Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.
A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).
Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.
The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)

Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals immunized with HIV-1 rgp120 or rgp160 compared with nonimmunized and uninfected controls. (1/1614)

The proliferative responses to a series of peptides constituting the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 sequence were evaluated in 19 HIV-1-infected rgp160 vaccine recipients, 17 HIV-1-infected rgp120 vaccine recipients, 15 HIV-1-infected placebo recipients, and 18 HIV-1-uninfected controls. Many regions of the gp120 molecule were found to contribute proliferative epitopes, although there were clearly regions of relative dominance and silence. Vaccine recipients tended to have broader, more robust, and more frequent peptide recognition than the placebo recipients. Despite the considerable variability in the pattern of peptide recognition among individuals, there was a striking similarity between the rgp160 and rgp120 vaccinee groups as a whole. Low-risk HIV-1-uninfected individuals may react to a few peptides within the gp120 sequence as well, despite a lack of significant response to the whole gp120 protein.  (+info)

Comparison of immunity generated by nucleic acid-, MF59-, and ISCOM-formulated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccines in Rhesus macaques: evidence for viral clearance. (2/1614)

The kinetics of T-helper immune responses generated in 16 mature outbred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) within a 10-month period by three different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine strategies were compared. Immune responses to monomeric recombinant gp120SF2 (rgp120) when the protein was expressed in vivo by DNA immunization or when it was delivered as a subunit protein vaccine formulated either with the MF59 adjuvant or by incorporation into immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) were compared. Virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA) against HIV-1SF2 reached similar titers in the two rgp120SF2 protein-immunized groups, but the responses showed different kinetics, while NA were delayed and their levels were low in the DNA-immunized animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) T-helper (type 1-like) responses were detected in the DNA-immunized group, but only after the fourth immunization, and the rgp120/MF59 group generated both IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (type 2-like) responses that appeared after the third immunization. In contrast, rgp120/ISCOM-immunized animals rapidly developed marked IL-2, IFN-gamma (type 1-like), and IL-4 responses that peaked after the second immunization. To determine which type of immune responses correlated with protection from infection, all animals were challenged intravenously with 50 50% infective doses of a rhesus cell-propagated, in vivo-titrated stock of a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-HIVSF13 construct. Protection was observed in the two groups receiving the rgp120 subunit vaccines. Half of the animals in the ISCOM group were completely protected from infection. In other subunit vaccinees there was evidence by multiple assays that virus detected at 2 weeks postchallenge was effectively cleared. Early induction of potent type 1- as well as type 2-like T-helper responses induced the most-effective immunity.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (3/1614)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Rectal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to chimpanzees. (4/1614)

Inoculation of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been used as a model system to define mechanisms of pathogenesis and to test protective efficacy of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In most of these studies, the animals were inoculated intravenously. However, because HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, future evaluations of vaccines should employ mucosal routes for administering infectious virus to immunized animals. To develop a model of rectal transmission of HIV-1, chimpanzees were exposed without trauma to 4 different HIV-1 strains at doses ranging from 200 to 10,000 TCIDs. Infection, characterized by seroconversion and repeated isolation of virus from lymphocytes, was established in 1 of 5 animals. This animal was sequentially inoculated with a subtype B and then an E strain and was infected with both strains. The results show that rectal exposure of adult chimpanzees to cell-free HIV-1 was not an efficient mode of transmission in this cohort.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination strategies for women. (5/1614)

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (6/1614)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Protection of Macaques against pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD by passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies. (7/1614)

The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4(+)-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4(+)-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4(+) T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination overcomes the barrier to recombinant vaccinia immunization caused by preexisting poxvirus immunity. (8/1614)

Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.  (+info)

Other: Comparator: Placebo to the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine Biological: Monovalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (1x10^9 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^6 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^7 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^8 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^9 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^10 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (1x10^11 vp/dose) Biological: Comparator: Placebo to MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine ...
INACTIVATION: HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - R01 GRANTS Release Date: October 4, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-98-089 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is inactivating program announcement PA 98-089, HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - RESEARCH PROJECT GRANTS, which appeared in the NIH Guide, July 9, 1998. The areas of investigator-initiated vaccine research this PA targeted have received numerous responses that have been well-received in the NIH peer review system. Accordingly NIAID will no longer give special consideration for funding to applications in response to this PA received after January 2, 2000. NIAID will, however, continue to give special consideration for funding to applications in response to PAR 98-090, HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - PROGRAM PROJECT GRANTS, which also appeared in the NIH Guide, July 9, 1998. NIAID supports highly scientifically meritorious applications in all areas of research within ...
Prospective cohort study of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection occurring after candidate HIV-1 vaccination (breakthrough infection) with ALVAC-HIV (vcP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E. This study will enroll volunteers who become HIV-infected during the course of follow up in a phase III preventive HIV vaccine trial conducted in Rayong and Chon Buri, Thailand. Volunteers will be enrolled in this protocol to provide additional long-term follow up to establish whether differences in viral load after infection (comparing vaccine to placebo) are associated with altered disease outcomes, as well as provide more detailed immunologic and virologic assessment of these volunteers ...
AIDS Cooperative Adjuvant Groups conduct preclinical studies of adjuvants and vaccine-adjuvant combinations.. AIDS Vaccine Reagent Project provides large quantities of reagents for preclinical and clinical studies related to vaccines.. Antibody Serologic Project identifies and standardizes monoclonal antibodies to characterize specific components of HIV and SIV.. AVEG (AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group) includes six centers conducting Phase I and II trials of potential HIV vaccines.. AVEU (AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Unit) is an individual clinical site in the AVEG.. Chimpanzee Unit is a site for the evaluation of HIV vaccine concepts and products in chimpanzees.. Cooperative Mucosal Immunology Group for Investigations on AIDS Vaccines examines ways to stimulate and evaluate mucosal immune responses to HIV and SIV infection and vaccines.. DSMB (Data and Safety Monitoring Board) is an independent committee associated with the AVEG that reviews data of trials in progress to ensure that no participant is ...
Jamie Scott, a Simon Fraser University professor and Canada Research Chair in molecular immunity, and three international collaborators are getting a hefty financial boost in their efforts to develop an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine.. The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded the four researchers $2.7 million to help them improve the effectiveness of a DNA-based vaccine that Marinieve Montero first conceived of eight years ago. Montero was a student of Scotts whose work was also funded by the NIH, the U.S.s largest government-funded medical research agency.. Scotts current collaborators are at the University of the Basque Country, the University of Massachusetts School of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco.. The researchers will use their new funding to strengthen a vaccine theyve made from a DNA fragment taken from the HIV genome. The fragment encodes something that is highly prized in HIV/AIDS vaccine research. Called the MPER, its a region of ... opportunity listing for the HIV Vaccine Research and Design (HIVRAD) Program (P01) federal grant. Includes information on eligibility, deadlines, requirements, and guidelines.
BOSTON - More than three decades after the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), scientists are still working to develop a preventative vaccine that could finally put an end to the..
Important unanswered questions remain in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine, which could be a decade or more away, a top AIDS Researcher said ...
The massive growth in global health research in past decades has posed many challenges for its effective ethical oversight, not least of which is how best to provide effective protection of research participants. The extent of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa in particular makes research into prevention technologies for HIV, including HIV vaccine research, a global priority. However, the need for vaccine research must be considered in conjunction with the individuals right to informed consent, which is based on the principle of respect for autonomy. One of the primary human rights violations likely to occur in the context of HIV vaccine research is that potential research participants may not fully understand what participation in research studies entails. People who elect to enrol in HIV vaccine trials are required to understand both the potential negative effects of participation (eg, discrimination) as well as complex scientific concepts such as randomisation and prophylaxis in order ...
Experimental HIV/AIDS vaccines under development by Merck and Sanofi-Aventis are entering crucial stages, and results from clinical trials for both ...
Background With the persistent challenges towards controlling the HIV epidemic, there is an ongoing need for research into HIV vaccines and drugs. Sub-Saharan African countries - worst affected by the HIV pandemic - have participated in the conduct of clinical trials for HIV vaccines. In Kenya, the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) at the University of Nairobi has conducted HIV vaccine clinical trials since 2001. Methodology Participants were recruited after an extensive informed consent process followed by screening to determine eligibility. Screening included an assessment of risk behavior, medical history and physical examination, and if clinically healthy, laboratory testing. In the absence of locally derived laboratory reference ranges, the ranges used in these trials were derived from populations in the West. Principal findings Two hundred eighty-one participants were screened between 2003 and 2006 for two clinical trials. Of these, 167 (59.4%) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall,
A year ago, we reported on the push to discover an effective AIDS vaccine. As President Obama prepares to release his U.S. AIDS strategy, at least one pharmaceutical company is readying a crucial clinical trial of its vaccine against HIV/AIDS.. The AIDS Research Consortium of Atlanta recently put out a call for volunteers to test a DNA-based AIDS vaccine developed by GeoVax. Participants must have had a negative HIV test followed by a positive test six months later, and must have started drugs to fight the virus within the past six months. A total of 10 to 12 patients will be enrolled in the Phase I study. Participants will be monitored for up to 77 weeks. Although GeoVax is already testing the vaccine for virus prevention, this will be the first study to test the vaccine in individuals who already have the virus.. Other updates: A lab devoted to developing an HIV/AIDS vaccine has opened in Brooklyn, New York. Researchers at SUNY Downstates Incubator will work with the International AIDS ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
American researchers have come up with a new approach to vaccine design that could help them overcome the difficulties faced in developing an effective HIV vaccine.
To augment the immune responses elicited by these and other vaccines, scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into vaccines licensed for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An adjuvant may work well with one experimental vaccine and not another. Therefore, the FDA licenses the vaccine formulation, or the antigen-adjuvant combination, rather than the adjuvant alone. Experimental adjuvants can increase the type, strength and durability of immune responses evoked by an experimental vaccine. For example, some vaccine antigen/adjuvant combinations can induce cell-mediated immune responses, even if the vaccine antigen by itself does not. Some adjuvants also stimulate mucosal immunity. Alum primarily increases the strength of antibody responses generated by the vaccine antigen. Because of its limited activity, other adjuvants may be better suited for the newer candidate HIV vaccines ...
EPALINGES, SWITZERLAND--(Marketwired - April 11, 2016) - Mymetics Corporation (OTCQB:MYMX), a pioneer in the research and development of virosome-based vaccines to prevent transmission of human infectious diseases across mucosal membranes, announced today that its innovative HIV vaccine candidate has shown to generate significant protection in groups of twelve female monkeys...
Designing an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is something of a paradox: a good vaccine would be safe and look enough like HIV to kick-start the immune system into neutralizing the virus - but the problem is that this is exactly what the human immune system has trouble doing even when its exposed to the real thing.. Now a team of researchers led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA has developed a strategy for inducing a key part of an effective immune response to HIV. By tracing the evolution of HIV-recognizing molecules called antibodies taken from the blood of rare individuals whose immune systems are naturally able to target and neutralize the virus, they may have found a way to replicate this for everybody.. At a talk next week at the American Crystallographic Association meeting in Hawaii, the team will present multiple crystal structures, which like detailed architectural blueprints show how the virus interacts with components of the immune system. Examining these ...
Additional research on public and private demand for HIV vaccines is needed to strengthen ongoing advocacy and planning for eventual vaccine introduction, say Hecht and Suraratdecha.
The breakthrough manufacturing technology developed by Vivalis, and now to be further developed through collaboration with GeoVax, will create a new standard for manufacture of the MVA component of the GeoVax HIV/AIDS vaccine, making present manufacturing technologies which have limited production capabilities, less competitive. Vivalis EBx® manufacturing platform, with its increased effectiveness, superior quality and reliability, will speed time to market MVA vaccine product availability in ample quantities to meet sizeable demand and expectedly at a lesser cost ...
A vaccine efficacy trial (known as HVTN 702) in South Africa (started 2016),. The AMP study in the Americas, Europe and Africa (started 2016), and. A vaccine trial (known as HPX2008/HVTN 705) in several African countries (expected to start in 2017/2018). HVTN 702 is testing a vaccine adapted from the one in RV144, while AMP, which stands for Antibody Mediated Prevention, is testing a different approach known as passive immunization. In the AMP study, participants will receive anti-HIV antibodies directly through an intravenous infusion, commonly known as an IV or getting a drip. The findings of the AMP study will advance the HIV vaccine field.. Zimbabwe is part of the global partnership dedicated to HIV vaccine research, and is part of the AMP study.. The University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Collaborative Research Programme (UZ-UCSF)s Seke South Clinical Research Site (CRS) was selected as a protocol-specific site by the US National Institutes of Healths HIV ...
Sanofi Pasteur announced the results of a Phase 3 trial with its HIV prime vaccine, ALVAC HIV (recombinant canarypox vCP1521) in combination with the booster AidsVax B/E (recombinant gp120 vaccine, from VaxGen).
Researchers hope that this oral vaccine will create a more robust immune response against HIV. We think that an oral approach may be the way to create a more effective vaccine and Im sure that most people would rather get a vaccine in a pill rather than by yet another shot, said Michael C. Keefer, M.D., professor of Medicine and director of the Universitys NIH-supported HIV Vaccine Trials Unit. John J. Treanor, M.D., professor of Medicine and chief of Infectious Diseases at UR Medicines Strong Memorial Hospital is leading the study with support from Keefer, who has more than 20 years of experience in the preventive HIV vaccine field. They will monitor how peoples immune systems respond to the vaccine and if the vaccine causes any symptoms. The University has a long track record of conducting detailed studies of HIV vaccines, but Keefer says that this is the first time an oral vaccine has been tested in Rochester. Though the research is in its early stages, he believes the information ...
Experts at a four-day global HIV/AIDS vaccine conference in Cape Town, South Africa, that opened Monday plan to seek fresh strategies against the ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) RFA-AI-04-051. NIAID
A clinical trial testing a candidate HIV vaccine known as the STEP study was halted in September 2007 after interim analysis indicated that the vaccine did not work. Moreover, subsequent analyses indicated that the vaccine made some individuals more susceptible to HIV, in particular individuals who had pre-existing immune effectors (antibodies) that recognized a component of the vaccine (adenovirus serotype 5 [Ad5]).
What can you do to maintain your health at age 65 or older? More than you might think! This article will focus on one aspect of health maintenance: preventive vaccines. Flu vaccine During flu epidemics, the hospitalization rate for older people increases two to five times.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Challenges in designing HIV env immunogens for developing a vaccine. AU - Srivastava, Indresh K.. AU - Holland Cheng, R.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - HIV continues to be a major health problem worldwide; however, the situation is particularly serious in Asian and Sub-Saharan countries. Development of an effective HIV vaccine could help to reduce the severity of the disease and prevent infection. Over the last two decades significant efforts have been made toward inducing potent humoral and cellular immune responses by vaccination; however, it appears that either antibodies or CTL may not be sufficient alone for the induction of sterilizing immunity or long-term control of viral replication. Therefore, it is generally believed that both humoral and cellular responses will be needed for an effective HIV vaccine. It has been shown in passive transfer experiments using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as b12, 2F5, and 2G12 that these mAbs either alone or ...
