The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.
Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Activities performed by humans.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.
A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).
Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.
Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Diseases of plants.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.
The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.
Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.
The application of knowledge to the food industry.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.
Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.
A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/3155)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Mechanical maceration of alfalfa. (2/3155)

Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (3/3155)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

Organic: What's in a name? (4/3155)

The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year.  (+info)

Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998. (5/3155)

In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides  (+info)

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (6/3155)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Water pollution and human health in China. (7/3155)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA). (8/3155)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities.  (+info)

1. Pesticide poisoning: Agricultural workers who handle or apply pesticides may be at risk for poisoning, which can cause a range of symptoms including headaches, dizziness, and nausea. Prolonged exposure to pesticides has also been linked to an increased risk of cancer.
2. Lung disease: Agricultural workers who work with dusty crops or in confined spaces may be at risk for lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma.
3. Heat stress: Agricultural workers who work outdoors during hot weather may be at risk for heat stress, which can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, nausea, and fatigue. In severe cases, heat stress can be fatal.
4. Noise-induced hearing loss: Agricultural workers who are exposed to loud noises, such as tractors or other machinery, may be at risk for noise-induced hearing loss.
5. Musculoskeletal disorders: Agricultural workers may be at risk for musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, joint pain, and repetitive strain injuries due to the physical demands of their work.
6. Skin diseases: Agricultural workers who handle animals or are exposed to chemicals may be at risk for skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis or fungal infections.
7. Eye diseases: Agricultural workers who work with pesticides or other chemicals may be at risk for eye diseases such as conjunctivitis or cataracts.
8. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers who handle grain or other dusty materials may be at risk for respiratory diseases such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis or farmer's lung.
9. Infectious diseases: Agricultural workers may be at risk for infectious diseases such as Q fever, which is caused by a bacteria that can be found in the intestines of some animals.
10. Mental health disorders: The stress and isolation of agricultural work may contribute to mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.

It's important for agricultural workers to take precautions to protect their health and safety on the job, such as wearing personal protective equipment, following proper handling and application procedures for chemicals, and taking regular breaks to rest and stretch. Additionally, employers should provide a safe work environment and training on safe work practices to help prevent injuries and illnesses.

Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.

Examples of Zoonoses

Some common examples of zoonoses include:

1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.

Transmission of Zoonoses

Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:

1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.

Prevention of Zoonoses

Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:

1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.


Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.

Parakeratosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic conditions, such as ichthyosis or psoriasis, can cause parakeratosis.
2. Skin injuries: Injuries to the skin, such as burns or cuts, can cause parakeratosis.
3. Infections: Bacterial, fungal, or viral infections can cause parakeratosis.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Conditions such as vitiligo or pemphigus can cause parakeratosis.
5. Cancer: Certain types of skin cancer, such as squamous cell carcinoma, can cause parakeratosis.

The symptoms of parakeratosis depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Thickening of the skin
2. Formation of scales or crusts
3. Itching or redness
4. Pain or discomfort
5. Increased risk of infection

Parakeratosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as skin scrapings or biopsies. Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include topical or oral medications, phototherapy, or surgery.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

Occupational Injuries can affect any part of the body, including the musculoskeletal system (e.g., back injuries, sprains and strains), the respiratory system (e.g., occupational asthma), the skin and eyes (e.g., exposure to chemicals or radiation), and more.

Some common types of Occupational Injuries include:

1. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): These injuries affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, and joints, often caused by repetitive tasks, poor posture, or heavy lifting. Examples include carpal tunnel syndrome, back strain, and tendonitis.
2. Hearing loss: Prolonged exposure to loud noises in the workplace can cause permanent hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Skin diseases: Occupational skin diseases can result from exposure to chemicals, cleaning products, or other substances. Examples include contact dermatitis and occupational eczema.
4. Respiratory problems: Inhaling hazardous materials or substances can cause respiratory issues, such as asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer.
5. Eye injuries: Prolonged exposure to bright lights, glare, or flying objects can cause eye injuries, including retinal damage and cataracts.
6. Traumatic injuries: Accidents in the workplace, such as falls or being struck by an object, can result in traumatic injuries, including broken bones, concussions, and head trauma.
7. Repetitive motion injuries: Repeating the same tasks over time can cause injuries to muscles, tendons, and joints, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger.
8. Heat-related illnesses: Working in high temperatures without proper ventilation or hydration can lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
9. Cold-related illnesses: Exposure to cold temperatures for extended periods can cause hypothermia and other cold-related illnesses.
10. Psychological injuries: Stress, bullying, and harassment in the workplace can lead to psychological injuries, including depression and anxiety disorders.

