Coagulants: Agents that cause clotting.Factor VII: Heat- and storage-stable plasma protein that is activated by tissue thromboplastin to form factor VIIa in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. The activated form then catalyzes the activation of factor X to factor Xa.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Factor IX: Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).Moringa oleifera: A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.Factor XI Deficiency: A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.Thromboplastin: Constituent composed of protein and phospholipid that is widely distributed in many tissues. It serves as a cofactor with factor VIIa to activate factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Factor VII Deficiency: An autosomal recessive characteristic or a coagulation disorder acquired in association with VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY. FACTOR VII is a Vitamin K dependent glycoprotein essential to the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Factor XIa: Activated form of factor XI. In the intrinsic pathway, Factor XI is activated to XIa by factor XIIa in the presence of cofactor HMWK; (HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN). Factor XIa then activates factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of calcium.Tosylarginine Methyl Ester: Arginine derivative which is a substrate for many proteolytic enzymes. As a substrate for the esterase from the first component of complement, it inhibits the action of C(l) on C(4).Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Bothrops: A genus of poisonous snakes of the VIPERIDAE family. About 50 species are known and all are found in tropical America and southern South America. Bothrops atrox is the fer-de-lance and B. jararaca is the jararaca. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336)Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Factor VIIa: Activated form of factor VII. Factor VIIa activates factor X in the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.Dysprosium: Dysprosium. An element of the rare earth family that has the atomic symbol Dy, atomic number 66, and atomic weight 162.50. Dysprosium is a silvery metal used primarily in the form of various salts.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Factor XIIa: Activated form of factor XII. In the initial event in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation, kallikrein (with cofactor HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT KININOGEN) cleaves factor XII to XIIa. Factor XIIa is then further cleaved by kallikrein, plasmin, and trypsin to yield smaller factor XII fragments (Hageman-Factor fragments). These fragments increase the activity of prekallikrein to kallikrein but decrease the procoagulant activity of factor XII.Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Neodymium: Neodymium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Nd, atomic number 60, and atomic weight 144.24, and is used in industrial applications.von Willebrand Diseases: Group of hemorrhagic disorders in which the VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR is either quantitatively or qualitatively abnormal. They are usually inherited as an autosomal dominant trait though rare kindreds are autosomal recessive. Symptoms vary depending on severity and disease type but may include prolonged bleeding time, deficiency of factor VIII, and impaired platelet adhesion.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Benzoylarginine Nitroanilide: A chromogenic substrate that permits direct measurement of peptide hydrolase activity, e.g., papain and trypsin, by colorimetry. The substrate liberates p-nitroaniline as a chromogenic product.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Argon Plasma Coagulation: A method of tissue ablation and bleeding control that uses ARGON plasma (ionized argon gas) to deliver a current of thermocoagulating energy to the area of tissue to be coagulated.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Factor IXa: Activated form of factor IX. This activation can take place via the intrinsic pathway by the action of factor XIa and calcium, or via the extrinsic pathway by the action of factor VIIa, thromboplastin, and calcium. Factor IXa serves to activate factor X to Xa by cleaving the arginyl-leucine peptide bond in factor X.Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Factor V: Heat- and storage-labile plasma glycoprotein which accelerates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in blood coagulation. Factor V accomplishes this by forming a complex with factor Xa, phospholipid, and calcium (prothrombinase complex). Deficiency of factor V leads to Owren's disease.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Leonurus: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains leonurine.Factor Xa: Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Hemostasis: The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Factor VIIIa: Activated form of factor VIII. The B-domain of factor VIII is proteolytically cleaved by thrombin to form factor VIIIa. Factor VIIIa exists as a non-covalent dimer in a metal-linked (probably calcium) complex and functions as a cofactor in the enzymatic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Factor VIIIa is similar in structure and generation to factor Va.Fibrinolysis: The natural enzymatic dissolution of FIBRIN.Thrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA mixed with a THROMBIN solution. It is a measure of the conversion of FIBRINOGEN to