A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
Plasmids coding for proteins which induce PLANT TUMORS. The most notable example of a plant tumor inducing plasmid is the Ti plasmid found associated with AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A plant genus of the family CRASSULACEAE. Members contain bryophyllins (also called bryotoxins) which are bufadienolides (BUFANOLIDES) that have insecticidal activity.
An aminopurine factor in plant extracts that induces cell division. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dict, 5th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Diseases of plants.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of gram-negative bacteria, primarily infecting SWINE, but it can also infect humans, DOGS, and HARES.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of protocatechuate to 3-carboxy-cis-cis-muconate in the presence of molecular oxygen. It contains ferric ion. EC 1.13.11.3.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
Cyclic esters of acylated BUTYRIC ACID containing four carbons in the ring.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Aminoglycoside produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. It is used as an anthelmintic against swine infections by large roundworms, nodular worms, and whipworms.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Filamentous or elongated proteinaceous structures which extend from the cell surface in gram-negative bacteria that contain certain types of conjugative plasmid. These pili are the organs associated with genetic transfer and have essential roles in conjugation. Normally, only one or a few pili occur on a given donor cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p675) This preferred use of "pili" refers to the sexual appendage, to be distinguished from bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL), also known as common pili, which are usually concerned with adhesion.

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei by proteins originating from a plant pathogenic bacterium. (1/966)

Import of DNA into mammalian nuclei is generally inefficient. Therefore, one of the current challenges in human gene therapy is the development of efficient DNA delivery systems. Here we tested whether bacterial proteins could be used to target DNA to mammalian cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a plant pathogen, efficiently transfers DNA as a nucleoprotein complex to plant cells. Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transfer to plant cells is the only known example for interkingdom DNA transfer and is widely used for plant transformation. Agrobacterium virulence proteins VirD2 and VirE2 perform important functions in this process. We reconstituted complexes consisting of the bacterial virulence proteins VirD2, VirE2, and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in vitro. These complexes were tested for import into HeLa cell nuclei. Import of ssDNA required both VirD2 and VirE2 proteins. A VirD2 mutant lacking its C-terminal nuclear localization signal was deficient in import of the ssDNA-protein complexes into nuclei. Import of VirD2-ssDNA-VirE2 complexes was fast and efficient, and was shown to depended on importin alpha, Ran, and an energy source. We report here that the bacterium-derived and plant-adapted protein-DNA complex, made in vitro, can be efficiently imported into mammalian nuclei following the classical importin-dependent nuclear import pathway. This demonstrates the potential of our approach to enhance gene transfer to animal cells.  (+info)

Stable expression of human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase in plant cells modifies N-linked glycosylation patterns. (2/966)

beta1,4-Galactosyltransferase (UDP galactose: beta-N-acetylglucosaminide: beta1,4-galactosyltransferase; EC 2.4.1. 22) catalyzes the transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to N-acetylglucosamine in the penultimate stages of the terminal glycosylation of N-linked complex oligosaccharides in mammalian cells. Tobacco BY2 cells lack this Golgi enzyme. To determine to what extent the production of a mammalian glycosyltransferase can alter the glycosylation pathway of plant cells, tobacco BY2 suspension-cultured cells were stably transformed with the full-length human galactosyltransferase gene placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The expression was confirmed by assaying enzymatic activity as well as by Southern and Western blotting. The transformant with the highest level of enzymatic activity has glycans with galactose residues at the terminal nonreducing ends, indicating the successful modification of the plant cell N-glycosylation pathway. Analysis of the oligosaccharide structures shows that the galactosylated N-glycans account for 47.3% of the total sugar chains. In addition, the absence of the dominant xylosidated- and fucosylated-type sugar chains confirms that the transformed cells can be used to produce glycoproteins without the highly immunogenic glycans typically found in plants. These results demonstrate the synthesis in plants of N-linked glycans with modified and defined sugar chain structures similar to mammalian glycoproteins.  (+info)

Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (3/966)

To accelerate gene isolation from plants by positional cloning, vector systems suitable for both chromosome walking and genetic complementation are highly desirable. Therefore, we developed a transformation-competent artificial chromosome (TAC) vector, pYLTAC7, that can accept and maintain large genomic DNA fragments stably in both Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Furthermore, it has the cis sequences required for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer into plants. We cloned large genomic DNA fragments of Arabidopsis thaliana into the vector and showed that most of the DNA fragments were maintained stably. Several TAC clones carrying 40- to 80-kb genomic DNA fragments were transferred back into Arabidopsis with high efficiency and shown to be inherited faithfully among the progeny. Furthermore, we demonstrated the practical utility of this vector system for positional cloning in Arabidopsis. A TAC contig was constructed in the region of the SGR1 locus, and individual clones with ca. 80-kb inserts were tested for their ability to complement the gravitropic defects of a homozygous mutant line. Successful complementation enabled the physical location of SGR1 to be delimited with high precision and confidence.  (+info)

Conjugal transfer but not quorum-dependent tra gene induction of pTiC58 requires a solid surface. (4/966)

Donors of Agrobacterium tumefaciens harboring a transfer-constitutive derivative of the nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 transferred this element at frequencies 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher in matings conducted on solid surfaces than in those conducted in liquid medium. However, as measured with a lacZ reporter fusion, the tra genes of the wild-type Ti plasmid were inducible by opines to indistinguishable levels on solid and in liquid medium. Donors induced in liquid transferred the Ti plasmid at high frequency when mated with recipients on solid medium. We conclude that while formation of stable mating pairs and subsequent transfer of the Ti plasmid is dependent on a solid stratum, the regulatory system can activate tra gene expression to equivalent levels in liquid and on solid surfaces.  (+info)

Dimerization of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase and the effect of ATP-binding cassette mutations on the assembly and function of the T-DNA transporter. (5/966)

The Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB4 ATPase functions with other VirB proteins to export T-DNA to susceptible plant cells and other DNA substrates to a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have demonstrated that VirB4 mutants with defects in the Walker A nucleotide-binding motif are non-functional and exert a dominant negative phenotype when synthesized in wild-type cells. This study characterized the oligomeric structure of VirB4 and examined the effects of Walker A sequence mutations on complex formation and transporter activity. VirB4 directed dimer formation when fused to the amino-terminal portion of cI repressor protein, as shown by immunity of Escherichia coli cells to lambda phage infection. VirB4 also dimerized in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as demonstrated by the recovery of a detergent-resistant complex of native protein and a functional, histidine-tagged derivative by precipitation with anti-His6 antibodies and by Co2+ affinity chromatography. Walker A sequence mutants directed repressor dimerization in E. coli and interacted with His-VirB4 in A. tumefaciens, indicating that ATP binding is not required for self-association. A dimerization domain was localized to a proposed N-terminal membrane-spanning region of VirB4, as shown by the dominance of an allele coding for the N-terminal 312 residues and phage immunity of host cells expressing cI repressor fusions to alleles for the first 237 or 312 residues. A recent study reported that the synthesis of a subset of VirB proteins, including VirB4, in agrobacterial recipients has a pronounced stimulatory effect on the virB-dependent conjugal transfer of plasmid RSF1010 by agrobacterial donors. VirB4'312 suppressed the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins for DNA uptake when synthesized in recipient cells. In striking contrast, Walker A sequence mutants contributed to the stimulatory effect of VirB proteins to the same extent as native VirB4. These findings indicate that the oligomeric structure of VirB4, but not its capacity to bind ATP, is important for the assembly of VirB proteins as a DNA uptake system. The results of these studies support a model in which VirB4 dimers or homomultimers contribute structural information for the assembly of a transenvelope channel competent for bidirectional DNA transfer, whereas an ATP-dependent activity is required for configuring this channel as a dedicated export machine.  (+info)

Mutagenesis of the Agrobacterium VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein identifies regions required for self-association and interaction with VirE1 and a permissive site for hybrid protein construction. (6/966)

The VirE2 single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is required for delivery of T-DNA to the nuclei of susceptible plant cells. By yeast two-hybrid and immunoprecipitation analyses, VirE2 was shown to self-associate and to interact with VirE1. VirE2 mutants with small deletions or insertions of a 31-residue oligopeptide (i31) at the N or C terminus or with an i31 peptide insertion at Leu236 retained the capacity to form homomultimers. By contrast, VirE2 mutants with modifications outside a central region located between residues 320 and 390 retained the capacity to interact with VirE1. These findings suggest the tertiary structure of VirE2 is important for homomultimer formation whereas a central domain mediates formation of a complex with VirE1. The capacity of VirE2 mutants to interact with full-length VirE2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae correlated with the abundance of the mutant proteins in A. tumefaciens, suggesting that VirE2 is stabilized by homomultimerization in the bacterium. We further characterized the promoter and N- and C-terminal sequence requirements for synthesis of functional VirE2. A PvirB::virE2 construct yielded functional VirE2 protein as defined by complementation of a virE2 null mutation. By contrast, PvirE or Plac promoter constructs yielded functional VirE2 only if virE1 was coexpressed with virE2. Deletion of 10 or 9 residues from the N or C terminus of VirE2, respectively, or addition of heterologous peptides or proteins to either terminus resulted in a loss of protein function. However, an i31 peptide insertion at Tyr39 had no effect on protein function as defined by the capacity of the mutant protein to (i) interact with native VirE2, (ii) interact with VirE1, (iii) accumulate at abundant levels in A. tumefaciens, and (iv) restore wild-type virulence to a virE2 null mutant. We propose that Tyr39 of VirE2 corresponds to a permissive site for insertion of heterologous peptides or proteins of interest for delivery across kingdom boundaries.  (+info)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens possesses a fourth flagelin gene located in a large gene cluster concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and motility. (7/966)

The authors have identified a fourth flagellin gene in a 21850 bp region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58C1 chromosome containing at least 20 genes concerned with flagellar structure, assembly and function. Three flagellin genes, flaA, flaB and flaC, orientated rightward, are positioned in a tandem array at the right end, with the fourth, substantially larger gene, flaD, in the opposite orientation, at the left end. Between these lie four apparent operons, two transcribed in each direction (motA, flhB leftward; flgF, flgB rightward) from a divergent position approx 7.5 kb from the left end. This unifies the previously published motA, flgB and flaABC sequences into a single region, also containing the homologues of flhB, flgF and fliI. Site-specific mutagenesis of fliI results in a non-flagellate phenotype, while a Tn5-induced flhB mutant possesses abnormal flagella. Mutagenesis and protein profiling demonstrate that all four flagellins contribute to flagellar structure: FlaA is the major protein, FlaB and FlaC are present in lesser amounts, and FlaD is a minor component. FlaA has anomolous electrophoretic mobility, possibly due to glycosylation.  (+info)

Transcriptional activation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene promoters in Escherichia coli requires the A. tumefaciens RpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase. (8/966)

