AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Rotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.HIV Envelope Protein gp160: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Genes, env: DNA sequences that form the coding region for the viral envelope (env) proteins in retroviruses. The env genes contain a cis-acting RNA target sequence for the rev protein (= GENE PRODUCTS, REV), termed the rev-responsive element (RRE).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Gene Products, nef: Products of the retroviral NEF GENE. They play a role as accessory proteins that influence the rate of viral infectivity and the destruction of the host immune system. nef gene products were originally found as factors that trans-suppress viral replication and function as negative regulators of transcription. nef stands for negative factor.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Staphylococcal VaccinesDiphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.West Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Tetanus ToxoidHerpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.SqualenePhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Pseudorabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.United StatesProtozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Vaccines, Marker: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.Haemophilus influenzae type b: A type of H. influenzae isolated most frequently from biotype I. Prior to vaccine availability, it was a leading cause of childhood meningitis.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neisseria meningitidis, Serogroup B: Strains of Neisseria meningitidis which are the most common ones causing infections or disease in infants. Serogroup B strains are isolated most frequently in sporadic cases, and are less common in outbreaks and epidemics.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Pseudomonas Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat PSEUDOMONAS INFECTIONS.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)

Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals immunized with HIV-1 rgp120 or rgp160 compared with nonimmunized and uninfected controls. (1/1614)

The proliferative responses to a series of peptides constituting the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 sequence were evaluated in 19 HIV-1-infected rgp160 vaccine recipients, 17 HIV-1-infected rgp120 vaccine recipients, 15 HIV-1-infected placebo recipients, and 18 HIV-1-uninfected controls. Many regions of the gp120 molecule were found to contribute proliferative epitopes, although there were clearly regions of relative dominance and silence. Vaccine recipients tended to have broader, more robust, and more frequent peptide recognition than the placebo recipients. Despite the considerable variability in the pattern of peptide recognition among individuals, there was a striking similarity between the rgp160 and rgp120 vaccinee groups as a whole. Low-risk HIV-1-uninfected individuals may react to a few peptides within the gp120 sequence as well, despite a lack of significant response to the whole gp120 protein.  (+info)

Comparison of immunity generated by nucleic acid-, MF59-, and ISCOM-formulated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccines in Rhesus macaques: evidence for viral clearance. (2/1614)

The kinetics of T-helper immune responses generated in 16 mature outbred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) within a 10-month period by three different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine strategies were compared. Immune responses to monomeric recombinant gp120SF2 (rgp120) when the protein was expressed in vivo by DNA immunization or when it was delivered as a subunit protein vaccine formulated either with the MF59 adjuvant or by incorporation into immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) were compared. Virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA) against HIV-1SF2 reached similar titers in the two rgp120SF2 protein-immunized groups, but the responses showed different kinetics, while NA were delayed and their levels were low in the DNA-immunized animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) T-helper (type 1-like) responses were detected in the DNA-immunized group, but only after the fourth immunization, and the rgp120/MF59 group generated both IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (type 2-like) responses that appeared after the third immunization. In contrast, rgp120/ISCOM-immunized animals rapidly developed marked IL-2, IFN-gamma (type 1-like), and IL-4 responses that peaked after the second immunization. To determine which type of immune responses correlated with protection from infection, all animals were challenged intravenously with 50 50% infective doses of a rhesus cell-propagated, in vivo-titrated stock of a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-HIVSF13 construct. Protection was observed in the two groups receiving the rgp120 subunit vaccines. Half of the animals in the ISCOM group were completely protected from infection. In other subunit vaccinees there was evidence by multiple assays that virus detected at 2 weeks postchallenge was effectively cleared. Early induction of potent type 1- as well as type 2-like T-helper responses induced the most-effective immunity.  (+info)

Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 modulates beta-chemokines and directly costimulates T cells in vivo. (3/1614)

The potential roles of adhesion molecules in the expansion of T cell-mediated immune responses in the periphery were examined using DNA immunogen constructs as model antigens. We coimmunized cDNA expression cassettes encoding the adhesion molecules intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), lymphocyte function associated-3 (LFA-3), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) along with DNA immunogens, and we analyzed the resulting antigen-specific immune responses. We observed that antigen-specific T-cell responses can be enhanced by the coexpression of DNA immunogen and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Coexpression of ICAM-1 or LFA-3 molecules along with DNA immunogens resulted in a significant enhancement of T-helper cell proliferative responses. In addition, coimmunization with pCICAM-1 (and more moderately with pCLFA-3) resulted in a dramatic enhancement of CD8-restricted cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. Although VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 are similar in size, VCAM-1 coimmunization did not have any measurable effect on cell-mediated responses. These results suggest that ICAM-1 and LFA-3 provide direct T-cell costimulation. These observations are further supported by the finding that coinjection with ICAM-1 dramatically enhanced the level of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and beta-chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha), MIP-1beta, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expression and secreted (RANTES) produced by stimulated T cells. Through comparative studies, we observed that ICAM-1/LFA-1 T-cell costimulatory pathways are independent of CD86/CD28 pathways and that they may synergistically expand T-cell responses in vivo.  (+info)

Rectal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to chimpanzees. (4/1614)

Inoculation of chimpanzees with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been used as a model system to define mechanisms of pathogenesis and to test protective efficacy of candidate HIV-1 vaccines. In most of these studies, the animals were inoculated intravenously. However, because HIV-1 is transmitted primarily across mucosal surfaces, future evaluations of vaccines should employ mucosal routes for administering infectious virus to immunized animals. To develop a model of rectal transmission of HIV-1, chimpanzees were exposed without trauma to 4 different HIV-1 strains at doses ranging from 200 to 10,000 TCIDs. Infection, characterized by seroconversion and repeated isolation of virus from lymphocytes, was established in 1 of 5 animals. This animal was sequentially inoculated with a subtype B and then an E strain and was infected with both strains. The results show that rectal exposure of adult chimpanzees to cell-free HIV-1 was not an efficient mode of transmission in this cohort.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination strategies for women. (5/1614)

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

Detection of intracellular antigen-specific cytokines in human T cell populations. (6/1614)

Determination of antigen-specific cytokine responses of T lymphocytes after vaccination is made difficult by the low frequency of responder cells. In order to detect these responses, the profile of intracellular cytokines was analyzed using flow cytometry after antigenic expansion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with antigens for 5 days, further expanded with interleukin (IL)-2, and then restimulated on day 10. Cytokine production was detected by intracellular staining with monoclonal antibodies after saponin-based permeabilization. Influenza expansion resulted in specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production of 6%-20%, with less IL-4 production (0%-2%). Tetanus toxoid resulted in even greater production. IL-4 and IFN-gamma were produced mainly by memory cells of the CD45RO+ phenotype. IFN-gamma production was contributed by both CD4 and CD8 populations. These methods were then applied to a clinical trial of a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccine. Antigen-specific increases in IFN-gamma were measured, which corresponded to antibody production, lymphoproliferation, and skin testing.  (+info)

Protection of Macaques against pathogenic simian/human immunodeficiency virus 89.6PD by passive transfer of neutralizing antibodies. (7/1614)

The role of antibody in protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) has been difficult to study in animal models because most primary HIV-1 strains do not infect nonhuman primates. Using a chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) based on the envelope of a primary isolate (HIV-89.6), we performed passive-transfer experiments in rhesus macaques to study the role of anti-envelope antibodies in protection. Based on prior in vitro data showing neutralization synergy by antibody combinations, we evaluated HIV immune globulin (HIVIG), and human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 given alone, compared with the double combination 2F5/2G12 and the triple combination HIVIG/2F5/2G12. Antibodies were administered 24 h prior to intravenous challenge with the pathogenic SHIV-89.6PD. Six control monkeys displayed high plasma viremia, rapid CD4(+)-cell decline, and clinical AIDS within 14 weeks. Of six animals given HIVIG/2F5/2G12, three were completely protected; the remaining three animals became SHIV infected but displayed reduced plasma viremia and near normal CD4(+)-cell counts. One of three monkeys given 2F5/2G12 exhibited only transient evidence of infection; the other two had marked reductions in viral load. All monkeys that received HIVIG, 2F5, or 2G12 alone became infected and developed high-level plasma viremia. However, compared to controls, monkeys that received HIVIG or MAb 2G12 displayed a less profound drop in CD4(+) T cells and a more benign clinical course. These data indicate a general correlation between in vitro neutralization and protection and suggest that a vaccine that elicits neutralizing antibody should have a protective effect against HIV-1 infection or disease.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination overcomes the barrier to recombinant vaccinia immunization caused by preexisting poxvirus immunity. (8/1614)

