Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Kalanchoe: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain bryophyllins (also called bryotoxins) which are bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES) that have insecticidal activity.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Acetophenones4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Brucella suis: A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.GlucuronidaseGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Hygromycin B: Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium. (1/966)

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells.  (+info)

Stable expression of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns. (2/966)

beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosaminide: beta1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1. 22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured cells were stably transformed with the full-length human galactosyltransferase gene placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The expression was confirmed by assaying enzymatic activity as well as by Southern and Western blotting. The transformant with the highest level of enzymatic activity has glycans with galactose residues at the terminal nonreducing ends, indicating the successful modification of the plant cell N-glycosylation pathway. Analysis of the oligosaccharide structures shows that the galactosylated N-glycans account for 47.3% of the total sugar chains. In addition, the absence of the dominant xylosidated- and fucosylated-type sugar chains confirms that the transformed cells can be used to produce glycoproteins without the highly immunogenic glycans typically found in plants. These results demonstrate the synthesis in plants of N-linked glycans with modified and defined sugar chain structures similar to mammalian glycoproteins.  (+info)

Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (3/966)

To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Furthermore, it has the cis sequences required for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plants. We cloned large genomic DNA fragments of Arabidopsis thaliana into the vector and showed that most of the DNA fragments were maintained stably. Several TAC clones carrying 40- to 80-kb genomic DNA fragments were transferred back into Arabidopsis with high efficiency and shown to be inherited faithfully among the progeny. Furthermore, we demonstrated the practical utility of this vector system for positional cloning in Arabidopsis. A TAC contig was constructed in the region of the SGR1 locus, and individual clones with ca. 80-kb inserts were tested for their ability to complement the gravitropic defects of a homozygous mutant line. Successful complementation enabled the physical location of SGR1 to be delimited with high precision and confidence.  (+info)

Conjugal transfer but not quorum-dependent tra gene induction of pTiC58 requires a solid surface. (4/966)

Donors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a transfer-constitutive derivative of the nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 transferred this element at frequencies 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher in matings conducted on solid surfaces than in those conducted in liquid medium. However, as measured with a lacZ reporter fusion, the tra genes of the wild-type Ti plasmid were inducible by opines to indistinguishable levels on solid and in liquid medium. Donors induced in liquid transferred the Ti plasmid at high frequency when mated with recipients on solid medium. We conclude that while formation of stable mating pairs and subsequent transfer of the Ti plasmid is dependent on a solid stratum, the regulatory system can activate tra gene expression to equivalent levels in liquid and on solid surfaces.  (+info)

Dimerization of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase and the effect of ATP-binding cassette mutations on the assembly and function of the T-DNA transporter. (5/966)

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase functions with other VirB proteins to export T-DNA to susceptible plant cells and other DNA substrates to a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that VirB4 mutants with defects in the Walker A nucleotide-binding motif are non-functional and exert a dominant negative phenotype when synthesized in wild-type cells. This study characterized the oligomeric structure of VirB4 and examined the effects of Walker A sequence mutations on complex formation and transporter activity. VirB4 directed dimer formation when fused to the amino-terminal portion of cI repressor protein, as shown by immunity of Escherichia coli cells to lambda phage infection. VirB4 also dimerized in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as demonstrated by the recovery of a detergent-resistant complex of native protein and a functional, histidine-tagged derivative by precipitation with anti-His6 antibodies and by Co2+ affinity chromatography. Walker A sequence mutants directed repressor dimerization in E. coli and interacted with His-VirB4 in A. tumefaciens, indicating that ATP binding is not required for self-association. A dimerization domain was localized to a proposed N-terminal membrane-spanning region of VirB4, as shown by the dominance of an allele coding for the N-terminal 312 residues and phage immunity of host cells expressing cI repressor fusions to alleles for the first 237 or 312 residues. A recent study reported that the synthesis of a subset of VirB proteins, including VirB4, in agrobacterial recipients has a pronounced stimulatory effect on the virB-dependent conjugal transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by agrobacterial donors. VirB4'312 suppressed the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins for DNA uptake when synthesized in recipient cells. In striking contrast, Walker A sequence mutants contributed to the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins to the same extent as native VirB4. These findings indicate that the oligomeric structure of VirB4, but not its capacity to bind ATP, is important for the assembly of VirB proteins as a DNA uptake system. The results of these studies support a model in which VirB4 dimers or homomultimers contribute structural information for the assembly of a transenvelope channel competent for bidirectional DNA transfer, whereas an ATP-dependent activity is required for configuring this channel as a dedicated export machine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction. (6/966)

The VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for delivery of T-DNA to the nuclei of susceptible plant cells. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analyses, VirE2 was shown to self-associate and to interact with VirE1. VirE2 mutants with small deletions or insertions of a 31-residue oligopeptide (i31) at the N or C terminus or with an i31 peptide insertion at Leu236 retained the capacity to form homomultimers. By contrast, VirE2 mutants with modifications outside a central region located between residues 320 and 390 retained the capacity to interact with VirE1. These findings suggest the tertiary structure of VirE2 is important for homomultimer formation whereas a central domain mediates formation of a complex with VirE1. The capacity of VirE2 mutants to interact with full-length VirE2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlated with the abundance of the mutant proteins in A. tumefaciens, suggesting that VirE2 is stabilized by homomultimerization in the bacterium. We further characterized the promoter and N- and C-terminal sequence requirements for synthesis of functional VirE2. A PvirB::virE2 construct yielded functional VirE2 protein as defined by complementation of a virE2 null mutation. By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2. Deletion of 10 or 9 residues from the N or C terminus of VirE2, respectively, or addition of heterologous peptides or proteins to either terminus resulted in a loss of protein function. However, an i31 peptide insertion at Tyr39 had no effect on protein function as defined by the capacity of the mutant protein to (i) interact with native VirE2, (ii) interact with VirE1, (iii) accumulate at abundant levels in A. tumefaciens, and (iv) restore wild-type virulence to a virE2 null mutant. We propose that Tyr39 of VirE2 corresponds to a permissive site for insertion of heterologous peptides or proteins of interest for delivery across kingdom boundaries.  (+info)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens possesses a fourth flagelin gene located in a large gene cluster concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and motility. (7/966)