New York, September 21, 2007 -- The AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition (AVAC) released the following statement from Executive Director Mitchell Warren about the announcement that vaccinations have been discontinued in the STEP Study, a test-of-concept trial of the MRK-Ad5 AIDS vaccine candidate developed by the Merck Research Laboratories:Todays announcement about the STEP
Global Preventive Vaccines Market - offers growth, outlook, trends, shares, Industry Analysis, opportunities, Key Players Forecast 2018 to 2024
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
Recently, the Merck pharmaceutical company reported that its experimental HIV vaccine raised the rate of HIV infection among people who got the trial vaccine. Yes, you read that right. It was worse than nothing. This vaccine was composed of a few HIV proteins strapped onto an adenovirus, which causes colds. Among people with good immunity to this common cold virus, about 80% of the population, it increased the chances of contracting HIV. The saddest part is that this is not surprising. Virologists have long been skeptical about the possibility of an effective HIV vaccine. HIV infects the very immune cells that you stimulate to defend your body against it. Stimulating these cells increases the rate at which HIV can infect those cells and the rate of HIV replication in these cells. Thus, an HIV vaccine can make it more likely that you’ll get AIDS, and you might get it sooner and worse than if you weren’t immunized. So far, no one has found the Holy Grail of HIV vaccines: a ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
A new study by the federal National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases shows that many Americans think a preventive vaccine for HIV already exists and is being kept secret. NIAID surveys showed that 48% of African-American and 28% of Latino respondents believe that such a vaccine has been developed and is being kept from the public. Overall, about 20% of the 3,500 adults surveyed reported believing that a secret vaccine exists. Other widely reported misconceptions include a fear that HIV vaccines can cause HIV infection in clinical trial volunteers.. To help debunk such beliefs, NIAID is sponsoring the sixth annual HIV Vaccine Awareness Day on May 18. The goal of the event is to provide accurate information about HIV/AIDS and HIV vaccine research to the public. HIV vaccine research is our best hope, along with other prevention and treatment efforts, to slow the spread of HIV, said NIAID director Anthony Fauci. NIAID is committed to educating the public to help correct misconceptions ...
The design of an effective AIDS vaccine has eluded the efforts of the scientific community to the point that alternative approaches to classic vaccine formulations have to be considered. We propose here that HIV vaccine research could greatly benefit from the study of natural simian immunodeficiency …
The Picker lab is now investigating the possible reasons why only a subset of the animals treated had a positive response in hopes that the effectiveness of the vaccine candidate can be further boosted.. This research was funded by several grants from the National Institutes of Health, funding from the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and a CAVD grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.. In the interest of ensuring the integrity of our research and as part of our commitment to public transparency, OHSU actively regulates, tracks and manages relationships that our researchers may hold with entities outside of OHSU. In regards to this research project, OHSU has licensed a CMV technology, of which Picker is an inventor, to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. In addition, CMV vector technology is being commercialized by TomegaVax, Inc., a company in which both OHSU and Picker have a significant financial interest.. More information on OHSUs conflict of interest policies and ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Background South Africa is the country with the largest number of HIV infections in the world. As behaviour change initiatives have been suboptimal in curbing the spread of the pandemic, an HIV vaccine is likely to be an important development as a biological agent may circumvent some of the challenges of initiating widespread behaviour change. The development of an HIV vaccine will require several thousands of HIV negative participants who are at high risk of HIV infection to participate in HIV vaccine clinical trials. Before recruitment for such trials may begin, various scientific, ethical, and sociobehavioural issues need to be considered. One of the key sociobehavioural issues concerns the willingness of individuals at high risk of HIV infection to participate in HIV vaccine trials. However, a psychometric measure of willingness to participate (WTP) has not been constructed, and there is a paucity of theory to guide studies of WTP. Objectives The first objective of this ...
An independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) met this week to review interim data from a large, international HIV vaccine clinical trial known as the STEP study - also referred to as the HVTN 502 or Merck V520-023 study. The clinical trial, which began enrolling volunteers in December 2004, is co-sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. Inc., which also developed and supplied the candidate vaccine. Based on a review of interim data, the DSMB concluded that the vaccine cannot be shown in this trial to prevent HIV infection or affect the course of the disease in those who become infected with HIV (the vaccine itself cannot cause HIV infection because it contains only synthetically produced snippets of viral material). Therefore, Merck and NIAID instructed all study sites to cease administering the investigational vaccine but continue scheduled follow-up ...
Subtype C gp140 Vaccine Boosts Immune Responses Primed by the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative DNA-C2 and MVA-C HIV Vaccines after More than a 2-Year Gap A phase I safety and immunogenicity study investigated South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) DNA vaccine encoding Gag-RT-Tat-Nef and gp150, boosted with modified vaccinia Ankara…
ROCKVILLE, Md., Oct. 29, 2008 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Nabi Biopharmaceuticals (Nasdaq:NABI) announced today positive final results from its Phase 2 NicVAX(r) (Nicotine Conjugate Vaccine) schedule optimization immunogenicity study to assess the antibody response and safety of a 400 microgram, six dose immunization schedule. The vaccine lot used in this study is from the same lot used in the Phase 2b proof-of-concept trial whose results were announced in November 2007. Final results from the study confirmed the positive interim results announced in July that significantly higher anti-nicotine antibody levels can be generated three months earlier and in a much higher percentage of subjects for sustained periods of time than observed in previous NicVAX studies. Antibody levels achieved at 14 weeks were more than 2-fold higher than those achieved at the same time point in the Phase 2b proof-of-concept study as a result of the added injection. Moreover, greater than 80% of subjects who completed the six- ...
OBJECTIVES: Therapeutic HIV vaccinations may alter the size of the resting memory CD4 T-cell latent HIV reservoir as HIV establishes latency when memory responses are formed, including those toward HIV. Alternatively, latently infected CD4 T cells maybe killed, while exiting the reservoir upon activation. METHODS: The effect of therapeutic immunization with modified vaccinia Ankara and Fowlpox-based HIV vaccines on the latent reservoir was examined in 19 young adults who were receiving effective antiretroviral therapy. Correlations between size of the reservoir [measured in infectious units per million (IUPM)] resting CD4 T cells and HIV-specific immune responses, including immune activation were examined. Decay of the reservoir was assessed using random-effects model. RESULTS: A modest transient decrease in the size of the reservoir was observed at week 40 [mean -0.31 log(10) IUPM (95% confidence interval: -0.60 to -0.03; P = 0.03] following HIV vaccinations. The estimated half-life (T1/2) of the
The ALVAC-HIV/AIDSVAX-B/E RV144 vaccine trial showed an estimated efficacy of 31%. RV144 secondary immune correlate analysis demonstrated that the combination of low plasma anti-HIV-1 Env IgA antibodies and high levels of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) inversely correlate with infection risk. One hypothesis is that the observed protection in RV144 is partially due to ADCC-mediating antibodies. We found that the majority (73 to 90%) of a representative group of vaccinees displayed plasma ADCC activity, usually (96.2%) blocked by competition with the C1 region-specific A32 Fab fragment. Using memory B-cell cultures and antigen-specific B-cell sorting, we isolated 23 ADCC-mediating nonclonally related antibodies from 6 vaccine recipients. These antibodies targeted A32-blockable conformational epitopes (n = 19), a non-A32-blockable conformational epitope (n = 1), and the gp120 Env variable loops (n = 3). Fourteen antibodies mediated cross-clade target cell killing. ADCC-mediating ...
During trials of preventive HIV vaccines, trial participants may develop HIV-related antibody responses that could lead to a positive HIV test by routine antibody detection methods (called vaccine-induced seropositivity/reactivity ...
This proposal describes the Harvard Medical School (HMS) Vaccine Clinical Trials Unit (CTU), which is comprised of an administrative component at HMS, two Clini...
Vaccination seems to be the key to curtailing the HIV epidemic but all efforts to make a clinically effective vaccine have failed to date. Eliciting high titres of neutralising antibodies at the mucosal portals of viral entry is a key goal in HIV vaccine research. Thus, this thesis specifically focuses at the strategic development and evaluation of women-controlled mucosal vaccine delivery systems for HIV envelope based constructs, H4A, gp140 and FP-A for the purpose of eliciting high antibody titres at the vaginal mucosa. Sustained release rod-insert vaginal rings (RiRs) loaded with gp140, quick release rods containing H4A, FP-A loaded liposomal gels and microneedles in conjunction with mucosal inoculations were evaluated for induction of specific antibodies in animal models (sheep/mice/rabbits). The formulations were evaluated mainly using vaginal delivery with nasal route being used as an auxiliary. However, we found that the nasal route was extremely potent compared to the vaginal route for ...
HVTN 505 is a preventative vaccine efficacy trial testing DNA followed by recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) in circumcised, Ad5-seronegative men and transgendered persons who have sex with men in the United States. Identified immune correlates of lower HIV-1 risk and a virus sieve analysis revealed that, despite lacking overall efficacy, vaccine-elicited responses exerted pressure on infecting HIV-1 viruses. To interrogate the mechanism of the antibody correlate of HIV-1 risk, we examined antigen-specific antibody recruitment of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and the role of anti-envelope (anti-Env) IgG3. In a prespecified immune correlates analysis, antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis and antibody binding to FcγRIIa correlated with decreased HIV-1 risk. Follow-up analyses revealed that anti-Env IgG3 breadth correlated with reduced HIV-1 risk, anti-Env IgA negatively modified infection risk by Fc effector functions, and that vaccine ...
HVTN 505 is a preventative vaccine efficacy trial testing DNA followed by recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) in circumcised, Ad5-seronegative men and transgendered persons who have sex with men in the United States. Identified immune correlates of lower HIV-1 risk and a virus sieve analysis revealed that, despite lacking overall efficacy, vaccine-elicited responses exerted pressure on infecting HIV-1 viruses. To interrogate the mechanism of the antibody correlate of HIV-1 risk, we examined antigen-specific antibody recruitment of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and the role of anti-envelope (anti-Env) IgG3. In a prespecified immune correlates analysis, antibody-dependent monocyte phagocytosis and antibody binding to FcγRIIa correlated with decreased HIV-1 risk. Follow-up analyses revealed that anti-Env IgG3 breadth correlated with reduced HIV-1 risk, anti-Env IgA negatively modified infection risk by Fc effector functions, and that vaccine ...
There is an imperative need for effective preventive vaccines against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) as it poses a significant threat to the immunologically immature, causing congenital disease, and to the immune compromised including transplant recipients. In this study we examined the efficacy of synthetic long peptides (SLPs) as a CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-eliciting preventive vaccine approach against mouse CMV (MCMV) infection. In addition, the use of agonistic OX40 antibodies to enhance vaccine efficacy was explored. Immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated in a prime-boost vaccination regiment with SLPs comprising various MHC class I and II-restricted peptide epitopes of MCMV-encoded antigens. Enforced OX40 stimulation resulted in superior MCMV-specific CD4+ as CD8+ T cell responses when applied during booster SLP vaccination. Vaccination with a mixture of SLPs containing MHC class II epitopes and OX40 agonistic antibodies resulted in a moderate reduction of the viral titers after challenge with
The discovery of these exceptionally broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV and the structural analysis that explains how they work are exciting advances that will accelerate our efforts to find a preventive HIV vaccine for global use, says Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health. In addition, the technique the teams used to find the new antibodies represents a novel strategy that could be applied to vaccine design for many other infectious diseases. Led by a team from the NIAID Vaccine Research Center (VRC), the scientists found two naturally occurring, powerful antibodies called VRC01 and VRC02 in an HIV infected individuals blood using a novel molecular device they developed that hones in on the specific cells that make antibodies against HIV. The device is an HIV protein that the scientists modified so it would react only with antibodies specific to the site where the virus binds to cells it ...
The Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) is an independent unit within the World Bank Group charged with objectively evaluating the activities of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA; collectively, the World Bank), the work of International Finance Corporation (IFC) in private sector development, and Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agencys (MIGA) guarantee projects and services to provide accountability, and determine what works, what doesnt and why. The head of IEG, the Director-General, Evaluation, reports directly to the Bank Groups Board of Executive Directors and not to Bank Group management. The World Bank Group has twin goals: to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. To achieve these goals, the World Bank Group needs to better understand what works and why, to draw lessons and good practices from experience, deepening the evidence base to inform decision making and future action. IEG evaluations seek ...
The quest for an efficacious HIV vaccine has resulted in several clinical trial failures, including the Step Trial, which used a replication-incompetent adenovirus (AdV) vector called human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5). Despite eliciting strong cellular immune responses, these trials were prematurely halted due to statistical futility resulting from increased HIV acquisition in vaccinated individuals. The Step Study showed increased HIV susceptibility in HAdV-5 baseline seropositive subjects, which complicates the use of HAdV-5 vectors since pre-existing neutralizing antibodies (nAb) to HAdV-5 are prevalent worldwide. Sampling the unique immunological phenotypes of the rectal mucosa - the site of HIV infection in the Step Study, and of AdV persistence and trafficking - could help explain this trial, since only peripheral blood (PBMC) was collected from subjects. We obtained rectal lamina propria T lymphocytes (rLPL) from a rhesus macaque (RM) model vaccinated with a species-specific simian Ad type 7 (SAdV
Table 3 shows the results. The hypotheses predict a positive parameter for Ab1 X Cf term and a negative parameter for Cb2 X Cf term. Results support this prediction: The parameter estimate was positive and significant for Ab1 X Cf term (bAb1xCf=.387, t=3.286, p , .01) and negative and significant for Cb2 X Cf term (bCb2xCf= -.325, t= -3.154, p , .01). As expected, the parameter estimate was insignificant for attitude confidence (bCf= -.017, t= -.280). These results support H4-a and H4-b.. Although our major concern was the effect of ad exposure on brand attitudes at a later time, we additionally investigated the effects of Aad1 and Ab1 on Aad2 in each evaluation group. In the ad evaluation group, Aad2 appeared to be influenced by Aad1 more than by Ab1 (.357 vs. -.122), whereas in the brand evaluation group Aad2 appeared to be influenced by Ab1 more than by Aad1 (.605 vs. .046). The reason is thought to be that in the ad evaluation group Aad1 is more salient than Ab1, whereas in the brand ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modeling the economic benefits of an AIDS vaccine. AU - Bishai, David. AU - Lin, Maria K.. AU - Kiyonga, C. W.B.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors gratefully acknowledge the suggestions of seminar participants at the World Bank, The Welch Center, and The International Health Economics Association, and UNAIDS. Special thanks are due to Martha Ainsworth, Amie Batson, Stefano Bertozzi, Don Burke, José Esparza, Mark Kane, Bob Lawrence, Richard Mahoney, Philip Musgrove, Ken Nelson, and Tomas Philipson. All errors are our own. Grant support: World Bank (DB, MKL), the Hopkins Population Center, NIH Grant SP30HD06268-25(DB), and the Bill and Melinda Gates Institute for Population and Reproductive Health (CWBK). Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001/11/12. Y1 - 2001/11/12. N2 - Economic models were used to describe the potential for an AIDS vaccine to prevent medical spending and lost productivity throughout the world. In terms of avoided medical ...
