An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.
Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.
Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.
Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.
Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.
Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.
Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.
A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.
The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.
Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Postmortem examination of the body.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.
Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.
The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/2982)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults. (2/2982)

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. (3/2982)

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (4/2982)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (5/2982)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/2982)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/2982)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (8/2982)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
FAQs - AIDS/HIV - Common Opportunistic Infections Support Group - Relationships and Sexuality. Discuss with people facing the same health challenges as yours and seek online advice from experts.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: EXPLORATOR / DEVOPMENTAL (R21) AWARDS FOR RESEARCH ON AIDS/HIV INFECTION AND THE ORAL CAVITY RFA-DE-02-007. NIDCR
We have proposed that researchers independent of the HIV establishment should audit the Centers for Disease Controls records of AIDS cases, bearing in mind that the correlation of HIV with AIDS, upon which the case for HIV causation rests, is itself an artefact of the definition of AIDS. Since 1985, exactly the same diseases or conditions have been defined as AIDS when antibodies are present, and as non-AIDS when HIV and antibodies are absent. Independent professional groups such as the Society of Actuaries should be invited to nominate members for an independent commission to investigate the following question: How frequently do AIDS-defining diseases (or low T cell counts) occur in the absence of HIV? Until we have a definition of AIDS that is independent of HIV, the supposed correlation of HIV and AIDS is mere tautology. Other independent researchers should examine the validity of the so-called AIDS tests, especially when these tests are used in Africa and Southern Asia, to see if they ...
That would be pretty unusual -- it sound like his HIV disease is progressing. If this is due to an undiagnosed opportunistic disease, then if it were diagnosed it could be treated. If it is due to...
Looking for online definition of NFKBIA in the Medical Dictionary? NFKBIA explanation free. What is NFKBIA? Meaning of NFKBIA medical term. What does NFKBIA mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Uveitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with CD4+ T-lymphocyte count over 200 cells/mL. AU - Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer. AU - Goldstein, Debra A.. AU - Thorne, Jennifer E.. AU - Arantes, Tiago E.. AU - Acharya, Nisha R.. AU - Shakoor, Akbar. AU - Jeng, Bennie H.. AU - Yeh, Steven. AU - Rahman, Hassan. AU - Vemulakonda, G. Atma. AU - Flaxel, Christina J.. AU - West, Sarah K.. AU - Holland, Gary N.. AU - Smith, Justine R.. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Background: Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the course of disease for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus by elevating CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels. Changes in the spectrum of systemic diseases encountered in human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals are reported in the general medical literature. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Sixty-one individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, who presented with uveitis when the peripheral CD4+ ...
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AIDS-defining clinical conditions (a.k.a. AIDS-defining illnesses or AIDS-defining diseases) is the list of diseases published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that are associated with AIDS, and used worldwide as a guideline for AIDS diagnosis. CDC exclusively uses the term AIDS-defining clinical conditions, but the other terms remain in common use. This list governs the US government classification of HIV disease. This is to allow the government to handle epidemic statistics and define who receives US government assistance. However, considerable variation exists in the relative risk of death following different AIDS defining clinical conditions.[further explanation needed] According to the CDC definition, a patient has AIDS if they are infected with HIV and have either: a CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/µL a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 15% or one of the defining illnesses. A patient presenting one of the above conditions but with laboratory ...
As the survival of patients with HIV increases, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those patients who are at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. In the present study, we determined the relationship between intermediate end points of CVD and clinically easily obtainable anthropometric, hemodynamic, and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected patients. Our main findings are that HIV-infected patients without the MS have endothelial dysfunction similar to that of type 2 diabetic patients. The presence of the MS in HIV was associated with even more advanced functional and structural vascular abnormalities.. In the present study, 41% of the patients fulfilled the definition of the MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. In the U.S., approximately 24% of the general population fulfills this definition (23). Elevated triglyceride levels were the most prevalent component of the MS, whereas an increased waist circumference and high fasting plasma glucose level were less ...
As the survival of patients with HIV increases, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those patients who are at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. In the present study, we determined the relationship between intermediate end points of CVD and clinically easily obtainable anthropometric, hemodynamic, and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected patients. Our main findings are that HIV-infected patients without the MS have endothelial dysfunction similar to that of type 2 diabetic patients. The presence of the MS in HIV was associated with even more advanced functional and structural vascular abnormalities.. In the present study, 41% of the patients fulfilled the definition of the MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. In the U.S., approximately 24% of the general population fulfills this definition (23). Elevated triglyceride levels were the most prevalent component of the MS, whereas an increased waist circumference and high fasting plasma glucose level were less ...
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The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
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Cryptococcal meningitis (crypto) may not be the first thing that comes to mind when talking about HIV - but this common opportunistic infection and AIDS-defining illness is one of the leading killers of people living with HIV globally.. ...
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Table 2. Treatment of AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections (Includes Recommendations for Acute Treatment and Secondary Prophylaxis/Chronic Suppressive/Maintenance Therapy ...
Genetic differences among people with HIV may account for differences in disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy. The Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) was created to conduct studies in HIV infected communities and particularly in people of color, women, and injection drug users. This study will collect whole blood samples from HIV infected individuals. The samples will be used in future CPCRA studies comparing human genetic factors with clinical data from other CPCRA studies ...
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 150,000 children with HIV under 15 years of age died of opportunistic infections in low-to-middle income countries in 2014 alone.
Learn about opportunistic infections (OIs), including what OIs are, how people get them, how to treat and prevent them, and specifics about nine OIs.
A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS ...
A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS ...
Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system.. ...
The START study was funded by various parts of the National Institutes of Health, the National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis in France, Germanys Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the European AIDS Treatment Network and government organizations in Australia, Denmark and Britain. Medications used in the trial were donated by AbbVie Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline/ViiV Healthcare, Janssen Scientific Affairs, and Merck Sharp & Dohme.. ...
MAC is treatable and the symptoms should resolve or at least be less severe with treatment. Fatigue can also be related to anemia, which is common with MAC and advanced HIV disease, but is also...
Hello, As mentioned in another post (re: Dr. Wessely), I am new to this forum and have been out of the loop for a while until recently. My disease...
In the era of treat all, renewed emphasis is needed on the 39% of people living with HIV who start treatment late who are at an increased risk of deaths and opportunistic infections.. ...
Cryptococcal meningitis remains the leading cause of adult meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation is an important complication. Here we report the first documented case of a IRIS reaction presenting as an ischemic stroke. A 38 year old newly diagnosed HIV-infected, ART naive Malawian male presented to a tertiary referral hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with a 2 week history of headache. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made and the patient was started on 1200 mg fluconazole once daily and flucytosine 25 mg/kg four times daily as part of the Advancing Cryptococcal Treatment for Africa (ACTA) clinical trial. There was an initial clinical and microbiological response to anti-fungal treatment and anti-retroviral therapy was started at week 4. The patient re-presented 16 days later with recurrence of headache, fever, and a sudden onset of left sided weakness in the context of rapid immune reconstitution;
TY - CHAP. T1 - Risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in natalizumab-associated PML. AU - Calvi, Alberto. AU - De Riz, Milena Alessandra. AU - Pietroboni, Anna. AU - Galimberti, Daniela. AU - Scarpini, Elio. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - The term Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) was originally introduced to describe the phenomenon of paradoxical clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients despite the successful virological and immunological recovery after treatment with antiretroviral therapy. This condition has actually been described even in the central nervous system (CNS) when immunosuppressed patients experience an opportunistic infection, as a result of an aberrant response of the immune function. Since new immunosuppressant therapies for autoimmune diseases or graft rejection in transplanted patients have been established, IRIS has become much more frequent, as a consequence of sudden immunosuppressive drug removal. In Natalizumab treated ...
DataSheet_1_What Is the Most Appropriate Induction Regimen for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis When the Recommended Regimen Is Not Available? Evidence From a Network Meta-Analysis.doc
Single dose versus 7 days of fluconazole treatment for oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a prospective, randomized pilot study ...
The exaggerated immune response to the subclinical opportunistic microorganisms or their antigens can be found in HIV-1 infected patients after receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. We report a case of unmasking tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the HIV-1 infected patient who had no previous history of mycobacterial infection. She had tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum and mesenteric glands within 2 months of ARV. However, her sputum acidfast bacilli stain, sputum, blood and cervical lymph node aspiration cultures for mycobacterium were negative. Her CD4 cell count increased of from 46 cells/μL at baseline before receiving ARV to 155 cells/μL at month 6 of ARV. In addition, her plasma pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine measurement was supported the occurrence of immune restoration reaction. Therefore, the changing in these cytokine profiles may be an important marker of developing unmasking TB-IRIS ...
Brief DeJfinitive Report CD8 + T Lymphocytes Provide Helper Activity for IgE Synthesis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients with Hyper-IgE By Roberto Paganelli, Enrico Scala, Ignacio J. Ansotegui, Clara M. Ausiello,* Eva Halapi,$ Emanuele Fanales-Belasio, Giampiero DOffizi, Ivano Mezzaroma, Franco Pandolfi,$ Massimo Fiorilli, Antonio Cassone,* and Fernando Aiuti From the Department of Clinical Medicine, Section…
Sustained benefits of metformin therapy on markers of cardiovascular risk in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with fat redistribution and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Oct; 87(10):4611-5 ...
