Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Methimazole: A thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyl residues of thyroglobulin. This is done by interfering with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through inhibition of the peroxidase enzyme.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Archaeoglobales: An order of extremely thermophilic, sulfate-reducing archaea, in the kingdom EURYARCHAEOTA. The single family Archaeoglobaceae contains one genus ARCHAEOGLOBUS.Veterinary Drugs: Drugs used by veterinarians in the treatment of animal diseases. The veterinarian's pharmacological armamentarium is the counterpart of drugs treating human diseases, with dosage and administration adjusted to the size, weight, disease, and idiosyncrasies of the species. In the United States most drugs are subject to federal regulations with special reference to the safety of drugs and residues in edible animal products.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Chlorpropamide: A sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent used in the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus not responding to dietary modification. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p277)Graves Disease: A common form of hyperthyroidism with a diffuse hyperplastic GOITER. It is an autoimmune disorder that produces antibodies against the THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE RECEPTOR. These autoantibodies activate the TSH receptor, thereby stimulating the THYROID GLAND and hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES. These autoantibodies can also affect the eyes (GRAVES OPHTHALMOPATHY) and the skin (Graves dermopathy).HLA-B38 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*38 allele family.Antinematodal Agents: Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.Acecainide: A major metabolite of PROCAINAMIDE. Its anti-arrhythmic action may cause cardiac toxicity in kidney failure.Dipyrone: A drug that has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. It is the sodium sulfonate of AMINOPYRINE.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Meprobamate: A carbamate with hypnotic, sedative, and some muscle relaxant properties, although in therapeutic doses reduction of anxiety rather than a direct effect may be responsible for muscle relaxation. Meprobamate has been reported to have anticonvulsant actions against petit mal seizures, but not against grand mal seizures (which may be exacerbated). It is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS, and also for the short-term management of INSOMNIA but has largely been superseded by the BENZODIAZEPINES. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p603)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.LeukopeniaUnited States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Pyridones: Pyridine derivatives with one or more keto groups on the ring.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Amodiaquine: A 4-aminoquinoline compound with anti-inflammatory properties.New MexicoBone Marrow Examination: Removal of bone marrow and evaluation of its histologic picture.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Encephalomyelitis, Equine: A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Pentazocine: The first mixed agonist-antagonist analgesic to be marketed. It is an agonist at the kappa and sigma opioid receptors and has a weak antagonist action at the mu receptor. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1991, p97)Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)United StatesUnited States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.

Phase I trial of dolastatin-10 (NSC 376128) in patients with advanced solid tumors. (1/458)

Dolastatin-10 (dola-10) is a potent antimitotic peptide, isolated from the marine mollusk Dolabela auricularia, that inhibits tubulin polymerization. Preclinical studies of dola-10 have demonstrated activity against a variety of murine and human tumors in cell cultures and mice models. The purpose of this Phase I clinical trial was to characterize the maximum tolerated dose, pharmacokinetics, and biological effects of dola-10 in patients with advanced solid tumors. Escalating doses of dola-10 were administered as an i.v. bolus every 21 days, using a modified Fibonacci dose escalation schema. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed with the first treatment cycle. Neurological testing was performed on each patient prior to treatment with dola-10, at 6 weeks and at study termination. Thirty eligible patients received a total of 94 cycles (median, 2 cycles; maximum, 14 cycles) of dola-10 at doses ranging from 65 to 455 microg/m2. Dose-limiting toxicity of granulocytopenia was seen at 455 microg/m2 for minimally pretreated patients (two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens) and 325 microg/m2 for heavily pretreated patients (more than two prior chemotherapy regimens). Nonhematological toxicity was generally mild. Local irritation at the drug injection site was mild and not dose dependent. Nine patients developed new or increased symptoms of mild peripheral sensory neuropathy that was not dose limiting. This toxicity was more frequent in patients with preexisting peripheral neuropathies. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated a rapid drug distribution with a prolonged plasma elimination phase (t 1/2z = 320 min). The area under the concentration-time curve increased in proportion to administered dose, whereas the clearance remained constant over the doses studied. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong relationship between dola-10 area under the concentration-time curve values and decrease from baseline for leukocyte counts. In conclusion, dola-10 administered every 3 weeks as a peripheral i.v. bolus is well tolerated with dose-limiting toxicity of granulocytopenia. The maximum tolerated dose (and recommended Phase II starting dose) is 400 microg/m2 for patients with minimal prior treatment (two or fewer prior chemotherapy regimens) and 325 microg/m2 for patients who are heavily pretreated (more than two prior chemotherapy regimens).  (+info)

Agranulocytosis in Bangkok, Thailand: a predominantly drug-induced disease with an unusually low incidence. Aplastic Anemia Study Group. (2/458)

