Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Glomerulonephritis, Membranous: A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Podocytes: Highly differentiated epithelial cells of the visceral layer of BOWMAN CAPSULE of the KIDNEY. They are composed of a cell body with major CELL SURFACE EXTENSIONS and secondary fingerlike extensions called pedicels. They enwrap the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS capillaries with their cell surface extensions forming a filtration structure. The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY.CreatinineDiabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Receptors, Phospholipase A2: Cell surface receptors that bind to and internalize SECRETED PHOSPHOLIPASES A2. Although primarily acting as scavenger receptors, these proteins may also play a role in intracellular signaling. Soluble forms of phospholipase A2 receptors occur through the action of proteases and may a play a role in the inhibition of extracellular phospholipase activity.Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental: A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.Glomerular Mesangium: The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Nephritis, Interstitial: Inflammation of the interstitial tissue of the kidney. This term is generally used for primary inflammation of KIDNEY TUBULES and/or surrounding interstitium. For primary inflammation of glomerular interstitium, see GLOMERULONEPHRITIS. Infiltration of the inflammatory cells into the interstitial compartment results in EDEMA, increased spaces between the tubules, and tubular renal dysfunction.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Aristolochic Acids: Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Nephrosis, Lipoid: A kidney disease with no or minimal histological glomerular changes on light microscopy and with no immune deposits. It is characterized by lipid accumulation in the epithelial cells of KIDNEY TUBULES and in the URINE. Patients usually show NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA with accompanying EDEMA.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine.Phenacetin: A phenylacetamide that was formerly used in ANALGESICS but nephropathy and METHEMOGLOBINEMIA led to its withdrawal from the market. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology,1991, p431)Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Ureteral Obstruction: Blockage in any part of the URETER causing obstruction of urine flow from the kidney to the URINARY BLADDER. The obstruction may be congenital, acquired, unilateral, bilateral, complete, partial, acute, or chronic. Depending on the degree and duration of the obstruction, clinical features vary greatly such as HYDRONEPHROSIS and obstructive nephropathy.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Collagen Type IV: A non-fibrillar collagen found in the structure of BASEMENT MEMBRANE. Collagen type IV molecules assemble to form a sheet-like network which is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of basement membranes. The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer.Renal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Nephritis: Inflammation of any part of the KIDNEY.Glycosylation End Products, Advanced: Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Uromodulin: A glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) - anchored membrane protein found on the thick ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. The cleaved form of the protein is found abundantly in URINE.Diabetic Retinopathy: Disease of the RETINA as a complication of DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the progressive microvascular complications, such as ANEURYSM, interretinal EDEMA, and intraocular PATHOLOGIC NEOVASCULARIZATION.Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Sodium Bicarbonate: A white, crystalline powder that is commonly used as a pH buffering agent, an electrolyte replenisher, systemic alkalizer and in topical cleansing solutions.First Aid: Emergency care or treatment given to a person who suddenly becomes ill or injured before full medical services become available.Acute Kidney Injury: Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Purpura, Schoenlein-Henoch: A systemic non-thrombocytopenic purpura caused by HYPERSENSITIVITY VASCULITIS and deposition of IGA-containing IMMUNE COMPLEXES within the blood vessels throughout the body, including those in the kidney (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS). Clinical symptoms include URTICARIA; ERYTHEMA; ARTHRITIS; GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE; and renal involvement. Most cases are seen in children after acute upper respiratory infections.Kidney Papillary Necrosis: A complication of kidney diseases characterized by cell death involving KIDNEY PAPILLA in the KIDNEY MEDULLA. Damages to this area may hinder the kidney to concentrate urine resulting in POLYURIA. Sloughed off necrotic tissue may block KIDNEY PELVIS or URETER. Necrosis of multiple renal papillae can lead to KIDNEY FAILURE.Glomerular Basement Membrane: The layer of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX that lies between the ENDOTHELIUM of the glomerular capillaries and the PODOCYTES of the inner or visceral layer of the BOWMAN CAPSULE. It is the product of these two cell types. It acts as a physical barrier and an ion-selective filter.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Glomerulonephritis, Membranoproliferative: Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.Tonsillectomy: Surgical removal of a tonsil or tonsils. (Dorland, 28th ed)Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Dipeptidases: EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Cyclosporine: A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.TetrazolesGraft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Pulse Therapy, Drug: Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Stachys: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that has a characteristic odor.Nail-Patella Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple abnormalities characterized by the absence or hypoplasia of the PATELLA and congenital nail dystrophy. It is a genetically determined autosomal dominant trait.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiphenyl CompoundsRats, Inbred OLETF: An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Hyalin: A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Mycophenolic Acid: An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Connective Tissue Growth Factor: A CCN protein family member that regulates a variety of extracellular functions including CELL ADHESION; CELL MIGRATION; and EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX synthesis. It is found in hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES where it may play a role in CHONDROGENESIS and endochondral ossification.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Complement Membrane Attack Complex: A product of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION cascade, regardless of the pathways, that forms transmembrane channels causing disruption of the target CELL MEMBRANE and cell lysis. It is formed by the sequential assembly of terminal complement components (COMPLEMENT C5B; COMPLEMENT C6; COMPLEMENT C7; COMPLEMENT C8; and COMPLEMENT C9) into the target membrane. The resultant C5b-8-poly-C9 is the "membrane attack complex" or MAC.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Nephrosclerosis: Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.BulgariaNephrosis: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY without inflammatory or neoplastic components. Nephrosis may be a primary disorder or secondary complication of other diseases. It is characterized by the NEPHROTIC SYNDROME indicating the presence of PROTEINURIA and HYPOALBUMINEMIA with accompanying EDEMA.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Nephritis, Hereditary: A group of inherited conditions characterized initially by HEMATURIA and slowly progressing to RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. The most common form is the Alport syndrome (hereditary nephritis with HEARING LOSS) which is caused by mutations in genes for TYPE IV COLLAGEN and defective GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Inbred F344Mucoproteins: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Aldehyde Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of an aldose to an alditol. It possesses broad specificity for many aldoses. EC 1.1.1.21.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Pyridoxamine: The 4-aminomethyl form of VITAMIN B 6. During transamination of amino acids, PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate.Renal Insufficiency, Chronic: Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Urethral Obstruction: Partial or complete blockage in any part of the URETHRA that can lead to difficulty or inability to empty the URINARY BLADDER. It is characterized by an enlarged, often damaged, bladder with frequent urges to void.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.Methylprednisolone: A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.Immune Complex Diseases: Group of diseases mediated by the deposition of large soluble complexes of antigen and antibody with resultant damage to tissue. Besides SERUM SICKNESS and the ARTHUS REACTION, evidence supports a pathogenic role for immune complexes in many other IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES including GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, systemic lupus erythematosus (LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC) and POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cyprus: An island republic in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Its capital is Nicosia. It was colonized by the Phoenicians and ancient Greeks and ruled successively by the Assyrian, Persian, Ptolemaic, Roman, and Byzantine Empires. It was under various countries from the 12th to the 20th century but became independent in 1960. The name comes from the Greek Kupros, probably representing the Sumerian kabar or gabar, copper, famous in historic times for its copper mines. The cypress tree is also named after the island. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p308 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p134)Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Chlorambucil: A nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as antineoplastic for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and others. Although it is less toxic than most other nitrogen mustards, it has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (Merck Index, 11th ed)Pancreas Transplantation: The transference of a pancreas from one human or animal to another.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Puromycin Aminonucleoside: PUROMYCIN derivative that lacks the methoxyphenylalanyl group on the amine of the sugar ring. It is an antibiotic with antineoplastic properties and can cause nephrosis.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (1/170)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

