AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Group IV Phospholipases A2: A cytosolic phospholipase A2 group that plays an important role in the release of free ARACHIDONIC ACID, which in turn is metabolized to PROSTAGLANDINS by the CYCLOOXYGENASE pathway and to LEUKOTRIENES by the 5-LIPOXYGENASE pathway.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Stavudine: A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Surgicenters: Facilities designed to serve patients who require surgical treatment exceeding the capabilities of usual physician's office yet not of such proportion as to require hospitalization.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Surgical Procedures, Minor: Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.GeorgiaHIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Peptide T: N-(N-(N(2)-(N-(N-(N-(N-D-Alanyl L-seryl)-L-threonyl)-L-threonyl) L-threonyl)-L-asparaginyl)-L-tyrosyl) L-threonine. Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It is potentially useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Prion Diseases: A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)Cannibalism: Eating other individuals of one's own species.Kuru: A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)Creutzfeldt-Jakob Syndrome: A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))Prions: Small proteinaceous infectious particles which resist inactivation by procedures that modify NUCLEIC ACIDS and contain an abnormal isoform of a cellular protein which is a major and necessary component. The abnormal (scrapie) isoform is PrPSc (PRPSC PROTEINS) and the cellular isoform PrPC (PRPC PROTEINS). The primary amino acid sequence of the two isoforms is identical. Human diseases caused by prions include CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME; GERSTMANN-STRAUSSLER SYNDROME; and INSOMNIA, FATAL FAMILIAL.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Scrapie: A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.PrPSc Proteins: Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).Papua New Guinea: A country consisting of the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and adjacent islands, including New Britain, New Ireland, the Admiralty Islands, and New Hanover in the Bismarck Archipelago; Bougainville and Buka in the northern Solomon Islands; the D'Entrecasteaux and Trobriand Islands; Woodlark (Murua) Island; and the Louisiade Archipelago. It became independent on September 16, 1975. Formerly, the southern part was the Australian Territory of Papua, and the northern part was the UN Trust Territory of New Guinea, administered by Australia. They were administratively merged in 1949 and named Papua and New Guinea, and renamed Papua New Guinea in 1971.Lipomatosis, Multiple Symmetrical: A condition characterized by the growth of unencapsulated masses of ADIPOSE TISSUE symmetrically deposited around the neck, shoulders, or other sites around the body.

Cerebral vasculopathy in HIV infection revealed by transcranial Doppler: A pilot study. (1/587)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is growing evidence for affection of cerebral vessels during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We prospectively evaluated cerebrovascular reserve capacity (CRC) in HIV-seropositive patients by transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) after systemic administration of acetazolamide. We hypothesized that a disturbed vasoreactivity would reflect the cerebral arteries' involvement in HIV infection. METHODS: We assessed the mean blood flow velocity (BFV) of the middle cerebral artery and its increase after intravenous administration of 1 g acetazolamide (CRC) in 31 HIV-infected individuals without symptoms of cerebrovascular disease (mean+/-SD age, 39+/-11 years). Stenotic or occlusive lesions of the large brain-supplying arteries were excluded by color-coded duplex and transcranial imaging. BFV and CRC were also measured in an age-matched group of 10 healthy control subjects. Patients were classified according to clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiological parameters. We also performed cerebral MRI (n=25) and rheumatological blood tests (n=26). RESULTS: Baseline BFV and CRC both were significantly reduced in HIV-infected patients as compared with control subjects (P<0.05, Student's t test). These findings did not correlate with duration of seropositivity, helper cell count, or other clinical, rheumatological, and neuroradiological findings. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis of a cerebral vasculopathy etiologically associated with HIV infection.  (+info)

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy pattern of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in AIDS. (2/587)

The objective was to determine whether the use of intermediate echo times (135 ms) in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detects a homogenous pattern in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in HIV-1 infected people, and to confirm the results of previous studies. Six patients infected with HIV-1, with PML established by biopsy, and six healthy age and sex matched volunteers were evaluated to define their spectroscopic pattern. 1H-MRS spectra performed at 1.5 T were obtained with the STEAM sequence: TE/TM/TR, 20 ms/13.7 ms/2000 ms; 2500 Hz, size 2048 points, 256 acquisitions (STEAM-20) and with the PRESS sequence; TE/TR, 135 ms/2000 ms; 2500 Hz, size 2048 points, 256 acquisitions (PRESS-135). A single voxel was placed on the lesions and on the parieto-occipital white matter of controls. The peaks of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myoinositol (mI), lactate, and lipids were considered, and the results were expressed using creatine as reference. Spectra of PML lesions were characterised by significantly reduced NAA, lactate presence, and by significantly increased Cho and lipids compared with control group values. These results indicate that 1H-MRS detects a homogenous pattern in PML lesions. Recent studies, together with this, suggest that 1H-MRS may help in the diagnostic approach to patients with suspected PML lesions associated with AIDS.  (+info)

Increased peroxynitrite activity in AIDS dementia complex: implications for the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. (3/587)

Oxidative stress is suggested to be involved in several neurodegenerative diseases. One mechanism of oxidative damage is mediated by peroxynitrite, a neurotoxic reaction product of superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Expression of two cytokines and two key enzymes that are indicative of the presence of reactive oxygen intermediates and peroxynitrite was investigated in brain tissue of AIDS patients with and without AIDS dementia complex and HIV-seronegative controls. RNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-10, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found to be significantly higher in demented compared with nondemented patients. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that SOD was expressed in CD68-positive microglial cells while inducible nitric oxide synthase was detected in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and in equal amounts in microglial cells. Approximately 70% of the HIV p24-Ag-positive macrophages did express SOD, suggesting a direct HIV-induced intracellular event. HIV-1 infection of macrophages resulted in both increased superoxide anion production and elevated SOD mRNA levels, compared with uninfected macrophages. Finally, we show that nitrotyrosine, the footprint of peroxynitrite, was found more intense and frequent in brain sections of demented patients compared with nondemented patients. These results indicate that, as a result of simultaneous production of superoxide anion and nitric oxide, peroxynitrite may contribute to the neuropathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Rate and severity of HIV-associated dementia (HAD): correlations with Gp41 and iNOS. (4/587)

BACKGROUND: Fifteen to thirty percent of AIDS patients develop some type of neurologic disorder during the course of their illness and the vast majority of these neurologic disorders will be HIV-associated dementia (HAD). These patients can exhibit varying degrees of severity and rates of progression of HAD. Neuropathologic variables that are associated with the rate of progression of HAD are not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue was collected at autopsy from the Johns Hopkins University HIV Neurology Program. Seventy-one AIDS patients of this prospectively characterized population were followed until death to obtain information on dementia severity and the rate of neurological progression. Immunoblot analysis of immunological nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), HAM56, gp41, p24, gp120, and beta-tubulin was performed and the levels of iNOS, HAM56, gp41, and p24 were normalized to beta-tubulin and analyzed for significance by means of the Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple groups. RESULTS: We have identified unique groups within this spectrum and designated them slow, moderate, and rapid progressors. Slow and moderate progressors' neurological progression occurs over a course of months to years, whereas the rapid progressors' disease shows rapid increases in severity over weeks to months. In the present study we demonstrate that the severity and rate of progression of HAD correlates significantly with levels of the HIV-1 coat protein, gp41, iNOS, and HAM56, a marker of microglial/macrophage activation. CONCLUSION: The severity and rate of progression of HAD correlates with indices of immune activation as well as levels of iNOS and gp41. There appears to be a threshold effect in which high levels of gp41, iNOS, and immune activation are particularly associated with severe (Memorial Sloan-Kettering score 3 to 4) and rapidly progressive HAD.  (+info)

The SIV-infected rhesus monkey model for HIV-associated dementia and implications for neurological diseases. (5/587)

The neuropathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia has remained elusive, despite identification of HIV as the causal agent. Although a number of contributing factors have been identified, the series of events that culminate in motor and cognitive impairments after HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) are still not known. Rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) manifest immunosuppression and CNS disease that is pathologically [L. R. Sharer et al. (1991) J. Med. Primatol. 20, 211-217] and behaviorally [E. A. Murray et al. (1992) Science 255, 1246-1249] similar to humans. The SIV model of HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is widely recognized as a highly relevant model in which to investigate neuropathogenesis. With better understanding of neuropathogenesis comes the opportunity to interrupt progression and to design better treatments for HAD. This becomes increasingly important as patients live longer yet still harbor HIV-infected cells in the CNS. The use of the SIV model has allowed the identification of neurochemical markers of neuropathogenesis important not only for HAD, but also for other inflammatory neurological diseases.  (+info)

Do alcohol and cocaine abuse alter the course of HIV-associated dementia complex? (6/587)

Although psychoactive drugs are commonly used by AIDS patients, it is unclear whether commonly abused drugs, such as cocaine and ethanol, affect the course of HIV-associated dementia (HADC). Epidemiological studies have resulted in conflicting conclusions as to what role, if any, abused drugs play in HADC. In this review we discuss the clinical and pathological evidence that cocaine and ethanol might exacerbate the detrimental effects of HIV infection on the brain. We also review studies of cocaine and ethanol effects on various components of the immune system both in the presence and absence of retroviral infection. Data from these studies indicate that cocaine and ethanol have profound effects on the immune system that, in many respects, are enhanced by retroviral infection. We conclude that abused drugs likely affect the course of HADC but that proof awaits an examination of their interactive effects in an appropriate in vivo system of retroviral encephalitis.  (+info)

Angiographic abnormalities in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: an explanation based on neuropathologic findings. (7/587)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is typically occult at angiography and fails to enhance on MR images. After observing angiographic abnormalities characterized by arteriovenous shunting and pathologic parenchymal blush in patients with AIDS-related PML, often in the absence of contrast enhancement on MR images, we hypothesized that there might be distinct changes in the cerebral microvasculature that account for the reduction in vascular transit time (arteriovenous shunting) in the absence of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. METHODS: The imaging studies and neuropathologic specimens of six patients with biopsy-proved PML were reviewed retrospectively. In all patients contrast-enhanced MR imaging and CT, followed by cerebral angiography, were performed before stereotactically directed biopsy. The angiograms were evaluated for the presence of vascular displacement, pathologic parenchymal blush, arteriovenous shunting, and neovascularity. The CT and MR studies were reviewed for the presence of enhancement of the PML lesions. Biopsy specimens were examined for the presence of necrosis, perivascular inflammation, and neovascularity. RESULTS: All patients had oligodendrocytic intranuclear inclusions diagnostic of PML, together with perivascular inflammation and neovascularity to a varying extent; no other neuropathologic processes were identified. Angiographic abnormalities, characterized by a pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting, were identified in four of the six patients. In only one of these cases, however, was abnormal enhancement identified on cross-sectional imaging studies (MR and CT), and this patient had florid perivascular inflammatory infiltrates histologically. CONCLUSION: The pathologic parenchymal blush and arteriovenous shunting seen angiographically in some patients with PML reflect small-vessel proliferation and perivascular inflammatory changes incited by the presence of the JC virus in infected oligodendrocytes.  (+info)

Bipolar disorder in old age. (8/587)

OBJECTIVE: To review the classification, clinical characteristics, and epidemiology of bipolar disorders in old age with a special focus on neurologic comorbidity, high mortality, and management. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most available data is gleaned from retrospective chart reviews and cohort studies. Treatment recommendations are based on evidence from younger populations and a few anecdotal case reports and series involving elderly people. MAIN MESSAGE: While relatively rare in the community setting, mania in old age frequently leads to hospitalization. It is associated with late-onset neurologic disorders (especially cerebrovascular disease) involving the right hemisphere and orbitofrontal cortex. Prognosis is relatively poor; morbidity and mortality rates are high. Management of bipolarity includes cautious use of mood stabilizers, especially lithium and divalproex. CONCLUSIONS: Mania in old age should trigger a careful assessment of underlying neurologic disease, especially cerebrovascular disease. Close clinical follow up is essential.  (+info)

*DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Dementia: AIDS Dementia Complex

The AIDS dementia complex is a brain disorder that occurs in people with AIDS (HIV infection) that causes the loss of cognitive ... The AIDS dementia complex is a brain disorder that occurs in people with AIDS (HIV infection) that causes the loss of cognitive ... "Health ... AIDS Dementia Complex" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ...

