Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Plant Tumor-Inducing Plasmids: Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Kalanchoe: A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain bryophyllins (also called bryotoxins) which are bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES) that have insecticidal activity.Zeatin: An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Acetophenones4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Rhizobiaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Sinorhizobium meliloti: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Brucella suis: A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Protocatechuate-3,4-Dioxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Acyl-Butyrolactones: Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.beta-Glucosidase: An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Rhizobium leguminosarum: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.GlucuronidaseGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Hygromycin B: Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Uridine Diphosphate Glucose: A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Pili, Sex: Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium. (1/966)

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells.  (+info)

Stable expression of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns. (2/966)

beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosaminide: beta1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1. 22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured cells were stably transformed with the full-length human galactosyltransferase gene placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The expression was confirmed by assaying enzymatic activity as well as by Southern and Western blotting. The transformant with the highest level of enzymatic activity has glycans with galactose residues at the terminal nonreducing ends, indicating the successful modification of the plant cell N-glycosylation pathway. Analysis of the oligosaccharide structures shows that the galactosylated N-glycans account for 47.3% of the total sugar chains. In addition, the absence of the dominant xylosidated- and fucosylated-type sugar chains confirms that the transformed cells can be used to produce glycoproteins without the highly immunogenic glycans typically found in plants. These results demonstrate the synthesis in plants of N-linked glycans with modified and defined sugar chain structures similar to mammalian glycoproteins.  (+info)

Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (3/966)

To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Furthermore, it has the cis sequences required for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plants. We cloned large genomic DNA fragments of Arabidopsis thaliana into the vector and showed that most of the DNA fragments were maintained stably. Several TAC clones carrying 40- to 80-kb genomic DNA fragments were transferred back into Arabidopsis with high efficiency and shown to be inherited faithfully among the progeny. Furthermore, we demonstrated the practical utility of this vector system for positional cloning in Arabidopsis. A TAC contig was constructed in the region of the SGR1 locus, and individual clones with ca. 80-kb inserts were tested for their ability to complement the gravitropic defects of a homozygous mutant line. Successful complementation enabled the physical location of SGR1 to be delimited with high precision and confidence.  (+info)

Conjugal transfer but not quorum-dependent tra gene induction of pTiC58 requires a solid surface. (4/966)

Donors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a transfer-constitutive derivative of the nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 transferred this element at frequencies 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher in matings conducted on solid surfaces than in those conducted in liquid medium. However, as measured with a lacZ reporter fusion, the tra genes of the wild-type Ti plasmid were inducible by opines to indistinguishable levels on solid and in liquid medium. Donors induced in liquid transferred the Ti plasmid at high frequency when mated with recipients on solid medium. We conclude that while formation of stable mating pairs and subsequent transfer of the Ti plasmid is dependent on a solid stratum, the regulatory system can activate tra gene expression to equivalent levels in liquid and on solid surfaces.  (+info)

Dimerization of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase and the effect of ATP-binding cassette mutations on the assembly and function of the T-DNA transporter. (5/966)

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase functions with other VirB proteins to export T-DNA to susceptible plant cells and other DNA substrates to a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that VirB4 mutants with defects in the Walker A nucleotide-binding motif are non-functional and exert a dominant negative phenotype when synthesized in wild-type cells. This study characterized the oligomeric structure of VirB4 and examined the effects of Walker A sequence mutations on complex formation and transporter activity. VirB4 directed dimer formation when fused to the amino-terminal portion of cI repressor protein, as shown by immunity of Escherichia coli cells to lambda phage infection. VirB4 also dimerized in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as demonstrated by the recovery of a detergent-resistant complex of native protein and a functional, histidine-tagged derivative by precipitation with anti-His6 antibodies and by Co2+ affinity chromatography. Walker A sequence mutants directed repressor dimerization in E. coli and interacted with His-VirB4 in A. tumefaciens, indicating that ATP binding is not required for self-association. A dimerization domain was localized to a proposed N-terminal membrane-spanning region of VirB4, as shown by the dominance of an allele coding for the N-terminal 312 residues and phage immunity of host cells expressing cI repressor fusions to alleles for the first 237 or 312 residues. A recent study reported that the synthesis of a subset of VirB proteins, including VirB4, in agrobacterial recipients has a pronounced stimulatory effect on the virB-dependent conjugal transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by agrobacterial donors. VirB4'312 suppressed the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins for DNA uptake when synthesized in recipient cells. In striking contrast, Walker A sequence mutants contributed to the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins to the same extent as native VirB4. These findings indicate that the oligomeric structure of VirB4, but not its capacity to bind ATP, is important for the assembly of VirB proteins as a DNA uptake system. The results of these studies support a model in which VirB4 dimers or homomultimers contribute structural information for the assembly of a transenvelope channel competent for bidirectional DNA transfer, whereas an ATP-dependent activity is required for configuring this channel as a dedicated export machine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction. (6/966)

The VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for delivery of T-DNA to the nuclei of susceptible plant cells. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analyses, VirE2 was shown to self-associate and to interact with VirE1. VirE2 mutants with small deletions or insertions of a 31-residue oligopeptide (i31) at the N or C terminus or with an i31 peptide insertion at Leu236 retained the capacity to form homomultimers. By contrast, VirE2 mutants with modifications outside a central region located between residues 320 and 390 retained the capacity to interact with VirE1. These findings suggest the tertiary structure of VirE2 is important for homomultimer formation whereas a central domain mediates formation of a complex with VirE1. The capacity of VirE2 mutants to interact with full-length VirE2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlated with the abundance of the mutant proteins in A. tumefaciens, suggesting that VirE2 is stabilized by homomultimerization in the bacterium. We further characterized the promoter and N- and C-terminal sequence requirements for synthesis of functional VirE2. A PvirB::virE2 construct yielded functional VirE2 protein as defined by complementation of a virE2 null mutation. By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2. Deletion of 10 or 9 residues from the N or C terminus of VirE2, respectively, or addition of heterologous peptides or proteins to either terminus resulted in a loss of protein function. However, an i31 peptide insertion at Tyr39 had no effect on protein function as defined by the capacity of the mutant protein to (i) interact with native VirE2, (ii) interact with VirE1, (iii) accumulate at abundant levels in A. tumefaciens, and (iv) restore wild-type virulence to a virE2 null mutant. We propose that Tyr39 of VirE2 corresponds to a permissive site for insertion of heterologous peptides or proteins of interest for delivery across kingdom boundaries.  (+info)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens possesses a fourth flagelin gene located in a large gene cluster concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and motility. (7/966)

The authors have identified a fourth flagellin gene in a 21850 bp region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58C1 chromosome containing at least 20 genes concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and function. Three flagellin genes, flaA, flaB and flaC, orientated rightward, are positioned in a tandem array at the right end, with the fourth, substantially larger gene, flaD, in the opposite orientation, at the left end. Between these lie four apparent operons, two transcribed in each direction (motA, flhB leftward; flgF, flgB rightward) from a divergent position approx 7.5 kb from the left end. This unifies the previously published motA, flgB and flaABC sequences into a single region, also containing the homologues of flhB, flgF and fliI. Site-specific mutagenesis of fliI results in a non-flagellate phenotype, while a Tn5-induced flhB mutant possesses abnormal flagella. Mutagenesis and protein profiling demonstrate that all four flagellins contribute to flagellar structure: FlaA is the major protein, FlaB and FlaC are present in lesser amounts, and FlaD is a minor component. FlaA has anomolous electrophoretic mobility, possibly due to glycosylation.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene promoters in Escherichia coli requires the A. tumefaciens RpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. (8/966)

The two-component regulatory system, composed of virA and virG, is indispensable for transcription of virulence genes within Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, virA and virG are insufficient to activate transcription from virulence gene promoters within Escherichia coli cells, indicating a requirement for additional A. tumefaciens genes. In a search for these additional genes, we have identified the rpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which confers significant expression of a virB promoter (virBp)::lacZ fusion in E. coli in the presence of an active transcriptional regulator virG gene. We conducted in vitro transcription assays using either reconstituted E. coli RNAP or hybrid RNAP in which the alpha subunit was derived from A. tumefaciens. The two forms of RNAP were equally efficient in transcription from a sigma(70)-dependent E. coli galP1 promoter; however, only the hybrid RNAP was able to transcribe virBp in a virG-dependent manner. In addition, we provide evidence that the alpha subunit from A. tumefaciens, but not from E. coli, is able to interact with the VirG protein. These data suggest that transcription of virulence genes requires specific interaction between VirG and the alpha subunit of A. tumefaciens and that the alpha subunit from E. coli is unable to effectively interact with the VirG protein. This work provides the basis for future studies designed to examine vir gene expression as well as the T-DNA transfer process in E. coli.  (+info)

*Transfer DNA

... plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The T-DNA is transferred ... thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Whereas Agrobacterium rhizogenes ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently ... For more than two decades, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been exploited for introducing genes into plants for basic research as ...

*Agrobacterium tumefaciens

... (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens overwinters in infested soils. Agrobacterium species live predominantly saprophytic lifestyles, so ... "Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)". UniProt Taxonomy. Archived from the original on ... Breakdown of the soft tissue leads to release of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the soil allowing it to restart the disease ...

*Tryptophan-phenylpyruvate transaminase

Sukanya NK, Vaidyanathan CS (1964). "Aminotransferases of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transamination between tryptophan and ...

*List of varieties of genetically modified maize

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. MON 88017 is an Insect resistant maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein ...

*Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2

Van Keer C, Kersters K, De Ley J (September 1976). "L-Sorbose metabolism in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ...

*Arabidopsis thaliana

Genetic transformation of A. thaliana is routine, utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into the plant genome. ... Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a technique that takes advantage of the natural process by which Agrobacterium ... "Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Science. 234 (4775): 464-466. Bibcode:1986Sci...234.. ... Zhang X, Henriques R, Lin SS, Niu QW, Chua NH (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana using the ...

*Barbara Hohn

Her research topics included the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn is a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Math and ... particularly known for her research into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn was born Barbara Freiinger, in Klagenfurt, Austria ...

*Agrobacterium

... tumefaciens, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium vitis. Strains within Agrobacterium tumefaciens and ... "Proposal for Rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Revised Descriptions for the Genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most commonly studied species in this genus. Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown-gall disease in plants. The disease is characterised by a tumour-like growth or gall on ...

