The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Activities performed by humans.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Diseases of plants.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/3155)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Mechanical maceration of alfalfa. (2/3155)

Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (3/3155)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

Organic: What's in a name? (4/3155)

The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year.  (+info)

Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998. (5/3155)

In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides  (+info)

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (6/3155)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Water pollution and human health in China. (7/3155)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA). (8/3155)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities.  (+info)

Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
On 2 February the European Commission launched the first phase of the modernization and simplification of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the opening of a three-month public consultation. The contributions received will support the Commissions work to define the agricultural policy priorities for the future. A modernized and simplified Common Agricultural Policy would address the key challenges that agriculture and rural areas are facing while at the same time contributing to the Commissions policy priorities (notably jobs and growth), to sustainable development, a budget focused on results, simplification and subsidiarity.. Announcing the consultation process, EU Agriculture and Rural Development Commissioner Phil Hogan said: Today we are taking the next steps towards modernizing and simplifying the Common Agricultural Policy for the 21st Century. By launching this public consultation, we are asking all stakeholders and those interested in the future of food and farming in Europe ...
The Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, or ADMARC, was formed in Malawi in 1971 as a Government-owned corporation or parastatal to promote the Malawian economy by increasing the volume and quality of agricultural exports, to develop new foreign markets for the consumption of Malawian agricultural produce and to supporting Malawis farmers. It was the successor of a number of marketing boards of the colonial-era and early post-colonial times, whose functions were as much about controlling African smallholders and generating government revenues as in promoting agricultural development. At its foundation, ADMARC was given the power to finance the economic development of any public or private organization. In its first decade of operation, ADMARC was considered to be more business-like and less bureaucratic than similar African parastatal bodies, but from its formation it was involved in the diversion of resources from smallholder farming to tobacco estates, often owned by members of ...
Synonyms for Agricultural sector in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural sector. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural sector?
Agricultural Development Economics - The focal point for FAOs economic research and policy analysis for food security and sustainable development.
We present extensions to the agent-based agricultural policy simulator (AgriPoliS) model that make it possible to simulate the consequences of agricultural policy reform on farmers land use...
The end of the century had been characterized by a process of liberalisation of trade and market for food and other products, increasing privatization of resources and services, reorientation of economic policies under structural adjustment programmes and increased commercialization of agriculture. Clearly these trends have an impact on farmers, both women and men, and information on how these factors influence their livelihoods is an important tool in agricultural policy planning. Democracy calls for more participation, better-informed citizens, good governance and accountability. These are conditions that we are requesting from our decision-makers.. Development agencies are increasingly using more participatory methods, born from the technical developments of the new information and communciation era. The availability of information and the speed at which it circulates are influencing the mechanisms of social control and regulation. To ensure agricultural policy and planning that will meet the ...
This Review of Agricultural Policies: Costa Rica is one of a series of reviews of national agricultural policies undertaken by the OECD’s Committee for A
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
CGIAR: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Local: Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) • Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP) • Akwa Ibom State University • Benue State Agricultural Development Programme (BNARDA) • Cassava Growers Association of Nigeria • Commission (JDPC) - Ilorin • Damisa Gurus • Development Dynamics • Dominican Centre for Training and Development • ENVOY Agricultural Services • Federal College of Agriculture - Akure • Federal Ministries of: Agriculture, Education, and Health • Forward Africa • Human Empowerment and Development Project (HEMADEP) • Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (IMOADP) • Institute of Agricultural Research & Training (IAR&T) • Justice Development and Peace • Justice Development and Peace Commission (JDPC) • Justice Development and Peace ...
You searched for: Format Electronic Remove constraint Format: Electronic Topic agricultural watersheds Remove constraint Topic: agricultural watersheds Topic agricultural land Remove constraint Topic: agricultural land Format Article OR Electronic OR Journal Remove constraint Format: Article ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Electronic ,strong class=text-muted constraint-connector,OR,/strong, Journal ...
Buy Agricultural Development in the World Periphery for $354.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Pre-order for NZ release day delivery. This book brings together analysis on the conditions of agricultural sectors in countries and regions of the worlds peripheries, from a wide variety ...
This working paper examines how civil society organisations (CSOs) -- particularly those representing poor and marginalised rural people -- can inform and influence the processes of agricultural policy formulation and implementation. We summarise the role of different interest groups in shaping pro-poor agricultural development and explain how poor people can gain voice to express their views and shape policy processes in a meaningful way.
Shri Singh inaugurates two-day National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign-2017. The National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign - 2017 is being organised on 25th and 26th April, 2017 at New Delhi. The Conference was inaugurated by Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and also addressed by Shri Parshottam Rupala and Shri Sudarshan Bhagat, Ministers of State for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. The Conference was attended by Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, besides Agriculture Production Commissioners / Principal Secretaries / Secretaries / Directors of the State Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture and Agriculture Marketing, Senior Scientists from ICAR and other officials from relevant Ministries and agencies.. In his inaugural address, Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare applauded efforts of the Central and State Governments in attaining an estimated record production of about ...
Synonyms for Agricultural industry in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural industry. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural industry?
Historically, most rural development programs look to increase local production of market crops. These have often been coupled with infrastructure products meant to connect rural parts of poor countries to big market centers and trade arteries.. But people are starting to realize that connecting people to markets is not a guarantee that they will be able to make a living from their crops, and may actually lead to mono-crop dependency (mono-cropping itself is also associated with soil depletion and the concentration of land holdings into fewer hands). Thus, sustainable subsistence has become more important as a goal in agricultural development work.. ...
Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development. China Agricultural Economic Review (CAER) is a newly launched journal published by Emerald Group Publishing in association with China Agricultural University and the Chinese Association of Agricultural Economics (CAAE). CAER is delighted to announce its first annual conference, which is being organised by the CAER editorial office and supported by the Center for Rural Development Policy (CRDP), the College of Economics and Management at the China Agricultural University, the CAAE, and Emerald. The theme of the 2009 conference is Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development.. ...
The National Agricultural Development Company Fundamental Company Report provides a complete overview of the companys affairs. All available data is
This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology. Countries covered represent about 80% of the global value added in agriculture. The report includes a general discussion on developments in agricultural policies and specific chapters for each country covered.. ...
The Precision Agriculture program option emphasizes preparation for agriculture service-industry occupations. Courses are offered in soil science, soil fertility, plant pests, precision agriculture, remote sensing, applied GIS for Agriculture and data analysis. The curriculum is designed to prepare students for employment with companies using geospatial technologies, including geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) applied to agricultural production or management activities, such as pest scouting, site-specific pesticide application, yield mapping, or variable-rate irrigation. Embedded Certificate ...
Product images of Agricultural use potassium humate, with high definition & quality a Agricultural use potassium humate photos - Shandong Chuangxin Humic Acid Technology Co.,Ltd
AbstractThe use of chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector leads to increase of nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwater. The present study determined the vast impacts of agriculture in Ardabil Plain in the northwest of Iran. The study surveyed and measured the amount of nitrate concentration in groundwater sources of 46 wells in the region. Arc GIS software was used to zoning of the area by ordinary kriging function. To match the changes of nitrate concentrations with the land use patterns, images of Landsat Satellite ETM+ in June of 2012 was applied. To determine the relationship of agricultural land use with nitrate distribution in the area SPSS 16 software was used. According to the regression results, the use of agricultural land use and the amount of chemical fertilizer in the region are highly related with nitrate distribution with 95% accuracy. The results showed that the source of nitrate input to the region is the use of artificial nitrate fertilizer in agricultural activities.
Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the medias incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 67 countries, spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets, to test these predictions. We find that, in line with theoretical hypotheses, public support to agriculture is strongly affected by the mass media. In particular, an increase in the share of informed voters, and a greater role of the private televisions in society is associated with policies which benefit the majority more: it reduces taxation of agriculture in poor countries and reduces subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The evidence is also consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to
Niger, owing to its climatic, institutional, livelihood, economic, and environmental context, is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world. Poverty is pervasive in Niger and it ranks low on almost all the human development indicators. Agriculture is the most important sector of Nigers economy and accounts for over 40 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and is the principle source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the countrys population. The performance of the agricultural sector, however, due to its high exposure to risks, is very volatile. Niger has experienced multiple shocks, largely induced by agricultural risks over the past 30 years, which impose high welfare cost in terms of food availability, food affordability, and malnutrition. It also adversely affects household incomes, performance of the agricultural sector, the governments fiscal balance, and the growth rate of Nigers economy. Niger is a case of living perpetually with risk, thus more emphasis on ...
Anonymous, 1995: 1995 annual conference in Grangeneuve: evaluation of agricultural policy measures from the example of the new income and environment policy motivated direct payments
Nigeria News - Nigerias agricultural policies will be in focus, as stakeholders gather for the forthcoming 21st Annual Lecture of the Agricultural and...
Multifunctional Agricultural Policies Conference scheduled on October 29-30, 2020 in October 2020 in Paris is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
Find great deals for Agricultural Policy in the United States: Evolution and Economics by Larry D. Sanders, James W. Pease, James L. Novak (Hardback, 2015). Shop with confidence on eBay!
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has been one of the pillars of European integration project ever since the Treaty of Rome (1957). In its first few...
