AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System
Giant Cell Arteritis
Arteritis Virus, Equine
Central Nervous System
Central Nervous System Diseases
Central Nervous System Neoplasms
Central Nervous System Infections
Vasculitis, Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Aortic Arch Syndromes
Cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy associated with HIV infection in an adult. (1/2)Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy is described in the pediatric medical literature and features diffuse fusiform aneurysms of the arteries of the circle of Willis. We present the first report (to our knowledge) of this disease entity in an adult, a 29-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. (+info)
Cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy in an adult patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (2/2)In adult patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cerebral arteritis usually takes the form of arterial wall thickening, stenosis, and occlusion, leading to cerebral ischemia and infarction. Aneurysms and intracranial hemorrhage are much less commonly associated with cerebral vasculitis. For reasons not entirely clear, this form is seen more often in pediatric patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. We report an adult patient with cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy who presented shortly after his AIDS-defining illness in a setting of severe immune suppression and high viral load. (+info)
The condition is caused by the body's immune system attacking the arteries in the CNS, leading to inflammation and damage. It is more common in individuals with uncontrolled HIV infection and low CD4 cell counts.
Symptoms of AIDS Arteritis, CNS can include:
* Weakness or paralysis of the limbs or face
* Vision problems, such as blurred vision or loss of peripheral vision
* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Difficulty with coordination and balance
If you suspect that you or someone you know may have AIDS Arteritis, CNS, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve quality of life.
Treatment for AIDS Arteritis, CNS typically involves a combination of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged blood vessels or relieve pressure on the brain.
Prevention is key in avoiding AIDS Arteritis, CNS. This includes taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) as prescribed, maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, and practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of HIV.
In conclusion, AIDS Arteritis, Central Nervous System is a serious condition that can have severe consequences if left untreated. It is important for individuals with HIV/AIDS to be aware of the risk factors and symptoms of this condition and seek medical attention promptly if they suspect they may have it. With early diagnosis and treatment, it is possible to manage the condition and improve quality of life.
The exact cause of Takayasu arteritis is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the body. The disease primarily affects women of childbearing age, although it can occur at any age.
The symptoms of Takayasu arteritis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. Common symptoms include:
* Joint pain
* Muscle wasting
* Decreased vision
If the disease affects the aorta, it can cause:
* Aortic regurgitation
* Aortic stenosis
* Aortic aneurysm
Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include:
* Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
* C-reactive protein (CRP)
* Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)
* Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA)
Imaging studies may include:
* Ultrasonography (US)
* Computed tomography (CT)
* Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
* Positron emission tomography (PET)
Treatment for Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medications and surgery. Medications may include:
* Immunosuppressive drugs
Surgical interventions may include:
* Aortic root replacement
* Aortic grafting
* Bypass surgery
The prognosis for Takayasu arteritis is generally good if the disease is diagnosed and treated early, with a 5-year survival rate of approximately 80%. However, if left untreated, the disease can progress to severe complications such as aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, or stroke, which can be fatal.
Prevention of Takayasu arteritis is not possible, as the exact cause of the disease is not fully understood. However, early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Current research is focused on identifying specific biomarkers that can aid in the diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis, as well as developing new treatments that can more effectively target the underlying immune mechanisms of the disease.
Arteritis can lead to a range of symptoms including fever, fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes, and difficulty speaking or swallowing. In severe cases, it can also cause cardiovascular complications such as heart attack, stroke, or organ failure.
There are several types of arteritis, each with different causes and symptoms. Some common forms of arteritis include:
1. Giant cell arteritis (GCA): This is the most common form of arteritis and primarily affects older adults. It is caused by inflammation of the medium-sized arteries, particularly those in the head and neck. Symptoms may include headaches, vision loss, and pain in the face and jaw.
2. Takayasu arteritis (TA): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects the aorta and its branches. It is more common in women than men and typically affects young adults. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, chest pain, and weakness or numbness in the limbs.
3. Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN): This is a rare form of arteritis that affects multiple arteries throughout the body. It can cause symptoms such as fever, fatigue, joint pain, and skin rashes.
4. Kawasaki disease: This is a rare inflammatory disease that primarily affects children under the age of 5. It causes inflammation in the blood vessels, particularly those in the heart and can lead to cardiovascular complications if left untreated.
Arteritis can be diagnosed through various tests such as blood tests, imaging studies like CT or MRI scans, and biopsies. Treatment options vary depending on the type of arteritis and its severity but may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications, and antibiotics. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Vision problems such as blurred vision or blind spots
* Pain in the jaw, shoulder, or tongue
* Low-grade fever
* Loss of appetite
The exact cause of GCA is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder. This means that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scans.