*Alpha-Ketoglutaric acid

From Galacturonic acid by the organism agrobacterium tumefaciens. Alpha-ketoglutarate can be used to produce: Creatine-alpha ...

*Genetically modified crops

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is another common technique. Agrobacteria are natural plant parasites, and ... for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful. The major disadvantage of this procedure is ... One of these was isolated from an Agrobacterium strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that was resistant to glyphosate. The CP4 EPSPS gene was ... Shrawat, A.; Lörz, H. (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals: a promising approach crossing barriers". Plant ...

*Type VI secretion system

"Agrobacterium tumefaciens deploys a superfamily of type VI secretion DNase effectors as weapons for interbacterial competition ... and plant-associated bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These systems exert antibacterial activity via the function of ...

*Lysine 6-dehydrogenase

Misono, H.; Nagasaki, S. (1982). "Occurrence of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J. Bacteriol. 150 (1): ... "Purification and properties of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 2253-2255. doi: ... "Properties of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J. Biochem. 105 (6): 1002-1008. PMID 2768207. Heydari, ...

*History of research on Arabidopsis thaliana

A. thaliana can be genetically transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens; transgenic seed can be obtained by simply dipping ... Clough, Steven J.; Bent, Andrew F. (1998-12-01). "Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of ...

*Serine 3-dehydrogenase

"Cloning and sequencing of the serine dehydrogenase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (5): ... dependent serine dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61 (1): 152-7. doi:10.1271/bbb. ...

*Alphaproteobacteria

... formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this species to transfer foreign DNA into plant genomes. Aerobic ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... this process has been described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Methylobacterium organophilum, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. ...

*Rhizobiales

Natural genetic transformation has been reported in at least three Rhizobiales species: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... Other important genera are the human pathogens Bartonella and Brucella, as well as Agrobacterium (genetic engineering). The ...

*Curdlan

ATCC31749, which produces curdlan in extraordinary amounts, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A putative operon contains crdS, ... It is produced by non-pathogenic bacteria such as Agrobacterium biobar. The production of curdlan by Alcaligenes faecalis is ... Four genes required for curdlan production have been identified in Agrobacterium sp. ... synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain ATCC31749". Glycobiology. 13 (10): 693-706. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwg093. PMID 12851288. " ...

*Digestion

It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, ... which develops the crown gall (tumor). The VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system. The nitrogen ... Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter ...

*Sugarcane Drought Tolerant strain NXI-4T

This strain was modified using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plasmid pMHL2113. Agrobacterium transferred the betA gene from ...

*Rhizobiaceae

This includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942. Blastobacter capsulatus is currently classified in ... Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to ... Agrobacterium has been recognized as being related to the Rhizobium. Evidence supporting the association was conducted by ... These species were formerly classified in the genus Agrobacterium. This is the type species for the genus. Arthrobacter ...

*Repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element

ROSE1 is found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum whereas ROSEAT2 is a closely related element from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The two ... "Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...

*Gall

Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi are examples of gall-causing bacteria. Gall forming virus was found on ...

*RNA thermometer

ROSE1 and ROSEAT2 are found in rhizobiales Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens respectively. They exist in ... "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...

*Hydantoin racemase

"Biochemical characterization of a novel hydantoin racemase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58". Biochimie. 86: 77-81. doi: ...

*Αr15 RNA

viciae 3841 strain Agrobacterium species: A. vitis,A. tumefaciens, A. radiobacter and A. H13 All these sequences showed ... tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. radiobacter, and Agrobacterium H13) as well as in a broad spectrum of Brucella species (B. ovis, B. ... have not been observed in their Agrobacterium tumefaciens counterparts referred to as AbcR1 and AbcR2, respectively, by Wilms ... "Small RNA-mediated control of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens GABA binding protein". Molecular Microbiology. 80: 492-506. doi: ...

*TATA box

One of the first studies of TATA box mutations looked at a sequence of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens for the octopine type ...