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, the proportion of circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) which carry HIV provirus and the number of HIV proviral sequences per infected PBMC have been matters for conjecture. Using a double polymerase chain reaction which allows the detection of single molecules of provirus and a method of quantifying the provirus molecules, we have measured provirus frequencies in infected individuals down to a level of one molecule per 10(6) PBMCs. As a general rule, only a small proportion of PBMCs contain provirus (median value of samples from 12 patients, one per 8,000 cells), and most if not all of the infected cells carry a single provirus molecule. The frequency of provirus-carrying cells correlated positively both with the progression of the disease and with the success with which virus could be isolated from the same patients by cocultivation methods. Of seven asymptomatic (Centers for Disease Control stage II) patients, all but one contained one
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating levels and ex vivo production of β-chemokines, interferon γ, and interleukin 2 in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. T2 - The effect of protease inhibitor therapy. AU - De Luca, Andrea. AU - Giancola, Maria Letizia. AU - Cingolani, Antonella. AU - Ammassari, Adriana. AU - Murri, Rita. AU - Antinori, Andrea. PY - 2000/6/10. Y1 - 2000/6/10. N2 - Cytokines and β-chemokines play an important role in the complex interaction between HIV-1 and the immune system. We studied platelet-free plasma (PFP) levels and ex vivo production of cytokines and β-chemokines at different HIV disease stages and the influence of potent protease inhibitor therapy on their production in late-stage patients. Mitogen-induced production of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES by PBMCs was higher in HIV- infected patients than in HIV-seronegative controls. Patients with late-stage HIV infection (CD4+ cells + cells ,150/μl). Pretreatment RANTES production correlated negatively with ...
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Opportunistic infections are so named because they occur in people whose immune systems are not working properly; they are opportunistic insofar as theinfectious agents take advantage of their hosts compromised immune systems and invade to cause disease.. The organisms that cause opportunistic infections are categorized as protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These organisms are found widely in nature andoften live in the human body. When the immune system is working properly, itcan control the germs. However, persons with defective immune systems are unable to fight off the growth and destructive action of these organisms withinthe body. Opportunistic infections are seldom spread to people who have normal healthy immune systems.. One of the ways the immune system can be damaged is when the person is infected by HIV. In addition, drugs used to treat cancer, and drugs used to facilitate organ transplants can also suppress the immune system.. A person infected with HIV can get an ...
The population of HIV-infected women is increasing over time, and a recent study showed that while the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers decreased by three-fold from 1991-1995 to 2001-2005, the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing by almost the same amount [4]. Historically, multiple studies have focused on AIDS-defining diseases, such as cervical cancer; however, there are significantly less data on HIV-infected women with vulvar cancer [16-18], and only limited reports on HIV-infected women with ovarian and endometrial cancers [19-23]. To our knowledge, there is no case series describing guideline-specific care and outcomes of HIV-infected women with gynecologic cancers. As these cancers increase, our ability to meet the standard of care and to understand the impact of standard-of-care treatment on this population is critical. In this retrospective cohort study of women with HIV infection and gynecologic cancers, we found that almost 50% of women did not receive optimal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A profile of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adolescents receiving health care services at selected sites in the United States. AU - Rogers, Audrey Smith. AU - Futterman, Donna. AU - Levin, Linda. AU - DAngelo, Lawrence. PY - 1996/12. Y1 - 1996/12. N2 - Objective: To determine the demographic/clinical pro-file of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents in care at selected sites. Methods: We mailed surveys requesting prevalence data from physicians in government-funded HIV research and care programs on HIV-infected youth (10- 21 years) receiving care. Results: A total of 49% responses yielded information on 978 subjects. Vertical, blood, and sexual were predominant transmission modes. Three-quarters were of an ethnic/racial minority; 50% were female. The earliest median CD4 count was 0.467 x 109/liter (467/μl). Percent asymptomatic varied by transmission: vertical (16%), blood products (40%), male-male sexual (67%) and female-male sexual (M: 73%) (F: 74%). ...
Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, Namarika D, Jackson A, Nussbaum JC, Longley N, Muzoora C, Phulusa J, Taseera K, Kanyembe C, Wilson D, Hosseinipour MC, Brouwer AE, Limmathurotsakul D, White N, van der Horst C, Wood R, Meintjes G, Bradley J, Jaffar S, Harrison T. Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated Cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. (Clin Infect Dis., 2014).. ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, the Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
Opportunistic infection. Bryan Smith & Imani Pyles. What is it?. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by: pathogens , particularly opportunistic pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host Slideshow 2087401...
Researchers found that in the combined-integrated therapy group the incidence of death was 5.4 for every 100 person-years of observation. The sequential therapy group saw an incidence of death of 12.1 for every 100 person-years of observation. After adjustment for various confounding factors, researchers found that patients in the combined-integrated therapy group had a relative risk reduction of 54%. Two and a half years into the study the data and safety monitoring committee recommended all patients be put onto the combined-integrated therapy regimen for the remainder of the study. The combined-integrated therapy group saw nearly three times the cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, however there were no deaths resulting from this syndrome ...
HIV can eventually cause AIDS by attacking a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells [2]. These are the same cells in the immune system [3] that are supposed to protect the body from disease. When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4], and neurological (nerve system) problems. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the bodys weakened defenses.. Many viruses can be controlled by the immune system [3]. But HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus multiplies, it damages or kills CD4 cells, which damages the immune system and weakens the bodys defenses. OIs take an opportunity to infect you when your defenses are down. OIs can lead to hospitalization and disability, and are responsible for most of the deaths in people with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).. The US Centers for ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more.
Study opportunistic infections flashcards from Tiffany Pointon's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr. Maryam Arasteh.. Hosted by Paul Lehner, Speaker Robert Wilkinson, The Francis Crick Institute. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Immunology and Medicine Seminars series.. ...
Information for healthare professionals about Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C),a recently reported condition associated with COVID-19.
As experts are still working to figure out how multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and COVID-19 are related, here are some things to know about how to help keep children protected.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in critically ill children with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is more varied than previously thought...
The HIV virus weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic diseases to set in. Garlic works to bolster the immune system and kill a whole range of
Edouard François says Man can live solely within architecture. He needs a complex building which must be decorated. Only in this way can he be happy. Indeed, in François view, working with nature offers a welcome
Bouitbir, Jamal and Haegler, Patrizia and Singh, François and Joerin, Lorenz and Felser, Andrea and Duthaler, Urs and Krähenbühl, Stephan ...
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"AIDS Related Opportunistic Infections Report, 1998". Treatment Action Group. Retrieved 2020-03-14. v t e. ... "A Study of Lobucavir in Patients With AIDS - Full Text View -". Retrieved 2020-03-14. ... Lobucavir has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against herpesvirus, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and human cytomegalovirus. ... HIV/AIDS and cytomegalovirus. It initially demonstrated positive results in human clinical trials against hepatitis B with ...
AIDS-related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Acute ... MD Subacute encephalomyelitis of AIDS and its relation to HTLV‐III infection Neurology April 1987 vol. 37 no. 4 562 doi:10.1212 ... possibly triggered by viral infection. Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated ...
He then returned to his native Zambia to work on AIDS-related opportunistic infections at the University Teaching Hospital in ... HIV/AIDS, tropical diseases, respiratory infections (and rapid diagnostics thereof), endocarditis, biomarkers, and transrenal ... with a special interest in HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections (including COVID-19 and Tuberculosis), and diseases of poverty. He ... "Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): A double-blind ...
... preclinical data on small molecules with potential therapeutic action against HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections. ... The ChemDB HIV, Opportunistic Infection and Tuberculosis Therapeutics Database is a publicly available tool developed by the ... Databases & Open Chemistry". The NIAID ChemDB HIV/AIDS Database. "Division of AIDS Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database". User ... "Division of AIDS Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database". National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
... opportunistic infections AIDS-related lymphoma or metastasis of other AIDS-related cancers direct effects of HIV in the brain ... Children with AIDS appear to have neurological diseases as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In HIV-1 infected newborn and ... HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is not a true opportunistic infection; it is one of the few conditions caused directly by HIV ... HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is a ...
... an AIDS-related opportunistic infection four months after taking ill, on 18 January 1993 at his home in Philadelphia. He was ... Although he was never formally diagnosed with AIDS, Burgess took ill soon after Labor Day in 1992. It was then that he was ...
... considered an opportunistic fungal pathogen of immunocompromised individuals and has been reported in AIDS-related infections. ... It has also been reported in AIDS-related infections. The fungus exists predominantly in the asexual state as a unicellular, ... Clinical infections due to Sporobolomyces salmonicolor are rare and there are currently no standard therapies for infection. ... Workers in these settings should consider the proper use of masks to avoid infection. If individuals show atopic symptoms, a ...
Because of this, opportunistic infections are a leading cause of HIV/AIDS-related deaths. Since opportunistic infections can ... December 1999). "AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses occurring after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy: the Swiss ... Treatment depends on the type of opportunistic infection, but usually involves different antibiotics. Opportunistic infections ... As immune function declines and HIV-infection progresses to AIDS, individuals are at an increased risk of opportunistic ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill) 1 (2): 53-62. PMID 12942677.. *^ Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". ... New HIV infections among children have been reduced by 50% or more in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa, UN AIDS, Ženeva, ... Wikimedijina zbirka ponuja več predstavnostnega gradiva o temi: aids. Poglejte si besedo aids v Wikislovarju, prostem slovarju. ...