FIBRIN, which is prolonged by AFIBRINOGENEMIA, abnormal fibrinogen, or the presence of inhibitory substances, e.g., fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products, or HEPARIN. BATROXOBIN, a thrombin-like enzyme unaffected by the presence of heparin, may be used in place of thrombin.Antithrombin III: A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Deamino Arginine Vasopressin: A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation: A disorder characterized by procoagulant substances entering the general circulation causing a systemic thrombotic process. The activation of the clotting mechanism may arise from any of a number of disorders. A majority of the patients manifest skin lesions, sometimes leading to PURPURA FULMINANS.Venoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Isoflurophate: A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Hemophilia B: A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.EsterasesElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Receptors, Thrombin: A family of proteinase-activated receptors that are specific for THROMBIN. They are found primarily on PLATELETS and on ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Activation of thrombin receptors occurs through the proteolytic action of THROMBIN, which cleaves the N-terminal peptide from the receptor to reveal a new N-terminal peptide that is a cryptic ligand for the receptor. The receptors signal through HETEROTRIMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. Small synthetic peptides that contain the unmasked N-terminal peptide sequence can also activate the receptor in the absence of proteolytic activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, VASCULAR), lymph vessels (ENDOTHELIUM, LYMPHATIC), and the serous cavities of the body.Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.TriglyceridesStructure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Organic polymers were developed in the 1960s as aids to coagulants and, in some cases, as replacements for the inorganic metal ... The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride cause ... In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.[8]:74-5 ... Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide ...
Coagulant aids (polymers that bridge the colloids together) are also often used to increase the efficiency of the process. Alum ... "Advances in the quest for substitute for synthetic organic polyelectrolytes as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment ... cationic coagulants neutralize the anionic colloids). At this value (0), the coagulant dose can be said to be optimum. Play ... A coagulant (typically a metallic salt) with the opposite charge is added to the water to overcome the repulsive charge and " ...
Coagulant aids (polymers that bridge the colloids together) are also often used to increase the efficiency of the process.[7] ... cationic coagulants neutralize the anionic colloids). At this value (0), the coagulant dose can be said to be optimum.[1] ... "Advances in the quest for substitute for synthetic organic polyelectrolytes as coagulant aid in water and wastewater treatment ... The dose of the coagulant to be used can be determined via the Jar Test.[1][6] The jar test involves exposing same volume ...
It is added before the coagulant. Calcium chloride is used to prevent cork spot and bitter pit on apples by spraying on the ... Anhydrous calcium chloride has been approved by the FDA as a packaging aid to ensure dryness (CPG 7117.02). It is injected to ... Calcium chloride is included as an additive in plastics and in fire extinguishers, in wastewater treatment as a drainage aid, ... aiding traction in cold climates. It is also used in domestic and industrial chemical air dehumidifiers. The second largest ...
In traditional Russian herbal medicine, it is used as an anodyne, antiphlogistic, aperient, coagulant and diuretic. It is ... considered helpful in treating urinary catarrh, kidney inflammation, and rheumatism, as well as aiding those who accumulate ...
In water treatment it is used as an adjunct to water softening systems, as a coagulant aid to improve flocculation, and for ...
Coagulants act as fixative for various chemicals such as dyes and sizing agents, charge neutralization for pitch and cationic ... Widely used by the paper Industry, polyacrylamides sold by SNF under the trademark FLORET are used as processing aids and ... SNF manufactures and supplies organic coagulants such as PolyDADMAC and Polyamines as well as polyacrylamide flocculants either ...
... corrosion of pipes Filter bed cleaning with a fixed-grid surface wash system Developing activated silica as a coagulant aid ...
... when present with small amounts relatively of manganese Coagulation for flocculation or slow-sand filtration Coagulant aids, ...
The involvement of other associated proteins aiding scrambling activity cannot be ruled out. Sahu SK, Gummadi SN, Manoj N, ... Phosphatidylserine is translocated to the exoplasmic leaflet by the activation of scramblases, leading to pro-coagulant ...
These findings could propel development of an entirely new class of "anti-AIDS" therapies that act by targeting the host rather ... If the inflammatory stimulus is a lacerating wound, exuded platelets, coagulants, plasmin and kinins can clot the wounded area ... These are the two signature events that propel HIV disease progression to AIDS. Pyroptosis appears to create a pathogenic ... In sharp contrast, experimental SIVsm infection of rhesus macaque produces immune activation and AIDS-like disease with many ...
