Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection: A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Toxoplasmosis, Cerebral: Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)Meningitis, Cryptococcal: Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)MycosesCytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pneumocystis jirovecii: A species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting humans and causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA. It also occasionally causes extrapulmonary disease in immunocompromised patients. Its former name was Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis.Nocardia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus NOCARDIA.Pneumocystis Infections: Infections with species in the genus PNEUMOCYSTIS, a fungus causing interstitial plasma cell pneumonia (PNEUMONIA, PNEUMOCYSTIS) and other infections in humans and other MAMMALS. Immunocompromised patients, especially those with AIDS, are particularly susceptible to these infections. Extrapulmonary sites are rare but seen occasionally.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Cytomegalovirus Retinitis: Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.Lung Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Pneumocystis: A genus of ascomycetous FUNGI, family Pneumocystidaceae, order Pneumocystidales. It includes various host-specific species causing PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in humans and other MAMMALS.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal: An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Pneumocystis carinii: The prototype species of PNEUMOCYSTIS infecting the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus (RATS). It was formerly called Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii. Other species of Pneumocystis can also infect rats.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Retroviruses, Simian: Classes of retroviruses for which monkeys or apes are hosts. Those isolated from the West African green monkey and the Asian rhesus macaque monkey are of particular interest because of their similarities to viruses causing cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Parasitic Diseases: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.Mycobacterium avium Complex: A complex that includes several strains of M. avium. M. intracellulare is not easily distinguished from M. avium and therefore is included in the complex. These organisms are most frequently found in pulmonary secretions from persons with a tuberculous-like mycobacteriosis. Strains of this complex have also been associated with childhood lymphadenitis and AIDS; M. avium alone causes tuberculosis in a variety of birds and other animals, including pigs.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Thymic Factor, Circulating: A thymus-dependent nonapeptide found in normal blood. Stimulates the formation of E rosettes and is believed to be involved in T-cell differentiation.Cryptosporidiosis: Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Mucormycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by any fungus in the order Mucorales (e.g., Absidia, Mucor, Rhizopus etc.) There are many clinical types associated with infection of the central nervous system, lung, gastrointestinal tract, skin, orbit and paranasal sinuses. In humans, it usually occurs as an opportunistic infection in patients with a chronic debilitating disease, particularly uncontrolled diabetes, or who are receiving immunosuppressive agents. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Central Nervous System Infections: Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Microsporida: An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Encephalitozoon cuniculi: A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Encephalitozoonosis: Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Dermatomyositis: A subacute or chronic inflammatory disease of muscle and skin, marked by proximal muscle weakness and a characteristic skin rash. The illness occurs with approximately equal frequency in children and adults. The skin lesions usually take the form of a purplish rash (or less often an exfoliative dermatitis) involving the nose, cheeks, forehead, upper trunk, and arms. The disease is associated with a complement mediated intramuscular microangiopathy, leading to loss of capillaries, muscle ischemia, muscle-fiber necrosis, and perifascicular atrophy. The childhood form of this disease tends to evolve into a systemic vasculitis. Dermatomyositis may occur in association with malignant neoplasms. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1405-6)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Polymyositis: Diseases characterized by inflammation involving multiple muscles. This may occur as an acute or chronic condition associated with medication toxicity (DRUG TOXICITY); CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES; infections; malignant NEOPLASMS; and other disorders. The term polymyositis is frequently used to refer to a specific clinical entity characterized by subacute or slowly progressing symmetrical weakness primarily affecting the proximal limb and trunk muscles. The illness may occur at any age, but is most frequent in the fourth to sixth decade of life. Weakness of pharyngeal and laryngeal muscles, interstitial lung disease, and inflammation of the myocardium may also occur. Muscle biopsy reveals widespread destruction of segments of muscle fibers and an inflammatory cellular response. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1404-9)Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.IndiaRetroviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the RETROVIRIDAE.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Cladribine: An antineoplastic agent used in the treatment of lymphoproliferative diseases including hairy-cell leukemia.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous: Infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (atypical mycobacteria): M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum, M. flavescens, M. gordonae, M. obuense, M. gilvum, M. duvali, M. szulgai, M. intracellulare (see MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX;), M. xenopi (littorale), M. ulcerans, M. buruli, M. terrae, M. fortuitum (minetti, giae), M. chelonae.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Lymphatic Diseases: Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Antibodies, Neoplasm: Immunoglobulins induced by antigens specific for tumors other than the normally occurring HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS.Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Immune System: The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Antirheumatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Adrenal Cortex HormonesFluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.United StatesLymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Communicable DiseasesAntibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Immunologic Factors: Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.Deltaretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of exogenous horizontally-transmitted viruses found in a few groups of mammals. Infections caused by these viruses include human B- or adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), and bovine leukemia (ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS). The type species is LEUKEMIA VIRUS, BOVINE.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.BrazilLymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Mycobacterium avium: A bacterium causing tuberculosis in domestic fowl and other birds. In pigs, it may cause localized and sometimes disseminated disease. The organism occurs occasionally in sheep and cattle. It should be distinguished from the M. avium complex, which infects primarily humans.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Gastrointestinal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the gastrointestinal system, as to control gastric acidity, regulate gastrointestinal motility and water flow, and improve digestion.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/2982)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