The two-component regulatory system, composed of virA and virG, is indispensable for transcription of virulence genes within Agrobacterium tumefaciens. However, virA and virG are insufficient to activate transcription from virulence gene promoters within Escherichia coli cells, indicating a requirement for additional A. tumefaciens genes. In a search for these additional genes, we have identified the rpoA gene, encoding the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP), which confers significant expression of a virB promoter (virBp)::lacZ fusion in E. coli in the presence of an active transcriptional regulator virG gene. We conducted in vitro transcription assays using either reconstituted E. coli RNAP or hybrid RNAP in which the alpha subunit was derived from A. tumefaciens. The two forms of RNAP were equally efficient in transcription from a sigma(70)-dependent E. coli galP1 promoter; however, only the hybrid RNAP was able to transcribe virBp in a virG-dependent manner. In addition, we provide evidence that the alpha subunit from A. tumefaciens, but not from E. coli, is able to interact with the VirG protein. These data suggest that transcription of virulence genes requires specific interaction between VirG and the alpha subunit of A. tumefaciens and that the alpha subunit from E. coli is unable to effectively interact with the VirG protein. This work provides the basis for future studies designed to examine vir gene expression as well as the T-DNA transfer process in E. coli.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic analysis of agrobacterium tumefaciens unipolar polysaccharide production reveals complex integrated control of the motile-to-sessile switch. AU - Xu, Jing. AU - Kim, Jinwoo. AU - Koestler, Benjamin J.. AU - Choi, Jeong-Hyeon. AU - Waters, Christopher M.. AU - Fuqua, Clay. PY - 2013/9. Y1 - 2013/9. N2 - Many bacteria colonize surfaces and transition to a sessile mode of growth. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesin at single cell poles that contact surfaces. Here we report that elevated levels of the intracellular signal cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) lead to surface-contact-independent UPP production and a red colony phenotype due to production of UPP and the exopolysaccharide cellulose, when A.tumefaciens is incubated with the polysaccharide stain Congo Red. Transposon mutations with elevated Congo Red staining identified presumptive UPP-negative regulators, mutants for which were hyperadherent, ...
virB11, one of the 11 genes of the virB operon, is absolutely required for transport of T-DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens into plant cells. Previous studies reported that VirB11 is an ATPase with autophosphorylation activity and localizes to the inner membrane even though the protein does not contain the consensus N-terminal export sequence. In this report, we show that VirB11 localizes to the inner membrane even in the absence of other tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid-encoded proteins. To facilitate the further characterization of VirB11, we purified this protein from the soluble fraction of an Escherichia coli extract by fusing VirB11 to the maltose-binding protein. The maltose-binding protein-VirB11 fusion was able to complement a virB11 deletion mutant of A. tumefaciens for tumor formation and also localized properly to the inner membrane of A. tumefaciens. The 72-kDa protein, purified from E. coli, exhibited no autophosphorylation, ATPase activity, or ATP-binding activity. To study the ...
Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted hydantoins. The optically pure D-amino acids are used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, as food additives and as insecticides. This hydrolysis of D, L-substituted hydantoins is catalysed by two hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes, an hydantoinase and an N-carbamyl amino acid amidohydrolase. While the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes have been studied in detail, the mechanisms that control expression of the hyu genes have not. The research reported in this work elucidates some of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the hyu genes in A. tumefaciens strains.. The hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzyme activity from the environmental isolate A. tumefaciens RU-AE01 was characterized. A broad host range vector for the simultaneous analysis of divergent promoters was constructed. The promoter regions responsible for the activation of transcription of hyuH and hyuC were identified by ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation. AU - Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for achieving genetic transformation of fungi has steadily increased over the last decade, and has proven to be almost universally applicable technique once suitable selection markers have been developed. In recent years the major technical advances has been made within the initial steps of the process, more specifically the efficient construction of plasmids for performing targeted genome modifications. This chapter provides a generic protocol for performing genetic transformation of ascomycetes via A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) and guidelines for optimizing the AMT process with new fungal species. The chapter also includes a highly efficient vector construction system based on Uracil Specific Excisions Reagent (USER) cloning and specific PCR generated building blocks, which can be combined ...
The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is an effector delivery system used by Gram-negative bacteria to kill other bacteria or eukaryotic hosts to gain fitness. The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens utilizes its T6SS to kill other bacteria, such as Escherichia coli. We observed that the A. tumefaciens T6SS-dependent killing outcome differs when using different T6SS-lacking, K-12 E. coli strains as a recipient cell. Thus, we hypothesized that the A. tumefaciens T6SS killing outcome not only relies on the T6SS activity of the attacker cells but also depends on the recipient cells. Here, we developed a high-throughput interbacterial competition platform to test the hypothesis by screening for mutants with reduced killing outcomes caused by A. tumefaciens strain C58. Among the 3,909 strains in the E. coli Keio library screened, 16 mutants with less susceptibility to A. tumefaciens C58 T6SS-dependent killing were identified, and four of them were validated by complementation test. Among the four, the
The acc locus from the classic nopaline-type Ti plasmid pTiC58 confers utilization of agrocinopines A+B and susceptibility to an antibiotic called agrocin 84. DNA sequence analyses revealed that acc is composed of eight genes, acc R, and accABCDEFG. accR codes for the repressor which regulates this locus. The predicted proteins from accABCDE are related to each component of ABC-type transport systems, while the predicted products of accF and accG are related to catabolic enzymes. Genetic analyses of insertion mutations showed that accABCDE are required for uptake of both agrocin 84 and agrocinopines, whereas accF and accG are required for utilization of the opines. The accF mutant was not susceptible to agrocin 84 although it took up the antibiotic. This suggests that agrocin 84 must be activated by functions coded for by accF after it is transported into the bacterium. Analysis of lacZ fusions showed that acc is induced in response to agrocinopines and to phosphate starvation. Analyses of ...
Characterization of a putative periplasmic transport system for octopine accumulation encoded by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmid pTiA6.
FIG. 1. Immunoprecipitation studies with anti-VirB6, anti-VirB7, and anti-VirB9 antisera. (A) Isolation of VirB protein complexes from detergent-solubilized membrane extracts of wild-type A348. (B) VirB complexes isolated from PC1000(pSJB610). Lanes: αB6, αB7, and αB9, anti-VirB antisera; PI, preimmune serum; PA, protein A Sepharose (these were all used for precipitation); Sol. Prot., solubilized starting material for the precipitations; MW, molecular weight markers, with sizes in kilodaltons shown at left. Blots were probed with antiserum to the VirB proteins listed at the right. The cross-reactive material in the blot developed with anti-VirB10 antiserum is heavy-chain IgG, but native VirB10 (48 kDa) and VirB10′ (40 kDa) derived from translation from an internal Met were clearly distinguished from this background in the immunoblots. The IgG light chain also was immunoreactive and formed a nonspecific background in blots developed with the anti-VirB6, -VirB8, and -VirB9 antisera. ...
Abstract. The broad host range pathogenic bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been widely studied as a model system to understand horizontal gene flow, secretion of effector proteins into host cells, and plant-pathogen interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation also is the major method for generating transgenic plants for research and biotechnology purposes. Agrobacterium species have the natural ability to conduct interkingdom genetic transfer from bacteria to eukaryotes, including most plant species, yeast, fungi, and even animal cells. In nature, A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease resulting from expression in plants of auxin and cytokinin biosynthesis genes encoded by the transferred (T-) DNA. Gene transfer from A. tumefaciens to host cells requires virulence (vir) genes that reside on the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid. In addition to T-DNA, several Virulence (Vir) effector proteins are also translocated to host cells through a bacterial type IV secretion ...
Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce substantial levels of cytokinins. In view of the fragmentary and presumptive evidence available on the quantitative and qualitative levels of cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this objective, a sequence of methods was developed which allowed the isolation, purification and rigorous chemical identification of cytokinins at the sub-microgram level. The first step of purification utilized the adsorption of cytokinins onto C18 silica by a process known as trace enrichment. Further purification was effected by high performance liquid chromatography and cytokinin-active fractions were located by bioassay. Material in biologically active fractions was permethylated and analyzed by combined capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A. tumefaciens tRNA was found ...
As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely attributed to its evolved capabilities of precise recognition and response to plant-derived chemical signals. Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. The expression of T-DNA in plant hosts leads to the production of a large amount of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), cytokinin (CK), and opines. IAA and CK stimulate plant growth, resulting in tumor formation. Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. Intriguingly, Agrobacterium also ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Agrobacterium T-DNA transport pore proteins VirB8, VirB9, and Virb10 interact with one another. AU - Das, Anath. AU - Xie, Yong Hong. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - The VirB proteins of Agrobacterium tumefaciens form a transport pore to transfer DNA from bacteria to plants. The assembly of the transport pore will require interaction among the constituent proteins. The identification of proteins that interact with one another can provide clues to the assembly of the transport pore. We studied interaction among four putative transport pore proteins, VirB7, VirB8, VirB9 and VirB10. Using the yeast two-hybrid assay, we observed that VirB8, VirB9, and VirB10 interact with one another. In vitro studies using protein fusions demonstrated that VirB10 interacts with VirB9 and itself. These results suggest that the outer membrane VirB7-VirB9 complex interacts with the inner membrane proteins VirB8 and VirB10 for the assembly of the transport pore. Fusions that contain small, defined ...
44,203-229. , Hirsch, P. , Hooykaas, P J J , and Schilperoort, R. A (1983) A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of vir- and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Tr-plasmrd. Nature 303, 179,180. 8. Stachel, S. E and Nester, E W. (1986) The genetic and transcriptional organization of the vir region of the A6 TI plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. EMBO J. $1445-1454 9. Stachel, S E and Zambryski, P (1986) virA and virG control the plant-induced activation of the T-DNA transfer process of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Biol. Rep. 10, 12-36. &APTER 7 Leaf Disk Transformation Ian S. Curtis, Michael R. Davey, and J. Brian Power 1. Introduction Reliable and efficient methods of transferring cloned genes into plants are essential for engineering crops with desired traits. The Gram-negative soil bacteria, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, are natural genetic engineers, capable of transforming a range of dicotyledonous plants by transferring plasmid-encoded genes into recipient ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been produced by a modified leaf disk transformation-regeneration method. Leaf pieces from sterilely grown plants were precultured for 2 days and inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an avirulent Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid with a chimeric gene encoding hygromycin resistance. After cocultivation for 2 days, the leaf pieces were placed on a medium that selects for hygromycin resistance. Shoots regenerated within 3 months and were excised, rooted, and transferred to soil. Transformation was confirmed by opine production, hygromycin resistance, and DNA blot hybridization of both primary transformants and progeny. This process for producing transgenic Arabidopsis plants should enhance the usefulness of the species for experimental biology. |P /|
Plant material and transformation: Plants were grown in peat soil with 18 hr light and 6 hr dark. DNA constructs were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58 and then transformed into Arabidopsis plants by the floral dip method (Clough and Bent 1998).. Plasmid construction: Tag1 promoter-GUS expression plasmids were constructed as follows. The pTPG2 and pTPG3 plasmids were generated by PCR amplifying 1- to 262-bp and 1- to 548-bp fragments, respectively, from the 5′ end of Tag1 into the XbaI and BamHI restriction sites of the pBI101.3 GUS expression vector (accession no. U12640). pTPG4 was made by ligating a XbaI-ScaI Tag1 fragment (1-1251 bp of Tag1) from the pBT1 plasmid (Liuet al. 2001a), which contains Tag1 in the BlueScript vector (Stratagene, La Jolla, CA), into the XbaI-SmaI sites of pBI101.3 to generate an in-frame fusion between the Tag1 transposase and GUS. pTPG5 was made by ligating a XbaI-NdeI 5′ Tag1 fragment (1-1950 bp of Tag1 in pBT1) into the XbaI and BamHI ...
Nesme, X., Leclerc, M.C. & Bardin, R. 1989 PCR detection of an original endosymbiont: the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens In. Endocytobiology IV, eds.Nardon, P., Gianinazzi- Peason, V., Greines, A.M., Margulis, L. & Smith, D.C, pp. 47-50. Paris: Institute National de Recherche Agronomique ...
Author: Willmitzer, L.; Genre: Meeting Abstract; Published in Print: 1984; Title: The Ti Plasmid of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens - a Plant-Oriented Gene Vector
The present invention allows large glass substrates to be rapidly moved from one processing station to another. Such movement occurs such that drives in different chambers are synchronized to move the glass substrates on shuttles at appropriate times. In systems according to the invention, at least a first and second chamber are provided. Typically, the first chamber is a load lock and the second chamber is a processing chamber. A substrate transfer shuttle is used to move substrate along a guide path defined by, e.g., guide rollers. Drive mechanisms are employed for most chambers to drive the shuttle along associated portions of the path. A control system is provided which powers the drive mechanism for the first chamber to drive the substrate transfer shuttle from a first position toward a second position and through an intermediate position. At the intermediate position, the substrate transfer shuttle begins to engage and induce movement of the drive mechanism for the second chamber. The control
Abstract: Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects various plants and causes crown gall diseases involving temporal expression of virulence factors. SghA is a newly-identified virulence factor enzymatically releasing salicylic acid from its glucoside conjugate and controlling the plant tumor development. Here we report the structural basis of SghR, a LacI-type transcription factor and highly conserved in Rhizobiaceae family, regulating the expression of SghA and involved in tumorigenesis. We identified and characterized the binding site of SghR on the promoter region of sghA, and then determined the crystal structures of apo-SghR, SghR complexed with its operator DNA and ligand sucrose, respectively. These results provide detailed insights into how SghR recognizes its cognate DNA and shed a mechanistic light on how sucrose attenuates the affinity of SghR with DNA to modulate the expression of SghA. Given the important role of SghR in mediating the signaling crosstalk during Agrobacterium infection, our ...
A series of vectors has been constructed for the purpose of introducing cloned DNAs into plant genomes, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation methods. One of these vectors, pCIT20, is a plasmid that contains a multiple cloning site (MCS), and a marker (Hph) that confers hygromycin resistance to plant cells. The others are all cosmid vectors which allow insertion of up to 46 kb of plant genomic DNA, and which also contain all of the necessary sequences for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. The cosmid vectors either contain a Hph marker (pCIT03), or a kanamycin-resistance marker (pCIT101-104). Three of the cosmid vectors (pCIT30, pCIT101, and pCIT103) carry bacteriophage T7 and SP6 promoters flanking the cloning Bg/II site, for synthesis of end-specific RNAs. The end-specific RNAs may be used as probes when labeled with radioactive or biotinylated nucleotides, for example, in a chromosome-walking experiment. The other two cosmid vectors (pCIT102 and pCIT104) carry ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Agrobacterium are Gram-negative, motile, soil-dwelling plant pathogens with the species name given based on the disease phenotype associated with the bacteria. They invade the crown, roots and stems of a great variety of plants via wounds causing tumors. The diseases are crown gall, hairy root, and cane gall. Some strains possess a wide host range, whereas other possess a very limited host range. The tumor is correlated with the presence of a large tumor-inducing plasmid (Ti plasmid) in the bacteria. Thus A.tumefaciens causes crown gall on many dicotyledonous plants; A.rubi causes crown gall on raspberries; A.vitis gall formation on grapes; A.rhizogenes causes hairy roots; A.radiobacter is avirulent. However the ability to cause disease is associated with transmissible plasmids, and this grouping is easily disrupted when plasmids move from one strain to another. More recently Agrobacterium have been classified into 3 biovars based on physiological and biochemical phenotypes without consideration ...