In one recent study, it was found that Opuntia aided in the prevention or slow down of diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome, ... Years before modern Western medicine, Native Americans and Mexicans primarily used Opuntia as a coagulant for open wounds, ...
Imported chemical coagulants and imported lime are needed to keep the plants in operation. On a positive note, after a four- ... The French agreed to finance a second station on the Ndjili, but suspended aid to Mobutu in October 1991. A third Ndjili ...
... is fraudulently marketed as a magic cure for a range of diseases from brain cancer to AIDS. Chlorine dioxide ... or water that is to be treated with iron-based coagulants (iron can reduce chlorite to chloride).[citation needed] Chlorine ...
Once their electrostatic charge is neutralized by the use of a coagulant chemical, the finer particles start to collide and ... For example, a flocculant may be used in swimming pool or drinking water filtration to aid removal of microscopic particles ...
It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic ... "CPR and First Aid: Antiarrhythmic Drugs During and Immediately After Cardiac Arrest (section)". American Heart Association. ...
As of May 1988, more than 659 patients with hemophilia had AIDS... The first human blood clotting factor to be produced in ... which was shown to have substantial coagulant properties, though of a lesser degree than Factor IX produced from human blood: ... The specific activity of the recombinant Factor IX was measured on the basis of direct measurement of the coagulant activity ...
"CPR and First Aid: Antiarrhythmic Drugs During and Immediately After Cardiac Arrest (section)". American Heart Association. ... It may also be used as a coagulant for making tofu.[15] ...
This allows the xenograft to up-regulate and express protective genes, which aid in resistance to injury, such as heme ... Transgenic pigs that can control for variable coagulant activity based on the specific organ transplanted would make ... This response is further perpetuated as normally binding between regulatory proteins and their ligands aid in the control of ... make the patient vulnerable to other infections and actually aid the disease. This is the reason the organs would have to be ...
This is seen particularly in factories that use computer-aided manufacturing. The end product is very predictable. So in ... "Coagulation may be achieved via bacterial acidification, plant-source coagulants, or, most frequently used, rennet." Cheeses ...
The traditional view is that these coagulants result in bitterness and low yield in cheese especially when aged for a long time ... Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF) on the Submission of a Dossier on Food Enzymes: 3.2. Source Materials and Manufacturing ... Over the years microbial coagulants have improved a lot largely due to the characterization and purification of secondary ...
Retention aids are added to the pulp to accelerate paper formation. These aids are coagulating aids, which accelerate the ... Particle aggregation can be induced by adding salts or an other chemical referred to as coagulant or flocculant. Some people ... When the repulsive forces weaken or become attractive through the addition of a coagulant, particles start to aggregate. ... Since particles are frequently negatively charged, multivalent metal cations thus represent highly effective coagulants. ...
The enzyme lysozyme is found in many tissues and is known to attack the cell walls of many gram-positive bacteria, aiding in ... Berckmans RJ, Sturk A, van Tienen LM, Schaap MC, Nieuwland R (2011). "Cell-derived vesicles exposing coagulant tissue factor in ... Oral mucosa heals faster than skin, suggesting that saliva may have properties that aid wound healing. Saliva contains cell- ...
He arrived back in France with five workers (all from Gaoyang, his home district), and a supply of soybeans and coagulant. In ... Li was struck by their arguments that cooperation and mutual aid were more powerful than the Social Darwinist forces of ... especially hisThe Conquest of Bread and Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution. ...
This technology will enable future multi-biomarker protein measurements that can aid diagnostic distinction of disease versus ... used in vitro selection schemes to evolve single stranded DNA ligands for organic dyes and human coagulant, thrombin (see Anti- ...
... the port must be accessed monthly and flushed with an anti-coagulant, or the patient risks it getting plugged up. If it is ... First aid. *Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). *Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. *Basic life support (BLS) ...