Tuberculous meningitis in South African urban adults. (2/2982)

We retrospectively reviewed 56 adults with culture-proven tuberculous meningitis (TBM), investigating clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings and outcome. There were 50 patients, aged 18-59 years, 39 with and 11 without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Six were aged 60 years or older. Neurological signs of TBM in 18-59-year-olds were unaffected by HIV serostatus while, compared to those > or = 60 years of age, there were more patients with meningism (86.0% vs. 33.3%; p = 0.011) and fewer with seizures (12.0% vs. 50.0%; p = 0.046). The HIV-infected 18-59-year-olds had significantly more extrameningeal tuberculosis compared to the non-HIV-infected (76.9% vs. 9.1%; p = 0.0001) and 23.1% had 'breakthrough' TBM. CSF analysis revealed 12 patients (21.4%) with acellular fluid (more common in those > or = 60 years of age, p = 0.016), of whom three had completely normal CSF. A neutrophil predominance was found in 22 patients (39.3%). Only three patients (5.4%) had a positive CSF smear for acid-fast bacilli. In-hospital mortality occurred in 39 patients (69.1%), was similar in all study groups, and was not related to neurological stage. The diagnosis of TBM can be masked by lack of meningism in the elderly and by atypical CSF findings.  (+info)

Clusters of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: analysis of person-to-person transmission by genotyping. (3/2982)

Genotyping at the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA operon was performed on isolates of P. carinii sp. f. hominis from three clusters of P. carinii pneumonia among eight patients with haematological malignancies and six with HIV infection. Nine different ITS sequence types of P. carinii sp. f. hominis were identified in the samples from the patients with haematological malignancies, suggesting that this cluster of cases of P. carinii pneumonia was unlikely to have resulted from nosocomial transmission. A common ITS sequence type was observed in two of the patients with haematological malignancies who shared a hospital room, and also in two of the patients with HIV infection who had prolonged close contact on the ward. In contrast, different ITS sequence types were detected in samples from an HIV-infected homosexual couple who shared the same household. These data suggest that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis may occur from infected to susceptible immunosuppressed patients with close contact within hospital environments. However direct transmission between patients did not account for the majority of cases within the clusters, suggesting that person-to-person transmission of P. carinii sp. f. hominis infection may be a relatively infrequent event and does not constitute the major route of transmission in man.  (+info)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (4/2982)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (5/2982)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

Early mycological treatment failure in AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis. (6/2982)

Cryptococcal meningitis causes significant morbidity and mortality in persons with AIDS. Of 236 AIDS patients treated with amphotericin B plus flucytosine, 29 (12%) died within 2 weeks and 62 (26%) died before 10 weeks. Just 129 (55%) of 236 patients were alive with negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures at 10 weeks. Multivariate analyses identified that titer of cryptococcal antigen in CSF, serum albumin level, and CD4 cell count, together with dose of amphotericin B, had the strongest joint association with failure to achieve negative CSF cultures by day 14. Among patients with similar CSF cryptococcal antigen titers, CD4 cell counts, and serum albumin levels, the odds of failure at week 10 for those without negative CSF cultures by day 14 was five times that for those with negative CSF cultures by day 14 (odds ratio, 5.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-10.9). Prognosis is dismal for patients with AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis. Multivariate analyses identified three components that, along with initial treatment, have the strongest joint association with early outcome. Clearly, more effective initial therapy and patient management strategies that address immune function and nutritional status are needed to improve outcomes of this disease.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/2982)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Successful short-term suppression of clarithromycin-resistant Mycobacterium avium complex bacteremia in AIDS. California Collaborative Treatment Group. (8/2982)

During a randomized study of clarithromycin plus clofazimine with or without ethambutol in patients with AIDS and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) bacteremia, eight participants received additional antimycobacterial drugs following the detection of a clarithromycin-resistant isolate (MIC, > 8 micrograms/mL). A macrolide (seven received clarithromycin, one azithromycin) and clofazimine were continued; additional treatment included various combinations of ethambutol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and rifabutin. After the detection of a resistant isolate and before receipt of additional antimycobacterials, the median peak MAC colony count in blood was 105 cfu/mL (range, 8-81,500 cfu/mL). After additional antimycobacterials, the median nadir MAC colony count was 5 cfu/mL (range, 0-110 cfu/mL). Five (63%) of eight patients had a > or = 1 log10 decrease, including two who achieved negative blood cultures; all of these responses occurred in patients originally assigned to clarithromycin plus clofazimine. Treatment of clarithromycin-resistant MAC bacteremia that emerges during clarithromycin-based treatment can decrease levels of bacteremia and transiently sterilize blood cultures.  (+info)

To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
FAQs - AIDS/HIV - Common Opportunistic Infections Support Group - Relationships and Sexuality. Discuss with people facing the same health challenges as yours and seek online advice from experts.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: EXPLORATOR / DEVOPMENTAL (R21) AWARDS FOR RESEARCH ON AIDS/HIV INFECTION AND THE ORAL CAVITY RFA-DE-02-007. NIDCR
We have proposed that researchers independent of the HIV establishment should audit the Centers for Disease Controls records of AIDS cases, bearing in mind that the correlation of HIV with AIDS, upon which the case for HIV causation rests, is itself an artefact of the definition of AIDS. Since 1985, exactly the same diseases or conditions have been defined as AIDS when antibodies are present, and as "non-AIDS" when HIV and antibodies are absent. Independent professional groups such as the Society of Actuaries should be invited to nominate members for an independent commission to investigate the following question: How frequently do AIDS-defining diseases (or low T cell counts) occur in the absence of HIV? Until we have a definition of AIDS that is independent of HIV, the supposed correlation of HIV and AIDS is mere tautology. Other independent researchers should examine the validity of the so-called AIDS tests, especially when these tests are used in Africa and Southern Asia, to see if they ...