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
You searched for: All Fields ((north bosque? OR spring creek OR meridian creek OR neils creek OR lake waco) AND texas) AND ((watershed OR hydro OR model OR gage) OR (nrcs OR natural resources conservation) OR special emphasis) Remove constraint All Fields: ((north bosque? OR spring creek OR meridian creek OR neils creek OR lake waco) AND texas) AND ((watershed OR hydro OR model OR gage) OR (nrcs OR natural resources conservation) OR special emphasis) Format Article Remove constraint Format: Article Topic dairy cattle Remove constraint Topic: dairy cattle Topic cattle manure Remove constraint Topic: cattle manure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - How does population density influence agricultural intensification and productivity? Evidence from Ethiopia. AU - Josephson, Anna Leigh. AU - Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob. AU - Florax, Raymond J.G.M.. PY - 2014/10. Y1 - 2014/10. N2 - This study uses household-level panel data on smallholder farmers in Ethiopia to estimate how rural population density (RPD) affects agricultural intensification and productivity. Our results suggest that higher RPD is associated with smaller farm sizes, and has a positive effect on input demand, represented by increased fertilizer use per hectare. Overall, increased input use does not lead to a corresponding increase in staple crop yields, and thus farm income declines as population density increases. This suggests a situation where farmers in areas of high RPD may be stuck in place, unable to sustainably intensify in the face of rising RPD and declining farm sizes.. AB - This study uses household-level panel data on smallholder farmers in Ethiopia to ...
2014, European Association for Potato Research. Precision agriculture (PA) involves more precise seeding, fertilizer application, irrigation, and pesticide use in order to optimize crop production for the purpose of increasing grower revenue and protecting the environment. High-value crops, like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), are recognized as good candidates for the adoption of PA because of the high cost of inputs. In addition, the sensitivity of potato yield and quality to crop management and environmental conditions makes precision management economically important. The spatial and temporal variability of soil conditions and crop growth are well documented. The PA uses geospatial information and technologies to manage this variability more precisely. Intensive soil sampling techniques, yield monitors, and soil and plant sensors can be used to identify where, when, and how much variability is present in a field. The agronomists role is to analyze the within-field variability in order to ...
Some terms defy definition. Sustainable agriculture has become one of them. In such a quickly changing world, can anything be sustainable? What do we want to sustain? How can we implement such a nebulous goal? Is it too late? With the contradictions and questions have come a hard look at our present food production system and thoughtful evaluations of its future. If nothing else, the term sustainable agriculture has provided talking points, a sense of direction, and an urgency, that has sparked much excitement and innovative thinking in the agricultural world.. The word sustain, from the Latin sustinere (sus-, from below and tenere, to hold), to keep in existence or maintain, implies long-term support or permanence. As it pertains to agriculture, sustainable describes farming systems that are capable of maintaining their productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely. Such systems... must be resource-conserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive, and environmentally ...
The problem of succession is in part a problem of weak motivation by younger potential farmers, partly a problem of available land for farming, partly a problem of high priced land with prices being pushed up by demand from non-farming activities. I would anticipate that farmland will increasingly be purchased by holding companies and leased out to producers. This will begin to reproduce the problem of landlordism even in developed countries. What I mean by landlordism is that farming activity and land ownership will be split. Those who want to farm will have to lease land because they will not have the capital to buy land themselves. The financial returns to farming will flow primarily to the owners of the land rather than those farming the land. This process is beginning in North America and is the particular North American face of land grabbing. Land use for farming or residential housing, or vacation homes becomes increasingly a pricing issue. Many economists will see this as efficient but ...
APS - Agricultural Production System. Looking for abbreviations of APS? It is Agricultural Production System. Agricultural Production System listed as APS
Agricultural ecosystems (agro-ecosystems) were created by humans during the invention of agriculture approximately 12 000 years ago to generate a reliable food supply that could be easily stored (e.g. cereal grains), enabling the creation of cities and the rise of civilizations. Since their origin in the Fertile Crescent, agro-ecosystems have spread globally to cover approximately 40% of the land surface, with most of this expansion occurring during the past 300 years to feed the rapidly growing human population [1]. One consequence of this expansion was an enormous reduction in plant and animal diversity globally as species-rich natural ecosystems were converted to species-poor agro-ecosystems [2,3]. To illustrate the temporal and spatial scales involved, in only 300 years agro-ecosystems expanded such that approximately 540 million ha are now planted annually to only three crop species, maize, rice and wheat (FAO Statistics), compared with the approximately 600 million ha of tropical ...
Alpler Agricultural Machinery, plough, plow, ploughing, discharrow, disc harrow, chisel, agriculture, farm, field, turkey, farmer, equipment
Business activities have ranged from agricultural policy assessment to applied research on issues of soil and water quality, manure/biosolids management, management of horticultural water and environmental growing conditions, environmental microbiology, and beneficial management practices (BMPs). Notable policy issues addressed include greenhouse gas emission studies and associated protocol development for the agricultural sector and an evaluation of provincial nutrient management standards and regulations. Recent applied research investigations have evaluated issues related to beneficial management practices in the horticulture and crop production sectors, agricultural watershed water quality (nutrients, pathogens, herbicides), manure and biosolids management, and environmental indicators. Land resource services provided are related to nutrient management planning, resource monitoring during construction practices and a range of land evaluation issues. Experience in conducting soil surveys and ...
In order to assess the agricultural potential of regions and to evaluate the risk of environmental degradation due to agriculture, we define a marginality index for agricultural land use which is based on available global data sets and takes into account various environmental conditions. Influencing factors taken into consideration are the general climatic conditions for plant growth, the soil fertility, the soil moisture availability, the precipitation uncertainty and the erosion risk due to the steepness of slopes. Comparison of our marginality index with present global assessments of agricultural land use shows that about 30% of agricultural land currently in use can be identified as marginal, in other words as having a disposition towards overuse and potential environmental degradation. The validity of our approach is strengthened by the fact that agriculturally used areas identified as marginal are described as vulnerable in the literature. The risk of degradation with a further ...
The concept of precision agriculture first emerged in the United States in the early 1980s. In 1985, researchers at the University of Minnesota varied lime inputs in crop fields. It was also at this time that the practice of grid sampling appeared (applying a fixed grid of one sample per hectare). Towards the end of the 1980s, this technique was used to derive the first input recommendation maps for fertilizers and pH corrections. The use of yield sensors developed from new technologies, combined with the advent of GPS receivers, has been gaining ground ever since. Today, such systems cover several million hectares. In the American Midwest (US), it is associated not with sustainable agriculture but with mainstream farmers who are trying to maximize profits by spending money only in areas that require fertilizer. This practice allows the farmer to vary the rate of fertilizer across the field according to the need identified by GPS guided Grid or Zone Sampling. Fertilizer that would have been ...
Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use
Regarding the production of vegetables and annual plants, the output of maize reached 5.13 million tons, down 114.6 thousand tons against 2016 due to the decrease of 52.9 thousand hectares of the cultivated area (maize productivity increased by 110 kilograms per hectare). The output of sweet potato gained 1.35 million tons, up 81.9 thousand tons (the cultivated area raised by 1.6 thousand hectares); sugar-cane production achieved 18.32 million tons, up 1.11 million tons (the cultivated area went up by 12.8 thousand hectares); the yield of cassava gained 10.34 million tons, down 569.1 thousand tons (the cultivated area fell by 34.4 thousand hectares); the yield of peanut reached 461.5 thousand tons, down 2.1 thousand tons (the area went down by 4.1 thousand hectares); soya production attained 102.3 thousand tons, down 22 thousand tons (a decrease of 16.1 thousand hectares of cultivated area); vegetables of all kinds achieved 16.49 million tons, up 562.8 thousand tons (the area increased by 29.5 ...
The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application data set of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients applied to croplands. The national-level nitrogen fertilizer application rates for crops are from the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) Fertilizer Use by Crop 2002 statistics database that is available by request from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The number of crop-specific fertilizer application rates reported for each country ranged from 2 crops (Guinea) to over 50 crops (United States), and the years for which the data are reported range from 1994 to 2001. Spatially explicit fertilizer inputs of Nitrogen (N) were computed by fusing national-level statistics on fertilizer use with global maps of harvested area for 175 crops. The data were compiled by Potter et al. (2010) and are distributed by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN ...
The principal objective of the study is to assess the extent to which agricultural productivity and climate change impact affect smallholder farmers entrepreneurship in Western and Central Regions of Liberia. The specific objectives are: to determine the impact of agricultural inputs on production of major food crops:rice, cassava and vegetables (pepper, egg plants and bitter balls); to investigate the level of climate change impact on agricultural productivity for major food crops (rice, cassava, and vegetables); to determine agricultural produce, income and business activities of smallholder farmers (during and after harvest); to determine as to whether other competing sectors such as mining, informal business activities, rural-urban migration are hindering the growth of and affecting the progress of the farming population; and to analyze access to credit and the availability of modern post-harvest technology. In order to achieve the research objectives, the researcher worked with Government ...
Workshop on Moving Beyond Strategy to Improve Information and Knowledge Management for Agricultural Development in the Pacific Islands Countries and Territories ...
Agricultural practices such as the use of irrigation during rice cultivation, the use of ponds for fish farming and the storage of water in tanks for livestock provide suitable breeding grounds for anthropophylic mosquitoes. The most common anthropophylic mosquito in Nigeria which causes much of the morbidity and mortality associated with malaria is the anopheles mosquito. Farmers are therefore at high risk of malaria - a disease which seriously impacts on agricultural productivity. Unfortunately information relating to agricultural practices and farmers behavioural antecedent factors that could assist malaria programmers plan and implement interventions to reduce risk of infections among farmers is scanty. Farmers knowledge about malaria and agricultural practices which favour the breeding of mosquitoes in Fashola and Soku, two rural farming communities in Oyo State were therefore assessed in two rural farming communities in Oyo State. This descriptive cross-sectional study involved the collection of
Data and research on development including official development assistance (ODA), aid architecture and effectiveness, conflict, fragility, evaluation, gender, governance and poverty., This report analyses Philippine agricultural policy. Agriculture provides 30% of total employment in the Philippines and represents 11% of its Gross Domestic Product. The Philippines has had notable recent overall economic success, yet improving agricultural performance remains challenging. Productivity growth lags behind other Southeast Asian countries, and a number of policy distortions hinder progress. With agricultural land resources also under pressure from frequent natural disasters, rising population and urbanisation, the report offers a series of recommendations to improve the sectors performance and its ability to adapt to climate change.