Treatment for GCA usually involves high doses of corticosteroids, which can help reduce inflammation and prevent further damage to the blood vessels. In some cases, immunosuppressive medications may also be prescribed to suppress the immune system and prevent the condition from returning. If left untreated, GCA can lead to serious complications such as stroke or blindness, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Here are some of the key points of the definition of giant cell arteritis:
* A type of vasculitis that affects medium and large arteries
* Typically occurs in people over the age of 50
* More common in women than men
* Symptoms can include headache, vision problems, pain in the jaw or tongue, fatigue, and low-grade fever
* Autoimmune disorder
* Can lead to serious complications if left untreated
* Treatment typically involves corticosteroids and immunosuppressive medications.
1. Neurodegenerative diseases: These are diseases that cause progressive loss of brain cells, leading to cognitive decline and motor dysfunction. Examples include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Stroke: A stroke occurs when blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cell death and potential long-term disability.
3. Traumatic brain injury: This type of injury occurs when the brain is subjected to a sudden and forceful impact, such as in a car accident or fall.
4. Infections: Bacterial, viral, and fungal infections can all cause CNS diseases, such as meningitis and encephalitis.
5. Autoimmune disorders: These are conditions in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the brain, leading to inflammation and damage. Examples include multiple sclerosis and lupus.
6. Brain tumors: Tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be benign or malignant.
7. Cerebrovascular diseases: These are conditions that affect the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs).
8. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the development of the brain and nervous system, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
CNS diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life, and some can be fatal. Treatment options vary depending on the specific diagnosis and severity of the disease. Some CNS diseases can be managed with medication, while others may require surgery or other interventions.
The exact cause of PMR is not known, but it is believed to be related to an abnormal immune response. The condition often occurs in conjunction with another inflammatory disorder called giant cell arteritis (GCA), which affects the blood vessels.
Symptoms of PMR include:
* Pain and stiffness in the shoulders, hips, and other joints
* Loss of appetite
* Sleep disturbances
* Weight loss
The diagnosis of PMR is based on a combination of symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory test results. Laboratory tests may include blood tests to check for inflammatory markers, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP).
Treatment for PMR typically involves a combination of medications, including:
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Pain relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or narcotics
* Anti-inflammatory medications, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or biologic response modifiers
In addition to medication, physical therapy and exercise may be helpful in managing the symptoms of PMR. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair joint damage.
The prognosis for PMR is generally good, with most people experiencing significant improvement within a few months of starting treatment. However, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and it is important to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the most effective treatment plan.
Benign CNS neoplasms include:
1. Meningiomas: These are the most common type of benign CNS tumor, arising from the meninges (the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord).
2. Acoustic neuromas: These tumors arise from the nerve cells that connect the inner ear to the brain.
3. Pineal gland tumors: These are rare tumors that occur in the pineal gland, a small gland located in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: These are rare tumors that arise from the remnants of the embryonic pituitary gland and can cause a variety of symptoms including headaches, vision loss, and hormonal imbalances.
Malignant CNS neoplasms include:
1. Gliomas: These are the most common type of malignant CNS tumor and arise from the supporting cells of the brain called glial cells. Examples of gliomas include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and medulloblastomas.
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system that can occur in the CNS.
3. Melanomas: These are rare tumors that arise from the pigment-producing cells of the skin and can spread to other parts of the body, including the CNS.
4. Metastatic tumors: These are tumors that have spread to the CNS from other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, or colon.
The diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. Treatment options can include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy.
The prognosis for CNS neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, gliomas have a poorer prognosis than other types of CNS tumors, with five-year survival rates ranging from 30% to 60%. Lymphomas and melanomas have better prognoses, with five-year survival rates of up to 80%. Metastatic tumors have a more guarded prognosis, with five-year survival rates depending on the primary site of the cancer.
In summary, central nervous system neoplasms are abnormal growths of tissue in the brain and spinal cord that can cause a variety of symptoms and can be benign or malignant. The diagnosis and treatment of these tumors depend on the type, size, location, and severity of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history. The prognosis for CNS neoplasms varies depending on the type of tumor and the effectiveness of treatment, but in general, gliomas have a poorer prognosis than other types of CNS tumors.
Arteriviruses are characterized by their ability to infect cells in the blood vessels, particularly endothelial cells, which line the inside of blood vessels. This allows the virus to cause widespread damage to the cardiovascular system and can lead to severe illness and death.
Arterivirus infections are a significant concern for public health, as they have the potential to spread rapidly and cause large outbreaks. In addition, many arteriviruses are zoonotic, meaning that they can be transmitted between animals and humans, which can make it difficult to control outbreaks.
There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine available for arterivirus infections, although supportive care such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy may be provided to manage symptoms. Research is ongoing to develop effective treatments and vaccines against these viruses.
The most common types of CNS infections include:
1. Meningitis: Inflammation of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
2. Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain tissue itself, usually caused by a virus.