*Plant genetics

"Microprojectile bombardment of plant tissues increases transformation frequency by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Plant Mol. Biol ... In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site ... The Agrobacterium present is also killed by the antibiotic. Only tissues expressing the marker will survive and possess the ... Transformation via Agrobacterium has been successfully practiced in dicots, i.e. broadleaf plants, such as soybeans and ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Gram-negative, plant pathogen, rod bacterium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an alphaproteobacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae and is known to cause tumours in plants. It causes crown gall disease (formation of tumours disease) in over 140 species of dicot plants. A. tumefaciens is a serious pathogen of grape vines, stone fruits, nut trees, sugar beets, horse radish and rhubarb. Agrobacterium sp. can transfer DNA between itself and plants and thus has become an important tool for genetic manipulation (genetic engineering). Most Agrobacterium sp. have plasmids that they can be inject into plant cells at wound sites. This plasmid DNA is designed to integrate into the chromosomes of the infected plants cellular DNA. DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to eukaryotic plant cells is the only known example of interkingdom DNA transfer. Magnification: x3,000 when shortest axis - Stock Image C032/2375
Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted hydantoins. The optically pure D-amino acids are used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, as food additives and as insecticides. This hydrolysis of D, L-substituted hydantoins is catalysed by two hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes, an hydantoinase and an N-carbamyl amino acid amidohydrolase. While the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes have been studied in detail, the mechanisms that control expression of the hyu genes have not. The research reported in this work elucidates some of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the hyu genes in A. tumefaciens strains.. The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was characterized. A broad host range vector for the simultaneous analysis of divergent promoters was constructed. The promoter regions responsible for the activation of transcription of hyuH and hyuC were identified by ...
The acc locus from the classic nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 confers utilization of agrocinopines A+B and susceptibility to an antibiotic called agrocin 84. DNA sequence analyses revealed that acc is composed of eight genes, acc R, and accABCDEFG. accR codes for the repressor which regulates this locus. The predicted proteins from accABCDE are related to each component of ABC-type transport systems, while the predicted products of accF and accG are related to catabolic enzymes. Genetic analyses of insertion mutations showed that accABCDE are required for uptake of both agrocin 84 and agrocinopines, whereas accF and accG are required for utilization of the opines. The accF mutant was not susceptible to agrocin 84 although it took up the antibiotic. This suggests that agrocin 84 must be activated by functions coded for by accF after it is transported into the bacterium. Analysis of lacZ fusions showed that acc is induced in response to agrocinopines and to phosphate starvation. Analyses of ...
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6.
FIG. 1. Immunoprecipitation studies with anti-VirB6, anti-VirB7, and anti-VirB9 antisera. (A) Isolation of VirB protein complexes from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348. (B) VirB complexes isolated from PC1000(pSJB610). Lanes: αB6, αB7, and αB9, anti-VirB antisera; PI, preimmune serum; PA, protein A Sepharose (these were all used for precipitation); Sol. Prot., solubilized starting material for the precipitations; MW, molecular weight markers, with sizes in kilodaltons shown at left. Blots were probed with antiserum to the VirB proteins listed at the right. The cross-reactive material in the blot developed with anti-VirB10 antiserum is heavy-chain IgG, but native VirB10 (48 kDa) and VirB10′ (40 kDa) derived from translation from an internal Met were clearly distinguished from this background in the immunoblots. The IgG light chain also was immunoreactive and formed a nonspecific background in blots developed with the anti-VirB6, -VirB8, and -VirB9 antisera. ...
Abstract. The broad host range pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied as a model system to understand horizontal gene flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells, and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation also is the major method for generating transgenic plants for research and biotechnology purposes. Agrobacterium species have the natural ability to conduct interkingdom genetic transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, including most plant species, yeast, fungi, and even animal cells. In nature, A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease resulting from expression in plants of auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis genes encoded by the transferred (T-) DNA. Gene transfer from A. tumefaciens to host cells requires virulence (vir) genes that reside on the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to T-DNA, several Virulence (Vir) effector proteins are also translocated to host cells through a bacterial type IV secretion ...
Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce substantial levels of cytokinins. In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this objective, a sequence of methods was developed which allowed the isolation, purification and rigorous chemical identification of cytokinins at the sub-microgram level. The first step of purification utilized the adsorption of cytokinins onto C18 silica by a process known as trace enrichment. Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by bioassay. Material in biologically active fractions was permethylated and analyzed by combined capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A. tumefaciens tRNA was found ...
For each pair of adjacent genes on the same strand, we report whether they are predicted to be in the same operon, and the two most important features. Small plasmids and, in draft genomes, small scaffolds, are excluded.. Also see: ...
As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also ...
44,203-229. , Hirsch, P. , Hooykaas, P J J , and Schilperoort, R. A (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tr-plasmrd. Nature 303, 179,180. 8. Stachel, S. E and Nester, E W. (1986) The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 TI plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. $1445-1454 9. Stachel, S E and Zambryski, P (1986) virA and virG control the plant-induced activation of the T-DNA transfer process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biol. Rep. 10, 12-36. &APTER 7 Leaf Disk Transformation Ian S. Curtis, Michael R. Davey, and J. Brian Power 1. Introduction Reliable and efficient methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. The Gram-negative soil bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, are natural genetic engineers, capable of transforming a range of dicotyledonous plants by transferring plasmid-encoded genes into recipient ...
Nagel R., Elliott A., Masel A., Birch R.G. and Manners J.M. (1990) Electroporation of binary Ti plasmid vector into Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. , 67 3: 325-328. doi:10.1016/0378-1097(90)90017-K ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Dear everybody, I am looking for an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 for rice transformation. Unfortunately our lab does not possess this strain. I already tried to get in contact via email with researchers who used this strain in their published experiments, but I did not have any answer yet. My hope is that one of you may be willing to share an aliquot of this strain with me or knows about its commercial availability. I would be very greatful to get an answer of you. Best wishes, Benedikt (Drosse ...
Plant material and transformation: Plants were grown in peat soil with 18 hr light and 6 hr dark. DNA constructs were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 and then transformed into Arabidopsis plants by the floral dip method (Clough and Bent 1998).. Plasmid construction: Tag1 promoter-GUS expression plasmids were constructed as follows. The pTPG2 and pTPG3 plasmids were generated by PCR amplifying 1- to 262-bp and 1- to 548-bp fragments, respectively, from the 5′ end of Tag1 into the XbaI and BamHI restriction sites of the pBI101.3 GUS expression vector (accession no. U12640). pTPG4 was made by ligating a XbaI-ScaI Tag1 fragment (1-1251 bp of Tag1) from the pBT1 plasmid (Liuet al. 2001a), which contains Tag1 in the BlueScript vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA), into the XbaI-SmaI sites of pBI101.3 to generate an in-frame fusion between the Tag1 transposase and GUS. pTPG5 was made by ligating a XbaI-NdeI 5′ Tag1 fragment (1-1950 bp of Tag1 in pBT1) into the XbaI and BamHI ...
Nesme, X., Leclerc, M.C. & Bardin, R. 1989 PCR detection of an original endosymbiont: the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens In. Endocytobiology IV, eds.Nardon, P., Gianinazzi- Peason, V., Greines, A.M., Margulis, L. & Smith, D.C, pp. 47-50. Paris: Institute National de Recherche Agronomique ...
The present invention allows large glass substrates to be rapidly moved from one processing station to another. Such movement occurs such that drives in different chambers are synchronized to move the glass substrates on shuttles at appropriate times. In systems according to the invention, at least a first and second chamber are provided. Typically, the first chamber is a load lock and the second chamber is a processing chamber. A substrate transfer shuttle is used to move substrate along a guide path defined by, e.g., guide rollers. Drive mechanisms are employed for most chambers to drive the shuttle along associated portions of the path. A control system is provided which powers the drive mechanism for the first chamber to drive the substrate transfer shuttle from a first position toward a second position and through an intermediate position. At the intermediate position, the substrate transfer shuttle begins to engage and induce movement of the drive mechanism for the second chamber. The control
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Monomethylamine can be used by nonmethylotrophs as a sole nitrogen source but not as a carbon source; however, little is known about the genes and enzymes involved. The gamma-glutamylmethylamide/N-methylglutamate pathway for monomethylamine utilization by methylotrophs has recently been resolved. We have identified genes encoding key enzymes of this pathway in nonmethylotrophs (e. g., Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and demonstrated that this pathway is also involved in the utilization of monomethylamine as a nitrogen source by nonmethylotrophs.. ...
Many bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, rely on an asymmetric localization, distribution, and orientation of specific appendages when interacting wi...
Previous work on identifying the molecular mechanisms mediating plant-pathogen interactions and reciprocal host responses have little emphasis on developing models that closely resemble host-microbe interaction in planta. This work establishes an amalgamated model of interaction wherein successful pathogens elicit and overcome host defenses activated by microbial signatures and virulence factors. Using a hydroponic co-cultivation model, we assessed the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 to ameliorate limitations of previous approaches. Comparisons of differential gene expression between directly and indirectly affected host sites by microarray analysis revealed both reactive and pro-active defense responses, respectively. Selected homozygous single-gene knockouts for proactive defenses show variable A. tumefaciens root surface attachment and root secretion profiles. Studying host-microbe responses using hydroponics may improve priming of cash crops against pathogens
Roundup Ready® Flex cotton (MON 88913) was developed to allow the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, as a weed control option in cotton production. This genetically engineered cotton contains a novel form of the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that allows MON 88913 to survive otherwise lethal applications of glyphosate. The EPSPS gene introduced into MON 88913 was isolated from a strain of the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4; the EPSPS enzyme expressed by this gene is tolerant to glyphosate. MON 88913 cotton contains two copies of the EPSPS gene to confer tolerance to glyphosate later in the growing season, specifically after the fifth true leaf stage ...
Roundup Ready® Flex cotton (MON 88913) was developed to allow the use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, as a weed control option in cotton production. This genetically engineered cotton contains a novel form of the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) that allows MON 88913 to survive otherwise lethal applications of glyphosate. The EPSPS gene introduced into MON 88913 was isolated from a strain of the common soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain CP4; the EPSPS enzyme expressed by this gene is tolerant to glyphosate. MON 88913 cotton contains two copies of the EPSPS gene to confer tolerance to glyphosate later in the growing season, specifically after the fifth true leaf stage ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Octopine induced the synthesis of 83, 76, 62, 58, 44, 42, 31, and 22 kDa proteins in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains harboring the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids pTiA6 and pTiAch5. Nopaline induced the synthesis of 83, 76, 62, 58, 56, 44, 42, 31, and 22 kDa proteins in A. tumefaciens strains harboring the Ti plasmids pTiC58 and pTiT37. The molecular masses of proteins induced by octopine and nopaline were very similar. In accordance with the opine concept, octopine and nopaline were found to induce protein synthesis only in strains harboring the respective Ti plasmids. Arginine, a common catabolic product of octopine and nopaline, induced the synthesis of most of the proteins induced by the two opines. Our results show that only the initial step(s) of octopine and nopaline catabolism are induced by specific opines in the respective strains. The subsequent steps are likely to be regulated by arginine in both strains. ...
A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different
Although the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency was only a fraction of 1%, it was possible to exploit the transposition frequency of a single T0 line to initiate the development of a functional resource for activation tagging in tomato. The practice of using micropropagation to produce many clonal plants from a single tissue culture regenerant proved valuable, as it multiplied T1 seed production by up to 25 times. This strategy also capitalized on the behavior of transposase in Ac/Ds-ATag-Bar_gosGFP by isolating chimeric tissue from the original transformant into separate plantlets, allowing germinal transposition from multiple sites of Ds integration. The selection of a self-fertile, true breeding tomato cultivar allowed crossing to nontransgenic cv M82, thus maximizing T1 seed production. Pollen could be collected from transgenic flowers and distributed to multiple nontransgenic plants, all while still obtaining transgenic self-progeny.. Modifications made to the ...
Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi, and that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. We identified three hydrophobin genes from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum and provided functional characterization of strains lacking these genes. One gene (HYD1/ssgA) encodes a Class I hydrophobin identified previously. Two new genes, HYD3 and HYD2, encode a Class-I and Class-II hydrophobin, respectively. To examine function, we deleted all three, separately, from the M. brunneum strain KTU-60 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion strains were screened for alterations in developmental phenotypes including growth, sporulation, pigmentation, colony surface properties, and virulence to insects. All deletion strains were reduced in their ability to sporulate and showed alterations in ...