Up-regulation of Duffy antigen receptor expression in children with renal disease. (2/170)

BACKGROUND: The Duffy antigen chemokine receptor (DARC) is a promiscuous chemokine receptor that binds chemokines from the C-X-C and C-C families. DARC was initially described on red blood cells, but subsequent studies have demonstrated DARC protein expression on renal endothelial and epithelial cells, even in Duffy-negative individuals whose red cells lack DARC. Because approximately 68% of African Americans lack the Duffy/DARC on their red cells, we carried out experiments to identify the specific renal cells expressing DARC protein and mRNA in African American children and to define whether DARC expression was altered in renal inflammatory processes. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization studies were done in 28 renal sections from children with each of the following diagnoses: HIV nephropathy (HIVAN), HIV-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HIV-HUS), HIV infection without renal disease, HIV-negative children without renal disease, and Argentinean children with classic HUS. RESULTS: The predominant localization of DARC mRNA and protein was found in endothelial cells underlying postcapillary renal venules in all patients studied. However, DARC mRNA and protein were significantly up-regulated in peritubular and glomerular capillaries, collecting duct epithelial cells, and interstitial inflammatory cells in children with HIVAN, HIV-HUS, and classic HUS. CONCLUSION: These findings support the notion that the renal DARC is linked to the inflammatory cascade and that African American children may be at risk of accumulating chemokines in renal tissues.  (+info)

Hepatitis C virus-associated glomerular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection. (3/170)

Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been linked to the development of glomerular disease. HCV infection is highly prevalent among intravenous drug users, a population that is also at risk for HIV coinfection. This study reports the clinical-pathologic features and outcome of HCV-associated glomerular disease (HCV-GD) in 14 patients with HIV coinfection. All were intravenous drug users and all but one were African-Americans. Renal presentations included renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria with active urine sediment, hypertension, and nephrotic syndrome or nephrotic-range proteinuria without hypercholesterolemia. Hypocomplementemia and cryoglobulinemia were present in 46 and 33% of patients, respectively. The predominant renal biopsy findings were membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis type 1 or type 3 (Burkholder subtype) in 79% of patients and membranous glomerulopathy with atypical features in 21% (including overlap with collapsing glomerulopathy in one patient). The clinical course was characterized by rapid progression to renal failure requiring dialysis. The overall morbidity and mortality were high with median time of 5.8 mo to dialysis or death. Although most patients died in renal failure, cause of death was primarily attributable to long-term immunosuppression and advanced AIDS. Patients with AIDS had shorter survival than those without (median survival time of 6.1 mo versus 45.9 mo, log-rank test P = 0.02). Only two patients were alive with stable renal function at follow-up of 28.5 mo. In patients with HCV-GD, coinfection with HIV leads to an aggressive form of renal disease that can be easily confused with HIV-associated nephropathy. Although hypocomplementemia, cryoglobulinemia, and more prominent hypertension and microscopic hematuria may provide clues to the presence of HCV-GD, renal biopsy is essential to differentiate HCV-GD from HIV-associated nephropathy.  (+info)

Renal lesions in AIDS: a biopsy and autopsy study. (4/170)

We studied renal lesions at biopsy (20 cases) and at autopsy (21 cases) among patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Nephrotic syndrome with concomitant renal insufficiency was most common indication for biopsy. 85 percent of biopsies showed features of HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) which include: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), glomerular collapse and mesangial hyperplasia. These glomerular changes were always accompanied by tubular microcysts and ultrastructurally, tubuloreticular inclusions (TRI) within the glomerular endothelium were often noted. Changes of HIVAN were also seen in two cases who were HIV negative at the time of biopsy but were positive on repeat testing. Minimal change disease, mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis were other biopsy lesions. Autopsy findings were HIVAN (33 percent), tubular necrosis and opportunistic infections. We conclude that HIVAN is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that may sometimes be the first manifestation of the underlying disease state.  (+info)

Renal lesions associated with AIDS--an autopsy study. (5/170)

Kidneys from 55 cases (20 with HIV infection and 35 with AIDS) were studied by routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stains and special stains (PAS, PASM GMS, ZN, Mucicarmine and Congo red) to evaluate, glomerular, interstitial and vascular pathology. Twenty-four of the 35 (68.6%) cases of AIDS showed infective aetiology which included 17 cases (48.5%) of tuberculosis, 5 cases (14.4%) of fungal infection (3 cryptococcus neoformans and 2 candida species) and 2 cases (5.7%) of CMV infection. Other lesions noted were amyloidosis and tubular calcinosis. HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was not detected in any of the cases. Intravenous drug abuse was not a risk factor in our cases which probably explains the absence of HIV associated nephropathy in the present study.  (+info)

Chemokine receptor CCR5 and CXCR4 expression in HIV-associated kidney disease. (6/170)

The chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 have been identified as essential coreceptors for entry of HIV-1 strains into susceptible cells. Direct infection of renal parenchymal cells has been implicated in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal disease, although data are conflicting. The localization of CCR5 and CXCR4 in kidneys with HIV-associated renal disease is unknown. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal biopsies from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) (n = 13), HIV-associated immune complex glomerulonephritis (n = 3), HIV-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (n = 1), and HIV-negative patients with collapsing glomerulopathy (n = 8) were analyzed in this study. Cellular sites of expression of CCR5 and CXCR4 were identified by immunohistochemistry and by in situ hybridization. The presence of HIV-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry and by in situ hybridization. Expression of both chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 was undetectable in intrinsic glomerular, tubular, and renovascular cells in all analyzed cases. In the presence of tubulointerstitial inflammation, CCR5 and CXCR4 expression was localized to infiltrating mononuclear leukocytes. HIV-1 protein was undetectable by immunohistochemistry in all cases of HIV-associated renal disease. HIV-1 RNA was identified in one case of HIVAN but was restricted to infiltrating leukocytes. HIV-1 RNA was not detected in intrinsic renal cells in all analyzed cases. Identifying the cellular expression of HIV-coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4 may help to clarify which tissues are permissive for direct HIV infection. These data do not support a role of productive HIV-1 infection of renal parenchymal cells in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated renal disease.  (+info)

Diuretic MAG3 scintirenography in children with HIV nephropathy: diffuse parenchymal dysfunction. (7/170)