Monomethylamine can be used by nonmethylotrophs as a sole nitrogen source but not as a carbon source; however, little is known about the genes and enzymes involved. The gamma-glutamylmethylamide/N-methylglutamate pathway for monomethylamine utilization by methylotrophs has recently been resolved. We have identified genes encoding key enzymes of this pathway in nonmethylotrophs (e. g., Agrobacterium tumefaciens) and demonstrated that this pathway is also involved in the utilization of monomethylamine as a nitrogen source by nonmethylotrophs.. ...
Many bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, rely on an asymmetric localization, distribution, and orientation of specific appendages when interacting wi...
Previous work on identifying the molecular mechanisms mediating plant-pathogen interactions and reciprocal host responses have little emphasis on developing models that closely resemble host-microbe interaction in planta. This work establishes an amalgamated model of interaction wherein successful pathogens elicit and overcome host defenses activated by microbial signatures and virulence factors. Using a hydroponic co-cultivation model, we assessed the responses of Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 to Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 to ameliorate limitations of previous approaches. Comparisons of differential gene expression between directly and indirectly affected host sites by microarray analysis revealed both reactive and pro-active defense responses, respectively. Selected homozygous single-gene knockouts for proactive defenses show variable A. tumefaciens root surface attachment and root secretion profiles. Studying host-microbe responses using hydroponics may improve priming of cash crops against pathogens
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The novel genetic material in the new canola lines was inserted into the canola variety, Westar, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation with the disarmed Ti-plasmid pMOG625. The T-DNA contained both phytase and nptII genes. The phytase gene is under the control of the cruciferin A seed storage protein transcript promoter which includes a cruciferin signal peptide sequence. Its terminator is also from the cruciferin A seed storage protein transcript. Both controlling sequences were obtained from Brassica napus. The nptII gene is under the control of the NOS promoter and terminator with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-derived open reading frame inserted between the gene and its terminator. The open reading frame consists of coding for 50 amino acids from the Agrobacterium ornithine-cyclo-deaminase ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Wood DW, Setubal JC, Kaul R, Monks DE, Kitajima JP, Okura VK, Zhou Y, Chen L, Wood GE, Almeida Jr NF, Woo L, Chen Y, Paulsen IT, Eisen JA, Karp PD, Bovee Sr D, Chapman P, Clendenning J, Deatherage G, Gillet W, Grant C, Kutyavin T, Levy R, Li M-J, McClelland R, Palmieri A, Raymond C, Rouse G, Saenphimmachak C, Wu Z, Romero P, Gordon D, Zhang S, Yoo H, Tao Y, Biddle P, Jung M, Krespan W, Perry M, Gordon-Kamm B, Liao L, Kim S, Hendrick C, Zhao Z-Y, Dolan M, Chumley F, Tingey SC, Tomb J-F, Gordon MP, Olson MV, Nester EW. 2001. The genome of the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58. Science 294: 2317-2323. PMID: 11743193. PDF. ...
Background: Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 (pMP90) is widely used in transient gene expression assays, including assays to study pathogen effectors and plant disease resistance mechanisms. However, inoculation of A. tumefaciens GV3101 into Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves prior to infiltration with pathogenic and non-host strains of Pseudomonas syringae results in suppression of macroscopic symptoms when compared with leaves pre-treated with a buffer control. Methodology/Findings: To gain further insight into the mechanistic basis of symptom suppression by A. tumefaciens we examined the effect of pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens on the growth of P. syringae, the production of the plant signalling molecules salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and the presence of callose deposits. Pre-treatment with A. tumefaciens reduced ABA levels, P. syringae multiplication and P. syringae-elicited SA and ABA production, but promoted increased callose deposition. However, pre-treatment with A.
A forward genetics approach was applied in order to investigate the molecular basis of morphological transition in the wheat pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Z. tritici is a dimorphic plant pathogen displaying environmentally regulated morphogenetic transition between yeast-like and hyphal growth. Considering the infection mode of Z. tritici, the switching to hyphal growth is essential for pathogenicity allowing the fungus the host invasion through natural openings like stomata. We exploited a previously developed Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to generate a mutant library by insertional mutagenesis including more than 10,000 random mutants. To identify genes involved in dimorphic switch, a plate-based screening system was established. With this approach eleven dimorphic switch deficient random mutants were recovered, ten of which exhibited a yeast-like mode of growth and one mutant predominantly growing filamentously, producing high amount of mycelium under different
Although the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation efficiency was only a fraction of 1%, it was possible to exploit the transposition frequency of a single T0 line to initiate the development of a functional resource for activation tagging in tomato. The practice of using micropropagation to produce many clonal plants from a single tissue culture regenerant proved valuable, as it multiplied T1 seed production by up to 25 times. This strategy also capitalized on the behavior of transposase in Ac/Ds-ATag-Bar_gosGFP by isolating chimeric tissue from the original transformant into separate plantlets, allowing germinal transposition from multiple sites of Ds integration. The selection of a self-fertile, true breeding tomato cultivar allowed crossing to nontransgenic cv M82, thus maximizing T1 seed production. Pollen could be collected from transgenic flowers and distributed to multiple nontransgenic plants, all while still obtaining transgenic self-progeny.. Modifications made to the ...
OsARF1 is the first full-length member of auxin response factor (ARF) gene family to be cloned from monocot plant. Using quantitative RT-PCR this study found that, the transcript abundance of OsARF1 was significantly higher in embryonic tissues than in vegetative tissues. To investigate the effect of OsARF1 on the phenotype of rice, a cDNA fragment of OsARF1 was inserted in inverse orientation to the 35S promoter in vector pBin438 to produce an antisense (AS) construction. The AS-OsARF1 construct was transferred into rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica) calli via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Molecular analysis of transgenic plants showed that the functional expression of OsARF1 was inhibited at mRNA level efficiently. The AS-OsARF1 plants showed extremely low growth, poor vigor, short curled leaves and tillered but were sterile. Therefore, the OsARF1 was shown to be essential for growth in vegetative organs and seed development.. ...
The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three-dimensional structure of protein, de novo design principles and genetic information. Amino acid substitution and loop insertion were targeted to the interior and exterior, respectively, of the proteins β-barrels. First, we introduced the methionine enhancement mutations into phaseolin cDNA, expressed cDNA in Escherichia coli and purified monomeric non-glycosylated proteins. Biophysical analysis of E. coli-expressed proteins demonstrated a similar structural stability of wild-type and mutant phaseolin monomers. Here, we attempted to test the structural stability of the methionine-enhanced phaseolin by introducing phaseolin cDNA to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leaf disks, regenerating
Hydrophobins are small, cysteine-rich, secreted proteins, ubiquitously produced by filamentous fungi, and that are speculated to function in fungal growth, cell surface properties, and development, although this has been rigorously tested for only a few species. We identified three hydrophobin genes from the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium brunneum and provided functional characterization of strains lacking these genes. One gene (HYD1/ssgA) encodes a Class I hydrophobin identified previously. Two new genes, HYD3 and HYD2, encode a Class-I and Class-II hydrophobin, respectively. To examine function, we deleted all three, separately, from the M. brunneum strain KTU-60 genome using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Deletion strains were screened for alterations in developmental phenotypes including growth, sporulation, pigmentation, colony surface properties, and virulence to insects. All deletion strains were reduced in their ability to sporulate and showed alterations in ...
The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The T-DNA is transferred from bacterium into the host plants nuclear DNA genome. The capability of this specialized tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is attributed to two essential regions required for DNA transfer to the host cell. As the T-DNA is bordered by 25-base-pair repeats on each end. Transfer is initiated at the right border and terminated at the left border and requires the vir genes of the Ti plasmid. The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant ...
Indeed, taking a gene from a soil bacterium (Bacillus thuringiensis - Bt) that produces a natural pesticide and injecting that gene into the DNA of a soy plant, is hardly Mother Natures way of hybridising plants. Ummmm...FAIL! Sorry, that is EXACTLY how Mother Gaia engineers plants, via Agrobacterium tumefaciens: that bug causes crown gall by inserting DNA into the host plant cells that provides a nice little niche environment for the bacterium to grow.. In fact, if people actually understood just how much other DNA finds its way into plant genomes, they would lose all fear of GMOs. Or, alternatively, not eat anything ever again - which wwould be a fitting Darwinian punishment for stupidity.. Seriously: just the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) genome, for example, contains genes or sequences derived from Agrobacterium, from plant-infecting single-stranded DNA geminiviruses, from single-stranded RNA potyviruses, from insects that feed on plants, and from other bacteria and probably from fungi. ...
The plasmid vector pGreenII, which is widely used in the production of stable plant transformants, is shown herein to predispose constructs to the acquisition of mutations (Figure 1) despite its earlier revision (Hellens and Mullineaux 2000). This predisposition arises from pGreenII having an adverse effect on the growth of E. coli. It perturbs normal cell division resulting in the production of long filaments (Figure 1), a phenomenon associated with stressed cells (Justice et al. 2008), and causes a dramatic reduction in cell viability following overnight incubation (Table 1). This is far from ideal as the insertion of DNA into plasmids can itself affect the growth of E. coli through increased metabolic burden and the acquisition of activities that perturb cellular functions (Bentley et al. 2009; Rosano and Ceccarelli 2014). In our case, the insertion of a 4605 bp fragment containing the cDNA of the plant DNA methyltransferase 1 (MET1) into pGreenII generated sufficient selective pressure for ...
Figure 1. Schematic representation of the process of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Phenolic and sugar molecules from wounded plant cells trigger in the bacterium a series of events resulting in the processing of the T-DNA by the VirD1/VirD2 endonuclease and the subsequent transfer of the VirD2/T-strand complex, along with VirE2 and VirF proteins, from the bacterium through the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system. Key events in the plant cell include bacterial attachment, T-complex and Vir protein transfer, cytoplasmic trafficking of the T-complex, nuclear targeting, and T-DNA integration. Some of the plant genes necessary for these processes are depicted by representative rat mutants.. ...
A frictionless transport apparatus for transporting an object from a first to a second station is disclosed. The apparatus has a frame extending between the first and second stations and a carriage mounted for movement along said frame, in a levitated condition. A substantial portion of the weight of the carriage and load is supported by biasing magnets on the frame and carriage. The carriage and load are stabilized in a levitated condition by magnetic interactions between a diamagnetic plate on the carriage and a magnetic array extending along the frame. The carriage is moved in its levitated condition by a frictionless drive system, such as an electromagnetic, electrostatic, or pneumatic drive system. Also disclosed is a method of frictionless transport of an object between first and second stations.
As a microbiologist and cell biologist, Dr. Heindls research focuses on the prokaryotic development and bacterial interactions within the environment. He uses the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciensand related bacteria to understand regulatory principles and molecular mechanisms governing bacterial developmental stages from growth and remodeling, to the morphogenesis, division, and biofilm formation. His work has been published in several renowned scientific journals, such as Journal of Bacteriology, Infection and Immunity, and PLOS ONE-a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science. In his new role, Dr. Heindls responsibilities include teaching a variety of undergraduate microbiology courses and developing new courses for the program. He is also charged with establishing an active research program with undergraduate and graduate students in the Department of Biological Sciences. Dr. Heindl, a native of Indian Harbour Beach, Florida, received his ...
Agrobacterium vitis and some strains of A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes cause a dangerous chronic disease on grape plants-crown gall. Molecular-genetic methods were used in the work to identify and study the diversity of pathogenic agrobacteria that cause crown gall in the vineyards of Krasnodar krai. The research material was 76 samples of young and lignified tumor-like outgrowths of crown gall ...
T4SSs each possess an envelope-spanning channel composed of conserved components termed the core complex. Early biochemical studies showed that VirB7, VirB9 and VirB10 form a transporter subassembly that is both intrinsically stable and stabilizing for other VirB subunits. This core complex from the conjugative pKM101 system provided the first high-resolution images [26]. The core secretion channel is a multimeric VirB7-VirB9-VirB10 complex containing 14 copies of each protein. A cylindrical structure spanning the entire cell envelope is composed of two layers (designated I and O). Each layer forms a double-walled ring-like structure that defines hollow chambers inside the complex (figure 3b). The structure surrounds a central chamber of about 80 Å at its widest point. The N-terminal domains (NTDs) of VirB9 and VirB10 comprise the I layer and this part of the channel is anchored in the IM by an N-terminal transmembrane helix of VirB10. An opening at the base of the I layer spans 55 Å. The O ...
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During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which is a source of opines, chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that inactivates OC8-HSL. OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a proteomic screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using a transgenic tobacco that expressed a ...
During infection of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, plants are wounded and then a tumor is induced, which becomes a source of opines: chemicals that stimulate the production of the quorum-sensing (QS) signal N-(3-oxooctanoyl) homoserine lactone (OC8-HSL). γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is produced by plants as part of the response to wounding. Chevrot et al. show that GABA stimulates expression of the attKLM operon in A. tumefaciens, which produces a lactonase that opens the ring and inactivates OC8-HSL. Consequently, OC8-HSL was undetectable in cultures of A. tumefaciens exposed to GABA. Proteins encoded by the attKLM operon were identified in a screen for proteins synthesized in response to the addition of GABA to cultures of A. tumefaciens. The induction of the attKLM operon was also monitored using a reporter assay, and in A. tumefaciens deficient for the GABA transporter system, GABA did not induce the reporter. The importance of GABA for the plant response was verified using transgenic ...
An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene \beta-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg$ l-^{1}$ thidiazuron (TDZ), 3.0 mg $l-^{1} N^{6}$-benzylaminopurine, 100 mg$ l-^{1}$ kanamycin and 500 mg l? cefotaxime. The putative transgenic shoot buds elongated on basal selection medium and rooted efficiently on Soilrite irrigated with water containing 100 mg$ l-^{1} $kanamycin sulphate. Transgenic plants were raised in pots and seeds subsequently collected from mature fruits. Histochemical GUS assay and polymerase vchain reaction analysis of field-established transgenic plants and their offsprings confirmed the ...
Rhizobium, Agrobacterium and Allorhizobium are genera within the bacterial family Rhizobiaceae, together with Sinorhizobium. The species of Agrobacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (syn. Agrobacterium radiobacter), Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rubi and Agrobacterium vitis, together with Allorhizobium undicola, form a monophyletic group with all Rhizobium species, based on comparative 16S rDNA analyses. Agrobacterium is an artificial genus comprising plant-pathogenic species. The monophyletic nature of Agrobacterium, Allorhizobium and Rhizobium and their common phenotypic generic circumscription support their amalgamation into a single genus, Rhizobium. Agrobacterium tumefaciens was conserved as the type species of Agrobacterium, but the epithet radiobacter would take precedence as Rhizobium radiobacter in the revised genus. The proposed new combinations are Rhizobium radiobacter, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium rubi, Rhizobium undicola and Rhizobium vitis.
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