EMD-2339 -- Variable internal flexibility characterizes the helical capsid formed by agrobacterium VirE2 protein on single-stranded DNA. -- Bharat TA, Zbaida D, Eisenstein M, Frankenstein Z, Mehlman T, Weiner L, Sorzano CO, Barak Y, Albeck S, Briggs JA, Wolf SG, Elbaum M -- The Electron Microscopy Data Bank (EMDB) is a public repository for electron microscopy density maps of macromolecular complexes and subcellular structures. It covers a variety of techniques, including single-particle analysis, electron tomography, and electron (2D) crystallography. The EMDB was founded at EBI in 2002, under the leadership of Kim Henrick. Since 2007 it has been operated jointly by the PDBe, and the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB PDB) as a part of EMDataBank which is funded by a joint NIH grant to PDBe, the RCSB and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI).
Plant materials. Potted plants of P. amabilis (45 cm in height) with white flowers (10-14 cm in diameter),Dpts. cultivars Sinica Sunday (55-62 cm in height) with pink flowers (10-12 cm), and Dpts. cultivars Taisuco Firebird (57-65 cm in height) with dark pink flowers (10-12 cm) (Figure 1) were grown under greenhouse conditions in Chaoyang University of Technology, Taiwan.. Agrobacterium strain. A. tumefaciens strain EHA105, carrying a binary vector pTAG8 (Hsing et al. 2007, Chen et al. 2009) was used for the transformation. The T-DNA region of the binary vector contained a selectable marker coding for the hygromycin phosphotransferase (hptII) gene under CaMV 35S promoter was kindly provided by Dr. Yu (Academia Sinica). A. tumefaciens was cultured on LB medium containing 100 mg/l kanamycin, and 50 mg/l rifampicin at 28ºC for 2 days.. Optimization of transformation conditions and pollination of flowers with pollen co-cultured with Agrobacterium. A. tumefaciens cells were harvested by ...
The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The T-DNA is transferred from bacterium into the host plants nuclear DNA genome. The capability of this specialized tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is attributed to two essential regions required for DNA transfer to the host cell. As the T-DNA is bordered by 25-base-pair repeats on each end. Transfer is initiated at the right border and terminated at the left border and requires the vir genes of the Ti plasmid. The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant ...
Indeed, taking a gene from a soil bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt) that produces a natural pesticide and injecting that gene into the DNA of a soy plant, is hardly Mother Natures way of hybridising plants." Ummmm...FAIL! Sorry, that is EXACTLY how Mother Gaia engineers plants, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens: that bug causes crown gall by inserting DNA into the host plant cells that provides a nice little niche environment for the bacterium to grow.. In fact, if people actually understood just how much other DNA finds its way into plant genomes, they would lose all fear of GMOs. Or, alternatively, not eat anything ever again - which wwould be a fitting Darwinian punishment for stupidity.. Seriously: just the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) genome, for example, contains genes or sequences derived from Agrobacterium, from plant-infecting single-stranded DNA geminiviruses, from single-stranded RNA potyviruses, from insects that feed on plants, and from other bacteria and probably from fungi. ...
The plasmid vector pGreenII, which is widely used in the production of stable plant transformants, is shown herein to predispose constructs to the acquisition of mutations (Figure 1) despite its earlier revision (Hellens and Mullineaux 2000). This predisposition arises from pGreenII having an adverse effect on the growth of E. coli. It perturbs normal cell division resulting in the production of long filaments (Figure 1), a phenomenon associated with stressed cells (Justice et al. 2008), and causes a dramatic reduction in cell viability following overnight incubation (Table 1). This is far from ideal as the insertion of DNA into plasmids can itself affect the growth of E. coli through increased metabolic burden and the acquisition of activities that perturb cellular functions (Bentley et al. 2009; Rosano and Ceccarelli 2014). In our case, the insertion of a 4605 bp fragment containing the cDNA of the plant DNA methyltransferase 1 (MET1) into pGreenII generated sufficient selective pressure for ...
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the process of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Phenolic and sugar molecules from wounded plant cells trigger in the bacterium a series of events resulting in the processing of the T-DNA by the VirD1/VirD2 endonuclease and the subsequent transfer of the VirD2/T-strand complex, along with VirE2 and VirF proteins, from the bacterium through the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system. Key events in the plant cell include bacterial attachment, T-complex and Vir protein transfer, cytoplasmic trafficking of the T-complex, nuclear targeting, and T-DNA integration. Some of the plant genes necessary for these processes are depicted by representative rat mutants.. ...
A frictionless transport apparatus for transporting an object from a first to a second station is disclosed. The apparatus has a frame extending between the first and second stations and a carriage mounted for movement along said frame, in a levitated condition. A substantial portion of the weight of the carriage and load is supported by biasing magnets on the frame and carriage. The carriage and load are stabilized in a levitated condition by magnetic interactions between a diamagnetic plate on the carriage and a magnetic array extending along the frame. The carriage is moved in its levitated condition by a frictionless drive system, such as an electromagnetic, electrostatic, or pneumatic drive system. Also disclosed is a method of frictionless transport of an object between first and second stations.
As a microbiologist and cell biologist, Dr. Heindls research focuses on the prokaryotic development and bacterial interactions within the environment. He uses the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciensand related bacteria to understand regulatory principles and molecular mechanisms governing bacterial developmental stages from growth and remodeling, to the morphogenesis, division, and biofilm formation. His work has been published in several renowned scientific journals, such as Journal of Bacteriology, Infection and Immunity, and PLOS ONE-a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science. In his new role, Dr. Heindls responsibilities include teaching a variety of undergraduate microbiology courses and developing new courses for the program. He is also charged with establishing an active research program with undergraduate and graduate students in the Department of Biological Sciences. Dr. Heindl, a native of Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, received his ...
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
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During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which becomes a source of opines: chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl) homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that opens the ring and inactivates OC8-HSL. Consequently, OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using transgenic ...
1O9R: The Dps Protein of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Does not Bind to DNA But Protects It Toward Oxidative Cleavage: X-Ray Crystal Structure, Iron Binding, and Hydroxyl-Radical Scavenging Properties
Definition of agrobacterium - A bacterium of the genus Agrobacterium, which includes Gram-negative aerobic rods found in soil, several of which cause plant gall
AGROBACTERIUM :: Information about AGROBACTERIUM -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. FindTheWord.info searches for partial words (both crossword solver and part of word), help with cheating in Scrabble and Wordfeud, finds anagrams, palindromes, and words in word, and much more.The dictionary used contains more than 589,000 English words.
Gli agrobatteri sono un genere di batteri Gram-negativi di forma bastoncellare i quali utilizzano il trasferimento genico orizzontale per causare tumori nelle piante. Normalmente vivono nel suolo ed, in natura, sono considerati patogeni delle piante. LAgrobacterium tumefaciens è la specie più studiata. Gli agrobatteri sono ben noti per la loro capacità di trasferire DNA tra sé e le piante e per questo motivo è diventato un importante strumento per lingegneria genetica. Si tratta di un genere eterogeneo. Recenti studi tassonomici hanno classificato tutte le specie di Agrobacterium nel nuovi generi Arhensia, Pseudorhodobacter, Ruegeria e Stappia. ^ (EN) The FDA List of Completed Consultations on Bioengineered Foods, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (archiviato dallurl originale il 13 maggio 2008). ^ (EN) Yoshihito Uchino, Akira Yokota e Junta Sugiyama, Phylogenetic position of the marine subdivision of Agrobacterium species based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, in The Journal of General ...
Genetic transformation of maize via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is still more art than science, with different researchers achieving substantially different transformation results
Molecular Farming. Similar to the viral vector system, transient gene expression via agroinfiltration is a fast, flexible and reproducible approach to high-level expression of useful proteins. Here recombinant strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be used for transientexpression of genes that have been inserted into the T-DNA region of the bacterial Ti plasmid. However, the utility of the system is limited because the ectopic protein expression ceases after 2-3 days. In many cases post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is a major cause for this lack of efficiency.. A system based on co-expression of a viral-encoded suppressor protein which originally represents a viral adaptation to a novel host antiviral defense via gene silencing. The suppressor proteins of different viruses, are analysed for their ability to prevent the onset of post-transcriptional gene silencing in the infiltrated tissues and thus allow high level of transient expression. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, we ...
A novel system for detection of gene transfer between A. tumefaciens and mammalian cells was established. Using this system, Agrobacterium was found to be able to deliver DNA located on its plasmid and chromosome into human cells. Agrobacterium is actively involved in this process; such a kind of DNA transfer might occur widely between bacteria and mammalian cells. The frequency of such a gene transfer was approximately 10-4-10-5 transformants per recipient. Our data showed that this DNA transfer is dependent upon Agrobacterium and independent of its virulence genes. The polymerization of actin played an important role in Agrobacterium internalization and subsequent gene transfer into mammalian cells. In addition, an Agrobacterium sensor protein ChvG was found to be important for the gene transfer into both plant and mammalian cells. The data suggested that ChvG was involved in the regulation of acid-inducible genes and might function as a global sensor protein that can directly or indirectly ...
In Article ,19940117170936.bloksber at thomashaw-at.css.msu.edu, bloksber at pilot.msu.edu (Leonard N. Bloksberg) says: , In Article ,1994Jan17.130735.1 at molbiol.ox.ac.uk, mknight at molbiol.ox.ac.uk says: , , Can anyone out there enlighten me as to what goes into the choice of which , , Agrobacterium strain to use for transformations? Im recommended by most people , , to use C58 and told that LBA4404 is a bad idea. Why is this? , , , , Many thanks! , , , , , , Marc Knight , , ==== ====== , , , . , LBA4404 is not really a bad idea, its just not the best. When people have , bothered to do side by side controled comparisons, Nopaline strains (eg, , C58) give higher rates of transformation with transgenes. Also, some of the , Octapine strains (eg the parent of LBA4404) still retain some of their onc , genes, and can yield strange and mostly sterile transgenics (not so for , LBA4404, as far as I know). LBA4404 contains the plasmid pAL4404 which is , a HindIII partial digest of the original ...
As you know I called Vitaly Citovsky last week to inquire about experiments on humans with agrobacterium tumefaciens. Even though his last report said that this bacteria could be spread to humans, he reputed now the fact in our conversation. So I checked out his book, "Agrobacterium, from biology to biotechnology" by Tzfira and Citovsky. In his book it states that over 80 different non plant species can be transformed by agrobacterium. Agrobacteria isnt restricted to eukaryotes. It is capable of transferring not only DNA but also proteins to host organisms. It genetically transforms several types of human cells. Human cancer cells along with neuron and kidney cells were transformed ...
Crown gall is a widespread disease of cultivated culture all over the world. The bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium tumefacience colonize the xylem vessels of the plants.The tumors form in stems and roots of fruits culture. Large tumoursmay death of new plants in the nursery and in the plantation. Tumouregenesis causing root decay may be factor involved in the complex syndrome. Development of measures to controle crown-gall is carried out in direction for obtaining tumorless plants at the expens of preventive treatment of woundings so as to deteriorate the interaction of pathogen with the cell of host plant. Utilization the strain of soil inhibiting Pseudomonas fluorescens CR- 330 D which synthesize the substances (bacteriocins) with preventing activity to nopaline and octopine strains of pathogenic agrobacteria. Liquid concentrate suspension of this bacteria - biological preparat , Paurin, -were applicated for preplanting treatment of rooted saplings. Using to treat apple MM-106 wilding prior to ...
ALIPPI, Adriana M; LOPEZ, Ana C y BALATTI, Pedro A. Methods for the detection of Agrobacterium from plant, soil and water samples. Rev. argent. microbiol. [online]. 2011, vol.43, n.4, pp. 278-286. ISSN 0325-7541.. The genus Agrobacterium includes phytopathogenic bacteria that induce the development of root crown galls and/or aerial galls at the base of the stem or hairy roots on more than 600 species of plants belonging to 90 dicotyledonous families and non-pathogenic species. These bacteria being natural soil inhabitants are particularly diffcult to eradicate, which is a problem in nurseries where more than 80% of infections occur. Since early detection is crucial to avoid the inadvertent spread of the disease, the aim of this work was to develop sensitive and precise identifcation techniques by using a set of semi-selective and differential culture media in combination with a specifc PCR to amplify a partial sequence derived from the virC operon, as well as a multiplex PCR on the basis of ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM), tinted green, of the bacteria Agrobacterium tumifaciens (small bacilli) growing on the surface of cells from the tobacco plant Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. Known as a natural genetic engineer for the ease with which it interferes with its hosts metabolism, this bacterium injects cancer-causing genes (T-DNA) into a plant cell. A tumour develops which, while destructive to the plant, is food to the bacterium. Magnification: X 1070 at 35mm size. Original is BW print B242/01M - Stock Image B242/0002
Shop Limited host range VirA protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Limited host range VirA protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
virA and virG are the Ti-plasmid functions required for chemotaxis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens towards acetosyringone (pages 413-417). C. H. Shaw, A. M. Ashby, A. Brown, C. Royal, G. J. Loake and C. M. Shaw. Version of Record online: 27 OCT 2006 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.1988.tb00046.x. ...
Bacterial conjugation systems are highly promiscuous macromolecular transfer systems that impact human health significantly. In clinical settings, conjugation is exceptionally problematic, leading to the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes and other virulence traits among bacterial populations. Recent work has shown that several pathogens of plants and mammals - Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Bordetella pertussis, Helicobacter pylori and Legionella pneumophila - have evolved secretion pathways ancestrally related to conjugation systems for the purpose of delivering effector molecules to eukaryotic target cells. Each of these systems exports distinct DNA or protein substrates to effect a myriad of changes in host cell physiology during infection. Collectively, secretion pathways ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation systems are now referred to as the type IV secretion family. The list of putative type IV family members is increasing rapidly, suggesting that macromolecular ...