The authors have identified a fourth flagellin gene in a 21850 bp region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58C1 chromosome containing at least 20 genes concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and function. Three flagellin genes, flaA, flaB and flaC, orientated rightward, are positioned in a tandem array at the right end, with the fourth, substantially larger gene, flaD, in the opposite orientation, at the left end. Between these lie four apparent operons, two transcribed in each direction (motA, flhB leftward; flgF, flgB rightward) from a divergent position approx 7.5 kb from the left end. This unifies the previously published motA, flgB and flaABC sequences into a single region, also containing the homologues of flhB, flgF and fliI. Site-specific mutagenesis of fliI results in a non-flagellate phenotype, while a Tn5-induced flhB mutant possesses abnormal flagella. Mutagenesis and protein profiling demonstrate that all four flagellins contribute to flagellar structure: FlaA is the major protein, FlaB and FlaC are present in lesser amounts, and FlaD is a minor component. FlaA has anomolous electrophoretic mobility, possibly due to glycosylation.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene promoters in Escherichia coli requires the A. tumefaciens RpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. (8/966)

The two-component regulatory system, composed of virA and virG, is indispensable for transcription of virulence genes within Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, virA and virG are insufficient to activate transcription from virulence gene promoters within Escherichia coli cells, indicating a requirement for additional A. tumefaciens genes. In a search for these additional genes, we have identified the rpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which confers significant expression of a virB promoter (virBp)::lacZ fusion in E. coli in the presence of an active transcriptional regulator virG gene. We conducted in vitro transcription assays using either reconstituted E. coli RNAP or hybrid RNAP in which the alpha subunit was derived from A. tumefaciens. The two forms of RNAP were equally efficient in transcription from a sigma(70)-dependent E. coli galP1 promoter; however, only the hybrid RNAP was able to transcribe virBp in a virG-dependent manner. In addition, we provide evidence that the alpha subunit from A. tumefaciens, but not from E. coli, is able to interact with the VirG protein. These data suggest that transcription of virulence genes requires specific interaction between VirG and the alpha subunit of A. tumefaciens and that the alpha subunit from E. coli is unable to effectively interact with the VirG protein. This work provides the basis for future studies designed to examine vir gene expression as well as the T-DNA transfer process in E. coli.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of agrobacterium tumefaciens unipolar polysaccharide production reveals complex integrated control of the motile-to-sessile switch. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Kim, Jinwoo. AU - Koestler, Benjamin J.. AU - Choi, Jeong-Hyeon. AU - Waters, Christopher M.. AU - Fuqua, Clay. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Many bacteria colonize surfaces and transition to a sessile mode of growth. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact surfaces. Here we report that elevated levels of the intracellular signal cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) lead to surface-contact-independent UPP production and a red colony phenotype due to production of UPP and the exopolysaccharide cellulose, when A.tumefaciens is incubated with the polysaccharide stain Congo Red. Transposon mutations with elevated Congo Red staining identified presumptive UPP-negative regulators, mutants for which were hyperadherent, ...
virB11, one of the 11 genes of the virB operon, is absolutely required for transport of T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plant cells. Previous studies reported that VirB11 is an ATPase with autophosphorylation activity and localizes to the inner membrane even though the protein does not contain the consensus N-terminal export sequence. In this report, we show that VirB11 localizes to the inner membrane even in the absence of other tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid-encoded proteins. To facilitate the further characterization of VirB11, we purified this protein from the soluble fraction of an Escherichia coli extract by fusing VirB11 to the maltose-binding protein. The maltose-binding protein-VirB11 fusion was able to complement a virB11 deletion mutant of A. tumefaciens for tumor formation and also localized properly to the inner membrane of A. tumefaciens. The 72-kDa protein, purified from E. coli, exhibited no autophosphorylation, ATPase activity, or ATP-binding activity. To study the ...
Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted hydantoins. The optically pure D-amino acids are used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, as food additives and as insecticides. This hydrolysis of D, L-substituted hydantoins is catalysed by two hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes, an hydantoinase and an N-carbamyl amino acid amidohydrolase. While the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes have been studied in detail, the mechanisms that control expression of the hyu genes have not. The research reported in this work elucidates some of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the hyu genes in A. tumefaciens strains.. The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was characterized. A broad host range vector for the simultaneous analysis of divergent promoters was constructed. The promoter regions responsible for the activation of transcription of hyuH and hyuC were identified by ...
The acc locus from the classic nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 confers utilization of agrocinopines A+B and susceptibility to an antibiotic called agrocin 84. DNA sequence analyses revealed that acc is composed of eight genes, acc R, and accABCDEFG. accR codes for the repressor which regulates this locus. The predicted proteins from accABCDE are related to each component of ABC-type transport systems, while the predicted products of accF and accG are related to catabolic enzymes. Genetic analyses of insertion mutations showed that accABCDE are required for uptake of both agrocin 84 and agrocinopines, whereas accF and accG are required for utilization of the opines. The accF mutant was not susceptible to agrocin 84 although it took up the antibiotic. This suggests that agrocin 84 must be activated by functions coded for by accF after it is transported into the bacterium. Analysis of lacZ fusions showed that acc is induced in response to agrocinopines and to phosphate starvation. Analyses of ...
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6.
FIG. 1. Immunoprecipitation studies with anti-VirB6, anti-VirB7, and anti-VirB9 antisera. (A) Isolation of VirB protein complexes from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348. (B) VirB complexes isolated from PC1000(pSJB610). Lanes: αB6, αB7, and αB9, anti-VirB antisera; PI, preimmune serum; PA, protein A Sepharose (these were all used for precipitation); Sol. Prot., solubilized starting material for the precipitations; MW, molecular weight markers, with sizes in kilodaltons shown at left. Blots were probed with antiserum to the VirB proteins listed at the right. The cross-reactive material in the blot developed with anti-VirB10 antiserum is heavy-chain IgG, but native VirB10 (48 kDa) and VirB10′ (40 kDa) derived from translation from an internal Met were clearly distinguished from this background in the immunoblots. The IgG light chain also was immunoreactive and formed a nonspecific background in blots developed with the anti-VirB6, -VirB8, and -VirB9 antisera. ...