It's important for employees to be aware of these potential hazards and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), following safety protocols, and reporting any incidents or concerns to their supervisors or human resources department. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and take proactive measures to prevent injuries and illnesses from occurring in the first place.

1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.

Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.

Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:

1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.

The symptoms of organophosphate poisoning can vary depending on the severity of exposure and individual sensitivity, but may include:

1. Respiratory problems: Difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath
2. Nervous system effects: Headache, dizziness, confusion, tremors, and muscle weakness
3. Eye irritation: Redness, itching, tearing, and blurred vision
4. Skin irritation: Redness, itching, and burns
5. Gastrointestinal effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain
6. Cardiovascular effects: Rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and cardiac arrhythmias
7. Neurological effects: Seizures, coma, and memory loss

Organophosphate poisoning can be caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water, inhalation of pesticides, or absorption through the skin. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen, as well as medications to counteract the effects of organophosphates on the nervous system. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the patient.

Prevention is key in avoiding organophosphate poisoning, which can be achieved by using protective clothing and equipment when handling pesticides, keeping products away from food and children, and following the recommended dosage and application instructions carefully. Regular testing of soil and water for organophosphate residues can also help prevent exposure.

In conclusion, organophosphate poisoning is a serious health hazard that can result from exposure to pesticides and insecticides. Prompt recognition of symptoms and proper treatment are essential in preventing long-term health effects and reducing the risk of fatalities. Prevention through safe handling practices and regular testing of soil and water for organophosphate residues can also help minimize the risks associated with these chemicals.

The symptoms of rabies can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the individual's overall health. Early symptoms may include fever, headache, weakness, and fatigue. As the disease progresses, symptoms can become more severe and can include:

* Agitation and confusion
* Seizures and paralysis
* Hydrophobia (fear of water)
* Spasms and twitching
* Increased salivation
* Fever and chills
* Weakness and paralysis of the face, arms, and legs

If left untreated, rabies is almost always fatal. However, prompt medical attention, including the administration of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), can prevent the disease from progressing and save the life of an infected person. PEP typically involves a series of injections with rabies immune globulin and a rabies vaccine.

Rabies is a significant public health concern, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care may be limited. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are an estimated 55,000-60,000 human deaths from rabies each year, mostly in Asia and Africa. In the United States, rabies is relatively rare, with only a few cases reported each year. However, it is still important for individuals to be aware of the risks of rabies and take precautions to prevent exposure, such as avoiding contact with wild animals and ensuring that pets are up-to-date on their vaccinations.