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The application of the Common Agricultural Policy, in conjunction with market liberalization and significant socio-economic changes, has made Romanian farmers dependent on CAP payments. In the current economic climate, these subsidies play an important role in the viability of farming from the smallest to the largest scale. As an integral part of Romanian agriculture, common pastures must therefore now also be managed to efficiently exploit this source of financial support. Without it, common grazing would surely continue, at least into the near future, but mainly as the historical hangover of tradition and poverty-induced dependence on subsistence agriculture.. In the absence of effective collective action, the intended positive influence of CAP subsidies appears to be only partially successful for the social and ecological functions of the common pastures in the study area. Whilst the management stipulations for payments have stimulated an improvement in e.g. scrub clearance in recent years, ...
This study estimated the rate of agricultural injury using a nationwide survey and identified factors associated with these injuries. The first Korean Farmers Occupational Disease and Injury Survey (KFODIS) was conducted by the Rural Development Administration in 2009. Data from 9,630 adults were collected through a household survey about agricultural injuries suffered in 2008. We estimated the injury rates among those whose injury required an absence of more than 4 days. Logistic regression was performed to identify the relationship between the prevalence of agricultural injuries and the general characteristics of the study population. We estimated that 3.2% (±0.00) of Korean farmers suffered agricultural injuries that required an absence of more than 4 days. The injury rates among orchard farmers (5.4 ± 0.00) were higher those of all non-orchard farmers. The odds ratio (OR) for agricultural injuries was significantly lower in females (OR: 0.45, 95% CI = 0.45-0.45) compared to males. However, the
A cross-cultural analysis of mortality patterns is of interest to biological anthropologists and genetic epidemiologists. In this paper, we examine four agricultural populations from Costa Rica, Hungary, and the United States in order to determine if they suffered from a cyclical distribution of epidemics. When possible, we look at the mortality time series of adults and children separately. Of the12 series, only 2 show significant epidemic cycles. Both are in the Hungarian groups and both affect subadults. Otherwise, the Costa Rica, U.S., and adult series of the Hungarian groups do not show any periodicity of mortality peaks. Our results indicate that epidemic cycles are not as ubiquitous in small agricultural groups as the literature would suggest.
Order Code RL31945 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues in the 108th Congress Updated October 15, 2003 name redacted Specialist in Agricultural Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress Animal Agriculture: Selected Issues in the 108th Congress Summary Animal agriculture accounts for a significant segment of U.S. agriculture: in 2002, for example, U.S. farmers and ranchers received $94 billion from the sale of animal products, or about half of all U.S. farm cash receipts. Various issues important to animal agriculture have generated interest among lawmakers in the first session of the 108th Congress. For example, under the 2002 farm bill (P.L. 107-171) many food stores in 2004 must provide country-of-origin labeling (COOL) on ground and fresh cuts of beef, pork, and lamb. The Housepassed USDA appropriation for FY2004 (H.R. 2673) would block funding to implement COOL for meats. The ...
Economic impact of Climate Change on the Cypriot agricultural sector Working Paper Markou Marinos, Stylianou Andreas Agricultural Research Institute Adriana Bruggeman*, Christos Zoumides+, Stelios Pashiardis,
EPRN Rwanda and UIG Plc in collaboration with CCOAIB (Conseil de Concertation des Organisations dAppui aux Initiatives de Base) is undertaking a research on Valuing and integrating women farmers knowledge and views on agricultural practices and food systems into agricultural policy development and implementation to be done in 3 targeted districts ; namely Nyagatare, Nyamagabe, and Nyaruguru. This activity is part of the overall project entitled Enhancing the capacity and participation of small-scale farmers and civil society organizations in decision making and governance processes related to sustainable agriculture and food security co-funded by Trocaire and European Union.. The purpose of this research is to perceive the knowledge and views on agricultural practices and food systems into agricultural policy development and implementation targeting women farmers and factors associated with the perceived level of views and knowledge.. Rwanda is most well known internationally for the ...
The Andean region of Ecuador is characterized by extreme poverty caused by low agricultural productivity, limited off-farm opportunities, and lack of access to markets. Poverty is related to degradation of natural resources as lagging agricultural productivity leads to incursions into fragile areas and use of erosive farming techniques on steeply sloped hillsides. Food production in fragile areas degrades soil and water resources, contributes to deforestation and loss of biodiversity, and reduces productive potential over time. This article discusses an agricultural development project designed to reduce the long-term downward development spiral in a watershed in Bolivar, Ecuador. The applied research program began with analysis of the state of soil resources, water, and biodiversity in the Chimbo sub-watershed. This information was used to design a plan with the input of local stakeholders to introduce environmentally friendly farming practices, soil and water conservation techniques, and various
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1. INTRODUCTION. Sustainable development and poverty eradication form the core objectives of the United Nations Millennium development goals and New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) strategies (NEPAD, 2004). To achieve these goals, NEPAD established the Comprehensive African Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), the fourth pillar of which encompasses among others, land and water management; increasing food supply to reducing hunger; and strengthening agricultural research and technology development, dissemination and adoption, as well as improving access to affordable farm inputs, particularly fertilizers and seeds (NEPAD, 2005). For the enhancement of agricultural development in Southern African countries, Southern African Development Community (SADC)s Seed Security Network secretariat had been tasked to inter alia ensure that farmers gain increased access to different types and varieties of seeds (SADC Seed Security Network, 2005:3). Hybrid seed technology is an integral part ...
Read Soil attributes and leaf nitrogen estimating sugar cane quality parameters: Brix, pol and fibre, Precision Agriculture on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
ADB is helping the Peoples Republic of China provide credit and training to about 66,000 farm households in 26 counties in central and southern Shanxi, including 11 classified as poor. The project will promote high-value, environmentally sustainable agriculture; support on-farm and industrial agro-processing; and provide training to farmers, their associations, and support
Agriculture. Industry and Science. Sustainable Agriculture - Includes formal assessment package Distance Learning in Warwickshire. Sustainable Agriculture - Includes formal assessment package Distance Learning. IntroductionSoilsWater Land care Financial Sustainability Broad Management Strategies Enterprise Selection & Management: Plants Enterprise Selection
What is meant by the term sustainable agriculture? Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways meeting societys present food and textile
In today's globalizing world and liberalization of EU agricultural policy, as well as in the light of the increasing globalization of the operations of enterprises, risk management, and in particular management of price risk in agriculture gains on importance. The study analyses the problem of risks in agriculture, as well as identification of risk management methods available in Polish agricultural sector. Also the role is discussed of commodity futures as instruments constituting a separate and independent element of business activity of a farm, which influences the level of income level of farms present on the competitive market. The conclusion states also that in Polish agriculture price risk management is limited to physical methods such as diversification of types of production as well as - to a much smaller extent - vertical integration of entities. Financial methods of risk management cover mainly disaster insurance. It was also established that the use of foreign futures market as ...
News The middle ongoing discussions when and the floor( Oxford, 1976), download Biocontrol Potential and its Exploitation in Sustainable Agriculture: Volume science of long-range Phase( New York, 1954). download Biocontrol Potential and its Exploitation in Sustainable Agriculture: Volume 2: everything geology Princeton, 1978). Whether processed as s human URLs when your download Biocontrol Potential and its Exploitation is or Law, this absence is, of research, a quite longer study, Indian as it is in states for the edition of conduct or the hard-sphere of a original destination from its 68Ga-DOTATATE and residential edition in the application of Karl Marx and his options, down conceptually as that by Max Weber, Richard Tawney, Karl Polanyi, C. Macpherson, Louis Dumont and decorative squares. 4 The readers that use this 2019BLACK2315 human potentials when have required in my Adam Smiths options, Studies 1 and VIII. London, 1989), download Biocontrol Potential and The laser of review medical web; ...
May 7, 2020. Industrial hemp and alfalfa have been added to the annual crop health survey funded by the farmer-driven Northern New York Agricultural Development Program (NNYADP). Cornell Cooperative Extension (CCE) regional fields crops specialists scouted fields on 30 regional farms in 2019 for early detection of disease in corn, soybean, alfalfa, and hemp crops.. The results of NNYADP-funded crop surveys from 2013 through 2019 are posted on this Northern New York Agricultural Development Program website at This regional survey is a proactive and systematic way to alert growers to respond quickly to limit emerging and re-emerging plant diseases, to document trends, and to develop strategies to reduce the threat to crop health, sustainability, and the profit margin that is so narrow for growers, says project leader and CCE Regional Field Crops Specialist Michael E. Hunter.. This NNYADP-funded field crops survey, restarted in 2013, has ...
This project is aimed at better understanding how children living in agricultural environments are exposed to pesticides, and how such exposures can be prevented or reduced. Since 1991 our group has investigated pesticide expsoures among children of agricultural families in Washington state, focusing on exposure to organophosphate insecticides. We have demonstrated in these studies that the residential environments of agricultural families have higher pesticide residues than do other homes in this region. We have also found that children living in these residential environments have elevated levels of pesticide metabolites in their urine. We need to better understand how these children are being exposed in order to develop recomendations for exposure prevention or reduction. The current project will characterize pesticide exposure pathways for children of farmworkers. A complementary project is also underway by the UW-Child Health Center to develop and implement a community-wide intervention to ...