That would be pretty unusual -- it sound like his HIV disease is progressing. If this is due to an undiagnosed opportunistic disease, then if it were diagnosed it could be treated. If it is due to...
Looking for online definition of NFKBIA in the Medical Dictionary? NFKBIA explanation free. What is NFKBIA? Meaning of NFKBIA medical term. What does NFKBIA mean?
If you believe that digital publication of certain material infringes any of your rights or (privacy) interests, please let the Library know, stating your reasons. In case of a legitimate complaint, the Library will make the material inaccessible and/or remove it from the website. Please Ask the Library, or send a letter to: Library of the University of Amsterdam, Secretariat, Singel 425, 1012 WP Amsterdam, The Netherlands. You will be contacted as soon as possible. ...
AIDS-defining clinical conditions (a.k.a. AIDS-defining illnesses or AIDS-defining diseases) is the list of diseases published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that are associated with AIDS, and used worldwide as a guideline for AIDS diagnosis. CDC exclusively uses the term AIDS-defining clinical conditions, but the other terms remain in common use. This list governs the US government classification of HIV disease. This is to allow the government to handle epidemic statistics and define who receives US government assistance. However, considerable variation exists in the relative risk of death following different AIDS defining clinical conditions.[further explanation needed] According to the CDC definition, a patient has AIDS if they are infected with HIV and have either: a CD4+ T-cell count below 200 cells/µL a CD4+ T-cell percentage of total lymphocytes of less than 15% or one of the defining illnesses. A patient presenting one of the above conditions but with laboratory ...
As the survival of patients with HIV increases, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those patients who are at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. In the present study, we determined the relationship between intermediate end points of CVD and clinically easily obtainable anthropometric, hemodynamic, and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected patients. Our main findings are that HIV-infected patients without the MS have endothelial dysfunction similar to that of type 2 diabetic patients. The presence of the MS in HIV was associated with even more advanced functional and structural vascular abnormalities.. In the present study, 41% of the patients fulfilled the definition of the MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. In the U.S., approximately 24% of the general population fulfills this definition (23). Elevated triglyceride levels were the most prevalent component of the MS, whereas an increased waist circumference and high fasting plasma glucose level were less ...
As the survival of patients with HIV increases, it is becoming increasingly important to identify those patients who are at increased risk for accelerated atherosclerosis. In the present study, we determined the relationship between intermediate end points of CVD and clinically easily obtainable anthropometric, hemodynamic, and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected patients. Our main findings are that HIV-infected patients without the MS have endothelial dysfunction similar to that of type 2 diabetic patients. The presence of the MS in HIV was associated with even more advanced functional and structural vascular abnormalities.. In the present study, 41% of the patients fulfilled the definition of the MS according to the NCEP-ATPIII guidelines. In the U.S., approximately 24% of the general population fulfills this definition (23). Elevated triglyceride levels were the most prevalent component of the MS, whereas an increased waist circumference and high fasting plasma glucose level were less ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
Cardiology news, research and treatment articles offering cardiology healthcare professionals cardiology information and resources to keep them informed.
Psychiatry healthcare professionals gain a thorough knowledge base of psychiatric disorder information to offer the best patient care. Get our FREE app now.
Cryptococcal meningitis (crypto) may not be the first thing that comes to mind when talking about HIV - but this common opportunistic infection and AIDS-defining illness is one of the leading killers of people living with HIV globally.. ...
WHAT ARE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS? TESTING FOR OIs OIs AND AIDS WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON OIs? PREVENTING OIs TREATING OIs WHAT ARE OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS? In our bodies, we carry many ...
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic infections that other people might fight off easily could make you really sick if you have HIV. Getting one or more of these opportunistic infections could mean that your HIV has advanced to AIDS.
Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.
Table 2. Treatment of AIDS-Associated Opportunistic Infections (Includes Recommendations for Acute Treatment and Secondary Prophylaxis/Chronic Suppressive/Maintenance Therapy ...
Genetic differences among people with HIV may account for differences in disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy. The Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS (CPCRA) was created to conduct studies in HIV infected communities and particularly in people of color, women, and injection drug users. This study will collect whole blood samples from HIV infected individuals. The samples will be used in future CPCRA studies comparing human genetic factors with clinical data from other CPCRA studies ...
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 150,000 children with HIV under 15 years of age died of opportunistic infections in low-to-middle income countries in 2014 alone.
A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS ...
A randomized study of antiretroviral management based on plasma genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing in patients failing therapy. CPCRA 046 study team for the Terry Beirn community programs for clinical research on AIDS ...
Opportunistic infections are infections caused by organisms that usually do not cause disease in a person with a healthy immune system, but can affect people with a poorly functioning or suppressed immune system.. ...
The START study was funded by various parts of the National Institutes of Health, the National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis in France, Germanys Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the European AIDS Treatment Network and government organizations in Australia, Denmark and Britain. Medications used in the trial were donated by AbbVie Inc., Bristol-Myers Squibb, Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline/ViiV Healthcare, Janssen Scientific Affairs, and Merck Sharp & Dohme.. ...