Other names: A. rhizogenes, ATCC 11325, Agrobacterium biovar 2, Agrobacterium genomic group 10, Agrobacterium genomic species 10, Agrobacterium genomosp. 10, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI1724), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRI8196), Agrobacterium rhizogenes (RI plasmid PRIA4B), CFBP 5520, CIP 104328, DSM 30148, ICMP 5794, IFO 13257, JCM 20919, LMG 150, NBRC 13257, NCPPB 2991, Rhizobium rhizogenes, Rhizobium sp. LMG 9509 ...
The main purpose of this study was to develop a non-tissue culture based Agrobacterium mediated transformation method for chickpea. The influences of several factors were investigated on the transfer of -glucuronidase (GUS) gene into chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seedlings during the early stages of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer, including cocultivation period in liquid induction medium (2, 8, 16 and 24 h), strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (C58C1, EHA105, KYRT1) containing the plasmid pTJK136, developmental stage (16 h imbibed and 40 h germinated), microwounding, vacuum infiltration (200, 400, 600 mmHg for 20 and 40 min) and genotype (5 different). The number of GUS-expressing foci was counted to evaluate the gene transfer process. The KYRT1/pTJK136 strain of A. tumefaciens was significantly more effective for transformation than the C58C1/pTJK136 and EHA105/pTJK136 strains. The highest transient GUS activity was obtained from 16 h imbibed seedlings of cv.Uzunlu wounded with a needle and ...
Transgenic plum plants expressing the papaya ringspot virus (PRV) coat protein (CP) were produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of hypocotyl slices. Hypocotyl slices were cocultivated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58/Z707 containing the plasmid pGA482GG/CPPRV-4. This plasmid carries the PRVCP gene construct and chimeric NPTII and GUS genes. Shoots were regenerated on Murashige and Skoog salts, vitamins, 2% sucrose, 2.5 μm indolebutyric acid, 7.5 μm thidiazuron, and appropriate antibiotics for selection. Integration of the foreign genes was verified through kanamycin resistance, GUS assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Southern blot analyses. Four transgenic clones were identified. Three were vegetatively propagated and graft-inoculated with plum pox virus (PPV)-infected budwood in a quarantine, containment greenhouse. PPV infection was evaluated over a 2- to 4-year period through visual symptoms, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and reverse transcriptase PCR ...
Octopine and nopaline strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens differ in their ability to induce tumors on Nicotiana glauca. The presence of a virF locus on the octopine Ti plasmid makes N. glauca a host plant for these strains, indicating that the VirF protein is a host-range determinant. Here we show the presence of a virF locus not only on the Agrobacterium vitis octopine/cucumopine plasmids pTiAg57 and pTiTm4, but also on the nopaline Ti plasmids pTiAT1, pTiAT66a, and pTiAT66b. On the octopine Ti plasmids from A. tumefaciens the virF gene is located between the virE locus and the left border of the T-region. In contrast, the virF gene on Ti plasmids of A. vitis is located at the very left end of the vir-region near the virA locus. The virF gene of pTiAg57 has been sequenced and codes for a protein of 202 amino acids with a molecular mass of 22,280 Da. Comparison showed that the virF gene from A. vitis strain Ag57 is almost identical to that from A. tumefaciens octopine strains. The transcription of the
We have achieved efficient transformation system for forage-type tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mature seed-derived embryogenic calli were infected and co-cultivated with each of three A. tumefaciens strains, all of which harbored a standard binary vector pIG121Hm encoding the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) and intron-containing |TEX|$\beta$|/TEX|-glucuronidase (intron-GUS) genes in the T-DNA region. Transformation efficiency was influenced by the A. tumefaciens strain, addition of the phenolic compound acetosyringone and duration of vacuum treatment. Of the three A. tumefaciens strains tested, EHA101/pIG121Hm was found to be most effective followed by GV3101/pIG121Hm and LBA4404/pIG121Hm for transient GUS expression after 3 days co-cultivation. Inclusion of 100 |TEX|$\mu$|/TEX|M acetosyringone in both the inoculation and co-cultivation media lead to an improvement in transient GUS expression observed in targeted calli. Vacuum treatment
Background Agrobacterium tumefaciens has long been known to transform plant tissue in nature as part of its infection process. This natural mechanism has been utilised over the last few decades in laboratories world wide to genetically manipulate many species of plants. More recently this technology has been successfully applied to non-plant organisms in the laboratory, including fungi, where the plant wound hormone acetosyringone, an inducer of transformation, is supplied exogenously. In the natural environment it is possible that Agrobacterium and fungi may encounter each other at plant wound sites, where acetosyringone would be present, raising the possibility of natural gene transfer from bacterium to fungus. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigate this hypothesis through the development of experiments designed to replicate such a situation at a plant wound site. A. tumefaciens harbouring the plasmid pCAMDsRed was co-cultivated with the common plant pathogenic fungus Verticillium albo-atrum
FINAL DIAGNOSIS: AGROBACTERIUM RADIOBACTER. CONTRIBUTORS NOTE:. The genus Agrobacterium are aerobic, gram negative, peritrichous bacilli which are mainly plant pathogens found in soil all over the world. Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium radiobacter are two species that have been isolated from human specimens although only A. radiobacter is associated with clinical symptoms (1).. Despite A. radiobacters association with significant clinical symptoms, it is considered to be of low virulence and there have been no reports of mortality from the organism alone. The only difference between the two species is the presence of a tumor-producing plasmid, the Ti plasmid, in A. tumefaciens which results in a tumorous growth in plants (2).. Agrobacterium radiobacter is infrequently recognized in clinical specimens however it has been associated with immunocompromised patients that have implanted medical devices or transcutaneous catheters (1,3,4). It was first isolated in 1967 but was not ...
The plant architecture has significant effects on grain yield of various crops, including soybean (Glycine max), but the knowledge on optimization of plant architecture in order to increase yield potential is still limited. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 system has revolutionized genome editing, and has been widely utilized to edit the genomes of a diverse range of crop plants. In the present study, we employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to mutate four genes encoding SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) transcription factors of the SPL9 family in soybean. These four GmSPL9 genes are negatively regulated by GmmiR156b, a target for the improvement of soybean plant architecture and yields. The soybean Williams 82 was transformed with the binary CRISPR/Cas9 plasmid, assembled with four sgRNA expression cassettes driven by the Arabidopsis thaliana U3 or U6 promoter, targeting different sites of these four SPL9 genes via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. A 1-bp deletion was detected in one target
Vitis aestivalis Norton grapevines are more resistant to disease and stress, but are less productive than Vitis vinifera cultivars. Identification and characterization of V. aestivalis Norton defense genes VaERF3a, VaERF3b, VaERF4, VaERF5, VaMAPKK, VaWRKY4, and VaWRKY30 can unveil mechanisms for resistance and tolerance. Amino acid analyses indicated that VaERF3a, VaERF3b, VaERF4 and VaERF5 contain an AP2 DNA binding domain, VaMAPKK has a serine/threonine kinase domain, and VaWRKY4 and VaWRKY30 include a WRKY domain. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence analysis suggested that VaERF3a and VaERF3b may be paralogous, while VaWRKY4 and VaWRKY30 are two different genes. V vinifera homologues of each gene were also found in the newly sequenced whole genone of PN40024. V. aestivalis Norton defense genes were transformed into Nicotiana tabacum via an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation procedure. Viable shoots were not generated from the VaWRKY4 and VaWRKY30 transformations. RNA blots were
Agrobacterium species that are pathogenic on plants, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. rubi, and A. rhizogenes, all carry megaplasmids. By contrast, nonpathogenic strains either lack these plasmids entirely or carry mutant forms of plasmids. A strict requirement of the Ti plasmid for virulence was established through mutational analyses and by a demonstration that the introduction of Ti plasmids into Rhizobium or Phyllobacterium spp. converts these nonpathogenic species into tumor-inducing pathogens ( 2 , 3 ). Ti plasmids induce a disease called crown gall, which is typified by the formation of undifferentiated plant tumors at the plant crown (the subterranean-to-aerial transition zone). The related root-inducing or Ri megaplasmids carried by A. rhizogenes instead induce hairy root disease, which is typified by the formation of entangled masses of roots at the infection site ( 4 ).
Agrobacterium infection, which is widely used to generate transgenic plants, is often accompanied by T-DNA-linked mutations and transpositions in flowering plants. It is not known if Agrobacterium infection also affects the rates of point mutations, somatic homologous recombinations (SHR) and frame-shift mutations (FSM). We examined the effects of Agrobacterium infection on five types of somatic mutations using a set of mutation detector lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. To verify the effect of secreted factors, we exposed the plants to different Agrobacterium strains, including wild type (Ach5), its derivatives lacking vir genes, oncogenes or T-DNA, and the heat-killed form for 48 h post-infection; also, for a smaller set of strains, we examined the rates of three types of mutations at multiple time-points. The mutation detector lines carried a non-functional β-glucuronidase gene (GUS) and a reversion of mutated GUS to its functional form resulted in blue spots. Based on the
Based on the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation commodity crop improvement through genetic engineering is the fastest adopted crop te
PROJECT SUMMARYThe transmission of macromolecules across biological membranes is a fundamental process in all cells. In theearliest studies of genetic exchange in bacteria dating back to the 1940s, the F plasmid (then termed `sexfactor) was shown to self-transfer and, through recombination, mediate the transfer of the entire E. colichromosome to recipient bacteria. In the ensuing ~75 years, studies established the broad medical importanceof F and other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the shaping of bacterial genomes and as vectors fordissemination of antibiotic resistance and other fitness traits among bacterial populations. MGEs also encodeconjugative pili or other cell surface adhesins, which promote intercellular contacts necessary for DNA transferand establishment robust, antibiotic-resistant biofilm communities. MGEs are transmitted intercellularly throughnanomachines termed type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). The T4SSs are present in most if not all bacterialspecies, where they have ...
Bifunctional serine/threonine kinase and phosphorylase involved in the regulation of the pyruvate, phosphate dikinase (PPDK) by catalyzing its phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most widely used technique for generating transgenic plants. However, many crops remain recalcitrant. We found that an Arabidopsis myb family transcription factor (MTF1) inhibited plant transformation susceptibility. Mutating MTF1 increased attachment of several Agrobacterium strains to roots and increased both stable and transient transformation in both susceptible and transformation-resistant Arabidopsis ecotypes. Cytokinins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens decreased the expression of MTF1 through activation of the cytokinin response regulator ARR3. Mutating AHK3 and AHK4, genes that encode cytokinin-responsive kinases, increased the expression of MTF1 and impaired plant transformation. Mutant mtf1 plants also had increased expression of AT14A, which encodes a putative transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules. Plants overexpressing AT14A exhibited increased susceptibility to transformation, whereas at14a mutant plants exhibited decreased attachment
As an Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA oncogene, T-6b induces the development of tumors and the enation syndrome in vegetative tissues of transgenic plants. Most of these effects are related to increases in soluble sugar contents. To verify the potential roles of T-6b in the distribution of carbon in developing seeds, not in vegetative tissues, we fused an endosperm-specific promoter to the T-6b gene for expression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The expression of T-6b in reproductive organs did not induce the development of the enation syndrome, and moreover, promoted endosperm expansion, which increased the total seed biomass by more than 10%. Additionally, T-6b also increased oil content in mature seeds by more than 10% accompanied with the decrease of starch and mucilage content at the same time. T-6b enhances seed biomass and helps oil biosynthesis but not polysaccharides in reproductive organs without disturbing vegetative growth and development. Our findings suggest T-6b may be very
Escribed . Briefly, the AtEHD constructs were cloned in pBINplus and introduced by electroporation into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101. Agrobacterium
The influence of different antibiotic treatments in soybean genetic transformation was evaluated. First, an assay was performed to verify how different antibiotic treatments affect soybean embryogenic tissues. The effect of carbenicillin at 500 mg L-1 was genotype-dependent. This antibiotic did not affect embryo survival of cv. IAS5, but a three-fold increase of embryo proliferation was observed for cv. Bragg, when compared to the control. On the other hand, cefotaxime at 350 and 500 mg L-1 caused death of embryogenic tissues of both cultivars. Finally, the association of cefotaxime (250 mg L-1) + vancomycin (250 mg L-1) did not affect negatively the somatic embryos of tested cultivars until 63 days of treatment. Thereafter, a second experiment was carried out to determine the efficacy of different antibiotic treatments in suppressing LBA4404 Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain in genetic transformation. On tissue culture conditions, carbenicillin at 500 and 1000 mg L-1 was not active against ...
Crown-gall tumor initiation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is inhibited by cell walls from normal dicotyledonous plants but not by cell walls from crown-gall tumors apparently because of bacterial adherence or nonadherence, respectively, to the different cell walls. Cell walls from normal and tumor tissues in culture also show this difference, indicating that the two types of tissue stably maintain this difference under these conditions. Habituated tissue cultures, which resemble crown-gall tumor cultures, however, form cell walls that are inhibitory like those of the normal cultures from which they are derived. Monocotyledonous plants do not act as hosts for Agrobacterium and bacteria-specific inhibition is not shown by cell walls from several species of grass, a monocot family. Cell wallsfrom embryonic tissues (dicot seedlings less than 2 centimeters long), unlike those from older seedlings, are non-inhibitory. Crown-gall tumors thus resemble embryonic tissues in this respect.. ...
when virulent cells of agrobacterium tumefaciens strain b6 were exposed to low-level microwave radiation at a frequency of 10,000 mhz and an intensity of 0.58 mw/cm2 for 30 to 120 min, a 30 to 60% decrease in their ability to produce tumors on potato and turnip disks was observed. this microwave exposure did not affect the viability of these bacteria or their ability to attach to a tumor-binding site nor did it induce thermal shock. this loss of virulence was reversible within 12 h ...
In this study, we have begun to examine the complex interactions between two common environmental microorganisms, P.a. and A.t., in planktonic and biofilm growth modes. During exponential growth in dispersed, liquid culture, P.a. dominated A.t. because of a higher growth rate. Within biofilms grown on glass surfaces in the same defined medium, P.a. was also found to numerically dominate the population and to cover adherent A.t., a process requiring motility via flagella and type IV pili. Quorum-sensing mutants displayed an impaired competition phenotype in both liquid and flow-cell biofilm cultures. Motility was found to be important for both species in coculture biofilms. Although A.t. was outnumbered after the rapid-growth phase in both growth formats, its population remained viable, leading to a period of coexistence of these two microbes.. Quorum sensing appears to allow P.a. to achieve a slightly higher growth yield in liquid cocultures. Several quorum-sensing-regulated secreted functions ...
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a fundamental feature of nearly all bacteria and plays a primary role in maintaining cell integrity and cell shape. The PG layer is an interconnected mesh in the bacterial cell envelope, and, when isolated intact from a cell, the sacculus it forms retains the overall, albeit deflated, shape of the original cell. PG is composed of glycan strands covalently bonded by short, periodic peptide cross-links. In bacilli, the glycan strands run roughly perpendicularly to the long axis of the cell, with peptide cross-links arranged in parallel to the cell axis (1-4). This architecture allows bacteria to withstand significant osmotic pressure, and thicker cell walls confer greater resistance: typical Gram-negative strains can withstand ~2 to ~5 atm, whereas Gram-positive strains with thicker cell walls can withstand upward of 20 atm (5, 6).. To grow and divide, bacteria must enlarge and remodel this PG mesh. For cell division, most bacteria in which this has been studied share the ...
Sukanya NK, Vaidyanathan CS (1964). "Aminotransferases of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Transamination between tryptophan and ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. MON 88017 is an Insect resistant maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein ...
Van Keer C, Kersters K, De Ley J (September 1976). "L-Sorbose metabolism in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek ...
... plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes(actually an Ri plasmid). The ... thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Agrobacterium rhizogenes causes a ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently ... For more than two decades, Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been exploited for introducing genes into plants for basic research as ...
Grimsley N, Hohn T, Davies JW, Hohn B (1987). "Transformation of maize plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Nature. 325 (6100 ...
Genetic transformation of A. thaliana is routine, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into the plant genome. The ... Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a technique that takes advantage of the natural process by which Agrobacterium ... "Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Science. 234 (4775): 464-6. Bibcode:1986Sci...234..464L ... Zhang X, Henriques R, Lin SS, Niu QW, Chua NH (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana using the ...
Her research topics included the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn is a member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Math and ... particularly known for her research into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Hohn was born Barbara Freiinger, in Klagenfurt, Austria ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens Pierce's disease Xylella fastidiosa Bacterial inflorescence rot [1] Pseudomonas syringae ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is another common technique. Agrobacteria are natural plant parasites. Their ... In 1907 a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was discovered and in the early 1970s the tumor ... for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful. The major disadvantage of this procedure is ... Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA ...
Ma LS, Hachani A, Lin JS, Filloux A, Lai EM (July 2014). "Agrobacterium tumefaciens deploys a superfamily of type VI secretion ... and plant-associated bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. These systems exert antibacterial activity via the function of ...
Misono H, Nagasaki S (April 1982). "Occurrence of L-lysine epsilon-dehydrogenase in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Journal of ... "Purification and properties of L-lysine ε-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 2253-2255. doi: ... "Properties of L-lysine epsilon-dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Journal of Biochemistry. 105 (6): 1002-8. PMID ...
"Cloning and sequencing of the serine dehydrogenase gene from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 66 (5): ... dependent serine dehydrogenase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 61 (1): 152-7. doi:10.1271/bbb. ...
... formerly Agrobacterium tumefaciens): scientists often use this species to transfer foreign DNA into plant genomes. Aerobic ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... this process has been described in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Methylobacterium organophilum, and Bradyrhizobium japonicum. ...
"Lipid-bond saccharides containing glucose and galactose in agrobacterium tumefaciens". J. Gen. Microbiol. 130: 869-879. ...
Natural genetic transformation has been reported in at least three Rhizobiales species: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, ... "Natural transformation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in soil". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (6): ... Other important genera are the human pathogens Bartonella and Brucella, as well as Agrobacterium (useful in genetic engineering ...
ATCC31749, which produces curdlan in extraordinary amounts, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A putative operon contains crdS ( ... Subsequently, the taxonomy of this non-pathogenic curdlan-producing bacterium has been reclassified as Agrobacterium species. ... Four genes required for curdlan production have been identified in Agrobacterium sp. ... synthase from Agrobacterium sp. strain ATCC31749". Glycobiology. 13 (10): 693-706. doi:10.1093/glycob/cwg093. PMID 12851288. " ...
Most commonly, plant transformation is carried out using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The protein of interest is often expressed ...
It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, ... which develops the crown gall (tumor). The VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system. The nitrogen ... Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter ...
This strain was modified using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and plasmid pMHL2113. Agrobacterium transferred the betA gene from ...
Sonoda H, Suzuki K, Yoshida K (June 2002). "Gene cluster for ferric iron uptake in Agrobacterium tumefaciens MAFF301001". Genes ... Production of siderophores also exhibited in some plant-infecting bacteria, such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The enzyme is ...
This includes Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942. Blastobacter capsulatus is currently classified in ... Other bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes severely alter the development of plants in their ability to ... The issue of Agrobacterium and other genera subsumed by Rhizobium is not yet settled, as some newer phylogenetic data suggests ... Agrobacterium has been recognized as being related to the Rhizobium. Evidence supporting the association was conducted by ...
ROSE1 is found in Bradyrhizobium japonicum whereas ROSEAT2 is a closely related element from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The two ... "Replicon-Specific Regulation of Small Heat Shock Genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi are examples of gall-causing bacteria. Gall forming virus was found on ...
ROSE1 and ROSEAT2 are found in rhizobiales Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens respectively. They exist in ... "Replicon-specific regulation of small heat shock genes in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". J Bacteriol. 186 (20): 6824-6829. doi: ...
viciae 3841 strain Agrobacterium species: A. vitis,A. tumefaciens, A. radiobacter and A. H13 All these sequences showed ... Wilms I, Voss B, Hess WR, Leichert LI, Narberhaus F (April 2011). "Small RNA-mediated control of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens ... tumefaciens, A. vitis, A. radiobacter, and Agrobacterium H13) as well as in a broad spectrum of Brucella species (B. ovis, B. ... have not been observed in their Agrobacterium tumefaciens counterparts referred to as AbcR1 and AbcR2, respectively, by Wilms ...
Because it is easily transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, it is used to study both the expression of pathogen genes ... "Microprojectile bombardment of plant tissues increases transformation frequency by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Plant Mol. Biol ... In general, the Agrobacterium method is considered preferable to the gene gun, because of a greater frequency of single-site ... The Agrobacterium present is also killed by the antibiotic. Only tissues expressing the marker will survive and possess the ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen that induces tumors on susceptible hosts. Infection by A. tumefaciens involves ... Piper, K.R.; Beck von Bodman, S.; Farrand, S.K. (1993). "Conjugation factor of Agrobacterium tumefaciens regulates Ti plasmid ... "Conserved cis-acting promoter elements are required for density-dependent transcription of Agrobacterium tumefaciens conjugal ... Zhang, L.; Murphy, P.J.; Kerr, A.; Tate, M.E. (1993). "Agrobacterium conjugation and gene regulation by N-acyl-L-homoserine ...
The virA gene on the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes is used by these ... "Sequence analysis of the vir-region from Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid pTi15955". Journal of Experimental ... "Acetosyringone promotes high efficiency transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Plant ... This compound also allows higher transformation efficiency in plants, as shown in A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation ...
Suzuki T, Hochster RM (1966). "On the biosynthesis of pseudouridine and of pseudouridylic acid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens". ...
"A photolyase-like protein from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with an iron-sulfur cluster". PLOS ONE. 6 (10): e26775. Bibcode: ...
For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ...
One of the first studies of TATA box mutations looked at a sequence of DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens for the octopine type ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens]]. i. ''′i. rakkudes on põhjuseks, miks antud bakter taimedele kasvajaid tekitab.,ref,[Nester, Eugene ... Agrobacterium tumefaciensi. tumefaciens'''i. abil. Selleks lõigatakse taime kude, milleks tavaliselt on [[leht]], väikesteks ... Agrobacterium'''i. kasutades, kuid võimalike mõjustatavate taimede valik on oluliselt laiem. Samuti on suureks eeliseks see, et ... tumefaciens'''i. suhtes tundetute taimede transformatsiooniks kasutatakse elektroporeerimist ning [[mikro-injektsioon]]i. .. , ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *Alcaligenes eutrophus. B. *Bacillus anthracis. *Bacteroides. *Bacteroidetes. *Bakteri koliform. * ...
It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the T-DNA portion of the Ti plasmid into ... The prototypic Type IVA secretion system is the VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.[11] ... Christie PJ (November 2004). "Type IV secretion: the Agrobacterium VirB/D4 and related conjugation systems". Biochimica et ...
The first genetically modified plant was produced in 1982, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create an antibiotic-resistant ...
... tumefaciens, Agrobacterium rhizogenes, and Agrobacterium vitis. Strains within Agrobacterium tumefaciens and ... Agrobacterium skierniewicense (Puławska et al. 2012) Mousavi et al. 2015. *Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) ... "Proposal for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised descriptions for the genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most commonly studied species in this genus. Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to ...
Agrobacterium. *Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *Alcaligenes eutrophus. *Anabaena. *Aquificaceae. *Aquificae. B. *Bacillus anthracis ...
Kemner JM, Liang X, Nester EW (Apr 1997). "The Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence gene chvE is part of a putative ABC-type ... The chvE-gguAB gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes glucose and galactose importers that are also associated with ... Cangelosi GA, Ankenbauer RG, Nester EW (Sep 1990). "Sugars induce the Agrobacterium virulence genes through a periplasmic ...
In 1907 a bacterium that caused plant tumors, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, was discovered and in the early 1970s the tumor ... "Agrobacterium: the natural genetic engineer (100 Years Later)". Retrieved 14 January 2011.. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... Not all plant cells are susceptible to infection by A. tumefaciens, so other methods were developed including electroporation ... tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. ...
Schell, J.; Van Montagu, M. (1977). „The Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a Natural Vector for the Introduction of Nif ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens..." *^ SpaceRef.com, July 29, 1997: Scientists Discover Methane Ice Worms On Gulf Of Mexico Sea Floor ...
Crown galls are caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria; they produce and excrete auxin and cytokinin, which interfere ...
Do rostlin se většinou vnáší pomocí biolistiky nebo rekombinace zprostředkované bakteriemi rodu Agrobacterium.[20] ... A. tumefaciens přichycující se na buňku mrkve. Zhruba 1 % bakterií je schopné přirozeně přijmout cizí DNA, ale jiné lze k tomu ...
Main article: Agrobacterium. Based on molecular data it was shown that the genus Agrobacterium is nested in Rhizobium and the ... nov.: Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly known as A. tumefaciens), R. rhizogenes, R. rubi, R. undicola and R. vitis)[94] Given the ... Farrand, S.; Van Berkum, P.; Oger, P. (2003). "Agrobacterium is a definable genus of the family Rhizobiaceae". International ... plant pathogenic nature of Agrobacterium species, it was proposed to maintain the genus Agrobacterium[95] and the latter was ...
avastati, et Ti-plasmiid [[Agrobacterium tumefaciens]]i rakkudes on põhjuseks, miks antud bakter taimedele kasvajaid tekitab. , ... "Agrobacterium: The Natural Genetic Engineer (100 Years Later)". Retrieved 14 January 2011].,/ref, [[Ti-plasmiid]] integreerub ... Lihtsaim neist on transformatsioon Agrobacterium tumefaciensi abil. Selleks lõigatakse taime kude, milleks tavaliselt on [[leht ...
"Genetic manipulation of Agrobacterium". 2012. Wiley. *↑ Shrawat AK & Good AG.. "Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic ... A. tumefaciens on laialdaselt kasutatud taime geneetikatehnoloogia vahendina[17]. A. tumefaciens'it peetakse üheks ... "Advances in banana transformation through Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Ecuador: progress, challenges and perspectives". 2014. ... Agrobacterium'i liigid on taimedega seotud Rhizobia sugulased. Mitu Agrobactericumi liiki põhjustab taimehaigusi, nagu ...
Šādu scenāriju izmanto Pseudomonas savastanoi un Agrobacterium tumefaciens.[2] IAA sintēze bez triptofāna[labot šo sadaļu , ...
Genetic transformation of A. thaliana is routine, utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into the plant genome. ... "Transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana with Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Science. 234 (4775): 464-6. Bibcode:1986Sci...234..464L ... Using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, a technique that takes advantage of the natural process by which Agrobacterium ... The current protocol, termed "floral dip", involves simply dipping flowers into a solution containing Agrobacterium carrying a ...
It was discovered in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, which uses this system to introduce the Ti plasmid and proteins into the host, ... which develops the crown gall (tumor).[6] The VirB complex of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the prototypic system.[7] ... Such elements as the Agrobacterium Ti or Ri plasmids contain elements that can transfer to plant cells. Transferred genes enter ...
e.g. Ti plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmids can belong to more than one of these functional groups. ...
In plants the DNA is often inserted using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation,[59] taking advantage of the Agrobacteriums T- ... A. tumefaciens attaching itself to a carrot cell. Further testing using PCR, Southern hybridization, and DNA sequencing is ... Plant genomes can be engineered by physical methods or by use of Agrobacterium for the delivery of sequences hosted in T-DNA ... "Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation: the biology behind the "gene-jockeying" tool". Microbiology and Molecular Biology ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens) নামৰ ৰোগ সৃষ্টি কৰিব পৰা বেক্টেৰিয়াবিধে কিছুমান দ্বিবীজপত্ৰী উদ্ভিদত টিউমাৰ সৃষ্টি কৰিব পৰা জিন 'T- ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *Alphaproteobacteria. *Anaeroplasmatales. *Aquifex. *Aquificae. B. *Basidium. C. *Chlorobiaceae. * ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is another common technique. Agrobacteria are natural plant parasites.[51] ... for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful.[50] The major disadvantage of this procedure ... One of these was isolated from an Agrobacterium strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that was resistant to glyphosate.[123][124] The CP4 ... Shrawat, A.; Lörz, H. (2006). "Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cereals: a promising approach crossing barriers". Plant ...
1973 Er vakterienn Agrobacterium Tumefaciens e kaver ar plasmid Ti hag a ro tro da zegemer ur gen a zoug un ditour genetek ...
The virA gene on the Ti plasmid in the genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes is used by these soil ... These compounds are typically found from wounded plants, and as a result VirA is used by Agrobacterium tumefaciens to locate ... "Sequence analysis of the vir-region from Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti plasmid pTi15955". Journal of Experimental ... "Acetosyringone promotes high efficiency transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens". Plant ...
Brief Description of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58:. A. tumefaciens C58 is the most heavily studied member of the genus ... Scientists know a lot now about virulent Agrobacterium strains do this and have worked out methods to use this natural DNA ... My lab was involved in the genetic/physically mapping and sequencing of the A. tumefaciens C58 genome (Goodner et al., 1999; ... However, most people know Agrobacterium because some strains can do something that no other cellular pathogen does - inject a ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens overwinters in infested soils. Agrobacterium species live predominantly saprophytic lifestyles, so ... "Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)". UniProt Taxonomy. Archived from the original on ... Breakdown of the soft tissue leads to release of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens into the soil allowing it to restart the disease ...
The T-pilus of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.. Lai EM1, Kado CI.. Author information. 1. Davis Crown Gall Group, University of ... and protein-transport apparatus for the transport of cyclic T-pilin subunits to the Agrobacterium cell surface. T-pilin ... subunits are processed from full-length VirB2 pro-pilin into a cyclized peptide, a rapid reaction that is Agrobacterium ...
Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane.. Wessel M1, Klüsener S, Gödeke J ... The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N- ... The virulence defect was due to a complete lack of the type IV secretion machinery in the Agrobacterium PC mutant. Our results ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that causes plant tumours by transferring a portion of DNA from a ...
Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells.. V M Yusibov, T R Steck, V ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ... Association of single-stranded transferred DNA from Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cells. ...
A. tumefaciens tRNA was found to contain . ⁶Ado, ms².⁶Ado, ms²io⁶Ado and trans-io⁶Ado. A. tumefaciens culture filtrates were ... Certain plant-associated prokaryotes such as Corynebacteriurn fascians and Agrobacterium tumefaciens are known to produce ... tumefaciens, it was decided to conduct a study of the cytokinins produced by A. tumefaciens. In order to accomplish this ... Cytokinin production by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Public Deposited Citeable URL:. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/ ...