There is increasing interest in the use of viral and nonviral systems as vectors to elicit anti-HIV-1 immune responses. The human clinical testing of these vectors can be guided by results of comparative studies in appropriate nonhuman primate immunogenicity and challenge model systems. Recently, we reported on the ability of SIV Gag delivered by DNA, MVA, or adenovirus type 5 vectors to inhibit viral replication and disease progression in rhesus macaques following challenge with SHIV89.6P (25). The best degree of viremia control and CD4 cell count preservation was observed in animals that had been immunized with the adenovirus type 5 vector either by itself or in a prime-boost combination with DNA. In contrast, only 50% of the animals that received MVA alone or in combination with DNA were able to effectively control viremia.. In this report, we evaluated the cellular immune responses to HIV-1 Gag induced by similar DNA, MVA, and adenovirus vectors. The studies were conducted with macaques that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Corrigendum to The Starting Treatment for Ethanol in Primary care Trials (STEP Trials). T2 - Protocol for three parallel multi-site stepped care effectiveness studies for unhealthy alcohol use in HIV-positive patients (Contemp. Clin. Trials (2017) 52 (80-90) (S1551714416302130) (10.1016/j.cct.2016.11.008)). AU - Edelman, E. Jennifer. AU - Maisto, Stephen A.. AU - Hansen, Nathan B.. AU - Cutter, Christopher J.. AU - Dziura, James. AU - Fiellin, Lynn E.. AU - OConnor, Patrick G.. AU - Bedimo, Roger. AU - Gibert, Cynthia. AU - Marconi, Vincent C.. AU - Rimland, David. AU - Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.. AU - Simberkoff, Michael S.. AU - Justice, Amy C.. AU - Bryant, Kendall J.. AU - Fiellin, David A.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017. PY - 2017/9. Y1 - 2017/9. N2 - The authors regret that there was an error in the description of the randomization procedures previously published in the manuscript. Randomization is stratified based only on site.. AB - The authors regret that there ...
The death of three monkeys that had been administered an AIDS vaccine in a Boston lab suggests that vaccines intended to prime the immune system to control HIV in the body and prevent disease progression may not offer total protection from AIDS. Numerous HIV vaccines in development aim to boost the bodys defenses to hold the virus in check, with animal studies to date suggesting that the protection offered by the vaccines could last for years, if not indefinitely. However, researchers at the 10th annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston on Wednesday reported that three of four monkeys involved in such a study at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston eventually fell sick and died, even after initially showing strong resistance to the virus. All three died within three years of receiving the experimental vaccine developed by Merck.. Researchers were split on their opinions of the Merck vaccine data. David Ho, scientific director of the Aaron Diamond AIDS ...
Glenda E. Gray, M.B., B.Ch., from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, and colleagues randomly assigned 5,404 adults (median age, 24 years; 70 percent women) without HIV-1 infection to receive canarypox-protein HIV vaccine or placebo (2,704 and 2,700 participants, respectively) in a phase 2b-3 trial in South Africa. The vaccine regimen included injections of ALVAC-HIV at months 0 and 1 followed by ALVAC-HIV plus bivalent subtype C gp120-MF59 adjuvant booster injections at months 3, 6, 12, and 18.. The researchers found that at an interim analysis in January 2020, prespecified criteria for nonefficacy were met, and further vaccinations were subsequently halted. There was a similar incidence of adverse events in the vaccine and placebo groups. HIV-1 infection was diagnosed in 138 and 133 participants in the vaccine and placebo groups, respectively, during the 24-month follow-up (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.30; P = 0.84).. Despite promising ...
HIV vaccines were not part of the main stage at the Durban Aids Conference held in 2000. Our knowledge and experience in HIV vaccine development were rudimentary at this time; our journey to understanding the complexity of designing immunogens to elicit effective immune responses was just beginning. But HIV vaccines are a now pivotal part of the prevention research agenda: there is scientific optimism about the ability to develop an effective vaccine and South Africa is now a central point in this research. The intervening 16 years between the Durban conferences has brought a series of hard-won understandings about how HIV works in orchestrating its transmission from person to person and between communities. Our past approaches to vaccine development have largely been ineffective because the viruss exterior coating, what we call its envelope structure, has areas of immune dampening. In these areas, immune decoys are set up and evolve so cleverly that the initial, critical antibodies that are made to
Synthesis and Vaccine Evaluation of the Tumor Associated Carbohydrate Antigen RM2 from Prostate Cancer : This thesis focuses on the synthesis and vaccine evaluation of the prostate tumor- associated carbohydrate antigen RM2. The author first presents the use of the [1+2+3] one-pot sequential strategy to successfully synthesise the RM2 antigen and its analogues as single stereoisomers in every glycosylation step, producing good yields and stereoselectivity. He then introduces the conjugation of the
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Image Credit: September 11, 2013 Brett Smith for - Your Universe Online A promising new AIDS vaccine being developed at Oregon Health & Science University has demonstrated the capacity to effectively remove all traces of an AIDS-causing virus from non-human primates, according to a newly published report in the journal Nature. The vaccine is being tested on a primate form of HIV, called simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), which causes AIDS in monkeys. After working further to refine the vaccine, OHSU scientists said they hoped an HIV-form of the potential vaccine could soon be tested in human subjects. To date, HIV infection has only been cured in a very small number of highly-publicized but unusual clinical cases in which HIV-infected individuals were treated with anti-viral medicines very early after the onset of infection or received a stem cell transplant to combat cancer, said Dr. Louis Picker, associate director of the OHSU Vaccine and Gene Therapy ...
... through its Action Cycling 200 and AIDS Vaccine 200 rides has donated a total of $2,781,090 for AIDS vaccine research and AIDS- ... The majority of these funds ($557,000) has gone towards AIDS vaccine research at Emory Vaccine Center. The ride also ... who has helped raise big bucks for AIDS research - and his company Pallotta announces end to AIDS Vaccine Rides: Even with ... 2.4 million to the Emory Vaccine Center, one of the world's leading vaccine research centers working to find an HIV vaccine. ...
"AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition". AVAC. Retrieved 2008-12-08. "AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition(AVAC)". Archived from the ... the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Until There's a Cure Foundation, Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS, the Gill ... AVAC works to provide independent analysis, policy advocacy, public education and mobilisation to enhance AIDS vaccine research ... HIV vaccine research, Organizations established in 1995, HIV/AIDS organizations in the United States, Vaccination-related ...
... , also known as HIV Vaccine Awareness Day, is observed annually on May 18. HIV vaccine advocates mark the ... preventive HIV vaccine can limit and eventually eliminate the threat of AIDS." The first World AIDS Vaccine Day was observed on ... South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) World AIDS Day Bill Clinton's commencement speech at Morgan State University AIDS ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative The South Africa AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) (Articles lacking in-text citations from ...
... to evaluate the challenges facing HIV/AIDS vaccine development and identify ways to jump-start research. The International AIDS ... The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit, public-private partnership working to accelerate ... It also partners with civil society organizations and other entities to advocate jointly for the development of AIDS vaccines, ... To address major obstacles in AIDS vaccine development, IAVI partners with HIV researchers from around the world. Its ...
The Collaboration for AIDS Vaccine Discovery (CAVD) is an international network of scientists, research organizations, and ... The CAVD was founded in 2006 when the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation donated $287 million USD to promote HIV vaccine research ... The CAVD itself supports the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise. The network comprises many individual institutions. "Gates ... Official website (Orphaned articles from August 2019, All orphaned articles, AC with 0 elements, HIV/AIDS research ...
"Development of an AIDS vaccine: perspective from the South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 329 ... HIV/AIDS research organisations, HIV vaccine research, HIV/AIDS in South Africa, Medical research institutes in South Africa, ... The South African AIDS Vaccine Initiative (SAAVI) was a South African organisation with the mission of coordinating the ... Faul, Michelle (20 June 2009). "South Africa launches AIDS vaccine trial but slashes research funding". ...
Vaccine. 22 (15-16): 1831-1835. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.01.028. PMID 15121291. Koprowski (1992). "AIDS and the Polio Vaccine ... The oral polio vaccine (OPV) AIDS hypothesis is a now-discredited hypothesis that the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio ... The second vaccine, an oral polio vaccine (OPV), is a live-attenuated vaccine, produced by the passage of the virus through non ... I never made, nor do I know of anyone in the lab who made polio vaccine in chimpanzee cells. The OPV AIDS hypothesis has been ...
"Nabel to Head AIDS Vaccine Institute". Retrieved 2022-02-11. "NIAID selects new director of the Vaccine ... The discovery, a potentially landmark one in the drive to find a vaccine for AIDS should it be validated and further improved. ... Anthony Fauci regarding research addressing HIV/AIDS. Recognizing the potential impact a vaccine could make in decreasing the ... Notable visits to Vaccine Research Center President George W. Bush visits the Vaccine Research Center President Barack Obama ...
Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) AIDS Vaccine Advocacy ... An HIV vaccine is a potential vaccine that could be either a preventive vaccine or a therapeutic vaccine, which means it would ... Viruses portal Cabotegravir COVID-19 vaccine HIV Vaccine Trials Network World AIDS Vaccine Day Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 ... Vaccine Research Center (VRC)- Information concerning Preventive HIV vaccine research studies NIAID HIV vaccine site (DAIDS) ...
"New Money Aids Saskatchewan's Search for COVID-19 Vaccine , News and Media". Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved March 26, ... The Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization - International Vaccine Centre (VIDO-InterVac) is a research organization of ... "Combatting Infectious Disease Through Vaccine Research: VIDO/InterVac at the U of S" (PDF). University of Saskatchewan. 2009. ... "University of Saskatchewan University of Saskatchewan, International Vaccine Centre (InterVac)". MCW Hemsiphere Ltd. Retrieved ...
In 2005, DHVI became the home to the NIAID funded Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology, a $350M grant to speed the ... DHVI investigators have been at the forefront in the battle against AIDS and specifically in the quest for an HIV vaccine. In ... development of an AIDS vaccine. Led by Barton Haynes, MD this effort has had a major effect on the progress of the entire field ... The vaccine strategy of the Duke CHAVI-ID is based on identifying and targeting novel HIV-1 vulnerabilities to B, T, and NK ...
Coordinating Committee of the Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise (2005) The Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise: Scientific ... 18 January 2005 Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise (2005). "The Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise: Scientific Strategic Plan ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis. In June 2003, a group ... The article asserted that current attempts to develop such a vaccine were insufficient and that a renewed HIV vaccine research ...
T-cell vaccines underwent clinical trials for HIV/AIDS. As of July 2012[update] none have been approved. As December 2020, The ... A T-cell vaccine is a vaccine designed to induce protective T-cells. T-cell vaccines are designed to induce cellular immunity. ... Vaccines, All stub articles, COVID-19 vaccine stubs, Vaccine stubs). ... "T-cell Vaccines Could Treat Elusive Diseases". Commissioner, Office of the (2020-12-14). "FDA Takes Key Action in Fight Against ...
Paediatric European Network for Treatment of AIDS (PENTA) Vaccines Group; Penta Steering, C.; Children's HIV Association (CHIVA ... Vaccine-naive is a lack of immunity, or immunologic memory, to a disease because the person has not been vaccinated. There are ... Vaccine-naive persons threaten what epidemiologists call herd immunity. This is because vaccinations provide not just ... Wallace, H. Shortages require practices to take extra measures to keep patients up-to-date on vaccines: Calling the shots. AAP ...
Trafton, Anne (4 February 2009). "Alum's $100 million gift targets AIDS vaccines". Archived from the original on 2009-02-05. ... In 2009, Ragon pledged to donate US $100 million over 10 years period for AIDS research through the Phillip T. and Susan M. ... "Businessman donates $100 million to AIDS research". Reuters. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 2020-11-23. "Mass General Receives $200 ... 200 million to Massachusetts General Hospital for a vaccine-research center. In 2022, Ragon received the Golden Plate Award of ...
... where he led the first human trial on the AIDS vaccine. The results of the trial found that the two experimental AIDS vaccines ... "New experiment with AIDS vaccines called encouraging". The Sacramento Bee. June 22, 1991. Retrieved January 10, 2021 - via ... "First human tests of AIDS vaccine slated". Auburn Journal. August 12, 1987. Retrieved January 10, 2021 - via " ... In 2000, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recruited him to create a vaccine evaluation clinic (Vaccine Research Center ...
Merck have tested the a few vaccines and some of the other proposals are being tested by International AIDS Vaccine Initiative ... organized by the Department of Biotechnology and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative for the development of HIV vaccines. He ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. 2 May 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2016. "Seminar by Prof. Raghavan Varadarajan". ... his team developed a number of immunogens which have been demonstrated to have positive effect as HIV-1 vaccines and he holds ...
"Understanding Long-term Nonprogressors". International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. ... AIDS. 20 (5): 685-9. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000216368.23325.bc. PMID 16514298. S2CID 27932324. Thorven, M; Grahn, A; Hedlund, KO ... "Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups influence AIDS progression". AIDS. 22 (18): 2429-39. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831940bb. ISSN 0269- ... Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. Genetic traits that confer greater resistance ...
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. 18 (3): 14-7. PMID 25401194. Plaza, David F; Gomez, Manuel; Patarroyo, Manuel (31 ... De Groot, Anne (1 December 2009). "Exploring the immunome: A brave new world for human vaccine development". Human Vaccines. 5 ... Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 14 (9): 2214-2216. doi:10.1080/21645515.2018.1476813. PMID 6183335. "The Human Vaccines ... The development of vaccines is also an application of immunome study as shown by Carlos F. Suárez and his colleagues. They were ...
"Facebook yanks Bolsonaro video claiming vaccines cause AIDS". NBC News. Reuters. 26 October 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2022. " ... have full blown Covid-19 vaccine induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by the end of [the month]." In March 2022, ... "Facebook yanks Bolsonaro video claiming vaccines cause AIDS". Associated Press. Retrieved 22 October 2022. "Facebook, YouTube ... "The COVID-19 vaccines protect people from severe COVID-19 and don't weaken the immune system". Health Feedback. 28 January 2022 ...
"Building a better vaccine Hildegund Ertl and her Philadelphia researchers pursue a new way to conquer the AIDS virus, threats ... human papilloma virus vaccines, rabies vaccine models, universal influenza vaccine, vaccines to Epstein-Barr virus, and using ... Her research is focused on developing vaccines for AIDS and various forms of cancer. Her lab is currently working on projects ... In interviews, Ertl has been cautious and critical when it comes to the development of vaccines for AIDS. Her research has ...
Vaccines are being researched for AIDS and tuberculosis. Genes associated with type 1 diabetes and certain types of cancer have ...
... "oral polio vaccine AIDS hypothesis", which posited that the AIDS pandemic originated from live polio vaccines such as ... Albert Sabin Discredited HIV/AIDS origins theories Jonas Salk List of Polish people Poles Polio vaccine Wistar Institute ... 119-130 online Archived 2008-08-02 at the Wayback Machine Hilary Koprowski (1992). "AIDS and the polio vaccine". Science. 257 ( ... "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted" (PDF file, direct download 203 KB). Nature. 428 (6985): 820. Bibcode ...
In 2018 she was elected to the board of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. She is concerned about Donald Trump ... "Board of Directors". IAVI - International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. Archived from the original on 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 ... In 2016 she was elected President of the International AIDS Society. She gave the opening address at the International AIDS ... She saw young people dying from HIV/AIDS and was frustrated that she couldn't help them. Her PhD was funded by the John E. ...