Overcoming preexisting immunity to vaccinia virus in the adult population is a key requirement for development of otherwise potent recombinant vaccinia vaccines. Based on our observation that s.c. immunization with vaccinia induces cellular and antibody immunity to vaccinia only in systemic lymphoid tissue and not in mucosal sites, we hypothesized that the mucosal immune system remains naive to vaccinia and therefore amenable to immunization with recombinant vaccinia vectors despite earlier vaccinia exposure. We show that mucosal immunization of vaccinia-immune BALB/c mice with recombinant vaccinia expressing HIV gp160 induced specific serum antibody and strong HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. These responses occurred not only in mucosal but also in systemic lymphoid tissue, whereas systemic immunization was ineffective under these circumstances. In this context, intrarectal immunization was more effective than intranasal immunization. Boosting with a second dose of recombinant vaccinia was also more effective via the mucosal route. The systemic HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response was enhanced by coadministration of IL-12 at the mucosal site. These results also demonstrate the independent compartmentalization of the mucosal versus systemic immune systems and the asymmetric trafficking of lymphocytes between them. This approach to circumvent previous vaccinia immunity may be useful for induction of protective immunity against infectious diseases and cancer in the sizable populations with preexisting immunity to vaccinia from smallpox vaccination.  (+info)

Other: Comparator: Placebo to the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine Biological: Monovalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (1x10^9 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^6 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^7 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^8 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^9 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (3x10^10 vp/dose) Biological: Trivalent MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine (1x10^11 vp/dose) Biological: Comparator: Placebo to MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine ...
INACTIVATION: HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - R01 GRANTS Release Date: October 4, 1999 PA NUMBER: PA-98-089 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is inactivating program announcement PA 98-089, HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - RESEARCH PROJECT GRANTS, which appeared in the NIH Guide, July 9, 1998. The areas of investigator-initiated vaccine research this PA targeted have received numerous responses that have been well-received in the NIH peer review system. Accordingly NIAID will no longer give special consideration for funding to applications in response to this PA received after January 2, 2000. NIAID will, however, continue to give special consideration for funding to applications in response to PAR 98-090, HIV VACCINE RESEARCH AND DESIGN - PROGRAM PROJECT GRANTS, which also appeared in the NIH Guide, July 9, 1998. NIAID supports highly scientifically meritorious applications in all areas of research within ...
Prospective cohort study of the clinical course of HIV-1 infection occurring after candidate HIV-1 vaccination (breakthrough infection) with ALVAC-HIV (vcP1521) and AIDSVAX B/E. This study will enroll volunteers who become HIV-infected during the course of follow up in a phase III preventive HIV vaccine trial conducted in Rayong and Chon Buri, Thailand. Volunteers will be enrolled in this protocol to provide additional long-term follow up to establish whether differences in viral load after infection (comparing vaccine to placebo) are associated with altered disease outcomes, as well as provide more detailed immunologic and virologic assessment of these volunteers ...
AIDS Cooperative Adjuvant Groups conduct preclinical studies of adjuvants and vaccine-adjuvant combinations.. AIDS Vaccine Reagent Project provides large quantities of reagents for preclinical and clinical studies related to vaccines.. Antibody Serologic Project identifies and standardizes monoclonal antibodies to characterize specific components of HIV and SIV.. AVEG (AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Group) includes six centers conducting Phase I and II trials of potential HIV vaccines.. AVEU (AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Unit) is an individual clinical site in the AVEG.. Chimpanzee Unit is a site for the evaluation of HIV vaccine concepts and products in chimpanzees.. Cooperative Mucosal Immunology Group for Investigations on AIDS Vaccines examines ways to stimulate and evaluate mucosal immune responses to HIV and SIV infection and vaccines.. DSMB (Data and Safety Monitoring Board) is an independent committee associated with the AVEG that reviews data of trials in progress to ensure that no participant is ...
Jamie Scott, a Simon Fraser University professor and Canada Research Chair in molecular immunity, and three international collaborators are getting a hefty financial boost in their efforts to develop an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine.. The United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) has awarded the four researchers $2.7 million to help them improve the effectiveness of a DNA-based vaccine that Marinieve Montero first conceived of eight years ago. Montero was a student of Scotts whose work was also funded by the NIH, the U.S.s largest government-funded medical research agency.. Scotts current collaborators are at the University of the Basque Country, the University of Massachusetts School of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco.. The researchers will use their new funding to strengthen a vaccine theyve made from a DNA fragment taken from the HIV genome. The fragment encodes something that is highly prized in HIV/AIDS vaccine research. Called the MPER, its a region of ...
FederalGrants.com opportunity listing for the HIV Vaccine Research and Design (HIVRAD) Program (P01) federal grant. Includes information on eligibility, deadlines, requirements, and guidelines.
BOSTON - More than three decades after the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), scientists are still working to develop a preventative vaccine that could finally put an end to the..
Important unanswered questions remain in the development of an effective AIDS vaccine, which could be a decade or more away, a top AIDS Researcher said ...
The massive growth in global health research in past decades has posed many challenges for its effective ethical oversight, not least of which is how best to provide effective protection of research participants. The extent of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa in particular makes research into prevention technologies for HIV, including HIV vaccine research, a global priority. However, the need for vaccine research must be considered in conjunction with the individuals right to informed consent, which is based on the principle of respect for autonomy. One of the primary human rights violations likely to occur in the context of HIV vaccine research is that potential research participants may not fully understand what participation in research studies entails. People who elect to enrol in HIV vaccine trials are required to understand both the potential negative effects of participation (eg, discrimination) as well as complex scientific concepts such as randomisation and prophylaxis in order ...
Experimental HIV/AIDS vaccines under development by Merck and Sanofi-Aventis are entering crucial stages, and results from clinical trials for both ...
Background With the persistent challenges towards controlling the HIV epidemic, there is an ongoing need for research into HIV vaccines and drugs. Sub-Saharan African countries - worst affected by the HIV pandemic - have participated in the conduct of clinical trials for HIV vaccines. In Kenya, the Kenya AIDS Vaccine Initiative (KAVI) at the University of Nairobi has conducted HIV vaccine clinical trials since 2001. Methodology Participants were recruited after an extensive informed consent process followed by screening to determine eligibility. Screening included an assessment of risk behavior, medical history and physical examination, and if clinically healthy, laboratory testing. In the absence of locally derived laboratory reference ranges, the ranges used in these trials were derived from populations in the West. Principal findings Two hundred eighty-one participants were screened between 2003 and 2006 for two clinical trials. Of these, 167 (59.4%) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Overall,
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
American researchers have come up with a new approach to vaccine design that could help them overcome the difficulties faced in developing an effective HIV vaccine.
To augment the immune responses elicited by these and other vaccines, scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into vaccines licensed for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An adjuvant may work well with one experimental vaccine and not another. Therefore, the FDA licenses the vaccine formulation, or the antigen-adjuvant combination, rather than the adjuvant alone. Experimental adjuvants can increase the type, strength and durability of immune responses evoked by an experimental vaccine. For example, some vaccine antigen/adjuvant combinations can induce cell-mediated immune responses, even if the vaccine antigen by itself does not. Some adjuvants also stimulate mucosal immunity. Alum primarily increases the strength of antibody responses generated by the vaccine antigen. Because of its limited activity, other adjuvants may be better suited for the newer candidate HIV vaccines ...
EPALINGES, SWITZERLAND--(Marketwired - April 11, 2016) - Mymetics Corporation (OTCQB:MYMX), a pioneer in the research and development of virosome-based vaccines to prevent transmission of human infectious diseases across mucosal membranes, announced today that its innovative HIV vaccine candidate has shown to generate significant protection in groups of twelve female monkeys...