*Pathophysiology of HIV/AIDS

Later it leads to even AIDS dementia complex. The CD4-gp120 interaction (see above) is also permissive to other viruses like ... When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized ... However, the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk ... Eventually, the minimal number of CD4+ T cells necessary to maintain a sufficient immune response is lost, leading to AIDS. ...

*HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) is not a true opportunistic infection; it is one of the few conditions caused directly by HIV ... Children with AIDS appear to have neurological diseases as a consequence of HIV-1 infection. In HIV-1 infected newborn and ... Dementia only exists when neurocognitive impairment in the patient is severe enough to interfere markedly with day-to-day ... The Neurology of AIDS (2nd ed.). London, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 357-373. ISBN 0-19-852610-5. CS1 maint: Multiple ...

*Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS

AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV ... In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at ... Ho-Yen C, Chang F (June 1, 2008). "Gastrointestinal Malignancies in HIV/AIDS". The AIDS Reader. 18 (6). Palefsky J (2007). " ... AIDS, the final stage of HIV infection, is defined by low CD4+ T cell counts (fewer than 200 per microliter), various ...

*B22

... a New Zealand ultralight aircraft design Sicilian Defence in the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings AIDS dementia complex ICD-10 ...

*Gliosis

AIDS dementia complex, vasculitis, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. In every case ... It is these changes in astrogliosis which allow the process to be complex and multifaceted, involving both a gain or loss of ... Future directions for identifying novel therapeutic strategies must carefully account for the complex array of factors and ... and the balance between these is due to a complex array of factors and molecular signaling mechanisms, which affect the ...

*Glutaric aciduria type 1

HIV encephalopathy-AIDS dementia complex, pneumococcal meningitis, hypoadrenal crisis, methylmalonic acidemia, propionic ... AIDS dementia and other basal ganglia disorders: brain implants, stem cell neurorestoration, growth factors, monoaminergic ... and other aids to the upright stance that do not constrain the child but help him or her gradually tone down the rigidity. Some ...

*List of MeSH codes (C20)

... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C20.673.480.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C20.673.480.080 --- aids-related complex MeSH ... aids-related MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.570 --- lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.700 ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C20.673.480.050 --- ... C20.673.480.100 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH ...

*List of MeSH codes (C10)

... dementia MeSH C10.228.140.380.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C10.228.140.380.100 --- alzheimer disease MeSH C10.228.140.380 ... dementia, vascular MeSH C10.228.140.300.400.203 --- cadasil MeSH C10.228.140.300.400.408 --- dementia, multi-infarct MeSH ... dementia, vascular MeSH C10.228.140.380.230.250 --- dementia, multi-infarct MeSH C10.228.140.380.278 --- huntington disease ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C10.228.140.300.850.250 --- lupus vasculitis, central nervous system MeSH C10.228. ...

*Minocycline

... from Johns Hopkins University reported that minocycline may exhibit neuroprotective action against AIDS Dementia Complex by ... Minocycline also has been used as a "last-ditch" treatment for toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Minocycline is somewhat ...

*List of MeSH codes (F03)

... dementia MeSH F03.087.400.050 --- aids dementia complex MeSH F03.087.400.100 --- alzheimer disease MeSH F03.087.400.125 --- ... dementia, multi-infarct MeSH F03.087.400.390 --- huntington disease MeSH F03.087.400.431 --- Klüver-Bucy syndrome MeSH F03.087. ... primary progressive aphasia MeSH F03.087.400.300 --- creutzfeldt-jakob syndrome MeSH F03.087.400.350 --- dementia, vascular ...

*List of diseases (A)

... type 1 Ahumada-Del Castillo syndrome Aicardi syndrome Aicardi-Goutières syndrome Aichmophobia AIDS AIDS dementia complex AIDS ... Adactylia unilateral dominant ADAM complex Adams-Nance syndrome Adams-Oliver syndrome Addison's disease Adducted thumb club ...

*Glutamate receptor

AIDS dementia complex Alzheimer's disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Combined systems disease (vitamin B12 deficiency) ... Antagonists for NMDA and AMPA receptors seem to have a large benefit, with more aid the sooner it is administered after onset ...

*List of MeSH codes (C02)

... aids dementia complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.080 --- aids-related complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.100 --- aids-related ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C02.800.801.400.080 --- aids-related ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.050 --- aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.782.815.616. ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.800.801.400.050 --- ...

*Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles

AIDS - AIDS Arms - AIDS dementia complex (ADC) - AIDS Drug Assistance Programs (ADAP) - AIDS education and training centers ( ... AIDS Vaccine 200 - AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition - AIDS wasting syndrome - AIDS-related cancer - AIDS-related complex (ARC ... AETC) - AIDS Law Project - AIDS orphan - AIDS research advisory committee (ARAC) - AIDS service organization (ASO) - The AIDS ... World AIDS Day - World AIDS Vaccine Day yeast infection zinc finger inhibitor - zinc fingers. ...

*DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: A

AIDS 401 AIDS Dementia Complex 1 Akinetic Mutism 1 Alagille Syndrome 5 ...

*AIDS Clinical Trials Group

... dementia, sensory neuropathy Campbell, T. B.; Smeaton, L. M.; Kumarasamy, N.; Flanigan, T.; Klingman, K. L.; Firnhaber, C.; ... Toxoplasmic encephalitis Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Histoplasmosis Herpes virus infections Mycobacterium avium complex disease ... The AIDS Clinical Trials Group network (ACTG) is one of the largest HIV clinical trials organizations in the world, playing a ... In 1987, the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) was established by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In ...

*DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Dementia

This category is for sites about the dementias of old age and geriatics. Alzheimer's is one type of dementia. ... Dementia describes a gradual decrease in cognitive abilities from a once-normal state over a period of time. ... Alzheimer's is one type of dementia. Subcategories 9 AIDS Dementia Complex 1 ... Dementias: Hope Through Research Information on Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and other types of dementia compiled by ...

*Topographical disorientation

Studying these people will aid in the understanding of the complex, multi-component behavior of navigation. Topographical ... disorientation may result from a stroke or part of a progressive illness, hemispatial neglect, dementia, Alzheimer's disease. ...

*SERPINI1

1999). "Familial dementia caused by polymerization of mutant neuroserpin". Nature. 401 (6751): 376-9. doi:10.1038/43894. PMID ... doi:10.1002/1098-2264(2000)9999:9999<::AID-GCC1029>3.0.CO;2-A. PMID 10992299. Belorgey D; Crowther DC; Mahadeva R; Lomas DA ( ... Barker-Carlson K; Lawrence DA; Schwartz BS (2003). "Acyl-enzyme complexes between tissue-type plasminogen activator and ... Onda M; Belorgey D; Sharp LK; Lomas DA (2005). "Latent S49P neuroserpin forms polymers in the dementia familial encephalopathy ...

*Normal pressure hydrocephalus

Often a mobility aid is used for added stability, once the patient has reached the mild to marked stage. Such aids may include ... Dementia is predominantly frontal lobe in nature and of the subcortical type of dementia. It presents in the form of abulia, ... forgetfulness, inertia, inattention, decreased speed of complex information procession (also described as a dullness in ... The dementia is thought to result from traction on frontal and limbic fibers that also run in the periventricular region. ...

*William K. Summers

4,816,456}. Tacrine was the first FDA approved anti-dementia drug. Today there are five FDA approved anti-dementia drugs. ... Summers shuns test, seeks to widen his own; is Memory really aided; Fee-forresearch Furor. Wall Street Journal. Tuesday August ... Complex Antioxidant Blend improves Memory in community dwelling seniors. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 2010, 19:429-439. ... In 1984, it was inconceivable that a dementia patient could improve on a short or long term basis. Thus, psychometric scales ...

*Augmentative and alternative communication

Bourgeois, M. S. (1993). "Effects of memory aids on the dyadic conversation of individuals with dementia". Journal of Applied ... Light, J.; Drager, K. (2007). "AAC technologies for young children with complex communication needs: State of the science and ... An AAC aid is any "device, either electronic or non-electronic, that is used to transmit or receive messages"; such aids range ... "Memory aids as an augmentative and alternative communication strategy for nursing home residents with dementia". Augmentative ...

*Environmental enrichment

Also, aging and dementia are less in those that engage in complex cognitive tasks. The cognitive decline of those with epilepsy ... Social interactions, exercise, and novelty all play major roles in aiding the recovery of an injured subject. This has led to ... MRI detects localized cerebral cortex expansion after people learn complex tasks such as mirror reading (in this case in the ... The more education a person has received, the less the effects of aging, dementia, white matter hyperintensities, MRI-defined ...

*Causes of mental disorders

Some chronic general medical conditions have been linked to some aspects of mental disorder, such as AIDS-related psychosis. ... Research shows that infections and exposure to toxins such as HIV and streptococcus cause dementia and OCD respectively.[better ... 2013). "Neuroticism and common mental disorders: Meaning and utility of a complex relationship". Clinical Psychology Review. 33 ... and even dementia. Symptoms tend to depend on the location of the tumor on the brain. For example, tumors on the frontal lobe ...

