AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Syphilis Serodiagnosis: Serologic tests for syphilis.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Dourine: A disease of horses and donkeys caused by Trypanosoma equiperdum. The disease occurs in Africa, the Americas, and Asia.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Glanders: A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Gnathostomiasis: Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fascioliasis: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic flukes of the genus FASCIOLA, such as FASCIOLA HEPATICA.Clonorchis sinensis: A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Clonorchiasis: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Fasciola: A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Fasciolidae. Two species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. The parasites are found in the liver and gallbladder and associated ducts in mammals and occasionally man. F. gigantica occurs rarely in man.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Reagins: Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Burkholderia mallei: A species of gram-negative bacteria parasitic on HORSES and DONKEYS causing GLANDERS, which can be transmitted to humans.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Cysticercus: The larval form of various tapeworms of the genus Taenia.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Toxocariasis: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Fasciola hepatica: A species of helminth commonly called the sheep liver fluke. It occurs in the biliary passages, liver, and gallbladder during various stages of development. Snails and aquatic vegetation are the intermediate hosts. Occasionally seen in man, it is most common in sheep and cattle.Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Ehrlichia chaffeensis: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the causative agent of human EHRLICHIOSIS. This organism was first discovered at Fort Chaffee, Arkansas, when blood samples from suspected human ehrlichiosis patients were studied.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Sparganosis: Infection of animals, including fish and man, with a developmental stage of Diphyllobothrium. This stage has recently been referred to as a plerocercoid but the name sparganum has persisted. Therefore, infection of fish or other animals with the plerocercoid larvae is sparganosis. Fish-eating mammals, including man, are the final hosts.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Neurocysticercosis: Infection of the brain, spinal cord, or perimeningeal structures with the larval forms of the genus TAENIA (primarily T. solium in humans). Lesions formed by the organism are referred to as cysticerci. The infection may be subacute or chronic, and the severity of symptoms depends on the severity of the host immune response and the location and number of lesions. SEIZURES represent the most common clinical manifestation although focal neurologic deficits may occur. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp46-50)Salmonella paratyphi C: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Paragonimus: A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Taenia: A genus of large tapeworms.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Cysticercosis: Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Entamoebiasis: Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.Trichinellosis: An infection with TRICHINELLA. It is caused by eating raw or undercooked meat that is infected with larvae of nematode worms TRICHINELLA genus. All members of the TRICHINELLA genus can infect human in addition to TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, the traditional etiological agent. It is distributed throughout much of the world and is re-emerging in some parts as a public health hazard and a food safety problem.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Treponema Immobilization Test: Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Immunoconglutinins: Autoantibodies directed against newly-formed EPITOPES created as the COMPLEMENT cascade is activated and the proteins involved change their conformations.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Paragonimiasis: Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Echinococcus granulosus: A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.Toxocara canis: A species of parasitic nematode found in the intestine of dogs. Lesions in the brain, liver, eye, kidney, and lung are caused by migrating larvae. In humans, these larvae do not follow normal patterns and may produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Pleuropneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Trichinella spiralis: A parasite of carnivorous mammals that causes TRICHINELLOSIS. It is especially common in rats and in swine fed uncooked garbage. Human infection is initiated by the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked pork or other meat containing the encysted larvae.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption Test: Serologic assay that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the etiologic agent of syphilis. After diluting the patient's serum to remove non-specific antibodies, the serum is mixed on a glass slide with Nichol's strain of Treponema pallidum. An antigen-antibody reaction occurs if the test is positive and the bound antibodies are detected with fluoresceinated antihuman gamma-globulin antibody.Scrub Typhus: An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Heartwater Disease: A tick-borne septicemic disease of domestic and wild ruminants caused by EHRLICHIA RUMINANTIUM.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Ehrlichia ruminantium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the family ANAPLASMATACEAE, that causes HEARTWATER DISEASE in ruminants.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Leishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Nucleocapsid Proteins: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Immune Adherence Reaction: A method for the detection of very small quantities of antibody in which the antigen-antibody-complement complex adheres to indicator cells, usually primate erythrocytes or nonprimate blood platelets. The reaction is dependent on the number of bound C3 molecules on the C3b receptor sites of the indicator cell.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.IndiaLipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.

Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing by enzyme-linked fluorescent and western blot assays using serum, gingival-crevicular transudate, and urine samples. (1/692)

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97. 4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies.  (+info)

Prenatal discussion of HIV testing and maternal HIV testing--14 states, 1996-1997. (2/692)

In July 1995, the Public Health Service recommended that health-care providers counsel all pregnant women about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and encourage testing for HIV infection and, if indicated, initiate zidovudine therapy. To evaluate compliance with these recommendations, CDC analyzed population-based data on HIV counseling and testing during 1996-1997 from 14 states participating in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS). This report presents an analysis of survey data collected from 1996 through 1997; results indicate that HIV counseling and testing of pregnant women were common but varied by state, type of prenatal health-care provider, Medicaid status, and maternal demographic characteristics.  (+info)

Universal HIV screening of pregnant women in England: cost effectiveness analysis. (3/692)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary HIV screening of pregnant women in England. DESIGN: Cost effectiveness analysis. Cost estimates of caring for HIV positive children were based on the stage of HIV infection and calculated using data obtained from a London hospital between 1986 and 1996. These were combined with estimates of the health benefits and costs of antenatal screening so that the cost effectiveness of universal, voluntary antenatal screening for HIV infection in England could be estimated. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Lifetime, direct costs of medical care of childhood HIV infection; life years gained as a result of the screening programme; net cost per life year gained for different pretest counselling costs; and different prevalence rates of pregnant women who were unaware that they were HIV positive. RESULTS: Estimated direct lifetime medical and social care costs of childhood HIV infection were pound178 300 using a 5% discount rate for time preference (1995-6 prices). In high prevalence areas screening pregnant women for HIV is estimated to be a cost effective intervention with a net cost of less than pound4000 for each life year gained. For areas with comparatively low prevalence rates, cost effectiveness could be less than pound20 000 per life year gained, depending on the number of pregnant women who are unaware that they are infected and local screening costs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm recent recommendations that universal, voluntary antenatal HIV screening should be implemented in the London area. Serious consideration of the policy should be given for other areas in England depending on local prevalence and screening costs.  (+info)

Name-based reporting of HIV-positive test results as a deterrent to testing. (4/692)

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated attitudes toward name-based reporting of HIV. METHODS: One hundred thirty high-risk, male repeat testers received information on the public health benefits of name-based reporting and reported their intentions to test. RESULTS: Of the 67 men who were randomly selected and asked their intentions before hearing the benefits, 63% said they would not test if reporting were required. After hearing the benefits, 19% changed their minds (P < .014). Of the 63 men who were asked only after hearing the benefits, 44% would not test. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing name-based reporting without working before-hand to change attitudes could undermine the benefits of both testing and HIV surveillance.  (+info)

Anonymous or confidential HIV counseling and voluntary testing in federally funded testing sites--United States, 1995-1997. (5/692)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling and voluntary testing (CT) programs have been an important part of national HIV prevention efforts since the first HIV antibody tests became available in 1985. In 1995, these programs accounted for approximately 15% of annual HIV antibody testing in the United States, excluding testing for blood donation. CT opportunities are offered to persons at risk for HIV infection at approximately 11,000 sites, including dedicated HIV CT sites, sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics, drug-treatment centers, hospitals, and prisons. In 39 states, testing can be obtained anonymously, where persons do not have to give their name to get tested. All states provide confidential testing (by name) and have confidentiality laws and regulations to protect this information. This report compares patterns of anonymous and confidential testing in all federally funded CT programs from 1995 through 1997 and documents the importance of both types of testing opportunities.  (+info)

Effects of HIV counseling and testing on sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review of published research, 1985-1997. (6/692)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether HIV counseling and testing leads to reductions in sexual risk behavior. METHODS: The meta-analysis included 27 published studies that provided sexual behavior outcome data, assessed behavior before and after counseling and testing, and provided details sufficient for the calculation of effect sizes. The studies involved 19,597 participants. RESULTS: After counseling and testing, HIV-positive participants and HIV-serodiscordant couples reduced unprotected intercourse and increased condom use more than HIV-negative and untested participants. HIV-negative participants did not modify their behavior more than untested participants. Participants' age, volition for testing, and injection drug use treatment status, as well as the sample seroprevalence and length of the follow-up, explained the variance in results. CONCLUSIONS: HIV counseling and testing appears to provide an effective means of secondary prevention for HIV-positive individuals but, as conducted in the reviewed studies, is not an effective primary prevention strategy for uninfected participants. Theory-driven research with attention given to the context of testing is needed to further explicate the determinants of behavior change resulting from HIV counseling and testing, and the effectiveness of specific counseling approaches.  (+info)

Field evaluation of the Determine rapid human immunodeficiency virus diagnostic test in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. (7/692)