HIV nephropathy (HIVN) is prevalent in 15%-56% of HIV-infected children and induces mild to severe progressive nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 33 renal diuretic scintirenographic studies with 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) were reviewed and analyzed from 23 HIV pediatric patients, 21 of whom had HIVN with varying degrees of renal impairment. Results were compared with 10 studies of control patients of matching ages. Visual interpretation of images and renograms as well as semiquantitative analyses were performed. Variables compared were size of kidneys, time of peak and one-half peak activities, residual (or retained) cortical activity at 20 min, ratio of cortical activity at 2.5-20 min, and ratio of kidney activity to kidney plus background activity at 2 min. The results of MAG3 renal studies were also compared with laboratory data pertaining to creatinine clearance in all patients and with sonography in 17 patients. RESULTS: In most patients with HIVN (18/21), the kidneys were larger than normal, with a diffuse parenchymal dysfunction (decreased uptake, slow processing, and increased retention of activity) and flat renograms, findings similar to those observed in other diffuse parenchymal diseases. In all patients with HIVN, semiquantitative analysis (paired t test) showed statistically significant differences from control patients for all variables. On ANOVA, a statistically significant correlation was found between most scintigraphic parameters and the severity of renal impairment. Of the 17 concurrent sonographic studies in HIVN patients, 7 showed no abnormalities, whereas the results of scintigraphy were abnormal. CONCLUSION: Diuretic MAG3 scintirenography shows nonspecific diffuse parenchymal dysfunction in pediatric patients with HIVN. Such dysfunction may provide corroborative evidence of HIVN and should be recognized when the test is performed for standard indications. Further work is necessary to prove that the test has indeed the high sensitivity and good correlation with the seventy of HIVN suggested in this population; the test may be useful to follow up the progression of disease and the effect of treatment.  (+info)

Podocyte cell cycle regulation and proliferation in collapsing glomerulopathies. (8/170)

BACKGROUND: Mature podocytes are growth-arrested because of the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. Under pathological conditions, podocytes may undergo mitosis, but not cell division. Exceptions to this rule are collapsing glomerulopathies (CGs), including HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and idiopathic CG, where podocytes undergo a dysregulation of their differentiated phenotype and proliferate. METHODS: To shed light on the mechanism underlying podocyte proliferation in CG, we analyzed the expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67, cyclins (A, D1), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p27, p57), and podocyte differentiation marker synaptopodin in eight cases of HIVAN and two cases of idiopathic CG. Normal fetal and adult kidneys served as controls. RESULTS: Both HIVAN and idiopathic CG showed a marked reduction in the expression of p27, p57, and cyclin D1 (absent in 69, 62, and 80% of all glomeruli, respectively). Cyclin A and Ki-67 were expressed in 11 and 29% of all glomeruli. Moreover, there was partial loss of synaptopodin and cyclin D1 expression in nonaffected glomeruli. CONCLUSIONS: The loss of p27 and p57 leading to expression of cyclin A may account for the activation of podocyte proliferation in CG. Furthermore, the loss of cyclin D1 from histologically normal glomeruli suggests a possible role of cyclin D1 in mediating the dysregulation of the podocyte cell cycle in CG. These novel findings offer insight into the molecular regulation of mature podocyte differentiation. Podocyte proliferation in CG provides evidence in support of a previously underestimated plasticity of mature podocytes.  (+info)