It helps lower blood pressure and is a sleep aid. Its detoxifying effect may come from Moringas ability to purify water. ... Moringa acts as a coagulant attaching itself to harmful material and bacteria. It is believed that this process is taking place ...
Article Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra. The occurrence of Synedra ... Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal .... Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the ... No comments were found for Effectiveness of coagulants and coagulant aids for the removal of filter-clogging Synedra. Be the ... At the optimum alum dose, Synedra removal in jar tests reached 88%. The addition of flocculant aids (Na- and Mg-alginate; ...
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Evaluation of coagulant aids at high pH Description: A series of tests was run on influent to the waste treatment facility, ... However, a suitable coagulant aid for use at high pH`s was needed to obtain a rapid settling rate in the flocculation/ ... using various polyelectrolytes and organic polymeric coagulant aids. The influent wastewater originates in chemical process ... To aid in assessing the potential impacts of shipments of mixed radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes, a radiological ...
Anionic Polyacrylamide Coagulant Aid water treatment ...Chemical name: Anionic Polyacrylamide Trade name: Coagulant Aid ...
Coagulants and coagulant aids. Listen AS and PAC were selected as coagulants in this research. A certain amount of Al2(SO4)3• ... raising dosage of coagulants and applying late-model coagulant or coagulant aid (Yan et al. 2008; Zhu et al. 2016; Sillanpää et ... SA was applied as coagulant aid in this section, and coagulant dosage and solution pH were fixed at 20 mg/L and 7.0 according ... Since inappropriate dosage of coagulant aid would deteriorate coagulant performance, SA dosages of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mg/L ...
The addition of coagulant aids such as activated silica can enhance coagulation by promoting the growth of large, rapid- ... The filter element may be pre-coated with a thin layer of diatomaceous earth or other filter aid to facilitate the filtration ...
Evaluation of industrial dyeing wastewater treatment with coagulants and polyelectrolyte as a coagulant aid. Wastewater is the ... bentonite and mussel shell were used as flocculant aids. The effects of dosage of flocculant aids on the pH, color and ... Preparation of composite coagulant of PFM-PDMDAAC and its coagulation performance in treatment of landfill leachate A novel ... Longterm experience in the use of polymeric coagulants at Umgeni Water Umgeni Water, the bulk treatment authority for the ...
Anti-coagulants synonyms, Anti-coagulants pronunciation, Anti-coagulants translation, English dictionary definition of Anti- ... coagulants. n. A substance that slows or prevents the clotting of blood. adj. Acting as an anticoagulant. an′ti·co·ag′u·la′tive ... N.Wales at forefront of blood-clot battle; St Asaph firms PS2m aid for revolutionary test kit ... Anti-coagulants - definition of Anti-coagulants by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Anti-coagulants ...
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... providing first aid kit trade leads among China factory, manufacturers, suppliers, and global buyers from free business guide ... China first aid kit suppliers directory and China first aid kit products catalog, ... View larger image coagulant aid poly aluminium chloride(pac)30% with lowest price FOB Reference Price:Get Latest Price 20 - 49 ... first aid kit. All first aid kit wholesalers & first aid kit manufacturers come from members. We doesnt provide first aid kit ...
Coagulants and Flocculants, Biocides & Disinfectants, Chelating Agents, Anti-foaming Agents, pH Adjusters and Stabilizers, and ... COAGULANT AIDS*Table PRIMARY COAGULANTS & COAGULANT AIDS. *Table COAGULANTS & FLOCCULANTS MARKET SIZE, BY REGION, 2012-2019 (KT ... Water Treatment Chemicals Market By Type (Corrosion Inhibitor, Scale Inhibitor, Coagulants and Flocculants, Biocides & ... Water Treatment Chemicals Market By Type (Corrosion Inhibitor, Scale Inhibitor, Coagulants and Flocculants, Biocides & ...
Salts/Related Coagulant Aids. View members for this committee. Committee Members please login to access secure content ...
Efficiency Evaluation of Powdered Activated Carbon as Coagulant aid in Ahvaz Water Treatment Plant Abstract. In recent decades ... while 44 percent TOC removal has been achieved at pH 6.5 for Poly Aluminum Chloride coagulant. In use of powdered activated ... the affection of two coagulant such as Ferric chloride and Poly aluminum chloride (PACl) with PAC in removing Total Organic ... Carbon (TOC) considering different elements such as concentration and the kind of coagulants, concentration of PAC, pH changes ...
