Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Technology, Industry, and AgricultureEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)United StatesBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Agricultural Inoculants: Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.General Adaptation Syndrome: The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Parakeratosis: Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)MontanaTheology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.KansasEuropePlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Product SafetyCarbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Animal DiseasesBrazilPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.VietnamDrug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/3155)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Mechanical maceration of alfalfa. (2/3155)

Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (3/3155)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

Organic: What's in a name? (4/3155)

The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year.  (+info)

Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998. (5/3155)

In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides  (+info)

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (6/3155)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Water pollution and human health in China. (7/3155)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA). (8/3155)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities.  (+info)

*Bioarchaeology

Subsistence based upon agriculture is strongly associated with a higher rate of caries than subsistence based upon foraging, ... The rapid and dramatic increase in 13C after the adoption of maize agriculture attests to the change in the southeastern ... For example, bioarchaeologists have used caries in skeletons to correlate a diet of rice and agriculture with the disease. ... Tayles, N.; Domett, K.; Nelsen, K. (2000). "Agriculture and dental caries? The case of rice in prehistoric Southeast Asia". ...

*Sustainable agriculture

The science of agriculture is called "agronomy", the root of this word relating to scientific law. Although agriculture may not ... Sustainable agriculture can be understood as an ecosystem approach to agriculture. Practices that can cause long-term damage to ... Agriculture and Agronomy portal Sustainable development portal Ecology portal Declaration for Healthy Food and Agriculture ... "FAO World Agriculture towards 2015/2030". Food and Agriculture Organization. 21 August 2008. "SoilConsWeb". Terribile, Fabio ( ...

*Labeling of fertilizer

7. "National Code of Practice for Fertilizer Description & Labelling" (PDF). Australian Government Department of Agriculture, ...

*Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation

Embrapa Temperate Agriculture, Pelotas, RS. Temperate climate regions of Brazil. Embrapa Western Region Agriculture, Dourados, ... Research on precision agriculture, biotechnology, process automation, new materials, family farming and family agroindustry, ... Embrapa Agriculture Informatics, Campinas, SP. Research on information technology for agribusiness. Embrapa Agrobiology, ... Their mission is to "develop research, development and innovation solutions for the sustainability of agriculture, for the ...

*Risk assessment for organic swine health

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, 2012. Hog Production Systems, Page 3. SARE Nationwide Learning Center; Brumm, ... Consumer demand, stemming from the larger organic agriculture movement has helped spurred growth in this industry. The overall ... 9 3165-3169 Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education, 2012. Hog Production Systems, Part IV. Educational Resources; ...

*Animal welfare and rights in India

A 2007 report by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations found that Indians had the lowest rate of ...

*Pesticide degradation

Globally, an estimated 1 to 2.5 million tons of active pesticide ingredients are used each year, mainly in agriculture. Forty ... Pesticides are applied over large areas in agriculture and urban settings. Pesticide use therefore represents an important ...

*Metropolitan agriculture

... references a growing understanding of the complex relationship between cities and agriculture. As a ... In terms of the larger relationship between cities and agriculture, metropolitan agriculture provides a conceptual framework ... resources and create more sustainable agriculture as well as urban development Urban agriculture Sustainable agriculture http ... Metropolitan agriculture expresses a growing understanding of the multiple ways in which agriculture is linked with urban areas ...

*SENSOR-Pesticides

From 1995 to 2001, use in agriculture accounted for at least 70% of conventional pesticide use in the U.S., and the US EPA ... Pesticides are particularly useful in agriculture because they increase crop yields and reduce the need for manual labor. ... The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services inspected the grower's farms in Florida and fined the company $ ... In Florida, the state legislature added ten new pesticide inspectors to the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer ...

*Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation

M J Blackie and A C Conroy, (2006) The Collapse of Agriculture, in A C Conroy, M J Blackie and others, Poverty, AIDS and Hunger ... The Agriculture Minister was empowered to impose regulations affecting virtually every major food crop produced for sale or ... 563-4. M J Blackie and A C Conroy, (2006) The Collapse of Agriculture, pp. 96-7. J K van Donge, (1995). Kamuzu's Legacy: The ... The crisis was caused by state regulation of agriculture, the diversion of resources to inefficient estates and failure to ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Tuntasuvana, D. et al. (2003) Chemotherapy of surra in horses ... that are impractical to treat under typical commercial constraints within agriculture. Synthetic chemicals such as ...

*Forestry in India

As of 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations estimates India's forest cover to be about 68 million ... However, a large percentage of this fuel-wood is grown as biomass remaining from agriculture, and is managed outside forests. ... A 2010 study by the Food and Agriculture Organisation ranks India amongst the 10 countries with the largest forest area ... To achieve these objectives, the National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 recommended the reorganisation of state forestry ...

*Archaeology of the Americas

The Formative stage Defined as "village agriculture" based. Most of these can be dated from 1000 BCE to 500 CE. Examples ...

*Anaerobic lagoon

"Cryptosporidium in livestock, manure storages and surface waters in Ontario" (PDF). Ontario Federation of Agriculture. Archived ... US Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 2 November 2011. "Facts About ...

*Agriculture

... defined the limits on how large and for how long an army could be mobilized. Shang Yang called agriculture and war ... The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture by humans dates back thousands of years, ... Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources. Agriculture is a major draw on water from aquifers ... 25-57 in Plants, Genes, and Agriculture. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA. "Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...

*Roman agriculture

Agriculture in ancient Greece History of agriculture Roman technology Deforestation during the Roman period Grain supply to the ... Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but was idealized among the social elite as a way of life. Cicero ... Roman agriculture reached its height in productivity and efficiency during the late Republic and early Empire. Farm sizes in ... Buck, Robert J. Agriculture and Agricultural Practice In Roman Law. Wiesbaden: F. Steiner, 1983. Erdkamp, Paul. The Grain ...

*California Agriculture

... has won several awards from the Association for Communication Excellence in Agriculture, Natural ... "California Agriculture Online". Retrieved 2013-06-06. Official website California Agriculture on Facebook. ... California Agriculture is a quarterly peer-reviewed, scientific journal reporting news and research on agricultural, natural, ... California Agriculture often has special issues that explore timely topics, which have recently included biofuels, climate ...

*Agriculture Building

The Agriculture Building is a historic state government office building located at Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina. It was ... The Agriculture Building is a Raleigh Historic Landmark and located in the Capitol Area Historic District. National Park ... McKelden Smith (May 1976). "Agriculture Building" (pdf). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. North ...

*Hydrogel agriculture

Swelling capacity Water conservation Farm water Rainfed agriculture Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment Vundavallia, Ramesh ( ... Hydrogel agriculture technology uses insoluble gel-forming polymers to improve the water-holding properties of different soils ... 2008). "Polymer in Agriculture: A Review" (PDF). American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences. 3 (1): 299-314. CS1 ... Desertification and lack of water threaten agriculture in many arid and semi-arid regions of the world; these may be mitigated ...

*Agriculture MMP

The Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) had several e-governance initiatives in the field of agriculture. States ... It is being run under the direction of the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation within the Ministry of Agriculture. In ... The Agriculture Mission Mode Project is one of the 27 Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) of the National e-Governance Plan of the ... The Agriculture MMP aims to replicate the agricultural e-governance projects being carried in different states at a national ...

*Urban agriculture

The Urban Agriculture Network, Inc., New York, NY. Butler, L. and D.M. Moronek (eds.) (May 2002). "Urban and Agriculture ... First, urban agriculture may reduce racial and class disparities in access to healthy food. When urban agriculture leads to ... The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as: [A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, fuel ... "Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Cities: Using Wastes and Idle Land and Water Bodies as Resources" Food and Agriculture ...

*Subsistence agriculture

Cash crop Commercial agriculture Extensive agriculture Hoe-farming Industrial agriculture Opium replacement Subsistence fishing ... Subsistence agriculture had largely disappeared in Europe by the beginning of World War I, and in North America with the ... Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed ... Subsistence agriculture also emerged independently in Mexico where it was based on maize cultivation, and the Andes where it ...

*Biodynamic agriculture

... is a form of alternative agriculture very similar to organic farming, but it includes various esoteric ... Agriculture and Agronomy portal Agroecology Alan Chadwick Biointensive agriculture Ehrenfried Pfeiffer Permaculture The Real ... p. 208; Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Committee on Twenty-First Century Systems Agriculture, Division on Earth ... In common with other forms of organic agriculture, biodynamic agriculture uses management practices that are intended to " ...