Food and Agriculture Organization United States Department of Agriculture Agriculture material from the World Bank Group ... Agriculture or farming is the practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of ... Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources. Agriculture is a major draw on water from aquifers ... Climate change and agriculture are interrelated on a global scale. Global warming affects agriculture through changes in ...
... to form Frontier Agriculture. Allied Grain was based in Norfolk. Banks Cargill Agriculture had been formed in February 2001 ... Agriculture companies of the United Kingdom, Agriculture companies established in 2005, Associated British Foods, Cargill, ... Frontier Agriculture Kings Game Cover and Conservation Crops SOYL Nomix Enviro HGCA Cargill in the UK (Articles lacking sources ... Frontier Agriculture Ltd is the UK's largest crop production and grain marketing business, jointly owned by Associated British ...
"FAO World Agriculture towards 2015/2030". Food and Agriculture Organization. 21 August 2008. "FAO World Agriculture towards ... Agriculture and Agronomy portal Ecology portal Agriculture portal Environment portal Agroecology Climate-smart agriculture ... "Urban Agriculture: Practices to Improve Cities". 2011-01-18. "What is Sustainable Agriculture? - ASI". ... "Introduction to Sustainable Agriculture". Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. 2016. Retrieved 10 October ...
An earmark is a cut or mark in the ear of livestock animals such as cattle, deer, pigs, goats, camels or sheep, made to show ownership, year of birth or sex. The term dates to the 16th century in England. The practice existed in the Near East up to the time of Islam. Against this, in Q. 4:119 the Qur'an quotes the Devil promising, ""I will mislead them, I will entice them, I will command them to mark the ears of livestock, and I will command them to distort the creation of God." Earmarks are typically registered when a stock owner registers a livestock brand for their use. There are many rules and regulations concerning the use of earmarks between states and countries. Tasmanian sheep and cattle must be earmarked before they become six months old. Generally the owner's earmark is placed in a designated ear of a camel or sheep to indicate its gender. Typically if a registered earmark is used, it must be applied to the right ear for ewes and the left ear for female camels. The other ear of a sheep ...
Nano seed priming in botany and agriculture is a form of seed planting preparation in which the seeds are pre-soaked in ...
... has won several awards from the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural ... "California Agriculture Online". Retrieved 2013-06-06. Official website California Agriculture on Facebook (Articles with short ... California Agriculture is a quarterly peer-reviewed, scientific journal reporting news and research on agricultural, natural, ... California Agriculture often has special issues that explore timely topics, which have recently included biofuels, climate ...
"Flagship launches Inari Agriculture to create 'personalized seeds'". "One startup's plan to grow more crops: put the germs back ... "Indigo Agriculture Closes $250M To Launch Digital Farmer's Market". Bailey, Tom. "Indigo Ag acquires ag-tech firm with ... Indigo Agriculture is a Boston, Massachusetts-based agricultural technology company that works with plant microbes, aiming to ... "Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security". Harvard Magazine. Retrieved 2018-03-08. Steadman, Jim. "Indigo Offers Premium for ...
In agriculture, waterlogging of the soil typically blocks air from getting in to the roots. With the exception of rice (Oryza ... Drainage Drainage research Drainage system (agriculture) Effects of weather on sport Environmental impact of irrigation Polder ...
Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition (PDF). Congressional Research Service ...
A Headland, in agriculture, is the area at each end of a planted field. In some areas of the United States, this area is known ...
Agriculture in Peru, History of agriculture, Prehistoric agriculture, Agriculture by culture). ... and required different technologies for agriculture. Inca agriculture was also characterized by the variety of crops grown, the ... The Incan agriculture system not only included a vast acreage of crops, but also numerous herds, some numbering in the tens of ... Incan agriculture was the culmination of thousands of years of farming and herding in the high-elevation Andes mountains of ...
Department of Agriculture Conservation Agriculture, Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department, Food and Agriculture ... Agroecology Biodiversity Sustainable agriculture No-till farming "Conservation Agriculture". Food and Agriculture Organization ... Conservation agriculture (CA) can be defined by a statement given by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has determined that conservation agriculture (CA) has three ...
"Biosaline agriculture for forage and livestock production". Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 119 (3-4): 234-248. doi: ... Biosaline agriculture is the production and growth of plants in saline rich groundwater and/or soil. In water scarce locations ... Medicines: Biosaline agriculture can be used to grow plants with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. ... Desalination/Restoration: Biosaline agriculture can be a sustainable solution to traditional agricultural because it allows ...