5.1.3.2 Coagulants. 5.1.4 Lubricants. 5.1.5 pH adjuster. 5.1.6 Grinding Aids. 5.1.7 Others. 5.2 By Application. 5.2.1 Blasting ... Mining Chemicals Market by Product Type (Grinding Aids, Flocculants), Mineral Type (Base Metals, Non-Metallic Minerals), ...
Bottles coagulant makeup blood (2). * Broken Plexiglas® for simulating glass imbedded wound (2 pkgs.) ...
Phase I covered flocculation studies using several different coagulants and coagulant aids. Phase II involved batch and column ... Coagulants ; Adsorption ; Aluminum sulfate ; Iron chlorides ; Activated carbon ; Ion exchanging ; ...
However, the determination of coagulant dosage is still a challenging task for operators,... ... Rousseeuw PJ (1987) Silhouettes: a graphical aid to the interpretation and validation of cluster analysis. J Comput Appl Math ... such as raw water quality and coagulant dosage. This model can be used to determine coagulant dosage by trial and error and can ... where t r is hydraulic retention time (hour) between the current point of coagulant dosage and target point; k is hours ...
Organic polymers were developed in the 1960s as aids to coagulants and, in some cases, as replacements for the inorganic metal ... The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride cause ... In fact, coagulation and flocculation processes are ongoing once the metal salt coagulants are added.[8]:74-5 ... Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide ...
Coagulant; A compound responsible for coagulation; a floc-form- ing agent. Coagulant aid; Any chemical or substance used to ... A precoat of filter aid 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 in) in thickness is applied to the filter by introducing a slurry of filter aid into ... It is some- times used in water to aid coagulation and to remove tastes and odors. Clear well: A reservoir for storage of ... We would also like to acknowledge the aid of personnel of many state environmental agencies for their cooperation in the study ...
... anti-coagulant effects, anti-cancer (Wu et al., 2003) and anti-AIDS activities. The biosynthetic pathway of coumarin is a part ...
Sesquiterpene lactones are natural coagulants. Camphor helps to relax muscles, has antibacterial properties and healing ... Stimulates appetite and aids digestion. Achillea Millefolium improves digestion thanks to the azulene that relaxes internal ... Drink between meals to aid digestion.. Some of the links I post on this site are affiliate links. If you go through them to ...
The addition of coagulants, carbon, alum, and iron salts to filtration systems may aid in chemical removal from water. ... Depending on the households water needs, pretreatment before filtration may include the addition of coagulants and powdered ...
Including a first aid reference book is a good idea too. This is the most basic list. Additional items to consider are ... antibiotics, coagulants, i.v. fluids, and flea treatments.. *Crate or pet carrier. Have a sturdy, safe crate or carrier for ... First aid kit. Cotton bandage rolls and vet wrap, bandage tape and scissors, antibiotic ointment, latex gloves, Metacam, ... If you are rescuing all intakes must be thoroughly documented with a photo of animal to aid in identification. ...
4- antigen-binding fragment antivenom (FabAV) aids regulate local tissue effects and hemotoxicity, insistent antivenom ... Snake Venom Enzymes Proteins Substances Neurotoxic Effect Coagulants Biology Essay. Print Reference this *APA ... Snake venom involves enzymes, proteins and substances with a cytotoxic, neurotoxic effect and coagulants:. Phosphodiesterases ... part of the function of hemotoxic venom for some animals is to aid digestion. The venom breaks down protein in the region of ...