*Leaching (agriculture)

Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Environmental Impacts of Nitrogen Use in Agriculture Lin, BL; Sakoda, ... In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. Soil ... The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) estimates world demand for nitrogen fertilizers will increase ... Of particular concern are hazardous waste dumps and landfills, and, in agriculture, excess fertilizer, improperly stored animal ...

*Biointensive agriculture

Sustainable agriculture "Biointensive agriculture". John Jeavons, How to Grow More Vegetables: And Fruits, Nuts, Berries, ... Biodynamic agriculture Jean-Martin Fortier Biointensive Agriculture in Fouta Djallon Organic farming Permaculture Regenerative ... Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 25:3, pp. 181‐188). This study states that "Current mechanized agriculture has an ... Biointensive agriculture is an organic agricultural system that focuses on achieving maximum yields from a minimum area of land ...
Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
On 2 February the European Commission launched the first phase of the modernization and simplification of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the opening of a three-month public consultation. The contributions received will support the Commissions work to define the agricultural policy priorities for the future. A modernized and simplified Common Agricultural Policy would address the key challenges that agriculture and rural areas are facing while at the same time contributing to the Commissions policy priorities (notably jobs and growth), to sustainable development, a budget focused on results, simplification and subsidiarity.. Announcing the consultation process, EU Agriculture and Rural Development Commissioner Phil Hogan said: "Today we are taking the next steps towards modernizing and simplifying the Common Agricultural Policy for the 21st Century. By launching this public consultation, we are asking all stakeholders and those interested in the future of food and farming in Europe ...
The Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, or ADMARC, was formed in Malawi in 1971 as a Government-owned corporation or parastatal to promote the Malawian economy by increasing the volume and quality of agricultural exports, to develop new foreign markets for the consumption of Malawian agricultural produce and to supporting Malawis farmers. It was the successor of a number of marketing boards of the colonial-era and early post-colonial times, whose functions were as much about controlling African smallholders and generating government revenues as in promoting agricultural development. At its foundation, ADMARC was given the power to finance the economic development of any public or private organization. In its first decade of operation, ADMARC was considered to be more business-like and less bureaucratic than similar African parastatal bodies, but from its formation it was involved in the diversion of resources from smallholder farming to tobacco estates, often owned by members of ...
Synonyms for Agricultural sector in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural sector. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural sector?
Agricultural Development Economics - The focal point for FAOs economic research and policy analysis for food security and sustainable development.
We present extensions to the agent-based agricultural policy simulator (AgriPoliS) model that make it possible to simulate the consequences of agricultural policy reform on farmers land use...
This Review of Agricultural Policies: Costa Rica is one of a series of reviews of national agricultural policies undertaken by the OECD’s Committee for A
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
CGIAR: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Local: Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) • Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP) • Akwa Ibom State University • Benue State Agricultural Development Programme (BNARDA) • Cassava Growers Association of Nigeria • Commission (JDPC) - Ilorin • Damisa Gurus • Development Dynamics • Dominican Centre for Training and Development • ENVOY Agricultural Services • Federal College of Agriculture - Akure • Federal Ministries of: Agriculture, Education, and Health • Forward Africa • Human Empowerment and Development Project (HEMADEP) • Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (IMOADP) • Institute of Agricultural Research & Training (IAR&T) • Justice Development and Peace • Justice Development and Peace Commission (JDPC) • Justice Development and Peace ...
Buy Agricultural Development in the World Periphery for $354.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Pre-order for NZ release day delivery. This book brings together analysis on the conditions of agricultural sectors in countries and regions of the worlds peripheries, from a wide variety ...
This working paper examines how civil society organisations (CSOs) -- particularly those representing poor and marginalised rural people -- can inform and influence the processes of agricultural policy formulation and implementation. We summarise the role of different interest groups in shaping pro-poor agricultural development and explain how poor people can gain voice to express their views and shape policy processes in a meaningful way.
Shri Singh inaugurates two-day National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign-2017. The National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign - 2017 is being organised on 25th and 26th April, 2017 at New Delhi. The Conference was inaugurated by Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and also addressed by Shri Parshottam Rupala and Shri Sudarshan Bhagat, Ministers of State for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. The Conference was attended by Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, besides Agriculture Production Commissioners / Principal Secretaries / Secretaries / Directors of the State Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture and Agriculture Marketing, Senior Scientists from ICAR and other officials from relevant Ministries and agencies.. In his inaugural address, Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare applauded efforts of the Central and State Governments in attaining an estimated record production of about ...
Synonyms for Agricultural industry in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural industry. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural industry?
Historically, most rural development programs look to increase local production of market crops. These have often been coupled with infrastructure products meant to connect rural parts of poor countries to big market centers and trade arteries.. But people are starting to realize that connecting people to markets is not a guarantee that they will be able to make a living from their crops, and may actually lead to mono-crop dependency (mono-cropping itself is also associated with soil depletion and the concentration of land holdings into fewer hands). Thus, sustainable subsistence has become more important as a goal in agricultural development work.. ...
This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology. Countries covered represent about 80% of the global value added in agriculture. The report includes a general discussion on developments in agricultural policies and specific chapters for each country covered.. ...
Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the medias incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 67 countries, spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets, to test these predictions. We find that, in line with theoretical hypotheses, public support to agriculture is strongly affected by the mass media. In particular, an increase in the share of informed voters, and a greater role of the private televisions in society is associated with policies which benefit the majority more: it reduces taxation of agriculture in poor countries and reduces subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The evidence is also consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to
Anonymous, 1995: 1995 annual conference in Grangeneuve: evaluation of agricultural policy measures from the example of the new income and environment policy motivated direct payments
Find great deals for Agricultural Policy in the United States: Evolution and Economics by Larry D. Sanders, James W. Pease, James L. Novak (Hardback, 2015). Shop with confidence on eBay!
In Malawi, maize is the major crop and food staple. Given limited off-farm employment opportunities, much-needed increases in household income for improving food security must come from gains in agricultural productivity through better technology and more profitable crops. In the past, agricultural policy promoted hybrid maize and, more recently, tobacco to increase smallholder income. This paper presents an analysis of what determines the adoption of these two crops and what kind of income effects follow from adoption. Apart from factor endowment and exposure to agroecological risks, differences in the households access to financial and commodity markets significantly influence its cropping shares and farm income. Zeller, Manfred; Diagne, Aliou; Mataya, Charles
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
Agricultural ecosystems (agro-ecosystems) were created by humans during the invention of agriculture approximately 12 000 years ago to generate a reliable food supply that could be easily stored (e.g. cereal grains), enabling the creation of cities and the rise of civilizations. Since their origin in the Fertile Crescent, agro-ecosystems have spread globally to cover approximately 40% of the land surface, with most of this expansion occurring during the past 300 years to feed the rapidly growing human population [1]. One consequence of this expansion was an enormous reduction in plant and animal diversity globally as species-rich natural ecosystems were converted to species-poor agro-ecosystems [2,3]. To illustrate the temporal and spatial scales involved, in only 300 years agro-ecosystems expanded such that approximately 540 million ha are now planted annually to only three crop species, maize, rice and wheat (FAO Statistics), compared with the approximately 600 million ha of tropical ...
In order to assess the agricultural potential of regions and to evaluate the risk of environmental degradation due to agriculture, we define a marginality index for agricultural land use which is based on available global data sets and takes into account various environmental conditions. Influencing factors taken into consideration are the general climatic conditions for plant growth, the soil fertility, the soil moisture availability, the precipitation uncertainty and the erosion risk due to the steepness of slopes. Comparison of our marginality index with present global assessments of agricultural land use shows that about 30% of agricultural land currently in use can be identified as marginal, in other words as having a disposition towards overuse and potential environmental degradation. The validity of our approach is strengthened by the fact that agriculturally used areas identified as marginal are described as vulnerable in the literature. The risk of degradation with a further ...
Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use
Regarding the production of vegetables and annual plants, the output of maize reached 5.13 million tons, down 114.6 thousand tons against 2016 due to the decrease of 52.9 thousand hectares of the cultivated area (maize productivity increased by 110 kilograms per hectare). The output of sweet potato gained 1.35 million tons, up 81.9 thousand tons (the cultivated area raised by 1.6 thousand hectares); sugar-cane production achieved 18.32 million tons, up 1.11 million tons (the cultivated area went up by 12.8 thousand hectares); the yield of cassava gained 10.34 million tons, down 569.1 thousand tons (the cultivated area fell by 34.4 thousand hectares); the yield of peanut reached 461.5 thousand tons, down 2.1 thousand tons (the area went down by 4.1 thousand hectares); soya production attained 102.3 thousand tons, down 22 thousand tons (a decrease of 16.1 thousand hectares of cultivated area); vegetables of all kinds achieved 16.49 million tons, up 562.8 thousand tons (the area increased by 29.5 ...
