Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Chemistry, Agricultural: The science of the chemical composition and reactions of chemicals involved in the production, protection and use of crops and livestock. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Organic Agriculture: Systems of agriculture which adhere to nationally regulated standards that restrict the use of pesticides, non-organic fertilizers, genetic engineering, growth hormones, irradiation, antibiotics, and non-organic ANIMAL FEED.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Technology, Industry, and AgricultureEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agrochemicals: Chemicals used in agriculture. These include pesticides, fumigants, fertilizers, plant hormones, steroids, antibiotics, mycotoxins, etc.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)United StatesBiotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Coffea: A plant genus of the family RUBIACEAE. It is best known for the COFFEE beverage prepared from the beans (SEEDS).Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Paternal Exposure: Exposure of the male parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Hydrology: Science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth's surface, and atmosphere.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Agricultural Inoculants: Beneficial microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) encapsulated in carrier material and applied to the environment for remediation and enhancement of agricultural productivity.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Wetlands: Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.General Adaptation Syndrome: The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Parakeratosis: Persistence of the nuclei of the keratinocytes into the stratum corneum of the skin. This is a normal state only in the epithelium of true mucous membranes in the mouth and vagina. (Dorland, 27th ed)History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Ethics: The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)MontanaTheology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Pathology, Veterinary: The field of veterinary medicine concerned with the causes of and changes produced in the body by disease.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Chlorpyrifos: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Ecological Systems, Closed: Systems that provide for the maintenance of life in an isolated living chamber through reutilization of the material available, in particular, by means of a cycle wherein exhaled carbon dioxide, urine, and other waste matter are converted chemically or by photosynthesis into oxygen, water, and food. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Dimethoate: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as a systemic and contact insecticide.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Nitrogen Cycle: The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Occupational Injuries: Injuries sustained from incidents in the course of work-related activities.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.KansasEuropePlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Consumer Product SafetyCarbon Sequestration: Any of several processes for the permanent or long-term artificial or natural capture or removal and storage of carbon dioxide and other forms of carbon, through biological, chemical or physical processes, in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Animal DiseasesBrazilPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Organophosphate Poisoning: Poisoning due to exposure to ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, such as ORGANOPHOSPHATES; ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHATES; and ORGANOTHIOPHOSPHONATES.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spatial Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.VietnamDrug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.

Personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica in California agriculture. (1/3155)

AIMS: The aim of this study was to measure personal exposure to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California over a period of one year. METHODS: Ten farms were randomly selected in Yolo and Solano counties and workers were invited to wear personal sampling equipment to measure inhalable and respirable dust levels during various operations. The samples were analysed for endotoxin using the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay and crystalline silica content using X-ray diffraction. In total 142 inhalable samples and 144 respirable samples were collected. RESULTS: The measurements showed considerable difference in exposure levels between various operations, in particular for the inhalable fraction of the dust and the endotoxin. Machine harvesting of tree crops (Geometric mean (GM) = 45.1 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 7.9 mg/m3), and cleaning of poultry houses (GM = 6.7 mg/m3) showed the highest inhalable dust levels. Cleaning of poultry houses also showed the highest inhalable endotoxin levels (GM = 1861 EU/m3). Respirable dust levels were generally low, except for machine harvesting of tree crops (GM = 2.8 mg/m3) and vegetables (GM = 0.9 mg/m3). Respirable endotoxin levels were also low. For the inhalable dust fraction, levels were reduced considerably when an enclosed cabin was present. The percentage of crystalline silica was overall higher in the respirable dust samples than the inhalable dust samples. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable differences exist in personal exposure levels to dust, endotoxin and crystalline silica during various agricultural operations in California agriculture with some operations showing very high levels.  (+info)

Mechanical maceration of alfalfa. (2/3155)

Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion.  (+info)

Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota. (3/3155)

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

Organic: What's in a name? (4/3155)

The organic foods industry is booming: by one estimate, the market for organic foods is worth $4 billion annually and is expected to grow at a rate of more than 24% per year. Faced with the threat of pesticide exposures and other food safety problems, many consumers are turning to organic foods in hopes of finding a healthy alternative, but there is currently no consistency in organic food labeling and no guarantee that foods labeled as organic are actually grown and processed in a purely organic fashion. There is also controversy about whether the label "organic" covers such new technologies as irradiation and genetic engineering. As part of the 1990 Farm Bill, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) is working to develop a proposed rule on organic foods. The rule would regulate the allowable methods, practices, and substances used in producing and handling crops and their processed products. The first draft of the proposed rule, released in December 1997, met with unprecedented opposition, which centered around the fact that the proposal appeared to virtually ignore the recommendations of a standards board formed to assist in the rule's development. Other criticism opposed three practices put forward for comment by the USDA: irradiation, genetic engineering, and the use of sewage sludge in farming. Due to the vehemence of the opposition to its original proposal, the USDA has decided to rewrite the proposed rule. In preparation for that proposal, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service released three issue papers in October 1998 for public comment. The 10,000-plus comments received in response to those papers will be incorporated into the second draft proposal, due out later this year.  (+info)

Farm worker illness following exposure to carbofuran and other pesticides--Fresno County California, 1998. (5/3155)

In California, suspected pesticide-related illnesses and suspected work-related illnesses and injuries are reportable conditions. On July 31, 1998, the Occupational Health Branch of the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) received a report from the California Department of Pesticide Regulation (CDPR) of a pesticide exposure incident in Fresno County involving 34 farm workers. CDHS investigated this incident by reviewing medical records of the 34 workers and interviewing 29. The findings indicated that the workers became ill after early reentry into a cotton field that had been sprayed with a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticides  (+info)

Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad. (6/3155)

The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic status of the household.  (+info)

Water pollution and human health in China. (7/3155)

China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute.  (+info)

Predictors of crop diversification: a survey of tobacco farmers in North Carolina (USA). (8/3155)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitudes and behaviours of North Carolina tobacco farmers around crop diversification. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. PARTICIPANTS: Active tobacco farmers in 14 North Carolina counties (n = 1236), interviewed between January and April 1997 (91% response rate). OUTCOME MEASURES: Interest in, experience with, and perceived barriers to diversification. RESULTS: Most farmers (95%) grew/raised a commodity other than tobacco (mean = 2.8). A total of 60% of farmers expressed interest in trying other on-farm activities to supplement their tobacco and 60% reported taking action in the past year around supplementation. Younger age and college education were positively associated with interest. College education, off-farm income, and larger farm size were associated with the number of actions taken. For perceived external barriers to diversification, use of tobacco, percent income from tobacco, lack of college education, and younger age were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. For internal barriers (personal factors), percent income from tobacco, use of tobacco, and lack of college education were most strongly associated with the number of barriers. CONCLUSIONS: Most farmers were involved in diverse operations and expressed interest in continuing to diversify, although the breadth of diversification was narrow. Farmers noted many barriers to diversifying. If conventional production and marketing techniques are employed for non-tobacco alternatives, these alternatives may not provide the sustainable profitability that tobacco has afforded. Competition from foreign tobacco growers is the primary threat to the future of American growers and tobacco dependent communities.  (+info)

