Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.IndianaSoil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Plumbaginaceae: A plant family of the order Plumbaginales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida of shrubs and herbs. Some members contain ANTHOCYANINS and naphthaquinones.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mobiluncus: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in association with Gardnerella vaginalis in cases of bacterial vaginosis.Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.MinnesotaPlant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Lythrum: A plant genus of the family LYTHRACEAE that contains ALKALOIDS.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Hepatophyta: A plant division. They are simple plants that lack vascular tissue and possess rudimentary rootlike organs (rhizoids). Like MOSSES, liverworts have alternation of generations between haploid gamete-bearing forms (gametophytes) and diploid spore-bearing forms (sporophytes).New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Marchantia: A liverwort plant genus of the family Marchantiaceae, order Marchantiales, subclass MARCHANTIAE. Members contain brassinosteroids and DITERPENES.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Pteris: A plant genus of the family PTERIDACEAE. Members contain entkaurane DITERPENES. The name is similar to bracken fern (PTERIDIUM).Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Cacodylic Acid: An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.Arsenic Poisoning: Disorders associated with acute or chronic exposure to compounds containing ARSENIC (ARSENICALS) which may be fatal. Acute oral ingestion is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and an encephalopathy which may manifest as SEIZURES, mental status changes, and COMA. Chronic exposure is associated with mucosal irritation, desquamating rash, myalgias, peripheral neuropathy, and white transverse (Mees) lines in the fingernails. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1212)Arsenicals: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain arsenic.Thlaspi: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that is grown in rock gardens. T. arvense is grown for its large, round ornamental seed pods. The common name of pennycress usually refers to this genus but may also refer to the genus Microthlaspi.Beloniformes: An order of fish in the group SMEGMAMORPHA, comprising adrianichthyids, medakas (ORYZIAS), needlefishes, halfbeaks, and flying fishes.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Brachiaria: A plant genus of the family POACEAE originating from the savanna of eastern Africa. It is widely grown for livestock forage.Bambusa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Young shoots are eaten in Asian foods while the stiff mature stems are used for construction of many things. The common name of bamboo is also used for other genera of Poaceae including Phyllostachys, SASA, and Dendrocalamus.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.

Using empirical data to model transgene dispersal. (1/26)

One element of the current public debate about genetically modified crops is that gene flow from transgenic cultivars into surrounding weed populations will lead to more problematic weeds, particularly for traits such as herbicide resistance. Evolutionary biologists can inform this debate by providing accurate estimates of gene flow potential and subsequent ecological performance of resulting hybrids. We develop a model for gene flow incorporating exponential distance and directional effects to be applied to windpollinated species. This model is applied to previously published data on gene flow in experimental plots of Agrostis stolonifera L. (creeping bentgrass), which assessed gene flow from transgenic plants resistant to the herbicide glufosinate to surrounding non-transgenic plants. Our results show that although pollen dispersal can be limited in some sites, it may be extensive in others, depending on local conditions such as exposure to wind. Thus, hybridization under field conditions is likely to occur. Given the nature of the herbicide resistance trait, we regard this trait as unlikely to persist in the absence of herbicide, and suggest that the ecological consequences of such gene flow are likely to be minimal.  (+info)

Heat sensitivity in a bentgrass variant. Failure to accumulate a chloroplast heat shock protein isoform implicated in heat tolerance. (2/26)

Two variants of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera cv palustris), developed using tissue culture, have been used to determine the roles of chloroplast-localized small heat shock proteins (CP-sHSPs) in heat tolerance. Results from previous research indicate that the heat-tolerant variant expressed two additional CP-sHSP isoforms not expressed in the heat-sensitive variant, that accumulation of the additional CP-sHSP isoforms was genetically linked to thermotolerance, and that the presence of the additional isoforms in the heat-tolerant variant provided greater protection to photosystem II during heat stress. To determine the basis of the differential expression, we isolated the genes encoding the CP-sHSPs from both variants and characterized their structure and expression. Two genes, ApHsp26.2 and ApHsp26.7a, were isolated from the heat-tolerant variant, and three genes, ApHsp26.2m, ApHsp26.8, and ApHsp26.7b, were isolated from the heat-sensitive variant. The sequence of ApHsp26.2m from the heat-sensitive variant was identical to ApHsp26.2, except for a point mutation that generated a premature stop codon. Therefore, the protein product of ApHsp26.2m did not accumulate in the heat-sensitive line. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that ApHsp26.2 encoded for the CP-sHSP isoforms unique to the heat-tolerant variant. An identical mutation was detected in one of the three parental lines used to develop the creeping bentgrass variants. This suggests that ApHsp26.2m was inherited from this parent and did not arise from a mutation that occurred during tissue culture. The presence of two isoforms encoded by the same gene might be due to differential processing of the N-terminal amino acids during or after import into the chloroplast.  (+info)