Perhaps the most direct way to measure the exposure of banks to agricultural production is the percentage of their loan portfolios made to farmers. The table on this page provides such a breakdown. It may be useful to know that regulators, under a commonly used rule of thumb, consider any bank with at least 25 percent of its loans extended to the agricultural sector to be an agriculturally focused lending institution (an "agricultural bank"). By this standard, the table indicates that over half of all banks in the Ninth District are agriculturally focused. Only one other Federal Reserve District, Kansas City, has a similar concentration. Agricultural banks are a particularly large part of the bank population in the Dakotas, where they make up about 80 percent of all banks. A significant number of banks in the district are even more agriculturally dependent than the agricultural bank standard: One-third of all banks in the district have over half of their total loans extended to agricultural ...
... _Districts in the Country Regions | Electoral Boundaries WA boundaries wa gov au825032Have Your SayDownload Districts in the country regions Previous section | Next section Agricultural Region
China Agricultural Farm Equipment Machinery, Find details about China Rice Machine, Agricultural Machinery from Agricultural Farm Equipment Machinery - Hebei Ruixue Grain Selecting Machinery Company Limited
Altieri, M. A., & Yurjevic, A. (1992). Changing the agenda of the universities. ILEIA Newsletter, 2, 39. Antholt, C. H. (1992). Relevancy, responsiveness and cost-effectiveness: Issues/or agricultural extension in the 21st century. Washington, DC: Asia Region, Technical Department, World Bank. Antholt, C. H. (1994). Getting ready for the twenty-first century: Technical change and institutional modernisation in agriculture. World Bank Technical Paper 217. Asia Technical Department Series. Washington, DC: World Bank. Argyris, C., Putoam, R., & Smith, D. M. (1985). Action science. San Francisco and London: Jossey-Bass. Attah-Krah, A. N., & Francis, P. A. (1987). The role of on-farm trials in the evaluation of composite technologies: The case of alley farming in southern Nigeria. Agricultural Systems, 23, 133-152. Axinn, G. H. (1988). T & V (tragic and vain) extension. INTERPAKS, INTERCHANGE, International Agriculture, 5 (3). Urbana: College of Agriculture, University of Illinois at ...
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The agricultural sector employs an estimated 1.3 billion workers worldwide, that is half of the worlds labour force. In terms of fatalities, injuries and work-related ill-health, it is one of the three most hazardous sectors of activity (along with construction and mining). According to ILO estimates, at least 170,000 agricultural workers are killed each year. This means that workers in agriculture run twice the risk of dying on the job compared with workers in other sectors. Agricultural mortality rates have remained consistently high in the last decade compared with other sectors in which fatal accident rates have generally decreased. Millions more agricultural workers are seriously injured in workplace accidents involving agricultural machinery or poisoned by pesticides and other agrochemicals. Furthermore, widespread under-reporting of deaths, injuries and occupational diseases in the agricultural sector means that the real picture of the occupational health and safety of farm workers is ...
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The agricultural economics literature provides various estimates of the number of farms and small farms in the world. This paper is an effort to provide a more complete and up to date as well as carefully documented estimate of the total number of farms in the world, as well as by region and level of income. It uses data from numerous rounds of the World Census of Agriculture, the only dataset available which allows the user to gain a complete picture of the total number of farms globally and at the country level. The paper provides estimates of the number of family farms, the number of farms by size as well as the distibution of farmland by farm size. These estimates find that: there are at least 570 million farms worldwide, of which more than 500 million can be considered family farms. Most of the worlds farms are very small, with more than 475 million farms being less than 2 hectares in size. Although the vast majority of the worlds farms are smaller than 2 hectares, they operate only a ...
Read "Strategy of statistical model selection for precision farming on-farm experiments, Precision Agriculture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project was a cross-sectional study that assessed the health and safety status of Iowa farm families and others who lived and worked on those farms. Data were collected using a comprehensive mail-out questionnaire that was sent to 989 representative Iowa farm operators, their families, and hired help. Three hundred and ninety (39%) farm operators
Our Precision Agriculture research is addressing key challenges in a range of farming systems, including viticulture, broadacre cropping, dairy and sugar farming. Were working with industry to develop and refine tools to assess, monitor and redress environmental and economic risks associated with agricultural practices.
Read "Spectral and thermal sensing for nitrogen and water status in rainfed and irrigated wheat environments, Precision Agriculture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Downloadable ! Author(s): Plantinga, Andrew & Lubowski, Ruben & Stavins, Robert. 2002 Abstract: We conduct a national-scale study of the determinants of agricultural land values to better understand how current farmland prices are influenced by the potential for future land development. The theoretical basis for the empirical analysis is a spatial city model with stochastic returns to future land development. From the theoretical model, we derive an expression for the current price of agricultural land in terms of annual returns to agricultural production, the price of recently developed land parcels, and expressions involving model parameters that are represented in the empirical model by nonlinear functions of observed variables and parameters to be estimated. We estimate the model of agricultural land values with a cross-section on approximately three thousand counties in the contiguous U.S. The results provide strong support for the model, and provide the first evidence that option values associated
KPMGs Global Head of Agribusiness, Ian Proudfoot, joins us in the Herald studio to talk about the state of our agricultural sector. Hes the author of the
Abstract Background: Florida has a large population of farmworkers, who face barriers to healthcare access. This can be problematic for farmworkers with increased need, like pregnant women. Lack of adequate and timely prenatal care is associated with negative maternal/newborn outcomes. Understanding farmworkers access to and experience with prenatal care will advance promotion of prenatal care for this at-risk population. Purpose: Explore farmworkers access to and experience with prenatal care in South Florida. Methods: We recruited 100 farmworker women, obtained informed consent, and verbally administered a 53-item survey. The survey explored experience with prenatal care in the past two years. We used past literature to design the survey. We analyzed timely and adequate prenatal care, and maternal/newborn outcomes using SPSS version 20. The Universitys IRB approved the research protocol. Findings: The majority (97%), of participants started prenatal care during the first trimester, and (90%)
Waterstone is a privately owned and managed 50 acre wildlife area in the Central Texas Edwards Plateau region. A grazing lease with the previous owner allowed the land to qualify for agricultural land use after it was purchased. Agricultural land use was then converted to Wildlife Management.
Article Agriculture and the environment in the EU accession countries. Implications of applying the EU common agricultural policy Agriculture has played a central role in shaping and influencing the environment in numerous ways throughout Europe ove...
... integrates three main meaningful goals - economic profitability, environmental health, and social and economic equity A variety of philosophies, policies and practices have contributed whole heartedly to these goals. People in many different capacities, from farmers to consumers, have shared this vision and contributed to it. Despite the diversity of people and perspectives, the following themes commonly weave through definitions of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the present situation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance. Stewardship of human resources includes consideration of social responsibilities such as working and living conditions of laborers, the needs of rural communities, and consumer health and safety both in the present and the future.. Stewardship of land and natural ...
Sustainable agriculture definition, any of a number of environmentally friendly farming methods that preserve an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. See more.
UXBRIDGE, Canada, May 29 (IPS) - The world is increasingly hungry because small farmers are losing access to farmland. Small farmers produce most of the worlds food but are now squeezed onto less than 25 percent of the worlds farmland, a new report reveals. Corporate and commercial farms, big biofuel operations and land speculators are pushing millions off their land.
Looking for agroecosystem? Find out information about agroecosystem. A model for the functionings of an agricultural system, with all inputs and outputs. An ecosystem may be as small as a set of microbial interactions that... Explanation of agroecosystem
The International Symposium on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development (ESAD 2017) will be held from November 28-30, 2017 in Sanya, China. This Conference will cover issues on Environment and Sustainable Agriculture Development. ESAD 2017 is sponsored by Engineering Information Institute, Open Access Library, Scientific Research Publishing and 1000thinktank. It dedicates to creating a stage for exchanging the latest research results and sharing the advanced research methods. 
Metropolitan agriculture references a growing understanding of the complex relationship between cities and agriculture. As a concept, it can help serve as a linkage between issues as open and diverse as sustainability, urbanization, urban agriculture, urban land use policies and agricultural change.[1][2]. The specific notion of metropolitan agriculture has recently been developed further by TransForum, a Dutch foundation that works on sustainable agriculture (by fostering multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge dissemination via pilot projects, publications, etc.). Metropolitan agriculture expresses a growing understanding of the multiple ways in which agriculture is linked with urban areas.[3]. Over several years, TransForums work on a number of pilot projects centered on re-connecting agriculture and cities while attempting to develop more sustainable agricultural systems and ventures.[4] Out of this work emerged certain underlying characteristics and design principles as well as a ...
Using the advent of smart cities and big data, precision agriculture allows the nourishing of sensor data into online databases for continuous crop monitoring, creation optimization, and data storage. nursery configurations under ISO/IEC 17025 accreditations. Measuring the spatial and temporal factors of crop using a range of nutritional receptors is paramount to determining smart approaches for effective resource make use of and sustainable development. Many ion receptors or different strategies have been created lately to execute crop monitoring. Among these, Electric Conductivity (EC) meters have already been used thoroughly to measure earth salinity [7], nevertheless the insufficient ion selectivity for this is manufactured simply by this technique inadequate for the quantitative measurement of specific ions. Furthermore, EC measurement methods such as Period Domains Reflectometry (TDR) and Regularity Domains Reflectometry (FDR) relate with the propagation of the voltage pulse and dimension ...
