is researching the application of organic solvent nanofiltration membranes as a continuous unit operation in typical pharmaceutical processes such as active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) synthesis, API purification and solvent exchange, API crystallisation, crude oil refining and others. (
  • This endeavor aims to utilise enzymatic processes for the synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients. (
  • GSK3 beta located downstream of Akt is an important molecule to further transmit insulin signal for glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscles. (
  • We aimed to investigate the role of insulin in regulating human skeletal muscle metabolism in health and diabetes. (
  • The unit provides an overview of product and process design challenges and of approaches for process synthesis and optimisation. (
  • The iSeq combines the two approaches, using both a CMOS chip and Illumina's normal sequencing-by-synthesis technology. (
  • Several 1,3-benzodioxole ring-containing chemical compounds have been developed with the aim to inhibit LDHA activity. (
  • We recently developed a precursor-product, stable isotope method to measure whole-body synthesis of NO-related compounds in vivo ( 20 ). (
  • There is particular focus on choosing reaction pathways, on selecting reaction and separation technologies and on heat integration and on application of the principles for inherently safer design for chemical process synthesis. (
  • The innovation is an important landmark in developing a scalable artificial photosynthesis system for sustainable and clean synthesis of significant organic molecules such as ethylene. (
  • This allows the net synthesis of malate from two molecules of acetyl-CoA. (
  • Papers describing native pathway engineering and synthesis of heterologous pathways. (
  • Papers describing native pathway engineering and synthesis of heterologous pathways for converting microorganisms into microbial cell factories are also welcome. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine the potential role of aldosterone in collagen expression and its possible mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-dependent pathway, mediated by activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HKC) cells. (
  • The enzyme is mainly involved in two distinct reactions of melanin synthesis otherwise known as the Raper Mason pathway. (
  • Fifty years ago, Kornberg and Krebs established the glyoxylate cycle as the pathway for the synthesis of cell constituents from C 2 -units. (
  • The aim of this module is to provide an up to date understanding of how the use of model organisms representative of the diversity of the bacterial sub-kingdom are helping to elucidate central biological questions, such as the control and regulation of cell division and of gene expression. (
  • NPL has investigated the synthesis of TM chalcogenide and phosphide nanoparticles under electrochemical conditions. (
  • The results of the quantitative synthesis of 26 meta-analyses resulted in a standardized mean difference (SMD) of -0.12 (95%CI: -0.16, -0.08). (
  • The proposed working group shall act as a base for both the necessary data synthesis and subsequent collaborative analysis and dissemination of the compiled data. (
  • DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in C6 glioma and primary glial cells exposed to a 836.55 MHz modulated radiofrequency field. (
  • To examine the effect of TDMA - modulated radiofrequency at 836.55 MHz on DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in tissues of glial origin. (
  • This is a research-led module and the lectures cover the synthesis of a selection of natural products and pharmaceuticals. (
  • Revised the activation-synthesis hypothesis to reflect dream meaning. (
  • Existing industrial synthesis of ethylene involves steam cracking of fossil fuels at 750-950°C, which requires a huge amount of energy and greater quantities of natural fuel resources. (
  • The synthesis routes are presented for the preparation of nanocomposites composed of nanocrystals placed inside SBA-15 silica pores. (
  • These findings suggest that inter- the apoptotic destruction of lymphocytes and dendritic ventions aimed at reducing the extent of immune cell apop- tosis could improve outcomes for a variety of severe cells could have a particularly adverse effect on disease human infections, including those caused by emerging outcome. (
  • Confidence in synthesis findings will be evaluated using the GRADE Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research tool. (
  • Fundamental research in synthesis is leading to innovation through process improvement and invention of new types of transformations. (
  • This meta-synthesis has implications for further research that elucidates how women make meaning from the transformations of their embodied subjectivities. (
  • The purpose of this evaluation is to assess the support given to bilateral research cooperation activities that aim to strengthen research capacity of developing countries (Mozambique, Tanzania, Bolivia and Nicaragua). (
  • The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal. (
  • There is significant support that cells beyond your nervous program express the machinery to both synthesize and release acetylcholine (Wessler and Kirkpatrick 2008 The enzymes necessary for synthesis (choline acetyltransferase) and metabolism (acetylcholinesterase) have been recognized in human esophageal epithelium (Nguyen et al. (
  • It aims to optimize factors such as the catalyst activity, selectivity, stability and cost. (
  • Our results indicate that SHIP2 plays a negative regulatory role via the 5'-phosphatase activity in insulin signalling, and that PI(3,4,5)P3 rather than PI(3,4)P2 is important for in vivo regulation of insulin-induced Akt activation leading to glycogen synthesis in L6 myotubes. (
  • CONCLUSIONS In type 2 diabetic patients with nephropathy, intravascular NOx synthesis from arginine is decreased under both basal and hyperinsulinemic states. (
  • Work individually to develop acoustic models and simulations/synthesis. (
  • In the future, the researchers will constantly develop their device to increase the synthesis of ethylene and will also use similar systems to synthesize liquid fuels, for example, propanol and ethanol. (
  • Catalyst synthesis is the process of fabricating catalytic materials. (
  • The present study was aimed to synthesis series of quinazolinone derivatives against mammary carcinoma. (
  • Forge the synthesis of new paradigms for biomedical or behavioral sciences. (
  • SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 negatively regulates insulin-induced glycogen synthesis in L6 myotubes. (
  • The role of SHIP2 in insulin-induced glycogen synthesis was studied by expressing wild-type (WT)-SHIP2 and a 5'-phosphatase defective (Delta IP)-SHIP2 into L6 myotubes by means of adenovirus mediated gene transfer. (
  • In accordance with the results of Akt, insulin-induced phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 beta, subsequent activation of glycogen synthase and glycogen synthesis were decreased by expression of WT-SHIP2, whereas these events were increased by expression of Delta IP-SHIP2. (
  • Open up in another windowpane Fig. 2 Isoflurane (2.5% for 3, 6 or 14 h) increases S1P synthesis in HK-2 cells (n = 5) in comparison to carrier gas-treated cells (n = 6). (
  • These results show that the SVCT2 facilitates ascorbate uptake by vascular smooth muscle cells, which in turn increases both the synthesis and maturation of type I collagen. (
  • Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) generates alterations in the synthesis and secretion of oestradiol-17β (E2) in uterine tissues: An in vitro study. (
  • A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease. (
  • 2007 Kawashima and Fujii 2008 Wessler and Kirkpatrick 2008 In this study we examined the presence T-705 of components involved in the synthesis and release of non-neuronal acetylcholine in esophageal mucosa from healthy cats and from cats diagnosed with feline IC a naturally occurring form of interstitial cystitis (Buffington CA 2004 Birder et al. (
  • A Study Evaluating the Role of Oral Antibiotics in an Aim to Eradicate Carrier State of Carbapenem- Resistant Klebsiella Pneumonia (KPC). (
  • This Study in Patients With Different Types of Cancer (Solid Tumours) Aims to Find a Safe Dose of Xentuzumab in Combination With Abemaciclib With or Without Hormonal Therapies. (
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate whether oral administration of synthetic PPARgamma ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZD), might affect collagen deposition in animal models of liver fibrosis. (
  • Aim of study (acc. (
  • A design exercise carried out during the first week of Semester 1 aims to consolidate learning from Year 2 relevant to process design. (
  • In vitro, TZD-induced PPARgamma activation inhibited collagen and fibronectin synthesis induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 in human HSC, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Northen blotting. (