Understanding the effects of intensive agricultural land use activities on water resources is essential for natural resource management and environmental improvement. In this paper, multi-scale nested watersheds were delineated and the relationships between two representative water quality indexes and agricultural land use intensity were assessed and quantified for the year 2000 using multi-scale regression analysis. The results show that the log-transformed nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) index exhibited a relationship with chemical fertilizer input intensity and several natural factors, including soil loss, rainfall and sunlight at the first order watershed scale, while permanganate index (CODMn) had a positive relationship with another two input intensities of pesticides and agricultural plastic mulch and organic manure at the fifth order watershed scale. The first order watershed and the fifth order watershed were considered as the watershed adaptive response units for NO3-N and CODMn, respectively. The
On 2 February the European Commission launched the first phase of the modernization and simplification of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) with the opening of a three-month public consultation. The contributions received will support the Commissions work to define the agricultural policy priorities for the future. A modernized and simplified Common Agricultural Policy would address the key challenges that agriculture and rural areas are facing while at the same time contributing to the Commissions policy priorities (notably jobs and growth), to sustainable development, a budget focused on results, simplification and subsidiarity.. Announcing the consultation process, EU Agriculture and Rural Development Commissioner Phil Hogan said: "Today we are taking the next steps towards modernizing and simplifying the Common Agricultural Policy for the 21st Century. By launching this public consultation, we are asking all stakeholders and those interested in the future of food and farming in Europe ...
The Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation, or ADMARC, was formed in Malawi in 1971 as a Government-owned corporation or parastatal to promote the Malawian economy by increasing the volume and quality of agricultural exports, to develop new foreign markets for the consumption of Malawian agricultural produce and to supporting Malawis farmers. It was the successor of a number of marketing boards of the colonial-era and early post-colonial times, whose functions were as much about controlling African smallholders and generating government revenues as in promoting agricultural development. At its foundation, ADMARC was given the power to finance the economic development of any public or private organization. In its first decade of operation, ADMARC was considered to be more business-like and less bureaucratic than similar African parastatal bodies, but from its formation it was involved in the diversion of resources from smallholder farming to tobacco estates, often owned by members of ...
Synonyms for Agricultural sector in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural sector. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural sector?
Agricultural Development Economics - The focal point for FAOs economic research and policy analysis for food security and sustainable development.
We present extensions to the agent-based agricultural policy simulator (AgriPoliS) model that make it possible to simulate the consequences of agricultural policy reform on farmers land use...
The end of the century had been characterized by a process of liberalisation of trade and market for food and other products, increasing privatization of resources and services, reorientation of economic policies under structural adjustment programmes and increased commercialization of agriculture. Clearly these trends have an impact on farmers, both women and men, and information on how these factors influence their livelihoods is an important tool in agricultural policy planning. Democracy calls for more participation, better-informed citizens, good governance and accountability. These are conditions that we are requesting from our decision-makers.. Development agencies are increasingly using more participatory methods, born from the technical developments of the new information and communciation era. The availability of information and the speed at which it circulates are influencing the mechanisms of social control and regulation. To ensure agricultural policy and planning that will meet the ...
This Review of Agricultural Policies: Costa Rica is one of a series of reviews of national agricultural policies undertaken by the OECD’s Committee for A
Pursuant to a congressional request, GAO provided information on the Department of Agricultures (USDA) efforts to encourage sustainable agriculture, focusing on the USDA Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program.. GAO found that: (1) nine USDA agencies manage numerous programs and activities that address various aspects of sustainable agriculture, but management is fragmented, and non-USDA agencies participate in some of the activities; (2) the USDA sustainable agriculture policy expired in 1989, and activities are operating without a departmental policy to guide their efforts or resource use; (3) some SARE goals conflict with the goals of other agriculture programs; and (4) the legislatively mandated National Sustainable Agriculture Advisory Council has not yet met, and the Agricultural Council on Environmental Quality has met primarily on organizational issues. GAO also found that: (1) SARE has funded 183 projects with about $39 million in combined federal and public and ...
CGIAR: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) • International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) • Local: Agricultural Development Programmes (ADP) • Akwa Ibom State Agricultural Development Programme (AKADEP) • Akwa Ibom State University • Benue State Agricultural Development Programme (BNARDA) • Cassava Growers Association of Nigeria • Commission (JDPC) - Ilorin • Damisa Gurus • Development Dynamics • Dominican Centre for Training and Development • ENVOY Agricultural Services • Federal College of Agriculture - Akure • Federal Ministries of: Agriculture, Education, and Health • Forward Africa • Human Empowerment and Development Project (HEMADEP) • Imo State Agricultural Development Programme (IMOADP) • Institute of Agricultural Research & Training (IAR&T) • Justice Development and Peace • Justice Development and Peace Commission (JDPC) • Justice Development and Peace ...
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Buy Agricultural Development in the World Periphery for $354.99 at Mighty Ape NZ. Pre-order for NZ release day delivery. This book brings together analysis on the conditions of agricultural sectors in countries and regions of the worlds peripheries, from a wide variety ...
This working paper examines how civil society organisations (CSOs) -- particularly those representing poor and marginalised rural people -- can inform and influence the processes of agricultural policy formulation and implementation. We summarise the role of different interest groups in shaping pro-poor agricultural development and explain how poor people can gain voice to express their views and shape policy processes in a meaningful way.
Shri Singh inaugurates two-day National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign-2017. The National Conference on Agriculture for Kharif Campaign - 2017 is being organised on 25th and 26th April, 2017 at New Delhi. The Conference was inaugurated by Shri Radha Mohan Singh, Union Minister of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare and also addressed by Shri Parshottam Rupala and Shri Sudarshan Bhagat, Ministers of State for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare. The Conference was attended by Secretary, Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and Farmers Welfare, besides Agriculture Production Commissioners / Principal Secretaries / Secretaries / Directors of the State Departments of Agriculture, Horticulture and Agriculture Marketing, Senior Scientists from ICAR and other officials from relevant Ministries and agencies.. In his inaugural address, Union Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare applauded efforts of the Central and State Governments in attaining an estimated record production of about ...