Abstract. The broad host range pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied as a model system to understand horizontal gene flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells, and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation also is the major method for generating transgenic plants for research and biotechnology purposes. Agrobacterium species have the natural ability to conduct interkingdom genetic transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, including most plant species, yeast, fungi, and even animal cells. In nature, A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease resulting from expression in plants of auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis genes encoded by the transferred (T-) DNA. Gene transfer from A. tumefaciens to host cells requires virulence (vir) genes that reside on the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to T-DNA, several Virulence (Vir) effector proteins are also translocated to host cells through a bacterial type IV secretion ...
Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce substantial levels of cytokinins. In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this objective, a sequence of methods was developed which allowed the isolation, purification and rigorous chemical identification of cytokinins at the sub-microgram level. The first step of purification utilized the adsorption of cytokinins onto C18 silica by a process known as trace enrichment. Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by bioassay. Material in biologically active fractions was permethylated and analyzed by combined capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A. tumefaciens tRNA was found ...
As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also ...
44,203-229. , Hirsch, P. , Hooykaas, P J J , and Schilperoort, R. A (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tr-plasmrd. Nature 303, 179,180. 8. Stachel, S. E and Nester, E W. (1986) The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 TI plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. $1445-1454 9. Stachel, S E and Zambryski, P (1986) virA and virG control the plant-induced activation of the T-DNA transfer process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biol. Rep. 10, 12-36. &APTER 7 Leaf Disk Transformation Ian S. Curtis, Michael R. Davey, and J. Brian Power 1. Introduction Reliable and efficient methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. The Gram-negative soil bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, are natural genetic engineers, capable of transforming a range of dicotyledonous plants by transferring plasmid-encoded genes into recipient ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been produced by a modified leaf disk transformation-regeneration method. Leaf pieces from sterilely grown plants were precultured for 2 days and inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an avirulent Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid with a chimeric gene encoding hygromycin resistance. After cocultivation for 2 days, the leaf pieces were placed on a medium that selects for hygromycin resistance. Shoots regenerated within 3 months and were excised, rooted, and transferred to soil. Transformation was confirmed by opine production, hygromycin resistance, and DNA blot hybridization of both primary transformants and progeny. This process for producing transgenic Arabidopsis plants should enhance the usefulness of the species for experimental biology. |P /|
Plant material and transformation: Plants were grown in peat soil with 18 hr light and 6 hr dark. DNA constructs were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 and then transformed into Arabidopsis plants by the floral dip method (Clough and Bent 1998).. Plasmid construction: Tag1 promoter-GUS expression plasmids were constructed as follows. The pTPG2 and pTPG3 plasmids were generated by PCR amplifying 1- to 262-bp and 1- to 548-bp fragments, respectively, from the 5′ end of Tag1 into the XbaI and BamHI restriction sites of the pBI101.3 GUS expression vector (accession no. U12640). pTPG4 was made by ligating a XbaI-ScaI Tag1 fragment (1-1251 bp of Tag1) from the pBT1 plasmid (Liuet al. 2001a), which contains Tag1 in the BlueScript vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA), into the XbaI-SmaI sites of pBI101.3 to generate an in-frame fusion between the Tag1 transposase and GUS. pTPG5 was made by ligating a XbaI-NdeI 5′ Tag1 fragment (1-1950 bp of Tag1 in pBT1) into the XbaI and BamHI ...
Nesme, X., Leclerc, M.C. & Bardin, R. 1989 PCR detection of an original endosymbiont: the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens In. Endocytobiology IV, eds.Nardon, P., Gianinazzi- Peason, V., Greines, A.M., Margulis, L. & Smith, D.C, pp. 47-50. Paris: Institute National de Recherche Agronomique ...
Author: Willmitzer, L.; Genre: Meeting Abstract; Published in Print: 1984; Title: The Ti Plasmid of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens - a Plant-Oriented Gene Vector
The present invention allows large glass substrates to be rapidly moved from one processing station to another. Such movement occurs such that drives in different chambers are synchronized to move the glass substrates on shuttles at appropriate times. In systems according to the invention, at least a first and second chamber are provided. Typically, the first chamber is a load lock and the second chamber is a processing chamber. A substrate transfer shuttle is used to move substrate along a guide path defined by, e.g., guide rollers. Drive mechanisms are employed for most chambers to drive the shuttle along associated portions of the path. A control system is provided which powers the drive mechanism for the first chamber to drive the substrate transfer shuttle from a first position toward a second position and through an intermediate position. At the intermediate position, the substrate transfer shuttle begins to engage and induce movement of the drive mechanism for the second chamber. The control
Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects various plants and causes crown gall diseases involving temporal expression of virulence factors. SghA is a newly-identified virulence factor enzymatically releasing salicylic acid from its glucoside conjugate and controlling the plant tumor development. Here we report the structural basis of SghR, a LacI-type transcription factor and highly conserved in Rhizobiaceae family, regulating the expression of SghA and involved in tumorigenesis. We identified and characterized the binding site of SghR on the promoter region of sghA, and then determined the crystal structures of apo-SghR, SghR complexed with its operator DNA and ligand sucrose, respectively. These results provide detailed insights into how SghR recognizes its cognate DNA and shed a mechanistic light on how sucrose attenuates the affinity of SghR with DNA to modulate the expression of SghA. Given the important role of SghR in mediating the signaling crosstalk during Agrobacterium infection, our ...