Gage, Brandon (3 April 2022). "Anti-vax activist claims COVID-19 vaccines cause AIDS". Salon. Archived from the original on 3 ... Srikanth, Anagha (24 March 2021). "12 prominent people opposed to vaccines are responsible for two-thirds of anti-vaccine ... every fully vaccinated person over the age of 30 may have the equivalent of full-blown vaccine-induced immune suppressed AIDS ... During the course, Tenpenny explains her views on the immune system and vaccines, and Hunt instructs participants on how best ...
... particularly in the prevention of hepatitis and AIDS. Gust, Ian D.; Kahn, Patricia; Koff, Wayne C. (2007). AIDS Vaccine ... Gust's area of work is in the development of drugs and vaccines against viral diseases and he is best known for the development ... "Professor Ian Gust". Vaccine and Immunotherapy Technologies. Sir Mark Oliphant Conferences. 2008. Archived from the original on ... The most cited are: Gust, I.D. "Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A in different parts of the world" (1992) Vaccine, 10 ( ...
Kendall, Don (June 20, 1981). "Vaccine to aid human, animal diseases". Nashua Telegraph. Associated Press. Retrieved June 2, ... This vaccine was the first one developed using genetic engineering. Bachrach retired in 1981. In 1982, he was elected to ... In turn, the bacterium produced a large amount of VP3, and the Bachrach team felt that this could lead to a vaccine against the ... The development of the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, which was only effective against a single strain of the illness, taught ...
"Immune children aid malaria vaccine hunt". BBC News. May 22, 2014. Raj, Dipak K.; Nixon, Christian P.; Nixon, Christina E.; ... "Groundbreaking malaria vaccine discovery". April 22, 2020. "Punjab NRI's company to try its new malaria vaccine on Covid-19 ... "New Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Mice". "partnerships". ocean biomedical. "Brown Alpert Medical School ... Ocean Biomedical has worked on developing vaccines for tropical diseases such as malaria, as well as for emerging diseases like ...
"Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nat. Biotechnol. 28 (7): 723-727. doi:10.1038/nbt. ... This strategy allows for the generation of new vaccines in a very short time. Recently, Wimmer's lab has elucidated the key ... synthetic biology has led to a new kind of RNA virus genetics and has been used to develop rapid methods for computer-aided ...
An Expert on AIDS Vaccines". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2014. "Founder - Mary Lou Clements-Mann". Center for ... She was a member of the US Centers for Disease Control Advisory Committee on the Children's Vaccine Initiative and the World ... Mary Lou Clements-Mann (September 17, 1946 - September 2, 1998) was the longtime head of the Division of Vaccine Sciences at ... During this time, she joined the university's Center for Vaccine Development. She later became the chief of the clinical ...
The vaccines are between 92% and 100% effective against HPV 16 and 18 up to at least 8 years. HPV vaccines are typically given ... Also, not only does it aid in the development of HPV, but also if the woman is already HPV-positive, she is at an even greater ... 2006: First HPV vaccine was approved by the FDA. 2015: HPV Vaccine shown to protect against infection at multiple body sites. ... August 2018). "Evidence for single-dose protection by the bivalent HPV vaccine-Review of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial and ...
"U.S. Planes Aid Victims of Hurricane". Gettysburg Times. Associated Press. 1966-10-15. Retrieved 2013-02-22. "15 Die as Mercy ... The United States also sent vaccines and 4,360 pounds of food. In Cuba, sailors on the USS America (CV-66) spent about 1,700 ... Damage totaled $20.35 million in Haiti, prompting the United States government to send aid for the first time in nearly ten ... Drew Pearson (1966-11-20). "Haiti Back on U.S. Aid Rolls". The Press-Courier. Retrieved 2013-02-22. "Inez Sweeps Florida Keys ...
And if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have ... "A Founding Father's Vaccine Regret". Retrieved September 27, 2021 - via Boston Globe. Korn, Michael (September 28, 2015). " ... His efforts proved vital for the American Revolution in securing French aid. He was promoted to deputy postmaster-general for ... "He waged a public relations campaign, secured secret aid, played a role in privateering expeditions, and churned out effective ...
... and the Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID) Scientific Advisory Board. In 2001 Rees was made ... She chaired the WHO Committee on the STV Vaccine Roadmap and continues to advise WHO on STI vaccine development and on STI ... and HIV vaccines, and vaccine use in humanitarian emergencies. She is a member of the SAGE Working Group on Measles and Rubella ... Rees is the current Chair of the WHO SAGE Working Group on Ebola Vaccines, the TFI Working group on Ebola and she chaired the ...
"Expansion of HIV/AIDS Vaccine Program Announced by GeoVax Labs, Inc." Media Release. April 11, 2011. "Encouraged By Early ... The vaccine works with a combined DNA vaccine and MVA (modified vaccinia Ankara) vaccine both of which lead to the insertion of ... "GeoVax Labs Granted Allowance by FDA To Start Phase 1 Clinical Trial for HIV/AIDS Therapeutic Vaccine: Company Will Begin Non- ... "ARCA Seeks Volunteers for Historic HIV Vaccine Trial." GA Voice. June 11, 2010. GeoVax Labs, Inc. "New Progress for HIV/AIDS ...
Crohn's disease and AIDS. Cohen IR (2001). "T-cell vaccination for autoimmune disease: a panorama". Vaccine. 20 (5-6): 706-10. ... Expert Rev Vaccines. 1 (3): 285-92. doi:10.1586/14760584.1.3.285. PMID 12901569. v t e (Immunology, All stub articles, Vaccine ...
As part of a humanitarian aid project in Malawi in 2019/20, medicines were delivered by Wingcopter to remote areas that were ... Wingcopter has also been active with UNICEF and DHL in delivering vaccines and other medications in Vanuatu and some African ... Copley, Caroline (2021-01-25). "Drone company Wingcopter gets more firepower in vaccine delivery race". Reuters. Retrieved 2021 ... "Vanuatu awards international drone companies with commercial contracts for vaccine delivery". Retrieved 2020-09 ...
Another monkeypox vaccine, the modern LC16m8 vaccine was developed in Japan as a national asset, and the manufacturer said it ... had HIV/AIDS, of which 96% were on antiretroviral therapy, while 57% of the persons who were not known to have HIV infection ... a number of countries have stated they are buying vaccines and/or releasing vaccines from national stockpiles for use in the ... FDA Authorizes Emergency Use of JYNNEOS Vaccine to Increase Vaccine Supply". FDA. 9 August 2022. Retrieved 14 August 2022. " ...
... therefore accelerating the progression of AIDS. AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human ... Malaria vaccines are an area of intensive research. Intestinal parasites are extremely prevalent in tropical areas. These ... Elieen Stillwaggon, Aids and the Ecology of Poverty. Oxford University Press. New York "Non communicable diseases". ... Critics of AIDS policies promoting safe sexual behaviors believe that these policies miss the biological mechanisms and social ...
... which is taken to include live attenuated measles vaccine virus, measles virus, mumps vaccine virus and rubella vaccine virus, ... Deer, Brian (31 December 2006). "MMR doctor given legal aid thousands". The Times. London, UK. Retrieved 10 August 2007 - via ... His continued claims that the vaccine is harmful have contributed to a climate of distrust of all vaccines and the reemergence ... would succeed in marketing products and developing a replacement vaccine if "public confidence in the MMR vaccine was damaged ...
Now, it is being used for travel; entering commercial buildings, hospitals, and schools within the Kingdom; setting vaccine ... Lyman, Jay (1 February 2006). "AT&T Sued for Role in Aiding US Government Surveillance". TechNewsWorld. Retrieved 28 February ...
French vaccine manufacturer Valneva is seeking an apology from the UK government after doubt was cast over whether its vaccine ... "Government wins vote to lock in cuts to overseas aid". BBC News. 13 July 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021. "Most Covid rules set ... Vaccines Minister Nadhim Zahawi subsequently confirms all children in this age group will be offered a single vaccine. Figures ... The vaccine had previously been omitted from a published list of approved vaccines, something that attracted criticism from MPs ...
... setting the stage for the development of a vaccine Judy Smith, nurse who disappeared from Philadelphia in 1997; found murdered ... head of the World Health Organization's global AIDS project Charles Johnson Maynard, naturalist and ornithologist; lived in the ...
... the International Development and Aid Project (IDAP), a non-governmental organization specializing in humanitarian aid; the ... With no data, vaccine tests are ineffective and a cure is never made, allowing Atrox to spread and worsen. Santiago, paid ... If Santiago kills Miller and gives the counteragent to Drábek, the Global Health Initiative develops a vaccine and a cure. But ... However, by the time the vaccine is made and distributed, countless Tanoans have already died. Though Tanoa is finally at peace ...
In 2006, Lévy became scientific director of the vaccine programme of the French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral ... Lévy became a professor of clinical immunology, specializing on immunotherapies and vaccines for HIV infection, ... Industry Collaboration Group International AIDS Society (IAS). Council World Health Summit. Board of Directors French ... he created the Vaccine Research Institute laboratory of excellence under the Investissement d'Avenir (Investment for the Future ...
Shortly after, Minaj recommended other people get the vaccine and set up a Twitter poll on COVID-19 vaccine brands. She tweeted ... Rodriguez, Cindy Y. "Nicki Minaj And Ricky Martin Promote MAC Viva Glam, Bring HIV/AIDS Awareness To Latin America". The ... The White House offered her a phone call with a doctor to answer questions about the safety of the vaccine. In an Instagram ... In September 2021, Minaj announced she would not be attending the 2021 Met Gala due to the COVID-19 vaccine requirement. She ...
... investing in vaccine and microbicide research; eliminating school fees for primary education; using microcredit money pots for ... HIV/AIDS in literature, HIV/AIDS in Africa, Massey Lectures books, Books about Africa, House of Anansi Press books, English- ... Lewis wrote the book, not as an employee of the UN, but as a citizen concerned with the world's response to the AIDS challenge ... Several reviewers noted that the book could be used as an effective tool to educate about the HIV/AIDS crisis and the plight of ...
In April 2021, the nation received headlines for using the Russian Sputnik V COVID-19 vaccine rather than vaccines approved by ... He was aiding certain rebels, and acting possibly contrary to the orders of Pope Clement XII. However, civil disobedience ... stokes envy with speedy Russian-supplied vaccine campaign", Washington Post, 2 April 2021 "Shut Out on Vaccines, Tiny San ... the EU following a slow rollout for the latter vaccines. At the 2020 Summer Olympics, San Marino became the smallest country to ...
October 1 - In a statement, President Clinton states his directing of the federal government to provide aid to India in ... vaccine manufacturers; and Federal, State, and local governments to protect our Nation's children from the deadly onslaught of ... Remarks on the Observance of World AIDS Day (December 1, 1993) Exchange With Reporters Prior to Discussions With Prime Minister ... Commission in the Indian Treaty Room of the Old Executive Office Building and delivers an address in observance to Worlds AIDS ...
doi:10.1186/s12929-022-00853-8. International AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Trials Network (Articles with short ... "COVID-19 vaccine update: vaccine effectiveness, SARS-CoV-2 variants, boosters, adverse effects, and immune correlates of ... The fact that the correlates of immunity/protection remain unclear is a significant barrier to HIV vaccine research. There is ... However, without knowing the correlates of immunity, scientists cannot know exactly what sort of immune response a vaccine ...
DnaK is part of the heat shock protein 70 family, and aids in the correct synthesis and activation of certain virulence factors ... The Brucella abortus (rough LPS Brucella) vaccine, developed for bovine brucellosis and licensed by the USDA Animal Plant ... but there is currently no approved vaccine for swine brucellosis. In the United States, B. suis was the first biological agent ...
Timeline of AIDS (1930s-present) Timeline of antibiotics (1935 CE-present) Timeline of medicine and medical technology (27th ... century BCE-present) Timeline of sexual orientation and medicine (1886-present) Timeline of vaccines (1796-present) 2009 flu ...
Rigby, Wendy (21 July 2016). "San Antonio On Front Lines Of AIDS Vaccine Research". Texas Public Radio. Rigby, Wendy (21 August ... and vaccine development. Developing an animal model to test vaccines to protect people against the Zika virus. On April 14, ... Developed vaccines, antibodies and antitoxins for deadly agents of bioterrorism such as Ebola, botulinum neurotoxins, and ... Developing vaccine strategies for Ebola, HIV, Lassa virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and herpes. ...
She also served as Coordinator for AIDS Research for NICHD from September 1987. In this role, she developed a particular ... dedicated his life to researching tropical allergies and developing vaccines that would effectively prevent or minimize ... On March 9, 2007, Solís performed, in the "Hospital Auxilio Mutuo" (Mutual Aid Hospital), the first simultaneous pancreas and ... Mutual Aid Hospital). His book, "Organ transplantation", the first to be published in Spanish on the topic, won the Prize of ...
The trimerisation aids translocation, and no translocation would occur without its beta-barrel membrane anchor. The type V ... 2002). "NadA, a novel vaccine candidate of Neisseria meningitidis". J Exp Med. 195 (11): 1445-54. doi:10.1084/jem.20020407. PMC ... The function of the ESPR is to aid inner membrane translocation by acting as a temporary tether. This prevents the accumulation ... Function: The function of the membrane anchor domain is to aid the movement of the polypeptide chain through the cell membrane ...
Their early escapades were chronicled by Tom Wolfe in The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters are ... MD, Frances R. Frankenburg (16 January 2017). Human Medical Experimentation: From Smallpox Vaccines to Secret Government ... ISBN 0-7876-5417-5. Bryan (1968-08-18). "'The Pump House Gang' and 'The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test'". Books. The New York ... Therefore, they made LSD available to anyone interested in partaking - most famously through the "electric kool-aid" made ...
... published a 47-page pamphlet titled AIDS-Its Nature and Origin, in which they speculated that AIDS was the creation of the U.S ... He also supported the idea of a p24- vaccine without gp120 which was patented by Jonas Salk as "Remune". Jakob Segal/Lilli ... AIDS can be conquered, Verlag Neuer Weg 1995/2001, ISBN 3-88021-296-1 Jakob Segal: AIDS Zellphysiologie Pathologie und Therapie ... Ähnlichkeit von Aids und Visna Report by Jakob Segal about the origin of AIDS (published by monochrom in 1993; German language ...
"Covid vaccines for children under 5: CDC director endorses Covid vaccines for babies, toddlers". NBC News. Sewell Chan; Eric ... May 12 - The United States Senate seeks to pass a bill of bipartisan support on sorely needed aid to Ukraine in the Russo- ... March 24 - In New York City, Mayor Eric Adams lifts the vaccine mandate for unvaccinated athletes from teams like the New York ... The United States Senate passes another US$40 billion in aid to Ukraine. A shooting near Chicago's Magnificent Mile kills two ...
Friends of The Global Fund Africa officially launched Archived 9 May 2020 at the Wayback Machine Global Fund to Fight AIDS, ... In July 2021, she joined the Multilateral Leaders Task Force on COVID-19 Vaccines, Therapeutics, and Diagnostics for Developing ... Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi (June 2007). Aid versus trade (TED Talk). Archived from the original on 17 February 2021. Okonjo-Iweala, ... "WTO Director-General Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala Discusses Vaccines". The World: Public Radio. Retrieved 24 June 2021. "Prince William ...