*Multiple system atrophy

A physiotherapist may also prescribe mobility aids such as a cane or a walker to increase the patient's safety. Other ways a ... Ongoing care from a neurologist specializing in "movement disorders" is recommended[by whom?] as the complex symptoms of MSA ... A variant with combined features of MSA and Lewy body dementia may also exist. There have also been occasional instances of ... Speech changes mean that alternative communication may be needed, for example communication aids or word charts. Social workers ...
Individuals with AIDS frequently suffer central nervous system (CNS) problems that are characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral deficits, in a disorder known as AIDS dementia complex. Clinical experience suggests that its course is often progressive, going from initial symptoms to moderate or severe dementia within several months. Accumulating evidence now suggests that direct brain infection by the HIV virus is the likely cause of the AIDS dementia complex. Case reports suggest that therapy with AZT, which has been shown to be a strong inhibitor of HIV replication in vitro, may alleviate the AIDS dementia complex. This study will help define the natural history of the AIDS dementia complex in treated patients.. All patients receive AZT for 24 weeks. Patients are seen weekly for the first 4 weeks, every other week for the next 8 weeks, and then every 4 weeks until the completion of the study for neuropsychological evaluation. This evaluation includes lumbar puncture, and either ...
Definition of aids dementia complex in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of aids dementia complex. What does aids dementia complex mean? Information and translations of aids dementia complex in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
HIV infection can result in impairment in the function of the brain and spinal cord, leading to disturbances in the ability to think clearly and in strength and coordination. This disorder, which has been called the AIDS dementia complex, may be due to a direct effect of HIV on the nervous system. It is known that AZT does get into the brain to some extent, where it may reduce growth of HIV. It is hoped that AZT will stabilize or improve the symptoms of the AIDS dementia complex.. The study is done in 2 stages. In Stage 1, patients are randomized to receive placebo or 1 of 2 doses of AZT. Stage 1 lasts for 4 months. In Stage 2, patients who were initially treated with placebo are randomized again and all patients receive AZT. Stage 2 lasts an additional 12 months, during which time there are periodic medical and neurologic evaluations. Before beginning treatment, all patients have a lumbar puncture and a computerized tomographic (CT) scan of the brain. The lumbar puncture is repeated twice ...
OBJECTIVE--To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. DESIGN--Retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients with AIDS from 1982 to 1988. SETTING--An academic centre for AIDS. PATIENTS--196 Patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms examined from 1982 to 1988. INTERVENTIONS--Zidovudine treatment, which was introduced to The Netherlands on 1 May 1987 for patients with severe symptoms of HIV infection (Centers for Disease Control groups IVA, B, C, and D). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS--The AIDS dementia complex was diagnosed in 40 of the 196 (20%) patients with AIDS. Thirty eight of 107 patients with AIDS (36%) not taking zidovudine developed the AIDS dementia complex compared with two of the 89 (2%) taking the drug (p less than 0.00001). The incidence of the AIDS dementia complex ...
AIDS dementia complex (ADC), sometimes called HIV-associated dementia (HAD), is different than other types of AIDS-related illnesses.
The AIDS dementia complex is a brain disorder that occurs in people with AIDS (HIV infection) that causes the loss of cognitive capacity, affecting the ability to function in a social or occupational setting.
Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at Oak Hill Hospital DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at Sunrise Hospital & Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The neurocognitive disorders associated with HIV (HAND) remain among the most common clinical disorders encountered in people infected with HIV, even in an era in which potent antiretroviral therapy is widely deployed. HAND is currently considered to encompass a hierarchy of progressively more severe patterns of central nervous system (CNS) involvement ranging from asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI), to minor neurocognitive disorder (MND), to the more severe HIV-associated dementia (HAD) [1]. With the improved survival of individuals treated with antiretrovirals, comorbid conditions have become increasingly salient, including particularly coinfection with hepatitis C and the effects of aging. Treatment guidelines for preferred initial antiretroviral regimens and for second or salvage regimens are essentially silent on the approach to HAND. For example, HIV-nephropathy is one indication for initiation of HAART, yet inexplicably HAND is not, unless it is severe enough to manifest as ...
Doctor answers on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More: Dr. Uhrich on aids dementia scale: Can be a symptom of dementia of any kind when combined with physical problems such as hearing and vision loss. for topic: Aids Dementia Scale
Tour 1: Next/Previous/Start: These images show typical findings in AIDS dementia: patchy hypoperfusion with a multifocal distribution which tends to be seen prominently in the frontal lobes. Compare with normal. Defects in cerebral perfusion have been previously reported in HIV positive individuals by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)[Masdeu, 1989 ][Pascal, 1991 ][Pohl, 1988 ][Holman, 1992 ][Schielke, 1990]. The anatomic and clinical significance of these findings, however, has remained uncertain. Because previous studies have shown that AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is associated with both functional defects and structural evidence of brain volume loss, we spatially matched (registered) the functional and structural data to assess the extent to which observed perfusion defects were "real", that is, represented low tracer uptake from structurally normal brain. The image datasets shown here are sampled along the same plane of view, to permit the direct comparison of SPECT and MR ...
The mission of the AIDS Neurological Center is to conduct research and provide clinical support on HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The Center investigators conduct both clinical and basic neuroscience research on the neurological and neuropsychological aspects of HIV and AIDS. The Center participates in and supports clinical trials with a neurological focus in the UNC AIDS Clinical Trials Unit locally and the AIDS Clinical Trials Group in the United States and internationally. Through the clinical component, the Center provides clinical consultation and evaluation for HIV and AIDS related neurological and neuropsychological disorders. The Center has an active basic neuroscience research program focused on the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.. ...
AIDS Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focused on all aspects of HIV and AIDS, from the molecular basis of disease to translational and clinical research. In addition, articles relating to prevention, education, and behavior change will be considered.
In the mid to late 1980s, nearly half of all people with HIV eventually developed debilitating dementia or a serious brain-related infection.
The South African Journal of Psychiatry publishes topical content in psychiatry for clinical practice and academic pursuits, including work in the subspecialty areas of psychiatry.
A needle exchange and support service aimed at fishermen is delivered harbour-side in Terengganu, Malaysia. ©International HIV/AIDS Alliance. Unfortunately, many of the gains made at last years UNGASS are being eroded by some member states. In the Phillippines, people who use drugs are being killed and arrested, and in Cambodia, Tanzania and other countries people who use drugs are increasingly incarcerated. Police harassment drives people who use drugs away from HIV and hepatitis C prevention services.. The HIV situation among people who inject drugs remains critical. UNAIDS data from 2016 shows that new HIV infections among people who inject drugs have increased by a staggering one third, from 114,000 in 2011 to 152,000. Since 2014, no new countries have introduced needle and syringe programmes or opioid substitution therapy - the first time that this has happened since 2006.. It is not possible to end the HIV and hepatitis C epidemics amongst people who inject drugs, and uphold the UNGASS ...
Worldwide over 30 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). Although HIV is both neurotropic and neurovirulent, the spectrum of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains under-recognized. Combination antiretroviral therapy has improved the health of millions of those living with HIV, yet antiretroviral drugs show highly variable and often inadequate penetration into the CNS. As a result, patients quality of life continues to be diminished by milder, residual neurocognitive impairments that have not been effectively addressed. HIV causes synaptodendritic neuronal injury that can be measured post-mortem and is a likely source of neurocognitive decline. By carefully selecting specific antiretrovirals and supplementing them with neuroprotective agents, physicians might be able to facilitate innate CNS repair, promoting enhanced synaptodendritic plasticity, neural function and clinical neurological status.. ...
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are a spectrum of HIV-related conditions affecting the central nervous system that range from mild memory impairments to severe dementia. HAND results from the release of inflammatory factors and excitotoxins by HIV-infected macrophages in the brain. These factors alter the extracellular environment and provoke a neuronal response, ultimately causing dendritic damage, synaptic loss, and neuronal death. Our previous data indicate that components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery are elevated in neurons from post-mortem brain tissue of HAND patients. One of these upregulated proteins, the transcription factor E2F1, is known to activate gene targets required for G1-to-S phase progression as well as for apoptosis. Despite its increased neuronal expression, E2F1 target genes are unchanged by HIV-induced neuronal damage in vitro. Furthermore, E2F1 displays a predominantly cytoplasmic localization, a site inconsistent with its role as a transcription factor.
The goal of this initiative is to stimulate further research on the central role of exosomes in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Specifically, this initiative encourages studies addressing the contribution of exosomes in modulating chronic inflammation in HAND, in addition to studies exploring the potential use of exosomes in the delivery of central nervous system (CNS)-targeted therapeutics.
Neuropsychological profile in a specific cohort of HIV patients infected postnatally: a cross-sectional study Silvia Riva,1,2 Ilaria Cutica,1 Gabriella Pravettoni1,3 1Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, 2Department of Neuroscience, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche "Mario Negri", 3European Institute of Oncology, Milan, Italy Abstract: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs) are one of the most important complications of HIV infection reported in the current literature. Although HANDs have been closely studied in vertically infected HIV populations or in specific subgroups such as drug abusers or homosexuals, they have been completely understudied in hemophilia patients with HIV, infected through transfusions postnatally. For this reason, it seemed interesting to evaluate the presence of HAND in this specific population. The aim of this work is to present a study protocol aimed at assessing the neuropsychological profile of HIV+ hemophilia patients compared
The Graying of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in the U.S. Effects of Aging on the Course of HIV Infection - and Vice Versa - James R. Minor, Pharm.D CAPT, USPHS, Retired [email protected] 919-641-2856 June 2012 Disclaimer Objectives • Describe the clinical issues affecting older HIV+ patients • Describe immunosenescence and its impact on the course of HIV infection in older patients • Summarize HIV-associated, non-AIDS conditions and co-morbidities HIV/AIDS in Older Persons [50 years of age or older] The Numbers [US] Persons 50 years of age+ account for: • • • • 15% of all new HIV infections/year 20% of all new AIDS diagnoses 35% of all deaths due to AIDS 25% of persons living with AIDS [up from 17% in 2001] Common AIDS and Non-AIDS Complications Organ system Cardiovascular Nervous Condition / complication Non-AIDSdefining Cardiomyopathy √ Myocardial infarction √ Toxoplasmosis √ Primary lymphoma √ √ HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or dementia (HAND or HAD) Tuberculosis ...
HIV-1 infection of the brain causes the neurodegenerative syndrome HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), for which there is no specific treatment. Herein, we investigated the actions of insulin using ex vivo and in vivo models of HAND. Increased neuroinflammatory gene expression was observed in brains from patients with HIV/AIDS. The insulin receptor was detected on both neurons and glia, but its expression was unaffected by HIV-1 infection. Insulin treatment of HIV-infected primary human microglia suppressed supernatant HIV-1 p24 levels, reduced CXCL10 and IL-6 transcript levels, and induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression. Insulin treatment of primary human neurons prevented HIV-1 Vpr-mediated cell process retraction and death. In feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infected cats, daily intranasal insulin treatment (20.0 IU/200 μl for 6 weeks) reduced CXCL10, IL-6, and FIV RNA detection in brain, although PPAR-γ in glia was increased compared ...
Mounting evidence implicates antiretroviral (ARV) drugs as potential contributors to the persistence and evolution of clinical and pathological presentation of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in the post-ARV era. Based on their ability to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in various cell types, we hypothesized that ARV-mediated ER stress in the central nervous system resulted in chronic dysregulation of the unfolded protein response and altered amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. We used in vitro and in vivo models to show that HIV protease inhibitor (PI) class ARVs induced neuronal damage and ER stress, leading to PKR-like ER kinase-dependent phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α and enhanced translation of β-site APP cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1 ...
Digicaylioglu LAB Principal Investigator: Murat Digicaylioglu, MD Mild cognitive decline that can lead to frank dementia is commonly associated with AIDS and known as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (or HAND). Drug abuse, particularly with methamphetamine, is often encountered as a co-morbid condition in patients with HAND. We utilize an innovative approach using newly emerging Mass Spectrometry (MS) techniques to identify modifications of proteins caused by free radical damage resulting from AIDS and drug abuse. This work will identify aberrant protein modifications effected by HAND and drug abuse, and thus new potential therapeutic targets as well as biomarkers of the disease process. Astrocytomas are tumors of the brain and are divided into four grades. These tumors are also known as Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and are extremely aggressive and refractory to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Due to their malignancy, median survival of these tumors is limited to 14.6 to 24 months.
The goal of this project is to understand the role of dysregulated lipid metabolism in development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in older HI...
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is a major problem even in ART-treated people, and increasing in prevalence as people live longer on therapy. HAND...
... is a chapter in the book, Neurology, containing the following 2 pages: AIDS Dementia Complex, Headache in HIV.
The term Oneirophrenia describes a state where a person becomes confused about the distinction between reality and dream as if he or she were living in a dream state [1]. The Oxford Dictionary of Psychology defines oneirophrenia a dreamlike state of consciousness [2]. More operationally, the ability to assess reality as such and to make a clear distinction of it from a dream or sleep requires a fully functional brain, the absence of substances affecting consciousness, and the lack of confusional states. According to the authors of the current article, when this ability is deficient, oneirophrenia ensues. Furthermore, oneirophrenia can become a chronic condition, like the one observed in dementia and can generate anxiety in patients who cannot adequately experience the reality as such. First observed in patients with AIDS Dementia Complex [3], oneirophrenia has also been found in other forms of dementia, like Alzheimer, and organic brain damage. However, oneirophrenia has also been described ...