A series of vectors has been constructed for the purpose of introducing cloned DNAs into plant genomes, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods. One of these vectors, pCIT20, is a plasmid that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS), and a marker (Hph) that confers hygromycin resistance to plant cells. The others are all cosmid vectors which allow insertion of up to 46 kb of plant genomic DNA, and which also contain all of the necessary sequences for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. The cosmid vectors either contain a Hph marker (pCIT03), or a kanamycin-resistance marker (pCIT101-104). Three of the cosmid vectors (pCIT30, pCIT101, and pCIT103) carry bacteriophage T7 and SP6 promoters flanking the cloning Bg/II site, for synthesis of end-specific RNAs. The end-specific RNAs may be used as probes when labeled with radioactive or biotinylated nucleotides, for example, in a chromosome-walking experiment. The other two cosmid vectors (pCIT102 and pCIT104) carry ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Monomethylamine can be used by nonmethylotrophs as a sole nitrogen source but not as a carbon source; however, little is known about the genes and enzymes involved. The gamma-glutamylmethylamide/N-methylglutamate pathway for monomethylamine utilization by methylotrophs has recently been resolved. We have identified genes encoding key enzymes of this pathway in nonmethylotrophs (e. g., Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and demonstrated that this pathway is also involved in the utilization of monomethylamine as a nitrogen source by nonmethylotrophs.. ...
Many bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, rely on an asymmetric localization, distribution, and orientation of specific appendages when interacting wi...
Previous work on identifying the molecular mechanisms mediating plant-pathogen interactions and reciprocal host responses have little emphasis on developing models that closely resemble host-microbe interaction in planta. This work establishes an amalgamated model of interaction wherein successful pathogens elicit and overcome host defenses activated by microbial signatures and virulence factors. Using a hydroponic co-cultivation model, we assessed the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 to ameliorate limitations of previous approaches. Comparisons of differential gene expression between directly and indirectly affected host sites by microarray analysis revealed both reactive and pro-active defense responses, respectively. Selected homozygous single-gene knockouts for proactive defenses show variable A. tumefaciens root surface attachment and root secretion profiles. Studying host-microbe responses using hydroponics may improve priming of cash crops against pathogens
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The novel genetic material in the new canola lines was inserted into the canola variety, Westar, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with the disarmed Ti-plasmid pMOG625. The T-DNA contained both phytase and nptII genes. The phytase gene is under the control of the cruciferin A seed storage protein transcript promoter which includes a cruciferin signal peptide sequence. Its terminator is also from the cruciferin A seed storage protein transcript. Both controlling sequences were obtained from Brassica napus. The nptII gene is under the control of the NOS promoter and terminator with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-derived open reading frame inserted between the gene and its terminator. The open reading frame consists of coding for 50 amino acids from the Agrobacterium ornithine-cyclo-deaminase ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Background: Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 (pMP90) is widely used in transient gene expression assays, including assays to study pathogen effectors and plant disease resistance mechanisms. However, inoculation of A. tumefaciens GV3101 into Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves prior to infiltration with pathogenic and non-host strains of Pseudomonas syringae results in suppression of macroscopic symptoms when compared with leaves pre-treated with a buffer control. Methodology/Findings: To gain further insight into the mechanistic basis of symptom suppression by A. tumefaciens we examined the effect of pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens on the growth of P. syringae, the production of the plant signalling molecules salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the presence of callose deposits. Pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens reduced ABA levels, P. syringae multiplication and P. syringae-elicited SA and ABA production, but promoted increased callose deposition. However, pre-treatment with A.
A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different
Although the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency was only a fraction of 1%, it was possible to exploit the transposition frequency of a single T0 line to initiate the development of a functional resource for activation tagging in tomato. The practice of using micropropagation to produce many clonal plants from a single tissue culture regenerant proved valuable, as it multiplied T1 seed production by up to 25 times. This strategy also capitalized on the behavior of transposase in Ac/Ds-ATag-Bar_gosGFP by isolating chimeric tissue from the original transformant into separate plantlets, allowing germinal transposition from multiple sites of Ds integration. The selection of a self-fertile, true breeding tomato cultivar allowed crossing to nontransgenic cv M82, thus maximizing T1 seed production. Pollen could be collected from transgenic flowers and distributed to multiple nontransgenic plants, all while still obtaining transgenic self-progeny.. Modifications made to the ...
OsARF1 is the first full-length member of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family to be cloned from monocot plant. Using quantitative RT-PCR this study found that, the transcript abundance of OsARF1 was significantly higher in embryonic tissues than in vegetative tissues. To investigate the effect of OsARF1 on the phenotype of rice, a cDNA fragment of OsARF1 was inserted in inverse orientation to the 35S promoter in vector pBin438 to produce an antisense (AS) construction. The AS-OsARF1 construct was transferred into rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica) calli via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of transgenic plants showed that the functional expression of OsARF1 was inhibited at mRNA level efficiently. The AS-OsARF1 plants showed extremely low growth, poor vigor, short curled leaves and tillered but were sterile. Therefore, the OsARF1 was shown to be essential for growth in vegetative organs and seed development.. ...
The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three-dimensional structure of protein, de novo design principles and genetic information. Amino acid substitution and loop insertion were targeted to the interior and exterior, respectively, of the proteins β-barrels. First, we introduced the methionine enhancement mutations into phaseolin cDNA, expressed cDNA in Escherichia coli and purified monomeric non-glycosylated proteins. Biophysical analysis of E. coli-expressed proteins demonstrated a similar structural stability of wild-type and mutant phaseolin monomers. Here, we attempted to test the structural stability of the methionine-enhanced phaseolin by introducing phaseolin cDNA to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leaf disks, regenerating
Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi, and that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. We identified three hydrophobin genes from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum and provided functional characterization of strains lacking these genes. One gene (HYD1/ssgA) encodes a Class I hydrophobin identified previously. Two new genes, HYD3 and HYD2, encode a Class-I and Class-II hydrophobin, respectively. To examine function, we deleted all three, separately, from the M. brunneum strain KTU-60 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion strains were screened for alterations in developmental phenotypes including growth, sporulation, pigmentation, colony surface properties, and virulence to insects. All deletion strains were reduced in their ability to sporulate and showed alterations in ...
The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The T-DNA is transferred from bacterium into the host plants nuclear DNA genome. The capability of this specialized tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is attributed to two essential regions required for DNA transfer to the host cell. As the T-DNA is bordered by 25-base-pair repeats on each end. Transfer is initiated at the right border and terminated at the left border and requires the vir genes of the Ti plasmid. The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant ...