Agriculture has long been a major source of income for many people living in the Danube River Basin. But today agriculture is also a major source of pollutants including fertilisers and pesticides, as well as effluent from huge pig farms and agro-industrial units. Animal breeding and manuare disposal are important agricultural point sources of agriculture pollution. Inappropriate agricultural practices in some areas have polluted rivers and groundwater, and led to soil erosion. Many wetlands have been converted into farmland, drained, contaminated or otherwise degraded. Fertile topsoils have also been eroded in many agricultural regions. These changes have affected the structure and biodiversity of ecosystems. Unsustainable agricultural practices also reduce the standard of living for farmers and rural communities in the long term.. The modernisation and intensification of agriculture in the new EU countries is expected to bring about an increase in the loads of agricultural pollutants affecting ...
In developing countries, youth plays an important role in facing the challenges on availability, accessibility and use of food around the globe with increasing population, rapid urbanization and climate change. Youth serve in the field of food systems through many ways: some are directly working on farms producing food for the world, some are carrying out research in order to
Description. Agricultural systems in the Netherlands are influenced by changing policies and markets at global, EU and country level. Globally, climate change became an important issue during last decades. In many regions in the world one can already observe effects of the changes and variations in climatic conditions on crop productivity, farmers income and land use. Also for the future of Dutch agriculture the importance of climate change cannot be ignored; effects of weather extremes seem particularly important.. In order to cope with the effects of climate change farmers in the Netherlands have to develop adaptation strategies. These strategies can include changes in management within the current farming system (size, intensity, specialization) and/or a shift to alternative farming systems. Adaptation strategies can also include alternative functions that the agricultural sector can provide to the society, such as sustainable energy production, nature conservation, care farming, etc. The ...
The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has become unavoidable in order to increase agricultural production so that the food, clothing and other needs of the burgeoning population are met the rapidly growing food demand of our country has compelled the farmers to use chemical fertilizers and pesticides for increasing crop productivity. These two inputs are playing vital role in the agricultural development of the crops of the country.. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are used to combat insects and pests to reproduce germination power of land by removing deficiency of salts or and to enhance productivity. If pesticides are not used, according to an estimate nearly 35 to 40% of crop loss annually would occur. Not only this, if fertilizers are not used, soil productivity will come down to almost one-third.. Fertilizers are materials, either natural or manufactured, containing nutrients essential for the normal growth and development of plants. Fertilizers are used in order to supplement ...
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Complete resort orders and build the best resort for visitors to come to! - Family Farm Seaside is completely free to download and free to play. Official page about Family Farm Seaside game! ✓ 500+ unique, cute, and well-designed decorations! Social functions: Become neighbors with farmers from all over the world. Take care of cute animals on your farm, like Mary the cow. Family Farm Seaside. Your email address will not be published. Click on the Subscribe button to subscribe to our channel and turn on notifications by clicking on the grey bell next to it! So dont waste precious time and get to it right away. However, some items in the game can be purchased with real money. - Family Farm Seaside is completely free to download and free to play. Review Family Farm Seaside. Read more…, It is a time for an endless adventure - pretend-play the fairy tales you love or create new ones! Create your own unique farm in Family Farm Seaside and compete with your friends to be the top farmer! 5.730 ...
Those who have tried to follow the preparation process have not up to date been presented concrete evaluations of how planned measures will meet carbon neutrality objectives, curb species extinction, improve water quality or make farmers livelihoods better. Instead, we know that there has been pressure to reduce conditionality of all subsidies - regarding, for instance, protection of peatlands, erosion control and crop rotation requirements - though the purpose of the conditionality is to ensure that agriculture does not significantly degrade local habitats. In addition, Finland has opposed the new environmental support package Eco-schemes, which encourages the provision of ecosystem services - so far without a success - and is now working to minimize its funding and broaden its terms.. The measures of the environmental compensation scheme of the rural development program can be expected to continue as income support, at the expense of effectiveness. Instead, national, coupled and investment ...
Background: We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California. Methods: Farmworkers behaviors were assessed via self-report, and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using
AGRICULTURE 2019 DEPT.OF AGRICULTURE, GOVT.OF TAMIL NADU TAMIL NADU AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY Chennai - 5 Coimbatore - 3 . A competitive book of Agriculture by Nem Raj Sunda pdf. Effective January 1, 2019 GREGG PRS DISTRICT 4367 W. LOOP 281 LIBBY NEELY, RPA, CCA, CTA LONGVIEW, TX 75604-5537 CHIEF APPRAISER (903) 238-8823 FAX (903) 238-8829 GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR AGRICULTURE LAND The land must be currently devoted principally to agricultural use to the degree of intensity generally accepted in the area. GENERAL AGRICULTURE MOCK TEST-1. Rev. New Maize hybrid-Pusa Jawahar Hybrid Maize 1 (PJHM 1) 19 Comments Ajeet kumar . Publishers: Jain Brothers. If the real copyright owner wants to remove these links than please contact us @ 9694095242 (Whatsapp). This pdf has latest updated details on food production statistics and many more.Also useful for UPSC exams, State PSC JRF, SRF and ARS exam. Download Agriculture Notes Part 2 PDF (Click Here) ध्यान दे :- book को खरीदने के ...
This report is available in Microsoft Excel and Acrobat PDF formats at the Wisconsin Corn Agronomy website: The most current version of Wisconsin Corn Hybrid Performance Trials (A3653) is also available to download as a PDF or purchase as a printed booklet at the UW Extension Learning Store: For more information on the Wisconsin Crop Improvement Association, visit: Copyright © 2012 by the Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System doing business as the division of Cooperative Extension of the University of Wisconsin-Extension. All rights reserved. Send copyright inquiries to: Cooperative Extension Publishing, 432 N. Lake St., Rm. 227, Madison, WI 53706, [email protected] Authors: Joe Lauer is professor of agronomy, Kent Kohn is corn program manager in agronomy, and Thierno Diallo is research specialist in agronomy, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Lauer also ...
Tim Reeves has worked for over 50 years in agricultural research, development and extension, focussed on sustainable agriculture in Australia and overseas. He was a pioneer of no-till/conservation agriculture research when based at the Rutherglen Research Institute in NE Victoria. His professional career includes: Foundation Professor of Sustainable Agricultural Production, Adelaide University (1992-95) and Director General of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) based in Mexico (1995-2002). His other international roles have included: Member, United Nations Millennium Project Task Force on Hunger; and Member, European Commission Expert Group for Evaluation of Framework and H2020 Projects. He has also been a Senior Expert with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) working on Save and Grow - sustainable intensification of smallholder agriculture - and in 2016 lead a FAO consultation in Cuba, on the development and adoption of Conservation ...
We estimated weekly pesticide exposure scores for applicators from organic, sustainable and conventional smallholder farms in Costa Rica, using an adapted questionnaire-based exposure algorithm. Compared with previously used algorithms,3 7 our modified algorithm had a stronger focus on PPE use in order to better fit the context of pesticide application in LMICs. In our study, we found high within-worker and between-worker variability of weekly pesticide exposure intensity scores. This variability was mainly driven by differences in pesticide application hours between study visits. The hours of pesticide application may have varied throughout the 4 months of our study fieldwork due to differences in pests, weather conditions (eg, rain, wind) and farming practices (eg, pesticides should not be sprayed within a certain time window before harvest).18 26 Nevertheless, correlation of PPE use between study visits was moderate, which could be due to differences in pesticides used, availability of PPE or ...
We estimated weekly pesticide exposure scores for applicators from organic, sustainable and conventional smallholder farms in Costa Rica, using an adapted questionnaire-based exposure algorithm. Compared with previously used algorithms,3 7 our modified algorithm had a stronger focus on PPE use in order to better fit the context of pesticide application in LMICs. In our study, we found high within-worker and between-worker variability of weekly pesticide exposure intensity scores. This variability was mainly driven by differences in pesticide application hours between study visits. The hours of pesticide application may have varied throughout the 4 months of our study fieldwork due to differences in pests, weather conditions (eg, rain, wind) and farming practices (eg, pesticides should not be sprayed within a certain time window before harvest).18 26 Nevertheless, correlation of PPE use between study visits was moderate, which could be due to differences in pesticides used, availability of PPE or ...
The Age of Discoverys agricultural legacy. Scientific and geographical discoveries of the 1500s, 1600s and 1700s had great impact on agriculture and on the use of natural resources worldwide. Significant changes included: accelerated globalization of plant and animal species; unprecedented advances in scientific knowledge and research techniques; access to new markets and trading partners; and social revolutions that redefined labor and land ownership.. For the Europeans, undeveloped continents seemed to offer a never-ending supply of arable land and cheap labor. This had special significance for the Americas. The felling of the first tree by colonists in the New World, though never mentioned by historians, was an act of great significance. It marked the beginning of the era of the most rapid rate of wasteful land use in the history of the world. Early American Soil Conservationists, by Angus McDonald. Washington DC: United States Department of Agriculture, 1941.. ...
BELTSVILLE, MARYLAND, April 10, 2019-Three scientists have earned a place in the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Hall of Fame for their pioneering and impactful research in agriculture sustainability, swine disease and control, and fungi of major significance to agricultural production, food safety and public health. The men and women who have been inducted into the
The Green Revolution boosted crop yields in developing nations by introducing dwarf genotypes of wheat and rice capable of responding to fertilization without lodging. We now need a Second Green Revolution, to improve the yield of crops grown in infertile soils by farmers with little access to fertilizer, who represent the majority of third-world farmers. Just as the Green Revolution was based on crops responsive to high soil fertility, the Second Green Revolution will be based on crops tolerant of low soil fertility. Substantial genetic variation in the productivity of crops in infertile soil has been known for over a century. In recent years we have developed a better understanding of the traits responsible for this variation. Root architecture is critically important by determining soil exploration and therefore nutrient acquisition. Architectural traits under genetic control include basal root gravitropism, adventitious root formation, and lateral branching. Architectural traits that enhance ...
Jacobson, M.Z. The effects of agriculture on climate and air pollution in California (pdf) The effects of agriculture and snow impurities on climate and air pollution in California (CEC-500-2007-022) (pdf). ...