October 1992 [92-TR 26] This report presents estimates of supply, demand, and price transmission elasticities for the U.S. livestock, poultry, and dairy sectors. The estimates are derived from models maintained by the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) and are prepared in accordance with procedures stipulated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).. Full Text 1.72 MB. ...
The world is home to 500 million smallholder family farms generating up to 80 percent of the food consumed by developing world, according to Dr. Kanayo F. Nwaze, President of the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Investing in the resilience of smallholder farmers is therefore investing in the resilience of food systems and communities and the balanced and sustained development of nations.
Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
There is today a rapid migration of the rural poor to swelling urban centers in search of better job opportunities and improved livelihoods. A large part of these rural migrants succeeds in finding better life, but for many the hopes of a better future often turns into a nightmare of economic and social insecurity.
NSFs mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education made by scientists, engineers, and educators from across the country.
SOUTH AFRICA - Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister Tina Joemat-Pettersson will open the 3rd Global Conference on Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security and Climate Change in Johannesburg today (3 December).
This is the first of two sessions focusing on fundamental aspects of food security: i) long run global food supply scenarios and their implications for the trend level of food prices, and ii) the variance of prices around that level. Of critical significance to sustainable global poverty reduction is the trend level of food prices. During the 20th century real food prices in international markets traced a downward path but have spiked several times in recent years. Will historians see the past few years as an aberration on a continuing long-run downward trajectory for food prices, or will they be seen as the beginning of a long period of high and even rising prices for farm products ...
... was last measured at 55800 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Agricultural land refers to the share of land area that is arable, under permanent crops, and under permanent pastures. Arable land includes land defined by the FAO as land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted once), temporary meadows for mowing or for pasture, land under market or kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation is excluded. Land under permanent crops is land cultivated with crops that occupy the land for long periods and need not be replanted after each harvest, such as cocoa, coffee, and rubber. This category includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land under trees grown for wood or timber. Permanent pasture is land used for five or more years for forage, including natural and cultivated crops.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics
Edward Barbier. More than one-third of the rural population in developing countries lives on less-favored agricultural land, according to global spatial datasets from 2000. How, then, does this distribution influence the incidence of poverty in these countries?. To address this question, our paper "Poverty and the Spatial Distribution of Rural Population" investigates two types of spatial distributions across 83 developing countries over a 10-year period: rural populations on less-favored agricultural lands and in less-favored agricultural areas. Less-favored agricultural lands are constrained by difficult terrain, poor soil quality, or limited rainfall. Less-favored agricultural areas include less-favored agricultural lands plus favorable agricultural land with limited access to markets (i.e. five hours or more travel to a market city with a population of at least 50,000).. Our spatial analysis of the distribution of rural populations across 124 developing countries in 2000 reveals that around ...
The Departments mandate is to boost AU Member States rural economy development and agricultural productivity by supporting the adoption of measures, strategies, policies and programmes on agriculture. It works closely with the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) and other partners. Key tasks include to: develop programmes ensuring food security; promote rural communities initiatives and transfer of technologies; coordinate efforts to eradicate poverty and combat desertification and drought; promote agricultural products by small-scale producers; support the harmonisation of policies and strategies between the RECs; and initiate research on climate change, water and sanitation management. The Department has three divisions: Agriculture and Food Security; Environment, Climate Change, Water, Land and Natural Resources; and Rural Economy. The Departments flagship programme is the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). The Department also works with the following offices ...
Download Ammonia Synthesis on Agriculture XPRT. Ammonia is one of the most important chemicals pro-duced globally with approximately 85% being used as fertilizer for food production. Ammonia synthesis occurs by the combination of hydrogen and nitroge...
This paper analyses the way in which certain soil fertility policies have evolved, and how stakeholders perceive them. It attempts to understand better the tools and processes involved in formulating and implementing policies and methodologies for best implementing soil fertility management strategies that are complementary to farmers agricultural techniques.. The paper concludes that if policies are to have a positive impact on the ground, key stakeholders must be allowed to play an active role in their formulation. The success or failure of a policy is ultimately determined by the manner in which it is formulated and implemented, and it will only be fully supported if stakeholders consider it to be legitimate and relevant to their needs. Policy processes should therefore extend beyond the scope of central government and include local government, civil society organisations and community groups. ...
Georgias farmers, ranchers, and producers are the backbone of our states most important industry: agriculture. As the Ranking Member of the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Agriculture and Co-Chair of the Congressional Peanut Caucus, I am a staunch supporter of the agricultural community in Georgias Second Congressional District and the entire nation. I support assistance to farmers affected by drought, wildfires, and other natural disasters that occur each year. In addition, I have worked to ensure that the peanut support program remained strong in the 2014 Farm Bill; strengthen our nations nutrition programs; reform the H2-A program for non-immigrant agricultural workers; bolster child nutrition programs in our nations schools; prevent the Environmental Protection Agency from imposing burdensome regulations on agriculture; ensure that Mexican tomatoes and chicken do not drive down the prices of U.S.-produced tomatoes and chicken due to illegal dumping; and advance agricultural ...
Downloadable! Burley tobacco production in Malawi was liberalized to permit production by smallholders in the early 1990s. The purpose of this paper is to show which smallholders began producing burley tobacco after liberalization and which smallholders still continue to produce it. Analysis of the characteristics of burley tobacco producers shows that only smallholders who had adequate farm size and adequate funds could start to produce it. With regard to the farm size requirements, only smallholders who had enough acreage to sell tobacco on the auction floors and who had enough acreage to rotate crops could start to produce. With regard to the financial requirements, only smallholders who could procure funds through informal institutions or who possessed their own capital to meet the necessary agricultural expenditures could start. So, it was only the wealthy households which could start to produce tobacco after liberalization and continue to produce it.
NSF Basic Research to Enable Agricultural Development (BREAD) The goal of BREAD is to support innovative basic scientific research designed to address key constraints to smallholder agriculture in the developing world. Proposals submitted to BREAD must make a clear and well-defined connection between the outcomes of the proposed basic research and its direct relevance and potential application to agriculture in the developing world. In FY15, activities in two focus areas will be supported: (1) Developing High Throughput, Low Cost Phenotyping Tools and Devices to facilitate assessment of field-based phenotypes, especially for root and tuber crops (PHENO), and (2) Advancing Basic Research in Crop Plants Relevant to Smallholder Agriculture in Developing Countries (ABRDC) to develop critically needed sequence and functional genomics resources to enable basic and applied research in crop plants important for smallholder agriculture. Deadline: April 27. NSF Dear Colleague Letter: Hydrologic Sciences ...
by Sourav Kumar Biswas (MLA 16) and Flavio Sciaraffia (MLA 15) recipients of American Society of Landscape Architects 2015 Student Award. Agriculture today has evolved into the most resource consumptive and environmentally disruptive human activity. It consumes more than 70% of the worlds water and contributes to 92% of Mexicos water footprint. Modern agriculture is sustained by enhancing degraded soils through irrigation and fertilizers - transforming a vital resource into a mere substrate that receives abstracted water and artificial nitrogen derived from fossil fuels: food production and energy yields are no longer bounded to the ground.. At the same time, with the advent of precision farming, agriculture has also become a highly monitored and digitized activity. Our design strategy harnesses the potential of current agricultural tools to expand the ecological potential of productive landscapes on a regional scale by designing precise planting / management patterns that produce ...
The National Development Plan identifies agriculture as a vital contributory growth sector capable of reducing poverty and stimulating economic growth. Accordingly, in FY2011/12 priority interventions will focus on increasing production and productivity, agro-processing and increase enterprise efficiency through commodity value chains.. Government will also continue with the ongoing efforts to provide affordable finance to enable farmers acquire necessary infrastructure to promote transformation to commercial agricultural production.. Eligible projects in the agricultural sector, including the construction of warehouses and silos to improve storage, will therefore be financed at a preferential interest rate of 10 percent per annum for a maximum period of eight years, following the depressed performance in the last year.. In order to increase sustained production, Shs. 133 billion has been allocated will to the National Agricultural Advisory Services (NAADs) to increase the commercialization of ...
This study discusses sustainable agricultural production by land evaluation based on a multiple criteria approach. The study was carried out in the Bastam region located at the north Shahrood township of Semnan Province in the northeast of Iran. Soil, landscape and climatic data were collected to assess the study area based on its capability for cultivation of apple, tomato, wheat and white potato. Making the final decision for growing the most appropriate crop was based upon three criteria: (1) the physical suitability of the study area for crop cultivation; (2) environmental consideration; (3) economic benefit accruing from the production of each crop. The results of the assessment of the above criteria were incorporated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. Ultimately, wheat was found to be the most suitable crop for cultivation considering all the criteria in the study area. This study, therefore, was a step taken towards promoting sustainable agriculture by trying to ...