Opportunistic pathogen. Clinically indistinguishable from generalised infections in patients with AIDS due to M. avium complex ... Closely related to M. simiae by evaluation of 16S rDNA sequences. ... strains, but more related to gastro-intestinal disorders. Most common cause of mycobacterial disease in parrots and parakeets. ...
"Foundation for Integrative AIDS Research Report on the 11th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, February ... Broad-Spectrum Micronutrient Supplementation in HIV-infected Patients With Dideoxynucleoside-related Peripheral Neuropathy: A ... medical strategies to prevent new HIV infections and better treatments for people living with HIV/AIDS. From 1989 to 2015, ARAA ... The University Wide AIDS Research Program [the University of California], the Division of AIDS [NIH], Until There is a Cure, ...
... playing a major role in setting standards of care for HIV infection and opportunistic diseases related to HIV and AIDS in the ... for many opportunistic infections and malignancies. In 1986, the original AIDS Treatment and Evaluation Units were established ... The AIDS Clinical Trials Group network (ACTG) is one of the largest HIV clinical trials organizations in the world, ... In 1987, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) was established by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In ...
... focal infection, dental MeSH C01.539.597.050 - aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C01.539.597.880 - superinfection MeSH ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 - bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 - bartonella infections MeSH ... moraxellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.560.022 - acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 - mycoplasmatales infections ... salmonella infections, animal MeSH C01.252.400.310.821.873 - typhoid fever MeSH C01.252.400.310.850 - serratia infections MeSH ...
... aids dementia complex MeSH C20.673.480.080 - aids-related complex MeSH C20.673.480.100 - aids-related opportunistic infections ... aids-related MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.570 - lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.700 - ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C20.673.480.050 - aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C20.673.480.070 - ... htlv-i infections MeSH C20.673.483.470.300 - leukemia-lymphoma, t-cell, acute, htlv-i-associated MeSH C20.673.483.480 - htlv-ii ...
HIV-related cardiomyopathy is often not associated with any specific opportunistic infection, and approximately 40% of patients ... AIDS 2003;17:Suppl 1:S46-50. Barbarini G, Barbaro G. Incidence of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in HIV infection ... Toxoplasma gondii is the most common opportunistic infectious agent associated with myocarditis in AIDS occurring in 12% of ... AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998;14:1071-7. Klatt EC. Cardiovascular pathology in AIDS. Adv Cardiol 2003;40:23-48. Barbaro ...
... opportunistic infections and generalized lymphadenopathy.[citation needed] "Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex ... AIDS-related complex (ARC) was introduced after discovery of the HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) when the medical community ... AIDS). The necessity for doctors to quickly and accurately understand the special needs of unknown patients suffering from AIDS ... ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody ...
Maggiore herself died in December 2008 from AIDS-related opportunistic infections. Eighteen scientists interviewed in the film ... The film also interviews Christine Maggiore, a prominent AIDS denialist who later died after suffering from AIDS-related ... Maggiore's daughter died in September 2005 of AIDS-related infections, although Maggiore rejected the cause of death and argued ... Rather, she believed that the medication itself caused AIDS. Maggiore's relative health, despite years of infection, is used by ...
... and opportunistic infections in AIDS, but lowered risk for cancers. It is also associated with membranous glomerulonephritis ... Mann DL, Murray C, O'Donnell M, Blattner WA, Goedert JJ (1990). "HLA antigen frequencies in HIV-1-related Kaposi's sarcoma". J ... AIDS) patients with opportunistic infections". Hum. Immunol. 11 (2): 99-103. doi:10.1016/0198-8859(84)90048-X. PMID 6333416. ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Para ilmuwan umumnya berpendapat bahwa AIDS berasal dari Afrika Sub-Sahara.[4] Kini AIDS telah menjadi wabah penyakit. AIDS ... 2002). "Time to AIDS from 1992 to 1999 in HIV-1-infected subjects with known date of infection". Journal of acquired immune ... "Facts about AIDS & HIV". Diakses tanggal 2006-12-14.. *^ Johnson AM & Laga M, Heterosexual transmission of HIV, AIDS, 1988, 2( ...
... different results in most cases people infected with HIV go on to develop AIDS and ultimately die of opportunistic infections ... which is most commonly a result of an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two closely related types of HIV ... In this process HIV-1 integrase is essential and therefore a very promising target for anti-AIDS drug design. Selective drug ... Dubey, S; Satyanarayana, YD; Lavania, H (Sep 2007). "Development of integrase inhibitors for treatment of AIDS: an overview". ...
She developed opportunistic infections including tuberculosis and meningitis, as a result of which she became blind and deaf in ... and it was from him that she learned that her mother had died due to HIV/AIDS related illness, and that she herself had ... After discovering her health status as being HIV positive, Sampa began to advocate for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Sampa was ... In 2014, she was a beneficiary of the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. In 2017, she won a Mandela Washington ...
... and that anti-HIV medication decreases mortality and opportunistic infection in people with AIDS. In the 9 December 1994 issue ... Use of potent anti-HIV combination therapies has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS and AIDS-related ... 2005). "HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Senegal". AIDS. 19 (18): 2133-40. ... HIV/AIDS denialism Inventing the AIDS Virus Duesberg P, Koehnlein C, Rasnick D (2003). "The chemical bases of the various AIDS ...
... allowing for potentially fatal opportunistic infections. Initially, the researchers termed the disease Gay-Related Immune ... AIDS) as a new disease, and for his HIV/AIDS research, HIV/AIDS activism, and philanthropic efforts associated with HIV/AIDS ... He served on the boards of AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA), the Pasadena AIDS Services Center and the Global AIDS Interfaith ... "HIV/AIDS - the discovery of an unknown, deadly virus", Infectious Disease News, June 1, 2006 "Dr. Joel D. Weisman dies at 66; ...
Other researches focusing on the prevalence of different diseases or opportunistic infections and nutritional status[citation ... Studies that aim to assess pregnancy-related conditions and diseases were among maternal health-related researches. The support ... Since then, the focus of the NLM changed to training medical specialists in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, construction of training ... "Prevalence of Opportunistic Intestinal Parasites and Associated Factors among HIV Patients while Receiving ART at Arba Minch ...
... aids-related complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.100 - aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.400 - hiv- ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 - aids dementia complex MeSH C02.800.801.400.080 - aids-related complex ... hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.048 - aids arteritis ... hiv infections MeSH C02.800.801.400.040 - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 - aids arteritis, central ...
Coffin was programme committee chair for the 18th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in 2011. Coffin ... Coffin's HIV/AIDS research reflects his interests in molecular biology, virus-host relationships, pathogenesis and viral ... He has advised policy committees at the national level regarding retrovirus-related matters. ...
... and treatment of opportunistic infections. Her other area of interest is in medical education related to continuing education ... Anita Rachlis, M.D. is a Canadian HIV/AIDS researcher and is the principal author of the HIV treatment guidelines in Canada. ... Her research interests are in the care and treatment of patients with HIV infection. She has been involved in clinical research ... "Ministerial Advisory Council on the Federal Initiative to Address HIV/AIDS in Canada". Public Health Agency of Canada. ...
In 2013, TASO rolled out services in the treatment and diagnosis of other opportunistic infections such as cervical cancer and ... to support AIDS Service Organisations in Sub Saharan Africa to build their capacity in offering HIV related services.) SCOT[ ... AIDS Control Programme, TASO, UNICEF, WHO (March 1991). Living with AIDS in the Community. A book to help people make the best ... The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) is an indigenous HIV and AIDS service initiative, registered in Uganda as a non- ...
However, fungal meningitis and encephalitis, especially as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. ... Media related to Cryptococcus neoformans at Wikimedia Commons A good overview of Cryptococcus neoformans biology from the ... So, C. neoformans is sometimes referred to as an opportunistic fungus. It is a facultative intracellular pathogen that can ... The infection from C. neoformans in the brain can be fatal if untreated. CNS (central nervous system) infection may also be ...
Death results from opportunistic infections secondary to disruption of the immune system caused by AIDS. Some viral virulence ... of virulent viruses include virus T4 and other T-even bacteriophages which infect Escherichia coli and a number of related ... They determine whether infection occurs and how severe the resulting viral disease symptoms are. Viruses often require receptor ... Virulent viruses such as HIV, which causes AIDS, have mechanisms for evading host defenses. HIV infects T-helper cells, which ...
The end point of the study was death or development of opportunistic infections.[13] ... announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in ... AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 725-33. doi:10.1056/ ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ...
... by far the most common fungal infection of the mouth, and it also represents the most common opportunistic oral infection in ... and this helps prevent recurrence of candidal infections. Patients who are immunocompromised, either with HIV/AIDS or as a ... Candida is associated with about 90% of cases of denture related stomatitis. This is an elliptical or rhomboid lesion in the ... The host defenses against opportunistic infection of candida species are The oral epithelium, which acts both as a physical ...
... immuno-suppressive treatments and the spectrum of opportunistic infections can be survived.[21][22] In recent years, survival ... are quite effective in prevention of HSCT-related outbreak of herpetic infection in seropositive patients.[33] The ... Lunzen, J.; Fehse, B.; Hauber, J. (2011). "Gene Therapy Strategies: Can We Eradicate HIV?". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 8 (2): 78 ... non-myeloablative transplants run lower risks of serious infections and transplant-related mortality while relying upon the ...
... and reduced resistance to disease led to death by opportunistic infections.[233] Second, the social disruption and dismal ... Aid increased significantly when the Indian Army took control of aid in October 1943, but effective relief arrived only after a ... A related argument, present since the days of the famine[BD] but expressed at length by Mukerjee (2010), accuses key figures in ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bengal famine 1943.. *Bengal Famine materials in the South Asian American Digital ...