Rapid detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can result in improved patient care and/or faster implementation of public health preventive measures. A new rapid test, Determine (Abbott, Abbott Park, Ill.), detects HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 antibodies within 15 min by using 50 microl of serum or plasma. No specialized equipment or ancillary supplies are required, and results are read visually. A positive result is noted by the appearance of a red line. An operational control (red line) indicates proper test performance. We evaluated the Determine rapid HIV detection test with a group of well-characterized serum samples (CD4 counts and viral loads were known) and serum samples from HIV-positive individuals at field sites in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. In the field evaluations, the results obtained by the Determine assay were compared to those obtained by local in-country HIV screening procedures. We evaluated serum from 100 HIV-positive patients and 66 HIV-negative patients. All samples gave the expected results. In a companion study, 42 HIV-positive samples from a Miami, Fla., serum bank were tested by the Determine assay. The samples had been characterized in terms of CD4 counts and viral loads. Fifteen patients had CD4 counts <200 cells/mm(3), while 27 patients had CD4 counts >200 cells/mm(3). Viral loads ranged from 630 to 873,746 log(10) copies/ml. All samples from the Miami serum bank were positive by the Determine test. Combined results from the multicenter studies indicated that the correct results were obtained by the Determine assay for 100% (142 of 142) of the HIV-positive serum samples and 100% (66 of 66) of the HIV-negative serum samples. The Determine test was simple to perform and the results were easy to interpret. The Determine test provides a valuable new method for the rapid identification of HIV-positive individuals, especially in developing countries with limited laboratory infrastructures.  (+info)

Serological diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus in Burkina Faso: reliable, practical strategies using less expensive commercial test kits. (8/692)

Reported are the results of a cross-sectional survey in Burkina Faso to identify reliable, practical strategies for the serological diagnosis of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infections, using less-expensive commercial test kits in various combinations, as an alternative to the conventional Western blot (WB) test, which costs US$ 60. Serum samples, collected from blood donors, patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and pregnant women, were tested between December 1995 and January 1997. Twelve commercial test kits were available: five Mixt enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), three Mixt rapid tests, and four additional tests including monospecific HIV-1 and HIV-2 ELISA. The reference strategy utilized a combination of one ELISA or one rapid test with WB, and was conducted following WHO criteria. A total of 768 serum samples were tested; 35 were indeterminate and excluded from the analysis. Seroprevalence of HIV in the remaining 733 sera was found to be 37.5% (95% confidence interval: 34.0-41.1). All the ELISA tests showed 100% sensitivity, but their specificities ranged from 81.4% to 100%. GLA (Genelavia Mixt) had the highest positive delta value, while ICE HIV-1.0.2 (ICE) produced the most distinct negative results. Among the rapid tests, COM (CombAIDS-RS) achieved 100% sensitivity and SPO (HIV Spot) 100% specificity. Various combinations of commercial tests, according to recommended WHO strategies I, II, III, gave excellent results when ICE was included in the sequence. The best combination of tests for strategy II, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.10, compared with US$ 55.60 for the corresponding conventional strategy. For strategy III, the best combination, which achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity, was to use ICE, ZYG (Enzygnost Anti HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus) and COM, the cost of which was US$ 2.90 (19.2 times lower than the corresponding strategy requiring WB). No rapid test combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Our results indicate that the serodiagnosis of HIV in Burkina Faso is possible by using reliable, less-expensive strategies which do not require Western blot testing. Moreover, there is a choice of strategies for laboratories working with or without an ELISA chain.  (+info)

On 29/01/2020 10.04, Thomas Huth wrote: , The canon-a1100 machine can be used with the Barebox firmware. The , QEMU Advent Calendar 2018 features a pre-compiled image which we , can use for testing. , , Reviewed-by: Philippe Mathieu-Daudé ,[email protected], , Tested-by: Philippe Mathieu-Daudé ,[email protected], , Reviewed-by: Wainer dos Santos Moschetta ,[email protected], , Tested-by: Wainer dos Santos Moschetta ,[email protected], , Signed-off-by: Thomas Huth ,[email protected], , --- , v2: , - Rename file and add class docstring to please pylint , - Add entry to MAINTAINERS , - Add :avocado: tags=device:pflash_cfi02 , , MAINTAINERS , 1 + , tests/acceptance/machine_arm_canona1100.py , 35 ++++++++++++++++++++++ , 2 files changed, 36 insertions(+) , create mode 100644 tests/acceptance/machine_arm_canona1100.py , , diff --git a/MAINTAINERS b/MAINTAINERS , index efd3f3875f..ddf6fe0794 100644 , --- a/MAINTAINERS , +++ b/MAINTAINERS , @@ -561,6 +561,7 @@ S: Odd Fixes , F: include/hw/arm/digic.h , F: ...
index e40b84651b..4e69a83a12 100644 --- a/tests/acceptance/boot_linux_console.py +++ b/tests/acceptance/boot_linux_console.py @@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ import os import lzma import gzip import shutil +import logging from avocado import skipUnless from avocado_qemu import Test @@ -21,6 +22,19 @@ from avocado.utils import process from avocado.utils import archive +NUMPY_AVAILABLE = True +try: + import numpy as np +except ImportError: + NUMPY_AVAILABLE = False + +CV2_AVAILABLE = True +try: + import cv2 +except ImportError: + CV2_AVAILABLE = False ...
Dr. Robert Klein discusses the continuing concern about the large number of undiagnosed HIV infections. , A website for information on Infectious Disease.
The aim and objective of this investigation is to explore, on a preliminary basis, the psychological and social effects on a sample of women of having disclosed their positive HIV diagnosis. The study was conducted in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A convenience sampling approach was used to collect the sample. Inclusion criteria included female, older than 18, with a positive HIV status. Participants disclosure of a positive HIV status (defined as having voluntarily disclosed to sexual partners, intimate or immediate family, extended family and or friends) was a key inclusion criterion. Semi-structured interviews were used in the collection of data. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Through collaboration with other trained researchers, the data was analyzed and interpreted using investigator triangulation. The independent clinicians identified and established the categories, themes or recurring processes separately using content analysis. The themes in the transcripts as ...
There are several brands of rapid HIV test kits that you can choose from, and many of those can be bought via the internet. Simply log on to the computer and search the internet for retailers that offer this type of device for sale.
Blood pressure checks, vaccines and urgent medical care - you can get a lot at a pharmacy these days. How about a rapid HIV tests?
In order to find out if you have been infected with HIV, you need to have a blood test. This blood test, often incorrectly called an AIDS test, is actually a test for HIV antibodies.. Antibodies are produced by your body as a reaction to infection with HIV. An HIV antibody test looks for the presence of these antibodies in your blood. In a standard HIV test, a needle is inserted into a vein in your arm and a sample of your blood is taken. It is sent to a lab to be tested for the presence of these antibodies. After about two weeks, the test results come back to the office where you had the test done.. Rapid HIV tests are available in some regions across the country. The entire process with the new tests, including taking a drop of blood from your finger, along with HIV counselling before and after the test, takes about 20 minutes. The results that you receive from the rapid test are very accurate.. Since HIV antibody tests look for antibodies and not the virus itself, you need to wait to be ...