A device for the transport of particulate marking material includes a plurality of interdigitated electrodes formed on a substrate. An electrostatic traveling wave may be generated across the electrodes to sequentially attract particles of marking material, and thereby transport them to a desired location. The electrodes may be integrally formed with driving circuitry, and may be staggered to minimize or eliminate cross-talk.
Hungy Planet: Stories of Plant Diseases. Chapter Six, Student Resources...Animation: Overview of Transcription and Translation Animation: Details of Transcription Animation: Details of Translation Animation: Genetic Engineering by the Crown Gall Bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens &...
Bacterial origins of replication are species specific, so you could start with a disarmed Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium (disarmed in the sense that it is missing the cis-elements necessary for T-DNA mobilization). The disabled vector would be replication competent, and would carry a target sequence for recombination. This strain of Agrobacterium could be conjugated to E. coli carrying a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) or even a BAC library of plant DNA. The E. coli plasmid does not have an origin of replication that would function in A. tumefaciens, so it can only survive by integration into the disabled A. tumefaciens plasmid. This would all be handled by a selectable marker (not shown ...
Authors: Ai, Xuanjun; Semesi, Anthony; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Li, Shawn; Choy, Wing-Yiu. Citation: Ai, Xuanjun; Semesi, Anthony; Yee, Adelinda; Arrowsmith, Cheryl; Choy, Wing-Yiu; Li, Shawn. "The hypothetical protein Atu4866 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens adopts a streptavidin-like fold" Protein Sci. 17, 154-158 (2008).. Assembly members: ...
Koukolikova-Nicola Z, Shillito RD, Hohn B, Wang K, Van Montagu M, Zambryski P (1985) Involvement of circular intermediates in the transfer of T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells ...
Postdoctoral position to study the molecular mechanism of the early events in the transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid to plant cells. Candidates should have experience in molecular biology/recombinant DNA technology and/or microbiology. The position is available immediately at an initial annual salary of $16,500. Please contact: Dr. Stanton B. Gelvin, Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA (317) 494-4939.
Home » Nadp+-dependent serine dehydrogenase. NADP_-dependent serine dehydrogenase (Science: enzyme) catalyses the oxidation of the hydroxyl group of ser to form 2-aminomalonate saemialdehyde; from agrobacterium tumefaciens. Registry number: EC 1.1.1.- Synonym: nadp_ ser dehydrogenase ...
Virts, E.L. and Gelvin, S.B. (1995). Ti-plasmid transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to Petunia cells. In A.A. Szalay and R.B. Legocki (eds.), Advances in the molecular genetics of the bacteria-plant interaction. Media Services, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY ...
A enzima mio-inositol-1-fosfato sintase (MIPS1) (E.C.5.5.1.4) catalisa a conversão irreversível de D-Glicose-6-P para 1-L-mio-inositol-1-P. O mio-inositol desempenha papel de destaque no metabolismo vegetal, fornecendo inositol e inositídeos em processos metabólicos essenciais à formação do vegetal. Dentre as várias vias nas quais o mio-inositol está envolvido algumas são alvo do melhoramento vegetal, a exemplo a manipulação do conteúdo de ácido fítico e de oligossacarídeos em sementes e açúcares estruturais na parede celular. Até o presente momento, plantas MIPS silenciadas não foram caracterizadas em detalhes, principalmente em suas estruturas vegetativas. Com isso, o presente trabalho objetivou caracterizar tomateiros Moneymaker com diferentes níveis de silenciamento de MIPS1. Para a indução do silenciamento utilizou- se tranformação genética via Agrobacterium tumefaciens contendo plasmídeo pCambia com construção tipo intron hairpin de fragmentos do gene MIPS de ...
View Notes - practiceproblems2 from MCB 41 at Berkeley. Garriga Problem set #2 1. Agrobacterium is a pathogen of dicots, and its plasmid can be used to transfer foreign DNA into these plants.
Agrobacterium is the only cellular organism on Earth that is naturally capable of transferring genetic material between the kingdoms of life, from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Studies have uncovered a w
Various plant species are typically transformed by one of three methods. Arguably, the simplest and most preferable of these methods is transformation using a species of bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefasciens. Agrobacterium naturally transforms its host plants with DNA that causes tumors or galls to grow on the host. It accomplishes this by altering hormone levels in the host plant. The tumorous growth produces ideal tissue for the bacteria to infect. In order to use Agrobacterium for plant biotechnology, researchers replace the tumor-inducing piece of DNA, or plasmid, with DNA that encodes the genes they want to engineer into the host plant. Depending on the host species, this type of transformation can be very simple or can be quite challenging. A general advantage of this transformation strategy is that it typically leads to only one or a few copies of the engineered DNA being introduced to the plant genome, which helps to ensure stable gene expression (i.e. the engineered genes will usually ...
The type IV secretion system virB/virD4 is a major virulence determinant for subversion of human endothelial cell (HEC) function. VirB-dependent changes of HEC include massive cytoskeletal rearrangements, a proinflammatory activation by nuclear factor NF-kappa-B, inhibition of early and late events of apoptosis, leading to an increased cell survival, and, at high infection doses, a cytostatic or cytotoxic effect, which interfers with a potent virB-independent mitogenic activity. These changes of HEC require the T4S coupling protein virD4 and at least one of the effector proteins bepA-G. Together with virB11, may be implicated in providing the energy, via hydrolysis of ATP, for the assembly of secretion system and substrate transport ...
Tzfira, Tzvi and Citovsky, Vitaly, "From Host Recognition to T-Dna Integration: the Function of Bacterial and Plant Genes in the Agrobacterium-Plant Cell Interaction" (2000). ...
The gene gun worked with a broader range of plant crops than agrobacterium in the early days and so it was a more random method, it was also more broadly useful. Today, agrobacterium has been adapted to plants that previously it was thought not to work on, and I think in the long run most engineering will go back to the agrobacterium system ...
ABSTRACT Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an efficient technique to quickly evaluate gene functions. VIGS utilizes the mechanism(s) of RNA interference (RNAi), which the virus vector carrying the gene of interest will be silenced through posttranscriptional gene silencing. Agrobacterium is used to carry the constructed vectors to infect the plants . Here, I summarized several inoculation methods have been reported recently to infect the plants. We are working on evaluating the efficiency with these different methods in our study system. Our lab uses Nicotiana obtusifolia (desert tobacco) as a model to studygene regulating plant development. I report the result of leaf inoculation by using syringe. PDS gene was silenced show a phenotype with bleached leaves . We are working on evaluating the most effective inoculation methods for our system. VIGS, PDS, plasmid, agrobacterium, inoculation, vector, transmission
pick single colony and grow cells o/n in 3 ml lb medium containing the appropriate antibiotics (usually rif30, gent15-25 for gv3101 and either kan or cam for the plasmid) with vigorous shaking (225 rpm) at 28ºC ...
Translocation of macromolecules between cells is a major area of biomedical interest. In bacteria, the intercellular transfer of macromolecules is commonly orch...
An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene \beta-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg$ l-^{1}$ thidiazuron (TDZ), 3.0 mg $l-^{1} N^{6}$-benzylaminopurine, 100 mg$ l-^{1}$ kanamycin and 500 mg l? cefotaxime. The putative transgenic shoot buds elongated on basal selection medium and rooted efficiently on Soilrite irrigated with water containing 100 mg$ l-^{1} $kanamycin sulphate. Transgenic plants were raised in pots and seeds subsequently collected from mature fruits. Histochemical GUS assay and polymerase vchain reaction analysis of field-established transgenic plants and their offsprings confirmed the ...
Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Allorhizobium are genera within the bacterial family Rhizobiaceae, together with Sinorhizobium. The species of Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (syn. Agrobacterium radiobacter), Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rubi and Agrobacterium vitis, together with Allorhizobium undicola, form a monophyletic group with all Rhizobium species, based on comparative 16S rDNA analyses. Agrobacterium is an artificial genus comprising plant-pathogenic species. The monophyletic nature of Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium and Rhizobium and their common phenotypic generic circumscription support their amalgamation into a single genus, Rhizobium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was conserved as the type species of Agrobacterium, but the epithet radiobacter would take precedence as Rhizobium radiobacter in the revised genus. The proposed new combinations are Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium undicola and Rhizobium vitis.
Tandemly repeated DNA sequences are common in the genomes of many organisma and are susceptive to deletions and amplifications. That way they are a major cause of genome instability. Genetic analysis of repeated sequence rearrangements in Escherichia coli has revealed that multiple mechanisms participate in the process. They can be roughly divided into RecA-dependant and RecA-independent mechanisms. In this graduation thesis we wanted to test intramolecular recombination efficiency of bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compare it to that in Escherichia coli. For that purpose we have designed a plasmid which has tandem repeats of incomplete spectinomycin genes separated with ampicillin resistance gene. Spectinomycin resistance can be achieved either by RecA-dependant homologous recombination between direct repeats, while simultaneously deleting ampicillin resistance gene, or by RecAindependent mechanisms, which yields both ampicillin resistance gene and spectinomycin resistance genes ...
Octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens differ in their ability to induce tumors on Nicotiana glauca. The presence of a virF locus on the octopine Ti plasmid makes N. glauca a host plant for these strains, indicating that the VirF protein is a host-range determinant. Here we show the presence of a virF locus not only on the Agrobacterium vitis octopine/cucumopine plasmids pTiAg57 and pTiTm4, but also on the nopaline Ti plasmids pTiAT1, pTiAT66a, and pTiAT66b. On the octopine Ti plasmids from A. tumefaciens the virF gene is located between the virE locus and the left border of the T-region. In contrast, the virF gene on Ti plasmids of A. vitis is located at the very left end of the vir-region near the virA locus. The virF gene of pTiAg57 has been sequenced and codes for a protein of 202 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22,280 Da. Comparison showed that the virF gene from A. vitis strain Ag57 is almost identical to that from A. tumefaciens octopine strains. The transcription of the
Background Agrobacterium tumefaciens has long been known to transform plant tissue in nature as part of its infection process. This natural mechanism has been utilised over the last few decades in laboratories world wide to genetically manipulate many species of plants. More recently this technology has been successfully applied to non-plant organisms in the laboratory, including fungi, where the plant wound hormone acetosyringone, an inducer of transformation, is supplied exogenously. In the natural environment it is possible that Agrobacterium and fungi may encounter each other at plant wound sites, where acetosyringone would be present, raising the possibility of natural gene transfer from bacterium to fungus. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate this hypothesis through the development of experiments designed to replicate such a situation at a plant wound site. A. tumefaciens harbouring the plasmid pCAMDsRed was co-cultivated with the common plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium albo-atrum
Agrobacterium species that are pathogenic on plants, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes, all carry megaplasmids. By contrast, nonpathogenic strains either lack these plasmids entirely or carry mutant forms of plasmids. A strict requirement of the Ti plasmid for virulence was established through mutational analyses and by a demonstration that the introduction of Ti plasmids into Rhizobium or Phyllobacterium spp. converts these nonpathogenic species into tumor-inducing pathogens ( 2 , 3 ). Ti plasmids induce a disease called crown gall, which is typified by the formation of undifferentiated plant tumors at the plant crown (the subterranean-to-aerial transition zone). The related root-inducing or Ri megaplasmids carried by A. rhizogenes instead induce hairy root disease, which is typified by the formation of entangled masses of roots at the infection site ( 4 ).
Bifunctional serine/threonine kinase and phosphorylase involved in the regulation of the pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK) by catalyzing its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most widely used technique for generating transgenic plants. However, many crops remain recalcitrant. We found that an Arabidopsis myb family transcription factor (MTF1) inhibited plant transformation susceptibility. Mutating MTF1 increased attachment of several Agrobacterium strains to roots and increased both stable and transient transformation in both susceptible and transformation-resistant Arabidopsis ecotypes. Cytokinins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens decreased the expression of MTF1 through activation of the cytokinin response regulator ARR3. Mutating AHK3 and AHK4, genes that encode cytokinin-responsive kinases, increased the expression of MTF1 and impaired plant transformation. Mutant mtf1 plants also had increased expression of AT14A, which encodes a putative transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules. Plants overexpressing AT14A exhibited increased susceptibility to transformation, whereas at14a mutant plants exhibited decreased attachment
Huangs group focused on the pathogens genetic material. Most bacteria have circular chromosomes. But A. tumefaciens C58, the strain studied by Huangs group, contains one circular chromosome and one linear chromosome (along with two circular plasmids). Huangs research illuminates how this bacterium maintains its linear chromosome.. Huangs team ascertained the DNA sequence for the telomeres, or the protective end caps, of the linear chromosome in A. tumefaciens C58 and confirmed that an enzyme, TelA, actually forms them by making hairpin loops. These end caps are important for maintaining the stability of linear chromosomes. Interestingly, TelA also binds the telomeres. This activity is unique among bacterial enzymes of this kind and may protect the telomeres (which degrade over time and thus lose their ability to preserve DNA), as telomere binding proteins do in eukaryotes.. ...
Crown-gall tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is inhibited by cell walls from normal dicotyledonous plants but not by cell walls from crown-gall tumors apparently because of bacterial adherence or nonadherence, respectively, to the different cell walls. Cell walls from normal and tumor tissues in culture also show this difference, indicating that the two types of tissue stably maintain this difference under these conditions. Habituated tissue cultures, which resemble crown-gall tumor cultures, however, form cell walls that are inhibitory like those of the normal cultures from which they are derived. Monocotyledonous plants do not act as hosts for Agrobacterium and bacteria-specific inhibition is not shown by cell walls from several species of grass, a monocot family. Cell wallsfrom "embryonic" tissues (dicot seedlings less than 2 centimeters long), unlike those from older seedlings, are non-inhibitory. Crown-gall tumors thus resemble embryonic tissues in this respect.. ...
when virulent cells of agrobacterium tumefaciens strain b6 were exposed to low-level microwave radiation at a frequency of 10,000 mhz and an intensity of 0.58 mw/cm2 for 30 to 120 min, a 30 to 60% decrease in their ability to produce tumors on potato and turnip disks was observed. this microwave exposure did not affect the viability of these bacteria or their ability to attach to a tumor-binding site nor did it induce thermal shock. this loss of virulence was reversible within 12 h ...