Indeed, taking a gene from a soil bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt) that produces a natural pesticide and injecting that gene into the DNA of a soy plant, is hardly Mother Natures way of hybridising plants." Ummmm...FAIL! Sorry, that is EXACTLY how Mother Gaia engineers plants, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens: that bug causes crown gall by inserting DNA into the host plant cells that provides a nice little niche environment for the bacterium to grow.. In fact, if people actually understood just how much other DNA finds its way into plant genomes, they would lose all fear of GMOs. Or, alternatively, not eat anything ever again - which wwould be a fitting Darwinian punishment for stupidity.. Seriously: just the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) genome, for example, contains genes or sequences derived from Agrobacterium, from plant-infecting single-stranded DNA geminiviruses, from single-stranded RNA potyviruses, from insects that feed on plants, and from other bacteria and probably from fungi. ...
The plasmid vector pGreenII, which is widely used in the production of stable plant transformants, is shown herein to predispose constructs to the acquisition of mutations (Figure 1) despite its earlier revision (Hellens and Mullineaux 2000). This predisposition arises from pGreenII having an adverse effect on the growth of E. coli. It perturbs normal cell division resulting in the production of long filaments (Figure 1), a phenomenon associated with stressed cells (Justice et al. 2008), and causes a dramatic reduction in cell viability following overnight incubation (Table 1). This is far from ideal as the insertion of DNA into plasmids can itself affect the growth of E. coli through increased metabolic burden and the acquisition of activities that perturb cellular functions (Bentley et al. 2009; Rosano and Ceccarelli 2014). In our case, the insertion of a 4605 bp fragment containing the cDNA of the plant DNA methyltransferase 1 (MET1) into pGreenII generated sufficient selective pressure for ...
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the process of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Phenolic and sugar molecules from wounded plant cells trigger in the bacterium a series of events resulting in the processing of the T-DNA by the VirD1/VirD2 endonuclease and the subsequent transfer of the VirD2/T-strand complex, along with VirE2 and VirF proteins, from the bacterium through the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system. Key events in the plant cell include bacterial attachment, T-complex and Vir protein transfer, cytoplasmic trafficking of the T-complex, nuclear targeting, and T-DNA integration. Some of the plant genes necessary for these processes are depicted by representative rat mutants.. ...
A frictionless transport apparatus for transporting an object from a first to a second station is disclosed. The apparatus has a frame extending between the first and second stations and a carriage mounted for movement along said frame, in a levitated condition. A substantial portion of the weight of the carriage and load is supported by biasing magnets on the frame and carriage. The carriage and load are stabilized in a levitated condition by magnetic interactions between a diamagnetic plate on the carriage and a magnetic array extending along the frame. The carriage is moved in its levitated condition by a frictionless drive system, such as an electromagnetic, electrostatic, or pneumatic drive system. Also disclosed is a method of frictionless transport of an object between first and second stations.
As a microbiologist and cell biologist, Dr. Heindls research focuses on the prokaryotic development and bacterial interactions within the environment. He uses the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciensand related bacteria to understand regulatory principles and molecular mechanisms governing bacterial developmental stages from growth and remodeling, to the morphogenesis, division, and biofilm formation. His work has been published in several renowned scientific journals, such as Journal of Bacteriology, Infection and Immunity, and PLOS ONE-a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science. In his new role, Dr. Heindls responsibilities include teaching a variety of undergraduate microbiology courses and developing new courses for the program. He is also charged with establishing an active research program with undergraduate and graduate students in the Department of Biological Sciences. Dr. Heindl, a native of Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, received his ...
Agrobacterium vitis and some strains of A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes cause a dangerous chronic disease on grape plants-crown gall. Molecular-genetic methods were used in the work to identify and study the diversity of pathogenic agrobacteria that cause crown gall in the vineyards of Krasnodar krai. The research material was 76 samples of young and lignified tumor-like outgrowths of crown gall ...
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which is a source of opines, chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that inactivates OC8-HSL. OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a proteomic screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using a transgenic tobacco that expressed a ...
During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which becomes a source of opines: chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl) homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that opens the ring and inactivates OC8-HSL. Consequently, OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using transgenic ...
Definition of agrobacterium - A bacterium of the genus Agrobacterium, which includes Gram-negative aerobic rods found in soil, several of which cause plant gall
AGROBACTERIUM :: Information about AGROBACTERIUM -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. FindTheWord.info searches for partial words (both crossword solver and part of word), help with cheating in Scrabble and Wordfeud, finds anagrams, palindromes, and words in word, and much more.The dictionary used contains more than 589,000 English words.
Genetic transformation of maize via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is still more art than science, with different researchers achieving substantially different transformation results
Molecular Farming. Similar to the viral vector system, transient gene expression via agroinfiltration is a fast, flexible and reproducible approach to high-level expression of useful proteins. Here recombinant strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be used for transientexpression of genes that have been inserted into the T-DNA region of the bacterial Ti plasmid. However, the utility of the system is limited because the ectopic protein expression ceases after 2-3 days. In many cases post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a major cause for this lack of efficiency.. A system based on co-expression of a viral-encoded suppressor protein which originally represents a viral adaptation to a novel host antiviral defense via gene silencing. The suppressor proteins of different viruses, are analysed for their ability to prevent the onset of post-transcriptional gene silencing in the infiltrated tissues and thus allow high level of transient expression. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, we ...
A novel system for detection of gene transfer between A. tumefaciens and mammalian cells was established. Using this system, Agrobacterium was found to be able to deliver DNA located on its plasmid and chromosome into human cells. Agrobacterium is actively involved in this process; such a kind of DNA transfer might occur widely between bacteria and mammalian cells. The frequency of such a gene transfer was approximately 10-4-10-5 transformants per recipient. Our data showed that this DNA transfer is dependent upon Agrobacterium and independent of its virulence genes. The polymerization of actin played an important role in Agrobacterium internalization and subsequent gene transfer into mammalian cells. In addition, an Agrobacterium sensor protein ChvG was found to be important for the gene transfer into both plant and mammalian cells. The data suggested that ChvG was involved in the regulation of acid-inducible genes and might function as a global sensor protein that can directly or indirectly ...