Bruce Walker of Harvard Medical School, one of the world's leading HIV/AIDS researchers. Boston Red Sox Owner John Henry ... WhizzKids United: From HIV Vaccine Development to Soccer. http://www ... WhizzKids United is a youth HIV / AIDS prevention, care, treatment and support programme that uses football as an educational ... The programme recognises the gendered nature of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and as such includes gender equality as a central ...
In addition, the rate of AIDS for HB vaccine recipients in CDC vaccine trials among homosexually active men in Denver and San ... In addition, epidemiologic monitoring of AIDS cases and high-risk groups confirms the lack of AIDS transmission by HB vaccine. ... Epidemiologic approaches to detect an association between HB vaccine and AIDS have included analysis of data on AIDS cases ... AIDS. The effect of the HB vaccine inactivation process on the AIDS virus and two other human retroviruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II ...
African AIDS Vaccine Programme. Forum (‎3rd : 2005 : Yaoundé, Cameroon)‎; WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research; UNAIDS (‎World ... African AIDS Vaccine Programme. Forum (‎2nd : 2003 : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)‎; WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research; UNAIDS (‎ ... Accelerating the global effort for HIV vaccine research : report of the third Forum of the African AIDS Vaccine Programme, ... Scientific and ethical issues in AIDS vaccines  Bloom, Barry R.; Macklin, R.; Natth, B. (‎World Health Organization, 1998-11)‎ ...
Current Trends Hepatitis B Vaccine: Evidence Confirming Lack of AIDS Transmission ... In addition, the rate of AIDS for HB vaccine recipients in CDC vaccine trials among homosexually active men in Denver and San ... In addition, epidemiologic monitoring of AIDS cases and high-risk groups confirms the lack of AIDS transmission by HB vaccine. ... Epidemiologic approaches to detect an association between HB vaccine and AIDS have included analysis of data on AIDS cases ...
African AIDS Vaccine Programme. Forum (‎2nd : 2003 : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)‎; WHO Initiative for Vaccine Research; UNAIDS (‎ ... Browsing Publications by Author "African AIDS Vaccine Programme. Forum (‎2nd : 2003 : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia)‎". 0-9. A. B. C. D ... report of the WHO-UNAIDS sponsored second Forum of the African AIDS Vaccine Programme (‎AAVP)‎  ... Strategies for the development of HIV vaccine trial sites in Africa : challenges and opportunities : ...
Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, the Partnership for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation, and the Center for HIV-AIDS Vaccine Immunology). ... AIDS Vaccine Development: Challenges and Opportunities. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2007;13(11):1802. doi:10.3201/ ... Chen, R. T. (2007). AIDS Vaccine Development: Challenges and Opportunities. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 13(11), 1802. https ... AIDS Vaccine Development: Challenges and Opportunities. Volume 13, Number 11-November 2007 ...
... fighting alongside the UK for decades in the name of our freedom the aid they need to help their people fight off COVID-19. ... fighting alongside the UK for decades in the name of our freedom the aid they need to help their people fight off COVID-19. ...
... many strains of the AIDS virus, a discovery that might help create a long-sought vaccine against the deadly disease, Bloomberg ... potentially better target on HIV to focus our efforts for vaccine design," said Wayne Koff of the International AIDS Vaccine ... The findings themselves are an exciting advance toward the goal of an effective AIDS vaccine because now weve got a new, ... Discovery Of Two Antibodies Could Move AIDS Vaccine Development Forward. Sep 04, 2009 ...
A look into the planning and teamwork that went into safely delivering the first COVID-19 vaccines across the US during the ... As it became apparent that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine stood the best chance of being the first vaccine to gain approval from ... "Vaccine distribution is a key part of moving our world forward by delivering what matters," Carol said. "We have dedicated and ... UPS Healthcares humanitarian aid to Malawi shows skill, will and a good heart beneath it all.. Read More ...
Avoid non-core vaccines such as Bordetella and ringworm.. *Ask that no modified live vaccines be used in your cat. In my ... Some vaccines are made from attenuated (modified) live pathogens. The organisms in these vaccines can in rare instances revert ... Re-vaccinate at one year of age, and then repeat the vaccines no more often than every three years. Core vaccines include ... Feline immunodeficiency virus, or FIV, is very similar to the virus that causes human AIDS. There is no evidence that FIV poses ...
Polio vaccine-AIDS theory dead. Study finds that Kisangani chimpanzees contain a virus unrelated to HIV-1. David Secko([email protected] ... The OPV/AIDS theory holds that chimpanzees from the Kisangani (previously Stanleyville) area in the Democratic Republic of ... crossed into humans as a result of contamination of oral polio vaccine (OPV), according to a new study. In the April 22 Nature ...
What AIDS Taught Coronavirus Leaders: You Cant Bank on a Fast Vaccine. ... And the most influential doctor in the U.S. today would devote his career to HIV and AIDS-training for another virus that would ... ...
The Memphis area likely has just four weeks left to take advantage of the mass vaccination site at the Pipkin site.
AIDS research Canadian lab gets OK to test vaccine By: Sheryl Ubelacker Posted: 1:00 AM CST Wednesday, Dec. 21, 2011. ... If the SAV001 vaccine is found to be safe, it would require two more clinical trials that prove it works before it could be ... To make the vaccine, the researchers start by altering the genetic makeup of the human immunodeficiency virus to make it non- ... The SAV001 vaccine, developed by Dr. Chil-Yong Kangs lab with financial support from Sumagen Canada, has been shown to ...
... how the firm worked with Moderna on patient recruitment strategy and other solutions in the road to launching a vaccine. ... Trust, transparency aided COVID-19 vaccine partnership: Praxis. By Jenni Spinner ... Related tags: Moderna, COVID-19, Coronavirus, Patient recruitment, Clinical trials, Vaccine A leader from Praxis explains how ... OSP: Could you please describe how your company and Moderna got to collaborate on the COVID-19 vaccine? What were early ...
Private Demand for a HIV/AIDS Vaccine: Evidence from Guadalajara, Mexico. Vaccine, 20(20), 2585 - 2591. ...
If an AIDS vaccine could elicit antibodies of this type, it might protect people from the many different circulating varieties ... Evaluating New Approaches to Developing AIDS Vaccines by Creating Virus-like Particles that Display HIV Antigens or by Using ... Evaluating New Approaches to Developing AIDS Vaccines by Creating Virus-like Particles that Display HIV Antigens or by Using ... These studies provide new scientific insight and tools for developing and evaluating vaccines for HIV/AIDS. The experience with ...
ChAdOx1\r, clinical trials\r, DNA vaccines\r, HIV cure\r, HIV prevention\r, RNA vaccines\r, subunit genetic vaccines. ... Vaccine licensed for use in the United States. 2022. ... ChAdOx1; clinical trials; DNA vaccines; HIV cure; HIV prevention; RNA vaccines; subunit genetic vaccines ... New vector and vaccine platforms: mRNA, DNA, viral vectors : Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. ...
Within two years, the virus that causes AIDS was discovered, spurring hopes for a vaccine. But a vaccine has proven to be ... Udom Likhitwonnawut is a member of the Vaccine Advocacy Resource Group (VARG) and has been a consultant for AIDS Vaccine ... Gregg Gonsalves: Back then it was, who had AIDS drugs? And now, who has a COVID vaccine is the new apartheid in the medical ... Home , HIV unmuted podcast , #01: Back to the beginning: AIDS and the elusive vaccine ...
For $10 the Waggin offers a physical exam, rabies vaccine, distemper vaccine, Flea treatment and microchip for cats and dogs. ... Free and Low- Cost Vaccine and Care Clinics for Pets. By Charlotte Grossman. August 12, 2021 Resources ... Dog Licensing and Low-Cost Vaccine Clinic for Pets Twice a month from 10:00-2:00 on Saturdays Animal Care and Control is ... Clinics include low cost or free dog licensing, rabies and distemper vaccines for $5 dollars and free microchipping. No ...
Major pharmacy chains are getting ready to offer the Pfizer COVID vaccine for children ages 5 to 11 once federal health ...
... we might have more effective vaccines for a variety of diseases, including AIDS." ... "BCG vaccines have a long record of safe use, but their reported efficacy varies tremendously," said Dr. Murray, the Whitehead ... "Depending on the vaccine trial, efficacy figures range from 0 to 80 percent. Such variability, combined with the increase in ... The Whitehead scientists will also begin to hone in on the ideal genetic make-up of an improved TB vaccine for human beings. ...
We can be donating our time to HIV/AIDS organizations. We can be lobbying the Red Cross to lift their ban on gay men not being ... There have been promises of a cure since the first cases of what would later be known as HIV/AIDS.. The Centers for Disease ... "My hope is that people realize the seriousness of HIV, but that people are living with HIV and not dying as much from AIDS ... RELATED: It felt like being in a war , First AIDS cases reported 40 years ago ...
This method is a valuable tool in the design of more targeted and effective vaccines against AIDS, providing the ability to vet ... The findings by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and the ... This work was supported by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Consortium and Center; the Ragon ... New Findings in Humans Provide Encouraging Foundation for Upcoming AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trial. ...
Australia will dip into its domestic vaccine stockpile and rush medical supplies to Indonesia as the country grapples with a ... Australia to send 2.5 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses to Indonesia and offers emergency aid as COVID-19 crisis deepens. By ... Archie Law, from aid agency Save the Children, said the situation in Indonesia may eventually require a response like that ... The 2.5 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses pledged by Senator Payne will be drawn from the 20 million doses Prime Minister Scott ...
Childrens Aid & Child Protection *Locate a Childrens Aid Society or Indigenous Child and Family Well-Being Agency ... 2022 Ontario Association of Childrens Aid Societies. At the Ontario Association of Childrens Aid Societies (OACAS), we are ...
The FDA will vote on whether to clear Pfizers COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use. Two lawsuits question how Facebook got so ... HORSLEY: Aid to state and local governments also provides a lot of bang for the buck; grants to small businesses, probably less ... Experts are going to weigh the benefits and the risks of clearing Pfizers COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use in the U.S. Now, ... The FDA has built a case that this vaccine should be authorized for emergency use. Now, the meeting starts at 9 a.m. Eastern ...
... two other developments focusing on treatments for AIDS and Zika fever have caught our eye. These fall under the topic #MPAR, ... 2021Professor Christopher Petkov Although we have been focusing on updates on Covid-19 vaccines and their reliance on research ... by EditorPosted in News, Science NewsTagged #AnimalResearchSavesLives, #MPAR, #timescales, aids, hiv, SIV, vaccine, zika. Post ... Advances from Animal Research: AIDS and Zika Vaccines Update. April 19th, 2021. Professor Christopher Petkov ...
Vaccine approaches against AIDS have focused on inducing cellular immune responses, since many studies revealed the role of T ... After preclinical evaluations, DNA has entered clinical trials for a therapeutic or prophylactic gene-based AIDS vaccine. ... The experimental infection of rhesus macaques with SIV or chimeric SHIV is routinely used as a model for AIDS. In such models, ... High level of Bcl-2 counteracts apoptosis mediated by a live rabies virus vaccine strain and induces long-term infection ...