Designing an effective HIV/AIDS vaccine is something of a paradox: a good vaccine would be safe and look enough like HIV to kick-start the immune system into neutralizing the virus - but the problem is that this is exactly what the human immune system has trouble doing even when its exposed to the real thing.. Now a team of researchers led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute in La Jolla, CA has developed a strategy for inducing a key part of an effective immune response to HIV. By tracing the evolution of HIV-recognizing molecules called antibodies taken from the blood of rare individuals whose immune systems are naturally able to target and neutralize the virus, they may have found a way to replicate this for everybody.. At a talk next week at the American Crystallographic Association meeting in Hawaii, the team will present multiple crystal structures, which like detailed architectural blueprints show how the virus interacts with components of the immune system. Examining these ...
Additional research on public and private demand for HIV vaccines is needed to strengthen ongoing advocacy and planning for eventual vaccine introduction, say Hecht and Suraratdecha.
The breakthrough manufacturing technology developed by Vivalis, and now to be further developed through collaboration with GeoVax, will create a new standard for manufacture of the MVA component of the GeoVax HIV/AIDS vaccine, making present manufacturing technologies which have limited production capabilities, less competitive. Vivalis EBx® manufacturing platform, with its increased effectiveness, superior quality and reliability, will speed time to market MVA vaccine product availability in ample quantities to meet sizeable demand and expectedly at a lesser cost ...
A vaccine efficacy trial (known as HVTN 702) in South Africa (started 2016),. The AMP study in the Americas, Europe and Africa (started 2016), and. A vaccine trial (known as HPX2008/HVTN 705) in several African countries (expected to start in 2017/2018). HVTN 702 is testing a vaccine adapted from the one in RV144, while AMP, which stands for Antibody Mediated Prevention, is testing a different approach known as passive immunization. In the AMP study, participants will receive anti-HIV antibodies directly through an intravenous infusion, commonly known as an "IV" or "getting a drip". The findings of the AMP study will advance the HIV vaccine field.. Zimbabwe is part of the global partnership dedicated to HIV vaccine research, and is part of the AMP study.. The University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Collaborative Research Programme (UZ-UCSF)s Seke South Clinical Research Site (CRS) was selected as a protocol-specific site by the US National Institutes of Healths HIV ...
Sanofi Pasteur announced the results of a Phase 3 trial with its HIV prime vaccine, ALVAC HIV (recombinant canarypox vCP1521) in combination with the booster AidsVax B/E (recombinant gp120 vaccine, from VaxGen).
Researchers hope that this oral vaccine will create a more robust immune response against HIV. "We think that an oral approach may be the way to create a more effective vaccine and Im sure that most people would rather get a vaccine in a pill rather than by yet another shot," said Michael C. Keefer, M.D., professor of Medicine and director of the Universitys NIH-supported HIV Vaccine Trials Unit. John J. Treanor, M.D., professor of Medicine and chief of Infectious Diseases at UR Medicines Strong Memorial Hospital is leading the study with support from Keefer, who has more than 20 years of experience in the preventive HIV vaccine field. They will monitor how peoples immune systems respond to the vaccine and if the vaccine causes any symptoms. The University has a long track record of conducting detailed studies of HIV vaccines, but Keefer says that this is the first time an oral vaccine has been tested in Rochester. Though the research is in its early stages, he believes the information ...
Experts at a four-day global HIV/AIDS vaccine conference in Cape Town, South Africa, that opened Monday plan to seek fresh strategies against the ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) RFA-AI-04-051. NIAID
A clinical trial testing a candidate HIV vaccine known as the STEP study was halted in September 2007 after interim analysis indicated that the vaccine did not work. Moreover, subsequent analyses indicated that the vaccine made some individuals more susceptible to HIV, in particular individuals who had pre-existing immune effectors (antibodies) that recognized a component of the vaccine (adenovirus serotype 5 [Ad5]).
What can you do to maintain your health at age 65 or older? More than you might think! This article will focus on one aspect of health maintenance: preventive vaccines. Flu vaccine During flu epidemics, the hospitalization rate for older people increases two to five times.
TY - CHAP. T1 - Challenges in designing HIV env immunogens for developing a vaccine. AU - Srivastava, Indresh K.. AU - Holland Cheng, R.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - HIV continues to be a major health problem worldwide; however, the situation is particularly serious in Asian and Sub-Saharan countries. Development of an effective HIV vaccine could help to reduce the severity of the disease and prevent infection. Over the last two decades significant efforts have been made toward inducing potent humoral and cellular immune responses by vaccination; however, it appears that either antibodies or CTL may not be sufficient alone for the induction of sterilizing immunity or long-term control of viral replication. Therefore, it is generally believed that both humoral and cellular responses will be needed for an effective HIV vaccine. It has been shown in passive transfer experiments using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAb) such as b12, 2F5, and 2G12 that these mAbs either alone or ...
New York, September 21, 2007 -- The AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition (AVAC) released the following statement from Executive Director Mitchell Warren about the announcement that vaccinations have been discontinued in the STEP Study, a test-of-concept trial of the MRK-Ad5 AIDS vaccine candidate developed by the Merck Research Laboratories:Todays announcement about the STEP
Global Preventive Vaccines Market - offers growth, outlook, trends, shares, Industry Analysis, opportunities, Key Players Forecast 2018 to 2024
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
Recently, the Merck pharmaceutical company reported that its experimental HIV vaccine raised the rate of HIV infection among people who got the trial vaccine. Yes, you read that right. It was worse than nothing. This vaccine was composed of a few HIV proteins strapped onto an adenovirus, which causes colds. Among people with good immunity to this common cold virus, about 80% of the population, it increased the chances of contracting HIV. The saddest part is that this is not surprising. Virologists have long been skeptical about the possibility of an effective HIV vaccine. HIV infects the very immune cells that you stimulate to defend your body against it. Stimulating these cells increases the rate at which HIV can infect those cells and the rate of HIV replication in these cells. Thus, an HIV vaccine can make it more likely that you’ll get AIDS, and you might get it sooner and worse than if you weren’t immunized. So far, no one has found the Holy Grail of HIV vaccines: a ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
BACKGROUND RV144 is the only preventive HIV vaccine regimen demonstrating efficacy in humans. Attempting to build upon RV144 immune responses, we conducted a phase 1, multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of regimens substituting the DNA-HIV-PT123 (DNA) vaccine for ALVAC-HIV in different sequences or combinations with AIDSVAX B/E (protein).METHODS One hundred and four HIV-uninfected participants were randomized to 4 treatment groups (T1, T2, T3, and T4) and received intramuscular injections at 0, 1, 3, and 6 months (M): T1 received protein at M0 and M1 and DNA at M3 and M6; T2 received DNA at M0 and M1 and protein at M3 and M6; T3 received DNA at M0, M1, M3, and M6 with protein coadministered at M3 and M6; and T4 received protein and DNA coadministered at each vaccination visit.RESULTS All regimens were well tolerated. Antibodies binding to gp120 and V1V2 scaffold were observed in 95%-100% of participants in T3 and T4, two weeks after final ...
Any future HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) vaccine will rely on inducing either antibodies that neutralize the virus, or cell-mediated immunity by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The former initiative is being frustrated by the ability of the virus to mutate and escape antibody binding. Although a related problem of viral escape is faced by CTLs, it does appear that a robust cell-mediated immune response can lower the levels of replicating virus after acute infection, and this set-point is known to affect the course of subsequent infection and progression to AIDS. Using infection of monkeys with the pathogenic SIV, the simian cousin of HIV, Letvin et al. (p. 1530) offer direct experimental evidence that generation of a robust cellular response by vaccination corresponds with increased survival. This finding also correlated with the persistence of high numbers of so-called central memory T cells and suggests that finding ways of preserving these important lymphocytes may help in improving ...
The STEP study, also known as the HVTN 502 or Merck V520-023 study, is a clinical trial to continue evaluating the safety and begin evaluating the ...
Nearly 37 million people are living with HIV around the world. In the United States, 1.2 million people are living with HIV, of whom 13 percent are unaware of their diagnosis. Although progress has been made in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, the epidemic continues in the United States and the international community. Globally, AIDS-related deaths have dropped by 45 percent since their peak in 2004. Yet the rate of HIV transmission remains unacceptably high, with 2.1 million new infections occurring worldwide in 2015 alone. Source: NIH-NIAID. ...
An HIV vaccine is a vaccine which would either protect individuals who do not have HIV from contracting that virus, or otherwise may have a therapeutic effect for persons who have or later contract HIV/AIDS. Currently, there is no effective HIV vaccine but many research projects managing clinical trials seek to create one. There is evidence that a vaccine may be possible. Preventative medications such as antiretroviral treatments have been put into use to help prevent infection, but do not work as well as a vaccine would. Work with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) has shown or proven that the human body can defend itself against HIV, and certain individuals remain asymptomatic for decades after HIV infection. Potential candidates for antibodies and early stage results from clinical trials have been announced. One HIV vaccine candidate which showed some efficacy was studied in RV 144, which was a trial in Thailand beginning in 2003 and first reporting a positive result in 2009. Many trials have shown ...