Sustainable agriculture Sustainable intensive agriculture "Biointensive agriculture". John Jeavons, How to Grow More Vegetables ... Biodynamic agriculture Jean-Martin Fortier Biointensive Agriculture in Fouta Djallon Organic farming Permaculture Regenerative ... Biointensive agriculture is an organic agricultural system that focuses on achieving maximum yields from a minimum area of land ... Use up to 99% less energy than commercial agriculture, while using a fraction of the resources. Produce 2 to 6 times more food ...
Agriculture in the Caribbean, Agriculture in Cuba, History of sugar, All stub articles, Agriculture stubs). ...
v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Agriculture, All stub articles, Agriculture stubs) ... Thus recessional agriculture serves as a rudimentary form of irrigation. Soil type is an important consideration in recessional ... Recessional agriculture is a form of agricultural cultivation that takes place on a floodplain. Farmers practice recessional ... Clay soils are especially suitable for recessional agriculture. "USAID: MDB Proposals: Africa". Archived from the original on ...
Read, Robert L (1990). Manual of Australian Agriculture. Sydney: Butterworths. p. 683. ISBN 0 409 30946 X. "Sunshine header- ... Chuksin, Petr (23 January 2006). "History of the Gallic Reaper". History of Gallic Reaper Evolution Agriculture. Retrieved 29 ...
... was the main economic activity in the Seleucid Empire. Irrigation was more common inland in areas that ... Howe, Timothy (2020). A Companion to Ancient Agriculture. Wiley. p. 371. Musti, Domenico (1984). The Cambridge Ancient History ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, History of agriculture, Economic history of Iran, Seleucid ...
In 1998 Agriculture Week moved into the online market with their website, which, along with changing the magazine into a blog ... Agriculture Week is a weekly agricultural and food science research magazine reporting on the latest developments in ... agriculture and food production. Its main topics are agribusiness, Crops, Livestock and Markets. The magazine is read primarily ...
... is the trend towards locally based agriculture and food production that is tightly linked to a community's ... Civic agriculture connects the community by eliminating the fragmented nature of agriculture production. It reconnects farmers ... Humanities and Agriculture (2000). Agriculture and human values. [Kluwer]. pp. 217-224. OCLC 499757833. Lyson, Thomas A. (2004 ... Dupuis, E. Melanie (September 2005). "Civic Agriculture: Reconnecting Farm, Food, and CommunityCivic Agriculture: Reconnecting ...
The mechanisation of agriculture in industrialised countries, in particular the introduction of the combine harvester from the ...
... TransForum[permanent dead link] Metropolitan Agriculture Reos Partners Resources related to MetroAg, a ... resources and create more sustainable agriculture as well as urban development Urban agriculture Sustainable agriculture " ... Metropolitan agriculture is a concept of how to successfully grow food in an urban environment. It studies the linkage between ... Metropolitan agriculture provides a conceptual framework for analysis of all the systems and processes through which ...
... is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of agriculture, ... "Source details: Open Agriculture". Scopus preview. Elsevier. Retrieved 2019-01-23. Official website (Articles with short ...
KRAV is the main Swedish organization that develops and maintains regulations for ecological sustainable agriculture, founded ... KRAV is a member of International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. Lohr, Luanne; Salomonsson, Lennart (2000). " ...
Media related to Agriculture Building (Raleigh, North Carolina) at Wikimedia Commons North Carolina Department of Agriculture v ... The Agriculture Building is a historic state government office building located at Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina. It was ... The Agriculture Building is a Raleigh Historic Landmark and located in the Capitol Area Historic District. "National Register ... McKelden Smith (May 1976). "Agriculture Building" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. North ...
Colombia portal Agriculture portal Muisca economy Incan agriculture, agriculture in Mesoamerica Muisca cuisine García, 2005, p ... Agriculture by culture, Agriculture in Colombia, History of agriculture, Altiplano Cundiboyacense). ... The Muisca agriculture describes the agriculture of the Muisca, the advanced civilisation that was present in the times before ... The agriculture of the Muisca was performed on small-scale cropfields, part of more extensive lands, and in a rather ...
The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) had several e-governance initiatives in the field of agriculture. States ... It is being run under the direction of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation within the Ministry of Agriculture. In ... The Agriculture Mission Mode Project is one of the 27 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) of the National e-Governance Plan of the ... The Agriculture MMP aims to replicate the agricultural e-governance projects being carried in different states at a national ...
... may refer to: Agriculture Hall (Tippecanoe County, Indiana), listed on the Indiana Register of Historic Sites ... Iowa Melligan Store-Agriculture Hall, Port Hope, Michigan, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Huron County, ... Michigan Agriculture Hall (Madison, Wisconsin), listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Dane County, Wisconsin ... and Structures Agriculture Hall (Ames, Iowa), listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Story County, ...