  • We owe the Nepalese people and the Ghurkas who have sacrificed themselves, fighting alongside the UK for decades in the name of our freedom the aid they need to help their people fight off COVID-19. (
  • Invited to be part of the planning of Operation Warp Speed , UPS was at the table as logistical scenarios were developed while public/private partnerships raced to develop and test effective COVID-19 vaccines. (
  • Reggie in Ann Arbor, ironically only about 90 minutes from one of the vaccine production facilities, was now, finally, making one of the first deliveries of a vaccine that could end the scourge of COVID-19 illnesses and deaths. (
  • Tricia Barrett, senior vice president and managing director for Praxis, is one of the two presenters (the other Diane Montross, senior director of patient recruitment and retention at Moderna) for Operation Warp Speed: Recruitment and Retention, Launching a Recruitment Strategy for a Phase III COVID-19 Vaccine Trial, taking place online Tuesday, March 2 at 2:20 pm EST. (
  • OSP: Could you please describe how your company and Moderna got to collaborate on the COVID-19 vaccine? (
  • TB: Diane Montross, who joined Moderna in June 2020 as their senior director of patient recruitment and retention, invited us to collaborate on their Phase III COVID-19 vaccine trial. (
  • The focus is on HIV-1/AIDS with reference to the most successful as well as currently tested COVID-19 vaccines, and human trials, which best inform iterative vaccine improvements. (
  • Intensive research into HIV-1 vaccines is entering its fifth decade, although with fewer than 10 funded phase 3 trials testing preventive efficacy of candidate vaccines since the start of the AIDS epidemic (compared with nine licensed vaccines and over three dozen vaccine efficacy trials in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic [2] ). (
  • Indonesia appreciates Australia's offer of vaccines, ventilators & oxygen-related supplies to deal with the latest surge of COVID-19,' she said on social media. (
  • Experts are going to weigh the benefits and the risks of clearing Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use in the U.S. Now, depending on how this meeting goes, we could know soon when our vaccination program is going to start. (
  • Although we have been focusing on updates on Covid-19 vaccines and their reliance on research with nonhuman animals including primates (as an example post see here ), two other developments focusing on treatments for AIDS and Zika fever have caught our eye. (
  • The OECD's Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is facing an impasse among its membership on the adoption of controversial new rules that would allow rich countries to report the donation of surplus Covid-19 vaccines as aid. (
  • 21 June, Istanbul - World Vision, International Blue Crescent Relief and Development Foundation (IBC) and the Research Centre on Asylum and Migration (IGAM) together with other local actors meet today to discuss equal access to COVID-19 vaccines for Syrian refugees in Turkey. (
  • Families who are most ravaged by COVID-19 continue to have the least access to vaccines - and many who have the power to change this are looking on. (
  • IBC implements awareness-raising sessions to beneficiaries about appointment processes for the vaccine and the importance of the Covid-19 measurements. (
  • Doses of Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine are prepared at the Liacouras Center, where the Black Doctors Consortium held a 24-hour mass vaccination clinic on Feb. 19, 2021. (
  • Ask us about COVID-19: What questions do you have about the coronavirus and vaccines? (
  • As of last week, all of Pennsylvania's skilled nursing facilities participating in the federal Pharmacy Partnership for Long-Term Care Program have completed their first dose COVID-19 vaccine clinics. (
  • CONCORD, N.H - New Hampshire is getting nearly $30.7 million in additional federal money to support COVID-19 vaccines to correct a CDC formula that previously shortchanged small states. (
  • A vaccine that uses messenger RNA technology, the same one found in some COVID-19 vaccines, but this time against AIDS, has shown promising first results in animals, researchers said. (
  • Scientists from this institute conducted this work in collaboration with researchers from the US company Moderna, which is behind one of the most widely used vaccines against COVID-19. (
  • Rite Aid announced Friday that it is now taking walk-in customers for a COVID-19 vaccination shot at all 129 of its New Jersey locations. (
  • The availability of vaccines in every Rite Aid location is a major milestone in our ongoing effort to fight COVID-19," he said. (
  • Also, in addition to the grassroots efforts we've undertaken with our community partners, the availability of these walk-in appointments provides another way for those with limited or no technology access to more easily obtain COVID vaccines. (
  • Individuals ages 18 and over can schedule appointments using the Rite Aid scheduling tool found at . (
  • 1 year ) it took to advance from sequencing SARS-CoV-2 to producing enough candidate modRNA/spike protein vaccine for large (30,000 volunteer) clinical trials, as well as hundreds of millions of doses of the two currently approved vaccines for COVID-19 by Pfizer/BioNTech (illustrated here) and Moderna. (
  • 3D illustration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for COVID-19 on the production line. (
  • The flood of COVID-relief aid -- $5.2 trillion in all -- that Congress approved in 2020 and 2021 under Republican President Donald Trump and his Democratic successor Joe Biden has emerged as an early target for House of Representatives Republicans as they search for ways to rein in federal spending. (
  • But unspent COVID aid is a small target, with less than $80 billion unspent as of January, White House budget figures show. (
  • Another $6.8 billion remains to fight the virus itself by developing improved vaccines and tests and researching topics like long COVID, according to the White House. (
  • Natural News ) Evidence continues to mount showing that Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) "vaccines" are causing recipients everywhere to develop AIDS. (
  • Covid-19 Vaccine Induced Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or VAIDS , appears to be one of the more serious long-term adverse effects caused by the injections. (
  • A vaccine effectiveness of +50% would mean that the fully vaccinated are 50% more protected against Covid-19 than the unvaccinated," reported the Daily Exposé . (
  • Therefore, the Covid-19 vaccines have damaged the immune system. (
  • The lowest Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness was seen in the 40-49 age group in England throughout January 2022, recorded at minus-209.4%, with the 50-59 age group not far behind," it was determined. (
  • Real world Covid-19 vaccine effectiveness against death in England between 3rd Jan and 30th Jan 22 was as low as -110.24% in the over 80's, -97% in people aged 70-79, and -98.14% on average in all adults over age 18," the Exposé reports. (
  • More related news about Wuhan coronavirus (Covid-19) "vaccines" can be found at . (
  • Doses of the Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid-19 vaccine are going unused across the EU amid low confidence in the jab after the company was repeatedly criticized by Brussels for not sharing sufficient data and supply problems. (
  • Rite Aid offers painless Rite Aid Covid Testing at most of the Drive-Thru test locations. (
  • First, take the Rite Aid Covid Testing kit from the drive-through window, Open the wrapper of the swab & place the swab midway in your nose rotate or circle twice then hold your nose for 15 seconds, and repeat the same steps with the same swab in the other nostril. (
  • How to book an appointment for Rite Aid Covid Testing Through Drive Thro? (
  • All Rite-Aid COVID 19 tests are free and available for ages 4 and up, but reservations are required to take the test. (
  • The Biden administration made direct payments to nearly all major corporate media outlets to deploy a $1 billion taxpayer-funded outreach campaign designed to push only positive coverage about COVID-19 vaccines and to censor any negative coverage, according to documents obtained by The Blaze. (
  • The ad campaigns were timed in conjunction with the increased availability of COVID vaccines. (
  • BuzzFeed News advised everyone age 65 or older, people with health conditions that put them at high risk of severe illness from COVID, healthcare workers and those at high risk of exposure to the virus to get vaccine boosters , in accordance with guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • Newsmax said COVID vaccines have "been demonstrated to be safe and effective" and "encouraged citizens, especially those at risk, to get immunized. (
  • Yet, the latest data from the CDC's Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System shows 1,151,450 reports of adverse events from all age groups following COVID vaccines, including 24,827 deaths since Dec. 14, 2020. (
  • Numerous scientists and public health experts have questioned the safety and efficacy of COVID vaccines, as well as the data underlying the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's authorization of the shots. (
  • The media rarely covered negative news stories about COVID vaccines, and some have labeled anyone who questions the shots " science denialists " or " conspiracy theorists . (
  • CBS 58) -- The Washington County Public Health Department hosted its last COVID-19 vaccine clinic Thursday morning, June 3. (
  • Health leaders say COVID-19 cases are down and vaccine demand is dropping so they feel comfortable shutting down the clinic. (
  • To start your search for a COVID-19 vaccine, CLICK HERE . (
  • An experimental HIV vaccine based on mRNA-the same platform technology used in two highly effective COVID-19 vaccines-shows promise in mice and non-human primates, according to scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • The experimental vaccine works like mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. (
  • Late last year, the Pfizer and Moderna COVID vaccines jabs were both licensed for emergency use only by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • The COVID mRNA vaccine partly works by inducing local inflammatory reactions to trigger the immune system. (
  • The country received its first shipment of COVID-19 vaccine doses in July. (
  • One week after Haiti's president was assassinated, the country's first shipment of COVID-19 vaccines finally arrived. (
  • He is a veteran physician who has been on the front lines of Haiti's HIV/AIDS crisis and co-leads the country's efforts against COVID-19. (
  • A case in point is the Novavax COVID-19 vaccine manufactured by Novavax, a biotechnology firm from Maryland. (
  • About 80% of Americans have had their first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, and two-thirds have completed both rounds. (
  • Should you get a COVID-19 vaccine? (
  • As the COVID-19 vaccines continue to be administered across military hospitals and smaller clinics and outposts under Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidance, the advice from the military and a multitude of national maternal and fetal health professional associations is the same: For most pregnant people, getting the COVID-19 vaccine as soon as possible is the safest choice based on the science to date. (
  • The COVID-19 vaccines made by Pfizer and Moderna are mRNA vaccines. (
  • As COVID-19 vaccines were being developed, studies in the laboratory and animals showed no reproductive health problems," Ryan added. (
  • Pregnant people are entering clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines "literally now and going into March, so more data will be known soon," Dr. Anthony Fauci, President Joe Biden's chief medical adviser on COVID-19, told a Blue Star Families virtual town hall Feb. 4. (
  • Many who are pregnant are health care providers who said the risk of getting COVID-19 from their patients was worse than that from getting the vaccine," said Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. (
  • As for those who do not want to take the vaccine, "we know there are significantly increased risks for pregnant people who contract COVID-19, e.g., they are three times more likely to be admitted to the ICU and need breathing support," said Navy Cmdr. (
  • Ryan went on to say that specialists from the CDC, American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and American Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine "all agree that breastfeeding should not be a barrier to receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • Introduction: as the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are distributed and administered globally, hesitancy towards the vaccine hinders the immunisation of a significant number of vulnerable populations, such as people living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • Hence, this study aims to assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) attending clinicaloutpatient follow-up at State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri (SSHM), Borno State, Nigeria. (
  • Methods: a hospital-based cross-sectional study design was conducted to assess COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among 344 PLHIV receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the United States President´s Emergency Plan for AIDS (PEPFAR) clinic in SSHM from 4 th January to 25th February 2022. (
  • The factors that are associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were identified using the Chi-square statistical test. (
  • Results: among the 344 respondents of the study, only 88 (26.6%) received the COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • Conclusion: hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccine is high among PLHIV and there is no any statistically significant association between COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and the independent variables of the study where p-value is greater than 0.05. (
  • The CDC updated COVID-19 vaccine recommendations for vaccination in April 2023 to simplify and allow flexibility for people at higher risk. (
  • The FDA Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) continues to assess the optimal composition of COVID-19 primary and booster vaccines. (
  • It provides the number of bivalent mRNA vaccine doses an individual needs based on COVID-19 vaccine doses previously received, including the number of prior doses, whether the doses were monovalent or bivalent, and the vaccine manufacturer (Moderna, Novavax, or Pfizer-BioNTech). (
  • It supports research to identify potential vaccines for a variety of emerging infectious diseases, including COVID-19, Zika virus, and HIV/AIDS. (
  • Several genetic subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated protection against severe disease, obtained Emergency Use Authorization and scaled their production to billions of doses. (
  • The Federal Government has also promised to send Indonesia 2.5 million AstraZeneca vaccine doses this year, drawn from Australia's domestic stockpile. (
  • HARRIS: And if there is a quick decision, the first doses of this vaccine could get into people's arms within days. (
  • Secondly, we have not seen any mechanism to ensure that DAC members do not report more than the original cost of the vaccine doses they are donating as ODA (that would be the case for example with the surplus donation of Astrazeneca doses which cost less than the $6.72 price tag). (
  • They have access to only three per cent of global vaccine doses. (
  • Overall, more than 150,000 doses of the vaccine have been administered to residents of these facilities, and 140,000 doses were administered to staff members. (
  • Thursday's clinic was strictly for second doses, or walk-ins for the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. (
  • Although the doses of mRNA delivered were high, the vaccine was well tolerated and produced only mild, temporary adverse effects in the macaques, such as loss of appetite. (
  • Earlier this year, Haiti shrugged off two offers of doses AstraZeneca - first from India and then from COVAX, the global vaccine sharing program . (
  • And in mid-July, the U.S. sent half a million doses of the Moderna vaccine through COVAX to the Caribbean nation. (
  • While the announcement of a commitment of a $1 billion-worth of vaccine doses also hit headlines, the overall sentiment seemed to be: We knew the Africa-China relationship would begin to deteriorate! (
  • First, while China is already the largest supplier of vaccine doses to African countries, having sent 200 million doses to date, now China could become Africa's largest vaccine donor, with a commitment to donate $600 million doses and locally manufacture $400 million doses with partners on the continent. (
  • Most people aged ≥ 6 years who are not moderately or severely immunocompromised and have received 1 dose of a bivalent mRNA vaccine (from either Moderna or Pfizer ) do not need any further vaccine doses as of April 2023. (
  • Although some thoughtful and reasonable veterinarians may disagree with this (remember, there is no consensus among vets about vaccines in general), I recommend that you follow standard kitten vaccination guidelines for core vaccines. (
  • This would allow proper planning of any vaccination campaign and to understand whether vaccines donated are reaching the final beneficiaries in developing countries. (
  • This makes the optimal age for vaccination even younger, since adolescents should ideally receive a preventive AIDS vaccine before they become sexually active. (
  • Results from HPV and HBV vaccine trials also give researchers good reason to be optimistic that adolescents may respond even better to vaccination than adults. (
  • However, given the need for potent cross-clade humoral and T-cell immunity for protection against HIV, and the uncertainty surrounding the efficacy of protein subunit vaccines, it is most likely that plant-made HIV vaccines will find their niche as booster immunizations in prime-boost vaccination schedules. (
  • discuss the history of polio globally and the United States, outline the current investigation and response to the case of paralytic polio New York, describe how to recognize, diagnose, and report suspected paralytic polio cases in the United States, and distinguish the differences between inactivated polio vaccine and oral polio vaccine and the importance of maintaining high polio vaccination coverage. (
  • understand the history of polio in the U.S. and globally, describe polioviruses, understand the incubation period and transmission of poliovirus, and understand the impact of polio vaccination and the different types of vaccine. (
  • CDC recommends annual influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older with any flu vaccine licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that is appropriate for the recipient's age and health status. (
  • Should pro-vaccine parents engage in the anti-vaccination debate? (
  • Defining surrogate serologic tests with respect to predicting protective vaccine efficacy: Poliovirus vaccination. (
  • Initial data with showed effectiveness of full vaccination with monoclonal vaccines in older adults to prevent hospitalization was estimated for the period between February through April 2021. (
  • During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination ( Table 1 ). (
  • HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years ( 1 ). (
  • This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use. (
  • The third approach attempted to detect seroconversion to AIDS virus antibodies in paired sera of HB vaccine recipients. (
  • Scientists from Scripps Research Institute on Thursday announced they have discovered and isolated two antibodies "with the ability to neutralize [or block the action of] many strains of the AIDS virus, a discovery that might help create a long-sought vaccine against the deadly disease," Bloomberg reports. (
  • Though "[t]he antibodies are produced naturally by a minority of people infected with HIV," scientists "believe they can create an effective vaccine if they are able to stimulate the body to produce such … antibodies before exposure to HIV," Agence France-Presse writes (9/3). (
  • Researchers now have to work out how these antibodies bind to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, and use that property as the basis for a vaccine. (
  • If an AIDS vaccine could elicit antibodies of this type, it might protect people from the many different circulating varieties of HIV. (
  • Some people infected with HIV naturally produce antibodies that effectively neutralize many strains of the rapidly mutating virus, and scientists are working to develop a vaccine capable of inducing such "broadly neutralizing" antibodies that can prevent HIV infection. (
  • An emerging vaccine strategy involves immunizing people with a series of different engineered HIV proteins as immunogens to teach the immune system to produce broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV. (