How is Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy abbreviated? HIVAN stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy. HIVAN is defined as Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy somewhat frequently.
The first 4 papers selected for this 297th issue of NDT-E all were recently published in NDT. E. Taylor E et al. first publish a clinical paper on "Cessation of immunosuppression during chemotherapy for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders in renal transplant patients". Next, S Razzak Chaudhary S et al. publish on "Trends in the outcomes of end-stage renal disease secondary to human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy". Then, SV Badve review "Glomerular filtration rate decline as a surrogate end point in kidney disease progression trials". Finally, M Lambie M and SJ Davies provide an overview on "Transition between home dialysis modalities: another piece in the jigsaw of the integrated care pathway ...
ART for the treatment of HIV may slow the progression of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD); nevertheless, it is predicted that many HIV infected patients on ART will reach ESRD by the next decade. Medications that affect the renin-angiotensin system, such as the ARB valsartan, may be useful in treating HIVAN. In a small study of HIV infected patients with HIVAN treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) fosinopril, kidney function was stable in patients who took the ACEI, but function decreased in patients who did not. These data are promising, and suggest that an ARB like valsartan may also slow the progression of HIVAN and improve patients prognosis. This study will compare valsartan and ART to ART alone in slowing kidney disease progression in people with HIV.. This study will last 96 weeks. All participants will continue taking their current ART regimen during the study and will be randomly assigned to one of two arms: Arm 1 will ...
Childhood HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is characterized by the presence of renal epithelial proliferative lesions that cause focal segmental glomeruloscle...
This study is a Phase 2/3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, dose-finding trial of Serostim® (mammalian cell-derived recombinant human growth hormone, r-hGH) versus placebo in subjects with human immunodeficiency virus-associated adipose tissue redistribution syndrome (HARS).. The primary study objective is to determine whether Serostim® treatment reduces adipose tissue maldistribution more effectively than placebo. The primary co-endpoints are derived from measures of visceral adipose tissue assessed by computerized tomography (CT) and the ratio of trunk; and limb fat assessed by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Anthropometric measures, physical exams, quality of life assessments, serial photographs, and various laboratory measures will be used to address secondary objectives. These secondary objectives relate to the impact of Serostim® on Physician and subject assessments of change in body shape, health-related quality of life, attitude ...
Answer: A, Collapsing FSGS HIV-associated nephropathy classically demonstrates collapsing FSGS. Other features include increased proximal tubule protein resorption droplets, and microcystic tubular dilatation. While this disease has markedly diminished in the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the rate is still high in areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Within the United States, approximately 90% of cases occur in African Americans and are associated with genetic mutations in the APOL1 gene (G1/G2 alleles). The typical presentation is that of nephrotic syndrome secondary to widespread foot process effacement seen by electron microscopy. Interestingly, the CD4 count has not shown to be ...
MARGARPSAAGGGGGGAEPPERAGPGRPRGSPPGRARPSLAPRPGPEPSRPRAAPETSGGDTAGAGRCGG 1 - 70 RRAAKLGPGRRGWWALLALQLHLLRALAQDDVAPYFKTEPGLPQIHLEGNRLVLTCLAEGSWPLEFKWMR 71 - 140 DDSELTTYSSEYKYIIPSLQKLDAGFYRCVVRNRMGALLQRKSEVQVAYMGSFMDTDQRKTVSQGRAAIL 141 - 210 NLLPITSYPRPQVTWFREGHKIIPSNRIAITLENQLVILATTTSDAGAYYVQAVNEKNGENKTSPFIHLS 211 - 280 IARDVGTPETMAPTIVVPPGNRSVVAGSSETTLECIASARPVEDLSVTWKRNGVRITSGLHSFGRRLTIS 281 - 350 NPTSADTGPYVCEAALPGSAFEPARATAFLFIIEPPYFTAEPESRISAEVEETVDIGCQAMGVPLPTLQW 351 - 420 YKDAISISRLQNPRYKVLASGGLRIQKLRPEDSGIFQCFASNEGGEIQTHTYLDVTNIAPVFTQRPVDTT 421 - 490 VTDGMTAILRCEVSGAPKPAITWKRENHILASGSVRIPRFMLLESGGLQIAPVFIQDAGNYTCYAANTEG 491 - 560 SLNASATLTVWNRTSIVHPPEDHVVIKGTTATLHCGATHDPRVSLRYVWKKDNVALTPSSTSRIVVEKDG 561 - 630 SLLISQTWSGDIGDYSCEIVSEGGNDSRMARLEVIELPHSPQNLLVSPNSSHSHAVVLSWVRPFDGNSPI 631 - 700 LYYIVELSENNSPWKVHLSNVGPEMTGVTVSGLTPARTYQFRVCAVNEVGRGQYSAETSRLMLPEEPPSA 701 - 770 PPKNIVASGRTNQSIMVQWQPPPETEHNGVLRGYILRYRLAGLPGEYQQRNITSPEVNYCLVTDLIIWTQ 771 - 840 ...
Human immunodeficiency virus-related renal diseases occur in up to 10% of patients infected with HIV. The majority of such patients are black and the commonest pathology seen is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN). This is a clinicopathological entity characterised by proteinuria and rapidly developing renal failure and histologically by a collapsing variant of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with acute tubular necrosis and mild interstitial inflammation. It may progress rapidly to end-stage renal disease (within 6 months). HIVAN appears to be the commonest cause of renal disease in HIV-infected patients in South Africa, although the exact prevalence is unknown. The disease affects predominantly black males, although it has been described in patients of mixed race. Current thoughts with regard to pathogenesis revolve around the role of HIV in the renal epithelium and the effects of cytokines, including transforming growth factor-beta and basic fibroblast growth factor, on renal structures. ...
We previously used global Hipk2-null mice in various models of kidney disease to demonstrate the central role of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in renal fibrosis development. However, renal tubular epithelial cell-specific (RTEC-specific) HIPK2 function in renal fibrogenesis has yet to be determined. Here, we show that modulation of tubular HIPK2 expression and activity affects renal fibrosis development in vivo. The loss of HIPK2 expression in RTECs resulted in a marked diminution of renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse models and HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) mouse models, which was associated with the reduction of Smad3 activation and downstream expression of profibrotic markers. Conversely, WT HIPK2 overexpression in RTECs accentuated the extent of renal fibrosis in the setting of UUO, HIVAN, and folic acid-induced nephropathy in mice. Notably, kinase-dead HIPK2 mutant overexpression or administration of BT173, an allosteric inhibitor of ...
Background: Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules have been increasingly implicated in cardiac remodeling, and in particular the myocardial response to pressure overload. Podocan is a novel member of the small leucin-rich-repeat protein family of ECM proteins. We recently have characterized podocan as an inhibitor of the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Now we are testing if podocan deficiency has an effect on pressure load-induced cardiac hypertrophy.. Methods and Results: We induced pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy using aortic banding (AB) in mice (age 10-12 weeks) with podocan-/- (n=6) and wild-type (WT) (n=7) genotype. Four weeks after AB, cardiac anatomy and function were assessed by echocardiography. In addition, histological analysis was used to assess the myocardial response to AB. Podocan-deficient mice showed significantly greater cardiac hypertrophy compared with WT mice after AB, whereas no significant differences were observed when comparing ...
When secondary causes are excluded, mechanisms underlying central nervous system angiitis (ACNS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are still not understood and optimal treatment remains undefined. We report here a patient with an untreated HIV infection who presented multiple ischemic strokes probably due to HIV-ACNS. ACNS signs on vessel-wall imaging magnetic resonance monitoring retracted with combined antiretroviral therapy without adjunct immunosuppressive drugs.
... is a chapter in the book, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, containing the following 2 pages: Renal Manifestations of HIV, HIV Nephropathy.
The most common causes of protein in the urine in HIV+ persons is HIV nephropathy (most often in African Americans) or diabetes but many other conditions can cause it (thus the need for a renal...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Longitudinal Studies of HIV-Associated Lung Infections and Complications (R01) RFA-HL-07-008. NHLBI
BICALHO, C. S.; OLIVEIRA, R. R.; PIERROTTI, L. C.; FINK, M. C. D. S.; URBANO, P. R. P.; NALI, L. H. S.; LUNA, E. J. A.; ROMANO, C. M.; DAVID, D. R.; DAVID-NETO, E.; PANNUTI, C. S. (WILEY-BLACKWELL, HOBOKEN, USA, 2016) ...
In our #AMreport today @WCHospital we reviewed an approach to leg edema and closed our discussion on a case of nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We also touched on HIVAN (HIV-Associated Nephropathy), which usually causes a collapsing variant of FSGS. See below for details. 1. This is a general approach to leg edema. Although not an exhaustive…