In this study, we have begun to examine the complex interactions between two common environmental microorganisms, P.a. and A.t., in planktonic and biofilm growth modes. During exponential growth in dispersed, liquid culture, P.a. dominated A.t. because of a higher growth rate. Within biofilms grown on glass surfaces in the same defined medium, P.a. was also found to numerically dominate the population and to cover adherent A.t., a process requiring motility via flagella and type IV pili. Quorum-sensing mutants displayed an impaired competition phenotype in both liquid and flow-cell biofilm cultures. Motility was found to be important for both species in coculture biofilms. Although A.t. was outnumbered after the rapid-growth phase in both growth formats, its population remained viable, leading to a period of coexistence of these two microbes.. Quorum sensing appears to allow P.a. to achieve a slightly higher growth yield in liquid cocultures. Several quorum-sensing-regulated secreted functions ...
ID B9JCV2_AGRRK Unreviewed; 237 AA. AC B9JCV2; DT 24-MAR-2009, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 24-MAR-2009, sequence version 1. DT 07-JUN-2017, entry version 46. DE SubName: Full=DNA replication initiation ATPase protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM26089.1}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Arad_1727 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM26089.1}; OS Agrobacterium radiobacter (strain K84 / ATCC BAA-868). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhizobiales; OC Rhizobiaceae; Rhizobium/Agrobacterium group; Agrobacterium; OC Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex. OX NCBI_TaxID=311403 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM26089.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001600}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ACM26089.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001600} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=K84 / ATCC BAA-868 {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001600}; RX PubMed=19251847; DOI=10.1128/JB.01779-08; RA Slater S.C., Goldman B.S., Goodner B., Setubal J.C., Farrand S.K., RA Nester E.W., Burr T.J., Banta L., Dickerman A.W., Paulsen I., RA Otten L., ...
In ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids, it is important to produce cultivars with economically important traits such as disease and pest resistances and novel flower colors, which are difficult to achieve by conventional cross breeding methods. To realize these breeding objectives, it is now expected to apply genetic transformation technology to introduce useful foreign genes into ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids. However, there has been almost no information on the genetic transformation of ,i,Vanda,/i,. Transgenic plants were successfully regenerated after co-cultivating protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with ,i,Agrobacterium tumefaciens,/i, strain EHA101 (pIG121Hm) that harbored genes for β-glucuronidase (,i,gus,/i,), hygromycin phosphotransferase (,i,hpt,/i,) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (,i,nptII,/i,). PLBs of Tokyo Blue maintained in liquid New Dogashima medium (NDM) under dark condition, were subjected to transformation experiments. The PLBs inoculated with ,i,Agrobacterium,/i, produced secondary PLBs 4 weeks ...
By Kan Wang. Rapid adjustments and demanding growth were made within the Agrobacterium box, similar to genetically reworking vegetation for either easy learn reasons and agricultural improvement. In Agrobacterium Protocols, 3rd version, Volumes 1 and 2, a crew of top specialists and veteran researchers describe intimately concepts for providing DNA to plant cells and completely changing their genomes. This variation emphasizes agricultural vegetation and plant species with financial values, with up to date protocols on 32 plant species and protocols concerning 19 new species. including the 1st and 2nd variants, those volumes provide Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation protocols for a complete of seventy six plant species. For a couple of very important crops similar to rice, barley, wheat and citrus, a number of protocols utilizing assorted beginning plant fabrics for transformation are included.. Volume 1 information up-to-date suggestions to be had for 18 plant species drawn from ...
20160DNAArtificial sequenceSynthetic primer 1caaacaaaca tacacagcga cttattcaca caaacaaaca tacacagcga cttattcaca 60260DNAArtificial sequenceSynthetic primer 2tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 60348DNAArtificial sequenceSynthetic primer 3ctgacgaact gacgaactga cgaactgacg aactgacgaa ctgacgaa 48448DNAArtificial sequenceSynthetic primer 4ttcgtcagtt cgtcagttcg tcagttcgtc agttcgtcag ttcgtcag 48524DNAAgrobacterium tumefaciens 5taagtcgctg tgtatgtttg tttg 2468DNAAgrobacterium rhizogenes 6ctgacgaa 8730DNAAgrobacterium tumefaciens 7tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 30830DNAAgrobacterium tumefaciens 8tgtgaataaa tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 30930DNAAgrobacterium tumefaciens 9tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 3010120DNAArtificial sequenceSynthetic primer 10tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 60tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg tgtgaataag tcgctgtgta tgtttgtttg 12011144DNAAgrobacterium rhizogenes 11ctgacgaact gacgaactga cgaactgacg aactgacgaa ctgacgaact gacgaactga ...
We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green
EHA101 was one of the first and most widely used Agrobacterium helper plasmid for plant gene transfer. Created in 1985 in the laboratory of Mary-Dell Chilton at Washington University in St. Louis, it was named after the graduate student who constructed it. The EH stands for "Elizabeth Hood" and A for "Agrobacterium". The EHA101 helper strain is a derivative of A281, the hypervirulent A. tumefaciens strain that causes large, fast-growing tumors on solanaceous plants. This strain is used for moving genes of interest into many hundreds of species of plants all over the world. For recalcitrant crops such as maize, wheat, and rice, the EHA helper strains are often employed for gene transfer. These strains are efficient at promoting T-DNA transfer because of the hypervirulence of the vir genes suggesting that a higher success rate can be achieved on these "hard to transform" crops or cultivars. The chromosomal background of EHA101 is C58C1, a cured nopaline strain. The helper strains were derived from ...
GM walnuts could soon hit the supermarket shelves, after scientists at the University of California developed a way to modify the roots of the walnut tree to enable them to fight infection from a bug called Agrobacterium. Agrobacterium causes cancerous growth that invades the plants DNA.
Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer to pre-organized meristematic tissue combined with axillary regeneration was standardized for transformation and regeneration of chickpea, which otherwise was difficult to achieve from other explants. Different Agrobacterium strains harbouring binary vectors pCGP1258, containing the GUS as a reporter and bar [gene for resistance to phosphinothricin (PPT)-the active ingredient of the herbicide Basta] as the selectable marker, were used for the transformation experiments. After co-cultivation, the shoot apex explants were transferred onto a PPT-free regeneration medium and their tops (2 mm) were thoroughly wetted with PPT solution (2 mg/mL). The multiple axillary shoots developing from the shoot apices were excised and placed onto a medium containing 10 mg/L PPT. The surviving shoots were subcultured every 2nd wk onto fresh medium containing 20 mg/L PPT. After each subculture, the number of surviving shoots decreased until it stabilized. Some of the chimeric ...
This is a protocol to produce stable silencing efficacy and efficiency for VIGS using CymMV as a silencing vector for floral functional genomics in Phalaenopsis orchids. This protocol is established based on a method created by Lu et al. (2007), and then modified by Hsieh et al. (2013a; 2013b), Lu et al. (2012) successfully engineered a cloning vector (pCymMV-Gateway) in that the target gene fragment is simple to insert and can be manipulated with high efficiency. The silencing vector is inoculated into plants by Agro-inoculation by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens) strain EHA105. Agro-infiltration of leaves for use in VIGS study of orchid flowers is a time saver and produces less damage to flower buds.
Members of this protein family have two copies of the ABC transporter ATP-binding cassette, but are found outside the common ABC transporter operon structure that features integral membrane permease proteins and substrate-binding proteins encoded next to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC domain) protein. The member protein ChvD from Agrobacterium tumefaciens was identified as both a candidate to interact with VirB8, based on yeast two-hybrid analysis, and as an apparent regulator of VirG. The general function of this protein family is unknown ...
Ironically (and this is delicious in more ways than one), Whole Foods does sell massive quantities of one GMO: sweet potatoes. It turns out that all sweet potatoes contain bacterial genes! As Tina Kyndt, Dora Quispe and colleagues reported last year, 291 different varieties of sweet potato all contain genes from a bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium has the ability to insert bits of its own genome into its host, and it did exactly that to sweet potatoes sometime in the recent past, after humans started cultivating sweet potatoes (wild relatives dont have the foreign genes). Apparently, ancient human farmers preferred the sweet potatoes with the bacterial genes, and these were passed on to all modern varieties. So sweet potatoes are not only genetically modified, but they are transgenic: they contains genes from a completely different species ...
This research describes the optimization of parameters (including pH, temperature, period of co-cultivation and age of callus) for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using staminodes from cocoa buds as explants. The A. tumefaciens strain used was the super avirulent AGLl with the binary vector pGPTV-Kan/Gus. The strain confers aminoglycoside resistance to transformed cells through the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene. Callus induction medium contained DKW minerals, glucose, vitamins, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 0.005 mg/L TDZ (0.5nM) pH 5.3. Co-cultivation medium was identical to callus induction medium but contained 0.02mg/L acetosyringone. Experiments were conducted using two clones of cocoa: KKM19 and P22. Staminodes were cultured on callus induction medium in the dark before the transformation process. After 14 days and 21 days on callus induction medium, callus-derived staminodes were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens on semi-solid co-cultivation ...
When cultivated in 6,7-V medium in suspension culture, Salvia miltiorrhiza, transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58, grew rapidly, reaching about 9.7 g l-1 dry wt after 12 days. The cell line produced tanshinones: 150 mg cryptotanshinone, 20 mg tanshinone I and 50 mg tanshinone IIA/l and phenolic acids: 530 mg rosmarinic acid and 216 mg lithospermic acid B/l. The phenolic acids were intracellular while about 1/3 of the tanshinones were extracellular. This is the first report of simultaneous production of both phenolic acids and tanshinones in a single culture system ...
Plant transformation provides a promising methodology of introducing new genes that encode desirable traits to a wide range of crop plants. Success in genetic transformation has been achieved in many of the important crop species, such as soybean, cotton, rice, corn. However, wheat, one of the major crops of the world, has been considered to be difficult to transform via either Agrobacterium or biolistic bombardment (Rakszegi et al., 2001). There have been limited studies on A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of cereals, including wheat, because of the overall refractory character of host-pathogen interactions between Agrobacterium and the cereal plants (Gould et al., 1991; Hiei et al., 1994; Cheng et al., 1997). While the genetic transformation of rice using Agrobacterium has become routine, only a few successful studies of Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of wheat have been reported, and these involved a model spring wheat, Triticum aestivum cultivar Bobwhite (Cheng et al., 1997). ...
Looking for online definition of crown gall in the Medical Dictionary? crown gall explanation free. What is crown gall? Meaning of crown gall medical term. What does crown gall mean?
Cellulose is the most abundant natural product in the biosphere with a variety of functional roles. Despite this abundance, the capacity to synthesize cellulose is restricted to relatively few phyla. Among prokaryotes, soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae (Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium spp) use cellulose in anchoring to host plant tissues during infection (Matthysse 1983; Smith et al., 1992). In Acetobacter xilinum, cellulose fibrils maintain bacterial cells in an aerobic environment in liquid and protect the cells from UV radiation (Williams and Cannon, 1989). Within the plant kingdom, cellulose plays a key role in structural support and the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils is crucial to patterning through anisotropic growth during development (Smith and Oppenheimer, 2005). The social amoeba, Dictyostelium, requires cellulose for stalk and spore formation (Blanton et al., 2000), and cellulose synthesis is also present in some fungi, although its function remains ...
There were two researches done in the progenie test laboratory at the Plant Technology Department at the Federal University of Viçosa, in Viçosa-MG. One of them had as its aim to develop a manioc plant transformation protocol (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by means of Agrobacterium rhizogenes which is resistant to kanamicine, and the other was to evaluate the effect of the photoperiod, colour filters, ammonium nitrate; 2,4-D, picloram, ABA, AgNO 3 and STS in the small plant of cassava. The following were tested during the cassava transformation: a) selective means with kanamicine (0,0; 100; 200; 300; 400; 500; 600; 700; 800; 900; and 1.000 mg/L), b) the influence of age and light over the leaf disks which were cultivated in bacteria, c) the effect of ANA (0,0; 0,1; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0; 4,0; and 5,0 mg/L) in the co-cultivate, d) the effect of the BAP (1,0; 10,0; 50; and 100,0 mg/L) concentrations, e) the effect of the GA3 (0,05) + BAP (2,0 mg/L) and picloram (8,0 mg/L). There was also a isozimatic ...
The insect resistant and glyphosate tolerant MON 531 x MON 1445 (MON 531 x MON 1445 Cotton) was generated by crossing MON 531 cotton with MON 1445 cotton through classic genetic improvement and expresses proteins Cry1Ac (MON 531 cotton) and CP4 EPSPS (MON 1445 cotton). MON 531 cotton results from a genetic modification of a conventional variety of Coker 312 corn through a methodology mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Genes inserted in MON 531 were cry1Ac (conferring resistance to insects), nptIl (operating as a selection marker of transformed plants) and aad (operating as a selection marker of transformed bacteria in the process of cloning the plasmid of interest. The expression of cry1Ac confers resistance to some species of lepidopteran target-insects (cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea], apple budworm [Heliothis virescens], corn earworm [Helicoverpa Zea] and pink bollworm [Pectinophora gossypiella]). Gene cry1Ac was isolated from bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki and ...
Bacteria regulate specific group behaviors such as biofilm formation in response to population density using small signal molecules called autoinducers (quorum sensing, QS). In this study, the concept of bacterial QS was applied to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) for advanced wastewater treatment as a new biofouling control paradigm. The research was conducted in three phases: (1) demonstrate the presence of the autoinducer signal in MBRs, (2) correlate QS activity and membrane biofouling, (3) apply QS-based membrane biofouling control. A bioassay with Agrobacterium tumefaciens reporter strain proved that N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) autoinducers were produced in the MBR. Furthermore, thinlayer chromatographic analysis identified at least three different AHLs in the biocake, of which N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone was the most abundant. During continuous MBR operation, the biocakeshowedstrongAHLactivity simultaneously with abrupt increase in the transmembrane pressure, which implies that QS is in ...