3. Abscesses: Pockets of pus that form in the brain or spinal cord, typically caused by bacterial infections.
4. Cryptococcal infections: Caused by a fungus called Cryptococcus neoformans, often affecting people with weakened immune systems.
5. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can affect the CNS in people with compromised immune systems.
Symptoms of CNS infections can vary depending on the specific type and severity of the infection, but may include fever, headache, confusion, seizures, weakness, and stiff neck. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans.
Treatment of CNS infections depends on the underlying cause, but may involve antibiotics, antiviral medications, or antifungal drugs. In severe cases, hospitalization and supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and respiratory support may be necessary.
Prevention of CNS infections includes good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and getting vaccinated against certain viruses that can cause CNS infections. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are critical to preventing long-term complications of CNS infections and improving outcomes for patients.
The symptoms of PAN can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include:
* Joint pain and swelling
* Skin rash or lesions
* Abdominal pain
* Weight loss
* Numbness or weakness in the limbs
The exact cause of PAN is not known, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues. It can occur at any age, but is more common in adults between the ages of 40 and 60.
There is no cure for PAN, but treatment options include:
* Corticosteroids to reduce inflammation
* Immunosuppressive drugs to suppress the immune system
* Plasmapheresis to remove harmful antibodies from the blood
* Biologics to target specific proteins involved in the disease process
The prognosis for PAN varies depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, as well as the promptness and effectiveness of treatment. In general, the condition can be challenging to diagnose and treat, and the long-term outcome is often uncertain.
The exact cause of CNS vasculitis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be an autoimmune disorder, meaning that the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissues in the CNS. The condition can occur at any age, but it most commonly affects adults between the ages of 40 and 60.
Symptoms of CNS vasculitis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation, but may include:
* Memory loss
* Weakness or numbness in the limbs
* Vision problems
* Speech difficulties
Diagnosis of CNS vasculitis typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as MRI or CT scans, lumbar puncture, and blood tests. Treatment options for CNS vasculitis vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and plasmapheresis. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the brain or spinal cord.
Overall, CNS vasculitis is a serious condition that can have significant neurological consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are critical to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes for patients with this condition.
Types of Aortic Arch Syndromes:
1. Turner Syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects females and is caused by a missing X chromosome. This condition can result in short stature, infertility, and heart defects, including aortic arch syndrome.
2. Down Syndrome: A genetic disorder that occurs when there is an extra copy of chromosome 21. This condition can cause a range of symptoms, including heart defects such as aortic arch syndrome.
3. Williams Syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material from chromosome 7. This condition is characterized by cardiovascular problems, including aortic arch syndrome.
4. Marfan Syndrome: An inherited disorder that affects the body's connective tissue, including the heart and blood vessels. This condition can cause aortic arch syndrome and other cardiovascular problems.
5. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A group of inherited disorders that affect the body's connective tissue, including the heart and blood vessels. This condition can cause aortic arch syndrome and other cardiovascular problems.
Symptoms of Aortic Arch Syndromes:
1. Chest pain or pressure
2. Shortness of breath
3. Dizziness or fainting
4. Pulse deficiency in the arms or legs
5. Blue discoloration of the skin (cyanosis)
6. Heart murmurs
7. Abnormal heart rhythms
Diagnosis of Aortic Arch Syndromes:
1. Physical examination and medical history
2. Electrocardiogram (ECG)
4. Cardiac catheterization
5. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans
Treatment of Aortic Arch Syndromes:
1. Medications to control symptoms such as high blood pressure, heart failure, or abnormal heart rhythms
2. Surgery to repair or replace the aortic arch, including open-heart surgery or minimally invasive procedures
3. Monitoring and follow-up care to manage the condition and prevent complications.
Prognosis for Aortic Arch Syndromes:
The prognosis for aortic arch syndromes varies depending on the underlying cause of the condition, the severity of the symptoms, and the effectiveness of treatment. In general, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can improve the outlook for individuals with these conditions. However, without proper care, the condition can be life-threatening.
Some common examples of CNSVD include:
1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus. It can cause fever, headache, confusion, and seizures.
2. West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile virus, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion.
3. Japanese encephalitis (JE): This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, seizures, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
4. Rabies: This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, usually a dog, bat, or raccoon. Symptoms can include fever, headache, agitation, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
5. Enteroviral encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by enteroviruses, which are common viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms can include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
The diagnosis of CNSVD typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests or lumbar puncture), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and rehabilitation.
Prevention of CNSVD includes avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other vectors that can transmit disease, maintaining good hygiene practices (such as washing hands frequently), and getting vaccinated against diseases such as rabies and measles. In addition, taking steps to prevent head trauma and using protective equipment when engaging in activities that involve risk of head injury can help reduce the risk of CNSVD.