You are receiving this email as you are a subscriber of ThePigSite.com The home of premium international pig news and information. Is this email not displaying correctly?View it in your browser. Monday 30th September 2013. Jackie Linden Senior Editor Agreement is Reached so is it All Plain Sailing Ahead? On the European Union Common Agricultural Policy, political agreement and Smithfield Foods shareholders voted in favour of the companies acquisition by Shuanghui International so everything is now settled on these two issues, right? Instead of plain sailing ahead, there could still be dark clouds on the horizon, it appears. Europe’s farmers now know where they stand on payment changes, following the completion of the political negotiations on the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Having agreed the key Commission measures that aim to establish fair and practical farm subsidies through policy reform,
Participants in this study are either MSF children and their mothers or non-MSF women (women who have never worked in agriculture) and their children. If a mother has more than one child in the school system, only one child can participate in the study. A major effort of this study is to collect, store and analyze blood and urine samples from MSF women children and a group of non-MSF women and children. Only the MSF children will be matched by ethnicity, sex, age (2 or more years), and place of residence to non-MSF children.. All mothers and children participants will be recruited from the school rosters of the Goose Creek Consolidated Independent School District in Harris County, and the La Joya School District in Hidalgo County. The names and addresses of all the children and their mothers are also included in the rosters. Each mother will be contacted by a telephone call or letter inviting her and her child to participate in the study. If they agree, they will then be asked if they would like ...
The lethality of farm injuries, the implications for long-term disability of those injured, and the impact on families warrant continuing injury-control efforts on the part of pediatricians. The entire injury-control spectrum, including prevention, timely acute medical care delivered by professionals trained in the care of children, and age-appropriate rehabilitation, should be addressed by pediatricians with the support of the AAP. Several articles and publications have stressed the need for injury prevention education to farm families as well as the very important role of physicians in both prevention and treatment.29-33 In 1996, the National Committee for Childhood Agriculture Injury Prevention, a multidisciplinary consensus group, recommended action steps to reduce unintentional agricultural injuries to children younger than 18 years.29 The AAP supports these recommendations and makes the following recommendations to pediatricians who care for children living on or visiting farms:. 1. ...
The three study groups and each neurologic and neurobehavioral outcome were compared by demographic (including ethnicity, place of birth, childs age, childs gender, maternal and paternal education, and household income), lifestyle (parental smoking and alcohol use) and medical factors (including congenital abnormalities and type of insurance) to assess potential confounding, using chi-square tes
Climate change legislation could have important effects on US agriculture. The impacts depend on the particular features of any final legislation, how it is implemented and how individuals and firms respond. The American Clean Energy and Security (ACES) Act, approved by the US House of Representatives in 2009, would establish a regulatory framework intended to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To evaluate the bills impacts on the US agricultural sector, the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute at the University of Missouri (FAPRI‐MU) used an extended version of its modeling system to evaluate a wide range of possible scenarios over the 2010‐2030 period. The analysis shows that altering a few key assumptions can lead to qualitatively different estimates of the bills impact ...
In Australia, this is a cost-effective innovation in agricultural land use that brings significant agronomic and environmental benefits [12]. Based on Australian experience, also in Poland on Rolman farm permanent tramlines are successfully used [13]. As a result of the CTF system, the profit for a typical farm can increase by up to 50%, and one of the important aspects of this technology is the beneficial effect on yield and quality [16]. The results of investigation carried out by Galambošová et al. [11] suggest that CTF systems have the potential to increase production sustainability in arable farming systems in central Europe. This conclusion is supported by the findings that the adoption of CTF, using commercially available machinery, can reduce the cropped area affected by traffic by more than 50%, compared with random traffic systems. They estimated that yield improvements of up to 0.5 t per ha at cultivation of wheat, maize, barley and rape may be possible when converting from random ...
Genetically modified crops - that can feed 9 billion by 2050 and tolerate heat, drought and disease - are the future of sustainable agriculture, writes David Rotman, editor of MIT Technology Review.. Crops yields have slowed, Rotman says. Wheat yields are growing at about 1 percent annually; they need to increase about 2 percent annually to match food demand. "Agricultural experts warn that yields will have to improve for other crops as well if we are to feed a rapidly growing population - and yet rising temperatures and other effects of global climate change will make this tougher to achieve," he says.. Advances in biotech have made genetic engineering practices far more sophisticated than the transgenic techniques used in first-generation GMOs, Rotman writes. New genome engineering tools allow geneticists to edit plant DNA, making changes on chromosomes to create desirable traits instead of adding foreign genes.. Global sales of non-GMO food and beverage products will double to $800 billion by ...
Annies Sustainable Agriculture Scholarship is available to full - time undergraduate and graduate students. You must be pursuing studies in organic and / or regenerative agriculture to be eligible...
The importance of smallholder farmers to communities, ecosystems and even food security is often underplayed, as allAfrica discussed in an interview with Gates Foundations agricultural development chief.
High nature value (HNV) farming systems play a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity across large tracks of the European countryside. The socio-economic viability of these low intensity farming systems is in question, with many facing the stark choice of either abandonment or intensification. This review paper explores the concept of HNV farming and examines the links between grazing management and biodiversity conservation in European HNV upland environments. The paper ends with an analysis of the implications of European agricultural policy for HNV farmland, along with future trends and challenges for HNV farming systems. ...
Meanwhile, he says, agricultural research and the field of "agroecology," which adapts the principles of nature to farming systems, are finding new ways to grow abundant and affordable food while protecting the environment, helping farm finances, and contributing to the well-being of farmers, farm workers and rural communities. Consumers-whose concerns range from farm working conditions to animal welfare to food safety-are seeking out organic and alternatively grown foods at grocery stores, farmers markets, food coops, Community Supported Agriculture networks, and large outlets like Trader Joes, Whole Foods, and even Costco.. The mounting environmental impacts of agriculture call for a transformation that can be sped up by shifting federal support to research, policies and markets that support more benign alternative farming systems.. "We need to move more quickly," says Reganold. "Why are we supporting big, mainstream agriculture thats not necessarily protecting or benefiting the ...
The agriculture sector is one of the key sectors in the US after the services and industry sectors. Contribution of agriculture in the GDP translated into a buoyant agricultural tires market in the country. While in 2012, most parts of North America faced drought, which negatively affected the agriculture equipment market in the country; in 2013, the market bounced back and the agriculture tire sales started picking up with a rise in the sales of agriculture equipment. Tire sales in mid-2013 slowed down due to various factors such as uneven and disruptive weather pattern both in spring and fall. In 2014, equipment and agriculture tire sales stayed relatively strong. The agriculture tires market in US is all set to record a steady growth during the forecast period. There are several factors that would influence the growth of the market, such as government policies and legislations ...
In Her Boots: Sustainable Agriculture Workshops For Women, By Women Facilitated by the Midwest Organic & Sustainable Education Service Rural Womens P
The following organizations collaborated on the development of this course: The Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health and the Midwestern Public Health Training Center, University of Iowa College of Public Health (MPHTC-UICPH).. This project is supported by Grant Number 5 U54 OH007548-11 from CDC - NIOSH for the Agricultural Medicine Core Course (Diane Rohlman, PI) a project within the Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health (Renee Anthony, PI). Course contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of CDC or NIOSH.. ...
Policy News from our friends at the National Sustainable Ag Coalition:. Washington, DC, September 11, 2015 - On September 10, 2015, FDA released the much-anticipated final rule detailing preventive control standards for facilities producing food for human consumption. Once officially published in the Federal Register - scheduled for September 17, 2015 - the rule will go into effect in sixty days and compliance clocks will start ticking for facilities covered by this rule. The Produce Safety Rule, another key component of FDAs new approach to food safety under the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), will be finalized by late October 2015.. This final rule comes after significant public outreach and two rounds of public comment on certain key provisions.. "We commend FDA for its continued engagement with stakeholders throughout this process, and appreciate the agencys responsiveness to our concerns" said National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (NSAC) Policy Specialist Sophia Kruszewski. ...
Harvest107 teaches urban gardening and sustainable agriculture to combat hunger and malnutrition in Haiti. Harvest107 was founded by Gracie Pfaff.
1. Ramankutty, N., Evan, A. T., Monfreda, C. & Foley, J. a. Farming the planet: 1. Geographic distribution of global agricultural lands in the year 2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22, 1-19 (2008).. 2. FAO. Inputs - Land. FAOSTAT (2015). Available at: http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/R/RL/E. (Accessed: 22nd May 2015). 3. Gibbs, H. K. et al. Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 16732-7 (2010).. 4. WWF. Living Planet Report 2016. (2016).. 5. Angel, S., Parent, J., Civco, D. L., Blei, A. & Potere, D. The dimensions of global urban expansion: Estimates and projections for all countries, 2000-2050. Prog. Plann. 75, 53-107 (2011).. 6. Gerland, P. et al. World population stabilization unlikely this century. Science (80-. ). 234, (2014).. 7. Tilman, D., Balzer, C., Hill, J. & Befort, B. L. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 108, 1-5 (2011).. 8. Evenson, R. E. ...