  • For example, the colloidal particles are negatively charged and alum is added as a coagulant to create positively charged ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the water enters the plant, alum coagulant is added to aid removal of colour and organics. (edie.net)
  • Preliminary results from the jar test experiments indicated that use of alum with MOCSC as coagulant aid is promising as a first stage in the treatment train for waters with a humic materials and high content of iron, typical of swamp water sources. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study investigated the coag-flocculation performance of oxidized starch coagulant (OSC) and its blends with alum and FeCl 3 in removing turbidity from coal washery effluent at room temperature. (scirp.org)
  • Coagulant aids (polymers that bridge the colloids together) are also often used to increase the efficiency of the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results suggest that intermediate polymers formed during hydrolysis of the aluminum coagulants sorbed strongly to viruses, either rendering them inactive or preventing infectivity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Depending on the household's water needs, pretreatment before filtration may include the addition of coagulants and powdered activated carbon, adjustments in pH or chlorine concentration levels, and other pretreatment processes in order to protect the filter's membrane surface. (cdc.gov)
  • Accepta 4211 is ideal for use in mechanical dewatering, gravity settling, as a coagulant aid, water clarification, filtration, phosphate removal, potable water treatment and as an aid in Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF). (accepta.com)
  • A caveat regarding DE filtration: Coagulants and filter aids may be required for virus protection, which may then require an operator with advanced experience. (watertechonline.com)
  • Common Yarrow, or Achillea Millefolium , is a perennial plant native to Europe that has been used for centuries as a natural remedy to stop bleeding wounds, treat gastrointestinal problems, fight fevers, lessen menstrual bleeding and aid digestion. (juicing-for-health.com)
  • A prepackaged coagulant composition and method of preparing same has been devised for use in direct or topical application to wounds so as to cause superficial clotting in which thrombin is combined with special preservatives and a saline solution. (google.es)
  • 1. A coagulant adaptable for use as a dressing for wounds comprising a solution of 50-2000 units of thrombin per ml of an aqueous solution containing sodium chloride in about isotonic quantities and from 10-50% by weight of a straight chain 3 to 6 carbon fully hydroxylated polyol. (google.es)
  • Treated bandages or patches have been devised in the past as aids in stopping the flow of blood from wounds, cuts, scratches and the like. (google.es)
  • Wonder Dust is a wound-dressing powder and blood coagulant for cuts, abrasions, wounds, and capillary bleeding. (jefferspet.com)
  • While minor wounds can be treated at home, a canine first aid class will go a long way in helping you be prepared in the event of a minor or life-threatening emergency. (embracepetinsurance.com)
  • CELOX is made with Chitosan, an all natural approved food ingredient that is also widely-used in medical bandages, diet aids and cosmetics and has had no known adverse reactions. (campingsurvival.com)
  • Solutions of calcium chloride can prevent freezing at temperature as low as −52 °C (−62 °F), making it ideal for filling agricultural implement tires as a liquid ballast, aiding traction in cold climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anhydrous calcium chloride has been approved by the FDA as a packaging aid to ensure dryness (CPG 7117.02). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultraviolet (UV) absorption characteristics of poly-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF), a polymerized coagulant containing three kinds of metallic elements prepared from a galvanized-aluminum slag, was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry during its polymerization process. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The virus concentrations were extremely reduced after the water samples were dosed with aluminum coagulants. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The total infectious virus concentration in the suspension of floc particles that eventually formed by dosing with coagulant was measured after the floc particles were dissolved by raising the pH with an alkaline beef extract solution. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The invention provides a method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength, increasing sheet wet strength and enhancing filler retention in a papermaking process The method improves the efficiency of drainage aids or wet web strength aids or wet strength aid by coating at least. (google.ch)
  • The invention provides a method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength, increasing sheet wet strength and enhancing filler retention in a papermaking process The method improves the efficiency of drainage aids or wet web strength aids or wet strength aid by coating at least some of the filler particles with a material that prevents the filler materials form adhering to a those additives. (google.ch)