Sukanya NK, Vaidyanathan CS (1964). "Aminotransferases of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transamination between tryptophan and ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. MON 88017 is an Insect resistant maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein ...
Van Keer C, Kersters K, De Ley J (September 1976). "L-Sorbose metabolism in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ...
Genetic transformation of A. thaliana is routine, utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into the plant genome. ... Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a technique that takes advantage of the natural process by which Agrobacterium ... "Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Science. 234 (4775): 464-466. Bibcode:1986Sci...234.. ... Zhang X, Henriques R, Lin SS, Niu QW, Chua NH (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana using the ...
Her research topics included the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn is a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Math and ... particularly known for her research into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn was born Barbara Freiinger, in Klagenfurt, Austria ...
From Galacturonic acid by the organism agrobacterium tumefaciens. Alpha-ketoglutarate can be used to produce: Creatine-alpha ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is another common technique. Agrobacteria are natural plant parasites, and ... for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful. The major disadvantage of this procedure is ... One of these was isolated from an Agrobacterium strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that was resistant to glyphosate. The CP4 EPSPS gene was ... Shrawat, A.; Lörz, H. (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals: a promising approach crossing barriers". Plant ...
"Agrobacterium tumefaciens deploys a superfamily of type VI secretion DNase effectors as weapons for interbacterial competition ... and plant-associated bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These systems exert antibacterial activity via the function of ...
Misono, H.; Nagasaki, S. (1982). "Occurrence of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J. Bacteriol. 150 (1): ... "Purification and properties of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 2253-2255. doi: ... "Properties of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J. Biochem. 105 (6): 1002-1008. PMID 2768207. Heydari, ...
A. thaliana can be genetically transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens; transgenic seed can be obtained by simply dipping ... Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F. (1998-12-01). "Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ...
"Cloning and sequencing of the serine dehydrogenase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (5): ... dependent serine dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61 (1): 152-7. doi:10.1271/bbb. ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens Pierce's disease Xylella fastidiosa Bacterial inflorescence rot [1] Pseudomonas syringae ...
... formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this species to transfer foreign DNA into plant genomes. Aerobic ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... this process has been described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Methylobacterium organophilum, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. ...
Natural genetic transformation has been reported in at least three Rhizobiales species: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... Other important genera are the human pathogens Bartonella and Brucella, as well as Agrobacterium (genetic engineering). The ...
ATCC31749, which produces curdlan in extraordinary amounts, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A putative operon contains crdS, ... It is produced by non-pathogenic bacteria such as Agrobacterium biobar. The production of curdlan by Alcaligenes faecalis is ... Four genes required for curdlan production have been identified in Agrobacterium sp. ... synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain ATCC31749". Glycobiology. 13 (10): 693-706. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwg093. PMID 12851288. " ...
It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, ... which develops the crown gall (tumor). The VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system. The nitrogen ... Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter ...
This strain was modified using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plasmid pMHL2113. Agrobacterium transferred the betA gene from ...
This includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942. Blastobacter capsulatus is currently classified in ... Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to ... Agrobacterium has been recognized as being related to the Rhizobium. Evidence supporting the association was conducted by ... These species were formerly classified in the genus Agrobacterium. This is the type species for the genus. Arthrobacter ...
ROSE1 is found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum whereas ROSEAT2 is a closely related element from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The two ... "Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi are examples of gall-causing bacteria. Gall forming virus was found on ...
ROSE1 and ROSEAT2 are found in rhizobiales Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens respectively. They exist in ... "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...
"Biochemical characterization of a novel hydantoin racemase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58". Biochimie. 86: 77-81. doi: ...
viciae 3841 strain Agrobacterium species: A. vitis,A. tumefaciens, A. radiobacter and A. H13 All these sequences showed ... tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. radiobacter, and Agrobacterium H13) as well as in a broad spectrum of Brucella species (B. ovis, B. ... have not been observed in their Agrobacterium tumefaciens counterparts referred to as AbcR1 and AbcR2, respectively, by Wilms ... "Small RNA-mediated control of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens GABA binding protein". Molecular Microbiology. 80: 492-506. doi: ...
"Microprojectile bombardment of plant tissues increases transformation frequency by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Plant Mol. Biol ... In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site ... The Agrobacterium present is also killed by the antibiotic. Only tissues expressing the marker will survive and possess the ... Transformation via Agrobacterium has been successfully practiced in dicots, i.e. broadleaf plants, such as soybeans and ...
... is a part of the genetic equipment that Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes use to transduce their genetic ... Mary-Dell Chilton Jeff Schell Marc Van Montagu Schell J, Van Montagu M., The Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a natural ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTi-SAKURA, complete sequence Ti Plasmid Genetic Map. ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Reconstitution of Acetosyringone-Mediated Agrobacterium tumefaciens Virulence ...
For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ...
Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted ... Regulation of hyu gene expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR. by Jiwaji, M. ... tumefaciens strains.. The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was ... In addition, it indicates that the hyu genes in the two A. tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR are different.. The presence ...
Characterization of Theacc (Agrocinopine Catabolism) Locus on the Nopaline-Type Ti Plasmid From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens ... Characterization of Theacc (Agrocinopine Catabolism) Locus on the Nopaline-Type Ti Plasmid From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens ... Characterization of Theacc (Agrocinopine Catabolism) Locus on the Nopaline-Type Ti Plasmid From Agrobacterium Tumefaciens ... Agrobacterium strains were attracted to several opines tested. The determinants for chemotaxis to these opines were localized ...
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti ... Neoplastic crown gall tumors incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens release novel amino acid or sugar derivatives known as opines ... Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti ... Agrobacterium cells can transport and catabolize these compounds as sources of carbon and nitrogen. This article describes a ...
The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact ... Xu, J., Kim, J., Koestler, B. J., Choi, J-H., Waters, C. M., & Fuqua, C. (2013). Genetic analysis of agrobacterium tumefaciens ... Xu J, Kim J, Koestler BJ, Choi J-H, Waters CM, Fuqua C. Genetic analysis of agrobacterium tumefaciens unipolar polysaccharide ... The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens overwinters in infested soils. Agrobacterium species live predominantly saprophytic lifestyles, so ... "Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)". UniProt Taxonomy. Archived from the original on ... Breakdown of the soft tissue leads to release of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the soil allowing it to restart the disease ...