MAC is treatable and the symptoms should resolve or at least be less severe with treatment. Fatigue can also be related to anemia, which is common with MAC and advanced HIV disease, but is also...
Hello, As mentioned in another post (re: Dr. Wessely), I am new to this forum and have been out of the loop for a while until recently. My disease...
In the era of treat all, renewed emphasis is needed on the 39% of people living with HIV who start treatment late who are at an increased risk of deaths and opportunistic infections.. ...
Cryptococcal meningitis remains the leading cause of adult meningitis in Sub-Saharan Africa. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) following anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation is an important complication. Here we report the first documented case of a IRIS reaction presenting as an ischemic stroke. A 38 year old newly diagnosed HIV-infected, ART naive Malawian male presented to a tertiary referral hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with a 2 week history of headache. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was made and the patient was started on 1200 mg fluconazole once daily and flucytosine 25 mg/kg four times daily as part of the Advancing Cryptococcal Treatment for Africa (ACTA) clinical trial. There was an initial clinical and microbiological response to anti-fungal treatment and anti-retroviral therapy was started at week 4. The patient re-presented 16 days later with recurrence of headache, fever, and a sudden onset of left sided weakness in the context of rapid immune reconstitution;
DataSheet_1_What Is the Most Appropriate Induction Regimen for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis When the Recommended Regimen Is Not Available? Evidence From a Network Meta-Analysis.doc
Single dose versus 7 days of fluconazole treatment for oral candidiasis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a prospective, randomized pilot study ...
The exaggerated immune response to the subclinical opportunistic microorganisms or their antigens can be found in HIV-1 infected patients after receiving antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. We report a case of unmasking tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the HIV-1 infected patient who had no previous history of mycobacterial infection. She had tuberculosis of intestines, peritoneum and mesenteric glands within 2 months of ARV. However, her sputum acidfast bacilli stain, sputum, blood and cervical lymph node aspiration cultures for mycobacterium were negative. Her CD4 cell count increased of from 46 cells/μL at baseline before receiving ARV to 155 cells/μL at month 6 of ARV. In addition, her plasma pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ and TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine measurement was supported the occurrence of immune restoration reaction. Therefore, the changing in these cytokine profiles may be an important marker of developing unmasking TB-IRIS ...
Brief DeJfinitive Report CD8 + T Lymphocytes Provide Helper Activity for IgE Synthesis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Patients with Hyper-IgE By Roberto Paganelli, Enrico Scala, Ignacio J. Ansotegui, Clara M. Ausiello,* Eva Halapi,$ Emanuele Fanales-Belasio, Giampiero DOffizi, Ivano Mezzaroma, Franco Pandolfi,$ Massimo Fiorilli, Antonio Cassone,* and Fernando Aiuti From the Department of Clinical Medicine, Section…
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Circulating levels and ex vivo production of β-chemokines, interferon γ, and interleukin 2 in advanced human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. T2 - The effect of protease inhibitor therapy. AU - De Luca, Andrea. AU - Giancola, Maria Letizia. AU - Cingolani, Antonella. AU - Ammassari, Adriana. AU - Murri, Rita. AU - Antinori, Andrea. PY - 2000/6/10. Y1 - 2000/6/10. N2 - Cytokines and β-chemokines play an important role in the complex interaction between HIV-1 and the immune system. We studied platelet-free plasma (PFP) levels and ex vivo production of cytokines and β-chemokines at different HIV disease stages and the influence of potent protease inhibitor therapy on their production in late-stage patients. Mitogen-induced production of MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and RANTES by PBMCs was higher in HIV- infected patients than in HIV-seronegative controls. Patients with late-stage HIV infection (CD4+ cells + cells ,150/μl). Pretreatment RANTES production correlated negatively with ...
We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. You can change your cookie settings at any time.Find out more ...
Opportunistic infections are so named because they occur in people whose immune systems are not working properly; they are "opportunistic" insofar as theinfectious agents take advantage of their hosts compromised immune systems and invade to cause disease.. The organisms that cause opportunistic infections are categorized as protozoa, fungi, viruses and bacteria. These organisms are found widely in nature andoften live in the human body. When the immune system is working properly, itcan control the germs. However, persons with defective immune systems are unable to fight off the growth and destructive action of these organisms withinthe body. Opportunistic infections are seldom spread to people who have normal healthy immune systems.. One of the ways the immune system can be damaged is when the person is infected by HIV. In addition, drugs used to treat cancer, and drugs used to facilitate organ transplants can also suppress the immune system.. A person infected with HIV can get an ...
The population of HIV-infected women is increasing over time, and a recent study showed that while the incidence of AIDS-defining cancers decreased by three-fold from 1991-1995 to 2001-2005, the incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers is increasing by almost the same amount [4]. Historically, multiple studies have focused on AIDS-defining diseases, such as cervical cancer; however, there are significantly less data on HIV-infected women with vulvar cancer [16-18], and only limited reports on HIV-infected women with ovarian and endometrial cancers [19-23]. To our knowledge, there is no case series describing guideline-specific care and outcomes of HIV-infected women with gynecologic cancers. As these cancers increase, our ability to meet the standard of care and to understand the impact of standard-of-care treatment on this population is critical. In this retrospective cohort study of women with HIV infection and gynecologic cancers, we found that almost 50% of women did not receive optimal ...