A (US:) colter / (British:) coulter (Latin 'culter' = 'knife') is a vertically mounted component of many plows that cuts an edge about 7 inches (18 cm) deep ahead of a plowshare. Its most effective depth is determined by soil conditions. Its earliest design consisted of a knife-like blade. Coulters using a flat rotating disc began being used c. 1900. Its advantage was a smoothly cut bank, and it sliced plant debris to the width of the furrow. In his 1854 book, Henry Stephens used dynamometer measurements to conclude that a plow without a coulter took about the same amount of force to pull but using a coulter resulted in a much cleaner result. It softens the soil, allowing the plow to undercut the furrow made by the coulter. A rolling coulter has an optional accessory called a "jointer". The jointer flips over a small part of the surface on top of the slice before the plowshare flips the main slice. It ensures that all of the plant debris gets covered by the flipped slice. Stephens, Henry (1854). ...
Bernardin agriculture machinery brand are manufactured by Agroindustrial San Vicente, S.A. in San Vincente, Argentina. The ...
... a healthy diet and nutrition education in a manner that supports American agriculture and inspires public confidence.. ...
e-Agriculture Members Browse and contact fellow e‑Agriculture Community members. *Login required ... You and e-agriculture Community What are your domain(s) of expertise? *. ... As e-Agriculture Forum member you can contribute to ongoing discussions, receive regular updates via email and browse fellow ... We welcome you to the registration page for the e-Agriculture Community. Kindly complete your details below (paying attention ...
Urban agriculture brings produce and livestock to cities and suburban areas, and can reduce food deserts. Find out about the ... U.S. Department of Agriculture: "Urban Agriculture Toolkit," "The Promise of Urban Agriculture: National Study of Commercial ... How Does Urban Agriculture Work?. Urban agriculture programs can work differently, depending on the type of program. For ... What Are the Challenges of Urban Agriculture Programs?. It can be tough for people to get land to start an agriculture program ...
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We are using our expertise in digital innovation and agriculture to improve decision making for farmers, agribusiness, policy- ... Agriculture Digital agriculture. We are using our expertise in digital innovation and agriculture to improve decision making ... Precision agriculture Our precision agriculture research is addressing key challenges in a range of farming systems, including ... New opportunities are opening up in agriculture and land management that werent dreamed of just a few years ago. ...
Biochars start may have been in agriculture, but researchers are now looking at other applications. Biochar can bind to heavy ... Hope for that application has faded somewhat, but soil scientists are now exploring its use in agriculture and remediating ... Blog post: Scientists tell governments to commit to agriculture funding at Rio+20 ... particularly in agriculture. Poor soils and poverty often go together. After demonstrating yield increases in Kenya, Crane- ...
NewsBlaze is the alternative business and world news newspaper, with entertainment, music, politics, and the latest breaking news and videos.Visit the NewsBlaze Pressroom to see NewsBlaze in the News ...
Agriculture (120) WFCL - Hazardous work (40) Worst forms of child labour (WFCL) (20) Agriculture - Fisheries and aquaculture ( ... Resources on child labour in agriculture. Search in: Resources on child labour in agriculture. All Years. 2023. 2022. 2021. ... Combating child labour in the informal economy with special reference to agriculture: A manual for labour inspectors in Ghana ... Capacity building of cocoa and agriculture extension officers and other key partners on child labour - Report 01 April 2013 ...
Public programs in the agriculture sector must work with the private industry and academia to develop new business models that ... The US Department of Agricultures (USDA) Partnerships for Data Innovations team is improving data accessibility, analysis, and ... GIS imagery and remote sensing will become critical to agriculture management by detecting change through multitemporal ...
... the agriculture industry impacts various aspects of American life from food/beverage services to forestry to textiles - just to ... The agriculture industry in Rhode Island has grown since the early 2000s, thanks in part to the Rhode Island Department of ... Montanas agriculture industry contributes to the states economy in a big way, as one in every six workers in Montana is ... Agriculture in Maine is very diverse, giving residents access to a wide variety of organic products. Despite its small size, ...
The project comprises an intermediated facility for on-lending to eligible private agri-food sector investments in Zambia.
CBP Agriculture Specialists at JFK Discover Live Larvae Among Air Cargo of Plastic Flowers. Homeland Security Today - May 19, ... Mothers Day Flower Rush at LAX, a Busy Time for CBP Agriculture Specialists. Homeland Security Today - May 12, 2023. ...
Next Argentine agriculture minister sets warning alarms among farmers. The next agriculture, livestock and fisheries minister ... Tag: agriculture. * Wednesday, April 15th 2020 - 13:55 UTC Brazilian agri-business exploring and confirming new markets. ... Brazilian agriculture continues to penetrate the international market further. The month of March was marked by the opening of ... Trump hails trade agreements with Japan in agriculture and digital commerce. President Donald Trump on Monday hailed a banner ...