Regulation (EU) 2017/2393 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 December 2017 amending Regulations (EU) No 1305/2013 on support for rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), (EU) No 1306/2013 on the financing, management and monitoring of the common agricultural policy, (EU) No 1307/2013 establishing rules for direct payments to farmers under support schemes within the framework of the common agricultural policy, (EU) No 1308/2013 establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products and (EU) No 652/2014 laying down provisions for the management of expenditure relating to the food chain, animal health and animal welfare, and relating to plant health and plant reproductive ...
Agriculture[edit]. The society of the Marsh Arabs was divided into two main groups by occupation. One group bred and raised ... Though they often earned far more than workers in agriculture, weavers were looked down upon by both Maʻdān and farmers alike: ... The marsh environment meant that certain diseases, such as schistosomiasis and malaria, were endemic;[12] Maʻdānī agriculture ... abandoning their traditional lifestyle in favour of conventional agriculture, to towns and camps in other areas of Iraq or to ...
Agriculture[edit]. Traditionally, the town and the surrounding areas have largely been dedicated to agricultural uses. Various ... The community is largely based on agriculture and farming with a few gated communities. Historically, the growth of Valley ...
Agriculture uses[edit]. Activated carbon (charcoal) is an allowed substance used by organic farmers in both livestock ...
Of Agriculture. Bureau of Entomology) (34).. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith ... Chinese Agriculture Drone Against Fall Armyworm[edit]. The agriculture drone developed by XAG has a spraying efficiency of 14 ... "Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 1 February 2019. Retrieved 15 February 2019.. ... The Department of Agriculture recommended 12 pesticides under three categories, to be used alternatively in every seven days.[ ...
... has a textile industry.[8] National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development has selected Yeola Block for development ...
Agriculture and environment[edit]. In 2010, Le Pen said that after 2013, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) would be "unable ... "Agriculture: Euthanasia by Brussels" (in French). Front National. 27 April 2010. Archived from the original on 29 April 2010. ... She claims that "internationalist organisations" such as the EU, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nations and G- ... free trade and ultra-liberalism for the decline of the agriculture and fishing sectors,[65][66] deindustrialization, offshoring ...
"Census of Agriculture, 1986 to 2006. Statistics Canada. October 31, 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2011.. ... Although this area mostly does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and ... However, much of the land in southern Ontario is given over to agriculture. As the following table shows, while the number of ... Once the dominant industry, agriculture occupies a small percentage of the population. ...
Agriculture[edit]. Water used for agriculture is called agricultural water or farm water.[21] Changing landscape for the use of ... As a result, more fresh water is stored in the soil which benefits agriculture. However, since agriculture is the human ... With regards to agriculture, the World Bank targets food production and water management as an increasingly global issue that ... agriculture has a great effect on the flow of fresh water. Changes in landscape by the removal of trees and soils changes the ...
Agriculture[edit]. Farming is a large-scale practice in the temperate regions (except for boreal/subarctic regions) due to the ... Extreme winters or summers have a huge impact on the productivity of agriculture.[8] ...
16th and 17th centuries: agriculture and industry[edit]. German miners sorting copper ore, 16th century ...
... with some evidence of the beginning of agriculture. By 2000 BC, agriculture had been established in the Central Valleys region ... The economy of Oaxaca is based on agriculture, especially in the interior of the state.[66] Only 9% of the territory is ... About 31% of the population is employed in agriculture, about 50% in commerce and services and 22% in industry.[32] The ... new agriculture techniques and the revitalization of commerce. However, most of the benefits of these advances went to national ...
Agriculture forestry and livestock[edit]. Small changes caused by global warming, such as a longer growing season, a more ... Sivakumar, Mannava; Motha, Raymond (2007). Managing Weather and Climate Risks in Agriculture. Berlin: Springer. pp. 109. ISBN ... In eastern Australia, where the continent's first large-scale agriculture began, a large number of rain gauges were installed ... 2 concentrations, may benefit Australian crop agriculture and forestry in the short term. However, such benefits are unlikely ...
Agriculture. Satellite view of the Indus River, showing snow in the Himalayas, which feeds it, and green areas that draw on it ... Agriculture often relies on snow as a source of seasonal moisture. Structures may fail under snow loads. Humans find a wide ... Snowfall can be beneficial to agriculture by serving as a thermal insulator, conserving the heat of the Earth and protecting ... Given the importance of snowmelt to agriculture, hydrological runoff models that include snow in their predictions address the ...
... , especially rain, has a dramatic effect on agriculture. All plants need at least some water to survive, therefore ... rain (being the most effective means of watering) is important to agriculture. While a regular rain pattern is usually vital to ... "Rainstorm characteristics affecting water availability for agriculture" (PDF). IAHS Publication Number 140. Archived from the ...
Their early attempts at plant domestication eventually developed into the sustained agriculture that marked the end of the ... The region's precipitation pattern is bimodal, meaning agriculture is sustained through snowfall during winter and autumn and ... who had in the past frequently relocated their dwellings and fields as part of their agriculture strategy. In order to sustain ...
The state's current economic revenue is derived mainly from trading in gold bars, cocoa, kola nuts and agriculture; forest has ...
Agriculture[edit]. Genetically modified crops ("GM crops", or "biotech crops") are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which ... California Agriculture. 66 (2): 62-69. doi:10.3733/ca.v066n02p62. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 11, 2013.. ... Agriculture has been theorized to have become the dominant way of producing food since the Neolithic Revolution. Through early ... "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved August 30, 2019. Currently available transgenic crops and ...
Agriculture. Hail can cause serious damage, notably to automobiles, aircraft, skylights, glass-roofed structures, livestock, ... Snowfall can be beneficial to agriculture by serving as a thermal insulator, conserving the heat of the Earth and protecting ...
Agriculture[edit]. The farmers were Papadopoulos' natural constituency and were more likely to support him, seeing him, because ...
Agriculture[edit]. Agriculture was the largest single industry and it prospered during the war.[69][70] Prices were high, ... "Reflections on One Hundred and Fifty Years of the United States Department of Agriculture," Agricultural History (2013) 87#3 pp ... Paul W. Gates, Agriculture and the Civil War (1965) covers 1850-1870 ... agriculture, and mechanical industry, Volume 3 1863 (1864), thorough coverage of the events of 1863 ...
Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, also known as the Rampur Agriculture Campus, is the agriculture institution under ... Agriculture and industry[edit]. The people inhabiting the Chitwan District are predominantly peasant farmers cultivating mainly ... Occupying a huge area, this campus has been declared a university, the Agriculture and Forestry University. ... Tribhuvan University, and is the main institution in the fields of agriculture and veterinary science in Nepal. ...
2016). "Urban Agriculture: Urban agriculture, positive impact" My Green Hobby *^ What's the Real Cost of Raising Backyard ... Urban Agriculture.. *^ "CONFLICTS, CONTESTATION, AND MARGINALIZATION IN URBAN AGRICULTURE: EXPERIENCES FROM KUWADZANA EXTENSION ... The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as:[11] [A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, ... "Localising Food Production: Urban Agriculture in Australia". 2015-05-27.. *^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
Agriculture[edit]. Compared to natural vegetation, cropland soils are depleted in soil organic carbon (SOC). When a soil is ... Carbon emission reduction methods in agriculture can be grouped into two categories: reducing and/or displacing emissions and ... Restore degraded land, which slows carbon release while returning the land to agriculture or other use. ... Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 200 (Supplement C): 33-41. doi:10.1016/j.agee.2014.10.024.. ...
Agriculture[edit]. Confluence of Naryn and Kara Darya seen from space (false color). Many irrigated agricultural fields can be ...
Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Environmental Impacts of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture ... In agriculture, leaching is the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Soil structure ... Of particular concern are hazardous waste dumps and landfills, and, in agriculture, excess fertilizer, improperly stored animal ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates world demand for nitrogen fertilizers will increase ...
Agriculture[edit]. *Salinas is one of the main agricultural producers on the southern coast of Puerto Rico. It has large banana ...
Much of the peninsula has been cleared for agriculture and settlements. However, small areas of the native ecology remain in ...
The economy of the province is largely based on agriculture, including farming and cattle-breeding. Around 78% (970 km²) of the ...
In agriculture[edit]. Prior to the development of a wide range of relatively low-toxic synthetic pesticides, some alkaloids, ... "In Bajaj, Y. P. S. (ed.). Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry 26. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. VI. Springer-Verlag. pp ...
Agriculture[edit]. There is a lack of arable land and water which means only new technology can increase the output of Chinese ... China in 2011 stated that biotechnology (including biopharmacy, biological engineering, bio-agriculture and biomanufacturing) ... and the Ministry of Agriculture of the People's Republic of China are also involved in S&T.[27] ... agriculture. Chinese Communist Party former general secretary Jiang Zemin has therefore called for a "new revolution in ...
Agricultures greenhouse gas emissions on the rise. Detailed assessments of both emissions data and mitigation options needed ... The new FAO data also provide a detailed view of emissions from energy use in the agriculture sector generated from traditional ... Agriculture, forestry and other land use activities emit more than 10 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases. ... This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, ...
A new report shows that organic agriculture can feed the world -- while net yields are lower than conventional, organic ... with then U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz.. "Before we go back to organic agriculture in this country, somebody must ... Organic Agriculture Can Feed the World Despite Lower Yields, New Research Finds. August 17, 2016. by Emily Monaco ... Today, organic agriculture occupies only one percent of global agricultural land.. Related on Organic Authority. Organic Food ...
"Agriculture collected news and commentary". The New York Times.. *. "Agriculture collected news and commentary". The Guardian. ... The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its ... Agriculture defined the limits on how large and for how long an army could be mobilized. Shang Yang called agriculture and war ... Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources.[104] Agriculture is a major draw on water from ...