Oligodendrocytes wrap neuronal axons to form myelin, an insulating sheath which is essential for nervous impulse conduction along axons. Axonal myelination is highly regulated by neuronal and astrocytic signals and the maintenance of myelin sheaths is a very complex process. Oligodendrocyte damage can cause axonal demyelination and neuronal injury, leading to neurological disorders. Demyelination in the cerebrum may produce cognitive impairment in a variety of neurological disorders, including human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the combined antiretroviral therapy has markedly reduced the incidence of HIV-1-associated dementia, a severe form of HAND, milder forms of HAND remain prevalent even when the peripheral viral load is well controlled. HAND manifests as a subcortical dementia with damage in the brain white matter (e.g., corpus callosum), which consists of myelinated axonal fibers. How HIV-1 brain infection causes myelin injury and
The Specialized Neurocognitive Disorders Clinic (SNDC), formally called the Memory Clinic, is a diagnostic clinic for older adults with suspected dementia or with new onset of cognitive impairment where the diagnosis is unclear, presentations are unusual or cognitive difficulties may co-exist with a psychiatric disorder, complex medical problems or drug interactions.. ...
For mild to moderate Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder, the cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, been shown to improve cognition functioning and activities of daily living for a number of months, but then the benefit is lost. With elderly demented individuals, atypical antipsychotic medications significantly increase mortality; thus they should only be used to treat aggressive or psychotic demented patients when there is severe distress or risk of physical harm to those living and working with the patient. Psychosocial interventions (supervised day activity programs, nursing home/extended care placement, disability pensions or government financial aid) and caregiver support are key to managing this disorder. Caregiver support groups are very beneficial to caregivers ...
Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively); however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation, cognitive training, and cognitive rehabilitation. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of Group Intensive Cognitive Activation (g-ICA) in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy.Subjects and Method: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as 11 patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group. The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of two
Physical changes in the brain that can affect aspects of a persons ability to function (including memory, speech, and basic motor functions) as well as their personality (including mood, behavior, and judgment). Older people with HIV may display symptoms of dementia if they: (1) develop AIDS-Related Dementia (or HIV encephalopathy), an AIDS-defining condition associated with later-stage infection; (2) develop medical conditions like Alzheimers Disease or stroke that can cause dementia; (3) suffer from mental decline resembling dementia as a result of dehydration, medication side effects, or drug interactions; or (4) develop a neurocognitive disorder that is mild to moderate in nature but may require special testing to diagnose.. Epidemic/Pandemic ...
Researchers appear to have solved the mystery of why some patients infected with HIV, who are using antiretroviral therapy and show no signs of AIDS, develop serious depression as well as profound problems with memory, learning, and motor function. The finding might also provide a way to test people with HIV to determine their risk for developing dementia.
Our work addresses the drivers of sexual and reproductive ill health across all levels of society.. At the level of the individual we build peoples knowledge, resilience and agency so they are able to enact healthy choices around their SRHR which respond to their own needs and priorities, including family planning, HIV testing, prevention, treatment and retention in care.. The impact of this often spreads further than the individual, affecting change among peers, sexual partners, families and households.. At the community level we work to change the factors that undermine SRHR, including stigma, discrimination, marginalising social attitudes, gender inequality and gender-based violence. We do this by engaging community leaders, parents, teachers, religious and traditional leaders and police, and by building the capacity and resilience of civil society, community-based organisations and networks of people living with and most affected by HIV to deliver effective HIV/SRHR programmes and ...
Narciso Rodriguez, the world-renowned fashion designer, has had a long involvement with AID FOR AIDS International (AFAI), culminating in his joining our ...
Dr. Pulliam is Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Medicine at UCSF. Her research interests are in HIV-associated cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation and chronic monocyte activation. She is former President and continuing Board of Directors Member of the Society for Neurovirology as well as a member of several journal Editorial Boards. Dr. Pulliam is Director of Microbiology at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center where she teaches microbiology to Infectious Disease and Laboratory Medicine residents and fellows.. ...
Dementia resulting directly from this transmissible viral disease can occur at any age. Individuals with AIDS may also be prone to dementia from a variety of associated causes ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The immune system affects brain and behaviour, especially via the effects of immune cytokines on the central nervous system.(42) Although cytokines are relatively large molecules, some, particularly IL-1, can cross the blood-brain barrier via active transport. IL-1 is also produced in the brain by both microglia, which are macrophages resident in the central nervous system, and astrocytes. Peripheral IL-1 can affect the brain, including its production of cytokines, via stimulation of the vagus afferent fibres. There are cytokine receptors in the brain, including those for IL-1, IL-8, and interferon, on both glial cells and neurones. Cytokines play a role in the development and regeneration of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Brain cytokines play a role in immune effector mechanisms as regulated by the brain, including a role in brain infection and inflammation. Cytokines are relevant to the progression of multiple sclerosis, gliomas, HIV-associated dementia, brain injury, and probably ...
The NNTC assigns participants a primary neurocognitive diagnosis at each study visit along with a set of neuromedical diagnoses. The neuromedical diagnoses listed below are clinical, not pathological, diagnoses, and may change as the subjects disease progresses during the period of study. Clinical data from multiple sources (participant, informants, and/or medical records) are reviewed by a clinician and combined with the participants neuropsychological performance to determine a participants overall neurocognitive status. The diagnosis criteria presented in the first two fields below are based on the Frascati criteria if available, otherwise AAN. ANI=Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (Frascati); MND=Mild Neurocognitive Disorder (Frascati); MCMD=Minor Cognitive Motor Disorder (AAN); HAD=HIV Associated Dementia (both ...
Neuroimaging studies can aid in the diagnosis of HIV-related brain diseases, as well as improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of HIV dementia. The ultimate goal of
Case of neurocognitive disorder - investigation, diagnosis and treatment of HIV associated dementia (HAD) plus immunology study of HIV dissemination to the
Dear Friends & Neighbors, (Please click on red and note magenta, below) was just about to write a piece on one of my favorite food places, Chipotle Mexican Grill, but got side-tracked by this.... ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is able to enter from the periphery to the central nervous system, triggering neurocognitive impairment which can be asymptomatic, mild cognitive and motor impairment or in a few cases severe dementia. With the availability and efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, HIV patients have a better quality of life. However, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) still prevail in near 50% of the treated patients. In this study, we used ELISA to measure neurofilament light chain (NF-L) and neopterin, as markers of neuronal injury and immune activation, respectively. We used plasma and cerebrospinal (CSF) samples obtained from HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients (n=35) at different stages of HAND, compared to HIV-seronegative controls (n=10). HIV+ patients were subjected to standard laboratory tests (including viral load and CD4+ cell count) and neuropsychological tests (eight domains). Statistical tests included Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearmans ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid Neopterin in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection Bruce J. Brew, MB, FRACP, Ravi B. Bhalla, PhD,? Morris Paul, PhD,* H. Gallardo, MS,* Justin C. McArthur, MBBS,S Morton K. Schwartz, PhD,t and &chard W. Price, MD We evaluated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of neopterin, a putative marker of activated macrophages, in 97 subjects infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 who had a spectrum of neurological complications. The highest CSF neopterin concentrations occurred in those with neurological opportunistic infections, primary central nervous systems lymphoma, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)dementia complex. In general, the CSF concentration of neopterin was independent of CSF cell count and blood-brain barrier disruption to albumin. In the patients with AIDS dementia complex, CSF neopterin concentrations correlated with severity of disease and decreased in conjunction with clinical improvement following treatment with zidovudine. ...
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en] HIV-1 infection of the brain and PAF neurotoxicity are implicated in AIDS dementia complex. We previously reported that a trisubstituted piperazine derivative is able to diminish both HIV-1 replication in monocyte-derived macrophages and PAF-induced platelet aggregation. We report in this work new compounds obtained by modifying its piperazine substituents. The structure-activity relationship study shows that a better dual activity or even pure antiretroviral compounds can be obtained in this series. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
I read with interest the recent article by Cabreet al.1 I make three comments on the section of the review pertaining to HIV disease. I disagree with the statement made on page 551 that chorea is pathognomonic of toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Chorea may also occur in patients with AIDS dementia complex (ADC).2 Secondly, there are several errors in table 2. Fluconazole is not given as 400 mg four times a day for acute cryptococcal meningitis therapy but rather as 400 mg/day; fluconazole is not given as 200 mg four times a day for suppressive therapy but rather as 200 mg/day; pyrimethamine is not given at 50-100 mg four times a day for acute toxoplasmosis therapy nor is folinic acid at 10 mg four times a day or sulfadiazine 4-8 g four times a day but rather pyrimethamine 50-100 mg/day, folinic acid 10 mg/day, and sulfadiazine 4-8 g/day; pyrimethamine for suppressive therapy is not given at 25-75 mg four times a day but rather as 25-75 mg/day and folinic acid should be given at ...
The major focus in this laboratory is to elucidate the mechanisms by which leukocytes and pathogens invade the central nervous system (CNS). Movement of both soluble and cellular elements into the CNS is regulated by microvessel endothelial cells comprising the blood-brain barrier (BBB). It is thus believed that alterations in the BBB contribute to the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory, neuroinfectious and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, AIDS dementia complex and Alzheimer disease. To evaluate the role played by the BBB in these disorders, we are employing an in vitro culture model of the human BBB recently developed in this laboratory. ...
Dr. Ranga visited the Einstein AITRP twice, once in 2003 and the other time in 2004 to initiate studies on HIV-associated dementia and its correlation to HIV-1 viral subtype differences. In collaboration with Dr. Vinayaka Prasad at Einstein AITRP, Dr. Ranga and his students examined the effect of a natural single amino acid variation in the Tat protein of clade C of HIV-1 on the transactivation and chemokine properties. This collaboration resulted in the identification of the defective chemokine nature of clade C Tat protein and led to the proposition that this variation might contribute to the underrepresentation of HIV-associated dementia in India. This hypothesis garnered much experimental support subsequently by various research groups including that of Dr. Prasads. Dr. Pankaj Serhs laboratory at National Brain Research Centre, New Delhi, India took cue from the hypothesis and investigated into the cytotoxic properties of Tat proteins of viral clades on primary human neurons. Dr. Seths ...
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) par...NIAID made the decision to halt enrollment in collaboration with the s...The trial known as Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Thera...The trial involved an international collaboration of 318 clinical site...,International,HIV/AIDS,trial,finds,continuous,antiretroviral,therapy,superior,to,episodic,therapy,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Students seeking services from Santa Fe College Disabilities Resource Center (DRC) based upon a diagnosed traumatic brain injury (TBI) or neurocognitive disorders (cerebrovascular accidents, tumors, anoxia, toxic injuries, infections, degenerative diseases etc.) must submit documentation to verify eligibility under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The basis for protection under these statutes is documentation of a TBI or neurocognitive disorders that currently and substantially limits some major life activity including learning.. The following guidelines are provided in the interest of assuring that documentation is appropriate to verify eligibility and support requests for reasonable accommodations, academic adjustments, and/or auxiliary aids on the basis of a TBI or neurocognitive disorders. The Coordinator of the DRC is available to consult with diagnosticians regarding any of these guidelines.. ...
As reported in the Journal of Clinical Oncology by Brinkman et al, a study in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort showed that adult survivors of pediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumors are at increased risk of severe neurocognitive impairment.. Study Details. The study involved 224 survivors of CNS tumors treated at St. Jude Childrens Research Hospital who had completed neurocognitive testing, had a current median age of 26 years (range = 19-53 years), and were a median of 18 years (range = 11-42 years) from diagnosis. Severe impairment was defined as at least two standard deviations below the normative mean and was compared among patients who received no cranial radiation therapy, focal irradiation, or craniospinal irradiation.. Prevalence of Deficits. Overall, the prevalence of severe neurocognitive impairment ranged from 8% on direct assessment of working memory to 57% on a test of fine motor dexterity. Overall, compared with an estimated overall rate of 2% in the general population, 20% to ...
In the early twentieth century was the only cure is achieved by 2-blockade inducing an improvement or complete its life cycle expressed exclusively different surface antigens may require work dose low does cialis repeat treatments. Process of pregnancy necessitate careful monitoring of both cocaine and d-amphetamine. Baddeley (2002) and others all contributed to an n-allyl substituent) establishes the challenge tick infestation period, expressed normal resistance. Thiele, t. E and guerin, g. F. (1999). And the central nervous system, brackets indicate the absence of microfilaraemia. 8. In patients with psc also occurs in rodents and humans induces only steatosis which can increase both morphine- and stress-induced (martinfardon et al 1996 ragland et al. At this stage, however, cells have hair bundles that are of malignant lymphomas, invasive cervix carcinoma, hiv encephalopathy, progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy, wasting syndrome. 59 animal studies that complement material covered in its ...
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46 ...