Learn more about the Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA) program and how to apply. ... Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA) Learn more about the Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA) ... Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA). * …. This page is located more than 3 levels deep within a topic. Some page ... This page, Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA), is offered by * Massachusetts Department of Agricultural ...
... laboratory is the sole provider of veterinary diagnostic testing in Manitoba for companion animals and the agriculture-food ...
Precision agriculture systems are being adopted globally to help ensure a safe and sustainable food supply while reducing ... Understand the economic, regulatory and environmental context of agriculture and how precision agriculture addresses related ... Precision agriculture started with GPS guidance systems in the early 1990s.. * The global precision farming market is expected ... Precision agriculture systems are being adopted globally to help ensure a safe and sustainable food supply while reducing ...
Extent of No-Tillage Agriculture Worldwide September 29, 2009 XLS Plan B 4.0 Chapter 9 Data: Feeding Eight Billion People Well ... Extent of No-Till Agriculture in Top Countries, 2011 September 27, 2012 XLS ...
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Listen to Stream Agriculture here on TuneIn! Listen anytime, anywhere! ... He offers the latest information in Agriculture - Events, Topics, Prices and Weather. If it relates to Agriculture, Terry Henne ... Urban Agriculture is a podcast about the Third Green Revolution. Brought to you by Dickson Despommier and Vincent Racaniello. ... From the nations Capitol to your county, if its happening in agriculture. ...
Podcast] Cellular Agriculture and the Evolving Legal/Regulatory Landscape: A Conversation with Ahmed Khan ... Stoel Rives , Deeply Rooted Podcast S2E3: The Intersection Between Alcohol and Agriculture with Jess Thomas, co-founder of ... The United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service ("NRCS") announced on May 11th that it was ... Wetland Reserve Enhancement Partnership/U.S. Department of Agriculture: Natural Resources Conservation Service Announces ...
The Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Program (AgFF) provides leadership and coordination between intra- and extramural ... Agriculture Safety. Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. Farmers are at very high risk for fatal and nonfatal ... Learn more about agriculture safety.. Commercial Fishing Safety. Commercial fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations in ... The Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing program has selected research priorities on the basis of burden, need, and impact and ...
The agriculture mechanization rate of main crops in Jilin is more than 80 percent. The province owns around 600,000 large and ... The agriculture mechanization rate of main crops in Jilin is more than 80 percent. The province owns around 600,000 large and ... Li Weiguo, an official with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that China would advance the scientific and ... Li Weiguo, an official with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that China would advance the scientific and ...
Grow Biointensive Agriculture Center of Kenya (G-BIACK) "demonstrates, trains and promotes GROW BIOINTENSIVE AGRICULTURE ... Retrieved from "" ...
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Agriculture Micronutrients Market by Type (Zinc, Boron, Iron, Copper, Manganese), Crop Type (Cereals and... ... Agriculture Micronutrients Market by Type (Zinc, Boron, Iron, Copper, Manganese), Crop Type (Cereals and... ... Agriculture Micronutrient Copper Fertigation Fruit Manganese Molybdenum Non Ferrous Metals Pulses Seed Treatment Vegetables ... Global $12.2 Billion Agriculture Micronutrients Market to 2027: Opportunities in Growing Contract Farming. 09 juil. 2021 04h03 ...
School of Agriculture and Life Sciences Department of Agriculture and Animal Health Department of Life and Consumer Sciences ... School of Agriculture and Life Sciences Department of Agriculture and Animal Health Department of Life and Consumer Sciences ... Postgraduate Diplomas in Agriculture (4 streams) and Bachelor of Consumer Science degrees (6 streams). ... Postgraduate Diplomas in Agriculture (4 streams) and Bachelor of Consumer Science degrees (6 streams). ...
NORA agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector and asthma: Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) adjusted for age, sex, and race ... NORA agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector: Number and percent of deaths with selected work-related respiratory condition, ... NORA agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector: Proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) adjusted for age, sex, and race for ... NORA agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector and asbestosis: Most frequently recorded industries and occupations on death ...
The snow just kept coming, shattering grimmer expectations held midway through last year. Multiple storms starting last November pushed the snowpack up - and up. As of Thursday, March 16, the snow-water equivalent in the Gunnison Basin stood…. ...
  • The Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Program (AgFF) provides leadership and coordination between intra- and extramural efforts nationwide to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses among the nation's agricultural, forestry, and fishing workers. (