Brief Description of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58:. A. tumefaciens C58 is the most heavily studied member of the genus ... Scientists know a lot now about virulent Agrobacterium strains do this and have worked out methods to use this natural DNA ... My lab was involved in the genetic/physically mapping and sequencing of the A. tumefaciens C58 genome (Goodner et al., 1999; ... However, most people know Agrobacterium because some strains can do something that no other cellular pathogen does - inject a ...
The T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.. Lai EM1, Kado CI.. Author information. 1. Davis Crown Gall Group, University of ... and protein-transport apparatus for the transport of cyclic T-pilin subunits to the Agrobacterium cell surface. T-pilin ... subunits are processed from full-length VirB2 pro-pilin into a cyclized peptide, a rapid reaction that is Agrobacterium ...
Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane.. Wessel M1, Klüsener S, Gödeke J ... The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N- ... The virulence defect was due to a complete lack of the type IV secretion machinery in the Agrobacterium PC mutant. Our results ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that causes plant tumours by transferring a portion of DNA from a ...
Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells.. V M Yusibov, T R Steck, V ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ...
A. tumefaciens tRNA was found to contain . ⁶Ado, ms².⁶Ado, ms²io⁶Ado and trans-io⁶Ado. A. tumefaciens culture filtrates were ... Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce ... tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this ... Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/ ...
The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. ...
Constitutive mutations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virG.. G J Pazour, C N Ta, A Das ... Constitutive mutations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virG. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmids are positively regulated by virG in conjunction with virA ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens;. CFU,. colony-forming unit;. P.a.,. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. *© 2006 by The National Academy of ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ...
The crystal structure of 2-deoxycytidine 5-triphosphate deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.. Zhang, R., Dong, A., Xu, X ... Crystal structure of 2-deoxycytidine 5-triphosphate deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2R9Q/pdb ... Agrobacterium fabrum str. C58. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: dcd, AGR_C_764, Atu0434. ...
In 1994, rice was the first cereal species to be transformed efficiently by A. tumefaciens, and maize, wheat and barley soon ... Finally, it has now been clearly demonstrated that A. tumefaciens can transfer genes to both dicotyledons and monocotyledons by ... However, until about 20 years ago, it was generally believed that monocotyledons could not be transformed by Agrobacterium, ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer is a method employed widely in many plant species. This bacterium can ...
Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
... May 2013 , Volume 26 , ... We assessed the impact of seed inoculation with the emblematic bacterial models Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (plasmid-cured) ... Compared with the noninoculated control, root biomass (with A. tumefaciens or E. coli) and shoot biomass (with A. tumefaciens) ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens and E. coli triggered similar (in PR37Y15) or different (in DK315) changes in the high-performance ...
Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenicity by the osa gene of pSa.. C Y Chen, C I Kado ... Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenicity by the osa gene of pSa. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... pSa originally derived from Shigella flexneri completely inhibits the tumor-inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens when ... tumefaciens oncogenicity. This inhibition of oncogenicity by osa is not limited to a specific host plant but appears to show ...
... for T-DNA transfer to plant cells and preparation of transgenic recombinant ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Electro-Cells. 5 x 40 uL. $259.00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) can ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens electrocompetent cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. The T-DNA (transfer DNA) is ...
AGL1 Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum Solanum pimpinellifolium This is a preview of ... esculentum) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep 5:81-84CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Van Eck J., Keen P., Tjahjadi M. (2019) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Tomato. In: Kumar S., Barone P., ... Efficient transfer of a glyphosate tolerance gene into tomato using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. Bio/Technology 5 ...
... for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised description for the genus Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium ... Bishop, A.L., Burr, T.J., Mittak, V.L. & Katz, B.H. 1989 A monoclonal antibody specific to Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 ... Van der Wolf, J.M., Van Beckhoven, M. & Van Den Brink and de Vries, P.M. 1995 Detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in ... Gorris, M.T., López, M.M., Ballester, J.F. & Salcedo, C. 1985 Comparación de métodos de detección de Agrobacterium tumefaciens ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules.. Subramoni, S., Nathoo, N., Klimov, E., and Yuan, Z.- ... As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ...
Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
... from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A resolution ... Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A ... Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A ... Agrobacterium fabrum (strain C58 / ATCC 33970). Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ppx. ...