Regulation of hyu gene expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR - OpenThesisRegulation of hyu gene expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR - OpenThesis

Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted ... Regulation of hyu gene expression in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR. by Jiwaji, M. ... tumefaciens strains.. The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was ... In addition, it indicates that the hyu genes in the two A. tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR are different.. The presence ...
more infohttp://www.openthesis.org/documents/Regulation-hyu-gene-expression-in-553737.html

Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 Genome & Functional Genomics ProjectAgrobacterium tumefaciens C58 Genome & Functional Genomics Project

Brief Description of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58:. A. tumefaciens C58 is the most heavily studied member of the genus ... Scientists know a lot now about virulent Agrobacterium strains do this and have worked out methods to use this natural DNA ... My lab was involved in the genetic/physically mapping and sequencing of the A. tumefaciens C58 genome (Goodner et al., 1999; ... However, most people know Agrobacterium because some strains can do something that no other cellular pathogen does - inject a ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/site/goodneragro/

The T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  - PubMed - NCBIThe T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. - PubMed - NCBI

The T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.. Lai EM1, Kado CI.. Author information. 1. Davis Crown Gall Group, University of ... and protein-transport apparatus for the transport of cyclic T-pilin subunits to the Agrobacterium cell surface. T-pilin ... subunits are processed from full-length VirB2 pro-pilin into a cyclized peptide, a rapid reaction that is Agrobacterium ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10920395?dopt=Abstract

Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium tumefaciensCytokinin production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

A. tumefaciens tRNA was found to contain . ⁶Ado, ms².⁶Ado, ms²io⁶Ado and trans-io⁶Ado. A. tumefaciens culture filtrates were ... Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce ... tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this ... Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/ ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/6t053k05z

Agrobacterium tumefaciens - WikipediaAgrobacterium tumefaciens - Wikipedia

Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens overwinters in infested soils. Agrobacterium species live predominantly saprophytic lifestyles, so ... "Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)". UniProt Taxonomy. Archived from the original on ... Breakdown of the soft tissue leads to release of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the soil allowing it to restart the disease ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agrobacterium_tumefaciens

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated Transformation of Plant Cells - eLS - Binns - Wiley Online LibraryAgrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated Transformation of Plant Cells - eLS - Binns - Wiley Online Library

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that causes plant tumours by transferring a portion of DNA from a ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1038/npg.els.0001492/abstract

Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane.  - PubMed - NCBIVirulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane. - PubMed - NCBI

Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane.. Wessel M1, Klüsener S, Gödeke J ... The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N- ... The virulence defect was due to a complete lack of the type IV secretion machinery in the Agrobacterium PC mutant. Our results ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17010159?dopt=Abstract

Agrobacterium tumefaciens electrocompetent cellsAgrobacterium tumefaciens electrocompetent cells

... for T-DNA transfer to plant cells and preparation of transgenic recombinant ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Electro-Cells. 5 x 40 uL. $259.00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) can ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens electrocompetent cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. The T-DNA (transfer DNA) is ...
more infohttps://cellartis.com/products/cloning/competent-cells/agrobacterium-electrocompetent-cells

Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. | PNASAssociation of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. | PNAS

Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells.. V M Yusibov, T R Steck, V ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/91/8/2994?ijkey=28f246c8a09a9307079c07a61037235d85decf2a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules | Plant ScienceFrontiers | Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules | Plant Science

The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00322/full

Progress of cereal genome engineering mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Frontiers Research TopicProgress of cereal genome engineering mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Frontiers Research Topic