Opportunistic Infections of HIV: JC Virus (JCV)". Microbiology. Illustrated Reviews. 3. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 389. ... These two types are closely related. Types 3 and 6 are found in sub-Saharan Africa: type 3 was isolated in Ethiopia, Tanzania ... as in AIDS or during treatment with drugs intended to induce a state of immunosuppression (e.g. organ transplant patients).[3] ... Infection and pathogenesis[edit]. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ...
... a common opportunistic infection of AIDS. But at the end of the day, his immune system was compromised."[19] ... AIDS-related deaths in California. *20th-century American photographers. Hidden categories: *Articles with short description ... "Ritts Coverage: Don't Hide the AIDS Truths". Retrieved September 13, 2010 ...
ocular - off-label use - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - organelle - ... The AIDS Show - AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting syndrome - AIDS-related cancer - AIDS-related ... AIDS - AIDS Arms - AIDS dementia complex (ADC) - AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) - AIDS education and training centers ( ... AETC) - AIDS orphan - AIDS research advisory committee (ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - ...
... and is an important opportunistic pathogen in people immunocompromised by HIV/AIDS, organ transplantation, or CD4+ T-lymphocyte ... Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Zoonoses.. Look up zoonosis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous anthrax infection, whereas inhalation anthrax infection is more common for ...
Opportunistic infection by molds[25] such as Penicillium marneffei and Aspergillus fumigatus is a common cause of illness and ... Signs that an infant may have mold-related respiratory problems include (but are not limited to) a persistent cough and/or ... HIV/AIDS, other immune disease, heart defects, cystic fibrosis, depression, seizure disorders, Sickle Cell disease, kidney ... Sinuses and digestive tract infections are most common; lung and skin infections are also possible. Mycotoxins may or may not ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill) 1 (2): 53-62. பப்மெட் 12942677. *↑ Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". ... Boshoff C, Weiss R (2002). "AIDS-related malignancies". Nat. Rev. Cancer 2 (5): 373-382. doi:10.1038/nrc797. பப்மெட் 12044013. ... 117.0 117.1 Lawn SD (2004). "AIDS in Africa: the impact of coinfections on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection". J. Infect. Dis ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Lawn SD (2004). "AIDS in Africa: the impact of co-infections on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection". J. Infect. Dis. 48 (1): 1 ... "AIDS". MedlinePlus. A.D.A.M. Consultado o 14 June 2012.. *↑ Sestak K (2005). "Chronic diarrhea and AIDS: insights into studies ... Boshoff C, Weiss R (2002). "AIDS-related malignancies". Nat. Rev. Cancer 2 (5): 373-382. PMID 12044013. doi:10.1038/nrc797.. ...
Twitter users in Russia have reported being overwhelmed by pro-government tweets timed to Bolotnaya Square protest-related ... Russia's chief public health official, Gennady Onishchenko, warned on Friday that protesters risked respiratory infections such ... being used as a symbol of the fight against AIDS.[34][183] ... element of Russian society are being exploited by opportunistic ...
Lindsay's husband Tobias searches for work as an actor, with the aid of Carl Weathers.[54] Michael falls in love with his screw ... a rebellious teen with an opportunistic streak, who seeks to defy her parents for the sake of attention, and otherwise pursues ... "Staff Infection/Missing Kitty". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved July 29, 2012 ... A flawless cast-from Will Arnett's breathy, bombastic Gob to Jessica Walter's boozy Lucille-grounds it, aided by Ron Howard's ...
People with chronic maladies, including cancer and diabetes, are also especially susceptible to infection. These opportunistic ... The M-protein aids in immune evasion by inhibiting phagocytosis and inactivating the complement system. Furthermore, ... Equi (horse) similis (like) infers similarity to the closely related species, Streptococcus equi. Streptococcus dysgalactiae ... Less commonly it can present as pneumonia, endocarditis, genital or intraabdominal infections. Primary bacteraemia, infection ...
... to cause infection, so the main routes to human infection are through the housefly's regurgitation and defecation.[49] ... Wikispecies has information related to Musca domestica.. *The house-fly, Musca domestica Linn. : its structure, habits, ... Solid foods are softened with saliva before being sucked up.[8] They can be opportunistic blood feeders.[15]:189 Houseflies ... Like other Diptera, houseflies have only one pair of wings; what would be the hind pair is reduced to small halteres that aid ...
... in a subgroup of AIDS patients with CD4 counts of more than 200 and no concurrent opportunistic infections, who can tolerate ... In AIDS patients[edit]. Patients with AIDS and PCNSL have a median survival of only 4 months with radiotherapy alone. Untreated ... infection (, 90%) in immunodeficient patients (such as those with AIDS and those immunosuppressed),[2] and does not have a ... typically patients with AIDS). PCNSLs represent around 20% of all cases of lymphomas in HIV infections (other types are ...
... jejuni infection can also spread to the blood in individuals with AIDS, while C. lari is a known cause of recurrent diarrhea in ... Additionally, several markers were found in all Campylobacter species except for C. fetus, the most distantly related species. ... children.[3] C. fetus is a cause of spontaneous abortions in cattle and sheep, as well as an opportunistic pathogen in humans.[ ... The symptoms of Campylobacter infections were described in 1886 in infants by Theodor Escherich.[10] These infections were ...
Primary pathogens often cause primary infection and also often cause secondary infection. Usually opportunistic infections are ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Infectious diseases and disorders.. *European Center for Disease Prevention and Control ... The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. While the number of deaths due to nearly every disease ... Primary infection versus secondary infection. A primary infection is infection that is, or can practically be viewed as, the ...
It is speculated that such very ancient associations have aided plants when they first colonized land.[13][34] Plant-growth ... Surprisingly, however, after 2003, O. patagonica in the eastern Mediterranean has been resistant to V. shiloi infection, ... patagonica was simply that of opportunistic colonization.[46] If this is true, the basic observation leading to the theory ... When the moth Spodoptera exigua is infected with baculovirus immune-related genes are downregulated and the amount of its gut ...
19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Seattle. US PEPFAR abstinence and faithfulness funding had no ... implements PEPFAR workplace-targeted projects that focus on the prevention and reduction of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and ... Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator (OGAC) Housed in the Department of State, the Office of the Global AIDS Coordinator ... George Bush is an HIV/AIDS relief revolutionary at *Twice As Many Die: Bush's Duplicitous New AIDS Plan in Dollars ...
... characterized by deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and the resulting increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections ... When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS,[24] a condition ... The pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS involves, upon acquisition of the virus, that the virus replicates inside and kills T helper ... In the 1950s, researches on rheumatic fever, a complication of streptococcal infections, revealed it was mediated by the host's ...
"Guidelines for Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Infected Persons - 2002". Retrieved 2016-05-22.. ... Some North American veterinarians hold the position that people with compromised immune systems, due to conditions such as AIDS ... or infection between the two groups.[63] A 2005 study found no evidence that tendonectomy is less painful than onychectomy.[64] ... persistent and severe infections and gangrene that are limited to the distal phalanx. The procedure is usually limited to the ...
Opportunistic infections commonly occur and aphthous-like ulceration is worst during this time.[14] ... related to the likening of sectioned tumors to the limbs of a crab). The closely related word in Middle English and Old North ... Immunocompromised states, e.g. HIV/AIDS. Inflammatory bowel disease. MAGIC syndrome. PFAPA syndrome. Reactive arthritis. ... Fasten healing (prevent secondary infection). Doxycycline,[6] tetracycline,[6] minocycline,[21] chlorhexidine gluconate,[14] ...
... fungal and opportunistic infections.[24] No published guidelines cover PCP prophylaxis for people with rheumatological diseases ... Cyclophosphamide and the related nitrogen mustard-derived alkylating agent ifosfamide were developed by Norbert Brock and ASTA ... 78 (3): 542-7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960801)78:3,542::AID-CNCR23,3.0.CO;2-Y. PMID 8697402.. ... InfectionEdit. Neutropenia or lymphoma arising secondary to cyclophosphamide usage can predispose people to a variety of ...
Wikispecies has information related to Machairodontinae. Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article ... However, the individual died of a severe nasal infection, an injury that a social predator would have had a better chance of ... La Brea Tar Pits fauna as depicted by Charles R. Knight with two Smilodon playing the role of opportunistic scavengers. ... The small flanges on the anterior portion of the mandible of most machairodonts would be used to aid the depression of the ...
When it comes to conducting tests related to intelligence, learning, and drug abuse, rats are a popular choice due to their ... The common species are opportunistic survivors and often live with and near humans; therefore, they are known as commensals. ... Paramount among these are bacterial and viral infection, as the high density of vascular tissue within the tail becomes exposed ... The effectiveness has been aided by a similar but newer program in Saskatchewan which prevents rats from even reaching the ...
en:Opportunistic infection (37). *en:Oral cancer (28) → 구강암 *en:Oral rehydration therapy (26) ... en:Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS (9). *en:Epileptic seizure (17) → 뇌전증 발작 ... en:Drugs for acid-related disorders (2). *en:Dysplasia (26) → 이형성 *en:Early pregnancy bleeding (6) ...
... s of the Candida genus, another group of opportunistic pathogens, cause oral and vaginal infections in humans, known as ... They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yeast.. *Saccharomyces genome database. *Yeast growth and the cell cycle ... Some species of yeast are opportunistic pathogens that can cause infection in people with compromised immune systems. ...