With expert input from additional section editors William G. Bennett, Jeremy R. Chapman, Adrian Covic, Marc E. De Broe, Vivekanand Jha, Neil Sheerin, Robert Unwin, and Adrian Woolf, the Oxford Textbook of Clinical Nephrology is a three-volume international textbook of nephrology with an unrivalled clinical approach backed up by science. It has been completely rewritten in 365 chapters for its fourth edition to bring it right up to date, make it easier to obtain rapid answers to questions, and to suit delivery in electronic formats as well as in print. This edition offers increased focus on the medical aspects of transplantation, HIV-associated renal disease, and infection and renal disease, alongside entirely new sections on genetic topics and clinical and physiological aspects of fluid/electrolyte and tubular disorders. The emphasis throughout is on marrying advances in scientific research with clinical management. The target audience is primarily the nephrologist in clinical practice and training as
High levels of active 40 000-dalton renin in mouse saliva, but no evidence of inactive or high molecular weight forms. The coatings containing a high amount of vancomycin were cialis bula able to kill bacteria in direct contact with the implant surface. This is a new original fact for the presence cialis dose of estrogen receptors in adrenal cells. Temporary catheter perfusion allowed early reperfusion of the amputated hand, improving the chance of intrinsic muscle preservation despite delayed presentation.. Mitochondrial function and the production of inflammatory cytokines were assessed using fluorescence analysis and multiple cytotoxicity assays. Is it posible to cialis dosage recommendations reduce the human immunodeficiency virus-associated chronic inflammation? Carbapenem resistance determinants were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cialis generic name sequencing. Patients suffering from cardiac disease, however showed the correspondive ECG changes of hyperkalemia only in 5 ...
Books, Chapters, and Monographs. Karras DJ. Miscellaneous infectious syndromes: Lyme carditis, human immunodeficiency virus-associated, and Chagas disease. In: Chan TC, Brady WJ, Harrigan RA, Ornato JP, Rosen P. ECG in Emergency Medicine and Acute Care. Elsevier-Mosby, 2005. pp 324-327.. Saks MA, Karras DJ. Emerging infectious diseases. In: Hirshon, JM, Ed. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 2006; 24 1019-1033.. Karras DJ, Satz WA, Barrett J. Errors in the management of infectious disease emergencies. In: Mattu A, Goyal D, Eds. Errors and Pitfalls in Emergency Medicine. British Medical Journal - Blackwell Press, 2007; pp. 63-71... Expand ...
Free Online Library: HIV-associated disseminated Emmonsiosis, Johannesburg, South Africa.(LETTERS, Report, Letter to the editor) by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Comorbidity Development and progression HIV patients Health aspects Mycoses
... Bio-Alcamid, a polyalkylimide, is a non-reabsorbable polymeric subst..
Looking for online definition of HIV-associated fever of unknown origin in the Medical Dictionary? HIV-associated fever of unknown origin explanation free. What is HIV-associated fever of unknown origin? Meaning of HIV-associated fever of unknown origin medical term. What does HIV-associated fever of unknown origin mean?
HIV-associated infections of the anterior segment of the eye (cornea, iris, and anterior chamber) can range in severity from dry eyes to blindness.
The study also incorporated a pain model developed at UCSF that provided a standardized reference point. This model allowed researchers to compare relief of chronic HIV-associated neuropathic pain simultaneously with patient response to pain and skin sensitivity.
With the widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), cancer has emerged as a leading cause of mortality in people living with human immunodeficienc...
A significant association was observed among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive adult cases in Lusaka, Zambia compared with HIV-negative controls for chronic diarrhea (68% versus 22%; P < 0.05), weight loss (54% versus 30%; P < 0.05), lymphadenopathy (44% versus 15%; P < 0.05), and skin eruption (33% versus 7%; P < 0.05). Among the HIV-positive children, a higher proportion had clinical evidence of tuberculosis when compared with HIV-negative children (8% versus 1%; P < 0.05). The study demonstrated an association between weight loss in HIV-positive adults and children and chronic diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 12.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.4-25.5; P < 0.001), persistent cough (OR = 7.2, 95% CI = 2.9-14.5; P < 0.001), and an age of 31-45 years (OR = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.8-8.3; P < 0.01). The factors associated with mortality in HIV positive patients included chronic diarrhea (OR = 7.4, 95% CI = 1.6-34; P < 0.01), and lymphadenopathy (OR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.2-12.2; P
Hi J in NYC, HIV-associated fatigue is extremely common. Thats why we have an entire expert forum devoted to the topic! The cause of HIV-associated fatigue often turns out to be multifactorial....
Purpose of reviewThe detrimental synergy of colliding HIV and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics is most devastating among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH) who shoulder a disproportionate burden of all child TB mortality.Recent findingsCALWH benefit less from Bacille-Calmette Guerin vaccina
Contrast induced nephropathy - EDTCC gives us a great run-down on this controversial topic. Certainly there has been a tendency to err on the side of caution by radiologists but is there any REAL evidence for what we do? ...
The 5 papers selected for this issue of NDT-E deal with topics of major clinical relevance. Indeed, this starts with A.E. Gaweda et al in NDT . Their paper is entitled "Iron dosing in kidney disease: inconsistency of evidence and clinical practice". Next ,T. van Gelder T. et al ,in NDT again, publish on "To TDM or not to TDM in lupus nephritis patients treated with MMF" ? As you probably guessed, TDM stands for therapeutic drug monitoring. Then, N.G. Kutner et al report in Clin Kidney J on "Falls among hemodialysis patients: potential opportunities for prevention"? . The fourth paper, from Ross M.J. in Kidney Int discusses "Advances in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated kidney diseases". Finally, E.M. Spithoven , again in Kidney Int report an "Analysis of data from the ERA-EDTA Registry indicating that conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease do not reduce the need for renal replacement therapy in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease ...
List of 66 causes for Back blister and Gangrene and HIV-associated multiple mononeuropathies, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Rashes in people who are dealing with HIV infection are very common; as there can be several different causes of the rash, it is best to show it to yo
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Alexanders disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimers disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntingtons disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates ...
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinsons, Alzheimers, Alexanders disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimers disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntingtons disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates ...
Changes in allograft function and allograft survival rate after BK virus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) diagnosis. (A) Allograft function deteriorated after BKV
Clinical trial for Focal glomerulosclerosis , Dose-Exploration Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Voclosporin in Subjects With Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
Transcriptional regulator that binds to the GA element of the CLCNKA promoter. Binds to the KCNIP2 promoter and regulates KCNIP2 circadian expression in the heart (By similarity). Is a repressor of CTGF expression, involved in the control of cardiac fibrosis. It is also involved in the control of cardiac hypertrophy acting through the inhibition of MEF2A and GATA4 (By similarity). Involved in podocyte differentiation (By similarity). Inhibits MYOCD activity. Is a negative regulator of TP53 acetylation. Inhibits NF-kappa-B activation through repression of EP300-dependent RELA acetylation ...
Latest urology and nephrology news, research and treatment articles for urologists and nephrologists to stay updated. Clinical reviews on renal and urology treatments.
Compiled Indhrannie Pillay The Center for HIV/AIDS Networking (HIVAN) and the HIV Prevention Unit of the Medical Research Council (MRC) hosted a HIV/AIDS forum at the Curries Fountain Sports Development Center BoardroomRead More…. ...
The International Society of Nephrology Renal Pathology Committee seeks applications for one mini-sabbatical for a nephropathologist from a developing...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical trial of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and young adults. AU - Gipson, Debbie S.. AU - Trachtman, Howard. AU - Kaskel, Frederick J.. AU - Greene, Tom H.. AU - Radeva, Milena K.. AU - Gassman, Jennifer J.. AU - Moxey-Mims, Marva M.. AU - Hogg, Ronald J.. AU - Watkins, Sandra L.. AU - Fine, Richard N.. AU - Hogan, Susan L.. AU - Middleton, John P.. AU - Vehaskari, V. Matti. AU - Flynn, Patti A.. AU - Powell, Leslie M.. AU - Vento, Suzanne M.. AU - McMahan, June L.. AU - Siegel, Norman. AU - DAgati, Vivette D.. AU - Friedman, Aaron L.. PY - 2011/10/2. Y1 - 2011/10/2. N2 - This NIH-funded multicenter randomized study of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) treatment compared the efficacy of a 12-month course of cyclosporine to a combination of oral pulse dexamethasone and mycophenolate mofetil in children and adults with steroid-resistant primary FSGS. Of the 192 patients enrolled, 138 were randomized to cyclosporine (72) or to ...