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) is a global not-for-profit organization whose mission is to ensure the development of safe, effective, accessible, preventive HIV vaccines for use throughout the world.
As a major South African HIV vaccination trial gets underway a new study suggests its benefits could be undercut by vaccine-resistant strains. Paul
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute and chronic viral infections. T2 - Implications for HIV vaccine development. AU - Miller, J. D.. AU - Masopust, D.. AU - Wherry, E. J.. AU - Kaech, S.. AU - Silvestri, G.. AU - Ahmed, R.. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - Successful HIV vaccine strategies will likely require the induction of robust cellular immune responses, in addition to strong humoral responses. Unfortunately, there is no clear molecular definition of an effective HIV-specific CD8 T cell response. In this review, we discuss the differentiation of CD8 T cells in response to acute and chronic viral infections. We then apply concepts derived from these studies to predict the desirable characteristics of HIV-specific CD8 T cell memory.. AB - Successful HIV vaccine strategies will likely require the induction of robust cellular immune responses, in addition to strong humoral responses. Unfortunately, there is no clear molecular definition of an effective ...
The Science and Ethics of HIV Vaccine Research Our HIV Vaccines Curriculum Unit explores the scientific and ethical issues involved in clinical HIV vaccine trials using human research participants. The unit begins by examining students current knowledge
This is a series of 12 info sheets: HIV/AIDS vaccines: The basics HIV/AIDS, vaccines and human rights Getting started: Approval of HIV vaccines trials Ensuring community participation in making decisions about HIV vaccine trials Informed consent and voluntary participation in HIV vaccine trials The right to prevention, care and confidentiality for HIV vaccine trials participants […]. ...
A new study gives a much-needed booster shot to the beleaguered AIDS vaccine field. The experiment, led by immunologist and pathologist Louis Picker of the Oregon Health & Science University in Beaverton, showed that an unusual approach to vaccinating against SIV (a simian cousin of HIV) protected 12 of 24 monkeys from a "challenge" with a particularly virulent strain of that virus. Specifically, all monkeys became infected, but in half of the animals, their immune systems drove the virus down to undetectable levels for more than a year. "Its the best result Ive seen against the worst SIV known," says the University of Wisconsins David Watkins, an immunologist who tests AIDS vaccines in monkeys and was not involved with the work. "Im very excited by this approach.". The vaccine contains SIV genes stitched into cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpesvirus that harmlessly infects many humans and serves as the delivery vehicle, or vector, for the AIDS virus proteins. Typically, AIDS vaccines use ...
A large-scale phase IIb clinical trial of a candidate HIV vaccine has begun in South Africa. This vaccine has shown promise in smaller U.S. studies. The trial involves 3,000 HIV-negative men and women, making it the largest African HIV vaccine trial to date. The study vaccine is provided by Merck & Co., Inc. and contains copies of only three HIV genes, not the entire virus, so it is impossible for trial volunteers to become infected from the vaccine. The South African trial is called Phambili (HVTN 503), which literally means "moving forward." It is designed to provide preliminary information on vaccine efficacy and thus enable researchers to decide whether or not to conduct a larger phase III efficacy trial that could lead to licensure. In smaller trials, the vaccine was found to be safe and to stimulate cellular immune responses against HIV in more than half of the volunteers. The primary objectives of HVTN 503 are to determine whether the candidate vaccine can prevent HIV infection or, in ...
In the past 30 years, HIV vaccine studies on traditional CD8+ T cell-targeted HIV vaccines were frustrated by the ineffectiveness of mediating immediate vaccinal interception upon infection acquisition prior to the explosive viral amplification. As the most important lesson of past HIV vaccine researches, the first hours to days immediately after viral infection might be the only vulnerable time period for immunologic interceptions.[1, 2] With this regard, immunologists started a novel research on employing Cytomegelovirus (CMV) as vaccine vector in early 2000s, to exploit CMV vectors unique ability on eliciting and maintaining abundant functional T cell responses at all potential HIV infection sites.[3-6] Recent CMV-based vaccine research, demonstrated by Louis Picker and colleagues, with statistical support by Dr. Edlefsen, manifests a remarkable infection control and clearance on ~50% of HIV-acquired rhesus macaques (RM) vaccinated by Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) inserted rhesus ...
The US government is poised to start a new AIDS vaccine trial, prompting some to caution that it is too soon to initiate such studies after a linkurl:Merck vaccine;http://www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/53633/ not only failed to show effectiveness but also may have increased participants HIV infection rate. Late last week, the NIHs linkurl:AIDS Vaccine Research Subcommittee;http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/research/topics/HIV/vaccines/advisory/avrs/ voted 23-3 in favor of beginning the PAVE 100 H
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. [1] accessed Dec 2007. Archived October 9, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. Poropatich, ... AIDS. 20 (5): 685-9. doi:10.1097/01.aids.0000216368.23325.bc. PMID 16514298. Thorven M, Grahn A, Hedlund KO, Johansson H, ... "Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups influence AIDS progression". AIDS. 22 (18): 2429-2439. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32831940bb. ISSN ... Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. Genetic traits that confer greater resistance ...
"Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery". scripps.edu.. *^ "Scripps Center for Metabolomics and Mass ...
Bourinbaiar, Aldar S.; Metadilogkul, Orapun; Jirathitikal, Vichai (2003). "Mucosal AIDS Vaccines". Viral Immunology. 16 (4): ... the mucosal immune system is being investigated for use in vaccines for various afflictions, including AIDS and allergies. " ... "Recent progress in HIV vaccines inducing mucosal immune responses". AIDS (London, England). 28 (12): 1701-18. doi:10.1097/qad. ... Mucosal Immunity and Vaccines, August 2003 Pavot, V; Rochereau, N; Lawrence, P; Girard, MP; Genin, C; Verrier, B; Paul, S (31 ...
Iyer SS, Amara RR (2014). "DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS". Vaccines. 2 (1): 160-78. doi:10.3390/vaccines2010160. PMC 4494194 . ... GM-CSF has also been evaluated in clinical trials for its potential as a vaccine adjuvant in HIV-infected patients. The ... "Co-expression of HIV-1 virus-like particles and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor by GEO-D03 DNA vaccine". Human ... Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 8 (11): 1654-8. doi:10.4161/hv.21978. PMC 3601140 . PMID 23111169. ...
The St Stephen's Centre is also home to the core laboratory of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI).[13] ... "New partnership to accelerate AIDS vaccine testing, equip developing countries for trials". 13 December 2001. Retrieved 20 ... "Unique partnership brings new hope for vaccine to combat HIV". 1 December 2001. Retrieved 20 April 2018.. ...
Makgoba MW (May 2002). "Politics, the media and science in HIV/AIDS: the peril of pseudoscience". Vaccine. 20 (15): 1899-904. ... The anti-vaccine movement has persuaded large number of parents not to vaccinate their children, citing pseudoscientific ... doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-237X(199806)82:3,407::AID-SCE6,3.0.CO;2-G.. (subscription required) ... Antivaccine activists present pseudoscientific studies that falsely call into question the safety of vaccines. Homeopathic ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Research (IAVA) issued a report on "Whole Killed AIDS Vaccines" in 1999 reviewing a diverse ... IRBP) Remune is a therapeutic HIV/AIDS vaccine that has completed over 25 clinical studies to date and shows a robust mechanism ... doi:10.1046/j.1468-1293.2001.00051.x. IAVI Report on Whole Killed AIDS Vaccines. ... The vaccine, however, does not contain gp120 surface antigen as it falls off on fixation of HIV-1. As a result, only gp41 is ...
The International AIDS Vaccine Research (IAVA) issued a report on "Whole Killed AIDS Vaccines" in 1999 reviewing a diverse ... Immune Response BioPharma, Inc A Killed-Virus Vaccine for HIV/AIDS IAVI Report on Whole Killed AIDS Vaccines Welcome to the ... Whole Killed AIDS Vaccines US Patent: HIV COMBINATION VACCINE AND PRIME BOOST Sumagen Canada Homepage Curocom Homepage Schulich ... The SAV001-H vaccine is considered as the first genetically modified version of the killed whole HIV-1 vaccine. According to Dr ...
Merck have tested the a few vaccines and some of the other proposals are being tested by International AIDS Vaccine Initiative ... and International AIDS Vaccine Initiative for the development of HIV vaccines. He has also mentored a number of scholars in ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative. May 2, 2007. Retrieved October 19, 2016. "Seminar by Prof. Raghavan Varadarajan". ... his team developed a number of immunogens which have been demonstrated to have positive effect as HIV-1 vaccines and he holds ...
"Building a better vaccine Hildegund Ertl and her Philadelphia researchers pursue a new way to conquer the AIDS virus, threats ... human papilloma virus vaccines, rabies vaccine models, universal influenza vaccine, vaccines to Epstein-Barr virus, and using ... Her research is focused on developing vaccines for AIDS and various forms of cancer. Her lab is currently working on projects ... In interviews, Ertl has been cautious and critical when it comes to the development of vaccines for AIDS. Her research has ...