A bacterium may participate in opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, acquire virulence factors by plasmid ... "About HIV/AIDS , HIV Basics , HIV/AIDS , CDC". 2019-10-04. Retrieved 2019-11-06.. ... Related conceptsEdit. VirulenceEdit. Virulence (the tendency of a pathogen to reduce a host's fitness) evolves when a pathogen ... Other common fungal infections include infections by the yeast strain Candida albicans. Candida can cause infections of the ...
... since it is the second-most common infection in hospitalized patients (nosocomial infections)[citation needed]. This ... To aid in the flow of the prose in English, genus names can be "trivialised" to form a vernacular name to refer to a member of ... are naturally resistant to penicillin and the majority of related beta-lactam antibiotics, but a number are sensitive to ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa is increasingly recognized as an emerging opportunistic pathogen of clinical relevance. One of its most ...
Also, an extensive listing of AIDS-related internet web site addresses. ... A collection of patient education fact sheets on HIV/AIDS treatments and conditions, in English and Spanish. ... Opportunistic Infections and Related Diseases. 500. Opportunistic Infections A definition of opportunistic infections. ... Opportunistic Infections and Related Diseases, and Their Treatment. To see a list of fact sheets in each category, click on the ...
Inheritance and Genetics of AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections including heritability, family history, and inheritance ... Genetics of AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections:. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections is NOT a genetic disease. AIDS- ... Diagnostic Tests for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. *Home Diagnostic Testing for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections ... Treatments for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. *Doctors and Medical Specialists for AIDS-Related Opportunistic ...
AIDS-related opportunistic infections. QualityTools. You Can Prevent Cryptosporidiosis (Crypto): A Guide for People with HIV ... You Can Prevent Toxoplasmosis (Toxo): A Guide for People with HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide for people with HIV infection ... You Can Prevent PCP (Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia): A Guide for People With HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide for people with ... You Can Prevent PCP (Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia) in Children: A Guide for People With HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide ...
Browsing by Subject "AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... A revised framework to address TB-HIV co-infection in the Western Pacific Region  World Health Organization. Regional Office ... Meeting on the Revised Regional Framework on TB-HIV Co-Infection, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 18-21 February 2008  World Health ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Focus of. * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Resource Information The topic AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections represents a ... Data Citation of the Topic AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property= ...
This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more. ... Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. ... HIV/AIDS and Infections Also called: AIDS-related opportunistic ... What is an Opportunistic Infection? (National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research) Also in Spanish ... HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * HIV/AIDS and Oral Health (National Institute of ...
HIV Infections. Opportunistic Infections. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections ... HIV Infections AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Drug: Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Drug: Lopinavir/ ... Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individuals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter ...
Experimental Results on Chloroquine and AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Boelaert, Johan R.; Appelberg, Rui; Gomes, M. ... Spectrum of AIDS-Defining Illnesses in Australia, 1992 to 1998: Influence of Country/Region of Birth. Dore, Gregory J.; Li, ... Temporal Trends and Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection in Taiwan From 1988 to 1998. Chen, Yi-Ming A.; Huang, Kui-Li; Jen ... Evidence of Productively Infected CD8+ T Cells in Patients With AIDS: Implications for HIV-1 Pathogenesis. Saha, Kunal; Zhang, ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal. Infusions, Intravenous. Drug Administration ... Have certain severe medical problems, including AIDS-related opportunistic infections (such as PCP) that require treatment. ... an opportunistic (AIDS-related) infection caused by a virus that infects brain tissue and causes damage to the brain and the ... Safety and Effectiveness of Topotecan HCl to Treat HIV-Infected Patients With AIDS-Related Progressive Multifocal ...
... added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal ... An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature. 1989 Jun 1. 339(6223):389-92. [Medline]. ... HIV Infection and AIDS Q&A Which opportunistic infections and conditions are seen in patients with AIDS?. Updated: Dec 02, 2019 ... Opportunistic infections and conditions include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): ...
... infection is a serious and growing public health problem. We have carried out a randomised clinical trial of a 12-month course ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control* * Acquired ... Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on incidence of active tuberculosis and progression of HIV infection Lancet. 1993 Jul 31;342( ... The effect of prophylaxis on the development of HIV disease, AIDS, and death was also investigated. 118 subjects were assigned ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology* * Adult * CD4 ... Factors associated with cytomegalovirus infection among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seronegative and -seropositive ... and concurrent Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (OR = 3.60; P = .08). However, shedding was observed ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis [‎1]‎. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections [‎2]‎. Air Pollutants [‎1]‎. * * Browsing Meeting reports by ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections [‎3]‎. Alcohol Drinking [‎12]‎. Alcohol-Induced Disorders [‎3]‎. ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Sax PE, Sloan CE, Schackman BR, et al. "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with ... "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ACTG A5164." HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11(5):248-59. ...
AIDS); or (4) having any AIDS-related opportunistic infection. For purposes of this Agreement, having HIV disease also means ... 4) infection control procedures, including but not limited to the appropriate disposal of contaminated materials and the ... The Texas/Oklahoma AIDS Education and Training Center, Amelia Court Professional Building, 1936 Amelia Court, Dallas, TX 75235 ... In addition, OCR may be required to release this Agreement and all related materials to any person upon request, consistent ...
No subject experienced an AIDS-related opportunistic infection.. Viekira Pak In Selected Liver Transplant Recipients. Viekira ... Related Disease Conditions. * Hepatitis (Viral Hepatitis A, B, C, D, E, G). Hepatitis is most often viral, due to infection ... Hepatitis E Viral Infection. Hepatitis E (hep E) is a type of hepatitis viral infection that includes hepatitis A, B, C, D, F, ... Common Eye Problems and Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. All. Quizzes Diet and Nutrition Quiz. Heart Disease Quiz. ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Placebos Protozoan Infections Intestinal Diseases Albendazole Microsporida Anthelmintics ... Infection Communicable Diseases HIV Infections Protozoan Infections Microsporidiosis Albendazole processed ... NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service Identifier. NCT00002191 First received: November 2, 1999 Last ... Further study details as provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection Antibiotics, Macrolide Azithromycin Drug ... Infection Communicable Diseases Mycobacterium Infections Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection Pneumococcal Infections ... Therefore, if the patient does get a Streptococcus infection, it will be easier to treat because it is not resistant to the ... MAC preventive therapy uses antibiotics, but this can make it difficult to treat other infections caused by bacteria that have ...
Iron regulation and an opportunistic AIDS-related fungal infection. [PLoS Biol. 2006] ... Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.. Jung WH1, Sham A, ... Correction: Iron Regulation of the Major Virulence Factors in the AIDS-Associated Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. [PLoS Biol ... Iron Regulation of the Major Virulence Factors in the AIDS-Associated Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans ...
1. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. 2. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis. 3. Adhesive abuse. 4. Adhesive addiction. 5 ... Research the causes of related medical symptoms such as: *Abdomen *Abdomen pain (2568 causes) *Rash (1165 causes) *Rash ...
List of causes of Calcaneal bone redness and Infection, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and ... 4. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. 5. ARTS syndrome. 6. Aberrant subclavian artery abnormality. 7. Absent corpus ... Opportunistic infections related to HIV infection. 851. Oral pharyngeal disorders. 852. Oral-facial cleft. 853. Organic ... Adenoviridae Infections. 44. Adenovirus infection in immunocompromised patients. 45. Adenovirus-related Cold. 46. Adenoviruses ...
Aids-related Opportunistic Infections. Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency ... Related Companies*Related Events*Related Clinical Trials*Related PubMed Entries*Related Medications ... Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection among non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. Recent reports have shown the ... Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen causing focal or disseminated infection in immunocompromised ...
Aids-related Opportunistic Infections. Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency ... Related Companies*Related Events*Related Clinical Trials*Related PubMed Entries*Related Medications ... Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS. ... Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness. ...
Experimental results on chloroquine and AIDS-related opportunistic infections.. Boelaert JR, Appelberg R, Gomes MS, Blasi E, ... In vitro and in vivo activities of new rifamycin derivatives against mycobacterial infections. ... Activities of new macrolides and fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in mice. ...
Trends in AIDS-related opportunistic infections among men who have sex with men and among injecting drug users, 1991-1996. J ... Temporal trends of opportunistic infections and malignancies in homosexual men with AIDS. J Infect Dis 1994;170:198-202. ... Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: frequencies, associations, and trends. AIDS 1987;1:175-82. ... Estimating the number of AIDS-defining opportunistic illness diagnoses from data collected under the 1993 AIDS surveillance ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / diagnosis*. Adult. Cytomegalovirus*. Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis*. ... Next Document: Psychomotor slowing in HIV infection: a predictor of dementia, AIDS and death.. ... While MR scanning is crucial to evulation of AIDS patients developing neurologic complications, it is not sensitive to the ...
  • Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection cryptosporidiosis, including symptoms, prevention and treatment. (
  • This guide for people with HIV infection provides information about the prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis (crypto). (
  • Cryptosporidiosis (CRYPT-OH-spore-id-ee-oh-sis) is an uncommon but unpleasant AIDS-related opportunistic infection. (
  • There are no medications that will cure cryptosporidiosis once infection sets in, but Humatin® does suppress the effects of infection in most people. (
  • People with HIV/AIDS are also more likely to have complications from common illnesses such as the flu. (
  • While MR scanning is crucial to evulation of AIDS patients developing neurologic complications, it is not sensitive to the presence of CMV encephalitis even when it is quite severe. (
  • Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often develop complications related directly to the infection, as well as to treatment. (
  • Family physicians who care for patients with HIV infection have a key role in identifying and managing many of these chronic complications. (
  • 1 However, most HIV-associated complications arise directly from chronic infection that results in immunologic impairment and inflammation, and indirectly through aging, ART, and lifestyle factors such as smoking and diet. (
  • Maternal deaths can be caused by obstetric (childbirth-related) complications such as puerperal septicemia (an infection of the blood contracted during delivery) and eclampsia (seizures associated with high blood pressure during pregnancy), and by nonobstetric conditions such as HIV/AIDS-related infections and other infections. (
  • To assess the incidence and spectrum of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (cART) era. (
  • We calculated incidence rates per 1000 person-years of observation for the first opportunistic infection, first opportunistic malignancy, and first occurrence of each individual opportunistic illness during 1994-2007. (
  • Using stratified Poisson regression models, and adjusting for sex, race, and HIV risk category, we modeled annual percentage changes in opportunistic illness incidence rates by calendar period. (
  • Although malaria is not typically considered an opportunistic infection, its incidence was found to be significantly higher among children in Tanzania that were perinatally infected with HIV than those without HIV infection. (
  • Thus isoniazid effectively decreases the incidence of tuberculosis and delays the onset of HIV-related disease in symptom-free HIV-seropositive individuals. (
  • As a result of new treatments that reduce mortality for persons with AIDS, the number of persons living with AIDS is increasing, and the incidence of AIDS is decreasing. (
  • Results: The incidence declined significantly for each of 15 of the 26 specific AIDS-defining OIs (p less than 0.05). (
  • The spread of MDR- M. tb and the increased number of immunocompromised individuals due to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic have led to an increasing incidence of M. tb infection ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • HIV infection is associated with a high incidence of AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs). (
  • Since the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses has decreased, leading to a significant improvement in survival of HIV-infected patients. (
  • HIV infection is associated with a high incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. (
  • 2 Since the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of opportunistic infections has decreased, so lymphoma is now by far the most lethal complication of AIDS. (
  • Since the wide use of HAART, the incidence of most AIDS-defining illnesses has decreased dramatically, leading to a much longer survival of patients. (
  • 16 17 The incidence rates of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus infection, and Candida esophagitis during 1996 and 1997 declined from 27.4 per 100 person-years to 6.9 per 100 person-years. (
  • [ 3 ] Since the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), the overall incidence of AIDS-related NHL has declined. (
  • In most countries in Africa, the incidence and prevalence of HIV-1 infection continues to increase over that of Europe and America especially for the first ten developing nations with the high HIV/AIDS illness burden of which Nigeria is one. (
  • Reports of an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) marked by increasing hypoxia or new pulmonary infiltrates have been associated with the initiation of ART in patients with AIDS. (
  • Problem/Condition: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining opportunistic illnesses (OIs) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality among persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Others include lymphoma, encephalopathy (AIDS dementia), and wasting syndrome. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • Background: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (or Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS) is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and results in reduced immunity, leaving affected individuals more susceptible to illness and opportunistic infections. (
  • Conclusion: literature suggests several possible types of association between auditory disorders and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and that people with HIV/AIDS may require hearing care interventions. (
  • Disseminated infection with Mycobacteria avium complex (MAC) is one of the most common systemic bacterial infections in advanced stages of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) accounts for 2%-3% of new acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Update on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-United States. (
  • median CD4 cell count 298 cells/microl) experienced 2027 incident opportunistic illnesses during a median of 2.9 years of observation. (
  • In this contemporary cART era, a third of opportunistic illnesses were diagnosed at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl. (
  • Opportunistic infections (OIs) are illnesses that occur more frequently and are more severe in people with HIV. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 1993 Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Classification system for human T-Iymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus infection. (
  • On June 5, 1981, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued its first warning about a relatively rare form of pneumonia among a small group of young gay men in Los Angeles, which was later determined to be AIDS-related. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • This guide provides information about the prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in children with HIV infection. (
  • c) the percentage of persons among those who have died who had had a given OI during their course of AIDS, and d) the frequency of prescriptions for antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and for Mycobacterium avium complex disease (MAC). (
  • Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii) is a fungus that causes pneumocystis pneumonia, a respiratory infection. (
  • Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia during primary HIV-1 infection. (
  • Patients with AIDS due to HIV infection are susceptible to opportunistic pathogens, with TB being the most common and perhaps the leading cause of death in these patients ( 1 , 2 , 5 ). (
  • Infection with HIV-1 is characterized by the early onset of T cell dysfunction, ultimately resulting in an inability to protect the host against opportunistic pathogens. (
  • In addition to innate and adaptive immunities, hosts also resist microbial infections by developing a mechanism of "natural resistance" that maintains a low level of free iron to restrict the growth of invading pathogens. (
  • An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, fungi, parasites or viruses) that take advantage of an opportunity not normally available. (
  • Opportunistic infections can also be attributed to pathogens that cause mild illness in healthy individuals but lead to more serious illness when given the opportunity to take advantage of an immunocompromised host. (
  • A wide variety of pathogens are involved in opportunistic infection and can cause a similarly wide range in pathologies. (
  • A partial list of opportunistic pathogens and their associated presentations includes: Clostridioides difficile (formerly known as Clostridium difficile) is a species of bacteria that is known to cause gastrointestinal infection and is typically associated with the hospital setting. (
  • Tuberculosis occurring with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious and growing public health problem. (
  • She conducts clinical research on HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis with a focus on resource-limited settings. (
  • Dr. Shenoi has worked in South Africa to study the epidemiology of drug resistant tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection control strategies. (
  • She currently develops and implements community-based projects that emphasize the integration of HIV and tuberculosis services to improve prevention, care and treatment for patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. (
  • She is a member of the International AIDS Society, the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. (
  • 3 The HIV-positive state makes people more prone to tuberculosis and can also activate the existing latent TB infection. (
  • This program is authorized under sections 301 and 307 of the Public Health Service Act [ 42 U.S.C. 24 l and 2421, as amended, and under Public Law 108-25 (United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act of 2003) [ 22 U.S.C. 7601 ]. (
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of bacteria that causes tuberculosis, a respiratory infection. (
  • Most talked about is goal 6 " which is designed to combat HIV/AIDS Malaria Tuberculosis and other diseases. (
  • roviral therapy (ART), opportunistic infections (OIs), which have been defined as infections that are more frequent or more severe because of immunosuppression in HIV-infected persons, were the principal cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. (
  • Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality. (
  • Research shows that about 90% of HIV-related morbidity and mortality are caused by opportunistic infections compared to 7% due to opportunistic cancers and 3% due to other causes [ 5 ]. (
  • No doubt collaboratory efforts to stem the tide of the HIV/AIDS Global pandemic have been largely successful, judging from the morbidity and mortality statistics that have reduced considerably. (
  • With the advent of HAART in 1996, the AIDS-related morbidity, particularly with respect to opportunistic infections, has decreased and the survival of HIV/AIDS patients has increased. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • This guide for people with HIV infection provides information about the prevention and treatment of Mycobacterium avium complex disease (MAC). (
  • Some people who have taken azithromycin to prevent MAC (Mycobacterium avium Complex, a bacterial infection common in HIV-infected persons) have been found to carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria (germs that grow despite the presence of drugs used to kill them). (
  • Diagnosis of AIDS with a case defining infection other than Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). (
  • Previous or current infection due to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease as evaluated by two successive blood cultures and two successive stool cultures taken within 14 days prior to study initiation. (
  • Previous or current Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection. (
  • Many AIDS-related infections can cause diarrhea, among them cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium complex, or MAC. (
  • Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of two bacteria, M. avium and M. intracellulare, that typically co-infect, leading to a lung infection called mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection. (
  • Sheela Shenoi is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the AIDS Program of the Section of Infectious Diseases at Yale University School of Medicine. (
  • There are more than 20 serious diseases that can become opportunistic infections if you have HIV/AIDS. (
  • If you have one or more of the diseases on this list, you could be considered to have AIDS. (
  • It occurs almost exclusively in immunosuppressed individuals, e.g., patients with AIDS, hematological and lymphoreticular malignancies, autoimmune rheumatological diseases, or those having undergone organ transplantation. (
  • Opportunistic diseases often seen with aids include which diseases? (
  • Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ACTG A5164. (