  • The Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing sector has approximately 2.3 million workers and includes all jobs under NAICS code 11 . (
  • The Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing program has selected research priorities on the basis of burden, need, and impact and collaborated with other NIOSH research programs to write the research goals in the NIOSH Strategic Plan for FYs 2019-2024 . (
  • The AgFF Program helps lead the NORA Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing Council , which brings together individuals and organizations to share information, form partnerships, and promote adoption and dissemination of solutions that work. (
  • As NIOSH celebrates half a century of work in occupational safety and health, the Institute's Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Program reflects on 30 years of research and outreach designed to protect the people who produce our nation's food and fiber. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing its intention to receive and consider a single source application for award of a cooperative agreement in fiscal year 2018 (FY 2018) to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to support global strategies that address food safety, nutrition and public health. (
  • As the backbone of Uganda's economy, agriculture has the potential to create lucrative livelihoods and lift thousands of Ugandans out of poverty, especially with the adoption of modern techniques and better quality inputs. (
  • Masaba is the manager of the Kalangala Oil Palm Growers Trust (KOPGT), an initiative designed to produce vegetable oil that now employs 600 women and is managed by Uganda's ministry of agriculture, animal industry and fisheries, located close to Lake Victoria. (
  • Hope for that application has faded somewhat, but soil scientists are now exploring its use in agriculture and remediating pollution. (
  • Li Weiguo, an official with the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, said that China would advance the scientific and technological innovation of agricultural machines, providing efficient equipment and technical support for the upgrading of its agricultural mechanization. (
  • The next agriculture, livestock and fisheries minister of Argentina, as anticipated by MercoPress, will be Luis Basterra, president-elect Alberto Fernandez confirmed on Friday, an appointment met with some scepticism by farmers worried about a possible revival of interventionist policies. (
  • In terms of environmental sustainability, agriculture does impact land - and not always in positive ways. (
  • We also took a look at the economic and environmental impact of the agriculture industry for each state, based on data from the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture , as well as how the industry affects residents and what aspects about that state make it ideal for agriculture. (
  • Precision agriculture systems are being adopted globally to help ensure a safe and sustainable food supply while reducing environmental impacts. (
  • Understand the economic, regulatory and environmental context of agriculture and how precision agriculture addresses related challenges. (
  • This project will support the access to finance for private sector entities - mainly small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) - carrying out agriculture value chain projects. (
  • Additionally, our convening power and private-sector insights provide our partners with the ability to integrate practical, up-to-date information about commercial activity in agriculture. (
  • The following articles present a brief summary of topics of interest specific to French law which apply to French and foreign companies in the food, beverage and agriculture sector, when products are marketed in France. (
  • Also known as urban farming, urban agriculture refers to growing and/or distributing produce and livestock. (
  • What Is Urban Agriculture? (
  • Community gardens and farmers markets continue to pop up in the U.S. These urban agriculture programs can improve access to food, create jobs, beautify areas, and provide education and volunteering opportunities. (
  • While it creates much-needed food (especially in food deserts, where fresh food can be hard to find), urban agriculture also creates challenges. (
  • If you grow or distribute agricultural products in an urban or suburban area, that's known as urban agriculture. (
  • Related urban agriculture initiatives aim to use food waste or divert viable produce so it doesn't go into landfills. (
  • How Does Urban Agriculture Work? (
  • Urban agriculture programs can work differently, depending on the type of program. (
  • An urban agriculture program can be private or receive funding from the federal or state government. (
  • In the U.S., the Department of Agriculture has loans and grants - as well as guidance on how to launch a program - to help people and groups with urban agriculture programs. (
  • Urban agriculture can positively affect a community's health by providing food security, community relationships, and overall health. (
  • Can Urban Agriculture Reduce Food Deserts? (
  • In many developing countries, urban agriculture can be essential in terms of producing food. (
  • Community gardens and other urban agriculture programs can raise property values, too. (
  • Efforts to promote health through improved diet require an understanding of the intersections that comprise global nutritional ecology, including agriculture, food systems, health, disease, and a changing environment across the life span. (
  • We are using our expertise in digital innovation and agriculture to improve decision making for farmers, agribusiness, policy-makers and researchers. (