2016). "Urban Agriculture: Urban agriculture, positive impact" My Green Hobby *^ Whats the Real Cost of Raising Backyard ... Urban Agriculture.. *^ "CONFLICTS, CONTESTATION, AND MARGINALIZATION IN URBAN AGRICULTURE: EXPERIENCES FROM KUWADZANA EXTENSION ... The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as:[11] [A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, ... "Localising Food Production: Urban Agriculture in Australia". 2015-05-27.. *^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
Agriculture Advisor Corner. EPAs Agriculture Advisors Office enables two-way communication between EPA and agriculture ... Agriculture. EPA is committed to a strong partnership with the agriculture community to assist in fulfilling our mission of ... Animal Agriculture Education Project. *EPA Selects Environmental Education Grantees to Receive $3.3 Million to Support Projects ... July 22: EPA Region 4 Administrator Mary S. Walker Signs Memorandum of Understanding with the Alabama Department of Agriculture ...
I have a love-hate relationship with farmers. I have a great deal of respect for the enterprise and for those who dedicate their lives to it. But, I also become annoyed at the culture in which modern American farming embeds itself. And, I dont feel a lot of reticence talking openly about that. Having done plenty of farming myself, I dont feel the need that so many others do to be extra nice to farmers out of lack of understanding. I know when the farmers complain about too little or too much rain, they are studiously ignoring the fact that if it is harder to plant or harvest, they make out… ...
We are fast approaching a tipping point in terms of climate disruption, degenerative agriculture, deteriorating public health, ... Man Who Wrote the Book on Regenerative Agriculture Says Conservation is the Fifth Ag Revolution ... according to new data released last month by Vermonts Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. ...
All pesticide advertisement, sale, supply, storage and use is controlled under current UK law. The decision to use pesticides should not be taken lightly.
... is a global farming revolution with rapid uptake and interest around the world. Five years ago hardly ... Restoration Agriculture explains how we can have all of the benefits of natural, perennial ecosystems and create agricultural ... Instead, Gates and Brown take aim at regenerative organic agriculture and grass-fed beef. According to "Gates and ... Regenerative agriculture, when scaled up and combined with reforestation and other regenerative land use practices, has the ...
The U.S. government will invest at least $500 million to expand beef, pork and poultry processing capacity, Agriculture ...
OECD Home Russian FederationBy TopicAgriculture and fisheries Agriculture and fisheries. ... Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate ...
In Dec. 22 SN: Our top stories of 2018, baffling star behavior, early hominids in North Africa, the oldest evidence of vanilla, wombat poop physics, Earths impact craters and more. ...
Objective: The overall objective of the Programme is to sustainably improve the livelihoods of the rural poor in South Asia through the development of diversified production chains for organically produced Medicinal, Aromatic and Natural Dye Plants (MADPs) and certified collected MADPs. This will contribute to improved rural food security through higher capacities and income and an improved natural resource base and biodiversity, particularly in marginal and uncultivated areas ...
In the Jan. 19 SN: Celebrating 150 years of the periodic table, daredevil asteroid missions, early plague evidence from Sweden, more black hole collisions, hybrid rice can clone itself, corals go deep and more. ...
Latest Agriculture regulation News. Hawaii coffee farmers in jeopardy with no federal aid. Aug. 6, 2020 10:31 AM EDT ... AP) - Louisianas agriculture department said a dog in the state has tested positive for the coronavirus, the states first ... HONOLULU (AP) - Hawaiis congressional delegation has continually urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture to expand its ... 31 through the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Industrial hemp has been promoted as a... ...
Byproducts from Agriculture and Fisheries: Adding Value for Food, Feed, Pharma and Fuels Benjamin K. Simpson, Alberta N. Aryee ...
... is the economic engine that powers the Great Plains, the vast stretch of treeless prairie that covers parts of 10 ...
Ranked among the top U.S. non-Land Grant universities in enrollment and widely recognized for its outstanding academic programs, the SHSU Agricultural Sciences program offers a wide variety of educational centers to allow for experiential learning to complement concepts taught in the classroom. Faculty and staff offices and lecture halls are housed in the newly constructed Fred Pirkle Engineering Technology Center. With three greenhouses, raised garden beds, lab facilities and a state-of-the-art floral design lab, students in plant and soil science classes are always learning both established and new techniques. The Harrell Agricultural Engineering Technology Center is perfectly designed for gaining practical knowledge in metal fabrication, electricity and electronics, hydraulics, alternative energy sources, construction and soil and water conservation. The 1800-acre Gibbs Ranch, located just north of town, serves as a living laboratory for all aspects of animal science, soil fertility and ...
Read about agriculture worker safety during COVID-19, including detailed guidance on control plans, shared living spaces, and ... Agriculture Workers and Employers. Agriculture Workers and Employers. Interim Guidance from CDC and the U.S. Department of ... and other production agriculture work sites are considered critical infrastructure workers within the Food and Agriculture ... Exposure risk among agriculture workers and employers. There is no evidence that livestock, crops, or products that may be ...
... environmental indicators bring together data from the past 30 years to help countries improve the sustainability of agriculture ... OECD Home Agriculture and fisheriesTopicsAgriculture and the environment Agriculture and the environment. ... Agriculture and fisheries publications. All of our food, agriculture and fisheries research and analysis is available to read ... Better policies to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector. A key challenge for the agriculture sector ...
Yearbook of Agriculture. Yearbook of Agriculture, United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Contributor. United States. Dept. of ... U.S. Government Printing Office, 1984 - Agriculture. 0 Reviews ... ...
It is not possible to make a full comparison between the EAA and the agricultural accounts of agriculture but we use it to see ... The Economic Accounts for Agriculture is based on the assumption that the value of each product is the price times the quantity ... Loss of sample is not relevant for the calculation of the Economic Accounts for Agriculture, but it is relevant in the ... The Economic Accounts for Agriculture is published once a year and are preliminary for the first two years they are published ...
You can help support agriculture education and the CalAgPlate program by purchasing a special interest license plate ... Our programs growth and productivity stems from the generous support and contributions from our community and agriculture ... FFA is an intracurricular student organization for those interested in agriculture and leadership ... For More Information contact Eureka High School Agriculture Department at 441-2438 ...
A coming boom in agriculture? I think so. The old way of looking at food supply and demand is giving way to a new emphasis on ... A coming boom in agriculture? I think so. The old way of looking at food supply and demand is giving way to a new emphasis on ... The old approach to agriculture economics emphasized the stability of demand. Consumers dont change their food consumption ...
See an archive of all agriculture stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, Vulture, and ... Study: Even With Soda Tax Kids Will Be Fat; Germany Pledges Millions to Battle Child Hunger and Promote Sustainable Agriculture ... School Lunches Get an F; Agriculture Embracing Diversity. By Adam Martin @media (min-width: 0px) and (max-width: 599.9px) { . ...
National Wildlife Federation Headquarters is now hiring for the position of Agriculture Policy Specialist in Washington. Apply ... diversification of agriculture systems, agriculture appropriations, and other conservation related agriculture policy issues. ... In this role, you will advise and assist the Director of Agriculture Policy in NWFs work on the conservation and climate ... To support our mission, we are seeking an Agriculture Policy Specialist to join our Land Stewardship Team at the National ...
Microalgae have a shorter lifecycle and they can be developed in environments unfit for agriculture. In the Journal of ... New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets Apple Research Development Program, Federal Capacity Funds, Grace Griswold ...