Trypanolytic variants where encodes apolipoprotein L1, associate with kidney disease in African Us citizens, but whether genotypes for 271 BLACK cases, 168 Western european American cases, and 939 control content. untreated HIV-infected people have a 50% risk for developing HIVAN. The result of holding two risk alleles points out 18% of FSGS and 35% of HIVAN; additionally, eliminating this impact would decrease FSGS and HIVAN by 67%. A study of globe populations indicated the fact that kidney risk alleles can be found just on African chromosomes. In conclusion, African Us citizens holding two risk alleles possess a elevated risk Abacavir sulfate for glomerular disease significantly, and includes a make use of in scientific practice. African Us citizens have got a fourfold elevated risk for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to the three leading factors behind chronic kidney disease (CKD): diabetic nephropathy, hypertension-attributed CKD, and glomerulonephritis.1C3 Two admixture mapping ...
One of the characteristic features of HIVAN is focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, often of the collapsing variant (16-18). Podocyte dysfunction appears to be a crucial step in the development of this glomerular lesion. After HIV-1 infection, podocytes lose markers of differentiation and begin to proliferate in vivo, a process that is recapitulated by infecting podocytes with HIV-1 in vitro. In this study, we demonstrate that the CDK inhibitors, flavopiridol and roscovitine, markedly suppress HIV-1 transcription in podocytes and promote the appearance of differentiation markers in infected cells. Similar to lymphocytes (8,9), HIV-1 promoter activity in podocytes appears to be quite susceptible to these CDK inhibitors. This may reflect the selective inhibition of tat-recruited CDK-9, a mechanism that enhances basal HIV-1 gene expression (10).. Suppression of HIV-1 gene expression may not be the only mechanism whereby these small molecule CDK inhibitors affect the proliferation, differentiation, ...
If you cant find what you want here, send me Email to [email protected] or just leave a message informing us your questions. If possible, briefly introducing yourself and your illness condition will be warmly welcomed. Hope I can help you !. ...
This phenomenon might be epigenetic from protection from the Sleeping sickness disease caused by the tsetse fly. Apparently on the same chromosome 22, APOL1(apolipoprotein -1) and MHY9 sit next to each other. The studies are now showing that due to natural selection and linkage disequilibrium, the APOL1 gene might be the strong candidate for a gene that is responsible for increased incidence of renal disease in African Origin Americans. Recent JASN articles in Nov 2011 issue also shed light on newer findings as described above: Having the APOL-1 variant can lead to more arterilopathy and renal vessel changes and that was confirmed on biopsy findings. Interestingly, only certain glomerular diseases are at risk- FSGS types including HIVAN but not IgA nephropathy or diabetic nephropathy. Given the severity of the disease, these patients need dialysis at an earlier age. More copies of this gene- more you are at risk of FSGS and ESRD. ...
Complete information for APOL6 gene (Protein Coding), Apolipoprotein L6, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Widely acknowledged as the definitive reference in the field, this title brings you the practical, hands-on information you need to effectively evaluate and manage neuro-ophthalmic conditions ...
The proportion of black or Hispanic patients with HIV-associated NHL increased from 41% in 2004 to 55% in 2012 (P < .0001). Chemotherapy was received by 81% of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 90% of those with Burkitt lymphoma, 61% of those with primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and 35% of those with primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL). Between 2004 and 2012, this proportion increased only for patients with PCNSL (P < .00001). Chemotherapy was less likely to be received by patients who were older, black, or without private insurance. It was delivered more frequently in hospitals designated as academic (OR for nonreceipt, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.51-0.92) or in hospitals that had ≥3 HIV-positive cases per year (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86). Survival improved in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (P = .007), Burkitt lymphoma (P = .0002), and PCNSL (P = .019), but not in those with PEL (P = .94). Receipt of chemotherapy in patients with PEL was not associated with better ...
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a kind of glomerular disease which is characterized by scarring (sclerosis) in the kidneys. Some beneficial herbal products for managing the symptoms of Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis have been prepared by Ayurveda experts.
It is also used post-operatively, as a diagnostic aid, and in tracheotomy care. It may be considered ineffective in cystic ... It has been concluded that "Intravenous and oral N-acetylcysteine may prevent contrast-medium-induced nephropathy with a dose- ... Oral acetylcysteine is used for the prevention of radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (a form of acute kidney failure). Some ... the incidence of nephropathy was the same - 13%. Despite the conflicting research outcomes, the 2012 Kidney Disease: Improving ...
His original work AIDS Associated Nephropathy was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1984. Rao started working ... During his fellowship he published his original work on heroin-associated nephropathy in the prestigious New England Journal of ... In 1984, he described for the first time renal disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). ... and Nephropathy associated with HIV infection in early 80's. His professional achievement was to transport two cadaver donor ...
Kematian akibat AIDS di Indonesia masih tinggi, karena hanya 8 persen Orang Dengan HIV AIDS (ODHA) yang mendapatkan pengobatan ... Inggris) Binding of serum immunoglobulins to collagens in IgA nephropathy and HIV infection ... AIDS: Science and Society. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Page.150-151.. *^ a b c d e Center for Disease Control and Prevention: ... The person with HIV/AIDS: nursing perspectives. Springer Publishing Company.. *^ a b c d e f g Andreas Holzenburg, Elke Bogner ...
... also has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as well as aid repair of smooth muscle cells. ii Patients ... Nordquist L, Wahren J (2009). "C-Peptide: the missing link in diabetic nephropathy?". Rev Diabet Stud. 6 (3): 203-10. doi: ... Likewise, C-peptide administration in animals that had C-peptide deficiency (type 1 model) with nephropathy improves renal ...
In chronic allograft nephropathy, disruption or reduplication of internal elastic lamina can be observed, which causes ... Demonstration of fragmentation in this layer by elastin-van Gieson stain aids in diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. It stains ...
... demonstrates direct correlation between exposure and onset and progression of nephropathy. This porcine nephropathy bears ... for AIDS), and cisplatin. Their symptoms are well known to nephrologists: glycosuria without hyperglycemia, microalbuminuria, ... Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a slowly progressive renal disease, appeared in the middle of the 20th century, highly ... Other nephropathies, although not responding to the "classical" definition of BEN, may be linked to ochratoxin. Thus, this ...
"Protein-losing Nephropathy". Go Pets America. Retrieved 25 October 2010.. *^ a b Robyn Alexander. "Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier ... Laboratory tests can aid in diagnosing PLN and PLE; Wheaten owners should check their country's advised testing protocols.[12] ... protein-losing nephropathy (PLN), where the dogs lose protein via the kidneys;[11] and protein-losing enteropathy (PLE), where ... "Familial Protein-Losing Enteropathy and Protein-Losing Nephropathy in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers: 222 Cases". Journal of ...
Diabetic nephropathy as a result of diabetes mellitus is a result of persistent high blood sugar, and is characterized by a ... and can aid in determining appropriate cancer treatments. Since the mechanisms of both of these pathways are not unique to ... Diabetic Nephropathy at eMedicine Yamamoto Y, Maeshima Y, Kitayama H, et al. (July 2004). "Tumstatin peptide, an inhibitor of ... It was found that VEGF is one of the mediators of glomerular hypertrophy, which causes nephropathy. Since tumstatin inhibits ...
... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C20.673.480.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C20.673.480.080 --- aids-related complex MeSH ... aids-related MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.570 --- lymphoma, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue MeSH C20.683.515.761.480.150.700 ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C20.673.480.050 --- ... C20.673.480.100 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH ...
... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.078 --- anuria MeSH C12.777.419.135 --- diabetes insipidus MeSH C12.777.419.135. ... diabetic nephropathies MeSH C12.777.419.250 --- fanconi syndrome MeSH C12.777.419.291 --- hepatorenal syndrome MeSH C12.777. ... balkan nephropathy MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790 --- pyelonephritis MeSH C12.777.419.570.643.790.810 --- pyelonephritis, ...
... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.080 --- aids- ... aids-associated nephropathy MeSH C02.800.801.400.070 --- aids dementia complex MeSH C02.800.801.400.080 --- aids-related ... related complex MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.100 --- aids-related opportunistic infections MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.400 --- hiv- ... aids arteritis, central nervous system MeSH C02.782.815.616.400.050 --- ...
The company also licensed a cardiotoxin therapy for acute and chronic nephropathy in 2015. In January, 2015, Celtic Biotech ... aid=103812&sid=2 O'Halloran, Barry (28 October 2011). "Celtic Biotech to start snake venom cancer drug trials". The Irish Times ... "Celtic Biotech Iowa Licenses a Propitious for Acute and Chronic Nephropathy". CIO Review. 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015. Boyle ...
Other winners devoted their work to aiding individuals who had a specific illness, such as Curt Schilling, who raised money for ... who lost a kidney as an infant and devoted himself to working with individuals with nephropathy. Also, some winners devoted ...
Other blood tests done to aid in the diagnosis include CRP or ESR, complement levels, ANA, and LDH. Protein electrophoresis and ... There are a few additional caveats that have to be considered while treating IgA nephropathy. IgA nephropathy has a very ... IgA nephropathy (IgAN), also known as IgA nephritis, Berger's disease (/bɛərˈʒeɪ/) (and variations), or synpharyngitic ... HSP is associated with a more benign prognosis than IgA nephropathy. In non-aggressive IgA nephropathy there is traditionally a ...
In April 2013, a high-level meeting with regional health ministries, nongovernmental organizations, aid agencies, clinical ... "Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy". Am J Kidney ... "Mesoamerican Nephropathy or Global Warming Nephropathy?". Blood Purif. 41 (1-3): 135-38. doi:10.1159/000441265. PMID 26766409. ... Mesoamerican Nephropathy: Report From the First International Research Workshop on MeN. Heredia, Costa Rica: SALTRA/IRET-UNA; ...
... nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Some conditions like lipodystrophy may be caused both by HIV and its treatment. HIV/ ... Courtesy AIDS stigma-stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV-positive people. Often, AIDS stigma is ... Symbolic AIDS stigma-the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated ... "The impact of AIDS on people and societies" (PDF). 2006 Report on the global AIDS epidemic. UNAIDS. 2006. ISBN 92-9173-479-9. ...
In the USA 12% of patients dying with AIDS have histologically proven HIVAN, the worldwide incidence amongst AIDS patients ... HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) refers to kidney disease developing in association with HIV infection. The most common, or " ... "classical", type of HIV-associated nephropathy is a collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), though other forms of ...
BK virus nephropathy remains a significant post transplantation complication. Decoy cells alone do not need to be treated since ... For example, in severely immunocompromised HIV-patients, previously called AIDS-patients, immunologic function can be restored ... 2010). "Prospective study of polyomavirus BK replication and nephropathy in renal transplant recipients in China: A single- ... Polyomaviruses may cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JC virus) and polyomavirus-associated nephropathy, ...
AIDS-defining clinical condition. *Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. *Lipodystrophy. *Nephropathy. *Neurocognitive ... Management of HIV/AIDS[edit]. Main article: Management of HIV/AIDS. Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing ... HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental ... "AIDS. 25 (5): 577-80. doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283437d2f. PMC 3681810. PMID 21160414.. (subscription required) ...
AIDS-defining clinical condition. *Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. *Lipodystrophy. *Nephropathy. *Neurocognitive ... Religion and AIDS. References[edit]. *^ "Aide: Benedict XVI Doesn't Justify Condom Use - ZENIT - English". zenit.org. Retrieved ... "Vatican: condoms don't stop Aids". the Guardian.. *^ a b Partnerships in civil society Archived 6 July 2009 at the Wayback ... claimed that condoms are permeable to the AIDS virus. He explained to BBC interviewers that "The AIDS virus is roughly 450 ...
AIDS-defining clinical condition. *Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. *Lipodystrophy. *Nephropathy. *Neurocognitive ... a b Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (2014). 90-90-90: An ambitious treatment target to help end the AIDS ... "AIDS in Swaziland", Radio Netherlands Archives, July 10, 2000 *^ "Partnership to Fight HIV/AIDS in Swaziland". U.S. State ... HIV/AIDS-related disparities[edit]. Although Eswatini's multisectoral response to HIV and AIDS has obtained positive results,[4 ...
HIV/AIDS in South America. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "HIV/AIDS Health Profile for Peru" (PDF). United States ... AIDS-defining clinical condition. *Diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome. *Lipodystrophy. *Nephropathy. *Neurocognitive ... and the male/female ratio for AIDS diagnoses in 2009 was 3.02 to 1.[1] The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) ... Progress report 2011: Global HIV/AIDS response: Epidemic update and health sector progress towards Universal Access (PDF). WHO ...
It is also used post-operatively, as a diagnostic aid, and in tracheotomy care. It may be considered ineffective in cystic ... Improving Global Outcomes Guidelines suggest the use of oral acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy ...
His research interests include mechanisms of insulin action in the ovary, endocrinological aspects of AIDS, and clinical ... a study of the potential new treatment for prevention of diabetic nephropathy (carried out in collaboration with investigators ... Poretsky, L; Maran, A; Zumoff, B (1990). "Endocrinological and metabolic manifestations of AIDS". Mount Sinai Journal of ... Another line of Poretsky's research involved endocrine manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and ...
Kematian akibat AIDS di Indonesia masih tinggi, karena hanya 8 persen Orang Dengan HIV AIDS (ODHA) yang mendapatkan pengobatan ... Inggris) Binding of serum immunoglobulins to collagens in IgA nephropathy and HIV infection ... AIDS: Science and Society. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Page.150-151. *^ a b c d e Center for Disease Control and Prevention: ... CDC HIV/AIDS Facts, Oral Sex and HIV Risk. Juni 2009. *^ a b HIVInfo.us: An HIV Information Site & HIV Educational Resource ...
They also aid in the differential diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia subtypes.[3] ...
HIVAN is defined as Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy somewhat frequently. ... HIVAN stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy. ... How is Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Nephropathy abbreviated? ... HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service. *High Inferior Vena Cava. *HIV Center of Excellence ...
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) usually begins with large amounts of protein in the urine (proteinuria) and progresses ... Performs a general search of all AIDSinfo glossary terms. Enter a search term to find glossary word(s) containing that term. ... HIV-Associated Nephropathy (HIVAN) HIV-Associated Nephropathy Speaker Kidney disease associated with HIV infection. HIV- ... associated nephropathy (HIVAN) usually begins with large amounts of protein in the urine (proteinuria) and progresses rapidly ...
... stasis of urine in the pyramids is observed in patients with HIV nephropathy. This finding, combined with characteristic renal ... HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 2004. US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2005 ... How is HIV nephropathy characterized in renal CT scans used in the workup of pediatric HIV infection?. Updated: Mar 05, 2020 ... On renal CT scanning, stasis of urine in the pyramids is observed in patients with HIV nephropathy. This finding, combined with ...
... and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, ... Tips for Finding Financial Aid. *Help with Travel Costs. *How to Get Involved in Research ... Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps syndrome Title Other Names:. HANAC syndrome; Autosomal ... Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome. is a genetic condition that causes blood ...
Uddanam nephropathy in India: a challenge for epidemiologists  Akkaloori, Anitha; Manumanthu, Ramesh; Sanikommu, Suresh; Gadde ... Uganda edges closer to AIDS treatment for all  مؤلف غير معروف (‏2008-6)‏ ... Uganda leads way in innovative HIV/AIDS treatment.  Wendo, Charles (‏2005-4)‏ ...
Uddanam nephropathy in India: a challenge for epidemiologists  Gadde, Praveen; Sanikommu, Suresh; Manumanthu, Ramesh; ... Uganda leads way in innovative HIV/AIDS treatment.  Wendo, Charles (‎2005-4)‎ ... Uganda edges closer to AIDS treatment for all  Autor desconocido (‎2008-6)‎ ...