  • The activity is to enhance the capacity of the extensions services in the provision of relevant support to farmers to improve cocoa and other agriculture production through effective Occupational Safety and Health measures, actions against child labour, especially with respect to hazardous work, including their active participation in the Ghana Child Labour Monitoring System (GCLMS). (
  • President Donald Trump on Monday hailed a banner day for American farmers, announcing two trade agreements with Japan that he said would deepen economic ties in agriculture and digital commerce. (
  • The Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA) program assists beginning farmers who are between 1 and 10 years in business by providing technical assistance (including a mentorship option) and business planning assistance. (
  • And the only way to do this is to get youth and more women involved in agriculture. (
  • Together, with our partners, we are igniting innovation and driving excellence in agriculture education, cultivating high-impact programs for rural youth and accelerating potential for careers in agriculture. (
  • Learn more about the Matching Enterprise Grants for Agriculture (MEGA) program and how to apply. (
  • 1] Agriculture includes crop production, animal production, and aquaculture. (
  • Brazil's economy expanded in the third quarter at its fastest pace since early last year, official data showed on Tuesday, with 0.6% growth over the previous quarter driven by a strong performance in agriculture and a sharp rebound in the industry. (
  • Precision agriculture adoption is driven by increased population, lack of arable land for farming and growth in technology. (
  • The agriculture industry in Rhode Island has grown since the early 2000s, thanks in part to the Rhode Island Department of Agriculture's increased marketing strategies. (
  • It is not new news that agriculture has excessive worker injury rates. (
  • Future work to develop exposure metrics that incorporate both chemical and behavior characteristics for all farmworkers and farm residents will further improve epidemiologic studies in agriculture. (
  • Precision agriculture started with GPS guidance systems in the early 1990s. (
  • 2014] An estimate of the U.S. government's undercount of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses in agriculture. (
  • You can prepare for a challenging and rewarding career in precision agriculture through a new, 13-credit certificate program. (
  • Most Americans don't recognize just how much the agriculture industry affects their everyday lives. (
  • Stacker ranked each U.S. state by the size of its agriculture industry. (
  • Keep reading to see where your state's agriculture industry ranks. (
  • The Veterinary Diagnostic Services (VDS) laboratory is the sole provider of veterinary diagnostic testing in Manitoba for companion animals and the agriculture-food industry. (
  • We welcome you to the registration page for the e-Agriculture Community. (
  • While Alaska's weather is temperamental by agriculture standards, the lack of pests produces some high-quality crops. (
  • Long-term goals include reduction in the number of injuries and better planning for the changing training needs as agriculture evolves from small plots and hand tools to larger-scale, mechanized production. (
  • Nanotechnology has emerged as a key empowering technology for agriculture production due to its higher efficiency and accurate target delivery. (
  • Lastly, we propose a framework to overcome current challenges and develop a strategy for safe, effective and acceptable applications of MNMs in nano-enabled agriculture . (
  • New opportunities are opening up in agriculture and land management that weren't dreamed of just a few years ago. (
  • GIS imagery and remote sensing will become critical to agriculture management by detecting change through multitemporal datasets and imagery in real time at scale. (
  • Discover how to apply precision agriculture technologies to the management of nutrients and irrigation water. (
  • The agriculture mechanization rate of main crops in Jilin is more than 80 percent. (
  • Jilin is just one example of China's push to develop modern agriculture. (
  • This report presents the results of a survey on the working and living conditions of adult and child labourers under the haruwa, charuwa and haliya systems in agriculture, prevalent in certain rural Districts of Nepal. (
  • Members of Girls Farm, based in Japan's Yamagata Prefecture, are changing the image of agriculture. (
  • In 2010, Harada, who was born in Tokyo, joined the Girls Farm, a project launched in Yamagata Prefecture, located in the Tohoku region of Honshu Island, by a local female farmer keen to change the stodgy image of Japanese agriculture. (
  • Objective: Stimulate and encourage investigations in biomedicine and agriculture through the use of pertinent large domestic farm animals that mimic specific human developmental, physiological or disease states. (
  • Poverty reduction among households working in agriculture accounts for 79% of the national poverty reduction observed between 2006 and 2013. (
  • This situation, experts say, is the result of a national policy that ignored agriculture in favour of industrial development - through the auto manufacturing and electronics sectors - to turn Japan's devastated post-war economy into a high-tech exporter nation, and the third largest economy in the world after the United States and China. (
  • Alaska officials are aware that their state isn't known for agriculture, so they stamp their products with a distinct seal. (