Jarvis JN, Bicanic T, Loyse A, Namarika D, Jackson A, Nussbaum JC, Longley N, Muzoora C, Phulusa J, Taseera K, Kanyembe C, Wilson D, Hosseinipour MC, Brouwer AE, Limmathurotsakul D, White N, van der Horst C, Wood R, Meintjes G, Bradley J, Jaffar S, Harrison T. Determinants of mortality in a combined cohort of 501 patients with HIV-associated Cryptococcal meningitis: implications for improving outcomes. (Clin Infect Dis., 2014).. ...
After the 2013 full guidelines release, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children (the Panel) modified its process so that individual sections would be published as they were updated, allowing for more timely appearance of new recommendations. Each section will be marked with the date of its last update and the summary of changes will be listed below. For a full description of the Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected Children, see the updated Summary.. Additionally, the evidence review and recommendation rating system underwent major changes; this new approach is incorporated into sections as they are individually updated. As a result, topics not yet updated since the 2013 release reflect the former rating system, and sections updated since 2013 use a newer, modified GRADE system. A description of the methods of collecting and synthesizing evidence and formulating and rating recommendations ...
Opportunistic infection. Bryan Smith & Imani Pyles. What is it?. An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by: pathogens , particularly opportunistic pathogens (bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan) that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host Slideshow 2087401...
Researchers found that in the combined-integrated therapy group the incidence of death was 5.4 for every 100 person-years of observation. The sequential therapy group saw an incidence of death of 12.1 for every 100 person-years of observation. After adjustment for various confounding factors, researchers found that patients in the combined-integrated therapy group had a relative risk reduction of 54%. Two and a half years into the study the data and safety monitoring committee recommended all patients be put onto the combined-integrated therapy regimen for the remainder of the study. The combined-integrated therapy group saw nearly three times the cases of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, however there were no deaths resulting from this syndrome ...
HIV can eventually cause AIDS by attacking a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells [2]. These are the same cells in the immune system [3] that are supposed to protect the body from disease. When your immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious illnesses, cancers [4], and neurological (nerve system) problems. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs), because they take advantage of the bodys weakened defenses.. Many viruses can be controlled by the immune system [3]. But HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus multiplies, it damages or kills CD4 cells, which damages the immune system and weakens the bodys defenses. OIs take an opportunity to infect you when your defenses are down. OIs can lead to hospitalization and disability, and are responsible for most of the deaths in people with AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).. The US Centers for ...
Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more.
Study opportunistic infections flashcards from Tiffany Pointon's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Dr. Maryam Arasteh.. Hosted by Paul Lehner, Speaker Robert Wilkinson, The Francis Crick Institute. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Immunology and Medicine Seminars series.. ...
As experts are still working to figure out how multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) and COVID-19 are related, here are some things to know about how to help keep children protected.
Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in critically ill children with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is more varied than previously thought...
The HIV virus weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic diseases to set in. Garlic works to bolster the immune system and kill a whole range of
He then returned to his native Zambia to work on AIDS-related opportunistic infections at the University Teaching Hospital in ... with a special interest in HIV/AIDS, respiratory infections, and diseases of poverty. He is internationally renowned for his ... HIV/AIDS, tropical diseases, respiratory infections (and rapid diagnostics thereof), endocarditis, biomarkers, and transrenal ... "Co-trimoxazole as prophylaxis against opportunistic infections in HIV-infected Zambian children (CHAP): A double-blind ...
AIDS related encephalomyelitis, caused by opportunistic Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) infection. Acute ... MD Subacute encephalomyelitis of AIDS and its relation to HTLV‐III infection Neurology April 1987 vol. 37 no. 4 562 doi: ... possibly triggered by viral infection. Encephalomyelitis disseminata, a synonym for multiple sclerosis. AntiMOG associated ...
... preclinical data on small molecules with potential therapeutic action against HIV/AIDS and related opportunistic infections. ... The ChemDB HIV, Opportunistic Infection and Tuberculosis Therapeutics Database is a publicly available tool developed by the ... Databases & Open Chemistry". The NIAID ChemDB HIV/AIDS Database. "Division of AIDS Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database". User ... "Division of AIDS Anti-HIV/OI/TB Therapeutics Database". National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human ...
... and prevention of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related opportunistic infections. The FDA also works with the blood banking ... NCI) When a point of view prevents impartial judgment on issues relating to the subject of that point of view. In clinical ... ICH E9) Monitoring Report A written report from the monitor to the sponsor after each site visit and/or other trial-related ... A patient advocate helps resolve issues about health care, medical bills, and job discrimination related to a patient's medical ...
The centre offers medical treatment, consultations on illnesses related to HIV and AIDS, treatment of opportunistic infections ... ARR also provided aid and support in 2005, when Cuddalore, Chidambaram and Trichy districts of Tamil Nadu were affected by ... ARR and Tamil Nadu State AIDS Control Society have collaborated to established a community care center for treatment and ... "Meet for persons with HIV/ AIDS held". The Hindu. September 6, 2010. Retrieved October 30, 2010. "Leave field, take up allied ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T cells. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T ... Measures to prevent opportunistic infections are effective in many people with HIV/AIDS. In addition to improving current ... The primary causes of death from HIV/AIDS are opportunistic infections and cancer, both of which are frequently the result of ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... The stages of HIV infection are acute infection (also known as primary infection), latency and AIDS. Acute infection lasts for ... The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the ... various opportunistic infections, cancers and other conditions. Acute HIV infection, primary HIV infection or acute ...