List of Poles Poles Polio vaccine Wistar Institute Jonas Salk Albert Sabin AIDS conspiracy theories Worobey M, Santiago ML, ... 119-130 online Hilary Koprowski (1992). "AIDS and the polio vaccine". Science. 257 (5073): 1024, 1026-27. doi:10.1126/science. ... t can be stated with almost complete certainty that the large polio vaccine trial... was not the origin of AIDS." Koprowski ... whereas the Salk vaccine required booster shots. Also, administering a vaccine by mouth is easy, whereas an injection requires ...
Martin, Richard, "Testing the First AIDS Vaccine", Wired Magazine, January 2003. H. Foege, William, House on Fire: The Fight to ... Francis began his work on AIDS in 1981. He was one of the first scientists to suggest that AIDS was caused by an infectious ... to continue working on vaccines. After the vaccine failed in clinical trials, Francis left VaxGen in 2004 to co-found Global ... In 1993, HBO produced And The Band Played On, an Emmy-winning movie about the AIDS crisis based on the 1987 book of the same ...
... particularly in the prevention of hepatitus and AIDS. Gust, Ian D.; Kahn, Patricia; Koff, Wayne C. (2007). AIDS Vaccine ... Gust's area of work is in the development of drugs and vaccines against viral diseases and he is best known for the development ... The most cited are: Gust, I.D. "Epidemiological patterns of hepatitis A in different parts of the world" (1992) Vaccine, 10 ( ... "Professor Ian Gust". Vaccine and Immunotherapy Technologies. Sir Mark Oliphant Conferences. 2008. Retrieved 11 April 2012. " ...
"International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Press Release". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. "Foundation for Innovative New ... International AIDS Vaccine Initiative, Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation, ... 1 million contribution to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (2002.) In 2003 and 2004, BD introduced several innovative ... This innovative product was used in a large-scale field test of the polio vaccine developed by Dr. Jonas Salk. One year later, ...
Kendall, Don (June 20, 1981). "Vaccine to aid human, animal diseases". Nashua Telegraph. Associated Press. Retrieved June 2, ... This vaccine was the first one developed using genetic engineering. Bachrach retired in 1981. In 1982, he was elected to ... In turn, the bacterium produced a large amount of VP3, and the Bachrach team felt that this could lead to a vaccine against the ... The development of the foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, which was only effective against a single strain of the illness, taught ...
AVAC (January 27, 2015). "News from the HC-HIV front: it's raining meta (analyses)!". New York: AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition ...
Ho's research team is working on developing vaccines for AIDS. He heads a consortium of organization in China and the U.S. to ... David Da-i Ho (Chinese: 何大一; born November 3, 1952) is a Taiwanese-American medical doctor and HIV/AIDS researcher who was born ... Nature 1997) "AIDS Research Pioneer, David Ho, Talks To Asian Scientist Magazine". Asian Scientist Magazine. June 13, 2011. ... Ho has been at the forefront of AIDS research for three decades. He published over 400 papers (cited June 2011), enabling the ...
"Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nat. Biotechnol. 28: 723-727. doi:10.1038/nbt.1636 ... This strategy allows for the generation of new vaccines in a very short time. Recently, Wimmer's lab has elucidated the key ... synthetic biology has led to a new kind of RNA virus genetics and has been used to develop rapid methods for computer-aided ...
An Expert on AIDS Vaccines". The New York Times. Retrieved July 18, 2014. ... Mary Lou Clements-Mann was the longtime head of the Division of Vaccine Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of ... She was a member of the US Centers for Disease Control Advisory Committee on the Children's Vaccine Initiative and the World ... Public Health, and is well known for her knowledge and work in HIV and AIDS. She died in the 1998 crash of Swissair Flight 111 ...
AIDS vaccine- Washington, Seattle 2007, :P05-01. Wayengera, M (2007). "A Recombinant lactobacillus strain producing restriction ... It is also hoped that, when applied to non-HIV infected persons, this strategy could offer a genomic vaccine against HIV and ... Stone, D.; Kiem, H. P.; Jerome, K. R. (2013). "Targeted gene disruption to cure HIV". Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 8. Coakley, E.; ... Alkhatib, G (2009). "The biology of CCR5 and CXCR4". Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. 4 (2): 96-103. doi:10.1097/coh. ...
2010). "Live attenuated influenza virus vaccines by computer-aided rational design". Nature Biotechnology. 28 (7): 723-6. doi: ... he has worked to computationally design synthetic viruses for use as attenuated vaccines. Their Synthetic Attenuated Virus ...
International AIDS Vaccine Initiative HIV Vaccine Trials Network. ... The fact that the correlates of immunity/protection remain unclear is a significant barrier to HIV vaccine research. There is ... However, without knowing the correlates of immunity, scientists cannot know exactly what sort of immune response a vaccine ... suggesting that immunity and therefore a vaccine is possible. ... and the only method of assessing vaccine effectiveness will be ...
"Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery". scripps.edu. "Scripps Center for Metabolomics and Mass ... The institute also incorporates the: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology & Immunogen Discovery Center for Integrative ...
... and research vaccines for many chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS. RIGHT strives to quickly put their discoveries to use in patient ... This vaccine has been clinically proven, and it opens the door for more new dendritic cell-targeting vaccines to be created for ... A Novel Topical Vaccine for HIV/AIDS". Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 124 (1): 160-169. doi:10.1111/j.0022-202X. ... The topical DermaVir vaccine is an improvement upon the ex vivo dendritic cell- based immunization that could offer a new ...
Newspaper Article". IAVI report : newsletter on international AIDS vaccine research. 12 (6): 18-21. PMID 20218020. Chabot, B.; ... Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise. VaccineEnterprise.org. McLaughlin Medal. Royal Society of Canada. Genetics Society of Canada ... Prior to his position at CIFAR, Bernstein was the inaugural executive director of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, an ... Gewin, V. (2007). "Alan Bernstein, executive director, Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise, Seattle, Washington". Nature. 450 (7167 ...
... announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in ... AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 725-33. doi:10.1056/ ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... From then on, indinavir used with dual NRTIs set a new standard for treatment of HIV/AIDS. Protease inhibitors changed the ...
Description of the drug Yellow Fever Vaccine. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Yellow Fever ... AIDs, generalized malignancy, leukemia), or patients whose immunologic responses are suppressed by drug therapy or radiation. ... 0.6 mL for single-dose vial of vaccine; 3 mL for 5 dose vial of vaccine). Slowly inject diluent into vial containing vaccine. ... meningococcal vaccine ( Menomune ), typhoid vaccine ( Typhim Vi ). Separate other vaccines by at least 4 wk. ...
Shown to be safe in humans, the candidate vaccine has now advanced to the next phase of the pre-approval ... The near 40-year quest for an AIDS vaccine received a hopeful boost Saturday when scientists announced that a trial drug ... Paris (AFP) - The near 40-year quest for an AIDS vaccine received a hopeful boost Saturday when scientists announced that a ... Jean-Daniel Lelievre of Frances Vaccine Research Institute said the vaccine was likely not the "definitive" version, but may ...
Progress Finding An AIDS Vaccine. The search for an AIDS vaccine is showing renewed promise with a report that a vaccine test ...
The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network includes the following:. * The AIDS Vaccine Evaluation Units (AVEUs) [known ... The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network is the largest cooperative HIV vaccine clinical trials group in the United ... This fact sheet summarizes NIAIDs approach to developing an HIV/AIDS vaccine. It describes the challenges facing vaccine ... the efficacy of candidate HIV vaccines in U.S. populations.. * An international HIV/AIDS vaccine efficacy trials master ...
Human body test, or stage I clinical test, of the compound AIDS vaccine aims to further assess the security of the vaccine, an ... Chinese AIDS vaccine tested by human body. (Agencies). Updated: 2004-11-26 13:01 ... According to experts, AIDS vaccine is the only solution to stop the wildfire spread of the grievous infectious disease. ... Chinese-developed AIDS vaccine has won government approval to be tested by human bodies, Xinhua reported Friday quoting sources ...
Emorys AIDS vaccine consists of two components: a DNA prime and a recombinant poxvirus as a booster. The vaccine is designed ... Center for manufacture of the vaccine. By late 2004, the Vaccine Center hopes to begin a Phase I trial of a trivalent vaccine ... Robinson projects that Phase III efficacy trials of the AIDS vaccine could begin in 2006. Unlike the much smaller Phase I and ... A California biotech company, ViCal, manufactured the priming components of the AIDS vaccine for the Phase I clinical trial ...
Although AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) seems to have appeared full-blown early in this decade, it is not without ... a vaccine is the best bet in the medical rush to stop AIDS from spreading. Yet the possibility of a vaccine presents a new set ... These men are an appropriate group to undergo the first round of vaccine testings. If the vaccine proves successful in ... has surveyed 644 homosexual men about their willingness to participate in a test of an AIDS vaccine. Forty-three percent said ...