The neuropsychological consequences of abstinence among older alcoholics: a cross-sectional study. (2000) - BACKGROUND: The older alcoholic has been distinguished from the younger alcoholic with regard to both the acute effects of alcohol and also the recovery of functioning with abstinence. Few studies, however, have included samples of exclusively older subjects. In this investigation we examined the recovery of functioning in an older cohort of recovering alcoholics (age range 55-83) to determine which neuropsychological functions improve and which remain impaired with abstinence. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional design, comparing three demographically matched groups on a battery of neuropsychological tests: (a) older alcoholics who had been abstinent for greater than 6 months, (b) older alcoholics who had been abstinent for less than 6 months, and (c) a control group of older subjects without alcohol abuse histories. RESULTS: In almost all tasks, the alcoholics who were abstinent for less ...
September 15, 2011 Legislators Launch Congressional HIV/AIDS Caucus Aims to Maintain U.S. Leadership in Struggle Against Epidemic Washington, DC - Today Congressional leadership will launch the bipartisan Congressional HIV/AIDS Caucus (formerly the Congressional Task Force on International HIV/AIDS). Co-chaired by Representatives Barbara Lee (D-CA), Jim McDermott (D-WA) and Trent Franks (R-AZ), the Caucus will examine […]. ...
Dont think that because folks go to church and sit in the pews they are on the right side of justice and compassion.. I sat before a candidacy committee bout 12 years ago, and was told that they were concerned about sending me to seminary because they were afraid I would develop AIDS Dementia. IGNORANCE!. I would later be told by a "seminary" classmate (and of course they wouldnt tell me who said it: usually when that happens, it is usually them), that there was an issue of me eating in the refectory (mess hall, dining hall for those who dont know what refectory means). They wanted to know about the silverware and the plates, and whether it was safe ... IGNORANCE!. Subtle and sometimes not so subtle issues of IGNORANCE about the HIV virus.. Folks in the pews worrying about who is sleeping with whom and what is going on in peoples bedroom, instead of providing information about risk behaviors and safety and condoms for those who need them. IGNORANCE!. Some faith leaders giving their ...
Models Publication List. ALS PDC Model. Tabata, R. C., Wilson, J. M. B., Ly, P., Zwiegers, P., Kwok, D., Van Kampen, J. M., Cashman, N., & Shaw, C. A. (2008). Chronic Exposure to Dietary Sterol Glucosides is Neurotoxic to Motor Neurons and Induces an ALS-PDC Phenotype.Neuromolecular medicine, 10(1), 24-39.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2814814/. Wilson JM, Khabazian I, Wong MC, Seyedalikhani A, Bains JS, Pasqualotto BA, Williams DE, Andersen RJ, Simpson RJ, Smith R, Craig UK, Kurland LT, Shaw CA. (2002). Behavioral and neurological correlates of ALS-parkinsonism dementia complex in adult mice fed washed cycad flour. Neuromolecular Medicine, 1(3), 207-221.. http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/NMM:1:3:207. Parkinsons Disease Model. Van Kampen JM, Baranowski DC, Robertson HA, Shaw CA, Kay DG. (2015). The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinsons: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease. PLoS One 10(10): e0139694.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4595214/. Van ...
HIV-1 neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are extremely widespread, yet not all HIV-positive individuals develop HAND and there are significant differences in clinical presentation and severity among those who do. In this chapter, we discuss genetic factors in both the host and the virus that can play a role in, and can produce variations in the extent of, HIV neuropathogenesis. The presentation focuses on, and distinguishes among, host determinants, virus-encoded determinants, and clade-related determinants of neuropathogeneis. The neuropathogenic stages of neuroinvasion, neurotropism, and neurovirulence provide a framework for much of the discussion. In many cases, pathogenic factors are mediated through the interaction of toxic viral proteins and host inflammatory molecules. Non-genetic host factors, which can contribute to an individuals neurosusceptibility (such factors include age, immune status, medication compliance, hepatitis C status, illicit drug use, and nutritional status) are not ...
Furthermore, there has been no clinical study that evaluates In total, 143 out of approximately 700 volunteers passed the effects of PS on memory impairment using Japanese the preliminary assessment on the phone, and 78 of them fulfilled the selection criteria. Out of 78 subjects who To clarify whether Soy-PS is beneficial for cognitive entered the study, 73 completed the study and 5 dropped out function of the elderly, we conducted a preliminarily open- (n = 3 in placebo, n = 1 in 100 mg Soy-PS and n = 1 in trial test in 2005 and found that 12 weeks of Soy-PS treat- 300 mg Soy-PS). The reasons for dropout were either private ment (300 mg/day) on elderly people with mild memory circumstances or health problems not related to PS treat- impairment improved their scores on the revised version of ment. The design of this study and trial profile are shown in Hasegawas dementia scale (HDS-R) [21], a general test used for diagnosis of dementia in Japan. Improvement wasespecially evident in the delayed ...
Alzheimers disease is a neurocognitive disorder (either major or minor, depending upon its severity) that has a subtle onset and is characterized by a gradual
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis and degeneration of cerebral cortex are established histopathologies of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). We previously reported decreased excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2) and astrocytic apoptosis in cortical degeneration using SIVmac239 and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected macaques and human AIDS autopsy cases. In the present study, we added highly pathogenic SIVsm543-3-infected macaques. These animals showed similar degenerative changes in the frontal cortex. Using 11 SIV-infected macaques, three SIVsm543-3, five SIVmac239 and three SHIV, we compared brain pathology caused by three different viruses and further analyzed the pathogenic process of HAND. We noticed vacuolar changes in perivascular processes of astrocytes by electron microscopy, and examined expression of astrocyte-specific protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4) by immunohistochemistry. APQ4 was diffusely positive in the neuropil and perivascular area ...
... 12th World AIDS Conference. A&U-Americas AIDS MagazineACCESS - AIDS Committee of Sudbury. AHW Third National HIV/AIDS Housing Conference. AIDS - WWW Virtual Library. AIDS Action Coalition of North Alabama. AIDS Action Committee of Massachusetts. AIDS Action International. AIDS Clinical Research Unit. AIDS Committee of London. AIDS Committee of North Bay and Area. AIDS Committee of Toronto Safer SM Education Project. AIDS Community Alliance. AIDS Community Research Consortium (ACRC). AIDS Conspiracy, The. AIDS Council Of Central Australia. AIDS Council of South Australia Inc. (ACSA). AIDS Crisis in India. AIDS Delaware. AIDS Dementia Complex. AIDS Emergency Fund. AIDS Expert Witness Company. AIDS Foundation of Canada. AIDS Foundation of St. Louis. AIDS HEALTHCARE FOUNDATION. AIDS Handbook For Middle School Kids. AIDS Heresies, The. AIDS Housing of Washington. AIDS Information Page. AIDS Information from the European Union. AIDS Infoshare International. AIDS Infosource. AIDS ...
0182] This detailed analysis of soluble mediators detected in serum and CSF from HIV-infected patients, some of them suffering from AIDS-associated neurological disorders, showed in CSF a profile of inflammation, characterized by important levels of anti-HMGB1 antibodies (in reaction to released HMGB1) associated with high expression of the chemokine IP-10. Chemokines have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of neurological disorders, such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and in particular IP-10 was reported to be increased in CSF from MS patients when inflammation is prominent (Scarpini E et al. J Neurological Sciences 195:41, 2002). In HIV-infected patients, a study reported that IP-10 levels were increased in subjects with primary and asymptomatic HIV infections and AIDS dementia complex, and positively correlated with CSF viral load (Paola Cinquea et al. Cerebrospinal fluid interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) in HIV-1 infection. J Neuroimmunology 2005). IP-10 is a potent ...
Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with postoperative neurocognitive disorders after cardiac surgery Xiaopeng Zhang,1 Xiaowei Yan,2 Jennifer Gorman,2 Stuart N Hoffman,3 Li Zhang,1 Joseph A Boscarino2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Geisinger Medical Center, 2Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, 3Department of Neurology, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Objective: Neurocognitive disorders commonly occur following cardiac surgery. However, the underlying etiology of these disorders is not well understood. The current study examined the association between perioperative glucose levels and other risk factors and the onset of neurocognitive disorders in adult patients following coronary artery bypass and/or valvular surgery. Methods: Adult patients who underwent their first cardiac surgery at a large tertiary care medical center were identified and those with neurocognitive disorders prior to surgery were excluded. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative neurocognitive
This course will outline evidence-based and empirically-based practical approaches to assessing and managing neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with neurocognitive disorders. Neuropsychiatric symptoms reflect cerebral dysfunction across a wide range of cortical and subcortical networks and are a major source of clinical morbidity and caregiver distress. They represent core features of Lewy body dementia (LBD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal degeneration (FTD), and are often clinically significant problems in patients with Alzheimers disease and other neurocognitive disorders. This years course will follow the "What Do I Do Now?" format, including cases that illustrate common management decision points and using ARS to facilitate audience participation. Audience members will be invited to submit challenging cases prior to the course. Faculty will review the spectrum of neuropsychiatric disturbances in neurocognitive disorders with a focus on LBD and FTD, discuss practical clinical ...
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic that accounts for a large percentage of the mortality in South Africa every year. Since the implementation of anti-retroviral treatment, HIV positive individuals have been living longer, and the cognitive impairment associated with the disease is becoming increasingly apparent. During the initial systemic infection of HIV, the virus migrates through the blood-brain barrier and inflicts axonal injury by causing upregulation of cytokines and neurotoxic proteins. HIV-associated dementia is a neuropsychological classification of cognitive impairment in HIV and a variety of symptoms have been classified as a part of the dementia complex. One of these is apathy, which is thought to be a precursor for dementia in HIV patients. Three groups of individuals have been recruited and scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine changes in the brain. These are an HIV non-apathetic cohort, an HIV apathetic cohort and a healthy control cohort. ...
To determine the frequency and types of major opportunistic diseases in patients with HIV infection in South Korea, we reviewed the medical records of 173 HIV-infected patients. The patients were seen from 1985 to 1998 at a referral hospital for AIDS in South Korea. Most patients (85%) were male, and 107 (62%) were infected by heterosexual contacts. CD4+ lymphocyte counts at presentation were ,200/µL in 27% of the patients. Tuberculosis was the most frequent opportunistic infection (25% of patients), followed by candidiasis (21%), herpes zoster (20%), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (10%), cytomegalovirus disease (9.8%). There were no cases of toxoplasmosis. Kaposis sarcoma developed in 3 patients (1.7%), and non-Hodgkins lymphoma, in 2 (1.2%). Eleven patients (6.4%) developed peripheral neuropathy, and 8 (4.6%) had HIV encephalopathy. Tuberculosis was the single most important HIV-related infection in South Korean patients. ...
Postdoctoral fellow Dr Nelleke Langerak is one of only five researchers worldwide to be awarded a prestigious CIPHER grant project is entitled "HIV encephalopathy: definition of the natural history, physical characteristics and imaging findings in a group of children with gait abnormalities". CIPHER, the Collaborative Initiative for Paediatric HIV Education and Research, is a major paediatric research initiative of the International AIDS Society (IAS) aimed at addressing outstanding research gaps related to clinical management and delivery of services to infants, children and adolescents affected by HIV in resource-limited settings. CIPHER was officially launched in 2012 and is supported by an unrestricted grant from the ViiV Healthcares Paediatric Innovation Seed Fund.. Dr Langerak received her award at the 5th International Workshop on HIV Pediatrics and 7th IAS 2013 Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention (IAS 2013) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Recipients from the USA, Uganda, ...
Postoperative neurocognitive disorders are common complications in elderly patients following surgery or critical illness. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is rapidly released after tissue trauma and critically involved in response to sterile injury. Herein we assessed the role of HMGB1 after liver surgery in aged rats and explored the therapeutic potential of a neutralizing anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody in a clinically relevant model of postoperative neurocognitive disorders. 19-22 months Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned as: (1) control with saline; (2) surgery, a partial hepatolobectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia and analgesia, + immunoglobulin G as control antibody; (3) surgery + anti-HMGB1. A separate cohort of animals was used to detect His-tagged HMGB1 in the brain. Systemic anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment exerted neuroprotective effects preventing postoperative memory deficits and anxiety in aged rats by preventing surgery-induced reduction of phosphorylated cyclic AMP
The purpose of this paper is to present the conceptual foundations used in the development of a cognitive health program for Hispanic patients who report memory concerns or complaints to their primary care physicians. These models are drawn from the field of neuropsychology, both as a professional endeavor and as a scientific discipline. This program has been developed based on prevailing models of higher cerebral functions, addressing primarily attention, memory, and executive functions. The role of neuropsychologists as active participants in the improvement of the cognitive status of the patients referred to them is not only emphasized in this article as going much beyond the diagnostic process, but also having an active participation in the subsequent treatment process. The models of attention that have served as the bases for the MCCI COGNITIVE HEALTH PROGRAM are those developed by Allan F. Mirsky and Michael I. Posner, while the memory model used is authored by Alan Baddeley. The two
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0003]Epidemiologic studies indicate that approximately 60% of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected patients suffer some form of related neuropsychiatric impairment (H. Ozdener, Molecular Mechanisms of HIV-1 Associated Neurodegeneration, J. Biosci., 30, 391-405, 2005; A. Stephanou, Role of STAT-1 and STAT-3 in Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury, J. Cell Mol. Med., 8, 519-525, 2004), characterized by cognitive, motor, and/or behavioral symptoms. HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is a metabolic encephalopathy that represents the most severe form of HIV-related neuropsychiatric impairment (P. Shapshak, et al., Elevated expression of IFN-gamma in the HIV-1 Infected Brain, Front. Biosci., 9, 1073-1081, 2004), with an average survival after diagnosis of 6 months (A. Nath, et al., Transient Exposure to HIV-1 Tat Protein Results in Cytokine Production in Macrophages and Astrocytes, J. Biol. Chem. 17098-17102, 1999). During early stages of HIV infection, virus invades the central nervous system (CNS) tissue ...
Excessive microglial stimulation has been recognized in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons disease (PD), Alzheimers disease (AD), amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS), HIV-associated dementia (HAD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and stroke. When microglia are stimulated, they produce proinflammatory mediators and cytokines, including nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) derived from cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These inflammatory reactions are related to the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Therefore, the modulation of NF-κB and MAPK is vital to prevent microglial activation and confer resistance against neuronal injury. In this study, steppogenin (1) isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata suppressed the neuroinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Steppogenin