"AIDS-related opportunistic illnesses occurring after initiation of potent antiretroviral therapy: the Swiss HIV Cohort Study". ... Treatment depends on the type of opportunistic infection, but usually involves different antibiotics. Opportunistic infections ... An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoa) that take advantage of ... A patient's risk level for developing an opportunistic infection is approximated using the patient's CD4 T-cell count and ...
Opportunistic pathogen. Clinically indistinguishable from generalised infections in patients with AIDS due to M. avium complex ... Closely related to M. simiae by evaluation of 16S rDNA sequences. ... strains, but more related to gastro-intestinal disorders. Most common cause of mycobacterial disease in parrots and parakeets. ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Physicians AIDS Care (Chic Ill) 1 (2): 53-62. PMID 12942677.. *^ Pollok RC (2001). "Viruses causing diarrhoea in AIDS". ... New HIV infections among children have been reduced by 50% or more in seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa, UN AIDS, Ženeva, ... Wikimedijina zbirka ponuja več predstavnostnega gradiva o temi: aids. Poglejte si besedo aids v Wikislovarju, prostem slovarju. ...
... focal infection, dental MeSH C01.539.597.050 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C01.539.597.880 --- superinfection ... bacteroides infections MeSH C01.252.400.126 --- bartonellaceae infections MeSH C01.252.400.126.100 --- bartonella infections ... acinetobacter infections MeSH C01.252.400.610 --- mycoplasmatales infections MeSH C01.252.400.610.610 --- mycoplasma infections ... bordetella infections MeSH C01.252.400.143.740 --- whooping cough MeSH C01.252.400.155 --- borrelia infections MeSH C01.252. ...
... playing a major role in setting standards of care for HIV infection and opportunistic diseases related to HIV and AIDS in the ... for many opportunistic infections and malignancies. In 1986, the original AIDS Treatment and Evaluation Units were established ... The AIDS Clinical Trials Group network (ACTG) is one of the largest HIV clinical trials organizations in the world, ... In 1987, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) was established by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In ...
... opportunistic infections Primary cerebral lymphoma or metastasis of other AIDS-related cancers direct effects of HIV in the ... AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is not a true opportunistic infection; it is one of the few conditions caused directly by HIV ... Children with AIDS appear to have neurological diseases as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In HIV-1 infected newborn and ... HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. HAND may ...
Office of AIDS Research (OAR) - oncology - open-label trial - opportunistic infections - oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) - ... The AIDS Show - AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting syndrome - AIDS-related cancer - AIDS-related ... AIDS - AIDS Arms - AIDS dementia complex (ADC) - AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) - AIDS education and training centers ( ... AETC) - AIDS Law Project - AIDS orphan - AIDS research advisory committee (ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - ...
... aids-related complex MeSH C20.673.480.100 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C20.673.480.400 --- hiv-associated ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C20.673.480.050 --- aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C20.673.480.070 --- aids ... aids-related MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.570 --- lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.700 ... htlv-i infections MeSH C20.673.483.470.300 --- leukemia-lymphoma, t-cell, acute, htlv-i-associated MeSH C20.673.483.480 --- ...
... opportunistic infections and generalized lymphadenopathy. Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS ... AIDS-related complex, or ARC, was introduced after discovery of the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) when the medical ... AIDS). The necessity for doctors to quickly and accurately understand the special needs of unknown patients suffering from AIDS ... ARC is a prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that includes: low grade fever, unexplained ...
HIV-related cardiomyopathy is often not associated with any specific opportunistic infection, and approximately 40% of patients ... AIDS 2003;17:Suppl 1:S46-50. Barbarini G, Barbaro G. Incidence of the involvement of the cardiovascular system in HIV infection ... Toxoplasma gondii is the most common opportunistic infectious agent associated with myocarditis in AIDS occurring in 12% of ... AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1998;14:1071-7. Klatt EC. Cardiovascular pathology in AIDS. Adv Cardiol 2003;40:23-48. Barbaro et.al ...
... and opportunistic infections in AIDS, but lowered risk for cancers. It is also associated with Membranous glomerularnephritis ... Mann DL, Murray C, O'Donnell M, Blattner WA, Goedert JJ (1990). "HLA antigen frequencies in HIV-1-related Kaposi's sarcoma". J ... AIDS) patients with opportunistic infections". Hum. Immunol. 11 (2): 99-103. doi:10.1016/0198-8859(84)90048-X. PMID 6333416. ...
... different results in most cases people infected with HIV go on to develop AIDS and ultimately die of opportunistic infections ... which is most commonly a result of an infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Two closely related types of HIV ... In this process HIV-1 integrase is essential and therefore a very promising target for anti-AIDS drug design. Selective drug ... Dubey, S; Satyanarayana, YD; Lavania, H (Sep 2007). "Development of integrase inhibitors for treatment of AIDS: an overview". ...