A simple HIV test design and easily interpretable, fast results are logistical advantages in clinical settings such as the labor and delivery unit. A fast test result means that a woman can make important choices about her and her babys medical care before she delivers her baby. If a woman finds out she has HIV, she can decide to take antiretroviral drugs before delivery to decrease the risk of passing HIV to her baby. These advantages are also important for women with little or no prenatal care who present for care late in pregnancy, but may not be inclined to return for a standard test result or adhere to subsequent prenatal visits.. Eligible women who elect to participate in this study will be enrolled in either the Late Presenter Group (women who are not in active labor, and for whom delivery is not imminent) or the Peripartum Group (women who are in active labor with anticipation of delivery within 24 hours). Step I for all women will include rapid HIV testing with OraQuick HIV 1/2 and ...
Hello, 1. There is a recent law that requires positive HIV test results be reported to the health department. However, anonymous testing can still be arranged through some private physicians...
( i (male) received oral sex on penis and i have herpes 2...What is a HIV Antibody Test w/Reflex .... i have a test in a laboratory but not that kind of test is...i took my hiv antibody test at 8...
Hi Sometimes test come back with an indeterminate reading, this could be because the test was faulty or done incorrectly or for many other reasons. I would wait for the results of his test to come...
The 60-second rapid HIV test, INSTI, receives innovative technology award. HIV-positive patients may not always know they are infected. Routine screening has been a challenge, but one potential solution has just won an innovative technology award and a group purchasing contract with one of the ...
The 60-second rapid HIV test, INSTI, receives innovative technology award. HIV-positive patients may not always know they are infected. Routine screening has been a challenge, but one potential solution has just won an innovative technology award and a group purchasing contract with one of the ...
Case of recurrent infections - investigation, diagnosis and treatment of HIV plus discussion on why a negative ELISA test but positive HIV PCR obtained.
To briefly follow that tangent, Im pretty positive HIV wouldnt survive more than minutes in an aspirin. It isnt a very durable virus outside a huma
The Ethical and Scientific Considerations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Screening in Volunteers for Clinical Pharmacologic ...
Looking for online definition of Aids serodiagnosis in the Medical Dictionary? Aids serodiagnosis explanation free. What is Aids serodiagnosis? Meaning of Aids serodiagnosis medical term. What does Aids serodiagnosis mean?
There exists low uptake of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing among Tuberculosis (TB) patients through Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) under the national TB control program in Nepal. The degree and quality of program delivery were explored through determining whether the PITC program is currently implemented as intended. This study aimed to assess three major components of the programs implementation fidelity: adherence to PITC service, exposure, and quality of program delivery in order to optimize and standardize PITC implementation by exploring its barriers and enablers. This research used a sequential explanatory mixed method design. Retrospective cross-sectional study of TB patients enrolled in five TB treatment centers of the Kathmandu district from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017 was done to assess PITC adherence to Direct Observed Treatment-Short Course (DOTS) protocols. The centers TB-DOTS readiness was assessed using the WHO Service Availability and Readiness
Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious disease in the world after human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) (1). Immunosuppressed HIV-infected persons are highly susceptible to TB disease, and countries in sub-Saharan Africa have the highest TB incidence rates, primarily because of the HIV epidemic (2,3). In Zambia, the TB rate increased during 1984--2005 from approximately 100 cases per 100,000 population to 580 cases per 100,000 population (4). Much of this increase has been attributed to the high rate of coinfection with HIV; currently, an estimated 50%--70% of TB patients are infected with HIV (N. Kapata, Ministry of Health, Zambia, personal communication, 2008). In 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that countries with high coinfection rates develop TB/HIV collaborative activities, including routine provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) of TB patients in TB clinical settings, using an ...
This application addresses Studies to improve access and utilization of HIV counseling and testing for HIV/AIDS and AIDS-related co-infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that are part of PA-07-307 Drug Abuse Aspects of HIV/AIDS. The only rapid tests that are approved for use in the US currently are for HIV infection. Tests for other conditions such as hepatitis C (HCV) and syphilis are in use in other countries. In response to an Opportunity that the CDC published in the Federal Register, there are now candidate rapid test kits for HCV and syphilis available for experimental use in the US. Different combinations of rapid and standard tests will be offered to participants in a four-arm trial to assess which tests are accepted by the participants. Only a minority of clients at CBRS who have been offered the rapid test for HIV have accepted it. Those who chose rapid HIV tests were more likely to be male, educated, gay, young and White. They ...
November 20,2007- MedMira Increases European Sales for Rapid HIV Test - Ships Initial Order to Romania and Follow-On Orders to Existing Distributors
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What is HIV?. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiencyl Virus. HIV can progress to failure of the immune system which may allow life-threatening opportunistic infections to thrive. HIV is most frequently contracted through sexual contact. There is currently no cure for HIV, but there is appropriate medical care available that gives people the opportunity to live long, happy, healthy lives.. Who should be tested for HIV?. EVERYONE!. What tests can I get?. The Alliance offers all interested individuals tests for HIV (rapid and traditional) and syphilis. We further offer screenings for gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and hepatitis C based on risk factors.. What is the difference between a Rapid HIV test and a Traditional HIV test?. A rapid HIV test detects HIV antibodies in the blood. This test operates with a 99.7% specificity rate at three months prior to being tested. Rapid test results are given within 20 minutes of test initiation. A Traditional HIV test detects both HIV antibodies and HIV virus in the ...
Can anything effect your test results? (besides the window period) meaning any other sickness or disease you have...can those things affect HIV test results interfering in a false negative? Can antibio...