However, the vaccine did seem to lower the infection rate significantly among African-Americans and other non-Hispanic ... They conceded that the findings, though statistically significant, might change if the vaccine were tested among more members ... The first AIDS vaccine ever to be tested in a large number of people has failed, overall, to protect them from infection with ... totally unexpected and said they were at a loss to explain why there would be ethnic differences in response to the vaccine. ...
The long thwarted dream of an AIDS vaccine has been given a major shot in the arm with a new study that has rekindled hope ... Breakthrough raises hope for AIDS vaccine. By Joseph HallToronto Star. Thu., Sept. 3, 2009timer5. min. read ... The long thwarted dream of an AIDS vaccine has been given a major shot in the arm with a new study that has rekindled hope ... MacDonald, who has been front and centre in the global search for AIDS vaccines, did not contribute to the paper. But she says ...
AIDS Vaccine: Mixed Result, Possible Future. Despite questions, AIDS vaccine trial in Thailand spreads optimism ... Finding a vaccine has become an increasingly urgent undertaking. Despite advances in therapies, HIV/AIDS is still incurable. ... But rather than dashing all hopes for an AIDS vaccine, the trial has heartened some researchers, who see new clues in the ... "This contributes more evidence that an AIDS vaccine may be possible," says Jerome Kim of the Walter Reed Army Institute of ...
... which considers that the need to stem the worldwide AIDS epidemic is greater than … ... Trials to test whether potential AIDS vaccines can prevent the disease should begin as soon as possible, without waiting to ... Wayne Koff, head of vaccines research at the NIH, outlined the policy. to a meeting of AIDS researchers in Paris last week. We ... Trials to test whether potential AIDS vaccines can prevent the disease. should begin as soon as possible, without waiting to ...
DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses ... Vaccines. 2014; 2(1):160-178. Chicago/Turabian Style. Iyer, Smita S.; Amara, Rama R. 2014. "DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS." ... Vaccines 2014, 2, 160-178. AMA Style. Iyer SS, Amara RR. DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS. ... DNA/MVA Vaccines for HIV/AIDS. Smita S. Iyer * and Rama R. Amara * ...
Ten Years Later, AIDS Vaccine Search Continues. Science gets closer, but a fully effective vaccine remains elusive ... a fully effective AIDS vaccine is a long way off. "There are people who will tell you we will never have a vaccine-I cant say ... But with the strides of recent years, it is no longer a question of whether we can develop an AIDS vaccine, it is simply a ... Ten years ago today, President Bill Clinton announced a national goal to develop an AIDS vaccine within a decade. At that time ...
Huge AIDS Vaccine Trial Should Be Scrapped. By Philip Cohen. NewScientist.com 1-27-2. Two government agencies in the US are ... But one government AIDS researcher, who didnt want to be identified, was angered by Moores charges. The two trials cannot be ... If this was a vaccine that held real promise, the situation would be different, he says. But it doesnt merit such a huge ... In it, John Moore, an AIDS researcher at Cornell Universitys Weill Medical College in New York City, argues that one of the ...
... FOXNews.com ^ , Friday, March 21, 2008 , FOXNews.com Posted on 03/21/2008 5:39:05 ... KEYWORDS: aids; hiv; homosexualagenda; vaccine Navigation: use the links below to view more comments.. first previous 1-20, 21- ... There are vaccines against many of them (smallpox etc.), but the development of one for AIDS just hit the wall. I am not a ... The two-decade search for an AIDS vaccine is in crisis after two field tests of the most promising contender not only did not ...
2019 for the 17th annual AIDS Vaccine 200 bike ride benefitting Emory Universitys HIV/AIDS vaccine research. ...
Content source: Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers ... and researchers working to find a safe and effective vaccine to prevent HIV. Such a vaccine, along with existing HIV treatment ... and researchers working to find a safe and effective vaccine to prevent #HIV. Such a vaccine, along w/ existing HIV treatment ... and researchers working to find a safe and effective vaccine to prevent HIV. Such a vaccine, along with existing HIV treatment ...
In addition, the rate of AIDS for HB vaccine recipients in CDC vaccine trials among homosexually active men in Denver and San ... In addition, epidemiologic monitoring of AIDS cases and high-risk groups confirms the lack of AIDS transmission by HB vaccine. ... Epidemiologic approaches to detect an association between HB vaccine and AIDS have included analysis of data on AIDS cases ... AIDS. The effect of the HB vaccine inactivation process on the AIDS virus and two other human retroviruses (HTLV-I and HTLV-II ...
Recombinant vectored vaccines. Recombinant vectored vaccines are most often used for vaccines that attempt to stimulate ... Eventual AIDS vaccine failure in a rhesus monkey by viral escape from cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Nature 415: 335-339, 2002 ... Candidate HIV-1 tat vaccine development: from basic science to clinical trials. AIDS 20(18):2245-2261, 2006 ... The vaccine used in the STEP trial was an adenovirus vector, and one component of the vaccine used in the RV144 trial was ALVAC ...
The AIDS Healthcare Foundation distributed vaccines for bacterial meningitis on April 15, 2013 in response to the death of a ... AIDS Healthcare Foundation Gives Out Free Meningitis Vaccines. The AIDS Healthcare Foundation distributed vaccines for ... Published Monday, Apr 15, 2013) The AIDS Healthcare Foundation distributed vaccines for bacterial meningitis on April 15, 2013 ...
VIAV is linked to the AIDS Vaccine Integrated Project (AVIP),recently awarded by the EU Commission, for future product ... The aim of VIAV is to develop a highly innovative Env-based vaccine capable of inducing cross-clade neutralizing antibodies to ... for in vitro and in vivo s tudies 3.Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity of different Tat/Env complex-based vaccine ... prevent HIV infection.This represents the most important problem of current Env-based vaccines.VIAV aim will be achieved ...
AIDS vaccine may be functional cure for some. By Jon Cohen. Feb. 22, 2017 , 4:45 PM. ... But when a field suffers as much failure as the search for an AIDS vaccine has over the past 30 years, researchers sometimes ... Mothe and her colleagues tried that strategy with an HIV vaccine made by Tomáš Hanke of the University of Oxford in the United ... Of more than 50 therapeutic vaccine trials so far, this is the first one that has bolstered the immune system in a "meaningful ...
Apply for International AIDS Vaccine Initiative jobs, learn about the culture, read reviews and more. Find International AIDS ... Want to work at International AIDS Vaccine Initiative? ... Vaccine Initiative careers in your area today! ...
Detailed results of the now-famous Thai AIDS vaccine trial confirmed that the vaccine is modestly effective, but hinted that ... HIV/AIDS > HIV/AIDS AIDS Vaccine Details Confirm Modest Benefit. Detailed results of the now-famous Thai AIDS vaccine trial ... Detailed results of the now-famous Thai AIDS vaccine trial confirmed that the vaccine is modestly effective, but hinted that ... Michael and colleagues presented details of the study at the AIDS Vaccine 2009 conference in Paris, and a formal peer-reviewed ...
... had also sought approval to test AIDS vaccines. Other companies are also working on potential vaccines, as are scores if not ... U.S. Announces Decision to Test AIDS Vaccine. By PHILIP M. BOFFEY and SPECIAL TO THE NEW YORK TIMES ... It will not try at this point to determine whether the vaccine is truly effective in preventing AIDS. That would require a much ... Small-scale human tests of other AIDS vaccines have already started in Zaire and France, but the new study, to be conducted ...
  • This is only the fifth HIV vaccine concept that will be tested for efficacy in humans in the 35+ year history of the global HIV epidemic," added Barouch. (yahoo.com)
  • Robinson projects that Phase III efficacy trials of the AIDS vaccine could begin in 2006. (emory.edu)
  • Explain to interested patients that this large study is the first to show that an HIV vaccine candidate can protect against the virus, although the benefit was modest and only reached statistical significance in one of three efficacy analyses. (medpagetoday.com)
  • On the other hand, a new analysis of when infections took place hints that the vaccine was most protective shortly after vaccination and then waned, but Michael said that decrease in efficacy did not reach statistical significance. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In November 2007, a large multinational trial called Step, evaluating the lead candidate in what the HIV vaccine field termed T cell-based vaccines, was halted at its first interim analyses because of the vaccine's lack of efficacy [1, . (lww.com)
  • The AIDS vaccine is currently being tested for its safety and efficacy on over 200 human volunteers in America and Uganda. (medindia.net)
  • That meant there was a 95 percent probability that the actual efficacy of the vaccine in the subgroup was between those points. (sfgate.com)
  • These latest findings now provide us with an important new way of looking at subpopulations of CD4 helper T-cells and suggest how they may be used as a marker to gauge the efficacy of these vaccines. (emaxhealth.com)
  • It also suggests that the measurement of this cell in the blood of vaccinated individuals who subsequently become infected with HIV may provide an important predictor of vaccine efficacy. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The rAd26 vaccine vector was selected for its particularly low seroprevalence in human populations and for its potent immunogenicity and protective efficacy in preclinical studies," explains Dan H. Barouch, MD, PhD, Associate Professor of Medicine at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) and Harvard Medical School and Principal Investigator of the Integrated Preclinical/Clinical AIDS Vaccine Development (IPCAVD) program that developed the vaccine. (biologynews.net)
  • These trials, supported and conducted by the National Institutes of Health HIV Vaccine Trials Network, have set the stage for the second-generation GM-CSF co-expressing vaccine to move from its initial Phase 1 safety testing slated to start in March of this year to a Phase 2b efficacy trial in participants who are at high risk of exposure to HIV. (scienceblog.com)