  • The scientists noted, however, that the levels of obtained antibodies were relatively low, and that a vaccine that would require multiple injections would be difficult to implement in humans. (
  • indicate that the modRNA-LNP platform could improve the elicitation of neutralizing antibodies against HIV (used herein interchangeably with HIV-1 , the causative agent for AIDS). (
  • Examining these structures has allowed them to reverse engineer molecules that specifically activate the precursors of effective, neutralizing antibodies against the virus - molecules that may be components of a future vaccine against HIV. (
  • In studies with mice, two injections of the VLP-forming mRNA vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in all animals, the investigators report. (
  • In addition to neutralizing antibodies, the VLP mRNA vaccine also induced a robust helper T-cell response. (
  • To design a successful HIV vaccine that elicits protective antibodies and induces long-term protective immunity, we propose integrated efforts focused on three areas. (
  • Focus on broadly neutralizing antibodies is strong as they have proven to be protective in robust non-human primate models and because some non-neutralizing antibodies may have protective qualities that might be exploited in vaccine discovery. (
  • South Korea previously offered to send vaccines and other medical aid to the North to help it deal with its coronavirus outbreak. (
  • The New York Times has published a coronavirus vaccine tracker that shows the progress of the more than 165 vaccines in development, and the 30 that are in human trials. (
  • The coronavirus pandemic has forced researchers to condense years of research and testing into a shorter time frame, with the goal to produce a safe and effective vaccine by 2021. (
  • Their vaccine is protein-based, which means it takes a coronavirus protein and uses it to create the immune response. (
  • The New York Times says that "in June, the F.D.A. said that a coronavirus vaccine would have to protect at least 50% of vaccinated people to be considered effective. (
  • However, instead of carrying mRNA instructions for the coronavirus spike protein, the vaccine delivers coded instructions for making two key HIV proteins, Env and Gag. (
  • Republicans who run the Legislature's budget committee used a forum with Wisconsin's superintendent of schools Tuesday to criticize federal school aid payments during the coronavirus pandemic, suggesting it could play a role in the education budget they pass later this year. (
  • African AIDS Vaccine Programme. (
  • Browsing Publications by Author "African AIDS Vaccine Programme. (
  • The findings themselves are an exciting advance toward the goal of an effective AIDS vaccine because now we've got a new, potentially better target on HIV to focus our efforts for vaccine design," said Wayne Koff of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, the group which sponsored the study, Reuters reports (Fox, 9/3). (
  • The findings by scientists from The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI), the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) and the La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology were published in Science on March 25. (
  • The work was funded by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Neutralizing Antibody Center, the Scripps Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (one of the National Institutes of Health). (
  • The editors were careful to include chapters on important nonscientific aspects of HIV vaccine development, such as clinical site development, regulatory issues, scale-up, and manufacturing. (
  • We started planning this back in April when we got involved with the clinical trials (of vaccines)," said Wes. (
  • FDA approval for human clinical trials is an extremely significant milestone for our vaccine, which has the potential to save the lives of millions of people around the world by preventing HIV infection," said Kang, whose lab has spent 10 years developing the vaccine. (
  • If the SAV001 vaccine is found to be safe, it would require two more clinical trials that prove it works before it could be brought to market. (
  • The SAV001 is not the first experimental HIV vaccine to show promise in pre-clinical testing. (
  • He is a Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, and medical advisor to the Elizabeth Taylor AIDS Foundation and the Global AIDS Interfaith Alliance (GAIA). (
  • He has been involved in community engagement for over 18 years, supporting the MUL Masaka research site to conduct a wide range of community-based bio-medical research, including HIV vaccine clinical trials. (
  • Using a new technique, we were able to show-well in advance of clinical trials-that most humans actually have the right B cells that will bind to this vaccine candidate. (
  • The work offers encouraging insights for a planned Phase 1 clinical trial to test a nanoparticle version of the engineered HIV vaccine protein, the "eOD-GT8 60mer. (
  • This method is a valuable tool in the design of more targeted and effective vaccines against AIDS, providing the ability to vet germline-targeting immunogens before testing them in large, time-consuming and costly clinical trials. (
  • This promising improved vaccine may now enter clinical trials for it to be assessed for effectiveness. (
  • After preclinical evaluations, DNA has entered clinical trials for a therapeutic or prophylactic gene-based AIDS vaccine. (
  • NIH-supported research efforts include two late-stage, multinational vaccine clinical trials called Imbokodo and Mosaico , both key components to the NIAID's approach towards HIV vaccine development . (
  • We will only pursue development and clinical testing of vaccines that elicit bnAbs under physiological conditions relevant to humans. (
  • mRNA vaccines didn't reveal such side effects in clinical tests, but these cases appeared only after administering millions of injections. (
  • HIV researchers around the globe are regrouping after this week's announcement that a promising new vaccine had failed a critical test, shutting down a major clinical trial in South Africa two years before it was scheduled to end. (
  • Its findings were a surprise when they came out in 2009, because the Thai vaccine was a combination of two vaccine candidates that had failed in prior clinical trials. (
  • HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) Executive Director, James Kublin, MD, MPH, lead a one-day training on 3 October 2014, in Harare, aimed at orienting Zimbabwe national regulators to the work of the HVTN, the P5 Initiative in Southern Africa, and Phase I clinical trials the network is planning for implementation in the region. (
  • Globally, at least 12 vaccines are approved for full use, more than 20 vaccines are authorized for early or limited use, and as of Fall 2022, 42 vaccines were in phase 3 clinical trials. (
  • From October 2013 to February 2015, the ACIP HPV Vaccine Work Group reviewed clinical trial data assessing the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of 9vHPV, modeling data on cost-effectiveness of 9vHPV, and data on burden of type-specific HPV-associated disease in the United States. (
  • The purpose of this review is to share the excitement of new developments in the field of vaccine vector modalities against infectious diseases. (
  • For more complex diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), malaria, cancers, autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases, vaccine development requires a much greater understanding of the principles and pathways towards effective immunity. (
  • This achievement could lead to more effective vaccines for a broad range of human diseases and also--because the same organism is used in immunotherapy for bladder cancer--to safer, more effective cancer therapy. (
  • The new Whitehead study represents the first systematic effort to determine which mammalian growth factors might be most suitable for a new BCG recombinant vaccine for tuberculosis and other diseases. (
  • If we could make these responses stronger, we might have more effective vaccines for a variety of diseases, including AIDS. (
  • AIDS makes the person vulnerable to diseases that are otherwise well controlled by the immune system. (
  • This experimental mRNA vaccine combines several features that could overcome the failures of other experimental HIV vaccines, and therefore represents a promising approach," added the director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAD). (
  • According to information from the National Institute for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), for which Dr. Anthony Fauci serves as Director, HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) causes AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) and can be transmitted during sexual intercourse, by sharing syringes, or perinatally during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. (
  • An ongoing dialogue on HIV/AIDS, infectious diseases, all matters medical, and some not so medical. (
  • For most vaccines this is in infants, who are susceptible to many diseases that they would normally catch during early childhood. (
  • As 2014 draws to a close, one theme that has been continuously present is the importance of a strong public health infrastructure in a country to effectively protect against vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). (
  • This scenario had been located in a hypothetical Dixon Tiller County, U.S.A., and was used as a teaching aid regarding the prevention of vaccine preventable diseases. (
  • Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. (
  • August is National Immunization Awareness Month, which brings attention to the value of protecting yourself and your family from vaccine-preventable diseases like chickenpox and the flu. (
  • Vaccines help control and sometimes get rid of diseases like measles or polio that in years past sickened or killed many people. (
  • Vaccine research is a priority for the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (
  • Vaccines help control and sometimes get rid of diseases like measles or polio. (
  • AIDS 2022 - Will mRNA technology be able to deliver an HIV vaccine? (
  • These FDA-licensed vaccine products are available in the United States for the 2021-2022 flu season. (
  • This is the only LAIV nasal spray vaccine available for use during the 2021-2022 season. (
  • This is the only cell-based inactivated influenza vaccine that has been licensed by the FDA for using during the 2021-2022 flu season. (
  • Taking into account diminished VE, new bivalent mRNA vaccine boosters were authorized in Fall 2022 containing Omicron BA.4/BA.5 components. (
  • In March 2021, Congress appropriated $1 billion U.S. tax dollars for the Secretary of Health and Human Services to spend on activities to "strengthen vaccine confidence in the United States," with $3 billion set aside for the CDC to fund "support and outreach efforts" in states through community-based organizations and trusted leaders. (
  • One way to think about this, as evident from our comparison table below, is that in 2018, China effectively put both a target but also an upper limit on aid and loans to African countries at $15 billion - this is the part of the overall 2018 $60 billion commitment that is now "missing" in 2021. (
  • To commemorate the 33rd World AIDS Day, on December 1, 2021, Treatment Action Group in collaboration with the HIV Vaccine Trials Network, Southern AIDS Coalition, and Black AIDS Institute held this webinar to reflect on the past and celebrate the many successes and innovations in biomedical research that help to shape the prevention landscape for community members, people living with HIV, advocates, and researchers. (
  • and (3) look for serologic markers of infection from the AIDS virus in vaccine recipients. (
  • WHO-IFPMA Working Group on the Development, Testing, Utilization and Supply of Drugs and Vaccines for HIV Infection and HIV-related Disease. (
  • TORONTO -- Canadian researchers have been given the green light for human testing of an experimental HIV vaccine, but the initial trial will determine only its safety, not whether it prevents infection. (
  • The first monkey trials of rubella/Gag vectors showed vaccine potency: antibody titers to the vectors were as high as to natural infection with SIV. (
  • The experimental infection of rhesus macaques with SIV or chimeric SHIV is routinely used as a model for AIDS. (
  • There Is No Vaccine to Prevent or Treat HIV Infection. (
  • US-supported states that there is currently no vaccine available that will prevent HIV infection or treat those who have it. (
  • eveloping safe, effective, and affordable vaccines that can prevent HIV infection is the NIH's highest HIV research priority given its game-changing potential for controlling and ultimately ending the HIV/AIDS pandemic. (
  • If those experiments go well, he said, further studies will examine whether it can protect animals against infection, and human trials for safety and vaccine efficacy would be next - though it may be years before those results are known. (
  • While designing a vaccine against any pathogen is a long, hard process, HIV has been particularly difficult, and despite decades of efforts and hundreds of millions of dollars spent in the process, we still do not yet have an effective vaccine that can prevent infection. (
  • Findings from this AIDS research could boost the development of vaccines that will thwart infection by targeting and crippling the sticky HIV-1 spike proteins. (
  • Until now, despite intensive study by many laboratories, the design details of the spikes and their distribution pattern on the surface of the virus membrane have been poorly understood, which has limited our understanding of how the virus infection actually occurs and frustrated efforts to create vaccines,' Roux said. (
  • Around the world and here in the United States, HIV infection rates are on the rise again, especially in younger people," says Todd Wiggins, the founder of Action Cycling Atlanta and its first AIDS Vaccine ride in 2003. (
  • Then the infection will progress to AIDS. (
  • However many had the misconception that "HIV/AIDS does not influence Iran" and "I will not be infected with HIV/AIDS under any conditions" and 63.6% agreed that lack of religious and moral commitment could spread AIDS infection. (
  • Rhesus macaques receiving a priming vaccine followed by multiple booster inoculations had a 79% lower per-exposure risk of infection by simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) compared to unvaccinated animals. (
  • The goal of the trial, designated HVTN 702 and known as Uhambo, was to test in South Africa the improved version of the Thai vaccine, which remains the only one ever shown to reduce HIV infection rates. (
  • When you get a vaccine, it sparks your immune system to create immune responses that help your body fight off infection. (
  • NaturalNews) Representing the seventh round of cases successfully treated since 2007, 68 people were recently discharged from Gambia's Presidential Alternative Medical Treatment Programme (PAMTP) after reportedly being cured of either HIV or AIDS. (
  • To register to receive the vaccine, visit , or call the Health Department at (215) 685-5488. (
  • Then there is phase 2, expanded trials, where hundreds of people receive the vaccine, in groups to see if there is a different response depending on the age group. (
  • Then the vaccine progresses to phase 3, efficacy trials, where thousands of people receive the vaccine, and researchers see how many become infected. (
  • Out of the 4,913 school-aged children eligible to receive the vaccine, only 317 are fully vaccinated. (
  • Many successful vaccines are based on live attenuated (weakened) versions of the parental virus. (
  • Live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is a nasal spray that can be given to non-pregnant people 2 through 49 years of age. (
  • Also known as live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV), this nasal spray contains live viruses. (
  • FDA approved this live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) nasal spray vaccine for persons 2 through 49 years of age. (
  • Conventional vaccines such as live attenuated and killed virus fail against the highly variable and evasive HIV. (
  • Inactivated and trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines contain either formalin- inactivated or live, attenuated poliovirus, respectively, of the three serotypes. (
  • Recommendations to assure the quality, safety and efficacy of live attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine (oral). (
  • A leader from Praxis explains how the firm worked with Moderna on patient recruitment strategy and other solutions in the road to launching a vaccine. (
  • [ 1 ] Two mRNA monoclonal vaccines (Comirnaty by Pfizer and Spikevax by Moderna) gained full approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (
  • As it became apparent that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine stood the best chance of being the first vaccine to gain approval from the FDA and similar agencies around the world, the picture began to became clearer. (
  • In the future, this work may aid the development of much needed drugs and vaccines against RVFV. (
  • These organizations, collaborations, and researchers are attempting to better organize the human and technical resources needed to challenge this formidable foe on the scale of the Manhattan Project or the March of Dimes search for a polio vaccine. (
  • The final nail is in the coffin for the now largely refuted theory that the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) crossed into humans as a result of contamination of oral polio vaccine (OPV), according to a new study. (
  • Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, the Partnership for AIDS Vaccine Evaluation, and the Center for HIV-AIDS Vaccine Immunology). (
  • She is a member of the Advisory Group of the IAS Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise. (
  • We are using two proven strategies for increasing vaccine potency: the first is to present HIV antigens as part of a virus-like particle (VLP). (
  • The experience with HIV vaccine antigens will provide CBER with the expertise it needs to evaluate proposed HIV vaccines and anticipate their likely side effects. (
  • mRNA/modRNA vaccines represent attractive options because they can be relatively rapidly designed against various pathogen antigens and manufactured at scale. (
  • Pilot studies by a number of groups have demonstrated that plant viral expression systems can produce HIV antigens in quantities that are appropriate for use in vaccines. (
  • Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS . (
  • Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced. (
  • Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. (
  • Despite the enormous success of drug treatment, vaccines remain the best solution and likely a necessary component of any package that truly ends the AIDS epidemic. (
  • To stop the epidemic and related health inequities by eliminating new infections, maximizing healthier outcomes for those infected and at risk, and tackling the root causes of HIV/AIDS. (
  • There are multiple genetic variants of HIV-1 driving the epidemic in the region and too few vaccine candidates in the pipeline targeting those subtypes. (
  • The epidemic is becoming more youth-driven," says Linda-Gail Bekker of the Desmond Tutu HIV Centre in Cape Town, who is preparing for AIDS vaccine trials involving adolescents in South Africa. (
  • AIDS Czar Kristine Gebbie describes her efforts to control the epidemic and prevent future spread of the disease. (
  • Mary Fisher of the National Commission on AIDS describes her mission to communicate the urgency of the AIDS epidemic. (
  • There are no vaccines or treatments available for use in humans so if there is a serious outbreak of the virus it could become an epidemic and cause great economic loss and severe human disease. (
  • A pioneering virologist who has led HIV/AIDS research on treatments and vaccines since the early days of the epidemic, Corey is also president and director emeritus of Fred Hutch. (
  • Rite Aid said it still recommends scheduling an appointment, but it will now make a limited number of shots available for walk-in customers. (
  • Rite Aid Chief Operating Officer Jim Peters said the announcement is another positive step. (
  • If traveling to Hawaii, please note that Rite Aid and Bartell Drugs are not currently among the approved partners for testing before traveling to Hawaii. (
  • On the day of your Test be sure to bring your government-issued ID Card like a license drive for the drive-through at your selected rite aid testing location, a Rite Aid pharmacist will greet you and confirm your appointment and identity they'll place a testing kit through the window of the drive-through then they'll walk you through the test. (