Another explanation could be that women with undiagnosed HIV infection, when they become pregnant, are not offered an HIV test and therefore the increase is merely a consequence of a lack of screening. and identification. The proportion of women on ART increased from 76% to 98% during the study period. The goal of ART is to normalize the CD4 cell count and suppress viral load to an undetectable level. In most studies, HIV RNA ,1000 copies/mL is used as a measure of treatment success and as a reliable predictor of the risk of transmission, although the aim is to fully suppress viral replication. In our study, HIV RNA levels were available for 206 women, and of these 95% had HIV RNA ,1000 copies/mL. The CD4 cell count seemed higher when ART was initiated before week 14, a finding partly explained by the large group of. selleckchem women who were receiving optimal treatment by the time of conception. Low CD4 cell Talazoparib cost count is an important risk factor for postnatal transmission [14]. ...
It is currently accepted that a positive Western blot (WB) HIV antibody test is synonymous with HIV infection and the attendant risk of developing and dying from AIDS. In this communication we present a critical evaluation of the presently available data on HIV isolation and antibody testing. The available evidence indicates that: (a) the antibody tests are not standardised; (b) the antibody tests are not reproducible; (c) the WB proteins (bands) which are considered to be coded by the HIV genome and to be specific to HIV may not be coded by the HIV genome and may in fact represent normal cellular proteins; (d) even if the proteins are specific to HIV, because no gold standard has been used and may not even exist to determine specificity, a positive WB may represent nothing more than cross‑reactivity with the many non‑HIV antibodies present in AIDS patients and those at risk, and thus be unrelated to the presence of HIV. We conclude that the use of the HIV antibody tests as a diagnostic and ...
HIV is most commonly passed on through unprotected sex. It can also be transmitted by coming into contact with infected blood - for example, sharing needles to inject steroids or drugs. The HIV virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making it less able to fight infections and disease. Theres no cure for HIV, but there are treatments that allow most people to live a long and otherwise healthy life.. AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection, when your body can no longer fight life-threatening infections.. Most people with HIV look and feel healthy and have no symptoms. When you first develop HIV, you may experience a flu-like illness with a fever, sore throat or rash. This is called a seroconversion illness.. A simple blood test is usually used to test for an HIV infection. Some clinics may also offer a rapid test using a finger-prick blood test or saliva sample.. Read more about HIV and AIDS and coping with a positive HIV test.. ...
The Louisiana Department of Health protects and promotes health and ensures access to medical, preventive and rehabilitative services for all citizens of the State of Louisiana.
On Fri, Jul 26, 2019 at 10:12 AM Chih-Min Chao ,[email protected], wrote: , , , , On Thu, Jul 25, 2019 at 8:12 AM Alistair Francis ,[email protected], wrote: ,, ,, On Tue, Jul 23, 2019 at 11:46 PM Chih-Min Chao ,[email protected], wrote: ,, , ,, , Similar to the mips + malta test, it boots a Linux kernel on a virt ,, , board and verify the serial is working. Also, it relies on the serial ,, , device set by the machine itself. ,, , ,, , If riscv64 is a target being built, make check-acceptance will ,, , automatically include this test by the use of the arch:riscv64 tags. ,, , ,, , Alternatively, this test can be run using: ,, , ,, , $ avocado run -t arch:riscv64 tests/acceptance ,, , ,, , packages ,, , debian official ,, , binutils-riscv64-linux-gnu_2.32-8 ,, , opensbi_0.4-1_all ,, , linux-image-5.0.0-trunk-riscv64 5.0.2-1~exp1 ,, , third-party ,, , ,, , https://github.com/groeck/linux-build-test/rootfs/riscv64/rootfs.cpio.gz ,, , (the repo is also used in mips target acceptance) ,, , ,, , ...
If you ever tested positive for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, at any age, you are not eligible to donate, even if you were never sick or jaundiced from the infection. You should not give blood if you have AIDS or have ever had a positive HIV test, or if you have done something that puts you at risk for becoming infected with HIV. You are at risk for getting infected if you… are a male who has had sexual contact with another male, in the last 12 months ...
Heres a quick rundown on rapid HIV testing: A negative result on a rapid HIV test is just as accurate as a negative result from a standard test - you just dont have to wait as long to get it. However, positive results are considered "preliminary" and another blood sample must be sent to a lab for confirmation. If that result comes back negative, you will probably be asked to come back for retesting to verify that negative result.. The rapid test, just like the standard test, is an antibody test, which means it detects the presence of antibodies in your bloodstream. Antibodies are molecules produced by your immune system, and are specially designed to attach to viruses and other invaders. Each type of antibody is shaped in such a way that they can interlock with just one type of pathogen; some antibodies might specialize in attaching to a certain strain of a cold virus while others might be shaped especially for attachment to the surface of an E. coli bacterium. So, if youre infected with HIV, ...
Brand Types: Uni Gold Recombigen HIV Home Access Trinity HIV 1/2 STAT-PAK ORAQUICK ADV HIV 1-2 RAPID First oral fluid rapid HIV test . OraQuick ADVANCE HIV-1/2 Ant...
TEsting the content publish check Most HIV tests available today test for HIV antibodies. This is called an RNA test RNA testing is more expensive and much less common than antibody tests. Most HIV tests are blood tests. However, rapid test results that show a person has HIV need to be confirmed with a…
The home HIV test works by testing the blood for HIV antibodies -- a positive result means these antibodies have been found in the blood and the person being tested is HIV+.
Among the three prenatal HIV testing approaches assessed in this report, opt-out voluntary testing and the mandatory testing of newborns appear to be associated with the highest testing rates. On the basis of the chart-review methodology, prenatal testing rates were higher in Tennessee, which uses the opt-out approach, than rates in states using the opt-in approach and similar to rates achieved with mandatory newborn testing in New York during the same time period
Buy a HIV test kit online and receive your test result within days. We work with a trusted UK based laboratory. Easy to use test kit - Free Delivery
Malawi trial finds half of those offered the opportunity to self-test for HIV during an outpatient visit accepted it, compared to less than 15% of those offered provider-initiated testing.. ...