The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. ...
Constitutive mutations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virG.. G J Pazour, C N Ta, A Das ... Constitutive mutations of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transcriptional activator virG. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ... The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmids are positively regulated by virG in conjunction with virA ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens;. CFU,. colony-forming unit;. P.a.,. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.. *© 2006 by The National Academy of ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ... Quorum sensing and motility mediate interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in biofilm ...
The crystal structure of 2-deoxycytidine 5-triphosphate deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens.. Zhang, R., Dong, A., Xu, X ... Crystal structure of 2-deoxycytidine 5-triphosphate deaminase from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2R9Q/pdb ... Agrobacterium fabrum str. C58. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: dcd, AGR_C_764, Atu0434. ...
In 1994, rice was the first cereal species to be transformed efficiently by A. tumefaciens, and maize, wheat and barley soon ... Finally, it has now been clearly demonstrated that A. tumefaciens can transfer genes to both dicotyledons and monocotyledons by ... However, until about 20 years ago, it was generally believed that monocotyledons could not be transformed by Agrobacterium, ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer is a method employed widely in many plant species. This bacterium can ...
Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
... May 2013 , Volume 26 , ... We assessed the impact of seed inoculation with the emblematic bacterial models Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (plasmid-cured) ... Compared with the noninoculated control, root biomass (with A. tumefaciens or E. coli) and shoot biomass (with A. tumefaciens) ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens and E. coli triggered similar (in PR37Y15) or different (in DK315) changes in the high-performance ...
Agrobacterium fabrum str. C58. Mutation(s): 3 Gene Names: Atu0297. Find proteins for A9CKF1 (Agrobacterium fabrum (strain C58 ... Crystal Structure of the Conserved Hypothetical Protein Atu0297 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Kim, Y., Xu, X., Zheng, H., ... Crystal Structure of the Conserved Protein of Unknown Function ATU0297 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb2FIU/ ...
Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenicity by the osa gene of pSa.. C Y Chen, C I Kado ... Inhibition of Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenicity by the osa gene of pSa. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... pSa originally derived from Shigella flexneri completely inhibits the tumor-inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens when ... tumefaciens oncogenicity. This inhibition of oncogenicity by osa is not limited to a specific host plant but appears to show ...
... for T-DNA transfer to plant cells and preparation of transgenic recombinant ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Electro-Cells. 5 x 40 uL. $259.00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) can ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens electrocompetent cells. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) is capable of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. The T-DNA (transfer DNA) is ...
AGL1 Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 Solanaceae Solanum lycopersicum Solanum pimpinellifolium This is a preview of ... esculentum) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plant Cell Rep 5:81-84CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Van Eck J., Keen P., Tjahjadi M. (2019) Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation of Tomato. In: Kumar S., Barone P., ... Efficient transfer of a glyphosate tolerance gene into tomato using a binary Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector. Bio/Technology 5 ...
... for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised description for the genus Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium ... Bishop, A.L., Burr, T.J., Mittak, V.L. & Katz, B.H. 1989 A monoclonal antibody specific to Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 3 ... Van der Wolf, J.M., Van Beckhoven, M. & Van Den Brink and de Vries, P.M. 1995 Detection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens in ... Gorris, M.T., López, M.M., Ballester, J.F. & Salcedo, C. 1985 Comparación de métodos de detección de Agrobacterium tumefaciens ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens responses to plant-derived signaling molecules.. Subramoni, S., Nathoo, N., Klimov, E., and Yuan, Z.- ... As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as ... Here we outline the responses of Agrobacterium to major plant-derived signals that impact Agrobacterium-plant interactions. ... The complexity of Agrobacterium-plant interaction has been studied for several decades. Agrobacterium pathogenicity is largely ...
Rhizobium radiobacter (Agrobacterium tumefaciens) (Agrobacterium radiobacter)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Alphaproteobacteria › Rhizobiales › Rhizobiaceae › Rhizobium/Agrobacterium ...
... ... an efficient targeted gene knockout transformation system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens was established with field collected ... The starting materials, incubation time, induction medium type, Agrobacterium cell density, and method of co-incubation were ...
Transformation of Wall Deficient Cultured Tobacco Protoplasts by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... Attachment of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is required for transformation. To further study the components ... Transformation of Wall Deficient Cultured Tobacco Protoplasts by Agrobacterium tumefaciens Andrew N. Binns ... Nevertheless, they were transformable at high frequency by wild type Agrobacterium strains but not by mutant strains that lack ...
... homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number ... Theoretical Study of Molecular Determinants Involved in Signal Binding to the TraR Protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. W. Goh ... "Theoretical Study of Molecular Determinants Involved in Signal Binding to the TraR Protein of Agrobacterium tumefaciens." ... homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number ...
title = "Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation",. abstract = "The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation. / Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand.. Genetic Transformation Systems in Fungi. ... Frandsen, R. J. N. (2015). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation. In M. A. van den Berg, & K. Maruthachalam (Eds ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens-Mediated Transformation. Genetic Transformation Systems in Fungi. editor / Marco A. van den Berg ; ...
Peptidoglycan Synthesis Machinery in Agrobacterium tumefaciens During Unipolar Growth and Cell Division. Todd A. Cameron, James ... To better understand polar growth in the Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens, we first surveyed its genome to identify ... The polarly growing plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used as a model bacterium to explore these polar growth ... The CcrM DNA methyltransferase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is essential, and its activity is cell cycle regulated. J. ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a ... Agrobacterium tumefaciensis a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where ... Synteny analysis of the A. tumefaciens, S. meliloti, and M. loti genomes. AlthoughAgrobacterium and Sinorhizobium are in ... A) Comparison of A. tumefaciens with S. meliloti chromosome. (B) Comparison of A. tumefaciens with S. meliloti plasmid pSymA. ( ...
Just one quick question about the agrobacterium tumefaciens. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining ... "The transfer of the T-DNA between the A. tumefaciens cell and the plant cell is mediated in trans by virulence gene products ... I think that genes of A.tumefaciens hit the other strand of the plant, not the same where they are. I think. ...
The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia ... Genome Sequence and Mutational Analysis of Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 Isolated from ... The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia ... 2012). Genome Sequence and Mutational Analysis of Plant-Growth-Promoting Bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286 ...
Agrobacterium tumefaciens - the tumour causer. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium which, with the help of the Ti ... They attempted a Southern blot with a probe for T-DNA on induced Agrobacterium cells and found that they could identify this ... and scientists attempted to isolate them from Agrobacterium. They found that strains causing Crown Gall disease had a 250 kb ...
  • Scientists know a lot now about virulent Agrobacterium strains do this and have worked out methods to use this n atural DNA transformation process to in troduce no vel genes into plants and even fungi for agricu l tural, medical , and bio technolog ical purposes. (google.com)
  • Currently, there are several reports on standardisation of protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in stable integration of the exogenous target gene into plant chromosomal DNA by means of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. (cellartis.com)
  • Wen-Jun, S. & Forde, B.G. Efficient transformation of Agrobacterium spp. (cellartis.com)
  • The transformation protocol routinely used in our laboratory has been applied to many different tomato genotypes and relies on Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection of young cotyledon sections. (springer.com)
  • The protocol we follow for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of both cultivated and wild species of tomato is detailed in this chapter. (springer.com)
  • McCormick S, Niedermeyer J, Fry J, Barnason A, Horsch R, Fraley R (1986) Leaf disc transformation of cultivated tomato ( L . esculentum ) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (springer.com)
  • Chyi YS, Phillips GC (1987) High efficiency Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Lycopersicon based on conditions favorable for regeneration. (springer.com)
  • Frary A, Earle ED (1996) An examination of factors affecting the efficiency of Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of tomato. (springer.com)
  • Park SH, Morris JL, Park JE, Hirschi KD, Smith RH (2003) Efficient and genotype-independent Agrobacterium -mediated tomato transformation. (springer.com)
  • Lazo GR, Stein PA, Ludwig RA (1991) A DNA transformation-competent Arabidopsis genomic library in Agrobacterium . (springer.com)
  • To explore molecular mechanisms of fungal pathogenicity and virulence to the host, an efficient targeted gene knockout transformation system using Agrobacterium tumefaciens was established with field collected strains. (apsnet.org)
  • Attachment of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens to plant cells is required for transformation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for achieving genetic transformation of fungi has steadily increased over the last decade, and has proven to be almost universally applicable technique once suitable selection markers have been developed. (dtu.dk)
  • This chapter provides a generic protocol for performing genetic transformation of ascomycetes via A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) and guidelines for optimizing the AMT process with new fungal species. (dtu.dk)
  • Frandsen, RJN 2015, Agrobacterium tumefaciens -Mediated Transformation . (dtu.dk)
  • An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic Black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. (omicsonline.org)
  • In addition, it also enabled us to introduce ligated plasmids directly into Agrobacterium omitting the E. coli transformation step and accelerating the cloning procedure further. (deepdyve.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was successfully applied to P. fumosoroseus. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • A.tumefaciens-mediated transformation yielded stable transformants capable of growing on increased concentrations of hygromycin B (up to 900 ug/ml).The presence of hph gene was confirmed by PCR. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Considering the efficiency and flexibility of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation, this method appears to be an efficient alternative to other insertional mutagenesis techniques in characterizing genes that are important for the pathogenicity of P. fumosoroseus. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • Transient transformation indicated that STS improved the transformation potential of embryos by enhancing Agrobacterium tumefaciens adherence to surfaces. (springer.com)
  • AK contributed to Agrobacterium -mediated transformation, CWM analysis, SEM studies and Quantitative RT-PCR for mannan metabolic genes. (springer.com)
  • Central to the study and engineering of plants is their transformation, which is achieved most commonly using Agrobacterium tumefaciens , the causal agent of crown galls (or tumors) in dicotyledonous plants ( Smith and Townsend 1907 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Transformation of four soybean cultivars (Nannong88-1, Nannong18-6, Yu23 and Nannong 87C-38) by infecting cotyledonary-node with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pBI121 containing GFP reporter gene was conducted. (ajol.info)
  • And most GFP-positive plants were confirmed to be positive by Southern blot analysis, which showed that transformation of cotyledonary-node explants mediated by Agrobacterium delivered T-DNA with one or two copies into soybean genome. (ajol.info)
  • The frequency of transformation varied among families infected with A. tumefaciens. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of eggplant ( Solanum melongenaL. (iisc.ernet.in)
  • Due to the difficulty in Agrobacterium -mediated genetic transformation of wheat, the reported applications in CRISPR/Cas9 system were all based on the biolistic transformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CRISPR/Cas9 binary vector targeting the DA1 gene was then transformed into common wheat plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation, resulting in efficient target gene editing in the T0 generation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This natural ability to alter the plant's genetic makeup was the foundation of plant transformation using Agrobacterium . (nepad-abne.net)
  • Currently, Agrobacterium -mediated transformation is the most commonly used method for plant genetic engineering because of relatively high efficiency. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Initially it was believed that this Agrobacterium only infects dicotyledonous plants, but it was later established that it can also be used for transformation of monocotyledonous plants such as rice. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Figure 1 illustrates Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Gelvin B. S. (2003) Agrobacterium -Mediated Plant Transformation: the Biology behind the "Gene-Jockeying" Tool. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Jones D.H., Doherty A, and Wu H. (2005) Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of wheat. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Kumar K.K. , Maruthasalam S., Loganathan M., Sudhakar D. and Balasubramanian P. (2005) An Improved Agrobacterium -Mediated Transformation Protocol for Recalcitrant Elite Indica Rice Cultivars. (nepad-abne.net)
  • Glucocerebrosidase, Agrobacterium transformation, pcambia1304. (innspub.net)
  • The recombinant isolation plasmid was transferred to Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 using modified freezing-thaw method, transformation Agrobacterium colonies were enhanced by colony PCR. (innspub.net)
  • However, a routine and efficient transformation protocol of Syrian maize (Zea mays) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens standard binary vector system for year round production of fertile transgenic maize plants was achieved. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • It is anticipated that this study will assist further enhancement of maize transformation technology leading to develop an updated protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated generation of maize. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence of the transformation ability of Syrian genotypes via A. tumefaciens. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Genetic transformation ofwheat mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens has notbeen established yet. (pertanian.go.id)
  • Transformation mediated by A.tumefaciens was performed on four genotypes of wheat,namely Combi, Fasan, Perdix, and Naxos-Wew.Transformed calli with green spots in selection media weretransferred to regeneration media containing 25 mg/lhygromycin, i.e. (pertanian.go.id)
  • To test the efficacy of CRISPR /Cas9 in tomato, we chose to target a gene that, when function was disrupted, would result in a distinctive, immediately recognizable phenotype early in the plant tissue culture phase of Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In this context, the objective of the present work was to develop a system of genetic transformation of E. camaldulensis through Agrobacterium tumefaciens, to introduce the gus gene under control of the cgMT1 promoter in cotyledonary and leaf explants cells. (ufv.br)
  • and the last stage evaluates the factors that influence the efficiency of the process of transformation of E. camaldulensis mediated by A. tumefaciens. (ufv.br)
  • 1397). 'A Preliminary Experiment on Agrobacterium tumefaciens -Mediated Transformation of the P5CS1 GENE in Tall Fescue', نشریه علمی پژوهشی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی , 8(2), pp. 79-86. (iaujournals.ir)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation of Festuca arundinacea (Schreb. (iaujournals.ir)
  • High efficiency transformation of tall fescue with Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (iaujournals.ir)
  • A simple and reproducible Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for a recalcitrant legume plant, lentil (Lens culinaris M.) is reported. (sdu.edu.tr)
  • This research describes the optimization of parameters (including pH, temperature, period of co-cultivation and age of callus) for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using staminodes from cocoa buds as explants. (ums.edu.my)