Buy Biotechnology and Sustainable Agriculture 2006 and Beyond (9781402066344): Proceedings of the 11th IAPTC and B Congress, August 13-18, 2006 Beijing, China: NHBS - Edited By: Zhihong Xu, Jiayang Li, Yongbiao Xue and Weicai Yang, Springer-Verlag
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Find information about Catonsville Community College sustainable agriculture. Accredited engineering programs, combined with a brief internship or prior work-experience, offer a great return on your engineering education.
I work with small farmers, so I have some insight into this. A few observations:. If you want to save, show up before the market closes, and buy the best looking produce cheaply. Otherwise theyll be giving it away to charity, feeding it to pigs, etc. By the time theyve hauled all that stuff to the market, cash - even less cash - is better than no cash.. Most farmers markets have a board (composed of farmers) that strives to minimize competition and keep prices down. If you want to sell eggs at the market, you could be turned away if there are already guys there, and they arent selling out. If you want to save money, ask farmers if they produce more stuff that they cant sell at that market - and make other arrangements to get it.. Small farmers are terribly inefficient compared to factory farms - and that includes fuel. Small farmers burn up an insane amount of gas to produce and market a miniscule amount of of veggies.. Some small farmers (e.g. Hmong) slash prices to the bone. But they ...
The CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), is designed to fill the existing gap between agricultural development and its unfulfilled health and nutritional benefits. Within CGIAR, A4NH is an integrative program focusing primarily on the system level outcome to improve food and…
This Review, undertaken in close co-operation with the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, assesses the performance of Indonesian agriculture over the last two decades, evaluates Indonesian agricultural policy reforms and provides recommendations to address key challenges in the future. The evaluation is based on the OECD Committee for Agricultures approach that agriculture policy should be evidence-based and carefully designed and implemented to support productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, while avoiding unnecessary distortions to production decisions and to trade. Conducted in partnership with the OECD Investment Committee, the Review comprises a special chapter highlighting key challenges to be addressed to attract sustainable investment in agriculture, drawing from the OECD Policy Framework for Investment in Agriculture.. ...
Cows and Calving - Supplies for Smallholders are an Agriculture Supplier of Livestock equipment for Pig Goat, Sheep, Cattle Poultry keepers Farmers and Smallholders. We are a family run firm offering a wide range of equipment for smallholders, Farmers and poultry keepers
Ecological farming is the answer to the problems being faced by agriculture in our country today. It will also keep agriculture sustainable. This form of agriculture conserves our soil and water resources, protects our climate, enhances agro-diversity, ensures biodiversity, meets the demand for food and safeguards livelihoods. In short, it ensures that the environment thrives, the farm is productive, the farmer makes a net profit and society has enough nutritious food.
... is a science and a training that looks from an organized, widely inclusive perspective. In agronomy, its essential to understand the properties of the earth and how the soil interfaces with the creating harvest; what supplements (composts) the yield needs and when and how to apply these supplements; the ways that items create and develop; how air and other biological parts impact the yield at all stages; and how best to control weeds, frightening little animals, parasites, and other item bother agronomy. Agronomists are plant and soil scientists, can orchestrate soils and separate them to make sense of in the event that they contain supplements significant to plant improvement. General macronutrients separated join blends of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. Soil is also assessed for a couple of micronutrients, like zinc and boron. The rate of normal issue, soil pH, and supplement holding limit (cation exchange constrain) are attempted in a common lab. ...
INDIA - The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, and FAO Director-General, José Graziano da Silva, have agreed on how to strengthen efforts to promote India’s food security and sustainable agricultural development during talks held in New Delhi.
INDIA - The Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, and FAO Director-General, José Graziano da Silva, have agreed on how to strengthen efforts to promote India’s food security and sustainable agricultural development during talks held in New Delhi.
The EEA Agreement does not cover the EUs single market for agricultural products nor the EUs common agricultural policy. Trade in processed agricultural products such as pizza, yogurt, crispbread and baby food is regulated by a protocol to the EEA Ag...
The Nitrogen Fertilizer Application data set of the Global Fertilizer and Manure, Version 1 Data Collection represents the amount of nitrogen fertilizer nutrients applied to croplands. The national-level nitrogen fertilizer application rates for crops are from the International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA) Fertilizer Use by Crop 2002 statistics database that is available by request from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). The number of crop-specific fertilizer application rates reported for each country ranged from 2 crops (Guinea) to over 50 crops (United States), and the years for which the data are reported range from 1994 to 2001. Spatially explicit fertilizer inputs of Nitrogen (N) were computed by fusing national-level statistics on fertilizer use with global maps of harvested area for 175 crops. The data were compiled by Potter et al. (2010) and are distributed by the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN ...
Thesis, English, Effect of soil moisture depletion and nitrogen fertilizer application date on wheat yields water and fertilizer use efficiencies in north africa for Adel Torky Beshara
ABSTRACT Human food chain toxicity, soil fertility and agricultural output have been shown to be influenced by application of various types of fertilizers. This research studied the influence of multiple fertilizer application on soil quality and plant heavy metal accumulation, proximate and phytochemical compositions. The different fertilizer samples used were NlSPlSKlS (CFI), N20PIOKIO (CF2), N27P13PI3 (CF3), pig manure (AMI) and chicken manure (AM2). Plant species used were Telfairia occidental is and Talinum triangulare. The experiment had four treatments and each treatment had 0.0, 2.0 and 4.0glkg soil. The seeds of the vegetables were planted and allowed to grow for a period of 12 weeks. The first sets of the experimental pots were left for a latent period of 12 weeks after the first harvest for second fertilizer application. The heavy metal composition of the different fertilizers and control soil as well as the plant species were studied using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). ...
A replicated, controlled study in summer 1989-1990 in eight sites on one arable farm near Bonn, Germany (Henze & Şengonca 1993) found that a 50% reduction in pesticide application could control an aphid (Aphidoidea) outbreak as efficiently as the normal application. In farming systems with no insecticide use at all, natural predators reduced aphid populations to the same low levels (,5 aphids/plant), but the population decline occurred one week later than in the systems with pesticide use. Predatory arthropod populations also declined after pesticide treatment. Predator levels remained rather low in the normal pesticide system, however in the 50% reduced pesticide system they recovered in three weeks after pesticide application. Four farming systems were compared with two replicates each: conventional farming (normal pesticide use), integrated farming (50% reduction in pesticide use), minimum farming (no insecticides, strongly reduced herbicide use) and no pesticide farming (no pesticide ...
Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of chemical, physical, and biological hazards in the process of cultivating and harvesting crops and/or raising livestock (Litchfield 1999; Popendorf and Donham 1991; Shaver and Tong 1991; White and Cessna 1989). In addition to pesticides, occupational exposure to solvents, metals, engine exhaust, welding fumes, and grain dusts are prevalent in agriculture (Coble et al. 2002; Shaver and Tong 1991). However, the potential health effects of agricultural pesticide exposures are of particular interest, as these chemicals are designed to have adverse biological effects on target organisms. To address this concern, the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) was initiated in 1993 to explore the potential health effects of pesticide exposures in commercial pesticide applicators, farmers, and their families in Iowa and North Carolina, USA. The AHS is a collaborative research project including the U.S. National Cancer Institute, the U.S. National Institute of ...
Global Agricultural Chemical Supplier Directory, Agricultural Chemical, Agricultural Chemical Manufacturers, Agricultural Chemical Factories, Agricultural Chemical Manufacturing, Agricultural Chemical Manufacturer, Factory,Agricultural Chemical Export Company, Agricultural Chemical Suppliers, Exporters, Agricultural Chemical Producers, Wholesalers, Distributors, International Agricultural Chemical, OEM Agricultural Chemical, Chemical & Plastics.
Agricultural Product Washer directory ☆ Agricultural Product Washer manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Agricultural Product Washer buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors
Weed control in smallholder farming systems of sub-Saharan Africa is labour intensive or costly. Many researchers have therefore advocated for the use of cover crops in weed management as an affordable alternative for smallholders. Cover crops may be grown in rotations to suppress weeds and reduce the reliance on herbicides. The use of cover crops creates microenvironments that are either conducive or inhibitive to the emergence of certain weed species. A study, initiated in 2008 in contrasting soils at four different locations of Zimbabwe, investigated the effect of maize (Zea mays L.)-cover crop rotations on the emergence of weeds that showed dominance in those soils. Weed assessments were however, carried out from 2011 to 2014. The weed species Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Commelina benghalensis L., and Richardia scabra L. showed dominance in all four locations with weed densities as high as 500 plants m−2 being recorded for R. scabra L. in a sandy soil. Maize-cover crop rotations resulted in ...
The role of irrigation water in disseminating Erwinia amylovora is not fully recognized, and the survival of the bacterium in natural water has not been carefully investigated. This risk has been underestimated, since it is generally considered that E. amylovora survives only for a short period in water and its isolation from natural water samples has not been reported. The main goal of this study has been to clarify whether E. amylovora could survive under nutrient starvation conditions usually found in aquatic environments and if it is nonculturable on solid media when recovered from sterile natural water. Infectivity of E. amylovora cells in water was evaluated by using immature pear fruits. Total and viable cell counts were monitored by the Live/Dead viability kit, and culturability by plate counts on King's B medium. E. amylovora was able to survive in water from different sources showing a long persistence in irrigation water and maintaining its infectivity for green pears. However, a ...