  • Results demonstrated that The1561bp- GBA gene was amplified from human total blood RNA which was confirmed by sequencing the PCR product which gives 100% identified withHomo sapiens glucosylceramidase beta (GBA), transcript variant 1, mRNA NM_000157.3 Gene Bank and colony PCR assured that Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 carried Hu-GBA gene . (innspub.net)
  • To examine the physiological changes and adaptations during Agrobacterium-induced tumor development, we compared the profiles of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) with changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. (usda.gov)
  • T-pilus biogenesis uses a conserved transmembrane nucleoprotein- and protein-transport apparatus for the transport of cyclic T-pilin subunits to the Agrobacterium cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • In this communication, we have modeled the crystal structure of the AHL receptor protein TraR and its AHL signal N-(3- oxooctanoyl)-homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number of AHL analogues, in an attempt to determine structural constraints for ligand binding. (mdpi.com)
  • Now, higher-resolution deconvolution fluorescence microscopy reveals that all structural components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir -T4SS, as well as its transported protein substrates, localize to multiple foci around the cell perimeter. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate with novel cytological screens - a two‐hybrid (C2H) assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) - and by immunoprecipitation of chemically cross‐linked protein complexes that the VirE2 effector protein interacts directly with the VirD4 coupling protein at cell poles of A. tumefaciens. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ccdB protein, however, is not toxic to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an important player often used for studying gene function in planta. (vt.edu)
  • These results lead to a new model of A. tumefaciens attachment to a plant cell, where A. tumefaciens takes advantage of the multiple vir- T4SS along its length to make intimate lateral contact with plant cells and thereby effectively transfer DNA and/or proteins through the vir- T4SS. (asm.org)
  • The production of the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes in both A. tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR were regulated by proteins involved in the global ntr pathway. (openthesis.org)
  • Christie, Peter J. 2003-09-01 00:00:00 Summary Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers oncogenic DNA and effector proteins to plant cells during the course of infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Despite a high degree of conservation among the a-Proteobacteria, including A. tumefaciens little is known about the precise role of these regulatory proteins in these other organisms. (grantome.com)
  • This study examines the role of these regulatory proteins in A. tumefaciens. (grantome.com)
  • In particular, I am studying two key regulatory proteins that allow A. tumefaciens to integrate environmental signals and transition from the free-living to the host-associated state. (grantome.com)
  • To further investigate the functional role of A. thaliana SSIII-SD, three chimeric proteins were constructed combining the SBDs from A. thaliana with the GS from A. tumefaciens. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • The observed tight association of VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 with the membrane fraction support the notion that these proteins may exist as components of multiprotein pore complexes, perhaps spanning both the inner and outer membranes of Agrobacterium cells. (duke.edu)
  • Possible plant compounds that initiate Agrobacterium to infect plant cells: Acetosyringone and other phenolic compounds alpha-Hydroxyacetosyringone Catechol Ferulic acid Gallic acid p-Hydroxybenzoic acid Protocatechuic acid Pyrogallic acid Resorcylic acid Sinapinic acid Syringic acid Vanillin To transfer the T-DNA into the plant cell, A. tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion mechanism, involving the production of a T-pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. tumefaciens binds to abiotic and biotic surfaces in a polar orientation and is known to elaborate polar flagella, pili, and a type IV secretion system. (grantome.com)
  • Of 161 streptomyces isolates previously isolated from soils in the Jordan Valley, 32 were found to be active against Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causal agent of crown gall disease. (who.int)
  • My lab was involved in the genetic/physically mapping and sequencing of the A. tumefaciens C58 genome (Goodner et al. (google.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where it integrates into the eukaryotic genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Analysis of the genome sequence and of transcription via reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that ZntA-4200 and the transcriptional regulator ZntR1 played important roles in the zinc homeostasis of A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. (rti.org)
  • An earlier version of pGreenII was reported to be unstable, whereby it acquired DNA from the genome of E. coli prior to transfer of plasmid into A. tumefaciens ( Hellens and Mullineaux 2000 ). (g3journal.org)
  • A later study suggested that Agrobacterium attaches to and genetically transforms several types of human cells by integrating its T-DNA into the human cell genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1985). Agrobacterium Tumefaciens induced grown gall disease by integrating a part of its tumor inducing or Ti plasmid into the genome of the plant. (ukessays.com)
  • Since 1970's, there were many hypothesis regarding the mechanism of DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the plant genome. (ukessays.com)
  • Putatively transgenic cells of cocoa (after 20 weeks of A. tumefaciens treatment) were first extracted and then digested using restriction enzyme (Sau3A) which cut at T-DNA right border (GATC). (ums.edu.my)
  • Bozsó, Zoltán 2018-02-22 00:00:00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a widely used microbial tool in plant molecular biology to transfer DNA into plant cells and produce, e.g., stable or transient transformants or induce gene silencing. (deepdyve.com)
  • that allow propagation in Escherichia coli , wherein DNA can be readily cloned and manipulated between the borders of the T-DNA, prior to transfer into A. tumefaciens and finally plants ( Bevan 1984 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Intramolekularna rekombinacija u bakterijama Escherichia coli i Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Diplomski rad). (unizg.hr)
  • Intramolekularna rekombinacija u bakterijama Escherichia coli i Agrobacterium tumefaciens', Diplomski rad, Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Prirodoslovno-matematički fakultet, citirano: 28.01.2020. (unizg.hr)
  • Ovim radom željeli smo ispitati efikasnost intramolekularne rekombinacije u bakteriji Agrobacterium tumefaciens, te je usporediti s onom u bakterije Escherichia coli. (unizg.hr)
  • 3HI0: Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. (rcsb.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that causes plant tumours by transferring a portion of DNA from a resident 'tumour inducing' (Ti) plasmid into plant cells where it is integrated into a plant chromosome and expressed. (wiley.com)
  • The IncW plasmid pSa originally derived from Shigella flexneri completely inhibits the tumor-inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens when it is resident in this organism. (asm.org)
  • The wide variety of plants affected by Agrobacterium makes it of great concern to the agriculture industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the osa-encoded product has close homologies to the fiwA-encoded product of the IncP plasmid RP1, osa may be involved in fertility inhibition that would prevent or reduce the formation of stable mating pairs and T-DNA transfer between A. tumefaciens and plants. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium which, with the help of the Ti megaplasmid, manipulates plants into providing it with a safe and nutritious environment. (splasho.com)
  • Ashby AM, Watson MD, Loake GJ, Shaw CH (1988) Ti plasmid-specified chemotaxis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58C 1 toward vir -inducing phenolic compounds and soluble factors from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. (springer.com)
  • Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and for this reason it has become an important tool for genetic engineering . (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers used Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Section 15.7) to deliver a mammalian gene into poplar plants. (bartleby.com)
  • In vitro adherence assays demonstrated that the cell wall material from STS-derived embryos provide a better substratum for adherence of Agrobacterium . (springer.com)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the plant-inducible locus pinF from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (elsevier.com)
  • A. tumefaciens has flagella that allow it to swim through the soil towards photoassimilates that accumulate in the rhizosphere around roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • In roots as well as in shoots, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and E. coli triggered similar (in PR37Y15) or different (in DK315) changes in the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of secondary metabolites (especially benzoxazinoids), distinct from those of Azospirillum brasilense UAP-154. (apsnet.org)
  • Compared with the noninoculated control, root biomass (with A. tumefaciens or E. coli ) and shoot biomass (with A. tumefaciens ) were enhanced at 10 days for 'PR37Y15' but not 'DK315', as found with the phytostimulator Azospirillum brasilense UAP-154 (positive control). (apsnet.org)
  • Hoekema, A. Hirsch, P.R. Hooykaas, P.J.J. Schilperoort, R.A. A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir - and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. (cellartis.com)