Agranulocytosis, a syndrome characterized by a marked reduction in circulating granulocytes, is strongly associated with medical drug use in Europe and the United States. Unregulated use of common pharmaceutical agents in developing countries has been suspected of causing large numbers of cases of agranulocytosis and deaths, especially among children. To elucidate the incidence and etiology of agranulocytosis in Thailand, a population-based case-control study of symptomatic agranulocytosis that resulted in hospital admission was conducted in Bangkok from 1990 to 1994. An attempt was also made to study the disease in Khonkaen (in northeastern Thailand) and Songkla (in southern Thailand), but there were insufficient cases in the latter regions, and the analysis was confined to subjects from Bangkok. In that region, the overall incidence of agranulocytosis was 0.8 per million per year; there were no deaths. As expected, the incidence was higher in females (0.9 per million), and it increased with age (4.3 per million beyond age 60). Among 25 cases and 529 controls the relative risk estimate for a combined category of all suspect drugs was 9.2 (95% confidence interval = 3.9-21), and the proportion of cases that could be attributed to drug use was 68%. For individual drugs and drug classes the data were sparse; within these limitations, the strongest association appeared to be with antithyroid drugs. One case and three controls were exposed to dipyrone, a drug known to cause agranulocytosis; with such scanty data the risk could not be evaluated. Exposure to pesticides or solvents was not associated with an increased risk. This is the first formal epidemiologic study of agranulocytosis in a developing country. As in the West, most cases are attributable to medical drug use. However, the incidence of agranulocytosis in Bangkok, and apparently, in Thailand as a whole, is unusually low, and the disease does not pose a public health risk.  (+info)

Phase I study of a biweekly schedule of a fixed dose of cisplatin with increasing doses of paclitaxel in patients with advanced oesophageal cancer. (3/458)

We performed this dose-finding study with a fixed dose of cisplatin and increasing doses of paclitaxel given every 2 weeks to determine the maximum tolerable dose of this schedule. Sixty-four patients with advanced oesophageal cancer were treated with a cisplatin dose of 60 mg m(-2) and increasing doses of paclitaxel from 100 mg m(-2) up to 200 mg m(-2) both administered over 3 h for a maximum of six cycles in patients with stable disease or eight cycles in responding patients. Patients were retreated when the granulocytes were > 0.75 x 10(9) l(-1) and the platelets > 75 x 10(9) l(-1). The dose of paclitaxel could be increased to 200 mg m(-2) without encountering dose limiting haematological toxicity. At the dose levels 190 mg m(-2) and 200 mg m(-2) of paclitaxel cumulative sensory neurotoxicity became the dose-limiting toxicity. The dose intensity of paclitaxel calculated over six cycles rose from 50 mg m(-2) per week to 85 mg m(-2) per week. Only three episodes of granulocytopenic fever were encountered out of a total of 362 cycles of treatment. Of the 59 patients evaluable for response, 31 (52%) had a partial or complete response. In a biweekly schedule with a fixed dose of 60 mg m(-2) cisplatin it is possible to increase the dose of paclitaxel to 180 mg m(-2). At higher dose levels, neurotoxicity becomes the dose-limiting toxicity. The observed response rate warrants further investigation of this schedule.  (+info)

Oral versus intravenous empirical antimicrobial therapy for fever in patients with granulocytopenia who are receiving cancer chemotherapy. International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. (4/458)

BACKGROUND: Intravenously administered antimicrobial agents have been the standard choice for the empirical management of fever in patients with cancer and granulocytopenia. If orally administered empirical therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy, it would offer advantages such as improved quality of life and lower cost. METHODS: In a prospective, open-label, multicenter trial, we randomly assigned febrile patients with cancer who had granulocytopenia that was expected to resolve within 10 days to receive empirical therapy with either oral ciprofloxacin (750 mg twice daily) plus amoxicillin-clavulanate (625 mg three times daily) or standard daily doses of intravenous ceftriaxone plus amikacin. All patients were hospitalized until their fever resolved. The primary objective of the study was to determine whether there was equivalence between the regimens, defined as an absolute difference in the rates of success of 10 percent or less. RESULTS: Equivalence was demonstrated at the second interim analysis, and the trial was terminated after the enrollment of 353 patients. In the analysis of the 312 patients who were treated according to the protocol and who could be evaluated, treatment was successful in 86 percent of the patients in the oral-therapy group (95 percent confidence interval, 80 to 91 percent) and 84 percent of those in the intravenous-therapy group (95 percent confidence interval, 78 to 90 percent; P=0.02). The results were similar in the intention-to-treat analysis (80 percent and 77 percent, respectively; P=0.03), as were the duration of fever, the time to a change in the regimen, the reasons for such a change, the duration of therapy, and survival. The types of adverse events differed slightly between the groups but were similar in frequency. CONCLUSIONS: In low-risk patients with cancer who have fever and granulocytopenia, oral therapy with ciprofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanate is as effective as intravenous therapy.  (+info)

Murine neutrophil stimulation by Toxoplasma gondii antigen drives high level production of IFN-gamma-independent IL-12. (5/458)