Evidence for landscape-level, pollen-mediated gene flow from genetically modified creeping bentgrass with CP4 EPSPS as a marker. (3/26)

Sampling methods and results of a gene flow study are described that will be of interest to plant scientists, evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and stakeholders assessing the environmental safety of transgenic crops. This study documents gene flow on a landscape level from creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.), one of the first wind-pollinated, perennial, and highly outcrossing transgenic crops being developed for commercial use. Most of the gene flow occurred within 2 km in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximal gene flow distances observed were 21 km and 14 km in sentinel and resident plants, respectively, that were located in primarily nonagronomic habitats. The selectable marker used in these studies was the CP4 EPSPS gene derived from Agrobacterium spp. strain CP4 that encodes 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and confers resistance to glyphosate herbicide. Evidence for gene flow to 75 of 138 sentinel plants of A. stolonifera and to 29 of 69 resident Agrostis plants was based on seedling progeny survival after spraying with glyphosate in greenhouse assays and positive TraitChek, PCR, and sequencing results. Additional studies are needed to determine whether introgression will occur and whether it will affect the ecological fitness of progeny or the structure of plant communities in which transgenic progeny may become established.  (+info)

Comparison of early development of three grasses: Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera and Poa pratensis. (4/26)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To improve the management of grass communities, early plant development was compared in three species with contrasting growth forms, a caespitose (Lolium perenne), a rhizomatous (Poa pratensis) and a caespitose-stoloniferous species (Agrostis stolonifera). METHODS: Isolated seedlings were grown in a glasshouse without trophic constraints for 37 d (761 degrees Cd). The appearance of leaves and their location on tillers were recorded. Leaf appearance rate (LAR) on the tillers and site-filling were calculated. Tillering was modelled based on the assumption that tiller number increases with the number of leaves produced on the seedling main stem. Above- and below-ground parts were harvested to compare biomass. KEY RESULTS: Lolium perenne and A. stolonifera expressed similar bunch-type developments. However, root biomass was approx. 30 % lower in A. stolonifera than in L. perenne. Poa pratensis was rhizomatous. Nevertheless, the ratio of above-ground : below-ground biomass of P. pratensis was similar to that of L. perenne. LAR was approximately equal to 0.30 leaf d(-1) in L. perenne, and on the main stem and first primary tillers of A. stolonifera. LAR on the other tillers of A. stolonifera was 30 % higher than on L. perenne. For P. pratensis, LAR was 30 % lower than on L. perenne, but the interval between the appearance of two successive shoots from rhizomes was 30 % higher than the interval between two successive leaf stages on the main stem. Above-ground parts of P. pratensis first grew slower than in the other species to the benefit of the rhizomes, whose development enhanced tiller production. CONCLUSIONS: Lolium perenne had the fastest tiller production at the earliest stages of seedling development. Agrostis stolonifera and P. pratensis compensated almost completely for the delay due to higher LAR on tillers or ramets compared with L. perenne. This study provides a basis for modelling plant development.  (+info)

Identification of a gene in the process of being lost from the genus Agrostis. (5/26)