  • Thus, hypothesis-driven adjuvant development relies on the expectation that the mechanistic understanding of the immune responses exhibited by PRR ligands would enable fine-tuning the specificity of adjuvants to attain vaccine efficacy and safety, simultaneously. (springer.com)
  • Last winter, plans to move forward with an efficacy trial on one vaccine candidate were canceled when initial testing revealed disappointing immune responses among vaccine recipients. (avac.org)
  • According to a Yerkes study reported in the October 2002 edition of the Journal of Virology, levels of viral DNA in the monkeys have declined to the nearly undetectable levels characteristic of a small subset of HIV-infected people, termed long-term nonprogressors, who carry HIV but do not develop AIDS. (emory.edu)
  • The May 30 issue of Science reports that Viral Technologies Inc., a Washington corporation, has managed to prevent the AIDS virus from invading human cells inside a test tube. (latimes.com)
  • A vaccine mimics the viral region where the antigens sit, and train the immune system to recognize and attack the virus in that vital spot when the real thing enters the blood stream. (thestar.com)
  • The last two decades have seen significant progress in the DNA-based vaccine platform with optimized plasmid constructs, improved delivery methods, such as electroporation, the use of molecular adjuvants and novel strategies combining DNA with viral vectors and subunit proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Drugmakers Merck and sanofi-aventis have each made versions of a T cell-stimulating vaccine by inserting HIV genes into a viral vector, or gene delivery system. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Vaccines against viral toxins. (aidsmap.com)
  • The vaccine candidate used in Step included a replication incompetent adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) viral vector, and the objectives of the trial were to investigate whether this candidate vaccine was able to reduce HIV acquisition or to modulate viral load . (lww.com)
  • Thus, the lack of success of the vaccine, especially on controlling postinfection viral load (setpoint viremia) among vaccinated individuals who became infected, has sent reverberations throughout the scientific community for its implications on our ability to develop a globally effective HIV vaccine. (lww.com)
  • Scott and her partners believe this is because synthetic MPER vaccines to-date have not replicated the viral MPER accurately, but say their new vaccines do a better job. (sfu.ca)
  • Over the last decade, we have created AIDS vaccines that generate T-cell populations that can combat HIV," explains lead author Norman Letvin, M.D., chief of the Division of Viral Pathogenesis at BIDMC, professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School, and investigator at the NIAID VRC. (emaxhealth.com)
  • In multiple clinical trials over the past three years, maraviroc has shown great effectiveness in reducing viral loads and increasing CD4 counts, even in individuals resistant to multiple kinds of existing AIDS drugs. (amfar.org)
  • What makes this paper so remarkable is that it represents the first time we've identified the likely correlates for both protection from HIV acquisition and control of viral replication,' said Carl Dieffenbach, director of the NIAID Division of AIDS. (cnn.com)
  • However, a safe and at least moderately effective HIV vaccine is needed to reach this goal more expeditiously and in a more sustainable way, according to a new commentary from Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, and colleague Hilary D. Marston, M.D., M.P.H. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Developing a safe and effective vaccine to curb the human and economic costs of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has become an international health priority. (nih.gov)
  • If deployed alongside our current armory of proven HIV prevention tools, a safe and effective vaccine could be the final nail in the coffin for HIV," Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. government's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), said in a statement Sunday. (ibtimes.com)
  • While some prevention successes have been attained (e.g., screening of the blood supply in industrialized countries), a safe and effective vaccine-the "holy grail" of public health prevention-remains elusive. (cdc.gov)
  • It will be the world's largest phase III HIV vaccine trial, with 16,000 participants,' Beth Waters, a spokeswoman for Aventis, said in a telephone interview. (rense.com)
  • The pharmaceutical giant has made the vaccine available at discounted prices under the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) - an international public-private partnership to improve access to vaccines in the world's poorest countries. (reuters.com)
  • More than 30 million individuals - a majority in the world's developing nations - have died of AIDS since it was first identified 25 years ago. (emaxhealth.com)
  • AIDS remains one of the world's most devastating health problems, with an estimated 33.2 million people living with HIV/AIDS and 2.5 million new infections reported in 2007 alone. (biologynews.net)
  • Q: Is the lack of an AIDS vaccine largely the consequence of the world's biggest pharmaceutical companies standing on the sidelines because there are no huge profits to be made selling vaccines to the less-developed world? (baltimoresun.com)
  • Only public insistence on accelerated, universal access can ensure that an AIDS vaccine conquers the global epidemic, rather than solely benefiting those that are fortunate to live in the world's wealthiest nations. (avac.org)
  • Sixteen thousand volunteers in Thailand participated in the world's largest and most promising vaccine trial with results announced in September 2009. (ebony.com)
  • Start with a free immunization evaluation to see what vaccines you need. (riteaid.com)
  • ABUJA, Nigeria (Reuters) --Three states in northern Nigeria have suspended a polio immunization program led by the World Health Organisation (WHO) because they feared it spread AIDS and caused infertility, Nigerian officials said on Monday. (scribd.com)
  • Three groups of patients receive dose-escalation (0.5mg, 2mg or 4mg) intramuscular injections of DNA vaccine (D-GPEi) respectively, the other three groups of patients receive dose-escalation (3×10^7pfu, 1×10^8pfu or 3×10^8pfu) intradermal injections of MVA vaccine (M-GPE), two weeks post immunization of lower dose, if the vaccine is safe and well tolerant, the next dose of immunization will begin. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Extensive testing has been conducted with live vaccines to determine if immunization would be effective at prevention, but they are not suitable for human use due to the potential that the vaccine viruses could mutate and reacquire the ability to cause disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • She is Chair of WHO's African Regional Task Force on Immunization (TFI) and is immediate past chair of the World Health Organisation's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (SAGE), and was SAGE focal point for HPV, Rubella, and HIV vaccines, and vaccine use in humanitarian emergencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • VaxGen, a small biotechnology company, was formed to carry the vaccine forward after the National Institutes of Health and the company that invented the vaccine, Genentech, decided it was not worthy of clinical trials. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In 2003 results finally came in from a phase III clinical trial of a gp120 vaccine manufactured by VaxGen: It failed to prevent infections or reduce the number of virus particles circulating in the blood. (scientificamerican.com)
  • VaxGen reported Monday that its vaccine was ineffective overall in a trial of 5,400 participants. (sfgate.com)
  • This study will involve 48 healthy volunteers who will receive either two or three immunizations and who will be followed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine," explains Lindsey R. Baden, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine at BWH and Harvard Medical School and Protocol Chair for the study. (biologynews.net)
  • The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine that is currently in Phase 2a clinical testing through the HVTN. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A first generation GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine that does not co-express GM-CSF has shown excellent safety and reproducible vaccine responses in Phase 1 and 2a clinical trials in more than 400 uninfected people. (scienceblog.com)
  • The presentation, titled "Two HIV DNA Primes Maximize T Cell Responses Induced by the GeoVax DNA/MVA Vaccine Regimen Administered to Healthy Seronegative Adults (HVTN 065)," was given by Dr. Paul A. Goepfert, M.D., Associate Professor, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Alabama. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In it, John Moore, an AIDS researcher at Cornell University's Weill Medical College in New York City, argues that one of the two vaccine trials planned for 2002 should be scrapped. (rense.com)
  • Action Cycling Atlanta, Inc. (ACA) was formed in 2003 by a group of cyclists who had participated in the 2002 European AIDS Vaccine Ride, one of the last AIDSRides produced by Pallotta Teamworks. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, over 40 different HIV vaccines have been tested in several thousand volunteers. (aidsmap.com)
  • Then the volunteers were given booster injections -- at weeks 12 and 24 -- of a second vaccine, dubbed AIDSVAX B/E, or placebo. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But seven volunteers -- five in the vaccine arm and two in the placebo arm -- were found to have been HIV-positive at the start of the study and were excluded from the main analysis, of the "modified" intent-to-treat population. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Small-scale human tests of other AIDS vaccines have already started in Zaire and France, but the new study, to be conducted with 81 volunteers who will be treated at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, in Bethesda, Md., is the first authorized in the United States. (nytimes.com)
  • A scientific team from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine reported a year ago that the vaccine had stimulated an immune response in many of its uninfected volunteers. (baltimoresun.com)