Synonyms for Agricultural industry in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agricultural industry. 14 synonyms for agriculture: farming, culture, cultivation, husbandry, tillage, agronomy, agronomics, agribusiness, factory farm, farming, husbandry.... What are synonyms for Agricultural industry?
Historically, most rural development programs look to increase local production of market crops. These have often been coupled with infrastructure products meant to connect rural parts of poor countries to big market centers and trade arteries.. But people are starting to realize that connecting people to markets is not a guarantee that they will be able to make a living from their crops, and may actually lead to mono-crop dependency (mono-cropping itself is also associated with soil depletion and the concentration of land holdings into fewer hands). Thus, sustainable subsistence has become more important as a goal in agricultural development work.. ...
Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development. China Agricultural Economic Review (CAER) is a newly launched journal published by Emerald Group Publishing in association with China Agricultural University and the Chinese Association of Agricultural Economics (CAAE). CAER is delighted to announce its first annual conference, which is being organised by the CAER editorial office and supported by the Center for Rural Development Policy (CRDP), the College of Economics and Management at the China Agricultural University, the CAAE, and Emerald. The theme of the 2009 conference is Globalization and Chinas Agricultural Development.. ...
The National Agricultural Development Company Fundamental Company Report provides a complete overview of the companys affairs. All available data is
This annual publication provides information on policy developments and related support to agriculture in OECD countries and selected partner economies, measured with the OECD Producer Support Estimate methodology. Countries covered represent about 80% of the global value added in agriculture. The report includes a general discussion on developments in agricultural policies and specific chapters for each country covered.. ...
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Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the medias incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 67 countries, spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets, to test these predictions. We find that, in line with theoretical hypotheses, public support to agriculture is strongly affected by the mass media. In particular, an increase in the share of informed voters, and a greater role of the private televisions in society is associated with policies which benefit the majority more: it reduces taxation of agriculture in poor countries and reduces subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The evidence is also consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to
Niger, owing to its climatic, institutional, livelihood, economic, and environmental context, is one of the most vulnerable countries of the world. Poverty is pervasive in Niger and it ranks low on almost all the human development indicators. Agriculture is the most important sector of Nigers economy and accounts for over 40 percent of national gross domestic product (GDP) and is the principle source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the countrys population. The performance of the agricultural sector, however, due to its high exposure to risks, is very volatile. Niger has experienced multiple shocks, largely induced by agricultural risks over the past 30 years, which impose high welfare cost in terms of food availability, food affordability, and malnutrition. It also adversely affects household incomes, performance of the agricultural sector, the governments fiscal balance, and the growth rate of Nigers economy. Niger is a case of living perpetually with risk, thus more emphasis on ...
Anonymous, 1995: 1995 annual conference in Grangeneuve: evaluation of agricultural policy measures from the example of the new income and environment policy motivated direct payments
Multifunctional Agricultural Policies Conference scheduled on October 29-30, 2020 in October 2020 in Paris is for the researchers, scientists, scholars, engineers, academic, scientific and university practitioners to present research activities that might want to attend events, meetings, seminars, congresses, workshops, summit, and symposiums.
Find great deals for Agricultural Policy in the United States: Evolution and Economics by Larry D. Sanders, James W. Pease, James L. Novak (Hardback, 2015). Shop with confidence on eBay!
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
Causes of Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity. The agricultural sector is very important and crucial to the survival and livelihoods of many people especially those living in the rural areas in many developing countries. For example in Nigeria, the Central Bank in 2016 estimated that the sector accounted for about 24% of the countrys GDP and according to the National Bureau of Statistics accounted for about 70% of total labour force. Similarly, about 70% of the SMEs in the country operate in the agriculturally value chain. Therefore, any attempt at improving agricultural productivity would mean accompanying improvement in the livelihoods and standard of living of many of the rural populace. It is no doubt that both men as well as women play significant roles in agricultural development, however, the important roles that women play in agriculture, household food and nutrition security cannot be overemphasized. Women constitute the major work force in food production, processing and marketing ...
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2014, European Association for Potato Research. Precision agriculture (PA) involves more precise seeding, fertilizer application, irrigation, and pesticide use in order to optimize crop production for the purpose of increasing grower revenue and protecting the environment. High-value crops, like potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), are recognized as good candidates for the adoption of PA because of the high cost of inputs. In addition, the sensitivity of potato yield and quality to crop management and environmental conditions makes precision management economically important. The spatial and temporal variability of soil conditions and crop growth are well documented. The PA uses geospatial information and technologies to manage this variability more precisely. Intensive soil sampling techniques, yield monitors, and soil and plant sensors can be used to identify where, when, and how much variability is present in a field. The agronomists role is to analyze the within-field variability in order to ...
Some terms defy definition. "Sustainable agriculture" has become one of them. In such a quickly changing world, can anything be sustainable? What do we want to sustain? How can we implement such a nebulous goal? Is it too late? With the contradictions and questions have come a hard look at our present food production system and thoughtful evaluations of its future. If nothing else, the term "sustainable agriculture" has provided "talking points," a sense of direction, and an urgency, that has sparked much excitement and innovative thinking in the agricultural world.. The word "sustain," from the Latin sustinere (sus-, from below and tenere, to hold), to keep in existence or maintain, implies long-term support or permanence. As it pertains to agriculture, sustainable describes farming systems that are "capable of maintaining their productivity and usefulness to society indefinitely. Such systems... must be resource-conserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive, and environmentally ...
APS - Agricultural Production System. Looking for abbreviations of APS? It is Agricultural Production System. Agricultural Production System listed as APS
Agricultural ecosystems (agro-ecosystems) were created by humans during the invention of agriculture approximately 12 000 years ago to generate a reliable food supply that could be easily stored (e.g. cereal grains), enabling the creation of cities and the rise of civilizations. Since their origin in the Fertile Crescent, agro-ecosystems have spread globally to cover approximately 40% of the land surface, with most of this expansion occurring during the past 300 years to feed the rapidly growing human population [1]. One consequence of this expansion was an enormous reduction in plant and animal diversity globally as species-rich natural ecosystems were converted to species-poor agro-ecosystems [2,3]. To illustrate the temporal and spatial scales involved, in only 300 years agro-ecosystems expanded such that approximately 540 million ha are now planted annually to only three crop species, maize, rice and wheat (FAO Statistics), compared with the approximately 600 million ha of tropical ...