Malawi trial finds half of those offered the opportunity to self-test for HIV during an outpatient visit accepted it, compared to less than 15% of those offered provider-initiated testing.. ...
Question - Is it OK to have a HIV test after 80 days of exposure ?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for HIV, Ask an HIV AIDS Specialist
Theres a new push to make testing for the AIDS virus as common as cholesterol checks.Americans ages 15 to 64 should get an HIV test at least once -...
With CCPA now in effect, companies will need to address the dual challenges of the CCPA opt-in: managing the data supply chain and the customer experience.
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... aids serodiagnosis MeSH E01.450.495.735.150 --- complement fixation tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.155 --- complement hemolytic ... syphilis serodiagnosis MeSH E01.450.495.735.850.200 --- fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test MeSH E01.450.495.735. ...
Principles of Diagnosis: Serodiagnosis. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0- ... 9631172-1-1. https://portal.fmed.uniba.sk/articles.php?aid=231. Retrieved 22 January 2018. Missing or empty ,title= (help) ...
Kramer MR, Gregg PA, Goldstein M, Llamas R, Krieger BP (1990). "Disseminated strongyloidiasis in AIDS and non-AIDS ... Carroll, S. M.; Karthigasu, K. T.; Grove, D. I. (1981-01-01). "Serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by an enzyme-linked ... Gompels MM, Todd J, Peters BS, Main J, Pinching AJ (1991). "Disseminated strongyloidiasis in AIDS: uncommon but important". ... AIDS. 5 (3): 329-32. doi:10.1097/00002030-199103000-00015. PMID 2059374. Purtilo DT, Meyers WM, Connor DH (1974). "Fatal ...
... and a Synthetic AIDS Aids Vaccine Targeting HIV Receptors February 28-March 1, 2001 • Baltimore, Maryland Meeting of the ... Improved serodiagnosis of hepaptis C virus Hepatitis C infection with synthetic peptide antigen from capsid protein. Proc Natl ... Synthetic AIDS vaccine by targeting HIV receptor. Vaccine 2002, 21: 89-97. 8. Wang, CY, Chang TY, Walfield AM, Ye J, Shen M, ... also received Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Grand Challenges Explorations grant for a new approach to an AIDS vaccine. Dr. ...
... serodiagnosis and chemotherapy. Frank H. Krusen, originator of the field of physical medicine, establishing the first such ... and utilizes the William Maul Measey Institute for Clinical Simulation and Patient Safety to aid learning through interactive ...
An R, Tang Y, Chen L, Cai H, et al «Encephalitis is mediated by ROP18 of Toxoplasma gondii, a severe pathogen in AIDS patients ... The past and present role of the Sabin-Feldman dye test in the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis» (en anglès). Bull World Health ... Bach MC, Skarulis GJ «Acute Toxoplasmic Meningitis in a Patient with AIDS» (en anglès). Clin Infect Dis, 1997 Des; 25 (6), pp: ...
The spread of B. burgdorferi is aided by the attachment of the host protease plasmin to the surface of the spirochete. If ... Engstrom SM, Shoop E, Johnson RC (February 1995). "Immunoblot interpretation criteria for serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease ... but they are considered a reliable aid in the diagnosis of later stages of Lyme disease. Serologic tests for Lyme disease are ... but may aid in differential diagnosis and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease. Though controversial, some ...
डीओआइ:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199712)22:4,339::AID-EAT1,3.0.CO;2-N.. नामालूम प्राचल ,month=. की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद)सीएस1 ... Kawabata M, Kubo N, Arashima Y, Yoshida M, Kawano K (1991). "[Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by ELISA using Borrelia burgdorferi ... डीओआइ:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199812)24:4,443::AID-EAT13,3.0.CO;2-4.. नामालूम प्राचल ,month=. की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद)सीएस1 ... डीओआइ:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199701)21:1,83::AID-EAT10,3.0.CO;2-P.. नामालूम प्राचल ,month=. की उपेक्षा की गयी (मदद). ...
doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199712)22:4,339::AID-EAT1,3.0.CO;2-N. PMID 9356884.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help)CS1 ... Kawabata M, Kubo N, Arashima Y, Yoshida M, Kawano K (1991). "[Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by ELISA using Borrelia burgdorferi ... doi:10.1002/1098-108X(199407)16:1,53::AID-EAT2260160105,3.0.CO;2-V. PMID 7920581.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help) ... doi:10.1002/1098-108X(199507)18:1,59::AID-EAT2260180107,3.0.CO;2-6. PMID 7670444.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored (help)CS1 ...
The present intercountry workshop was designed to address quality aspects of laboratory testing for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis ... Browsing Technical documents by Subject "AIDS Serodiagnosis". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. ...
The present intercountry workshop was designed to address quality aspects of laboratory testing for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis ...
"AIDS Serodiagnosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "AIDS Serodiagnosis" was a major or minor topic of these ... "AIDS Serodiagnosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "AIDS Serodiagnosis" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "AIDS Serodiagnosis". ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2009) ...