"Review of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa". Clin. Infect. Dis. 36 (5 ... Para ilmuwan umumnya berpendapat bahwa AIDS berasal dari Afrika Sub-Sahara.[4] Kini AIDS telah menjadi wabah penyakit. AIDS ... 2002). "Time to AIDS from 1992 to 1999 in HIV-1-infected subjects with known date of infection". Journal of acquired immune ... "Facts about AIDS & HIV". Diakses tanggal 2006-12-14.. *^ Johnson AM & Laga M, Heterosexual transmission of HIV, AIDS, 1988, 2( ...
... and that anti-HIV medication decreases mortality and opportunistic infection in people with AIDS. In the 9 December 1994 issue ... "Use of potent anti-HIV combination therapies has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS and AIDS-related ... 2005). "HIV infection and sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Senegal". AIDS. 19 (18): 2133-40. ... HIV/AIDS denialism Inventing the AIDS Virus Duesberg P, Koehnlein C, Rasnick D (2003). "The chemical bases of the various AIDS ...
... allowing for potentially fatal opportunistic infections. Initially, the researchers termed the disease Gay-Related Immune ... AIDS) as a new disease, and for his HIV/AIDS researcher, HIV/AIDS activist, and philanthropic efforts associated with HIV/AIDS ... He served on the boards of AIDS Project Los Angeles (APLA), the Pasadena AIDS Services Center and the Global AIDS Interfaith ... "HIV/AIDS - the discovery of an unknown, deadly virus", Infectious Disease News, June 1, 2006 "Dr. Joel D. Weisman dies at 66; ...
... aids-related complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.100 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.400 --- ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C02.800.801.400.080 --- aids-related ... hiv infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.040 --- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.048 --- aids ... hiv infections MeSH C02.800.801.400.040 --- acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C02.800.801.400.048 --- aids arteritis, ...
... and was for some time mistakenly reported to have died from AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (ADOIs). Following the ... "The Earliest Known AIDS Patient in the United States was Infected with an HIV-1 Strain Closely Related to IIIB/LAI". XIth ... Other hypotheses for the origin of AIDS have been proposed. AIDS denialism argues that HIV or AIDS does not exist or that AIDS ... By the time the first reported cases of AIDS were found in large United States cities, the prevalence of HIV infection in some ...
... a CD4+ lymphocyte count under 200 cells/μl or HIV infection plus co-infection with an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. ... Use of potent anti-HIV combination therapies has contributed to dramatic reductions in the incidence of AIDS and AIDS-related ... The epidemic of AIDS, characterized by the occurrence of formerly rare opportunistic infections such as Pneumocystis carinii ... Most AIDS symptoms result from the development of opportunistic infections and cancers associated with severe immunosuppression ...
The end point of the study was death or development of opportunistic infections.[13] ... announced that they would start a comprehensive AIDS research program. They started a laboratory dedicated to AIDS research in ... AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 725-33. doi:10.1056/ ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ...
... meaning and definition of Penicillium Marneffei Infection on AIDS, Health terms. full AIDS, Health glossary and dictionary ... Related Term(s): Opportunistic Infection. reference: AIDSinfo - Glossary. Tags: AIDS, Health. Categorised in: What is. Comments ... Penicillium Marneffei Infection. Share on What is Penicillium Marneffei Infection?. Penicillium Marneffei Infection meaning ... Related Posts. Karnofsky Performance Status Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I(HTLV-I) Cardiomyopathy Drug Synergism ...
Group of Opportunistic Protozoa/HIV and Other Protozoa, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina ... Related. Tags: The Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections Dec 14, 2017 , Posted by admin in MICROBIOLOGY , Comments Off ... Sputum induction for the diagnosis of PcP is widely used for patients with AIDS, but its utility for patients with other forms ... Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen that is usually found in the lungs of humans, but which has also been found ...
Also, an extensive listing of AIDS-related internet web site addresses. ... A collection of patient education fact sheets on HIV/AIDS treatments and conditions, in English and Spanish. ... Opportunistic Infections and Related Diseases. 500. Opportunistic Infections A definition of opportunistic infections. ... Opportunistic Infections and Related Diseases, and Their Treatment. To see a list of fact sheets in each category, click on the ...
Inheritance and Genetics of AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections including heritability, family history, and inheritance ... Genetics of AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections:. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections is NOT a genetic disease. AIDS- ... Diagnostic Tests for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. *Home Diagnostic Testing for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections ... Treatments for AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. *Doctors and Medical Specialists for AIDS-Related Opportunistic ...
AIDS-related opportunistic infections. QualityTools. You Can Prevent Cryptosporidiosis (Crypto): A Guide for People with HIV ... You Can Prevent Toxoplasmosis (Toxo): A Guide for People with HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide for people with HIV infection ... You Can Prevent PCP (Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia): A Guide for People With HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide for people with ... You Can Prevent PCP (Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia) in Children: A Guide for People With HIV Infection 12/17/07 This guide ...
Browsing by Subject "AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U ... A revised framework to address TB-HIV co-infection in the Western Pacific Region  World Health Organization. Regional Office ... Meeting on the Revised Regional Framework on TB-HIV Co-Infection, Phnom Penh, Cambodia, 18-21 February 2008  World Health ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Focus of. * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Resource Information The topic AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections represents a ... Data Citation of the Topic AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections,/a,,/span, - ,span property=potentialAction typeOf=OrganizeAction,,span property= ...
HIV Infections. Opportunistic Infections. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections ... HIV Infections AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Drug: Emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate Drug: Lopinavir/ ... Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individuals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter ...