Overall, while central nervous system viral diseases can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and prevent long-term complications. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
List of MeSH codes (C20)
List of MeSH codes (C10)
List of MeSH codes (C02)
List of MeSH codes (C14)
Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases
International Classification of Headache Disorders
Chronic fatigue syndrome
Duffy antigen system
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AIDS Filter Strategy
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Giant cell arte1
- 4. Fatal varicella-zoster virus antigen-positive giant cell arteritis of the central nervous system. (nih.gov)
- A hypertensive emergency is severe hypertension with acute impairment of an organ system (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system and/or the renal system) and the possibility of irreversible organ-damage. (englishgratis.com)
- One question they hope to answer in the future is "how the brain regions that receive input from the cardiovascular system interface with other regions known to play an important role in memory. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is a multi-system disease, characterised by the triad of necrotising granulomata affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. (biomedcentral.com)
- 5. [Cerebral vasculitis with aneurysms caused by varicella-zoster virus infection during AIDS: a new clinicoangiographical syndrome]. (nih.gov)
- 8. Central nervous system and renal vasculitis associated with primary varicella infection in a child. (nih.gov)
- 15. Central nervous system vasculitis after chickenpox--cause or coincidence? (nih.gov)
- n\nAnimals One hundred and sixty-nine dogs with neurological disorders, 7 dogs with systemic inflammatory diseases without central nervous system involvement (SID), and 7 healthy Beagles were included in the study. (jak1inhibitor.com)
- Failure of the immune system to protect the body adequately from infection, due to the absence or insufficiency of some component process or substance. (nih.gov)
- strong course="kwd-title" Subject conditions: Cancer tumor immunotherapy, T cells, Compact disc4-positive T cells, Compact disc8-positive T cells, Defense cell isolation Launch Cell selection is normally a prerequisite in cell-based immune system therapies to attain desired cell item compositions. (siamtech.net)
- Currently, research workers are exploring the use of various kinds of immune system cells to fight diseases with an excellent concentrate on oncogenic malignancies pioneered by amazing results attained with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) improved T cells for hematologic signs5C7. (siamtech.net)
- Endogenous refers to diseases that are caused when a latent virus within a body acts up when the immune system is weakened. (health-care-information.org)
- While the cause is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. (alquds.edu)
- From allergies, common colds, skin rashes, fungal nail infections to cancer, Parkinson's disease and AIDS are all considered as diseases. (health-care-information.org)
- Meningitis is the inflammation of the leptomeninges and the most common central nervous system (CNS) bacterial infection. (medscape.com)
- Demographic data, comorbidities at presentation, histopathologic findings, and virus detection strategies by organ system were collected. (nature.com)
- In addition, full color illustrations throughout provide a valuable diagnostic aid. (edu.au)
- Central Nervous System - Lack of energy, general discomfort. (medindia.net)
- Multiple sclerosis is the most common immune-mediated disorder affecting the central nervous system . (alquds.edu)
- In addition, some microorganisms are more prone to involve particular regions of the nervous system. (medscape.com)
- Objectives: To identify the prevalence and associated factors of anxiety in people living with HIV/AIDS in a tertiary centre in Ghana. (bvsalud.org)
- Tufts Medicine is a health system in Massachusetts focused on supporting clinicians and helping them focus on what they do best: care for people. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
- These functional systems give top quality T cell selection, but the usage of straight labeled magnetic contaminants with high-affinity antibodies concentrating on cell surface substances limits the of fabricating a more described focus on cell population and could also impact additional downstream procedures. (siamtech.net)
- Estos elementos reflejan los criterios de SIDA definidos por los CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) en 1993. (bvsalud.org)
- Therefore, cell purification technology in conjunction with following generation bioengineering strategies provide an appealing integrated system. (siamtech.net)
- The central nervous system (CNS) is extremely resistant to infection by bacterial pathogens due to a combination of protective effects of its bony structures (skull and vertebral column), the meninges, and the blood-brain barrier. (medscape.com)
- The retina is actually part of the central nervous system and connected to the brain by the optic nerve. (diabeticeyecare.com)
- To conclude, ATC technology can be an innovative aswell as versatile system to Muc1 select, stimulate and modify cells for clinical downstream and production therapies. (siamtech.net)
-  This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to transmit signals , resulting in a range of signs and symptoms , including physical, mental , and sometimes psychiatric problems. (alquds.edu)
- For instance, GHB , a naturally occurring substance in the central nervous system is considered a drug, and is illegal in many countries, while nicotine is not officially considered a drug in most countries. (cloudfront.net)
- Giant cell arteritis (GCA), or temporal arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs in older persons and can result in a wide variety of systemic, neurologic, and ophthalmologic complications. (medscape.com)
- [ 3 ] but typically also involves medium and small arteries, particularly the superficial temporal arteries-hence the term temporal arteritis. (medscape.com)
- Combined immunosuppressive therapy is the treatment of choice for primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). (medscape.com)