  • Some of the benefits then and now for this treatment include reduced broke spots, minimizing broke deposits, lower retention aid costs, improved sizing efficiencies, better save all operation, improved biological control, fewer process charge swings, lower entrained air levels, and better dry strength additive efficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As observed in Diagrams 4 and 5, performance of both coagulants fully corresponded to primary turbidity values so that increase in primary turbidity led to higher turbidity removal efficiency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The same highly effective Celox granules used for emergency first aid are bonded within Celox's Nose Bleed Dressing to provide an effective way to control any type of nose bleed even for people using anti-coagulant blood-thinning medications like Coumadin, Warfarin or Heparin. (campingsurvival.com)
  • In addition, CELOX works independently of the body's normal clotting processes and Celox's clotting ability has been proven to work in the presence of common anti-coagulants such as Coumadin, Warfarin and Heparin. (campingsurvival.com)
  • DoseMe is designed for use with drugs that require therapeutic drug monitoring, such as aminoglycosides, warfarin and other anti-coagulants, immunosuppressants, and more. (apple.com)
  • We doesn't provide coagulant aids in water treatment products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (adobecards.com)
  • Coagulant Aid Describe: QUALITY INDEX: Appearance: Off white, granular powder Grain Size: <1.25mm Degree of charge,(Mol %): 20-25 PH of 0.5% solution @25℃: 6-8 APPLICATION: Used in drinking and waste- water treatment , textiles. (adobecards.com)
  • We doesn't provide coagulants in water treatment products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (peerflix.com)
  • The jar test involves exposing same volume samples of the water to be treated to different doses of the coagulant and then simultaneously mixing the samples at a constant rapid mixing time. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this research, a hybrid of k -means clustering and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system ( k -means-ANFIS) is proposed for the settled water turbidity prediction and the optimal coagulant dosage determination using full-scale historical data. (springer.com)
  • Conventionally, the determination of coagulant dosage in drinking WTP is carried out by experienced operators. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, it is necessary to develop decision support models that are able to predict the treated water quality and the required coagulant dosage. (springer.com)
  • In general, a process model is used to predict the treated water quality by process inputs, such as raw water quality and coagulant dosage. (springer.com)
  • This model can be used to determine coagulant dosage by trial and error and can be used to understand factors which affect the process for process analysis and for new operators' training (Baxter et al. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the process model can be used to assess in real time the adequacy of coagulant dosage based on the operator's experience. (springer.com)
  • On the contrary, an inverse process model is used to predict coagulant dosage using the treated water quality and the raw water quality. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, the inverse process model can be used to predict directly the optimal coagulant dosage based on the raw water quality and the desired treated water quality. (springer.com)
  • it aids in the treatment of many complications deriving from diabetes as it has a remarkable hypoglycaemic effect. (biofach.de)
  • Although the conventional methods still have been tried with some new materials such as, new adsorbents or coagulants, employing the new generation methods such as, electrocagulation-electrooxidation, sonooxidation or photo oxidation are gaining in popularity when the treatment of textile wastewaters is discussed. (intechopen.com)
  • Finally, the simple additive weighting method was used to rank the four coagulants based on the selected criteria. (iwaponline.com)
  • The drainage additive or wet web strength additive or wet strength aid holds the cellulose fibers together tightly and is not wasted on the filler particles. (google.ch)
  • Processing Aid ACR Update: 2015/12/13View: 28 Brand: Type: Introduction Introuduction: Processing aid ACR series products are the new generation of acrylate macromolecule copolymer. (frbiz.com)
  • It is important for parents who are planning to bank their baby's cord blood to ask the cord blood bank what type of anti-coagulant it uses in its cord blood collection bag. (cryo-cell.com)
  • Another type of anti-coagulant was discovered in dog livers by Jay McLean in 1916 and named heparphosphatid. (cryo-cell.com)
  • Jarvik wanted to know about the fit, the type of anti-coagulant being used, and Mandia's condition, he said. (mcall.com)
  • A coagulant (typically a metallic salt) with the opposite charge is added to the water to overcome the repulsive charge and "destabilize" the suspension. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two anti-coagulants were used in the study, K3 EDTA and lithium heparin (LiHep), and slides were made either immediately or after periods of 4-6 hours, with the test results being analyzed to determine whether there was any correlation between the anticoagulant used and the sample processing time. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Heparin can begin breaking down within 12 hours and start to lose its anti-coagulant properties, and as it is an animal product, it may be contaminated with bacteria and viruses. (cryo-cell.com)
  • The FDA, which had to administer a large recall on some heparin products in 2008 because of contamination, recommends citrate-based anti-coagulants such as CPD. (cryo-cell.com)