Lineage-specific gene loss is considered one of the processes contributing to speciation and genome diversity. Such gene loss has been inferred from interspecies comparisons of orthologous DNA segments. Examples of intraspecific gene loss are rare. Here we report identification of a gene, designated Crs-1 (creeping specific-1), that appears to be in the process of being lost from heterozygous populations of the species creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). The Crs-1 gene encodes a protein with an N-terminal dirigent protein domain and a C-terminal lectin domain and is similar to the maize (Zea mays) beta-glucosidase aggregating factor. Most individual creeping bentgrass plants examined are lacking Crs-1. Some individuals are hemizygous for the Crs-1 locus, indicating major haplotype noncolinearity at that locus. Crs-1 was not detected in several other Agrostis species, indicating it is being lost from the genus. The Crs-1 locus in creeping bentgrass provides a rare example of the evolutionary process of gene loss occurring within a plant species.  (+info)

Root respiratory characteristics associated with plant adaptation to high soil temperature for geothermal and turf-type Agrostis species. (6/26)

Respiration is a major avenue of carbohydrates loss. The objective of the present study was to examine root respiratory characteristics associated with root tolerance to high soil temperature for two Agrostis species: thermal Agrostis scabra, a species adapted to high-temperature soils in geothermal areas in Yellowstone National Park, and two cultivars ('L-93' and 'Penncross') of a cool-season turfgrass species, A. stolonifera (creeping bentgrass), that differ in their heat sensitivity. Roots of thermal A. scabra and both creeping bentgrass cultivars were exposed to high (37 degrees C) or low soil temperature (20 degrees C). Total root respiration rate and specific respiratory costs for maintenance and ion uptake increased with increasing soil temperatures in both species. The increases in root respiratory rate and costs for maintenance and ion uptake were less pronounced for A. scabra than for both creeping bentgrass cultivars (e.g. respiration rate increased by 50% for A. scabra upon exposure to high temperature for 28 d, as compared with 99% and 107% in 'L-93' and 'Penncross', respectively). Roots of A. scabra exhibited higher tolerance to high soil temperature than creeping bentgrass, as manifested by smaller decreases in relative growth rate, cell membrane stability, maximum root length, and nitrate uptake under high soil temperature. The results suggest that acclimation of respiratory carbon metabolism plays an important role in root survival of Agrostis species under high soil temperatures, particularly for the thermal grass adaptation to chronically high soil temperatures. The ability of roots to tolerate high soil temperatures could be related to the capacity to control respiratory rates and increase respiratory efficiency by lowering maintenance and ion uptake costs.  (+info)

Lifetime reproductive success and density-dependent, multi-variable resource selection. (7/26)

Individuals are predicted to maximize lifetime reproductive success (LRS) through selective use of resources; however, a wide range of ecological and social processes may prevent individuals from always using the highest-quality resources available. Resource selection functions (RSFs) estimate the relative amount of time an individual spends using a resource as a function of the proportional availability of that resource. We quantified the association between LRS and coefficients of individual-based RSFs describing lifetime resource selection for 267 female red deer (Cervus elaphus) of the Isle of Rum, Scotland, from 1970 to 2001. LRS was significantly related to first- and second-order effects of selection for Agrostis/Festuca grassland and proximity to the sea coast (quality of forage within Agrostis/Festuca grassland was highest nearest the coast (ratio of short:long grassland)). The benefits of selecting for quality in Agrostis/Festuca grassland, however, traded-off with increases in LRS gained by avoiding conspecific density. LRS was inversely associated with local density, which was highest along the coast, and reproductive benefits of selecting Agrostis/Festuca grassland diminished with increasing density. We discuss the relevance of these results to our understanding of the spatial distribution of red deer abundance, and potential applications of our approach to evolutionary and applied ecology.  (+info)

Engineered crops: transgenes go wild. (8/26)

Genetically modified Agrostis stolonifera has escaped from cultivation. For the first time, a herbicide-resistant perennial weed has established itself in wild populations.  (+info)

  • Lista gatunków z rodzaju mietlica ( Agrostis L.) - lista gatunków rodzaju roślin należącego do rodziny wiechlinowatych ( Poaceae (R. Br. (
  • The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Agrostis clivicola . (
  • Like Agrostis pallens, Molate fescue grew very fast after planting, although the first mowing was 1-2 weeks after that of A. pallens. (
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