Business activities have ranged from agricultural policy assessment to applied research on issues of soil and water quality, manure/biosolids management, management of horticultural water and environmental growing conditions, environmental microbiology, and beneficial management practices (BMPs). Notable policy issues addressed include greenhouse gas emission studies and associated protocol development for the agricultural sector and an evaluation of provincial nutrient management standards and regulations. Recent applied research investigations have evaluated issues related to beneficial management practices in the horticulture and crop production sectors, agricultural watershed water quality (nutrients, pathogens, herbicides), manure and biosolids management, and environmental indicators. Land resource services provided are related to nutrient management planning, resource monitoring during construction practices and a range of land evaluation issues. Experience in conducting soil surveys and ...
In order to assess the agricultural potential of regions and to evaluate the risk of environmental degradation due to agriculture, we define a marginality index for agricultural land use which is based on available global data sets and takes into account various environmental conditions. Influencing factors taken into consideration are the general climatic conditions for plant growth, the soil fertility, the soil moisture availability, the precipitation uncertainty and the erosion risk due to the steepness of slopes. Comparison of our marginality index with present global assessments of agricultural land use shows that about 30% of agricultural land currently in use can be identified as marginal, in other words as having a disposition towards overuse and potential environmental degradation. The validity of our approach is strengthened by the fact that agriculturally used areas identified as marginal are described as vulnerable in the literature. The risk of degradation with a further ...
The concept of precision agriculture first emerged in the United States in the early 1980s. In 1985, researchers at the University of Minnesota varied lime inputs in crop fields. It was also at this time that the practice of grid sampling appeared (applying a fixed grid of one sample per hectare). Towards the end of the 1980s, this technique was used to derive the first input recommendation maps for fertilizers and pH corrections. The use of yield sensors developed from new technologies, combined with the advent of GPS receivers, has been gaining ground ever since. Today, such systems cover several million hectares. In the American Midwest (US), it is associated not with sustainable agriculture but with mainstream farmers who are trying to maximize profits by spending money only in areas that require fertilizer. This practice allows the farmer to vary the rate of fertilizer across the field according to the need identified by GPS guided Grid or Zone Sampling. Fertilizer that would have been ...
Agricultural irrigation leachate is often the largest source for aquifer recharge in semi-arid groundwater basins, but contamination from fertilizers and other agro-chemicals may degrade the quality of groundwater. Affected communities are frequently economically disadvantaged, and water supply alternatives may be too costly. This study aimed to demonstrate that, when addressing these issues, environmental sustainability and market profitability are not incompatible. We investigated the viability of two low impact crops, alfalfa and vineyards, and new recharge basins as an alternative land use in recharge buffer zones around affected communities using an integrated hydrologic, socio-geographic, and economic analysis. In the southern Central Valley, California, study area, alfalfa and vineyards currently constitute 30% of all buffer zone cropland. Economic analyses of alternative land use scenarios indicate a wide range of revenue outcomes. Sector output gains and potential cost saving through land use
Regarding the production of vegetables and annual plants, the output of maize reached 5.13 million tons, down 114.6 thousand tons against 2016 due to the decrease of 52.9 thousand hectares of the cultivated area (maize productivity increased by 110 kilograms per hectare). The output of sweet potato gained 1.35 million tons, up 81.9 thousand tons (the cultivated area raised by 1.6 thousand hectares); sugar-cane production achieved 18.32 million tons, up 1.11 million tons (the cultivated area went up by 12.8 thousand hectares); the yield of cassava gained 10.34 million tons, down 569.1 thousand tons (the cultivated area fell by 34.4 thousand hectares); the yield of peanut reached 461.5 thousand tons, down 2.1 thousand tons (the area went down by 4.1 thousand hectares); soya production attained 102.3 thousand tons, down 22 thousand tons (a decrease of 16.1 thousand hectares of cultivated area); vegetables of all kinds achieved 16.49 million tons, up 562.8 thousand tons (the area increased by 29.5 ...
Perhaps the most direct way to measure the exposure of banks to agricultural production is the percentage of their loan portfolios made to farmers. The table on this page provides such a breakdown. It may be useful to know that regulators, under a commonly used rule of thumb, consider any bank with at least 25 percent of its loans extended to the agricultural sector to be an agriculturally focused lending institution (an "agricultural bank"). By this standard, the table indicates that over half of all banks in the Ninth District are agriculturally focused. Only one other Federal Reserve District, Kansas City, has a similar concentration. Agricultural banks are a particularly large part of the bank population in the Dakotas, where they make up about 80 percent of all banks. A significant number of banks in the district are even more agriculturally dependent than the agricultural bank standard: One-third of all banks in the district have over half of their total loans extended to agricultural ...
... _Districts in the Country Regions | Electoral Boundaries WA boundaries wa gov au825032Have Your SayDownload Districts in the country regions Previous section | Next section Agricultural Region
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Read "Strategy of statistical model selection for precision farming on-farm experiments, Precision Agriculture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project was a cross-sectional study that assessed the health and safety status of Iowa farm families and others who lived and worked on those farms. Data were collected using a comprehensive mail-out questionnaire that was sent to 989 representative Iowa farm operators, their families, and hired help. Three hundred and ninety (39%) farm operators
Globally, there is great concern about expanding agricultural activities due to their impact in the conservation of agrobiodiversity. African continent is known for its richness in biodiversity. In Kenya, there is a continuous unabated expansion of agriculture into natural habitats due to demographic and economic pressures posing a significant threat to biodiversity. Therefore, there is a need to study biodiversity loss and its regain through practices in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we assessed the status of agrobiodiversity and its contribution to food security in four agroecological zones of Eastern Kenya. Sixty households were sampled from two selected agroecological zones (upper and lower midland zones) in Embu and Tharaka-Nithi counties. Structured questionnaires and checklists were used to collect the data. Thirty-nine crop species were identified dominated by vegetables, fruits, legumes and cereals with relative densities of 28.8, 20.5, 18.3 and 8.3 %, respectively. Embu Lower Midland
Our Precision Agriculture research is addressing key challenges in a range of farming systems, including viticulture, broadacre cropping, dairy and sugar farming. Were working with industry to develop and refine tools to assess, monitor and redress environmental and economic risks associated with agricultural practices.