FAO - News Article: Agricultures greenhouse gas emissions on the riseFAO - News Article: Agriculture's greenhouse gas emissions on the rise

Agricultures greenhouse gas emissions on the rise. Detailed assessments of both emissions data and mitigation options needed ... The new FAO data also provide a detailed view of emissions from energy use in the agriculture sector generated from traditional ... Agriculture, forestry and other land use activities emit more than 10 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases. ... This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/216137/icode/

Organic Agriculture Can Feed the World Despite Lower Yields (Study)Organic Agriculture Can 'Feed the World' Despite Lower Yields (Study)

A new report shows that organic agriculture can feed the world -- while net yields are lower than conventional, organic ... with then U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz.. "Before we go back to organic agriculture in this country, somebody must ... Organic Agriculture Can Feed the World Despite Lower Yields, New Research Finds. August 17, 2016. by Emily Monaco ... Today, organic agriculture occupies only one percent of global agricultural land.. Related on Organic Authority. Organic Food ...
more infohttp://www.organicauthority.com/organic-agriculture-can-in-fact-feed-the-world-take-that-naysayers/

Calculators and Counters | Food and Nutrition Information Center | NAL | USDACalculators and Counters | Food and Nutrition Information Center | NAL | USDA

Veterans in Agriculture. *Food and Human Nutrition*Dietary Guidelines and Human Health ...
more infohttps://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/calculators-and-counters

Berea College EECS courses onlineBerea College EECS courses online

Info concerning Berea College EECS courses online. As the entrance requirements for engineering programs vary, learn about the various specialization options available.
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Agriculture | US EPAAgriculture | US EPA

Agriculture. EPA is committed to a strong partnership with the agriculture community to assist in fulfilling our mission of ... Animal Agriculture Education Project. *EPA Selects Environmental Education Grantees to Receive $3.3 Million to Support Projects ... CERCLA and EPCRA Air Emissions from Agriculture. Due to legislative changes in the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2018 ( ...
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Agriculture - WikipediaAgriculture - Wikipedia

"Agriculture collected news and commentary". The New York Times.. *. "Agriculture collected news and commentary". The Guardian. ... The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its ... Agriculture defined the limits on how large and for how long an army could be mobilized. Shang Yang called agriculture and war ... Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources.[104] Agriculture is a major draw on water from ...
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Eco-friendly AgriNesture buildings promote agriculture and job growth in Vietnam. *by Lucy Wang ... Although the majority of Vietnams population relies on agriculture, rapid industrialization and a skyrocketing... ...
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Metropolitan agriculture - WikipediaMetropolitan agriculture - Wikipedia

Metropolitan agriculture references a growing understanding of the complex relationship between cities and agriculture. As a ... In terms of the larger relationship between cities and agriculture, metropolitan agriculture provides a conceptual framework ... Metropolitan agriculture expresses a growing understanding of the multiple ways in which agriculture is linked with urban areas ... Metropolitan Agriculture as a sustainable perspective. *^ Wascher, Dirk M., et al: Innovation Characteristics for Sustainable ...
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AgricultureAgriculture

A jury that comprised of six women found Cpl. Royce Rubys fatal shooting of Korryn Gaines unreasonable and a clear violation of the mothers civil rights ...
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Agriculture - latimesAgriculture - latimes

FDA Reschedules Meeting on Calgenes Tomato: The food and drug agency will meet with a subcommittee of its Food Advisory Committee on April 6-8 to discuss the process it has followed in reviewing
more infohttp://articles.latimes.com/1994-03-15/business/fi-34140_1_brand-tomato

Regenerative AgricultureRegenerative Agriculture

We are fast approaching a tipping point in terms of climate disruption, degenerative agriculture, deteriorating public health, ... Man Who Wrote the Book on Regenerative Agriculture Says Conservation is the Fifth Ag Revolution ... according to new data released last month by Vermonts Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. ...
more infohttps://www.organicconsumers.org/campaigns/regenerative-agriculture?date=2017-12

AgricultureAgriculture

... is the economic engine that powers the Great Plains, the vast stretch of treeless prairie that covers parts of 10 ...
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AgricultureAgriculture