In 1994, rice was the first cereal species to be transformed efficiently by A. tumefaciens, and maize, wheat and barley soon ... Finally, it has now been clearly demonstrated that A. tumefaciens can transfer genes to both dicotyledons and monocotyledons by ... However, until about 20 years ago, it was generally believed that monocotyledons could not be transformed by Agrobacterium, ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer is a method employed widely in many plant species. This bacterium can ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/research-topics/2115/progress-of-cereal-genome-engineering-mediated-by-agrobacterium-tumefaciens

Unexpected Phytostimulatory Behavior for Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens Model StrainsUnexpected Phytostimulatory Behavior for Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens Model Strains

... May 2013 , Volume 26 , ... We assessed the impact of seed inoculation with the emblematic bacterial models Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (plasmid-cured) ... Compared with the noninoculated control, root biomass (with A. tumefaciens or E. coli) and shoot biomass (with A. tumefaciens) ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens and E. coli triggered similar (in PR37Y15) or different (in DK315) changes in the high-performance ...
more infohttps://www.apsnet.org/publications/mpmi/2013/May/Pages/26_5_495.aspx

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Tomato | Springer for Research & DevelopmentAgrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Tomato | Springer for Research & Development

AGL1 Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum Solanum pimpinellifolium This is a preview of ... esculentum) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep 5:81-84CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Van Eck J., Keen P., Tjahjadi M. (2019) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Tomato. In: Kumar S., Barone P., ... Efficient transfer of a glyphosate tolerance gene into tomato using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. Bio/Technology 5 ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-8778-8_16

Agrobacterium tumefaciens - the tumour causer - SplashoAgrobacterium tumefaciens - the tumour causer - Splasho

Agrobacterium tumefaciens - the tumour causer. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium which, with the help of the Ti ... They attempted a Southern blot with a probe for T-DNA on induced Agrobacterium cells and found that they could identify this ... and scientists attempted to isolate them from Agrobacterium. They found that strains causing Crown Gall disease had a 250 kb ...
more infohttp://splasho.com/blog/2011/06/01/535/

anmK - Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase - Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) - anmK gene & proteinanmK - Anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid kinase - Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) - anmK gene & protein

Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A083ZED5

Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm...Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm...

Agrobacterium tumefaciens;. CFU,. colony-forming unit;. P.a.,. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. *© 2006 by The National Academy of ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/103/10/3828

Crown Gall, Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Winter 2008 | ArticlesCrown Gall, Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Winter 2008 | Articles

... the common name for Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is one of the most famous plant diseases in the world. This bacterium can cause ... When Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to introduce new genes to plants, scientists remove the plasmid genes that induce tumors ... Crown gall, the common name for Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is one of the most famous plant diseases in the world. This ... Biologists frequently tweak the age-old procedures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create remodeled crop species. The Flavr ...
more infohttps://northernwoodlands.org/articles/article/crown_gall_agrobacterium_tumefaciens

Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogen and Biotechnology Agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 | ScienceGenome Sequence of the Plant Pathogen and Biotechnology Agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 | Science

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a ... Agrobacterium tumefaciensis a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where ... Synteny analysis of the A. tumefaciens, S. meliloti, and M. loti genomes. AlthoughAgrobacterium and Sinorhizobium are in ... A) Comparison of A. tumefaciens with S. meliloti chromosome. (B) Comparison of A. tumefaciens with S. meliloti plasmid pSymA. ( ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/294/5550/2323?ijkey=ec4ec0d5eaa1bd210e6eb06d437709b83670d326&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Journal of...Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Journal of...

Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Ina Wilms, Philip ... Current model of Hfq-dependent processes in A. tumefaciens. A schematic A. tumefaciens cell is depicted with inner and outer ... Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens ... Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/194/19/5209/figures-only

Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Journal of...Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens | Journal of...

GABA controls the level of quorum-sensing signal in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103:7460-7464. ... Role of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirD2 protein in T-DNA transfer and integration. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 11:668-683. ... Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane. Mol. Microbiol. 62:906-915. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a broad-host-range phytopathogen that initiates the formation of tumors, called crown galls, on ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/194/19/5209?ijkey=130a1d995b982116b0654026f2213c908daa57c1&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

SY94 2663 - Putative pyruvate, phosphate dikinase regulatory protein - Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) - SY94...SY94 2663 - Putative pyruvate, phosphate dikinase regulatory protein - Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) - SY94...

Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A083ZHN4

Agrobacterium tumefaciens</i> responses to plant-derived signaling molecules. - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada...Agrobacterium tumefaciens</i> responses to plant-derived signaling molecules. - Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada...

Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules.. Subramoni, S., Nathoo, N., Klimov, E., and Yuan, Z.- ... As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ...
more infohttp://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/abstract/publication?id=34549000017878

Cationic Surfactants: Potential Surface Disinfectants to Manage Agrobacterium tumefaciens Biovar 1 Contamination of Grafting...Cationic Surfactants: Potential Surface Disinfectants to Manage Agrobacterium tumefaciens Biovar 1 Contamination of Grafting...

Potential Surface Disinfectants to Manage Agrobacterium tumefaciens Biovar 1 Contamination of Grafting Tools...L. E. Yakabe, S ... Nursery production of walnut seedlings is a 2-year process, during which crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, often ... Cationic Surfactants: Potential Surface Disinfectants to Manage Agrobacterium tumefaciens Biovar 1 Contamination of Grafting ... Sodium hypochlorite eliminated 100% of the A. tumefaciens population at 0.5 ppm. Sodium hypochlorite efficacy, however, was ...
more infohttps://www.apsnet.org/publications/plantdisease/2012/March/Pages/96_3_409.aspx

Just one quick question about the agrobacterium tumefaciens - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & ForumJust one quick question about the agrobacterium tumefaciens - Biology Forum | Biology-Online Dictionary, Blog & Forum

Just one quick question about the agrobacterium tumefaciens. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining ... "The transfer of the T-DNA between the A. tumefaciens cell and the plant cell is mediated in trans by virulence gene products ... I think that genes of A.tumefaciens hit the other strand of the plant, not the same where they are. I think. ...
more infohttps://www.biology-online.org/biology-forum/viewtopic.php?t=2685

RCSB PDB - 3HI0: Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont)...RCSB PDB - 3HI0: Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont)...

... from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A resolution ... Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A ... Crystal structure of Putative exopolyphosphatase (17739545) from AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS str. C58 (Dupont) at 2.30 A ... Agrobacterium fabrum (strain C58 / ATCC 33970). Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ppx. ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/structure/3HI0
  • The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) and a PC synthase (Pcs). (nih.gov)
  • As a ubiquitous soil bacterium, Agrobacterium is capable of two lifestyles: independent free-living or acting as a pathogen in association with a plant host. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, until about 20 years ago, it was generally believed that monocotyledons could not be transformed by Agrobacterium, because these plants are outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by this bacterium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium which, with the help of the Ti megaplasmid, manipulates plants into providing it with a safe and nutritious environment. (splasho.com)
  • The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in zinc-lead mine tailings, both displayed high metal resistance and enhanced the growth of Robinia plants in a metal-contaminated environment. (rti.org)
  • Possible plant compounds that initiate Agrobacterium to infect plant cells: Acetosyringone and other phenolic compounds alpha-Hydroxyacetosyringone Catechol Ferulic acid Gallic acid p-Hydroxybenzoic acid Protocatechuic acid Pyrogallic acid Resorcylic acid Sinapinic acid Syringic acid Vanillin To transfer the T-DNA into the plant cell, A. tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion mechanism, involving the production of a T-pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a broad-host-range phytopathogen that initiates the formation of tumors, called crown galls, on most dicotyledonous and some monocotyledonous plants ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Fillatti JJ, Kiser J, Rose R, Comai L (1987) Efficient transfer of a glyphosate tolerance gene into tomato using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. (springer.com)
  • Alarcón, B. , López, M.M. , Cambra, M. & Ortiz, J. 1987 Comparative study of Agrobacterium biotypes 1, 2 and 3 by electrophoresis and serological methods. (wiley.com)
  • Goodman, R.N. , Burton, D. & Tarbah, F. 1987 The occurrence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in grapevine-propagative material and simplified indexing system. (wiley.com)
  • Compared with the noninoculated control, root biomass (with A. tumefaciens or E. coli ) and shoot biomass (with A. tumefaciens ) were enhanced at 10 days for 'PR37Y15' but not 'DK315', as found with the phytostimulator Azospirillum brasilense UAP-154 (positive control). (apsnet.org)
  • In greenhouse studies, R. pseudoacacia inoculated with A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 displayed a significant increase in biomass production over that without inoculation, even in a zinc-contaminated environment. (rti.org)
  • Bozsó, Zoltán 2018-02-22 00:00:00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a widely used microbial tool in plant molecular biology to transfer DNA into plant cells and produce, e.g., stable or transient transformants or induce gene silencing. (deepdyve.com)
  • C) Relative amounts of AbcR1 in A. tumefaciens WT and the hfq mutant after the addition of rifampin. (asm.org)
  • Hybridizations were performed with amounts of 8 μg of total RNA from A. tumefaciens wild type (WT) and the Δ hfq mutant grown to the optical densities indicated above. (asm.org)
  • Gel electrophoresis allowed the detection of plasmids in bacteria at this time, and scientists attempted to isolate them from Agrobacterium. (splasho.com)
  • The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was characterized. (openthesis.org)
  • A. tumefaciens has flagella that allow it to swim through the soil towards photoassimilates that accumulate in the rhizosphere around roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rhizosphere, the natural habitat of A. tumefaciens , is a densely populated, highly dynamic and competitive niche ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • In roots as well as in shoots, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and E. coli triggered similar (in PR37Y15) or different (in DK315) changes in the high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of secondary metabolites (especially benzoxazinoids), distinct from those of Azospirillum brasilense UAP-154. (apsnet.org)
  • They attempted a Southern blot with a probe for T-DNA on induced Agrobacterium cells and found that they could identify this DNA even if they did not denature their sample before blotting, indicating the T-DAN was single stranded. (splasho.com)
  • Nursery production of walnut seedlings is a 2-year process, during which crown gall, caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens , often develops at grafting wounds. (apsnet.org)
  • In this study, the spread of crown gall via contaminated tools and the efficacy of several disinfectants against A. tumefaciens were demonstrated. (apsnet.org)