Read "Spectral and thermal sensing for nitrogen and water status in rainfed and irrigated wheat environments, Precision Agriculture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The United States is one of the largest players in the international agricultural market. With the continued growth of its agricultural output, the US agricultural sector has relied heavily on export markets to maintain its competitiveness and profitability. In fact, projections show the United States will export $137 billion in agricultural commodities in 2020 (Daugherty and Jiang 2019). However, the 2018 trade disruptions with Canada and Mexico that led to a renegotiated, but still unratified NAFTA-like treaty (the USMCA) and the presently unresolved trade dispute between the United States and China have adversely impacted US agricultural exports (Amiti, Redding, and Weinstein 2019; Balistreri et al. 2018; Sumner and Hanon 2018).1 Of concern is how such disruptions might affect the competitive structure of markets. As Balistreri et al. (2018) discuss, disruptions to US grain exports to the former Soviet Union in 1980 had long-run impacts on US export competitiveness. Likewise, as Chen et al. ...
KPMGs Global Head of Agribusiness, Ian Proudfoot, joins us in the Herald studio to talk about the state of our agricultural sector. Hes the author of the
Abstract Background: Florida has a large population of farmworkers, who face barriers to healthcare access. This can be problematic for farmworkers with increased need, like pregnant women. Lack of adequate and timely prenatal care is associated with negative maternal/newborn outcomes. Understanding farmworkers access to and experience with prenatal care will advance promotion of prenatal care for this at-risk population. Purpose: Explore farmworkers access to and experience with prenatal care in South Florida. Methods: We recruited 100 farmworker women, obtained informed consent, and verbally administered a 53-item survey. The survey explored experience with prenatal care in the past two years. We used past literature to design the survey. We analyzed timely and adequate prenatal care, and maternal/newborn outcomes using SPSS version 20. The Universitys IRB approved the research protocol. Findings: The majority (97%), of participants started prenatal care during the first trimester, and (90%)
Agriculture. Industry. And the central panels by the doorway representing Construction, Destruction and Reconstruction. ...
Dairy farming is the first agriculture sector of the kibbutz, beginning already in 1938 with the move to the kibbutz's current ... The secondary component and historically the center of the kibbutz life is the agriculture, which employs 20 members of the ... In the local market, Mivrag supplies agriculture, industrial, high-tech and wholesale companies. In the worldwide market, ... "Agriculture". Ein HaShofet website. "Mivrag". Mivrag's Hebrew website. "History". Mivrag's hebrew website. "Company Profile". ...
Agriculture. Vineyards around the village produce Côtes du Ventoux AOC wine. Other productions are olive oil, cherries and ...
One main issue that arises out of intensive animal agriculture is the waste that the huge number of animals in a small space ... The Agriculture and Consumer Health Department has stated explicitly that the "main direct environmental impact of pig ... "Agriculture". www.epa.gov. Retrieved 2017-04-23. Johnson, Andrew (1991). Factory Farming. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. "Exclusive ... Raleigh, NC:North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S. ...
Agriculture; Economic Affairs and Foreign Affairs. In 1984 he proposed the inclusion of subsidiarity in the Draft Treaty on ...
... agriculture; forests; fish; wildlife and natural ecosystems; materials such as metals, wood, paint and masonry; and public ... secretarial officers of the Department's of Agriculture, Energy and Interior; and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental ...
Social Welfare; Transportation; Agriculture; Society, Labour and Sports; Public Service; Electoral Matters, Foreign Policy and ...
The GeoBase SPOT 4 and SPOT 5 orthoimagery can be used in a wide variety of applications including: mapping; agriculture; ... Federal Agencies Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Canadian Transport Agency; Elections Canada; Environment Canada; Fisheries ...
World agriculture: towards 2030/2050. Prospects for food, nutrition, agriculture and major commodity groups. Interim report. ... subsistence agriculture, hunting, and fishing. The 2006 report Livestock's Long Shadow, released by the Food and Agriculture ... Meat Atlas Meatless Monday Meat tax Stock-free agriculture Sustainable agriculture Sustainable diet Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber ... 2007 Census of Agriculture. United States Summary and State Data. Vol. 1. Geographic Area Series. Part 51. AC-07-A-51. 639 pp ...
U.S. Department of Labor: James P. Mitchell and Arthur J. Goldberg (Chairmen) U.S. Department of Agriculture: Ezra Taft Benson ... Agriculture; Health, Education, and Welfare; Interior; and the Administrator of the Housing and Home Finance Administration. ...
Agriculture... Among agriculture crops, coconut leads in production followed by banana and sugarcane. Other major crops are ...
"AGRICULTURE". British History Online. Retrieved 18 June 2009. The present-day Wood Street "SWINDON". British History Online. ...
Agriculture. Social and Family Development. Administrative and Economic Sciences. Media. Arts. Education. The university has ...
The greatest number of common labourers were employed in agriculture: in the Italian system of industrial farming (latifundia ... agriculture; and mining. Convicts provided much of the labour in the mines or quarries, where conditions were notoriously ... as well as an accounting of property he owned that was suitable for agriculture or habitation. A major source of indirect-tax ...
"Agriculture". A Country Study: Ethiopia (Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research ... During the same period, agriculture grew at an annual 2.1 percent rate, and services grew at an annual 6.7 percent rate. ...
Nagalapuram makes its economy to be solely dependent agriculture. Sugarcane and Plantain (Banana) are cultivated on a large ... Agriculture. Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority. Thoothukudi corporation Thoothukudi District. ...
"Agriculture". A Country Study: Ethiopia (Thomas P. Ofcansky and LaVerle Berry, editors). Library of Congress Federal Research ...
Thompson, Paul B (2014). "agriculture". In John, Barry. International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics. Routledge. p. 8. ...
Agriculture; Veterinarian Sciences; Mongolian; Physical Sports; Foreign Languages; Arts; Adult Education; Life Sciences; ...
Bumper B.C. strawberry crop helps lower local market prices , Agriculture , Business in Vancouver "California seeds brand ...
They are used extensively in agriculture, as well as in home and garden centers. However, research has shown that exposure can ... Koba, Mark (31 October 2014). "Lowe's swarmed by bee activist protests on pesticides". Agriculture. CNBC. Archived from the ...
... "instruction in the use of tools and processes of agriculture." In 1889, the Board of Agriculture finally became a government ... There were only four passes from the 193 entries at the S. & A. D. Honours examination in Agriculture. Walter White of Brigg ... One reason for this lack of government aid was Great Britain employed fewer than 10% of her working population in agriculture, ... After 1899 the two examining bodies combined to form the Joint Examining Board for the National Diploma in Agriculture. This ...
Agriculture; Cooperatives; Housing and Urban Development; Business; Politics and Governance; Program Planning and Evaluation; ...
"Agriculture and livestock account for about 21% of the economy". The list of agriculture and livestock is very abundant due to ... Without the agriculture business, Navolato, Sinaloa would not be the agricultural power on the map today. Navolato became part ... "Nations Encyclopedia." Agriculture. 7 Oct. 2008 . "Tricar Sinaloa." Sinaloa. 07 Oct. 2008 . "Valente Del Real." Portal Grupero ... Navolato is so famous for their agriculture, Navolato would be expected to produce and export their product in a timely manner ...
of Food and Agriculture statement on freeze branding cattle, Accessed September 19, 2007 Odell, Dan. "Dolphin Watch chapter 2 ... "Code of accepted farming practice for the welfare of goats." Agriculture. August 2001. 9 October 2012. Schoenian, Susan. " ...
Incentivizing Research in Agriculture. ICAR, All India Coordinated Project (PI). Dr. Karabi Datta. 2014-2017. Rs. 168.65 lakhs ...