Results of search for su:{AIDS-related opportunistic infections.} No results found! No results found for that in WHO HQ ...
Experimental Results on Chloroquine and AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Boelaert, Johan R.; Appelberg, Rui; Gomes, M. ... Spectrum of AIDS-Defining Illnesses in Australia, 1992 to 1998: Influence of Country/Region of Birth. Dore, Gregory J.; Li, ... Temporal Trends and Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 Infection in Taiwan From 1988 to 1998. Chen, Yi-Ming A.; Huang, Kui-Li; Jen ... Evidence of Productively Infected CD8+ T Cells in Patients With AIDS: Implications for HIV-1 Pathogenesis. Saha, Kunal; Zhang, ...
This can lead to serious infections that are called opportunistic infections (OIs). Read more. ... Having HIV/AIDS weakens your bodys immune system. ... HIV/AIDS and Infections Also called: AIDS-related opportunistic ... What is an Opportunistic Infection? (National Institutes of Health, Office of AIDS Research) Also in Spanish ... HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * HIV/AIDS and Oral Health (National Institute of ...
In this contemporary cART era, a third of opportunistic illnesses were diagnosed at CD4 cell counts at least 200 cells/microl. ... Opportunistic illness rates declined precipitously after introduction of cART and stabilized at low levels during 2003-2007. ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology* * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology * Acquired ... AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses in US patients, 1994-2007: a cohort study AIDS. 2010 Jun 19;24(10):1549-59. doi: 10.1097/ ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Ganciclovir. Drug Therapy, Combination. Encephalitis. Foscarnet. Cytomegalovirus ... HIV Infections. Brain Diseases. Nervous System Diseases. Radiculopathy. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA ... MedlinePlus related topics: Neurologic Diseases Drug Information available for: Foscarnet Foscarnet sodium Ganciclovir ... The study will also provide further data about the natural history of CMV brain infection detected by a combination of symptom ...
... added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs Candidiasis, esophageal ... An African primate lentivirus (SIVsm) closely related to HIV-2. Nature. 1989 Jun 1. 339(6223):389-92. [Medline]. ... HIV Infection and AIDS Q&A Which opportunistic infections and conditions are seen in patients with AIDS?. Updated: Dec 02, 2019 ... Opportunistic infections and conditions include the following ( * added in the 1993 AIDS surveillance case definition): ...
... infection is a serious and growing public health problem. We have carried out a randomised clinical trial of a 12-month course ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / etiology * AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control* * Acquired ... Effect of isoniazid prophylaxis on incidence of active tuberculosis and progression of HIV infection Lancet. 1993 Jul 31;342( ... The effect of prophylaxis on the development of HIV disease, AIDS, and death was also investigated. 118 subjects were assigned ...
AIDS Serodiagnosis [‎1]‎. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections [‎2]‎. Air Pollutants [‎1]‎. Air Pollution [‎7]‎. ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections [‎3]‎. Alcohol Drinking [‎12]‎. Alcohol-Induced Disorders [‎3]‎. ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Sax PE, Sloan CE, Schackman BR, et al. "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with ... "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... "Early antiretroviral therapy for patients with acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ... acute aids-related opportunistic infections: a cost-effectiveness analysis of ACTG A5164." HIV Clin Trials. 2010;11(5):248-59. ...
AIDS); or (4) having any AIDS-related opportunistic infection. For purposes of this Agreement, having HIV disease also means ... 4) infection control procedures, including but not limited to the appropriate disposal of contaminated materials and the ... The Texas/Oklahoma AIDS Education and Training Center, Amelia Court Professional Building, 1936 Amelia Court, Dallas, TX 75235 ... In addition, OCR may be required to release this Agreement and all related materials to any person upon request, consistent ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Placebos Protozoan Infections Intestinal Diseases Albendazole Microsporida Anthelmintics ... Infection Communicable Diseases HIV Infections Protozoan Infections Microsporidiosis Albendazole ClinicalTrials.gov processed ... NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier. NCT00002191 First received: November 2, 1999 Last ... Further study details as provided by NIH AIDS Clinical Trials Information Service: ...
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection Antibiotics, Macrolide Azithromycin Drug ... Infection Communicable Diseases Mycobacterium Infections Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection Pneumococcal Infections ... Therefore, if the patient does get a Streptococcus infection, it will be easier to treat because it is not resistant to the ... MAC preventive therapy uses antibiotics, but this can make it difficult to treat other infections caused by bacteria that have ...
Trends in AIDS-related opportunistic infections among men who have sex with men and among injecting drug users, 1991-1996. J ... Temporal trends of opportunistic infections and malignancies in homosexual men with AIDS. J Infect Dis 1994;170:198-202. ... Opportunistic diseases reported in AIDS patients: frequencies, associations, and trends. AIDS 1987;1:175-82. ... Estimating the number of AIDS-defining opportunistic illness diagnoses from data collected under the 1993 AIDS surveillance ...
5 search for keyword(s) AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections Add the result to your basket Refine your search Generate the ... Screening for opportunistic intestinal parasites in HIV/AIDS patients, attending the services of medical care in three ... HIV-related disabilities: an extra burden to HIV and AIDS healthcare workers? ... Conflicting reports exist on the effect of HIV types on disease progression and relation to opportunistic infections. This ...

No FAQ available that match "aids related opportunistic infections"