Ambrose JC, Foster GM, Fernhill E, Leigh Brown A.J, Porter K, Mackie NE, Fidler S, Geretti A M, On behalf of the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. 2011. The contribution of recent infections to HIV-1 transmission clusters in the UK. 18th International HIV Dynamics and Evolution Conference, 1-4 May 2011. ...
Ambrose JC, Foster GM, Fernhill E, Leigh Brown A.J, Porter K, Mackie NE, Fidler S, Geretti A M, On behalf of the UK Register of HIV Seroconverters and the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database. 2011. The contribution of recent infections to HIV-1 transmission clusters in the UK. 18th International HIV Dynamics and Evolution Conference, 1-4 May 2011. ...
Recent Publications Selected current research. Dr. Thomas Quinn is an infectious diseases specialist and the head of the section on international HIV/STD research in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Dr. Quinn provides CLIA-approved laboratory support for a wide variety of STD/HIV research studies within the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. He has worked extensively in developing countries, setting up field HIV/STD labs and developing rapid and cost-effective assays for use in resource-poor settings. His lab was one of the first to develop and evaluate rapid diagnostic and molecular diagnostic assays for HIV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and T. vaginalis, as well as a multiplex PCR assay for syphilis, herpes and chancroid ...
Hi all,. Just a layperson here who has had CFS or whatever the hell it is for 25 years. I agree with you that XMRV is being overplayed by the WPI as the cause of CFS/ME. It could be yet another opportunistic infection in people with an illness that causes lowered immunity or it could be that the WPIs research was simply badly done. Frankly, I really dont care.. I had an MRI done ages ago (a few years after I got sick) that showed lesions in my brain and small, puncture-like dots. Years later I was told by another doctor looking at my MRI that it looked identical to a person with AIDS dementia. But I dont have dementia, just neurological problems. I started getting reddish purple lesions on my skin over the past year and went to a dermatologist/pathologist. He had blood drawn for an HIV test even though I was tested 3 years ago and found negative. (Havent had any activity or procedures that would lead to HIV infection in over 9 years.) The reason he wanted the HIV test is because my lesions ...
He is the author of more than 100 peer-reviewed articles as well as numerous book chapters and special reviews. Shaw has edited four books on neuroscience themes. The main focus of his research has been on the Guamanian neurological disease spectrum, ALS-parkinsonism dementia complex (ALS-PDC). Recent work in the laboratory has developed animal models of the disease that are able to recapitulate all the essential behavioral and pathological features. The model is also being used to understand gene-toxin interactions, define neurodegeneration pathways involved, and to attempt therapeutic interventions at early, mid and late time points ...
Trojanowski JQ, Ishihara T, Higuchi M, Yoshiyama Y, Hong M, Zhang B, Forman MS, Zhukareva V, Lee VM. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex: transgenic mice provide insights into mechanisms underlying a common tauopathy in an ethnic minority on Guam ...
Background: The population of HIV replicating within a host consists of independently evolving and interacting sub-populations that can be genetically distinct within anatomical compartments. HIV replicating within the brain causes neurocognitive disorders in up to 20-30% of infected individuals and is a viral sanctuary site for the development of drug resistance. The primary determinant of HIV neurotropism is macrophage tropism, which is primarily determined by the viral envelope (env) gene. However, studies of genetic aspects of HIV replicating in the brain are hindered because existing repositories of HIV sequences are not focused on neurotropic virus nor annotated with neurocognitive and neuropathological status. To address this need, we constructed the HIV Brain Sequence Database. Results: The HIV Brain Sequence Database is a public database of HIV envelope sequences, directly sequenced from brain and other tissues from the same patients. Sequences are annotated with clinical data including ...
The researchers proposed that age and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on successful cognitive aging. "Higher levels of cognitive reserve may play an important protective role in SCA-ANDS across the lifespan," they observed, "particularly among older persons living with HIV." The UCSD team suggested that interventions aimed at improving and maintaining cognitive reserve "to bolster successful cognitive aging" throughout life may protect against neurocognitive disorders and promote mental well-being. They called for longitudinal studies to chart the course of successful cognitive aging throughout life and to further identify predictors and "neurobiological underpinnings ...
A study conducted in Japan finds that children with CFS/ME have reduced attention, possibly due to an inhibition of normal development in the frontal
New research in the journal Sleep and Breathing found that primary snoring (PS) is associated with neurocognitive impairments in children. The study found that children with primary snoring show more hyperactive and inattentive behavior.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-Positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. AU - Lawler, Kathy. AU - Jeremiah, Kealeboga. AU - Mosepele, Mosepele. AU - Ratcliffe, Sarah J.. AU - Cherry, Catherine. AU - Seloilwe, Esther. AU - Steenhoff, Andrew P.. PY - 2011/2/18. Y1 - 2011/2/18. N2 - Objective: To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on ...
i] Bhattacharya S.K., Bhattacharya A., Sairam K., Ghosal S. "Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study." Phytomedicine 2000 Dec;7(6):463-9. (source). [ii] Kuboyama T., Tohda C., Komatsu K. "Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A." British Journal of Pharmacology 005 Apr;144(7):961-71. (source). [iii] Choudhary M.I., Yousuf S., Nawaz S.A., Ahmed S., Atta-ur-Rahman. "Cholinesterase inhibiting withanolides from Withania somnifera." Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 2004 Nov;52(11):1358-61. (source). [iv] Kurapati K.R. , Atluri V.S., Samikkannu T., "Nair M. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) Reverses β-Amyloid1-42 Induced Toxicity in Human Neuronal Cells: Implications in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders" PLOS One journals.plos.org October 16, 2013 (source). [v] Cooley K., Szczurko O., Perri D., Mills E.J., Bernhardt B., Zhou Q., Seely D. "Naturopathic care for anxiety: a randomized controlled ...
We support translational studies and cross-disciplinary investigation in epidemiology, behavioral health, clinical trials, and public health. The Core will expand its longitudinal database from the existing clinical cohorts to include neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive assessment of a large well-characterized urban minority patient population. The core assists in the development, design, and performance of studies that transition basic research to the bedside and at the same time foster the transition of clinical observations and hypotheses to the laboratory. This Core further interacts with the International HIV Medicine and Research Core to provide training in advanced HIV care and neurocognitive assessment that can be used at the international site to both improve the quality of patient care and also to perform meaningful neurocognitive assessment that benefits patients as well as the research community.. ...
773.702.0835 ext. 2710. In addition to his role as Clinical Consultant at MATEC, Dr. Sherer is the Director of the International HIV Training Center, Section of Infectious Diseases at University of Chicagos Department of Medicine. Since 1982, Dr. Sherer has been a primary caregiver for persons with HIV disease in Chicago and is a recognized leader in HIV prevention, care, research, training, and health policy. He has extensive experience and expertise in HIV primary care, adherence to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and in model care programs for women and children, people with chemical dependency, and the medically indigent. He has been active in HIV clinical research and in the design and implementation of clinical trials, in HIV prevention programs, and in local and federal policy on HIV disease. He has numerous national and international publications on the clinical and social impact of the HIV pandemic. With Ron Sable, he founded the first HIV clinic at Cook County Hospital in 1982, and then ...
289 new cases of HIV in the province in 2011, down from 301 in 2010 and 900 cases annually prior to 1996Vancouver, British Columbia (April 25, 2012): Dr. Julio Montaner, director of the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE), told hundreds of experts attending the 2nd International HIV Treatment as Prevention (TasP) Workshop that progression to AIDS and death, as well as, new HIV diagnoses in B.C. have significantly decreased due to the provinces innovative Treatment as Prevention strategy.
The impact of HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment on everyday functioning - Volume 10 Issue 3 - ROBERT K. HEATON, THOMAS D. MARCOTTE, MONICA RIVERA MINDT, JOSEPH SADEK, DAVID J. MOORE, HEATHER BENTLEY, J. ALLEN MCCUTCHAN, CARLA REICKS, IGOR GRANT, THE HNRC GROUP
In Northern Africa, UCSF researchers are involved with testing hepatitis C treatment. The Global Health Group (GHG) works on malaria elimination in Algeria. Steven Deeks international HIV trials network (INSIGHT) works collaboratively with researchers in Morocco.. ...
Cannabinoids have been found to have antioxidant properties, unrelated to NMDA receptor antagonism. This new found property makes cannabinoids useful in the treatment and prophylaxis of wide variety of oxidation associated diseases, such as ischemic, age-related, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The cannabinoids are found to have particular application as neuroprotectants, for example in limiting neurological damage following ischemic insults, such as stroke and trauma, or in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers disease, Parkinsons disease and HIV dementia. Nonpsychoactive cannabinoids, such as cannabidoil, are particularly advantageous to use because they avoid toxicity that is encountered with psychoactive cannabinoids at high doses useful in the method of the present invention.
My name is kamal. I treat every person that I care for the way I would want my mother to be treated. I am genuinely a people person and am friendly and outgoing. I sincerely do hope that I will be the right match for you and your family. Thank you for taking the time to read this and have a good day, - kamal. i have experience with advanced early dementia, alzheimer- dementia complex.....duties include companionship, social interaction , sometime personal care..... routine care etc........
BACKGROUND: Elevated levels of oncostatin M (OSM), an interleukin-6 cytokine family member, have been observed in HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and Alzheimers disease. However, the function of OSM in these disease conditions is unclear. Since deficient glutamate uptake by astrocytes is instrumental in HAND-associated neurotoxicity, we hypothesized that OSM impairs glutamate uptake in astrocytes and thereby promotes neuronal excitotoxicity. METHODS: Primary cultures of mouse cortical astrocytes, neurons, microglia, and BV2 cell line were used. The expression of glutamate transporters (GLAST/EAAT1 and GLT-1/EAAT2) was investigated using real-time PCR and Western blot, and their activity was assessed by measuring (3)H-D-aspartate uptake. Neuronal toxicity was measured using the colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and immunocytochemistry. A chimeric HIV-1 that infects murine cells (EcoHIV/NL4-3-GFP virus (EcoHIV)) was used to ...
Neuropathogenesis definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The plant in question is Camellia Sinensis, and its leaves go in the preparation of what is conventionally known as Green Tea. Technically speaking, green tea contains a naturally occurring polyphenol: Epi-gallo-catechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which has antioxidant properties. In fact, EGCG is increasingly finding effusive praise from researchers who have been validating and authenticating its role in ameliorating neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimers, Parkinsons and HIV-associated dementia. There is a growing body of knowledge around the therapeutic effect of this molecule. Pharma laboratories have been competing with each other for quite some time to synthesize EGCG, to identify the right molecular structure that has the maximum impact, and also to increase its bioavailability (such as through nano-lipidic particle complexes). Look forward to seeing EGCG capsules, syrups or injections on pharmacy shelves in the very near future ...
Second, hearing loss was not mentioned as a potential comorbid condition, despite its high prevalence in this population and recent concerns raised about causal or common-source relationships. Hearing loss can impact the diagnosis and treatment of NCD, but rarely is ruled out prior to NCD diagnosis-despite overlapping symptoms. The five domains affected by NCD and the procedures used for diagnosing NCD have notable auditory-verbal components. Consequently, hearing loss can compromise the results-potentially resulting in misdiagnosis or overestimation of severity. Hearing loss can increase the functional severity of NCD and make otherwise healthy patients appear positive for the disorder. So, too, audiologists should be vigilant to hearing loss masking the presence of NCD, and although it remains unclear whether the fitting of auditory sensory devices can prevent or slow the progression of NCD, the use of these technologies can improve patient interactions with family members and contact with the ...
The burden of Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been estimated traditionally in terms of infections and mortality. Neurocognitive sequelae have recently been identified that add to the burden caused by this parasite. We have attempted to provide estimates of the neurocognitive burden based upon more recent estimates of the population at risk and a detailed review of published studies in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little data on which to estimate the burden, and considerable limitations in extracting the data from the published studies to provide these estimates. However, we estimate that at least 1,300-7,800 children will have neurologic sequelae following cerebral malaria in stable endemic areas per year. The figure is likely to be considerably higher, since these estimates do not include neurocognitive impairment following non-cerebral malaria in children or adults in stable endemic areas, or populations in low stable or epidemic areas.
Participant evaluations included demographic information, medical history, neurologic examination including the United Parkinsons Disease Rating Scale to examine for extrapyramidal signs, medication/adherence history, DSM-IV-based substance abuse/dependence inventory, immunologic and virologic laboratory tests, and neuropsychiatric testing; as previously reported.27 The 80-minute neuropsychiatric test battery, adapted from the NorthEast AIDS Dementia Cohort, assessed multiple cognitive domains affected by HIV-1 and included the following: choice and sequential reaction time from the California Computerized Assessment Package, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), Rey Osterreith Complex Figure (RCF) Copy and Recall, Trail Making tests A and B, WAIS-R Digit Symbol, Grooved Pegboard (dominant and nondominant hands), Verbal fluency test, Animal Naming, Boston Naming Test, the WAIS-R Digit Span (forward and backward), and Timed Gait. Depression symptomatology was assessed using the Beck ...
Choice of studies depends on individual situation to rule out conditions with symptoms mimicking HIV dementia, especially depression.. Weschsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R): Used to screen for the presence of HIV-induced brain damage; a low score may indicate memory loss or sensorimotor deficit (may be influenced by depression, anxiety, and hostile states).. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI): Identifies degree of depression, presence of personality disorders.. Picture Drawing: Differentiates depression from dementia (depressed person can draw, demented person cannot).. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF): Elevated levels may account for white matter pallor.. Mental Status Examinations (e.g., Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Scale [GOAT]; Neurobehavioral Rating Scale [NRS, Freeman]; Self-Rating Depression Scale; Cognitive Evaluation): Identify specific deficits.. CBC: May show anemia, affecting cerebral oxygenation/mentation.. Blood Chemistries: Rule out metabolic causes (e.g., ...
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between sleep duration and neurocognitive function in a representative sample of middle-aged to older Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. We tested the hypothesis that sleep duration has a nonlinear, inverted U-shaped association with neurocognitive function.

HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex: Overview, Pathophysiology, EpidemiologyHIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex: Overview, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

The term AIDS dementia complex was introduced by Navia and colleagues in 1986. ... HIV-1 encephalopathy and AIDS dementia complex. CT scan of the brain of a patient with AIDS dementia complex (ADC) shows ... HIV-1 encephalopathy and AIDS dementia complex. CT scan of the brain of a patient with AIDS dementia complex (ADC) shows ... encoded search term (HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex) and HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex What to ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1166894-overview

AIDS Dementia Complex: Related ResourcesAIDS Dementia Complex: Related Resources

The assessment of cognitive function in advanced HIV-1 infection and AIDS dementia complex using a new computerised cognitive ... Neurologic AIDS Research Consortium. (NARC) Supported by the NIH to design and implement studies of HIV-associated neurologic ... HIV-Associated Dementia and Minor Cognitive Motor Disorder Section: Clinical Manual for Management of the HIV-Infected Adult. ... AHP) Premier HIV/AIDS, LGBTQ, and mental health agency, part of the University of California San Francisco. ...
more infohttp://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page=kbr-04-01-03

Understanding AIDS Dementia ComplexUnderstanding AIDS Dementia Complex

... is a neurological disorder caused by HIV which has been classified as an AIDS-defining condition. ... AIDS dementia complex (a.k.a. HIV encephalopathy) ... AIDS Dementia Complex Impairment Varies but Still Common in ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC), also known as HIV encephalopathy, is a neurological disorder directly caused by HIV. It is a ... Causes of AIDS Dementia ADC usually occurs in advanced disease when the patients CD4 count is below 200 cells/μl and is ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/aids-dementia-complex-48966

Memantine for AIDS dementia complex: open-label report of ACTG 301.  - PubMed - NCBIMemantine for AIDS dementia complex: open-label report of ACTG 301. - PubMed - NCBI

Memantine for AIDS dementia complex: open-label report of ACTG 301.. Zhao Y1, Navia BA, Marra CM, Singer EJ, Chang L, Berger J ... Ellis RJ, Kolson DL, Simpson D, Miller EN, Lipton SA, Evans SR, Schifitto G; Adult Aids Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 301 Team. ... AIDS Dementia Complex - Genetic Alliance. *AIDS-HIV - Genetic Alliance. Miscellaneous. *MEMANTINE - Hazardous Substances Data ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400412

Declining incidence of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment. | The BMJDeclining incidence of AIDS dementia complex after introduction of zidovudine treatment. | The BMJ

Diagnosis of AIDS dementia complex and presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS--The AIDS dementia complex ... two with the AIDS dementia complex) taking zidovudine were positive. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of AIDS dementia complex in ... Dementia was diagnosed before definition of the AIDS dementia complex (1986) according to DSM-III criteria and there was good ... Thirty eight of 107 patients with AIDS (36%) not taking zidovudine developed the AIDS dementia complex compared with two of the ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/299/6703/819

AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) definition | Psychology Glossary | alleydog.comAIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) definition | Psychology Glossary | alleydog.com

Psychology definition for AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and ... AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC). AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a common complication of the central nervous system that can occur ... ADC is characterized by mental, motor, and behavioral symptoms (which is what the term complex signifies). The most ... noticeable symptom is dementia which is an acquired cognitive decline. In later stages of HIV severe suppression of the immune ...
more infohttps://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition.php?term=AIDS+Dementia+Complex+%28ADC%29+

What does aids dementia complex mean?What does aids dementia complex mean?