  • More volunteers had antibody responses to the full dose than to the 1/10th dose vaccine, whereas response rates for T cells were similar for the 1/10th and full dose. (bio-medicine.org)
  • But one government AIDS researcher, who didn't want to be identified, was angered by Moore's charges. (rense.com)
  • Of more than 50 therapeutic vaccine trials so far, this is the first one that has bolstered the immune system in a "meaningful" way, says Steven Deeks, an HIV/AIDS clinician and researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who is "cautiously optimistic" that the data will inspire others to study the approach. (sciencemag.org)
  • Col. Nelson Michael, another vaccine researcher, explained that different types of antibody responses in the body determine who gets infected and who does not. (columbiachronicle.com)
  • Dr. David Schwartz, a Hopkins vaccine researcher, said it was important to keep the Walter Reed results in perspective. (baltimoresun.com)
  • This book provides an excellent introductory overview for the beginning HIV vaccine researcher or any person who needs a more technical primer on the various aspects of the HIV vaccine challenge. (cdc.gov)
  • The NIAID announced at the same time that it was taking over responsibility for AIDS vaccine trials from the Department of Defense. (rense.com)
  • These studies on single-dose vaccines for emerging infectious diseases were supported with funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and performed at laboratories of the Centers for Disease Control, (CDC) in Fort Collins, CO, Institute of Human Virology, University of MD and NIH's Rocky Mountain Laboratories have demonstrated the broad utility of the platform. (eurekalert.org)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health, conducts and supports HIV vaccine studies around the world. (cnn.com)
  • See NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., explain why an HIV vaccine is needed . (bio-medicine.org)
  • One big winner today seems to be GAVI - the Global Alliance for vaccines and immunisations - which Save the Children is supporting strongly. (savethechildren.org.uk)
  • The vaccine is designed to promote a memory immune response against the three major proteins (Gag, Pol, Env) expressed by HIV. (emory.edu)
  • Robinson now leads the effort at GeoVax on manufacture and human testing of the vaccine while Amara leads the nonhuman primate component at Emory. (scienceblog.com)
  • There has been such widespread homophobia in the wake of the AIDS epidemic that it is important for the general population to appreciate that among a substantial number of homosexuals there is a strong sense of compassion and responsibility. (latimes.com)
  • Such a vaccine, along with existing HIV treatment and prevention strategies, would help achieve the goal of ending the HIV epidemic. (cdc.gov)
  • Ending Aids takes a hard look at one of medicine's most challenging struggles: the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (macfound.org)
  • However, AIDS still remains an epidemic burden to developing nations where a startling 33 million people were said to be living with HIV. (medindia.net)
  • The vaccines are suitable for repeated use, stable at refrigerator temperatures or lyophilized for non-cold chain needle-free application, and amenable to rapid and affordable scale-up for use in both epidemic response and routine vaccination. (eurekalert.org)
  • These included prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HIV (already in advanced clinical trials), preventive vaccines for Marburg, Sudan and Malaria, all with major epidemic potential with high human lethality, as well as therapeutic vaccines for chronic hepatitis B infections and tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-based-cancer vaccines. (eurekalert.org)
  • We need a vaccine if we are going to end the epidemic. (cnn.com)
  • Q: Because a vaccine is a long way off at best, what should countries do to minimize the impact of this epidemic? (baltimoresun.com)
  • In the early days the AIDS posse said that entire nations, especially in North Africa, will disappear due to the AIDS epidemic. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • This was absolutely the wrong thing to say to our friend, who had been an AIDS activist since the early days of the epidemic, had nursed several beloved friends through the illness, had seen way too many of those friends die. (typepad.com)
  • I cannot emphasise how badly we need to have a vaccine… to get rid of HIV in the next generation altogether," said Francois Venter of the University of the Witwatersrand Reproductive Health and HIV Institute in South Africa. (rawstory.com)
  • The government of South Africa has also "expressed a willingness to license a vaccine if we have a threshold of 50 percent," an official with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation told reporters in Barcelona. (ebony.com)
  • To demonstrate a broad utility of the platform, we developed prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for other infectious diseases as well as cancer," said Mr. Basu. (eurekalert.org)
  • Volvovitz asserted that gp 160 is recognized internationally as the "lead product" in the field of therapeutic vaccines intended to lessen symptoms in people infected with HIV. (courant.com)
  • From testing drugs to developing vaccines, the close study of the immune system is key to improving real-world health outcomes. (lifeboat.com)
  • Human body test, or stage I clinical test, of the compound AIDS vaccine aims to further assess the security of the vaccine, an SFDA official said. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • As Dr. Lawrence K. Altman wondered earlier this year, who will test such a vaccine? (latimes.com)
  • Dr. Leon McKusick, a psychologist with the University of California at San Francisco, has surveyed 644 homosexual men about their willingness to participate in a test of an AIDS vaccine. (latimes.com)
  • Many of those surveyed by McKusick have not taken the antibody test--a blood test that indicates if the subject has been exposed to AIDS. (latimes.com)
  • Trials to test whether potential AIDS vaccines can prevent the disease should begin as soon as possible, without waiting to find out precisely how they work. (newscientist.com)
  • A spokesman for the F.D.A. said two other vaccine developers, Oncogen, a Seattle-based subsidiary of Bristol-Myers, and a team that includes the Institute for Immunologic Disorders in Houston, had also sought approval to test AIDS vaccines. (nytimes.com)
  • The objective of a Phase II test is to assess whether a drug has any impact whatsoever on the intended disease (i.e., does it do anything vis-à-vis AIDS). (ahrp.org)
  • The National Biodefense Safety Board (NBSB) recently voted to move forward with an administration plan to test an anthrax vaccine on American children . (westernjournalism.com)
  • And because the test kits were bogus kits, they carry a disclaimer that states - "these test kits cannot be used to diagnose AIDS" which was good advice from their lawyers to protect their ass from lawsuits. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • The opinion that the single-vaccine test may not be the right way to go was shared Thursday by Kristine Gebbie, President Clinton's national AIDS policy coordinator. (courant.com)
  • A diagnostic test capable of directly detecting the presence of HTLV-III, LAV, ARV-2 and related retroviruses associated with AIDS and ARC is also described. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hence, there is a need for inclusion of immunostimulants known as adjuvants in the subunit vaccine formulations. (springer.com)
  • Emory University has an equity interest in GeoVax and is entitled to sales royalties for the vaccine technologies being studied. (scienceblog.com)
  • The ride originally traveled from the Hope Clinic in Decatur, GA to Athens, GA. To accommodate more riders, in 2007, ride organizers changed the route to begin and end on the Emory University campus with a Saturday night stay at Rock Eagle near Eatonton, GA. In 2009, the name of the ride was changed to the AIDS Vaccine 200 to communicate more clearly the purpose of the ride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases external icon , HIV Vaccine Awareness Day (HVAD) is observed on May 18. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, director of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said there was ''really no change in the timetable'' previously issued by health experts that a useful vaccine would probably ''not be widely available'' until ''well into the 1990's. (nytimes.com)
  • This program is sponsored by the Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. (biologynews.net)
  • I am more optimistic about an AIDS vaccine at this point in time than I have been probably in the last 10 years," Dr. Gary Nabel of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, who led the study, said in a telephone interview. (lifescript.com)
  • Dr. Michael Lange, associate chief of infectious diseases at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital in New York and one of the doctors the FDA consulted when evaluating AZT in 1987, says even he sometimes had trouble differentiating between AZT's toxic effects and AIDS itself. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Five years ago the White House issued a challenge to the nation - to develop an AIDS vaccine within a decade," said AVAC Executive Director, Chris Collins. (avac.org)
  • Starting small, but promising ease and speed in its grant-making, the AVAC Fund is designed specifically to give ancillary support to sites in resource-limited settings that are struggling with the devastation of AIDS and taking on the added challenge of testing vaccines. (avac.org)
  • Since the initial proof-of-concept studies examining the ability of antigen-encoded plasmid DNA to serve as an immunogen, DNA vaccines have evolved as a clinically safe and effective platform for priming HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses in heterologous "prime-boost" vaccination regimens. (mdpi.com)
  • The vaccine currently licensed in the United States is produced from pooled plasma of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive individuals, some of whom are also in high-risk groups for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cdc.gov)
  • All the mechanisms of vaccine adjuvants ensuing immunostimulatory effects directly or indirectly stimulate antigen presenting cells (APCs). (springer.com)