  • Treatment of serious bone and joint infections (including acute hematogenous osteomyelitis) caused by susceptible Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • In the early 1990s, the use of chemoprophylaxis, immunization, and better strategies for managing acute OIs contributed to … Opportunistic infections can attack all areas of the body including the mouth and the throat. (
  • As infection subsides, patients are often able to regain most or all of the weight they lost during the acute phase of infection. (
  • Characterization of the acute clinical illness associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (
  • Acute co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and esophageal ulcers. (
  • Esophageal candidiasis and immunodeficiency associated with acute HIV infection. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma (NHL), including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection molluscum contagiosum, including symptoms, diagnosis, prevention and treatment. (
  • 1.HIV infections - diagnosis. (
  • A diagnosis of meningitis may be delayed because some symptoms, such as headache , stiff neck , and fatigue , may initially be assumed to be related to another less serious condition. (
  • The diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei infection was made from an excisional lymph node biopsy and a sputum culture. (
  • A high level of clinical suspicion is necessary for making an early diagnosis and improving the outcome of infection. (
  • Patients with DLBCL have a significantly higher rate of previous AIDS disease as well as a lower CD4 cell count at diagnosis of ARL than patients with BL. (
  • However, the atypical clinical manifestation due to HIV infection state makes diagnosis rather challenging. (
  • However, some ois can occur at earlier stages prior to an aids diagnosis too. (
  • Increasing clinical awareness of the impact of obstetric and nonobstetric infections with their inclusion in the differential diagnosis, together with a thorough evaluation of cases clinically thought to be eclampsia, could have a significant impact on the reduction of maternal mortality. (
  • This is particularly true in sub-Saharan Africa, where there is a significant burden of HIV/AIDS and where more than half the patients are HAART naive at diagnosis of HL. (
  • Racial differences in response to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: an AIDS clinical trials group (ACTG) study analysis. (
  • In contrast, the role of T cell-derived type 2 cytokines remains uncertain in spite of their clinical use in combination with antiretroviral therapy as immunotherapy targeted against chronic viral-induced activation and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma ( 18 , 19 , 20 ). (
  • Current U.S. treatment guidelines support antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. (
  • Objectives To determine the effectiveness of potent antiretroviral therapy in reducing opportunistic infections (OI) as both a presenting event and subsequent to an AIDS-defining event. (
  • Design and methods A total of 543 seroconverters and 1470 men with AIDS were compared for the time to development of OI as the presenting AIDS event and as a subsequent event in the 1984-1989, 1990-1992, 1993-1995, and 1996-1998 periods, when the major treatments were no therapy, monotherapy, combination therapy, and potent antiretroviral therapy, respectively. (
  • The relative hazard (RH) of OI as the presenting AIDS event declined by 81% in the calendar period when potent antiretroviral therapy was available compared with the monotherapy period. (
  • A 20-year cohort study has shown that with the advent of antiretroviral therapy, ADCs (AIDS-defining cancers) continue to fall, but the rates of NADCs (non-AIDS defining cancers) are on the increase. (
  • The authors conclude that this increase appears to be more related to the aging of the HIV population rather than the antiretroviral therapy and its effect on the CD4 T-cell count [ 7 ]. (
  • With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, ADCs (AIDS-defining cancers) continue to fall, but the rates of NADCs (non-AIDS defining cancers) such as HL, anal carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and skin cancers are on the increase [ 7 ]. (
  • Pulmonary cryptococcosis is an important opportunistic invasive mycosis in immunocompromised patients, but it is also increasingly seen in immunocompetent patients. (
  • Active AIDS-defining opportunistic infection other than cytomegalovirus (CMV) including systemic mycosis, pulmonary or neurologic impairment (comatose). (
  • Cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions are common among persons with HIV infection. (
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungus that causes cryptococcosis, which can lead to pulmonary infection as well as nervous system infections, like meningitis. (
  • Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. (
  • OIs are serious infections that take advantage of your weak immune system. (
  • But if your immune system is compromised it may be harder to fight these infections. (
  • Opportunistic infections are infections that occur more often and are more severe in people with weakened immune systems than in people with healthy immune systems 1).People with weakened immune systems include people living … In the modern world, there is a dire need for people who can communicate in different languages. (
  • Opportunistic infection: An infection that occurs because of a weakened immune system. (
  • Opportunistic infections are a special category of infections that affects those individuals more who have weaker or degrading immune system. (
  • In immunocompromised individuals with impaired adaptive immunity, natural killer (NK) cells could serve as the major immune cells contributing to innate defense against bacterial infection ( 4 , 10 ). (
  • The immunopathology of HIV-1 infection includes immune defects in T cell cytokine secretion, resulting in decreased Ag-specific responses. (
  • In patients with PML who develop immune reconstitution, the entry of JCV-specific T cells, B cells, and monocytes into the CNS at the site of JCV infection helps eliminate the virus. (
  • As the immune system wanes, the person has an increasingly difficult time fighting off infections from which a person with a 'normal' immune system would typically not suffer, a.K.A. 'opportunistic' infections. (
  • Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. (
  • HIV is a virus that targets T cells of the immune system and, as a result, HIV infection can lead to progressively worsening immunodeficiency, a condition ideal for the development of opportunistic infection. (
  • Many of the symptoms are related to opportunistic infections due to decreased immune response. (
  • GRID" or "gay-related immune deficiency" increasingly used by media and health care professionals, mistakenly suggesting inherent link between homosexuality and AIDS. (
  • Known as one of the immune system's responses to a viral infection, tetherin stops the infected cell from releasing the newly made virus, thus shutting down spread to other cells. (
  • Iron regulation and an opportunistic AIDS-related fungal infection. (
  • Cryptococcosis is a common invasive fungal infection (IFI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. (
  • A fungal infection you can get in your mouth, throat, digestive system, or vagina. (
  • A fungal infection that can cause a severe type of pneumonia. (
  • An alternative diagnostic approach that has been used in AIDS patients is to treat with systemic antifungal agents on the basis of the history. (
  • 10 11 Moreover, 2 rare categories of ARL, such as plasmablastic lymphomas of the oral cavity 12 and primary effusion lymphoma, 13 occur more specifically in HIV infection. (
  • AIDS-related lymphoma (ARL) is usually an AIDS-defining malignancy in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • [ 6 ] ) and toward HL and AIDS-related Burkitt lymphoma, which develop in the presence of relatively higher sustained CD4+ counts, NHL develops later in the course of illness and in patients who have lower CD4+ counts. (
  • Activation of c-Myc occurs in all AIDS patients with Burkitt lymphoma. (
  • [ 22 ] EBV infection is present in 50% of the patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is known to be associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), based on linkage and cohort studies. (
  • Opportunistic illness rate decreases were similar for the subset of patients receiving cART. (
  • 36% opportunistic illness events occurred at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl. (
  • Opportunistic illness rates declined precipitously after introduction of cART and stabilized at low levels during 2003-2007. (
  • Following initial infection a person may not notice any symptoms, or may experience a brief period of influenza-like illness. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of death and illness in people with HIV-1. (
  • Clinical picture of primary HIV infection presenting as a glandular-fever-like illness. (
  • Variations in self-rated health among patients with HIV infection. (
  • This unusual case report is discussed with a review of the literature dealing with CMV involvement of genital organs in the immunocompromised host, and in patients with HIV infection and AIDS. (
  • Iron regulation of the major virulence factors in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. (
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen causing focal or disseminated infection in immunocompromised patients. (
  • Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that exists as normal flora in healthy human bodies but causes life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. (
  • Diarrhea is one of the most common side effects of HIV, intestinal infections, and HIV drugs. (
  • It can be difficult to diagnose the cause of diarrhea, but it is important to try since many infections will require treatment to get better. (
  • Dose-related nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain were the most common toxicities and resulted in discontinuation of ritonavir in 7 children. (
  • Could be 'final stage' if no longer responding to haart (anti-viral treatments) which should help prevent most opportunistic infections once the HIV viral load is suppressed. (
  • Clinical characteristics, audiological and neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. (
  • It reached phase III clinical trials for hepatitis B and herpesvirus, phase II clinical trials for cytomegalovirus, and underwent a pilot study for use in treating AIDs prior to discontinuation. (
  • There is a dangerous relationship between TB and HIV co-infection, with HIV increasing the likelihood of TB infection, and TB worsening the clinical course of HIV infection ( 2 ). (
  • the Harvard School of Public Health, Statistical & Data Analysis Center, AIDS Clinical Trials Group, Boston (C.Y. (
  • Fortunately, research has demonstrated that nearly all patients at risk of developing CM during ART could be identified on entry into ART programmes by screening for sub-clinical infection using cheap (ZAR38.95), simple and highly sensitive cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) blood tests. (
  • Clinical course of primary HIV infection: Consequences for subsequent course of infection. (
  • Severe clinical manifestations of primary HIV infection. (
  • A description of the opportunistic infection cytomegalovirus (CMV), including symptoms, prevention and treatment. (
  • Not only does this make it more difficult to fight the infection, it may mean that a level of infection that would normally produce symptoms is instead undetected (subclinical infection). (
  • Likewise, patients with localized disease will not be further dose escalated if symptoms/evidence of localized infection resolve as assessed by the principal investigator. (
  • Video chat with a U.S. board-certified doctor 24/7 in less than one minute for common issues such as: colds and coughs, stomach symptoms, bladder infections, rashes, and more. (
  • In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPalpha and sAPPbeta), amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Abeta1-42), and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau) in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC), 25 with central nervous system (CNS) opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. (
  • Histoplasma capsulatum is a species of fungus known to cause histoplasmosis, which can present with an array of symptoms, but often involves respiratory infection. (
  • According to researchers in California, the cancerous skin lesions known as Kaposi's sarcoma are densely related to HIV/AIDS, but the virus that causes Kaposi's was widespread among US gay men before the HIV epidemic ever started. (
  • Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in AIDS: Are There Any MR Findings Useful to Patient Management and Predictive of Patient Survival? (