Folder 3: College of Agriculture. The Ag Fair Whiz (1922). Folder 4: College of Agriculture. Ag Alumni Report (1996-1997; 2005) ... Folder 5: College of Agriculture. Pickups (1983-1986). Folder 6: College of Agriculture. The Teaching Newsletter (1997-1999). ... Folder 1: College of Agriculture. AgComm Alunmi News (2007-2010). Folder 2: College of Agriculture. Agricultural Advancement ( ... Folder 7: College of Agriculture. Student Handbook (1980-1994). Folder 8: College of Architecture and Design. A & D News (1984- ...
Agricultures greenhouse gas emissions on the rise. Detailed assessments of both emissions data and mitigation options needed ... The new FAO data also provide a detailed view of emissions from energy use in the agriculture sector generated from traditional ... Agriculture, forestry and other land use activities emit more than 10 billion tonnes of greenhouse gases. ... This is the first time that FAO has released its own global estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, ...
Influenza Education Among Youth in AgricultureExternal. website. *Influenza Education Among Youth in Agriculture Resource ... The Youth in Agriculture program provides a sustainable and adaptable model in public health education that can be used in ... The Youth in Agriculture programs ongoing work focuses on strengthening evaluation efforts, as well as identifying ways to ... Minnesota, now in its second grant cycle, has been heavily involved in the Youth in Agriculture program. Minnesota state ...
A new report shows that organic agriculture can feed the world -- while net yields are lower than conventional, organic ... with then U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Earl Butz.. "Before we go back to organic agriculture in this country, somebody must ... Organic Agriculture Can Feed the World Despite Lower Yields, New Research Finds. August 17, 2016. by Emily Monaco ... Today, organic agriculture occupies only one percent of global agricultural land.. Related on Organic Authority. Organic Food ...
"Agriculture collected news and commentary". The New York Times.. *. "Agriculture collected news and commentary". The Guardian. ... The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. The history of agriculture dates back thousands of years, and its ... Agriculture defined the limits on how large and for how long an army could be mobilized. Shang Yang called agriculture and war ... Agriculture accounts for 70 percent of withdrawals of freshwater resources.[104] Agriculture is a major draw on water from ...
Eco-friendly AgriNesture buildings promote agriculture and job growth in Vietnam. *by Lucy Wang ... Although the majority of Vietnams population relies on agriculture, rapid industrialization and a skyrocketing... ...
The BookReader requires JavaScript to be enabled. Please check that your browser supports JavaScript and that it is enabled in the browser settings. You can also try one of the other formats of the book. ...
2016). "Urban Agriculture: Urban agriculture, positive impact" My Green Hobby *^ Whats the Real Cost of Raising Backyard ... Urban Agriculture.. *^ "CONFLICTS, CONTESTATION, AND MARGINALIZATION IN URBAN AGRICULTURE: EXPERIENCES FROM KUWADZANA EXTENSION ... The Urban Agriculture Network has defined urban agriculture as:[11] [A]n industry that produces, processes, and markets food, ... "Localising Food Production: Urban Agriculture in Australia". 2015-05-27.. *^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United ...
Agriculture Advisor Corner. EPAs Agriculture Advisors Office enables two-way communication between EPA and agriculture ... Agriculture. EPA is committed to a strong partnership with the agriculture community to assist in fulfilling our mission of ... Animal Agriculture Education Project. *EPA Selects Environmental Education Grantees to Receive $3.3 Million to Support Projects ... July 22: EPA Region 4 Administrator Mary S. Walker Signs Memorandum of Understanding with the Alabama Department of Agriculture ...
We are fast approaching a tipping point in terms of climate disruption, degenerative agriculture, deteriorating public health, ... Man Who Wrote the Book on Regenerative Agriculture Says Conservation is the Fifth Ag Revolution ... according to new data released last month by Vermonts Agency of Agriculture, Food and Markets. ...
Restoration Agriculture explains how we can have all of the benefits of natural, perennial ecosystems and create agricultural ... Regenerative agriculture, when scaled up and combined with reforestation and other regenerative land use practices, has the ... Condemning industrial agriculture as a recipe for ecological and economic disaster, Shiva champions the small, independent farm ... Regenerative agriculture is a way forward to restore the health of people and the planet. ...
Agriculture workers who interact with new technologies. Surveillance research. G. Non-fatal injuries. Explore sources for non- ... Agriculture subsector. Basic/etiologic. F. Fatal and non-fatal injuries. Codes and other methods needed to identify robot- ... According to several studies, farm machinery is a leading source of fatalities and injuries in agriculture accounting for 23-50 ... NIOSH [2014]. Workplace safety and health topics: agriculture. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ...
Our primary mission is to create social and spiritual change through agriculture while maintaining sustainable profitability. ...
OECD Home Russian FederationBy TopicAgriculture and fisheries Agriculture and fisheries. ... Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate ...
... according to a report by the World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). ... Despite the role and impact of women in African agriculture, theres still an unsettling disparity in the support they receive ... Women represent 93.5% of Soro Yiriwasos borrowers, while two thirds of its loan portfolio goes to agriculture. Between 2010 ... In their book Transforming Gender Relations in Agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa: Promising Approaches, authors Marion Davis, ...
Other articles where Farm is discussed: history of Europe: Prestige and status: There were extended farmsteads in northern and western Europe with a development of enclosed compounds and elaborate field systems in Britain. In central Europe the extended farmsteads were in time supplemented by both unenclosed villages and defended hilltop sites, as was also the case in the area of…
In Dec. 22 SN: Our top stories of 2018, baffling star behavior, early hominids in North Africa, the oldest evidence of vanilla, wombat poop physics, Earths impact craters and more. ...
Objective: The overall objective of the Programme is to sustainably improve the livelihoods of the rural poor in South Asia through the development of diversified production chains for organically produced Medicinal, Aromatic and Natural Dye Plants (MADPs) and certified collected MADPs. This will contribute to improved rural food security through higher capacities and income and an improved natural resource base and biodiversity, particularly in marginal and uncultivated areas ...
Agriculture Improvement of land. As well as offering improved means of transporting agricultural produce, and opening up new ...
In the Jan. 19 SN: Celebrating 150 years of the periodic table, daredevil asteroid missions, early plague evidence from Sweden, more black hole collisions, hybrid rice can clone itself, corals go deep and more. ...
Latest Agriculture regulation News. Hawaii coffee farmers in jeopardy with no federal aid. Aug. 6, 2020 10:31 AM EDT ... AP) - Louisianas agriculture department said a dog in the state has tested positive for the coronavirus, the states first ... HONOLULU (AP) - Hawaiis congressional delegation has continually urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture to expand its ... 31 through the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Industrial hemp has been promoted as a... ...
Byproducts from Agriculture and Fisheries: Adding Value for Food, Feed, Pharma and Fuels Benjamin K. Simpson, Alberta N. Aryee ...
http://www.mediafire.com/file/6i1nlagu265oaca/agriculture_booklet_french.pdf/file. .header { position: absolute; width: 230px; ...
... is the economic engine that powers the Great Plains, the vast stretch of treeless prairie that covers parts of 10 ...
  • Machine Learning in Agriculture: Applications and Techniques - May 14, 2019. (kdnuggets.com)
  • HONOLULU (AP) - Hawaii's congressional delegation has continually urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture to expand its coronavirus relief program to include coffee farmers but the state's roughly $50 million coffee industry waits in a state of limbo. (ap.org)