Tips for Finding Financial Aid. *Help with Travel Costs. *How to Get Involved in Research ... Hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke Title Other Names:. HERNS; Retinal vasculopathy and cerebral ... Hereditary endotheliopathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS) is a rare genetic disease that affects the inner ... Hereditary retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS) is caused by genetic changes (. mutations. or pathogenic variants) in ...
... when a provider diagnoses hypertension with manifestations of nephropathy, what are the appropriate codes? 403.90 or 401.9 for ... Coding Help- AIDS nephropathy. By 27088ajj in forum Diagnosis Coding Replies: 5 Last Post: 07-26-2010, 03:36 PM ... How to code Hypertensive Nephropathy. By [email protected] in forum Medical Coding General Discussion ... Hello - when a provider diagnoses hypertension with manifestations of nephropathy, what are the appropriate codes? 403.90 or ...
Aids-associated Nephropathy. Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic ... lupus nephropathy. The disease is characterized by high levels of protein in the urine and may eventually lead to kidney ... COQ2 nephropathy: a treatable cause of nephrotic syndrome in children.. Nephrotic syndrome can be caused by a subgroup of ... Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is one of the most common forms of nephrotic syndrome (NS) in adults and is usually ...
Aids-associated Nephropathy. Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic ... Advances in early biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy.. Diabetic nephropathy is the main cause of chronic kidney disease, and ... Balkan Nephropathy. A form of chronic interstitial nephritis that is endemic to limited areas of BULGARIA, the former ... New Strategies for Non-Invasive Detection of Chronic Allograft Nephropathy. The purpose of this study is to help researchers ...
DISMAL PROGNOSIS DESPITE MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS IN AIDS NEPHROPATHY AND CHRONIC UREMIA. Rao, T. K. S.; Manis, T.; Friedman, E ...
severe nephropathy or mental disorder. *severe gastral ulcer. *heart or brain arthrosclerosis ... Study on the Antiviral Therapy and Immune Reconstitution of Chinese HIV/AIDS Patients. The safety and scientific validity of ... AIDS defining illness or any infectious disease occured in one month but still unstable within 14 days ... This study will be the first large-scale, multicentered, randomised, prospective ARV therapy study in China for HIV/AIDs ...
10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(199606)13:6,536::AID-DIA110,3.0.CO;2-J. ... and degree of nephropathy. Degree of retinopathy was assessed ... Cigarette smoking and progression of retinopathy and nephropathy in type 1 diabetes.. Mühlhauser I1, Bender R, Bott U, Jörgens ... The results show that the real associations between smoking and retinopathy and nephropathy are complex and that more emphasis ... While significant associations between smoking, and retinopathy and nephropathy respectively, were found, the relations were ...
No Dialysis for Aids Nephropathy. Pages 60-70. Friedman, Eli A.. Preview Buy Chapter $29.95 ...
It was found that acute renal failure was uncommon (7.1% of treated animals) and that morphologic evidence of nephropathy, ... In many preclinical AIDS research studies, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is administered to experimentally simian ... phosphorus were frequently identified longitudinally in the blood of ART-treated animals that developed evidence of nephropathy ... nephropathy 4 yes ART likely BUN 181, Ca/P 15.6/9.6, creatinine 23.3 ...
It was found that acute renal failure was uncommon (7.1% of treated animals) and that morphologic evidence of nephropathy, ... In many preclinical AIDS research studies, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is administered to experimentally simian ... phosphorus were frequently identified longitudinally in the blood of ART-treated animals that developed evidence of nephropathy ... Correlation of serum phosphorus level, Ca/P ratio and Crea/P ratio at the end of ART with severity of nephropathy. Correlation ...
M. E. De Broe, "Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy ... 22-152, Office for Textbooks and Teaching Aids, Belgrade, Serbia, 2000. View at Google Scholar ... Z. Radovanović, "Epidemiology and etiology of endemic nephropathy," in Endemic Nephropathy, Z. Radovanović, M. Šindjić, M. ... Z. Radovanović, "Epidemiology and etiology of endemic nephropathy," in Endemic Nephropathy, Z. Radovanović, M. Sinđić, M. ...
Histopathologic features aid in predicting risk for progression of IgA nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Mar. 5(3):425- ... Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy 2016: an update from the IgA Nephropathy Classification Working Group. Kidney Int. ... nephropathy? What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * IgA Nephropathy ... Drugs & Diseases , Nephrology , IgA Nephropathy Q&A What is the role of renin-angiotensin blockade in the treatment of ...
Interval and clinical cohort studies: Epidemiological issues. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 23: 769-776, 2007pmid:17604539. ... Membranous Nephropathy: Quantifying Remission Duration on Outcome. Daniel C. Cattran, Esther D. Kim, Heather Reich, Michelle ... Membranous Nephropathy: Quantifying Remission Duration on Outcome. Daniel C. Cattran, Esther D. Kim, Heather Reich, Michelle ... Membranous nephropathy (MGN) remains one of the most common causes of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome.1-3 The natural history of ...
Which drug is most effective and safe for treating proteinuria in someone with diabetic nephropathy? Many options. There are ... Can enzyme supplementation aid in managing diabetic nephropathy? Dr. Tarek Naguib Dr. Naguib ... Nephropathy (Definition) Nephropathy is a medical term that refers to disease of the kidney. There are many causes. It can be ... Diabetic Nephropathy: High-dose b vitamin therapy is not helpful in diabetic nephropathy. An article was published in the jama ...
AIDS, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus. HIVAN, HIV-associated nephropathy ... Another form of nephropathy that may cause great difficulties in the differential diagnosis with SLE: lupus-like nephritis has ... HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) occurs most commonly in black patients and is characterized by nephrotic proteinuria, which ... Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, sexually transmitted infection, caused by the human immunodeficiency ...
Nephropathy and renal colic in patients treated with indinavir, ritonavir plus indinavir or ritonavir plus saquinavir. Padberg ... Changes in survival among people with AIDS in Lazio, Italy from 1993 to 1998. Porta, Daniela; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Forastiere, ... Assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on AIDS and death. Sabin, Caroline A. ... Mycobacterium avium intracellulare psoas abscess in patients with AIDS after antiretroviral therapy. Boyd, Aileen E.; Brettle, ...
One Word_First Aid Flashcards Preview USMLE , One Word_First Aid , Flashcards ... Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy) 213 Lab/diagnostic finding: Periosteum raised from bone, creating triangular ...
Study First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations flashcards from Sadaf S ... First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations Flashcards Preview Pathology , First Aid 2014 Rapid Reviw Key Associations , ...
... nephropathy (also known as Berger disease) was first described by Berger and Hinglais in 1968. IgA nephropathy is characterized ... Histopathologic features aid in predicting risk for progression of IgA nephropathy. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010 Mar. 5(3):425- ... encoded search term (IgA Nephropathy) and IgA Nephropathy What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * IgA ... Oxford Classification of IgA nephropathy 2016: an update from the IgA Nephropathy Classification Working Group. Kidney Int. ...
  • A variety of systemic diseases are associated with aggressive IgA nephropathy ( Berger's disease) such as liver failure , cancer , celiac disease , systemic lupus erythematosus , rheumatoid arthritis , heart failure , reactive arthritis , ankylosing spondylitis and HIV . (wikipedia.org)
  • IgA nephropathy, also called Berger's disease , is a kidney disorder that causes inflammation of the glomeruli , the individual filtering units of the kidney that produce urine. (shoppersdrugmart.ca)
  • The Origin and Activities of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes in IgA Nephropathy. (medscape.com)
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). (coursehero.com)
  • From the immune perspective, chemokines and their pathways are attractive targets for intervention and may hold the key to stopping insulitis and, thus, delay or prevent AID [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Many of the effects described here are related to the failure of the immune system in HIV and AIDS that is progressing. (healthline.com)
  • This study will evaluate the effectiveness and toxic effects of immunosuppressive drug therapy in patients with membranous lupus nephropathy over a 12 month period. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This is a phase 2 trial to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of immunosuppressive drug therapy in patients with membranous lupus nephropathy over a 12 month study period. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps (HANAC) syndrome is a genetic condition that causes blood vessels to become fragile. (nih.gov)
  • If yes what is the protocol to be followed according to National AIDS control organisation (NACO) guidelines? (scribd.com)