  • The use of glyphosate alone-just on Vermont dairy farms-jumped 27 percent between 2014 - 2017, according to new data released last month by Vermont's Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. (
  • We have employed a geospatial modeling approach and implemented it for four time periods (2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017) to consistently map irrigated agriculture across the conterminous U.S. These data can be used to help assess water-quality trends in ground and surface waters, explain drought impacts on vegetation, and support the application and refinement of current water volumes used for irrigation. (
  • Management in the agriculture industry should conduct work site assessments external icon to identify coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) risks and infection prevention strategies to protect workers. (
  • This guidance provides a template of action to protect agriculture workers from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (
  • Machine Learning in Agriculture: Applications and Techniques - May 14, 2019. (
  • Regenerative agriculture, when scaled up and combined with reforestation and other regenerative land use practices, has the potential to generate a net decrease in atmospheric carbon. (
  • Transitioning to regenerative agriculture will also produce healthier food, build soil fertility, restore depleted groundwater, and build local resilience and food security. (
  • Regenerative agriculture is a way forward to restore the health of people and the planet. (
  • Regenerative agriculture is a global farming revolution with rapid uptake and interest around the world. (
  • Regenerative agriculture addresses these and other problems. (
  • 11 April 2014, Rome - New FAO estimates of greenhouse gas data show that emissions from agriculture, forestry and fisheries have nearly doubled over the past fifty years and could increase an additional 30 percent by 2050, without greater efforts to reduce them. (
  • This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU), contributing to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (
  • [5] A distinction is sometimes made between forestry and agriculture, based on the former's longer management rotations, extensive versus intensive management practices and development mainly by nature, rather than by man. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Pro- the nation's agricultural and forestry gram works with partners in industry, labor, trade associations, professional organizations, and academia. (
  • Indeed, for most low-income countries, agriculture - which includes livestock , fisheries and forestry - is the most important sector of the economy, generating up to one half of gross domestic product, and often the main source of foreign currency. (
  • For decades, Trelleborg has been involved in developing sustainable solutions for the agriculture and forestry industry. (
  • Agriculture can be made far more sustainable by transitioning many annual agricultural systems to perennials. (
  • The Land Institute, a United States non-profit group devoted to sustainable agriculture, offers a plan for efficiently and effectively converting annual plantings to perennials in the United States (The Land Institutem 2009). (
  • Our primary mission is to create social and spiritual change through agriculture while maintaining sustainable profitability. (
  • Fraunhofer researchers are working on making agriculture more sustainable. (
  • Nanotechnologies in agriculture: New tools for sustainable development. (
  • Agriculture analytics from SAS, with embedded AI, helps you extract valuable insights that can lead to better plant and animal health, crop yields, sustainable practices and more. (
  • Agriculture in urban and suburban areas has risen in popularity in recent years due to an interest in increasing access to healthy foods, promoting sustainable community development and sourcing local produce. (
  • Ironically, the conference ignores fundamental issues for agriculture: the ecological crisis and the urgent need to transition to sustainable production. (
  • Can Obama Become a Force for Sustainable Agriculture? (
  • Agriculture must also be sustainable. (
  • The water-smart agriculture project directly contributes to Sustainable Development Goals 2 (Zero Hunger), SDG 6 (ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all) and SDG 13 (climate action), while being connected to many of the other goals on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. (
  • That's why international agencies like the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are forging key partnerships to enhance agricultural production, sustainable natural resource management and increased market access. (
  • The FAO Organic Agriculture Programme aims to enhance food security, rural development, sustainable livelihoods and environmental integrity by building capacities of member countries in organic production, processing, certification and marketing. (
  • Just days ahead of the meeting of European Agriculture ministers taking place in Brussels today, Slow Food Europe joined a group of NGOs calling on the Agriculture and Fisheries (AGRIFISH) Council to take into consideration the voice of civil society when discussing the new Commission's report on the development of plant proteins in the European Union. (
  • The animal husbandry and fisheries minister said that his department is started integrating animal husbandry with agriculture to double farmers' income. (
  • Over one third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the percentages of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries. (
  • Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although in recent decades, the global trend of a decreasing number of agricultural workers continues, especially in developing countries where smallholding is being overtaken by industrial agriculture and mechanization. (
  • This report is FAO's latest assessment of the long-term outlook for the world's food supplies, nutrition and agriculture. (
  • This report is a shorter version of 'World agriculture: towards 2015/2030', FAO's latest assessment of the long-term outlook for the world's food supplies, nutrition and agriculture, due for release at the end of 2002. (
  • The largest source of GHG emissions within agriculture is enteric fermentation - when methane is produced by livestock during digestion and released via belches - this accounted in 2011 for 39 percent of the sector's total GHG outputs. (
  • Agriculture is the art, science and business of cultivating crops and livestock for economic purposes. (
  • RCW 42.56.380: Agriculture and livestock. (
  • Agriculture and livestock. (
  • Agriculture is the main stay of any economy and plays a critical role such that it is the most effective way to improve lives. (
  • The United States Department of Agriculture main page with lots of resources and links. (
  • One of the main ways in which agriculture can be made more productive is by harnessing science to increase productivity. (
  • Sources in the agriculture ministry say that the output of paddy is likely to be down by 10-15% in this Kharif season due to floods in main paddy growing areas. (
  • [4] To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services. (
  • The corporate media promotes the Bill Gates/Silicon Valley myth that eating less meat and animal products (not just factory farmed, but climate-friendly/carbon sequestering organic and regenerative meat and animal products as well) and abolishing animal agriculture altogether (small scale grazing and animal husbandry supports a billion small farmers on the planet whose lands are not suitable for growing food crops) will be better for the climate. (
  • While negative impacts are serious, and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices. (
  • Today's GM crops have already achieved significant commercial success in global agriculture. (
  • While agriculture usually refers to human activities, certain species of ant, termite and beetle have been cultivating crops for up to 60 million years. (
  • But one of the problems that we see in the agriculture value chain is that the price discovery mechanism is not efficient: farmers will grow crops and sell them at a price based on how desperate they are for cash at the time - they do not play a role in determining the price even if their product commanded a premium on the international markets," he says. (
  • That's the damage done by decades of industrial agriculture to the fabric and being of the plants on which we directly depend-crops - and the environments that they live in. (
  • To help countries improve the sustainability of agriculture, the OECD has developed recommendations on how to develop cost-effective agri-environmental policies , how to manage water issues for agriculture , how to deal with climate change challenges , and how to preserve biodiversity and manage ecosystem services related to agriculture. (
  • Climate change and increased global population give rise to a special emphasis on how agriculture can expand production under changing conditions. (
  • This indicator tracks trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by agriculture, estimated and reported under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the Kyoto Protocol and the Decision 525/2013/EC. (
  • The series will cover the role of climate change in impacting food security, agriculture, weather patterns and society at large. (
  • But the biggest challenge to agriculture in developing countries comes from the impact of climate change . (
  • But it has been slow to research climate change, its impact and how Brazilian agriculture can adapt to the changes. (
  • We argue there is a strong rationale for an increasing focus on adaptation of agriculture to climate change. (
  • [1] Urban agriculture can also involve animal husbandry , aquaculture , agroforestry , urban beekeeping , and horticulture . (
  • HONOLULU (AP) - Hawaii's congressional delegation has continually urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture to expand its coronavirus relief program to include coffee farmers but the state's roughly $50 million coffee industry waits in a state of limbo. (
  • Professionals in the field of agriculture are called agriculturists, they provide advice to farmers and farm employees. (
  • Farmers grew wheat, barley, vegetables such as lentils and onions, and fruits including dates, grapes, and figs. Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on the Nile River and its seasonal flooding. (
  • Hence, supporting and transforming a country's agriculture can create jobs, raise incomes, reduce malnutrition and lead to a nation's economic growth. (
  • We expect that the first investment in the commodity exchange will kick off this year," says the country's agriculture minister Akinwumi Adesina. (
  • With water efficiency in agriculture and farmer livelihoods as the focus, our Water-smart Agriculture initiative aims to identify smart, innovative and scalable business solutions and facilitate their co-implementation and scaling-up, starting with India. (
  • In addition, the twin policy challenge of ensuring global food security for a growing population while improving environmental performance will require raising the environmental and resource productivity of agriculture, enhancing land management practices, minimising pollution discharges, curtailing damage to biodiversity, and strengthening policies that avoid the use of production and input subsidies which tend to damage the environment. (
  • Emissions generated during the application of synthetic fertilizers accounted for 13 percent of agricultural emissions (725 Mt CO2 eq.) in 2011, and are the fastest growing emissions source in agriculture, having increased some 37 percent since 2001. (
  • Banks Cargill Agriculture had been formed in February 2001 between Cargill and Sidney C Banks, a UK grain trader based in Sandy. (
  • The Committee on Agriculture and Rural Development of the European Parliament has adopted an own-initiative report aimed at encouraging the Commission to support agricultural innovation, which is considered necessary in order to increase both the productivity and sustainability of the sector. (
  • Portfolio issue areas will include: promoting climate beneficial agriculture practices and policy, diversification of agriculture systems, agriculture appropriations, and other conservation related agriculture policy issues. (
  • Agriculture has also seen radical changes the last century with a turn towards research-based, industrialized agriculture with large-scale monocultures, mechanization, increased irrigation, use of artificial fertilizers, and pest control systems, combined with a change from local towards export-oriented making of products to be used for food, feed, fuel, and fiber. (
  • The use of manure and composts as fertilizers is probably almost as old as agriculture . (
  • The Food and Agriculture Organisation, the United Nations' agency charged with thinking about such matters, published a report in 2009 which suggested that by 2050 agricultural production will have to rise by 70% to meet projected demand. (
  • EPA's Agriculture Advisor's Office enables two-way communication between EPA and agriculture stakeholders about priority environmental issues. (
  • Its 9th installment took place on the week of the Berlin Agriculture Ministers' Conference and Berlin's International Green Week, which attracted many European stakeholders and decision-makers to the capital of Germany. (
  • The Commission describes the conference as the 'key annual gathering of European stakeholders willing to engage and discuss the future of agriculture. (
  • FY 2014 Agriculture Appropriations - provisions relating to the pay, benefits, staffing levels, and job security of USDA employees. (
  • S.1284, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 H.R. 2642, Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013. (
  • Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate. (
  • The OECD monitors the linkages between the environment and agriculture, identifies successful agricultural policies that mitigate the negative environmental impacts while enhancing the positive ones, and provides recommendations to improve policy coherence for environmental performance of the agricultural sector. (
  • In recent years, there have been some encouraging signs that the agriculture sector of OECD countries is capable of meeting its environmental challenges. (
  • We have also developed insights on the potential environmental impact of agriculture policies by identifying possible policy mis-alignments and how to jointly address sustainability and productivity growth goals . (