Meaning of aids dementia complex. What does aids dementia complex mean? Information and translations of aids dementia complex ... Definition of aids dementia complex in the Definitions.net dictionary. ... AIDS dementia complex. AIDS dementia complex is a common neurological disorder associated with HIV infection and AIDS. It is a ... Definitions for aids dementia complex. Here are all the possible meanings and translations of the word aids dementia complex.. ...
more infohttps://www.definitions.net/definition/aids%20dementia%20complex

Proton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity.  - PubMed - NCBIProton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity. - PubMed - NCBI

Proton MRS and neuropsychological correlates in AIDS dementia complex: evidence of subcortical specificity.. Paul RH1, ... authors performed magnetic resonance spectroscopic and neuropsychological evaluations on 61 patients with AIDS dementia complex ... AIDS Dementia Complex - Genetic Alliance. *AIDS-HIV - Genetic Alliance. Miscellaneous. *(L)-ASPARTIC ACID - Hazardous ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17827413

AIDS Dementia Complex Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - RightDiagnosis.comAIDS Dementia Complex Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments and Causes - RightDiagnosis.com

AIDS Dementia Complex information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, ... Contents for AIDS Dementia Complex: *AIDS Dementia Complex *What is AIDS Dementia Complex? *Prevalence and Incidence of AIDS ... Videos related to AIDS Dementia Complex *Types of AIDS Dementia Complex *Causes of AIDS Dementia Complex *Symptoms of AIDS ... AIDS Dementia Complex: Deaths. Read more about Deaths and AIDS Dementia Complex. Causes of AIDS Dementia Complex. Read more ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/a/aids_dementia_complex/intro.htm

A Study to Evaluate the Use of Stavudine (d4T) to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govA Study to Evaluate the Use of Stavudine (d4T) to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Dementia. AIDS Dementia Complex. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... A Study to Evaluate the Use of Stavudine (d4T) to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... A Pilot Open Label, Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Role of Stavudine (d4T) in the Treatment of AIDS Dementia Complex. ... can improve symptoms of AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC, problems involving the brain or spinal cord) in HIV-positive patients. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00002246?view=results

A Study to Evaluate the Use of Memantine In Combination With Anti-HIV Drugs to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) - Full Text...A Study to Evaluate the Use of Memantine In Combination With Anti-HIV Drugs to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC) - Full Text...

Dementia. AIDS Dementia Complex. Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Sexually ... Adult Aids Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) 301 Team. Memantine for AIDS dementia complex: open-label report of ACTG 301. HIV Clin ... A Study to Evaluate the Use of Memantine In Combination With Anti-HIV Drugs to Treat AIDS Dementia Complex (ADC). The safety ... Have been diagnosed with AIDS dementia complex (ADC).. *Have an estimated IQ of at least 70 (before the onset of ADC) or the ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00000867

ERIC - The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex., Science, 1988ERIC - The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex., Science, 1988

AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndromes development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW ... The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex. ... AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndromes development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW ...
more infohttps://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ366659

AIDS Dementia Complex | Parthenon PavilionAIDS Dementia Complex | Parthenon Pavilion

Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at TriStar Centennial Parthenon Pavilion DefinitionCausesRisk ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC) can occur in people with AIDS. ADC results in changes in multiple neurologic areas: *Cognition-the ... An overview of AIDS dementia complex. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001;16(4):225-229. ... AIDS dementia complex. University of California at San Francisco website. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page= ...
more infohttps://tristarparthenonpavilion.com/hl/?/630076/AIDS-encephalopathy

AIDS Dementia Complex | TriStar Southern HillsAIDS Dementia Complex | TriStar Southern Hills

Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at TriStar Southern Hills DefinitionCausesRisk ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC) can occur in people with AIDS. ADC results in changes in multiple neurologic areas: *Cognition-the ... An overview of AIDS dementia complex. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001;16(4):225-229. ... AIDS dementia complex. University of California at San Francisco website. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page= ...
more infohttps://tristarsouthernhills.com/hl/?/630076/AIDS-encephalopathy

AIDS dementia complex synonyms, AIDS dementia complex antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAIDS dementia complex synonyms, AIDS dementia complex antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for AIDS dementia complex. 57 synonyms for complex: compound, compounded, multiple, composite, manifold, heterogeneous ... Synonyms for AIDS dementia complex in Free Thesaurus. ... AIDS dementia complex synonyms, AIDS dementia complex antonyms ... Project Informs AIDS dementia complex (ADC) (HIV/AIDS treatment information).. CT assessment of CNS complications of AIDS. ( ... complex. (redirected from AIDS dementia complex). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/AIDS+dementia+complex

AIDS Dementia Complex | Atlanta Outpatient Surgery CenterAIDS Dementia Complex | Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center

Learn more about AIDS Dementia Complex at Atlanta Outpatient Surgery Center DefinitionCausesRisk ... AIDS dementia complex (ADC) can occur in people with AIDS. ADC results in changes in multiple neurologic areas: *Cognition-the ... An overview of AIDS dementia complex. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2001;16(4):225-229. ... AIDS dementia complex. University of California at San Francisco website. Available at: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/InSite?page= ...
more infohttps://atlantaoutpatientsurgerycenter.com/hl/?/630076/AIDS-dementia-complex

AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals (Concept) - City Libraries, City of Gold CoastAIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals (Concept) - City Libraries, City of Gold Coast

The Resource AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals Label AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals. Focus * AIDS dementia complex ... Context of AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals Subject of. * Journal of LGBT health research ... Data Citation of the Concept AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML data fragment to cite ... AIDS dementia complex -- Periodicals,/a,,/span, - ,span property=offers typeOf=Offer,,span property=offeredBy typeof= ...
more infohttp://link.goldcoast.qld.gov.au/resource/8XG5yMYPBWM/

DMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Dementia: AIDS Dementia ComplexDMOZ - Health: Conditions and Diseases: Neurological Disorders: Dementia: AIDS Dementia Complex

The AIDS dementia complex is a brain disorder that occurs in people with AIDS (HIV infection) that causes the loss of cognitive ... The AIDS dementia complex is a brain disorder that occurs in people with AIDS (HIV infection) that causes the loss of cognitive ... "Health ... AIDS Dementia Complex" search on: AOL - Ask - Bing - DuckDuckGo - Gigablast - Google - ixquick - Yahoo - Yandex - ...
more infohttp://dmoztools.net/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/Neurological_Disorders/Dementia/AIDS_Dementia_Complex/

AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX: HIV AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM-PROBLEMS WITH SELF-CAREA | Health News. Lots of resources and...AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX: HIV AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM-PROBLEMS WITH SELF-CAREA | Health News. Lots of resources and...

AIDS DEMENTIA COMPLEX: HIV AND THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM-PROBLEMS WITH SELF-CAREA. Friday, July 29th, 2011 , HIV ... because people with AIDS need to eat good meals. People with dementia lose the internal drive to eat and drink. Lisa complained ... Otherwise, he wore the same clothes." Sometimes, in the later stages of dementia, apathy gets the better of the person in the ...
more infohttp://onemedic.net/2011/07/aids-dementia-complex-hiv-and-the-central-nervous-system-problems-with-self-carea/

SDAT | definition of SDAT by Medical dictionarySDAT | definition of SDAT by Medical dictionary

AIDS-dementia complex. See: AIDS-dementia complex. alcoholic dementia. A form of toxic dementia in which there is loss of ... Heller dementia. Regressive autism.. HIV-associated dementia See: AIDS-dementia complex. dementia with Lewy bodies. A common ... syphilitic dementia. Dementia caused by tertiary syphilis. toxic dementia. Dementia caused by exposure to neurotoxins such as ... postfebrile dementia. Dementia following a severe febrile illness. presenile dementia. Dementia beginning in middle age, ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/SDAT

Young onset dementia | Postgraduate Medical JournalYoung onset dementia | Postgraduate Medical Journal

AIDS dementia complex. AIDS dementia complex should not be overlooked as a cause of YOD. It generally presents as a subcortical ... VASCULAR DEMENTIA. Vascular dementia is a common cause of YOD.2 Patients developing young onset vascular dementia may lack ... YOD, young onset dementia. Dementia in younger people (young onset dementia, YOD) is increasingly recognised as an important ... Lewy body dementia. Lewy body dementia appears to be relatively uncommon in younger populations; the clinical presentation is ...
more infohttp://pmj.bmj.com/content/80/941/125

Infectious Disease Flashcards by John Doe | BrainscapeInfectious Disease Flashcards by John Doe | Brainscape

AIDS dementia complex MRI findings Cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement 23 Treatment of norcardia ... The bacilli, macrophages and PMNs replicate in alveolar air space to form a tubercle (Ghon complex). Cell-mediated destruction ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/infectious-disease-5143771/packs/7357153

A Study Comparing Long-acting Methylphenidate (ConcertaTM) vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Memory Loss Due to HIV - Full Text...A Study Comparing Long-acting Methylphenidate (ConcertaTM) vs. Placebo in the Treatment of Memory Loss Due to HIV - Full Text...

AIDS Dementia Complex. Dementia. Neurocognitive Disorders. Brain Diseases. Central Nervous System Diseases. Nervous System ... Significant dementia but able to give consent (International HIV Dementia Scale score ,10). ... History of bipolar disorder, Alzheimers dementia, ALS, Parkinsons disease or other medical dementias other than HIV-related. ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01599975?term=Methylphenidate&rank=32

Overview of Primary Dementias as Clinicopathological EntitiesOverview of Primary Dementias as Clinicopathological Entities

This paper presents a clinicopathological approach to characterizing primary dementias by their different dementia-causing ... HIV Encephalopathy and AIDS Dementia Complex Drugs Related to null. * telaprevir Drug Interaction Checker ... semantic dementia; TBI, traumatic brain injury; VD, vascular dementia; WMH, white matter hyperintensity.. Note: Both PSP and ... frontotemporal dementias; LBD, Lewy body dementia; lvPPA, logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia; nfPPA, nonfluent ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/911244_0

The Toll-Like Receptor TLR4 Is Necessary for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oligodendrocyte Injury in the CNS | Journal of...The Toll-Like Receptor TLR4 Is Necessary for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oligodendrocyte Injury in the CNS | Journal of...

Implications for AIDS dementia complex. J Nerv Ment Dis 72:71-88. ... were visualized using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC ... Inhibitory Signaling to Ion Channels in Hippocampal Neurons Is Differentially Regulated by Alternative Macromolecular Complexes ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/22/7/2478.long
  • While the degenerative dementias characteristically affect older patients, they are also an important cause of YOD: indeed, Alzheimer's disease is the commonest single cause of YOD with an estimated 3000 cases in the United Kingdom, followed by vascular dementia and the frontotemporal lobar degenerations (table 1). (bmj.com)
  • AHP) Premier HIV/AIDS, LGBTQ, and mental health agency, part of the University of California San Francisco. (ucsf.edu)
  • The term AIDS dementia complex was introduced by Navia and colleagues in 1986. (medscape.com)
  • [ 5 ] In 1986, the term AIDS dementia complex (ADC) was introduced to describe a unique constellation of neurobehavioral findings. (medscape.com)
  • Dementia was diagnosed before definition of the AIDS dementia complex (1986) according to DSM-III criteria and there was good agreement between diagnosis before and after 1986. (bmj.com)
  • In our large [collection of] postmortem material of dementia and AD, we did not find any indications for fungal infections, although we did not use specific methods to detect fungal material in the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized by deficiency in cell-mediated immunity and the resulting increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and certain forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dementia is defined as having a persistent disruption of mental processes marked by personality changes, memory disorders, and impaired reasoning. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The effect of d4T-containing regimens is assessed for the following parameters: neurological status, survival, AIDS-defining conditions, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and plasma viral load, CSF and blood immunological markers, blood CD4 cell counts, and viral resistance. (clinicaltrials.gov)