AIDS) in Kinshasa, Zaire, between August 1984 and May 1985. Two hundred sixteen (97.7%) of 221 IgG Western blot-positive AIDS ... AIDS) in Kinshasa, Zaire, between August 1984 and May 1985. Two hundred sixteen (97.7%) of 221 IgG Western blot-positive AIDS ... AIDS) in Kinshasa, Zaire, between August 1984 and May 1985. Two hundred sixteen (97.7%) of 221 IgG Western blot-positive AIDS ... AIDS) in Kinshasa, Zaire, between August 1984 and May 1985. Two hundred sixteen (97.7%) of 221 IgG Western blot-positive AIDS ...
of HIV/AIDS , International HIV/AIDS Alliance Material type: Book; Format: print ; Literary form: not fiction Publisher: Geneva ... by UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance , World Health Organization. Dept. of HIV/AIDS , Centers for ... UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS and STI Surveillance.. by UNAIDS/WHO Working Group on Global HIV/AIDS/STI ... of HIV/AIDS , Centers for Disease Control (U.S.) Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : World Health ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis. Oral fluids. Homosexuality, Male. Sexually transmitted diseases. Sexual behavior. Additional relevant MeSH ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis [‎1]‎. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections [‎2]‎. Air Pollutants [‎1]‎. Air Pollution [‎7]‎. ...
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AIDS Serodiagnosis * Adolescent * Adult * Breast Feeding* * Developing Countries * Female * HIV Infections / mortality ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis / methods* * Adolescent * Adult * Europe * Female * Fingers / blood supply* * HIV Antibodies / analysis ...
Sexual Behavior; AIDS Serodiagnosis; HIV Infections; Sex Characteristics. RESUMO. O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as ... AIDS e Hepatites Virais Ministério da Saúde SQN 213, bloco I, apto. 611 Brasília, DF 70872-090, Brasil [email protected]aids.gov.br ... AIDS 2008; 22:281-7. 43. Simoes AA, Bastos FI, Moreira RI, Lynch KG, Metzger DS. A randomized trial of audio computer and in- ... AIDS Educ Prev 2004; 16:172-86. 24. Ehrhardt AA, Sawires S, McGovern T, Peacock D, Weston M. Gender, empowerment, and health: ...
This test will aid serodiagnosis, serosurveillance, and monitoring of Zika complications in dengue-endemic regions. ... This test will aid serodiagnosis, serosurveillance, and monitoring of Zika complications in dengue-endemic regions. ...
This test will aid serodiagnosis, serosurveillance, and monitoring of Zika complications in dengue-endemic regions. ...
3) identified recombinant lipoproteins OspE and ElpB1 from Borrelia burgdorferi as potential aids in the serodiagnosis of Lyme ... Recombinant assay for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease regardless of OspA vaccination status. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:193-197. ...
AIDS) in Kinshasa, Zaire, between August 1984 and May 1985. Two hundred sixteen (97.7%) of 221 IgG western blot-positive AIDS ... Serodiagnosis of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Compared to Cellular Immunologic ... Parameters in African Aids Patients and Controls Henry L. Francis, Jonathan Mann, Robert L. Colebunders, Lubaki Ndongala, Duma ... for monitoring the efficacy of antifilarial drug therapy which we hope will lead to improved use of existing drugs and aid in ...
Aids serodiagnosis. Background. Prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STI) are challenges to be overcome ... AIDS. 2008, 22 (12): 1493-1501. 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283021a37.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... In Brazil, the epidemiological data on STI are scarce and the only ones which the notification is compulsory are Aids, HIV in ... Maia C, Guilem D, Freitas D: Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in married heterosexual people or people in a common-law marriage. Rev ...
AIDS serodiagnosis, sexually transmitted diseases/infections, men who have sex with men (MSM), high risk, test, screen. ... 1Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, CDC. ... 2. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB, ... Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention; 2017. https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance- ...
Antigenemia and antibody titers to core and envelope antigens in AIDS, AIDS-related complex, and subclinical human ... As the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues, additional tests of higher specificity will be needed to decrease the number of false- ... AIDS: Etiology, Treatment, and Prevention, Second Edition. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1988:121-6. 16. Fang C, Le P, Mallory ... Interpretation and Use of the Western Blot Assay for Serodiagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infections Reported ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome -- prevention & control. Attitude to Health. Patient Acceptance of ... San Antonio] : Hispanic AIDS Committee for Education and Resources, [19--?]. Subject(s):. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome ...
ELISA using CPSs antigens could therefore serve as a valuable aid in serodiagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia. ... ELISA using CPSs antigens could therefore serve as a valuable aid in serodiagnosis of Klebsiella pneumonia. ...
OR hiv infections OR hiv seropositivity OR hiv seronegativity OR hiv seroprevalence OR aids serodiagnosis OR hiv enteropathy OR ... jsubsetx OR aids res ther [ta] OR aids res hum retroviruses [ta] OR aids [ta] OR aids res [ta] OR aids educ prev [ta] OR j ... OR aids care [ta] OR int j std aids [ta] OR prog aids pathol[ta] OR j assoc nurses aids care [ta] OR j int aids soc [ta] OR sex ... "aids retrovirus" OR "aids retroviruses" OR (aids [tw] AND retroviral [tw]) OR (human t cell leukemia virus AND iiib) OR hiv-1 ...
... aids serodiagnosis MeSH E01.450.495.735.150 --- complement fixation tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.155 --- complement hemolytic ... syphilis serodiagnosis MeSH E01.450.495.735.850.200 --- fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test MeSH E01.450.495.735. ...