Ranked among the top U.S. non-Land Grant universities in enrollment and widely recognized for its outstanding academic programs, the SHSU Agricultural Sciences program offers a wide variety of educational centers to allow for experiential learning to complement concepts taught in the classroom. Faculty and staff offices and lecture halls are housed in the newly constructed Fred Pirkle Engineering Technology Center. With three greenhouses, raised garden beds, lab facilities and a state-of-the-art floral design lab, students in plant and soil science classes are always learning both established and new techniques. The Harrell Agricultural Engineering Technology Center is perfectly designed for gaining practical knowledge in metal fabrication, electricity and electronics, hydraulics, alternative energy sources, construction and soil and water conservation. The 1800-acre Gibbs Ranch, located just north of town, serves as a living laboratory for all aspects of animal science, soil fertility and ...
more infohttp://www.shsu.edu/academics/agriculture/

Agriculture for beginnersAgriculture for beginners

The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser supports JavaScript and that it is enabled in the browser settings. You can also try one of the other formats of the book. ...
more infohttp://www.archive.org/stream/agricultureforb00burk

Agriculture | Science NewsAgriculture | Science News

In Dec. 22 SN: Our top stories of 2018, baffling star behavior, early hominids in North Africa, the oldest evidence of vanilla, wombat poop physics, Earths impact craters and more. ...
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Agriculture | Science NewsAgriculture | Science News

In the Jan. 19 SN: Celebrating 150 years of the periodic table, daredevil asteroid missions, early plague evidence from Sweden, more black hole collisions, hybrid rice can clone itself, corals go deep and more. ...
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Agriculture - Heavens Reach MinistriesAgriculture - Heaven's Reach Ministries

Our primary mission is to create social and spiritual change through agriculture while maintaining sustainable profitability. ...
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Agriculture | Subjects | WileyAgriculture | Subjects | Wiley

Byproducts from Agriculture and Fisheries: Adding Value for Food, Feed, Pharma and Fuels Benjamin K. Simpson, Alberta N. Aryee ...
more infohttps://www.wiley.com/en-ky/products/Agriculture-AG00?pq=%7C%7ClifecycleStatus%3APRE_ORDER

Agriculture CalendarAgriculture Calendar

Can you see yourself making a positive impact at WKU? We offer an inviting and challenging work environment, responsive to the needs of a diverse and ambitious learning community. See our open faculty and staff positions. Employment Website ...
more infohttps://www.wku.edu/agriculture/calendar/index.php?date=2014-04-22

Agriculture CalendarAgriculture Calendar

Parents, family members, and guardians are an important part of the Hilltopper family. We invite you to learn more about services offered at WKU and to reach out if we can help along the way ...
more infohttps://www.wku.edu/agriculture/calendar/index.php?date=2014-09-27

Agriculture - UK ParliamentAgriculture - UK Parliament

Agriculture Improvement of land. As well as offering improved means of transporting agricultural produce, and opening up new ...
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Roots AgricultureRoots Agriculture

But George and Doc and a bunch of conspirators are revolutionizing agriculture: they are putting consumers back in touch with ... Responsible agriculture institutionalizes natures abundance, promotes it and preserves it.. Its Fair. Thats one of the ... Tags: Beautiful and Abundant, Agriculture, Organic Valley, Country Natural Beef, Bryan Welch, ... Contagiousness is inherent to the idea of roots agriculture. Its benign effects on society and nature are its primary marketing ...
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AgricultureAgriculture

Trelleborg has been involved in developing sustainable solutions for the agriculture and forestry industry to make the most of ... Agriculture Trelleborg develops flexible hose solutions answering to most critical and problematic elements for the ... For decades, Trelleborg has been involved in developing sustainable solutions for the agriculture and forestry industry. ...
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Agriculture and fisheries - OECDAgriculture and fisheries - OECD

OECD Home Russian FederationBy TopicAgriculture and fisheries Agriculture and fisheries. ... Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate ...
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Agriculture, Forestry, and FishingAgriculture, Forestry, and Fishing

Agriculture subsector(esp. CAFOs). Basic/etiologic. D. COPD, OB, Other diseases affecting airways such as HP. Engineering ... Agriculture subsector (esp. CAFOs). Translation. E. COPD, OB, Other diseases affecting airways such as HP. Understanding risk ... Agriculture subsector (esp. concentrated animal feeding operations [CAFOs]). Basic/etiologic. B. COPD, OB, Other diseases ... Agriculture (including aquaculture) and forestry subsectors. Surveillance research. Activity Goal 5.1.1 (Basic/Etiologic ...
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  • The specific notion of metropolitan agriculture has recently been developed further by TransForum, a Dutch foundation that works on sustainable agriculture (by fostering multi-stakeholder collaboration and knowledge dissemination via pilot projects, publications, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over several years, TransForum's work on a number of pilot projects centered on re-connecting agriculture and cities while attempting to develop more sustainable agricultural systems and ventures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our primary mission is to create social and spiritual change through agriculture while maintaining sustainable profitability. (google.com)
  • The project thus provided assistance to design a law on organic agriculture, which was passed in Parliament on 1 December 2004. (fao.org)
  • Genetically modified organisms are an increasing component of agriculture, although they are banned in several countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work has strong relevance in Addison County, an area heavily reliant on agriculture for its well-being. (middlebury.edu)
  • In order to reach its targets and achieve a rapid increase in organic agricultural production, the Government decided to launch a multifaceted integrated project to develop organic agriculture, with a special focus on legislative issues, capacity building and pilot regions. (fao.org)
  • Although generally adequate, the existing standards on organic agriculture were initially developed in the absence of a legislative act governing organic agriculture. (fao.org)
  • Emissions generated during the application of synthetic fertilizers accounted for 13 percent of agricultural emissions (725 Mt CO2 eq.) in 2011, and are the fastest growing emissions source in agriculture, having increased some 37 percent since 2001. (fao.org)
  • The new FAO data also provide a detailed view of emissions from energy use in the agriculture sector generated from traditional fuel sources, including electricity and fossil fuels burned to power agricultural machinery, irrigation pumps and fishing vessels. (fao.org)
  • The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Over one third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the percentages of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a concept, it can help serve as a linkage between issues as open and diverse as sustainability , urbanization , urban agriculture, urban land use policies and agricultural change. (wikipedia.org)
  • On a project level, TransForum used 'metropolitan agriculture' to convey an emphasis on systems integration in production processes, lowering external inputs by striving towards closed-loop systems, and multi-functionality in agricultural enterprises. (wikipedia.org)
  • Detailed global maps of key traits in higher plants have been made available for the first time, thanks to work led by researchers from the University of Minnesota's (UMN) College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences (CFANS). (enn.com)
  • But George and Doc and a bunch of conspirators are revolutionizing North American agriculture in the most traditional way possible. (motherearthnews.com)
  • As a framework law, it gives authority to the Minister responsible to adopt, amend and update implementing regulations, in order to meet future institutional, technical and scientific changes in the organic agriculture sector. (fao.org)
  • In 2011, 44 percent of agriculture-related GHG outputs occurred in Asia, followed by the Americas (25%), Africa (15%), Europe (12%), and Oceania (4%), according to FAO's data. (fao.org)
  • The use of glyphosate alone-just on Vermont dairy farms-jumped 27 percent between 2014 - 2017, according to new data released last month by Vermont's Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate. (oecd.org)
  • EPA is committed to a strong partnership with the agriculture community to assist in fulfilling our mission of protecting human health and the environment. (epa.gov)
  • When you bring the producers and the consumers together they support agriculture that is more environmentally responsible and more compassionate. (motherearthnews.com)
  • A summary of a project proposal for the development of organic agriculture and legal alignment was prepared, with FAO support, and submitted by the Government to the European Union (EU). (fao.org)
  • A costed project document on "Development of Organic Agriculture and Alignment of Related Turkish Legislation with the EU Acquis" was formulated for a three-year period, complete with Annexes and Terms of Reference. (fao.org)
  • The Middlebury College Farm and Food Project provides students, staff, faculty, and community members the opportunity to participate in and learn about agriculture. (middlebury.edu)
  • Shop our extensive collection of Agriculture pajamas for men and women. (cafepress.com)
  • In terms of the larger relationship between cities and agriculture, metropolitan agriculture provides a conceptual framework for analysis of all the systems and processes through which agriculture manifests itself in urban areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are fast approaching a tipping point in terms of climate disruption, degenerative agriculture, deteriorating public health, financial meltdown, and political corruption. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Our extensive collection of Agriculture pajamas in a wide variety of styles allow you to wear your passion around the house. (cafepress.com)
  • Based on the workshop results, which gathered views from some 1 200 participants, a draft National Strategy on Organic Agriculture in Turkey was formulated and delivered to MARA. (fao.org)