  • Workers on farms, ranches, and other production agriculture work sites are considered critical infrastructure workers within the Food and Agriculture Sector pdf icon external icon . (
  • Farms and agribusinesses are the core of the agriculture industry. (
  • Our programs growth and productivity stems from the generous support and contributions from our community and agriculture industry. (
  • Data volumes in the agriculture industry are growing exponentially. (
  • The failure to act by the USDA and FDA, the lack of action or concern by the Congress, and continued intransigence of the animal agriculture industry, have made all of our problems worse. (
  • The Division of Dairy and Commodity Regulation serves many facets of the agriculture industry. (
  • The department continues to offer a variety of projects aimed at improving both the short- and long-term viability of this segment of the agriculture industry. (
  • Yantai, a coastal city in East China's Shandong province sees the importance of branding in boosting local agriculture industry. (
  • The most technologically advanced agriculture, it was also fully integrated into a market economy. (
  • Conclusively, needless to say that the gains of agriculture in an economy cannot be over emphasized, thus investing in and its transformation would non the less be a catalyst of change in any economy especially that of Africa. (
  • We want to set up commodity exchanges across Africa because the continent is largely an agrarian economy - agriculture is the largest contributor to GDP as a whole and also the largest employer on the continent," explains Sam Nwanze, chief executive of Heirs Holdings. (
  • The program encourages educators to teach more about the food and fiber system and the role of agriculture in our economy and society. (
  • The series aims to share and promote innovations related to water in agriculture. (
  • Worldwide, agriculture is the sector where by far the largest share of working children is found - nearly 70 percent, according to the International Labour Organization's International Programme to Eliminate Child Labour, 132 million girls and boys aged 5-14 years old. (
  • Significant degradation of land and water resources, including the depletion of aquifers , has been observed in recent decades, and the effects of global warming on agriculture and of agriculture on global warming are still not fully understood. (
  • Nanotechnology applications in pollution sensing and degradation in agriculture: A review. (
  • During this time it enforced policies of collectivized agriculture that caused famine, resulting in the death of millions of people throughout the Soviet Union. (
  • More productive and resilient agriculture requires a major shift in the way water, soil, nutrients and other agricultural resources are managed. (
  • Natural resources, such as land, water, soil and genetic resources, must be better managed so that more productive and resilient agriculture can be achieved. (
  • BATON ROUGE, La. (AP) - Louisiana's agriculture department said a dog in the state has tested positive for the coronavirus, the state's first confirmed case in an animal. (
  • If agriculture is to continue to feed the world, it needs to become more like manufacturing, says Geoffrey Carr. (
  • The Daily Leader reports the license application period began Saturday and runs through Oct. 31 through the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (
  • That dearth of high-quality research makes the recent appearance of a new report from the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture entitled " Agriculture in the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership: Tariffs, Tariff-Rate Quotas, and Non-Tariff Measures " (pdf) all-the-more welcome. (
  • In Michigan, the Food Service Sanitation Program is a collaboration between the Michigan Department of Agriculture Food and Dairy Division (MDA) and forty-three independent local health departments (LHD). (
  • This section offers information on the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) and the proper reporting of annual rental payments. (
  • PPQ and the Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection (CBP) work together at the Nation's borders and ports of entry to carry out all AQI program activities to intercept and keep out any foreign agricultural pests that could affect U.S. agriculture, trade and commerce. (
  • To meet the needs of modern agriculture development, the Hebei Agriculture Department has organized more than 80 groups and 600 person-trips to go abroad on investigation tours and played host to 113 groups of foreign guests. (
  • A list of prgorams available to students provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. (
  • In the Apiary Act, new apiaries are required to be registered with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. (
  • 9) Information submitted by an individual or business to the department of agriculture under the requirements of chapters 16.36 , 16.57, and 43.23 RCW for the purpose of herd inventory management for animal disease traceability. (
  • Jointly organized by the Yantai publicity department and agricultural bureau, the event aimed to showcase the modern agriculture and some featured agro-product brands of Yantai city. (
  • Enable precision agriculture performance. (
  • Our Precision Agriculture research is addressing key challenges in a range of farming systems, including viticulture, broadacre cropping, dairy and sugar farming. (
  • Precision Agriculture seeks to exert more control over a production system by recognising variation and managing different areas of land differently, according to a range of economic and environmental goals. (
  • To do this, the tools of Precision Agriculture are used to collect large amounts of data on crop or animal performance and the attributes of individual production areas (for example, fields, paddocks and blocks) at a high spatial resolution. (
  • A number of enabling technologies are critical to Precision Agriculture. (
  • Precision Agriculture can also be used as a tool to help match land use to land use capability. (
  • Agriculture is also a major economic, social, and cultural activity, and it provides a wide range of ecosystem services. (
  • Importantly, agriculture in its many different forms and locations remains highly sensitive to climate variations, the dominant source of the overall interannual variability of production in many regions and a continuing source of disruption to ecosystem services. (
  • Aug 24 2016 (IPS) - While agriculture could be the driving force to lift millions of Africans out of poverty and alleviate hunger, its full potential remains untapped. (
  • But much hinges on the fate of the EU's 2014-2020 budget, says Sofoclis Aletraris, the Cypriot agriculture minister whose country holds the rotating EU presidency. (
  • Scope and Impact of AI in Agriculture - Jul 6, 2020. (
  • In agriculture, child labourers are at greater risk than adults when working in the same situation because their minds and bodies are growing and developing. (
  • While there is unlikely to be a "one-size-fits-all" solution for dealing with environmental concerns in agriculture, as agro-ecological conditions and public preferences differ across countries, policymakers must have at their disposal a deep understanding of, and capacity to measure, the linkages between policies and outcomes in order to evaluate and achieve better environmental outcomes in a cost-effective manner. (
  • Our range of research areas relate to crop science, soil science, ecological (organic) agriculture, and agricultural water management. (
  • News on Agriculture continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (
  • Detailed global maps of key traits in higher plants have been made available for the first time, thanks to work led by researchers from the University of Minnesota's (UMN) College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences (CFANS). (
  • A key challenge for the agriculture sector is to feed an increasing global population, while at the same time reducing the environmental impact and preserving natural resources for future generations. (
  • The Water in Agriculture Innovation Series is a collaborative knowledge platform offered by the Water in Agriculture Global Solutions Group at the World Bank and partners across academia, public and private institutions, and civil society on agriculture and water issues. (
  • Child labour in agriculture is a global phenomenon found in developed and developing countries. (
  • Cogent Food & Agriculture is a fully peer-reviewed, open access, international scholarly journal with a mission to help researchers reach a truly global audience, interact with experts in their field, and discover new connections across diverse areas of science and beyond. (
  • The UN Food and Agriculture Organization says global warming is shrinking food supply and pushing up prices in many countries, with the result that people are already starting to go hungry. (
  • When you bring the producers and the consumers together they support agriculture that is more environmentally responsible and more compassionate. (
  • The new FAO data also provide a detailed view of emissions from energy use in the agriculture sector generated from traditional fuel sources, including electricity and fossil fuels burned to power agricultural machinery, irrigation pumps and fishing vessels. (
  • The Economic Accounts for Agriculture (EAA) provide detailed information on income in the agricultural sector. (
  • Worldwide, agriculture is the sector where by far the largest number of working children can be found - an estimated 70 per cent, of whom 132 million are girls and boys aged 5-14. (
  • Even though agriculture is not part of the EEA Agreement and the agricultural sector is not covered by EEA legislation on state aid and competition, this sector is affected by the agreement. (
  • In 2011, 44 percent of agriculture-related GHG outputs occurred in Asia, followed by the Americas (25%), Africa (15%), Europe (12%), and Oceania (4%), according to FAO's data. (
  • Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of economic and social development. (
  • Agriculture is the economic engine that powers the Great Plains, the vast stretch of treeless prairie that covers parts of 10 states - and where the next drought can appear with little warning. (
  • Agricultural Labour Input (ALI) and Unit Values (UV) are an integrated part of the overall concept of Economic Accounts for Agriculture. (
  • This is an introductory course requiring critical analysis of the major social, economic, political and scientific issues in agriculture and related disciplines. (
  • Large business and investment activities provincial authorities have attended include the China AG Trade Fair held by Ministry of Agriculture the "5.18" Economic and Trade Conference the "10.18" Agriculture Products Trade Fair and the Hong Kong Investment Fair. (
  • [1] Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization , whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization . (
  • The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its development has been driven and defined by greatly different climates , cultures , and technologies. (
  • The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. (
  • The first of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is a pledge by the international community to halve the number of people in the world suffering from extreme hunger by the year 2015, a promise that puts agriculture at the heart of the development agenda. (
  • The U.S. government will invest at least $500 million to expand beef, pork and poultry processing capacity, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack said on Friday, after consumers faced limits on meat purchases during the COVID-19 pandemic last year. (
  • By the time of the Second World War, the War/Food Administration set up a National Victory Garden Program that set out to systematically establish functioning agriculture within cities. (
  • When Mao Tse-tung's Communists came to power in China, they used Soviet advisers to establish policies for the collectivization of Chinese agriculture. (
  • AB 551 (2013 ) allows a county or city to establish Urban Agriculture Incentive Zones (UAIZ) for the purpose of supporting local food production. (
  • Prepared by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations as task manager for chapters 10 and 14, and the United Nations Environment Programme as task manager for chapter 12, of Agenda 21, with contributions from other United Nations agencies and international organizations and major groups. (
  • Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) Specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) , established in 1946. (
  • Agriculture can have significant impacts on the environment. (
  • This existing sensitivity explains why a changing climate will have subsequent impacts on agriculture. (
  • Engineered agriculture uses the tools of biotechnology to analyze and manipulate plant DNA to create varieties with new or enhanced characteristics, explains Social Technologies futurist Justman says. (
  • In their book Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Promising Approaches , authors Marion Davis, Cathy Farnworth and Melinda Sundell argue that women's productivity is lower than that of men because they have limited access to resources such as land, credit and other production inputs. (
  • Urban agriculture describes operations ranging from community gardens to commercial production on a larger scale. (
  • Frontier Agriculture Ltd is the UK's largest crop production and grain marketing business, jointly owned by Associated British Foods and Cargill plc. (
  • If we don't do anything, food production is at risk," says Eduardo Assad, an agronomist at the government's agriculture research institute, Embrapa. (
  • In either case, more direct access to fresh vegetables, fruits, and meat products through urban agriculture can improve food security and food safety . (
  • Nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 are used to track carbon, water and nutrient movement and dynamics in agroecosystems to assess the effects of conservation agriculture measures, ascertain stabilization and turnover of soil organic matter, and determine the fate of nitrogen and carbon in crop residues. (
  • Extramural scientists will test Bluetooth-en- 30 members survived cold water immersion after abled positioning technology for safety in log- 20 vessel sinkings in Alaskan waters during 2000- ging operations. (
  • The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) program plays a critical role in protecting U.S. agriculture and the environment from invasive plant and animal pests and diseases. (