  • The animal husbandry and fisheries minister said that his department is started integrating animal husbandry with agriculture to double farmers' income. (indiatimes.com)
  • The Idaho State Department of Agriculture (ISDA) Mormon Cricket and Grasshopper Control Program offers help to ranchers, farmers and the general public in the suppression of economically damaging infestations on private or state-owned lands. (uidaho.edu)
  • The updated brochure Contracting in Agriculture: Making the Right Decision, Information for Farmers from USDA (PDF) is now finished and available. (uidaho.edu)
  • Just days ahead of the meeting of European Agriculture ministers taking place in Brussels today, Slow Food Europe joined a group of NGOs calling on the Agriculture and Fisheries (AGRIFISH) Council to take into consideration the voice of civil society when discussing the new Commission's report on the development of plant proteins in the European Union. (slowfood.com)
  • The largest source of GHG emissions within agriculture is enteric fermentation - when methane is produced by livestock during digestion and released via belches - this accounted in 2011 for 39 percent of the sector's total GHG outputs. (fao.org)
  • Agriculture is the art, science and business of cultivating crops and livestock for economic purposes. (usingenglish.com)
  • This model of agriculture is marked by practices such as monoculture (planting the same one or two crops over a large area year after year), raising crops and livestock in isolation from each other, and leaving farmland bare and vulnerable to erosion and nutrient loss between commercial crops. (ucsusa.org)
  • Throughout the year, the New Jersey Department of Agriculture sustained and enhanced many other efforts in support of the Garden State's agriculture industry, such as quality assurance programs for a variety of commodities and livestock and plant health testing and certification services. (nj.us)
  • Nearly two‐thirds of the total agriculture sales are derived from livestock operations. (uidaho.edu)
  • Over one third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the percentages of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased significantly over the past several centuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • This report is FAO's latest assessment of the long-term outlook for the world's food supplies, nutrition and agriculture. (un.org)
  • This report is a shorter version of 'World agriculture: towards 2015/2030', FAO's latest assessment of the long-term outlook for the world's food supplies, nutrition and agriculture, due for release at the end of 2002. (un.org)
  • To practice agriculture means to use natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services. (wikipedia.org)
  • While negative impacts are serious, and can include pollution and degradation of soil, water, and air, agriculture can also positively impact the environment, for instance by trapping greenhouse gases within crops and soils, or mitigating flood risks through the adoption of certain farming practices. (oecd.org)
  • Today's GM crops have already achieved significant commercial success in global agriculture. (prweb.com)
  • In a significant escalation in the region's battle with the Mediterranean fruit fly, state agriculture officials declared a quarantine Friday on crops grown within an 81-square-mile section of Riverside County. (latimes.com)
  • We have also developed insights on the potential environmental impact of agriculture policies by identifying possible policy mis-alignments and how to jointly address sustainability and productivity growth goals . (oecd.org)
  • Poverty, famine, development economics, genetic modification, environmental sustainability, disease epidemics… agriculture intersects with all of these, and agricultural graduates are involved in research and development work in all these fields. (topuniversities.com)
  • Some agriculture courses focus on preparing students for work at an international level - covering topics such as bio-based economies, sustainability on a global scale, and global food systems. (topuniversities.com)
  • The European Commission experts in the field of agriculture and rural development provide assistance and guidance to candidate and potential candidates in preparing for future accession to the EU and more specifically, the common agricultural policy (CAP) and rural development. (europa.eu)
  • Accession negotiations in agriculture focus on the procedures for future direct payments, support to rural development or on the need for transitional measures facilitating integration into the EU, taking into account the specific circumstances of the agricultural sector in the candidate countries. (europa.eu)
  • Emissions generated during the application of synthetic fertilizers accounted for 13 percent of agricultural emissions (725 Mt CO2 eq.) in 2011, and are the fastest growing emissions source in agriculture, having increased some 37 percent since 2001. (fao.org)
  • Banks Cargill Agriculture had been formed in February 2001 between Cargill and Sidney C Banks, a UK grain trader based in Sandy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agriculture is also a major economic, social, and cultural activity, and it provides a wide range of ecosystem services. (pnas.org)
  • A broad range of agriculture-environment interactions can be organized around the concept of agriculture as a producer and consumer of ecosystem services. (repec.org)
  • In addition, the twin policy challenge of ensuring global food security for a growing population while improving environmental performance will require raising the environmental and resource productivity of agriculture, enhancing land management practices, minimising pollution discharges, curtailing damage to biodiversity, and strengthening policies that avoid the use of production and input subsidies which tend to damage the environment. (oecd.org)
  • EPA's Agriculture Advisor's Office enables two-way communication between EPA and agriculture stakeholders about priority environmental issues. (epa.gov)
  • Its 9th installment took place on the week of the Berlin Agriculture Ministers' Conference and Berlin's International Green Week, which attracted many European stakeholders and decision-makers to the capital of Germany. (slowfood.com)
  • The Commission describes the conference as the 'key annual gathering of European stakeholders willing to engage and discuss the future of agriculture. (slowfood.com)
  • Data on government support to agriculture in the OECD area and other major economies, measured by the Producer Support Estimate (PSE) and Consumer Support Estimate. (oecd.org)
  • In recent years, there have been some encouraging signs that the agriculture sector of OECD countries is capable of meeting its environmental challenges. (oecd.org)
  • S.1284, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014 H.R. 2642, Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013. (opensecrets.org)
  • Thanks to the increased funding for farmland and open space preservation under the Garden State Preservation Trust Act, the State Agriculture Development Committee (SADC) permanently preserved a record number of farms in FY01. (nj.us)
  • Most agriculture courses will include at least one required or optional work placement of up to a year, and some universities even have their own farms. (topuniversities.com)
  • The Division of Dairy and Commodity Regulation serves many facets of the agriculture industry. (nj.us)
  • General issues relating to the animal agriculture industry, both in production and processing, with an emphasis on the pork and turkey industry. (opensecrets.org)
  • We counter pose view points from industry and activists on environmental, health and political issues surrounding biotech agriculture. (corpwatch.org)
  • By dealing directly with agriculture students, companies can give them more insight into the professions attainable within the ag industry. (wiu.edu)
  • There are a variety of loan and grant programs available to help Colorado's agriculture industry identify renewable energy opportunities, promote products, conduct feasibility studies, and to take advantage of local, regional, national and international market opportunities. (colorado.gov)
  • Detailed global maps of key traits in higher plants have been made available for the first time, thanks to work led by researchers from the University of Minnesota's (UMN) College of Food, Agriculture and Natural Resource Sciences (CFANS). (enn.com)