  • In order to further accelerate the transgenic research and breeding process of cucumber, we described the progress and problems of Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transgenic cucumber, from the influencing factors of cucumber regeneration ability , genetic transformation conditions and various additives in the process. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used DhPKS1 as a case study and carried out its disruption through Agrobacterium -mediated transformation in the isolate 7/96. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to develop a protocol for indirect organogenesis in leaf explants and improve aspects of genetic transformation by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (ufv.br)
  • In this study, we aimed to characterize the impact of HspL on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under heat-shock treatment. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens enhanced the transient transformation efficiency in root explants of both susceptible and recalcitrant Arabidopsis ecotypes. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • In addition, the reduced transient transformation efficiency during heat stress was recovered by overexpression of HspL in A. tumefaciens. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • HspL may help maintain VirB8 homeostasis and elevate Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency under both heat-shock and nonheat-shock growth. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • This volume reviews various facets of Agrobacterium biology, from modern aspects of taxonomy and bacterial ecology to pathogenesis, bacterial cell biology, plant and fungal transformation, natural transgenics, and biotechnology. (springer.com)
  • Agrobacterium -mediated transformation is the most extensively utilized platform for generating transgenic plants, but modern biotechnology applications derive from more than 40 years of intensive basic scientific research. (springer.com)
  • Arabidopsis efr mutants show enhanced susceptibility to the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens, as revealed by a higher efficiency of T-DNA transformation. (nih.gov)
  • These results demonstrate that EFR is the EF-Tu receptor and that plant defense responses induced by PAMPs such as EF-Tu reduce transformation by Agrobacterium. (nih.gov)
  • T-pilin subunits are processed from full-length VirB2 pro-pilin into a cyclized peptide, a rapid reaction that is Agrobacterium specific and can occur in the absence of Ti-plasmid genes. (nih.gov)
  • Agrobacterium perceives plant-derived signals to activate its virulence genes, which are responsible for transferring and integrating its Transferred DNA (T-DNA) from its Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant nucleus. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, Agrobacterium hijacks plant-derived signals including SA, IAA, and ethylene to down-regulate its virulence genes located on the Ti plasmid. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, certain metabolites from corn ( Zea mays ) also inhibit the expression of Agrobacterium virulence genes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon detection of plant-derived signals in the rhizosphere, Agrobacterium activates its chromosomal virulence genes ( chv genes) and Ti plasmid encoded virulence genes ( vir genes). (frontiersin.org)
  • The virulence (vir) genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmids are positively regulated by virG in conjunction with virA and plant-derived inducing molecules. (asm.org)
  • Finally, it has now been clearly demonstrated that A. tumefaciens can transfer genes to both dicotyledons and monocotyledons by the same mechanism. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome sequence analysis revealed homologs of nitrite reductase genes nirK and nirBD and siderophore synthesis genes for Agrobacterium tumefaciens , as well as homologs of nitrite reductase genes nirBD and phosphatase genes phoA and appA in E. coli , whose contribution to phytostimulation will require experimental assessment. (apsnet.org)
  • Using this method, the pathogenic genes of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA in the Ti plasmid are replaced with selective marker genes as well as the exogenous target gene. (cellartis.com)
  • In this system, the pathogenic genes of T-DNA in Ti plasmid are replaced with selective marker genes and the exogenous target gene, to transfer the target gene into plant chromosomal DNA by means of Agrobacterium -mediated gene transfer. (cellartis.com)
  • I think that genes of A.tumefaciens hit the other strand of the plant, not the same where they are. (biology-online.org)
  • When Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used to introduce new genes to plants, scientists remove the plasmid genes that induce tumors but retain those that are needed for the transfer. (northernwoodlands.org)
  • Expression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence (vir) genes is dependent on the presence of a conserved 'vir box' sequence in their 5' nontranscribed regions. (nih.gov)
  • The research reported in this work elucidates some of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of the hyu genes in A. tumefaciens strains. (openthesis.org)
  • In addition, it indicates that the hyu genes in the two A. tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR are different. (openthesis.org)
  • A. tumefaciens can be used in plant breeding as a method of getting other genes inserted into the plant via engineering of the bacteria. (gettyimages.com.au)
  • Additional genes and regulatory interactions that influence coordination of polar morphogenesis, motility, and biofilm formation in A. tumefaciens will be identified using a combination of transposon mutagenesis and a novel high-throughput microscopy screen. (grantome.com)
  • It also carries genes for the biosynthesis of the plant hormones , auxin and cytokinins , and for the biosynthesis of opines , providing a carbon and nitrogen source for the bacteria that most other micro-organisms can't use, giving Agrobacterium a selective advantage . (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genes to plants and fungi is used in biotechnology , in particular, genetic engineering for plant improvement . (wikipedia.org)
  • VL - 18 IS - 23 N2 - Expression of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence (vir) genes is dependent on the presence of a conserved 'vir box' sequence in their 5' nontranscribed regions. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cambial-region-specific expression of the Agrobacterium iaa genes in transgenic aspen visualized by a linked uidA reporter gene. (wikigenes.org)
  • Agrobacterium introduces into the plant T-DNA containing two auxin biosynthesis genes iaaM (TRYPTOPHAN-2-MONOOXYGENASE) and iaaH (INDOLE-3-ACETAMIDE HYDROLASE). (plantae.org)
  • In this study, GUS and hpt genes were used to identify the species of Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing pCAMBIA1305.2 plasmid and to design primers and probes. (ac.ir)
  • Finally, construction of knock-out mutants in A. tumefaciens showed that expression of some At plasmid genes seemed more costly than the selective advantage they would have conferred in tumor colonization. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 and the binary vector method were invented by Dr. P.J. Hooykaas at Leiden University in the Netherlands. (cellartis.com)
  • The LBA4044 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens contains the pAL4404 plasmid, which includes only the T-DNA vir region and enables only vir gene induction and T-DNA transfer. (cellartis.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4044 electrocompetent cells are a widely used bacterial strain for T-DNA transfer to plant cells. (cellartis.com)
  • Here we describe the genome of A. tumefaciens strain C58, which has an unusual structure consisting of one circular and one linear chromosome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene β-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). (omicsonline.org)
  • A particular strain of a close relative of crown gall, called Agrobacterium radiobacter , protects plants from its gall-forming cousin. (northernwoodlands.org)
  • Here we performed immunofluorescence deconvolution microscopy to localize the assembled T4SS by detection of its native components VirB1, VirB2, VirB4, VirB5, VirB7, VirB8, VirB9, VirB10, and VirB11 in the C58 nopaline strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens , following induction of virulence ( vir ) gene expression. (asm.org)
  • Native VirB2, VirB5, VirB7, and VirB8 were also localized in the A. tumefaciens octopine strain A348. (asm.org)
  • Strains of A. tumefaciens can be differentiated on the basis of the unique opine produced by the tumor, and each type of opine is specifically catabolized by the infecting strain ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • Then, Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring the plasmid pPCV6NFHygGUSINT was used to transform mature zygotic embryos of seven families of loblolly pine. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Leaf pieces from sterilely grown plants were precultured for 2 days and inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an avirulent Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid with a chimeric gene encoding hygromycin resistance. (harvard.edu)
  • Velazquez E, Flores-Felix JD, Sanchez-Juanes F, Igual JM, Peix A. Strain ATCC 4720 T is the authentic type strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens , which is not a later heterotypic synonym of Agrobacterium radiobacter . (dsmz.de)
  • This study was carried out to produced Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 strain contains binary vector has human GBA gene to became ready for transforming any desired plant to expression glucocerebrosidase. (innspub.net)
  • Immature zygotic embryos of Syrian genotypes and the control hybrid line Hi II were infected with A. tumefaciens strain EHA101 harboring a standard binary vector pTF102. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Our data indicate that host responses were much stronger toward the oncogenic strain C58 than to the disarmed strain GV3101 and that auxin acts as a key modulator of the Arabidopsis-Agrobacterium interaction. (usda.gov)
  • Lentil explants were transformed by inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain, KYRT1 harboring a binary vector pTJK136 that carried neomycin phosphotransferase gene (npt-II) and an intron containing gusA gene on its T-DNA region. (sdu.edu.tr)
  • The A. tumefaciens strain used was the super avirulent AGLl with the binary vector pGPTV-Kan/Gus. (ums.edu.my)
  • Virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires phosphatidylcholine in the bacterial membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The virulence defect was due to a complete lack of the type IV secretion machinery in the Agrobacterium PC mutant. (nih.gov)
  • Agrobacterium utilizes opines as nutrient sources as well as signals in order to activate its quorum sensing (QS) to further promote virulence and opine metabolism. (frontiersin.org)
  • The virulence proficiency of A. tumefaciens is dependent on the presence of the Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid, which harbors a Transferred DNA (T-DNA) defined by two direct repeat sequences of approximately 25 base pairs, termed the left and right borders. (frontiersin.org)
  • When living independently, Agrobacterium virulence is essentially silent. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hooykaas, P.J.J. & Beijersbergen, G.M. 1994 The virulence system of Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (wiley.com)
  • The transfer of the T-DNA between the A. tumefaciens cell and the plant cell is mediated in trans by virulence gene products encoded on both the bacterium's chromosome and the Ti plasmid. (biology-online.org)
  • Besides its function in virulence, A. tumefaciens has also evolved a robust capacity to take up and catabolize a considerable array of nutrients available to support growth in the soil. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers a specific DNA fragment from the resident tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid and effector virulence (Vir) proteins to plant cells during infection. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens ( Rhizobium radiobactor ) is capable of T-DNA transfer to plant cells. (cellartis.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Rhizobium radiobactor) can transfer T-DNA (transfer DNA), which is part of its own Ti plasmid, into host plant cells and insert this DNA into the plant chromosomal DNA. (cellartis.com)
  • Recent taxonomic studies have reclassified all of the Agrobacterium species into new genera, such as Ahrensia , Pseudorhodobacter , Ruegeria , and Stappia , [1] [2] but most species have been controversially reclassified as Rhizobium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sawada H, Ieki H, Oyaizu H, Matsumoto S. Proposal for rejection of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and revised descriptions for the genus Agrobacterium and for Agrobacterium radiobacter and Agrobacterium rhizogenes . (dsmz.de)
  • 1993), this species is a later heterotypic synonym of Agrobacterium radiobacter (Beijerinck and van Delden 1902) Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980) . (dsmz.de)
  • 2006) propose in a Request for an Opinion that Agrobacterium radiobacter has priority as the earlier heterotypic (subjective) synonym when it is united with Agrobacterium tumefaciens .The Judicial Commission affirmed the priority of Agrobacterium radiobacter (Opinion 94, Judicial Commission of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, IJSEM 64:3590-3592). (dsmz.de)
  • 1993 proposed that the name Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend 1907) Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980) should be rejected because it is a later synonym of Agrobacterium radiobacter (Beijerinck and van Delden 1902) Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980). (dsmz.de)
  • One of the earliest associations of human disease caused by Agrobacterium radiobacter was reported by Dr. J. R. Cain in Scotland (1988). (wikipedia.org)
  • A. tumefaciens and A. radiobacter were studied for serological and physiological differences. (ucanr.edu)
  • Although no physiological differences were detected, most A. tumefaciens strains differed serologically from A. radiobacter in possessing an antigen which formed a precipitin line near the antigen well in gel-diffusion tests. (ucanr.edu)
  • Unlike the nitrogen-fixing symbionts, tumor-producing Agrobacterium species are pathogenic and do not benefit the plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in many plant species with agricultural and economic importance including woody ornamental shrubs (rose), vines (grape), shade trees, fruit trees (cherry, berry, walnut), and herbaceous perennials. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the most commonly studied species in this genus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infection by the species Agrobacterium vitis results in cane gall on grapevines while A. rhizogenes causes excessive formation of hairy roots or root tumors. (frontiersin.org)
  • A dual-species cocultivation model has been developed by using two ubiquitous and well studied microbes Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.a. ) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ( A.t. ) as a tractable system to identify molecular mechanisms that underlie multispecies microbial associations. (pnas.org)
  • To examine this hypothesis, we have developed a dual-species model system, composed of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P.a. ) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ( A.t. ). (pnas.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer is a method employed widely in many plant species. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 1994, rice was the first cereal species to be transformed efficiently by A. tumefaciens, and maize, wheat and barley soon followed in the 1990s. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biologists frequently tweak the age-old procedures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to create remodeled crop species. (northernwoodlands.org)
  • The T4SS of A. tumefaciens is among the best-studied T4SS, and the majority of its components are highly conserved in different pathogenic bacterial species. (asm.org)
  • Indeed, A. tumefaciens is used routinely to transform many plant species of academic, agronomical, and horticultural importance ( Hooykaas and Schilperoort 1992 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is the correct name if this species is regarded as a separate species (i.e., if its nomenclatural type is not assigned to another species whose name is validly published, legitimate and not rejected and has priority) within a separate genus Agrobacterium . (dsmz.de)
  • Many cereals crops are recalcitrant species to genetically modification through their resistance to Agrobacterium infection and recalcitrance to in vitro regeneration. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • The closely related species, Agrobacterium rhizogenes , induces root tumors, and carries the distinct Ri (root-inducing) plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • I. Isolation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related species. (ucanr.edu)
  • In this paper, we show that T-strands disappear from acetosyringone-induced A. tumefaciens within 30 min of bacterial cocultivation with tobacco protoplasts. (pnas.org)
  • Agrobacterium -plant interaction is an excellent paradigm for studying both plant and bacterial responses, as well as the role of chemical signaling in these processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We assessed the impact of seed inoculation with the emblematic bacterial models Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 (plasmid-cured) or Escherichia coli K-12 on maize seedlings in nonsterile soil. (apsnet.org)
  • I am using the bacterial pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a model organism for studying how bacteria regulate their multiplication and shape, and how this impacts their interactions with host organisms. (grantome.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease by transferring and integrating bacterial DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. (usda.gov)
  • The plant-transforming bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes two potential PC forming enzymes, a phospholipid N-methyltransferase (PmtA) and a PC synthase (Pcs). (nih.gov)
  • The plant-growth-promoting bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286, isolated from the nodules of Robinia pseudoacacia growing in zinc-lead mine tailings, both displayed high metal resistance and enhanced the growth of Robinia plants in a metal-contaminated environment. (rti.org)
  • Monosaccharides capable of serving as nutrients for the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens are also inducers of the vir regulon present in the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of this plant pathogen. (asm.org)
  • Virulent strains of the soil bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens exhibit two distinctly different phases in their life history. (asm.org)