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by widespread lesions due to infection of oligodendrocytes by JC virus, which is a human polyomavirus (formerly known as papovavirus). (
  • Excess iron exacerbates experimental cryptococcosis and the prevalence of this disease in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with nutritional and genetic aspects of iron loading in the background of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (
  • As a result of new treatments that improve outcomes for HIV-infected persons, the prevalence of AIDS is increasing (1). (
  • With an average adult HIV prevalence of 2.3 percent, the Caribbean is the second-most affected region in the world, according to the 2004 Annual Report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS). (
  • Prevalence and characteristics of patients with undiagnosed HIV infection in an urban emergency department. (
  • Magnetic resonance brain imaging lacks sensitivity for AIDS associated cytomegalovirus encephalitis. (
  • A viral infection that can cause pneumonia or blindness. (
  • If they continue or get worse, it may be a sign that you have an infection, especially if you also have a fever. (
  • Primary infection presents with fever, myalgia and painful shallow ulcers. (
  • Treatment of aids-related opportunistic infections are caused by a spiking fever. (
  • Candida albicans is a species of fungus that is associated with oral thrush and gastrointestinal infection. (
  • A few human infections of Candida blankii have been found. (
  • The purpose of this funding announcement is to build progressively an indigenous, sustainable response to regional HIV epidemic in the Caribbean through the rapid expansion of innovative, culturally appropriate, high-quality HIV/AIDS prevention and care interventions, and improved linkages to confidential HIV counseling and testing and HIV treatment services by targeting rural and other underserved populations in the West Indies. (
  • While scientists believe that HIV was present years before the first case was brought to public attention, 1981 is generally referred to as the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (
  • The Global HIV/AIDS Timeline is designed to serve as an ongoing reference tool for the many political, scientific, cultural, and community developments that have occurred over the history of the epidemic. (
  • This marks the official beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. (
  • Decreased secretion of type 1 cytokines such as IL-2 and IFN-γ following mitogen stimulation of T cells in progressive HIV infection is associated with a higher susceptibility to opportunistic infections ( 4 , 9 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ). (
  • A description of herpes simplex virus that causes cold sores or genital herpes, and its interactions with HIV infection. (
  • Zovirax ointment is a prescription medication used to treat genital herpes and in certain herpes simplex virus infections in patients with lowered immunity (immunocompromised). (
  • Primary infection occurs via aerosolised drops or directly from vesicle fluid. (
  • Initial M. tb infection occurs in the lungs, where invading Mycobacterium are phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages. (
  • Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (
  • 3 The risk factors for AIDS-related lymphomas (ARLs) are older age, 4 severe immunodeficiency, 5 and prolonged HIV infection. (
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus caused by the virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus has caused more than three million deaths from HIV infection and more than 5 million adults and children are living with the HIV infection. (
  • Isolation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from plasma during primary HIV infection. (
  • Cooper DA, Imrie AA, Penny R: Antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus following primary infection. (
  • Rheumatic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. (
  • see 1983 entry) - later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) - causes AIDS. (
  • Ritonavir, a potent antiretroviral protease inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of adults and children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. (
  • The Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV document is published in an electronic format that can be easily updated as relevant changes in prevention and treatment recommendations occur. (
  • In contrast chronic meningitis takes weeks or months to develop and can be the result of side effects of certain drugs, such a chemotherapy, a viral infection or a bacterial infection as well. (
  • Aseptic meningitis is often caused by a viral infection , but can also be cause by a bacterial infection , certain drugs, or reactions to a vaccine. (
  • Discussion of co-infection with both HIV and hepatitis C. (
  • Lobucavir (previously known as BMS-180194, Cyclobut-G) is an antiviral drug that shows broad-spectrum activity against herpesviruses, hepatitis B and other hepadnaviruses, HIV/AIDS and cytomegalovirus. (
  • Lobucavir has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against herpesvirus, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and human cytomegalovirus. (
  • Medical screening includes obtaining a general medical history and physical examination, screening for infections (e.g., intestinal parasites and hepatitis B), and provision of preventive services (e.g., vaccinations) and counseling [ 3 ]. (
  • ABSTRACT In Libya, little is known about HIV-related hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality. (
  • The viral infection in oligodendrocytes is lytic. (
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections is an infectious disease. (
  • In general, an infectious disease can be caused by a pathogenic organism (viruses, bacteria, fungi, worms, parasites) that can invade the body and cause infection. (
  • PCP was the most common AIDS-defining OI to occur first (PCP was the first OI to occur for 36% of HIV-infected persons), the most common incident AIDS-defining OI (274 cases per 1000 person-years), and the most common AIDS-defining OI to have occurred during the course of AIDS (53% of persons who died with AIDS had PCP diagnosed at some time during their course of AIDS). (
  • Ketoconazole is a prescription medication used to treat fungal infections, including the following: blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis for patients in which other treatments have failed or who are intolerant to other therapies. (
  • Zovirax is a prescription medication used to treat infections caused by the varicella-zoster and herpes viruses, such as shingles, genital herpes, and chickenpox . (
  • Zovirax capsule, tablet, oral suspension, and injectable are prescription medications used to treat infections caused by the varicella-zoster and herpes viruses. (
  • Cytomegalovirus is a family of opportunistic viruses, most frequently associated with respiratory infection. (
  • The new findings suggest that human cells also use this defence against other types of viruses, such as Ebola, that are not closely related to HIV-1. (
  • Adjunct in the surgical treatment of chronic bone and joint infections caused by susceptible bacteria. (
  • Treatment of serious gynecologic infections (e.g., endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis, postsurgical vaginal cuff infection) caused by susceptible anaerobes. (
  • Treatment of serious intra-abdominal infections (e.g., peritonitis, intra-abdominal abscess) caused by susceptible anaerobes. (
  • Alternative for treatment of pharyngitis and tonsillitis † caused by susceptible Streptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci) 120 122 135 144 149 in patients who cannot receive β-lactam anti-infectives and have infections caused by macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes . (
  • MAC preventive therapy uses antibiotics, but this can make it difficult to treat other infections caused by bacteria that have become resistant in HIV-infected persons. (
  • Salmonella is a genus of bacteria, known to cause gastrointestinal infections. (
  • Cryptosporidium, the organism that causes this infection, gets into the intestinal tract when a person drinks contaminated water or eats unwashed or uncooked food. (
  • Have certain severe medical problems, including AIDS-related opportunistic infections (such as PCP) that require treatment. (
  • Others in the series include Effectiveness of interventions to address HIV in prisons, Effectiveness of sterile needle and syringe programming in reducing HIV/AIDS among injecting drug users and Effectiveness of drug dependence treatment in preventing HIV among HIV injecting drug users . (
  • Three- vs four-drug antiretroviral regimens for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Because clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis (potentially fatal), it should be reserved for treatment of serious infections when less toxic anti-infectives are inappropriate. (
  • related symptomatology and urgency of treatment. (
  • AIDS-related opportunistic infections and anti-AIDS treatment. (
  • 5 Hence, co-infection poses great challenges for both diagnoses and treatment. (
  • If otherwise stable most of these infections have specific treatment options. (
  • Over the past decade the United States has expanded access to treatment for over 2.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • The Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), established in 2003 under former President George W. Bush, built treatment and care programmes and strengthened health systems across the developing world. (
  • In its seventh year, PEPFAR is strategically positioned to expand treatment and care, reduce new infections, build country health systems, support universal access targets and lay the path to meeting a number of other millennium development goals (MDGs). (
  • An AIDS patient in West Bengal was first refused treatment by government hospitals and then chained to a hospital bed till a human rights group intervened to unshackle him, reports said Thursday. (
  • Still by the end of that year , 80% of affected adults and 100% of children are expected to be on antiretroviral treatment(ART), in addition, to 50% of people living with AIDS who are expected to have access to good care and Support services. (
  • What caused the first aids infections in straight humans? (
  • Infection with T. gondii in humans can occur in various ways. (
  • Which of the following is the most common mode of infection in humans? (
  • this was the first recorded case of C. blankii infection in humans. (
  • 1993 revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS among adolescents and adults. (
  • Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults. (
  • Overall, the highest HIV-infection levels among women in the Americas are in Caribbean countries, and AIDS has become the leading cause of death in the Caribbean among adults aged 15-44 years (Caribbean Epidemiology Centre, Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), World Health Organization (WHO), 2004). (
  • These infections are less common and less severe in healthy people. (
  • Ganciclovir has been used to treat AIDS patients with CMV disease but can cause severe neutropenia (very low neutrophil cell counts). (
  • Previous studies indicated that sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) failed to act in immunocompromised hosts, such as patients who are suffering from AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive agents ( 17 , 38 ) and nude ( 36 ) and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice ( 15 ). (
  • AIDS research and genetics. (
  • The hottest thing in AIDS research at the moment is the research to treat HIV infection with genetics. (
  • Description of the most common opportunistic infections with links to more detailed information. (
  • Cryptococcosis has become a common opportunistic infection among non-HIV immunocompromised hosts. (
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common opportunistic infection after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (
  • In fact, opportunistic infections are the most common cause of death for people with HIV/AIDS. (
  • Some infections are really common, so you need to take special precautions to prevent being exposed to them. (
  • People-to-people spread of opportunistic infections is also common. (
  • The most common skin-related side effects are dry or cracked lips, flakiness or dryness of skin, a burning or stinging feeling, or itching of the skin at site of application. (
  • See related handout on common side effects of HIV medicine , written by the authors of this article. (
  • Medindia provides you with the latest news and research breakthroughs on AIDS/HIV - Common Opportunistic Infections. (
  • This unit looks at how common cannabis, tobacco and related harms are in Indigenous Australian communities, as well as their impact and the science behind each of these substances (pharmacology). (