  • A key challenge for the agriculture sector is to feed an increasing global population, while at the same time reducing the environmental impact and preserving natural resources for future generations. (oecd.org)
  • The Water in Agriculture Innovation Series is a collaborative knowledge platform offered by the Water in Agriculture Global Solutions Group at the World Bank and partners across academia, public and private institutions, and civil society on agriculture and water issues. (worldbank.org)
  • Child labour in agriculture is a global phenomenon found in developed and developing countries. (ilo.org)
  • In agriculture, child labourers are at greater risk than adults when working in the same situation because their minds and bodies are growing and developing. (ilo.org)
  • While there is unlikely to be a "one-size-fits-all" solution for dealing with environmental concerns in agriculture, as agro-ecological conditions and public preferences differ across countries, policymakers must have at their disposal a deep understanding of, and capacity to measure, the linkages between policies and outcomes in order to evaluate and achieve better environmental outcomes in a cost-effective manner. (oecd.org)
  • Urban agriculture can reflect varying levels of economic and social development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agriculture is the economic engine that powers the Great Plains, the vast stretch of treeless prairie that covers parts of 10 states - and where the next drought can appear with little warning. (enn.com)
  • This is an introductory course requiring critical analysis of the major social, economic, political and scientific issues in agriculture and related disciplines. (uky.edu)
  • Hence, supporting and transforming a country's agriculture can create jobs, raise incomes, reduce malnutrition and lead to a nation's economic growth. (usingenglish.com)
  • Large business and investment activities provincial authorities have attended include the China AG Trade Fair held by Ministry of Agriculture the "5.18" Economic and Trade Conference the "10.18" Agriculture Products Trade Fair and the Hong Kong Investment Fair. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Precision Agriculture seeks to exert more control over a production system by recognising variation and managing different areas of land differently, according to a range of economic and environmental goals. (www.csiro.au)
  • Agriculture is the economic backbone of Owyhee County. (uidaho.edu)
  • Economic viability is necessary, but it's not enough to sustain agriculture over the long run--it goes beyond profits," Ikerd continues. (metroactive.com)
  • The Markets Division's mission is to increase marketing and processing opportunities for Colorado agriculture. (colorado.gov)
  • News on Agriculture continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (topix.com)
  • In 2011, 44 percent of agriculture-related GHG outputs occurred in Asia, followed by the Americas (25%), Africa (15%), Europe (12%), and Oceania (4%), according to FAO's data. (fao.org)
  • EPA is committed to a strong partnership with the agriculture community to assist in fulfilling our mission of protecting human health and the environment. (epa.gov)
  • The Agriculture Residential College is a unique opportunity for students in the College of Agriculture, Food and Environment to live and learn together. (uky.edu)
  • Students in the AgRC will learn about the value and impact agriculture, food and the environment have on the foundation of our civilization. (uky.edu)
  • The Agriculture Residential College (AgRC) is open to students pursuing a major within the College of Agriculture, Food and Environment. (uky.edu)
  • IIn the fall semester, students participating in the AgRC are required to enroll in a corresponding section of GEN 100: Issues in Agriculture, Food and Environment. (uky.edu)
  • In controlled environment agriculture. (youtube.com)
  • The Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) program plays a critical role in protecting U.S. agriculture and the environment from invasive plant and animal pests and diseases. (usda.gov)
  • Typically offered as a Bachelor of Science (BSc Agriculture), agriculture courses are highly interdisciplinary, requiring students to have a good grasp of both natural sciences and social sciences, and drawing on areas such as biology , environmental sciences , chemistry , economics and business and management . (topuniversities.com)
  • Brussels, November 19 - the Good Food Good Farming campaign organised a Disco Soup in front of the Council of the European Union today, calling on EU agriculture ministers to serve up a better future for farming. (slowfood.com)
  • To improve influenza education and communication efforts around youth in agriculture, several government and non-governmental organizations partnered to launch a pilot program called Influenza Education among Youth in Agriculture. (cdc.gov)
  • Since its inception, the Youth in Agriculture program has provided funding to 14 states and jurisdictions, some for multiple funding cycles. (cdc.gov)
  • Minnesota, now in its second grant cycle, has been heavily involved in the Youth in Agriculture program. (cdc.gov)
  • The Youth in Agriculture program's ongoing work focuses on strengthening evaluation efforts, as well as identifying ways to share tools and resources developed through the program to other public health and animal health partners and the public. (cdc.gov)
  • By the time of the Second World War, the War/Food Administration set up a National Victory Garden Program that set out to systematically establish functioning agriculture within cities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reauthorization of the Farm Bill, S. 954 ("The Agriculture Reform, Food and Jobs Act of 2013"), H.R. 2642 ("The Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act of 2013"), and H.R. 3102 ("Nutrition Reform and Work Opportunity Act of 2013"), including issues related to the SNAP provisions concerning retailer eligibility for the program. (opensecrets.org)
  • With the establishment in Bergen County of the requisite county agriculture development board, the Farmland Preservation Program was successfully launched in the state's most urbanized northeastern region. (nj.us)
  • Established in 2008, the FRRCC provides independent policy advice, information, and recommendations to the EPA administrator on a range of environmental issues and policies that are of importance to agriculture and rural communities. (epa.gov)
  • A major challenge for agriculture is to identify ways of increasing productivity with greater environmental constraints (less and different inputs). (www.csiro.au)
  • IMAGINE some not-too-distant future in which American agriculture is vibrant and profitable, and it's thriving without abandoning environmental and social responsibility and ethics. (metroactive.com)
  • Shop our wide variety of Agriculture Water Bottles to express your personality and shrink your environmental footprint. (cafepress.com)
  • This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and suggests a holistic framework for analyzing, assessing and improving the system of environmental management in agriculture. (repec.org)
  • The new Agriculture Bill may sound good - but won't deliver on public goods or environmental protection. (theecologist.org)
  • The Agriculture Workforce Housing Facilitation Team (AWHFT) meets regularly to discuss current issues around farmworker housing, resources available for developing farmworker housing, and how to address the needs of farmworkers in Oregon. (oregon.gov)
  • H.R. 1947, S.954, Federal Agriculture Reform and Risk Management Act (FARRM) of 2013/Agriculture Reform, Food, and Jobs Act of 2013, Issues pertaining to agriculture research, energy, and education. (opensecrets.org)
  • Agriculture has been at the center of human civilization since, well, since civilization began - and it remains at the heart of many of the most pressing issues for modern societies. (topuniversities.com)
  • Allied Grain (owned by Associated British Foods - ABF) and Banks Cargill Agriculture merged in April 2005 to form Frontier Agriculture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Engineered agriculture uses the tools of biotechnology to analyze and manipulate plant DNA to create varieties with new or enhanced characteristics, explains Social Technologies futurist Justman says. (prweb.com)
  • When you bring the producers and the consumers together they support agriculture that is more environmentally responsible and more compassionate. (motherearthnews.com)