  • Does Rite Aid doing anything to keep their customers safe? (
  • During this unprecedented crisis, we have taken several additional precautions to continue to serve Rite Aid customers when they are most in need of Rite Aid help. (
  • of the Rite Aid stores, pharmacies, and distribution centers comply with CDC guidelines to prevent the spread of the virus. (
  • You are leaving the main Rite Aid website to visit our photo site. (
  • Rite Aid Rewards is not valid on photo purchases. (
  • In fact, some 60% of Power Africa financial aid goes to relatively wealthy Nigeria and South Africa, not the numerous really poor countries - and countries receiving funds for wind and solar are not getting money for gas-fired power. (
  • Dr. Larry Corey is principal investigator for the Hutch-based HIV Vaccine Trials Network, which carried out the study of the Uhambo vaccine in South Africa. (
  • The deeply disappointing findings were sobering news for researchers at Seattle's Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, which leads the HIV Vaccine Trials Network , or HVTN, which coordinated the trials with partners in South Africa. (
  • a key question for HIV-1 vaccine development is whether the immunogenicity of mRNA vaccines encoding HIV-1 immunogens, a poorly immunogenic protein that requires extensive post-translational modifications, is comparable to that of proteins that can be purified after in vitro production. (
  • Safety and immunogenicity of a polyvalent peptide C4-V3 HIV vaccine in conjunction with IL-12. (
  • While some prevention successes have been attained (e.g., screening of the blood supply in industrialized countries), a safe and effective vaccine-the "holy grail" of public health prevention-remains elusive. (
  • The Economist examines how despite gains in HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention, years of research has brought "the field no nearer to what is really neededâ€"a vaccine that will stop people getting infected in the first place. (
  • As an HIV/AIDS researcher, he has been involved in the scientific effort since AIDS was recognized in 1981, conducting pivotal studies that underpin the current understanding of the disease and efforts to develop therapies and tools of prevention. (
  • Prevention is key to the strategy to fighting AIDS, but it's clearly not going to work with everybody everywhere, so research for an AIDS vaccine has to be a prominent part of the overall strategy," he continues. (
  • Prevention and treatment, yes, but a vaccine is the only way we're ever going to see an end to this thing. (
  • Refinement and development of existing and new prevention and treatment technologies--including safe, effective, and accessible AIDS vaccines--are urgent public health priorities. (
  • Is there a role for plant-made vaccines in the prevention of HIV/AIDS? (
  • This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS prevention of a random sample of prisoners in 5 prisons in Mazandaran province. (
  • HIV/AIDS prevention efforts are needed for prisoners in Mazandaran province. (
  • Reducing HIV incidence , as well as prevalence and AIDS -related mortality , in these high- risk fishing communities in Uganda is attainable over 15 years with a combination prevention package. (
  • Since its inception in 1994, our studies have helped to shape national and global responses to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and have defined policies and standards regarding the course of HIV acquisition, prevention, treatment, and care. (
  • Early in this century, researchers in France demonstrated that a weakened strain of the bacterium responsible for cow tuberculosis could provide some protection against human TB when administered as a vaccine. (
  • The large efficacy trials for the HPV vaccine involved thousands of adolescent (age 12-18) and pre-adolescent girls, and many researchers are closely monitoring the acceptance and inclusion of this new vaccine into immunization programs to help gauge the response to vaccines still in development that aim to prevent other sexually-transmitted infections, including HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2. (
  • In my opinion killed virus and subunit vaccines are more appropriate for your cat's circumstances. (
  • Detailed analysis and understanding of immune responses in humans will be crucial to iterative vaccine design improvements. (
  • According to the Joint UN Program on AIDS (UNAIDS), an estimated 4.9 million adults and children are living with HIV in Asia and the Pacific. (
  • Our projected intervention coverage levels are well within the national targets set by the Uganda government and enable coming close to reaching the UNAIDS 95-95-95 targets to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. (
  • Apresenta o Relatório sobre o Acesso Universal ao HIV/AIDS, publicado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), o Fundo de Nações Unidas para a Infância (UNICEF) e o Programa Conjunto das Nações Unidas sobre o HIV/Aids (UNAIDS). (
  • In December, the clinic began enrolling about 120 local men in its portion of the HIV Vaccine Trials Network Lifeforward Study , which is testing a preventative vaccine on 1,350 men in 12 U.S. cities. (
  • UZCHS-CTU's Seke South CRS has been officially selected as a protocol specific site by the US National Institutes of Health's HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). (
  • Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation. (
  • The vaccine contained no detectable AIDS virus-related sequences at a sensitivity of less than one picogram of DNA per 20-ug dose of vaccine. (
  • Following at least half a year of negotiations, the DAC seemed to agree on a price per vaccine of US$6.72 per dose. (
  • Firstly, so far the DAC has failed to put in place strong ODA-eligibility criteria for vaccine dose donations. (
  • They will also work closely with those same facilities to ensure a seamless second-dose process, and to provide vaccines to new residents and staff upon their arrival over the next several months. (
  • Vaccine efficacy (VE) was shown to wane over time following an initial 2-dose primary series with the mRNA vaccines and the 1-dose regimen with the Janssen vaccine. (
  • People aged ≥ 65 years who received 1 dose of a vaccine have the option to receive 1 additional dose at least 4 months after the first bivalent dose. (
  • Despite advances in recombinant DNA technology, only a handful of recombinant vaccines have been approved so far, and these are particle formers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) assembles 22 nm particles with a strong lipid component. (
  • Vaccines are designed to help the immune system organize and prepare for exposure to disease. (
  • Designing an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is something of a paradox: a good vaccine would be safe and look enough like HIV to kick-start the immune system into neutralizing the virus - but the problem is that this is exactly what the human immune system has trouble doing even when it's exposed to the real thing. (
  • The details of the vaccine regimen differed among subgroups of vaccinated animals but involved priming the immune system with a vaccine modified to optimize antibody creation. (
  • The number of HIV vaccine researchers is now increasing, given the support of several organizations (e.g. (
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted approval for researchers at the University of Western Ontario to test the vaccine, which is based on a genetically modified killed whole virus. (
  • To make the vaccine, the researchers start by altering the genetic makeup of the human immunodeficiency virus to make it non-pathogenic - incapable of causing disease - then further inactivate it with chemicals and radiation. (
  • The new work also provides a method for researchers to assess whether other new vaccine proteins can bind their intended precursor B cells. (
  • But before AIDS vaccine trials with promising candidates can be initiated in adolescents, researchers must tackle potentially thorny legal, ethical, and regulatory issues, and make sure they adequately address the concerns of parents about their children participating in research. (
  • Statistics like these are helping to fuel discussions amongst researchers, sponsoring organizations, and regulatory agencies about how and when to test AIDS vaccine candidates in younger volunteers. (
  • It's an excellent model for AIDS vaccine researchers," says Jeffrey Safrit of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation. (
  • The vaccine was able to be made quickly because researchers already constructed an mRNA platform for cancer and other vaccines under trial. (
  • The challenge for vaccine developers is to determine if an immunogen can present a particular viral surface in a way that distinct B cells can be activated, proliferate and be useful," said study co-author Shane Crotty, professor at the La Jolla Institute. (
  • If proven, the preventative vaccine could slow the progression of HIV by decreasing the viral load of people already infected. (
  • Agência fundada em 1992, sediada em Paris, que desenvolve pesquisas relacionadas à Aids e à hepatite viral B e C. Disponibiliza acesso a publicações e relatórios, informações sobre saúde púb. (
  • patients with viral loads greater than 30,000/mL are 18.5 times more likely to die of AIDS than those with undetectable viral loads. (
  • New combination vaccines should induce similar or superior levels of neutralizing antibody in serum for individual protection against paralytic disease and mucosal immunity that effectively decreases viral replication in the intestine and pharynx for population protection against transmission of poliovirus. (
  • Two other monoclonal vaccines, a viral vector vaccine (Janssen) and an adjuvanted protein subunit vaccine (Novavax), were granted emergency use approval (EUA) in the United States. (
  • We worked with Pfizer and 8 of the 10 vaccines in development," said Kate. (
  • In contrast, development of HIV-1 vaccines has been extremely difficult. (
  • This ongoing process of vaccine development and refinement relies on #animalresearch and as such can be labelled #MPAR. (
  • These vaccines were never purchased for development purposes and both Eurodad and our partners have been saying for months that they should not not be counted as such. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Expanding research capacity and accelerating AIDS vaccine development in Asia. (
  • The Asian region faces several challenges for AIDS vaccine development. (
  • In a document issued in May 2006 ( Development of Preventive HIV Vaccines for Use in Pediatric Populations ) the agency provided vaccine trial sponsors with direction on the requirements for licensure in adolescent populations. (
  • co-chaired by Susan Buchbinder, US, and Georgia Tomaras, US, experts discussed the similarities and differences between HIV and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine development and how the renewed interest in exploiting the technology for the former-owing to its success in combatting. (
  • Novavax has also been selected to participate in Operation Warp Speed and has been awarded $1.6 billion to aid in vaccine development. (
  • Our overall mission is to define immunogens and immunization regimens that can guide product development strategies for a preventive human AIDS vaccine. (
  • Learn more about the Scripps Consortium for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Development and our scientific advances. (
  • However, the Novavax vaccine leverages the older vaccine development techniques , where the injection introduces the protein and not the genetic recipe. (
  • The HVTN's mission is to facilitate the process of testing preventative vaccines against HIV/AIDS and is a global leader in vaccine development. (
  • WHO would also like to thank the Government of Ireland (Irish Aid), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) of USAID for their continued support in the development of these documents. (
  • A research team has now found that the right precursor ("germline") cells for one kind of HIV broadly neutralizing antibody are present in most people, and has described the design of an HIV vaccine germline-targeting immunogen capable of binding those B cells. (
  • Too much inflammation and Antibody production causes AIDS. (
  • Their results, published in Nature Medicine , show that the novel vaccine was safe and prompted desired antibody and cellular immune responses against an HIV-like virus. (
  • Dr Fauci has been a key advisor to six U.S. Presidents and their administrations on global AIDS issues and initiatives to bolster medical and public health preparedness against emerging infectious disease threats, such as pandemic influenza. (
  • Clawing back any unspent funds from the trillions that Washington flooded the economy with during the pandemic is an obvious starting place for any debt ceiling discussion," said Tim Reitz, executive director of the House Freedom Caucus, one of several Republican groups that has said the remaining aid should be canceled. (
  • Progress in these areas will help guarantee that an effective AIDS vaccine, when available, will reach both adult and adolescent populations as quickly as possible, offering the greatest chance for curbing the pandemic. (
  • Although educational programs have had some impact, immunization against HIV will be necessary to control the AIDS pandemic. (
  • An HIV vaccine is essential to end the global pandemic, and we hoped this vaccine candidate would work. (
  • Ethical considerations in HIV preventive vaccine research. (
  • Hence, it is necessary to develop targeted strategies to boost vaccine uptake among this vulnerable population. (
  • We have spent months strategising with Operation Warp Speed officials and our healthcare customers about efficient vaccine logistics, and the time has come to put the plan into action. (
  • We are honored to partner with Operation Warp Speed to move our vaccine candidate forward with extraordinary urgency in the quest to provide vital protection to our nation's population," said Stanley C. Erck, President and Chief Executive Officer of Novavax. (
  • The Whitehead scientists will also begin to hone in on the ideal genetic make-up of an improved TB vaccine for human beings. (
  • The vaccine works by delivering genetic instructions to the body, which results in the formation of two types of proteins characteristic of the virus. (
  • These vaccines inject the genetic recipe into the body cells, and those cells, in turn, produce the protein so that our immunity can fight the disease. (
  • Recent studies have provided important additional assurances concerning the safety of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. (
  • The vaccine currently licensed in the United States is produced from pooled plasma of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive individuals, some of whom are also in high-risk groups for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • A vaccine against hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the only one to target this age group until a vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV) was recently licensed by the FDA for girls aged 9 to 26 (see February 2006 Spotlight article, Cervical cancer vaccines ). (
  • Other vaccines that combine DTP and/or Haemophilus influenzae type b and/or hepatitis B with IPV appear feasible but require further investigation. (
  • Other vaccines that use the same model as Novavax include diphtheria toxoid vaccines, tetanus toxoid vaccines, the hepatitis B virus, and others. (
  • Attitudes about human papillomavirus vaccine in young women. (
  • The Env proteins produced in the mice from the mRNA instructions closely resembled those in the whole virus, an improvement over previous experimental HIV vaccines. (
  • So, the main difference is that this vaccine uses proteins made outside the body and injects them into the system to aid immunity. (
  • These include at least the HIV-1-derived immunogens, their delivery, vaccine formulation and immunomodulation [11▪,12,13] . (
  • The vaccine elicited a strong T cell response to SIV Gag protein. (
  • It is remarkable that protein design can be so specific as to 'find' one in a million cells, demonstrating the feasibility of this new vaccine strategy. (
  • As the world marks the 25th year since the first diagnosed case of AIDS, groundbreaking research by scientists at Florida State University has produced remarkable three-dimensional images of the virus and the protein spikes on its surface that allow it to bind and fuse with human immune cells. (
  • Traditional vaccines revolved around injecting part of the pathogen, such as a protein or sugar, to induce an immune response. (
  • It is unclear what change this new vaccine can bring about, but the makers promote it as a traditional protein-style vaccine. (
  • Yet, Syrian refugees in the country report highest numbers of hesitancy in taking the vaccine shots - 71% according to our latest findings. (
  • Despite nearly four decades of efforts by the global scientific community, finding an effective HIV vaccine remains an elusive goal," immunologist Anthony Fauci, co-author of the study and a House of Representatives adviser, said in a statement. (
  • Despite nearly four decades of effort by the global research community, an effective vaccine to prevent HIV remains an elusive goal," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., chief of the Laboratory and a paper co-author. (
  • Since that study, millions of people have died from HIV/AIDS globally. (
  • Hopefully implementation data from UK will soon increase confidence in what I hope will still be an important globally accessible vaccine. (
  • In fact, said principal investigator and FSU Professor Kenneth H. Roux, at least two laboratories already are crafting vaccine candidates based on preliminary results uncovered by his team of structural biologists. (
  • This vaccine also contains immune stimulants like adjuvant. (
  • In addition, the vaccine used a different adjuvant, an ingredient designed to stir the immune response. (
  • Our laboratory is working to solve some of the difficult problems facing scientists who are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • Thus scientists need to stay vigilant and to regularly obtain scientific information on how vaccines could be updated to help the body to fight off viruses. (
  • By understanding how the vaccine works and how it can be modified to be more effective against SIV in monkeys, the scientists obtained evidence suggesting it is likely to be highly effective with HIV, also establishing the scientific bridge to humans along the way by modifying the vaccine in ways needed to be effective against HIV. (
  • Making an HIV vaccine is a difficult and complex task that has eluded scientists for more than 35 years. (
  • It works like a giant microscope, harnessing the power of electrons to produce bright light that scientists can use to study anything from fossils to jet engines to viruses and vaccines. (
  • BCG vaccines have a long record of safe use, but their reported efficacy varies tremendously," said Dr. Murray, the Whitehead postdoctoral fellow who is first author of the PNAS paper. (
  • That is, is the vaccine safe, and is it effective? (
  • Vaccine availability is improving every day, and our pharmacists are ready to administer vaccines safely and efficiently, providing the benefits of pharmacist-administered vaccines in a safe and sterile environment right in your neighborhood. (
  • Wealthy nations also would provide funding to pharmaceutical companies when they produce safe and effective vaccines, and drug makers would sell the vaccines at reduced prices in developing countries when G8 nations have provided the promised amount. (
  • Everybody should go with that vaccine as long as it's safe and effective. (
  • There are safe vaccines that can help reduce the risk from flu and its potentially serious complications. (
  • As the New York Times outlines, there are specific phases a vaccine needs to go through in order to be deemed safe for the public. (
  • DSMBs periodically monitor such large-scale trials to see if the vaccine is safe and effective. (
  • On January 23, they found that while the vaccine was perfectly safe, it was not working. (
  • Research continues on other approaches to a safe and effective HIV vaccine, which I still believe can be achieved. (
  • Epidemiologic approaches to detect an association between HB vaccine and AIDS have included analysis of data on AIDS cases reported to CDC concerning their receipt of HB vaccine and monitoring rates of AIDS in groups of homosexually active men who did or did not receive HB vaccine in the vaccine trials conducted by CDC in Denver, Colorado, and San Francisco, California. (
  • Vaccine approaches against AIDS have focused on inducing cellular immune responses, since many studies revealed the role of T cell responses in the control of human immunodeficiency virus or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections. (