  • In this graduation thesis we wanted to test intramolecular recombination efficiency of bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compare it to that in Escherichia coli. (unizg.hr)
  • Alpizar E, Dechamp E, Espeout S, Royer M, Lecouls AC, Nicole M, Bertrand B, Lashermes P, Etienne H (2006) Efficient production of Agrobacterium rhizogenes -transformed roots and composite plants for studying gene expression in coffee roots. (springer.com)
  • Although the taxonomy of Agrobacterium is currently under revision it can be generalised that 3 biovars exist within the genus, Agrobacterium tumefaciens , Agrobacterium rhizogenes , and Agrobacterium vitis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains within Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes are known to be able to harbour either a Ti or Ri- plasmid , whilst strains of Agrobacterium vitis , generally restricted to grapevines, can harbour a Ti-plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-DNA oncogene A4-orf8 from Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 induces abnormal growth in tobacco. (wikigenes.org)
  • To examine the physiological changes and adaptations during Agrobacterium-induced tumor development, we compared the profiles of salicylic acid (SA), ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA), and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) with changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. (usda.gov)
  • We combined transcriptomics and genetics for understanding the A. tumefaciens lifestyle when it colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana tumors. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • T-pilus biogenesis uses a conserved transmembrane nucleoprotein- and protein-transport apparatus for the transport of cyclic T-pilin subunits to the Agrobacterium cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • In this communication, we have modeled the crystal structure of the AHL receptor protein TraR and its AHL signal N-(3- oxooctanoyl)-homoserine lactone from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and compared it to the previously reported antagonist behaviour of a number of AHL analogues, in an attempt to determine structural constraints for ligand binding. (mdpi.com)
  • Since most of the canonical cell elongation components are absent from A. tumefaciens , we made fluorescent protein fusions to other putative PG synthesis components to assay their subcellular localization patterns. (asm.org)
  • Now, higher-resolution deconvolution fluorescence microscopy reveals that all structural components of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens vir -T4SS, as well as its transported protein substrates, localize to multiple foci around the cell perimeter. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate with novel cytological screens - a two‐hybrid (C2H) assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) - and by immunoprecipitation of chemically cross‐linked protein complexes that the VirE2 effector protein interacts directly with the VirD4 coupling protein at cell poles of A. tumefaciens. (deepdyve.com)
  • The ccdB protein, however, is not toxic to Agrobacterium tumefaciens, an important player often used for studying gene function in planta. (vt.edu)
  • A. tumefaciens VirB1-11 and VirD4 proteins assemble as the type IV secretion system (T4SS), which mediates transfer of the T-DNA and effector Vir protein into plant cells, thus resulting in crown gall disease in plants. (nchu.edu.tw)
  • In the present study, we efficiently applied targeted mutagenesis in common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) protoplasts and transgenic T0 plants using the CRISPR/Cas9 system delivered via Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, genetic analysis would be easier to carry out in the progeny of A. tumefaciens -mediated transgenic plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Putatively transgenic cells of cocoa (after 20 weeks of A. tumefaciens treatment) were first extracted and then digested using restriction enzyme (Sau3A) which cut at T-DNA right border (GATC). (ums.edu.my)
  • Agrobacterium -mediated transgenic technology is an important way to study plant gene functions and improve varieties. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results lead to a new model of A. tumefaciens attachment to a plant cell, where A. tumefaciens takes advantage of the multiple vir- T4SS along its length to make intimate lateral contact with plant cells and thereby effectively transfer DNA and/or proteins through the vir- T4SS. (asm.org)
  • The production of the hydantoin-hydrolyzing enzymes in both A. tumefaciens strains RU-AE01 and RU-OR were regulated by proteins involved in the global ntr pathway. (openthesis.org)
  • Christie, Peter J. 2003-09-01 00:00:00 Summary Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers oncogenic DNA and effector proteins to plant cells during the course of infection. (deepdyve.com)
  • Despite a high degree of conservation among the a-Proteobacteria, including A. tumefaciens little is known about the precise role of these regulatory proteins in these other organisms. (grantome.com)
  • This study examines the role of these regulatory proteins in A. tumefaciens. (grantome.com)
  • In particular, I am studying two key regulatory proteins that allow A. tumefaciens to integrate environmental signals and transition from the free-living to the host-associated state. (grantome.com)
  • To further investigate the functional role of A. thaliana SSIII-SD, three chimeric proteins were constructed combining the SBDs from A. thaliana with the GS from A. tumefaciens. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Results demonstrated that The1561bp- GBA gene was amplified from human total blood RNA which was confirmed by sequencing the PCR product which gives 100% identified withHomo sapiens glucosylceramidase beta (GBA), transcript variant 1, mRNA NM_000157.3 Gene Bank and colony PCR assured that Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404 carried Hu-GBA gene . (innspub.net)
  • Dye D. W. The effects of chemicals and antibiotic substances on crown-gall ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens [Smith and Townsend] Conn.) Part IV. (ucanr.edu)
  • Dye D. W., Hutchinson P. B., Hastings A. Effect of chemicals and antibiotic substances on crown-gall ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens [Smith and Townsend] Conn.) Part I. Colchicine and penicillin. (ucanr.edu)
  • During the inception of crown gall tumorigenesis, the transferred DNA (T-DNA) is processed from the Ti (tumor inducing) plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and is transferred to plant cells. (pnas.org)
  • Economically, A. tumefaciens is a serious pathogen of walnuts, grape vines, stone fruits, nut trees, sugar beets, horse radish, and rhubarb, and the persistent nature of the tumors or galls caused by the disease make it particularly harmful for perennial crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a special phytopathogen, Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects a wide range of plant hosts and causes plant tumors also known as crown galls. (frontiersin.org)
  • There's a bacterium called Agrobacterium tumofaciens, which inserts DNA sequences into plant genomes to trigger cell proliferation causing these galls to form on trees. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • The large growths on these roots are galls induced by Agrobacterium sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens infects plants and introduces the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) region of the Ti-plasmid into nuclear DNA of host plants to induce the formation of tumors (crown galls). (elsevier.com)
  • In this article, we demonstrate that A. tumefaciens enhances the production of both IAA and phenylacetic acid (PAA), another auxin which does not show polar transport characteristics, in the formation of crown galls. (elsevier.com)
  • From these results, we conclude that A. tumefaciens enhances biosynthesis of two distinct auxins in the formation of crown galls. (elsevier.com)
  • investigated auxin biosynthesis during the formation of crown galls by Agrobacterium tumefaciens . (plantae.org)
  • My lab was involved in the genetic/physically mapping and sequencing of the A. tumefaciens C58 genome (Goodner et al. (google.com)
  • To better understand polar growth in the Rhizobiales Agrobacterium tumefaciens , we first surveyed its genome to identify homologs of (~70) well-known PG synthesis components. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen with the unique ability to transfer a defined segment of DNA to eukaryotes, where it integrates into the eukaryotic genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Analysis of the genome sequence and of transcription via reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) combined with transposon gene disruptions revealed that ZntA-4200 and the transcriptional regulator ZntR1 played important roles in the zinc homeostasis of A. tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. (rti.org)
  • An earlier version of pGreenII was reported to be unstable, whereby it acquired DNA from the genome of E. coli prior to transfer of plasmid into A. tumefaciens ( Hellens and Mullineaux 2000 ). (g3journal.org)
  • [11] A later study suggested that Agrobacterium attaches to and genetically transforms several types of human cells by integrating its T-DNA into the human cell genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens constructs an ecological niche in its host plant by transferring the T-DNA from its Ti plasmid into the host genome and by diverting the host metabolism. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Octopine Ti-plasmid deletion mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on the right side of the T-region. (cellartis.com)
  • Two pantothenate-requiring mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens have been isolated. (unl.edu)
  • Several Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains have been isolated for their ability to produce D-amino acids from D, L-substituted hydantoins. (openthesis.org)
  • Non- Agrobacterium strains have been isolated from environmental samples which harbour a Ri-plasmid whilst laboratory studies have shown that non- Agrobacterium strains can also harbour a Ti-plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. tumef aciens C58 is the most heavily studied member of the genus Agrobacterium . (google.com)
  • Nomenclatural type of the genus Agrobacterium Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980) . (dsmz.de)
  • Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors in plants . (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Agrobacterium is quite heterogeneous . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using A. tumefaciens and the binary vector method, you can transform various plants for infection (transfection) experiments. (cellartis.com)
  • The two A. tumefaciens strains most extensively studied induce tumors that produce nopaline or octopine opines. (asm.org)
  • The wide variety of plants affected by Agrobacterium makes it of great concern to the agriculture industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, until about 20 years ago, it was generally believed that monocotyledons could not be transformed by Agrobacterium, because these plants are outside the host range of crown gall disease caused by this bacterium. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because the osa-encoded product has close homologies to the fiwA-encoded product of the IncP plasmid RP1, osa may be involved in fertility inhibition that would prevent or reduce the formation of stable mating pairs and T-DNA transfer between A. tumefaciens and plants. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a bacterium which, with the help of the Ti megaplasmid, manipulates plants into providing it with a safe and nutritious environment. (splasho.com)
  • When plants are being grafted en masse in nurseries, precautions against crown gall infection are essential. (northernwoodlands.org)
  • Ashby AM, Watson MD, Loake GJ, Shaw CH (1988) Ti plasmid-specified chemotaxis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58C 1 toward vir -inducing phenolic compounds and soluble factors from monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. (springer.com)
  • that allow propagation in Escherichia coli , wherein DNA can be readily cloned and manipulated between the borders of the T-DNA, prior to transfer into A. tumefaciens and finally plants ( Bevan 1984 ). (g3journal.org)
  • A. tumefaciens causes crown gall disease in many different plants. (gettyimages.com.au)
  • Agrobacterium is well known for its ability to transfer DNA between itself and plants, and for this reason it has become an important tool for genetic engineering . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although generally seen as an infection in plants, Agrobacterium can be responsible for opportunistic infections in humans with weakened immune systems , [9] [10] but has not been shown to be a primary pathogen in otherwise healthy individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The researchers used Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Section 15.7) to deliver a mammalian gene into poplar plants. (bartleby.com)
  • In: Wang K (ed) Methods in molecular biology, Agrobacterium protocols, vol 343, vol 1. (springer.com)
  • Bozsó, Zoltán 2018-02-22 00:00:00 Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a widely used microbial tool in plant molecular biology to transfer DNA into plant cells and produce, e.g., stable or transient transformants or induce gene silencing. (deepdyve.com)
  • This paper presents recent information on the biology of Agrobacterium tumefaciens , and outlines techniques for isolating and studying the bacterium. (ucanr.edu)
  • Written by leading experts and highlighting recent advances, this volume serves both as an introduction to Agrobacterium biology for students as well as a more comprehensive text for research scientists. (springer.com)
  • Gel electrophoresis allowed the detection of plasmids in bacteria at this time, and scientists attempted to isolate them from Agrobacterium. (splasho.com)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens Bacteria. (gettyimages.com.au)
  • Many bacteria, including Agrobacterium tumefaciens, rely on an asymmetric localization, distribution, and orientation of specific appendages when interacting with potential hosts and with their environment. (grantome.com)
  • The specificity of the primers designed in Agrobacterium tumefaciens bacteria containing pCAMBIA1305.2 plasmid and negative control samples was evaluated. (ac.ir)
  • Thus, A. tumefaciens has been critical for the development of modern plant genetics and agricultural biotechnology. (sciencemag.org)
  • Canfield, M.L. & Moore, L.W. 1991 Isolation and characterization of opine-utilizing strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and fluorescent strains of Pseudomonas spp. (wiley.com)
  • Preliminary evidence on three strains of A. tumefaciens showed that neither the production of N ⁶-Δ² -isopentenyladenine or zeatin correlated with the presence of the tumor-inducing plasmid. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The IncW plasmid pSa originally derived from Shigella flexneri completely inhibits the tumor-inducing ability of Agrobacterium tumefaciens when it is resident in this organism. (asm.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a gall tumor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Several loci on the tumor-inducing plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens were transcriptionally activated in the presence of wounded plant tissue or extracts. (elsevier.com)
  • Intramolekularna rekombinacija u bakterijama Escherichia coli i Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Diplomski rad). (unizg.hr)
  • Intramolekularna rekombinacija u bakterijama Escherichia coli i Agrobacterium tumefaciens', Diplomski rad, Sveučilište u Zagrebu, Prirodoslovno-matematički fakultet, citirano: 28.01.2020. (unizg.hr)
  • Ovim radom željeli smo ispitati efikasnost intramolekularne rekombinacije u bakteriji Agrobacterium tumefaciens, te je usporediti s onom u bakterije Escherichia coli. (unizg.hr)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a widespread naturally occurring soil bacterium that causes crown gall, and has the ability to introduce new genetic material into the plant cell (Gelvin, 2003). (nepad-abne.net)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative soil bacterium that causes plant tumours by transferring a portion of DNA from a resident 'tumour inducing' (Ti) plasmid into plant cells where it is integrated into a plant chromosome and expressed. (wiley.com)
  • Dong, L.-C. , Sun, C.-W. , Thies, K.L. , Luthe, D.S. & Graves, C.H. Jr 1992 Use of polymerase chain reaction to detect pathogenic strains of Agrobacterium . (wiley.com)
  • The expression of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was delivered with high efficiency to maize calli, roots and shoots by A. tumefaciens carrying the GUS gene was observed. (plymouth.ac.uk)
  • Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Nucleotide sequence and analysis of the plant-inducible locus pinF from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. (elsevier.com)
  • A. tumefaciens causes typical crown-gall diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Crown gall, the common name for Agrobacterium tumefaciens , is one of the most famous plant diseases in the world. (northernwoodlands.org)
  • Transgene expression using the phytopathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been shown to promote the genetic modification of non-plant cells. (cdc.gov)
  • A. tumefaciens is an alphaproteobacterium of the family Rhizobiaceae, which includes the nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro adherence assays demonstrated that the cell wall material from STS-derived embryos provide a better substratum for adherence of Agrobacterium . (springer.com)
  • The starting materials, incubation time, induction medium type, Agrobacterium cell density, and method of co-incubation were optimized for deletion of 1,3,8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, a gene in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, as a test case. (apsnet.org)
  • After 14 days and 21 days on callus induction medium, callus-derived staminodes were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens on semi-solid co-cultivation media for one, two, or three days with various temperatures (19°C, 21°C, 23°C, and 25°C) and pHs (4.8, 5.3, and 5.8). (ums.edu.my)
  • A. tumefaciens binds to abiotic and biotic surfaces in a polar orientation and is known to elaborate polar flagella, pili, and a type IV secretion system. (grantome.com)
  • In the presence of opines, A. tumefaciens produces a diffusible conjugation signal called 30C8HSL or the Agrobacterium autoinducer[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium strains were attracted to several opines tested. (illinois.edu)
  • In the presence of opines , A. tumefaciens produces a diffusible conjugation signal called 30C8HSL or the Agrobacterium autoinducer. (hitchhikersgui.de)