  • Rapid serodiagnosis of human mycobacteriosis by ELISA using cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis as antigen," FEMS Microbiology Immunology , vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 201-204, 1991. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical evaluation of rapid serodiagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis by ELISA with cord factor (trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate) as antigen purified from Mycobacterium tuberculosis ," American Review of Respiratory Disease , vol. 148, no. 4, pp. 997-1001, 1993. (hindawi.com)
  • Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention and the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA. (nih.gov)
  • There is abundant literature about the concern because HIV testing services are the gateway to regarding inconclusive sera on the serodiagnosis of treatment, prevention and care. (who.int)
  • AIDS Serodiagnosis" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Development of AIDS, HIV seroconversion, and potential co-factors for T4 cell loss in a cohort of intravenous drug users. (naver.com)
  • Conclusions There is a higher prevalence in men than in women, reaching a ratio of one woman infected with HIV/AIDS for every 1.2 men, as well as a tendency to have a significant increase of reactive results in males and a decrease of reactive results in the female sex when performing the test. (bvsalud.org)
  • Patients with AIDS who have a CD4 count of less than 100 cells/μL should be commenced on suppressive therapy for T gondii until they undergo immune reconstitution. (medscape.com)
  • If only low-quality, heterogeneous studies are available, this study will demonstrate this deficiency and will be of value in justifying and aiding the design of future studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deficiency and management with human obesity, caus- serodiagnosis is characterised by the tubules and a branch of satiety. (supersupport.me)
  • Comportamento Sexual da População Brasileira e Percepções do HIV/AIDS. (bvsalud.org)
  • The restoration of immune function by HAART may contribute to the decreased incidence of ADCs, which results in fewer AIDS-related deaths. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ABSTRACT Objective A descriptive, correlational, retrospective cross-sectional study was carried out to determine if there was any dependence between sex and the results of HIV/AIDS screening tests in the 08D01 district of the city of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, for the period covered January-December 2016. (bvsalud.org)
  • Heterosexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Northern California: Results from a Ten-Year Study In direct contradiction to the AIDS"experts'" claims that HIV is transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, Dr. Nancy Padian's study - the largest and longest of its kind - found that not one ( NOT ONE ) of the 175 discordant couples she studied transmitted HIV despite thousands of sexual contacts. (theaidstrial.com)
  • The Massive Fraud Behind HIV Tests Jon Rappoport is the author of numerous books, including his 1988 "AIDS, Inc.: Scandal of the Century. (theaidstrial.com)
  • Materials and Methods 100% of the people who were screened for HIV/AIDS were included in the study. (bvsalud.org)
  • We believe that parasite antigen detection represents a valuable new approach for monitoring the efficacy of antifilarial drug therapy which we hope will lead to improved use of existing drugs and aid in the evaluation of new drugs for filariasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • By the mid-90s, there was a sharp increase in AIDS incidence among women 3 , with the gender ratio ranging from 6.8 men per woman in 1990 to 1.6 in 2007 4 . (scielosp.org)
  • The incidence of AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) has decreased markedly in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (biomedcentral.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "AIDS Serodiagnosis" by people in this website by year, and whether "AIDS Serodiagnosis" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "AIDS Serodiagnosis" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • The occurrence of two ADCs is rare in people living with HIV or AIDS (PWHA) who are severely immunosuppressed or have incomplete virologic suppression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The study also found that the rate of progression into AIDS is faster now than it was 10 years ago for people starting on HAART, and more HIV-Positives are developing AIDS while on HAART than they used to. (theaidstrial.com)
  • The present intercountry workshop was designed to address quality aspects of laboratory testing for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis viruses. (who.int)
  • By the late 1980s and early 1990s, the number of AIDS cases among women increased in Brazil 1 . (scielosp.org)
  • Reported by: Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors and AIDS Program, Center for Infectious Diseases, Public Health Practice Program Office, Centers for Disease Control* The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory Directors (ASTPHLD) and CDC have collaborated in preparing this report. (cdc.gov)
  • It also oversees the Infectious Diseases Ward (20 beds) and the AIDS Unit with 16 beds and the day hospital and coordinates the Hospital's Microbiology and Serology Labs. (usp.br)
  • Une enquête de séroprévalence a été réalisée dans 2 villages d'endémie à Dera (République arabe syrienne) où 80 enfants sur 345 (23,2 %) ont été testés positifs à la leishmaniose viscérale en utilisant le test rapide sur bandelette réactive rK39. (who.int)
  • HIV-1 was thought to be the only cause of these syndromes until 1986, when a second type of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-2) was isolated and also reported to cause AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). (rapidtest.com)
  • In 1986, a second virus causing the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), was discovered and found to be relatively common in parts of West Africa (1-3). (cdc.gov)
  • Member of the South African Presidential AIDS Advisory Panel) and Dr. Valendar Turner (Department of Emergency Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia). (theaidstrial.com)
  • Metoder för snabb överföring och lokalisering av Borrelia Patogener Inom Tick Gut Toru Kariu 1 , Adam S. Coleman 1 , John F. Anderson 2 , Utpal Pal 1 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maryland, 2 Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station Borrelia studier kräver ofta generering av fästingar infekterade med patogenen Borrelia burgdorferi, en process som normalt tar flera veckor. (jove.com)
  • En aquesta investigació històrica s'han trobat documents únics i inèdits, tant de l'Arxiu Privat de Montalegre, de la família Clarós, com del Centre Diplomàtic de França, els de la Fiscalia i de l'Arxiu Militar. (oatd.org)
  • A 27-year-old development aid volunteer, deployed as a construction engineer in Sudan (East Africa) for 6 months, sustained several fever attacks and occasional bouts of mild diarrhea during his stay there. (asm.org)
  • Recent Progress in the Development of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS. (glidebaby.fun)