Successful immunity to Toxoplasma gondii requires a strong cell-mediated immune response. Neutrophils possess the ability to rapidly migrate into tissues in response to microbial stimuli. Therefore, we sought to determine whether murine neutrophils could respond to T. gondii by producing immunoregulatory cytokines. We show that murine neutrophils produce high levels of IL-12 and low, but significant, levels of TNF-alpha when stimulated with T. gondii Ag. Both cytokines are produced in the absence of IFN-gamma. Production of IL-12 does not require TNFR p55, and release of TNF-alpha occurs independently of IL-12. We show that there is an influx of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity that peaks at approximately 8 h in response to injection of live tachyzoites and that this is correlated with increased transcription of IL-12 p40. Our results establish that murine neutrophils possess the ability to produce immunoregulatory cytokines during T. gondii infection and suggest that this response may be important in early host defense and in triggering cell-mediated immunity to the parasite.  (+info)

Different effect of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or bacterial infection on bone-marrow cells of cyclophosphamide-treated or irradiated mice. (6/458)

In the present study, the effect of treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on cellular composition of the bone marrow and the number of circulating leucocytes of granulocytopenic mice, whether or not infected with Staphylococcus aureus, was assessed. With two monoclonal antibodies, six morphologically distinct cell populations in the bone marrow could be characterised and quantitated by two-dimensional flow cytometry. Granulocytopenia was induced by cyclophosphamide or sublethal irradiation. Cyclophosphamide predominantly affected the later stages of dividing cells in the bone marrow resulting in a decrease in number of granulocytic cells, monocytic cells, lymphoid cells and myeloid blasts. G-CSF administration to cyclophosphamide-treated mice increased the number of early blasts, myeloid blasts and granulocytic cells in the bone marrow, which indicates that this growth factor stimulates the proliferation of these cells in the bone marrow. During infection in cyclophosphamide-treated mice the number of myeloid blasts increased. However, when an infection was induced in cyclophosphamide and G-CSF-treated mice, the proliferation of bone-marrow cells was not changed compared to that in noninfected similarly treated mice. Sublethal irradiation affected all bone-marrow cell populations, including the early blasts. G-CSF-treatment of irradiated mice increased only the number of myeloid blasts slightly, whereas an infection in irradiated mice, whether or not treated with G-CSF, did not affect the number of bone-marrow cells. Together, these studies demonstrated that irradiation affects the early blasts and myeloid blasts in the bone marrow more severely than treatment with cyclophosphamide. Irradiation probably depletes the bone marrow from G-CSF-responsive cells, while cyclophosphamide spared G-CSF responsive cells, thus enabling the enhanced G-CSF-mediated recovery after cyclophosphamide treatment. Only in these mice, bone marrow recovery is followed by a strong mobilisation of mature granulocytes and their band forms from the bone marrow into the circulation during a bacterial infection.  (+info)

Fludarabine-based chemotherapy in untreated mantle cell lymphomas: an encouraging experience in 29 patients. (7/458)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A prospective study to evaluate the role of fludarabine alone or in combination with idarubicin in untreated patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-nine untreated patients with mantle cell lymphoma were stochastically treated with intravenous fludarabine at a dose of 25 mg/m(2)/day for 5 days (11 patients) or with a combination of fludarabine and idarubicin (FLU-ID) (fludarabine 25 mg/m(2) i.v. on days 1 to 3 and idarubicin 12 mg/m(2) i.v. on day 1 (18 patients). For both regimens, cycles were given at three-week intervals for a total of six courses. According to the International Prognostic Index, the most part of high-intermediate and high risk factor patients were in the FLU-ID subset: 7 (39%) patients vs. 2 (18%) in the fludarabine alone subset. RESULTS: Of the 29 patients, 8 (28%) obtained a complete response and 10 (35%) a partial response, with an overall response rate of 63%. The remaining 11 (37%) patients did not respond to the therapy. The overall response rates were 64% (7 patients) in the fludarabine group and 61% (11 patients) in the FLU-ID group. The complete response rate was 27% (3 patients) for fludarabine and 28% (5 patients) for FLU-ID. The toxicity was mild in terms of neutropenia and infections, and no fatalities occurred due to drug-induced side effects. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the efficacy of fludarabine alone or in combination with idarubicin in MCL patients. It will be important to increase this experience and to assess other fludarabine-containing regimens, in particular with cyclophosphamide plus idarubicin and with mitoxantrone and or cyclophosphamide, to test the true role of this approach in MCL.  (+info)

Gemcitabine plus cisplatin, an active regimen in advanced urothelial cancer: a phase II trial of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group. (8/458)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine (2', 2'-difluorodeoxycytidine) plus cisplatin in previously untreated patients with advanced transitional-cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with measurable advanced transitional-cell carcinoma who had received no prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease were scheduled to receive gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) intravenously over 30 minutes on days 1, 8, and 15 and cisplatin 70 mg/m(2) over 1 hour on day 2 of a 28-day cycle. Prior adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced disease was allowed if this was completed more than 1 year before study entry. RESULTS: There were six complete responses and 10 partial responses in 28 assessable patients, for an overall response rate of 16 of 28 (57%). The response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 16 of 31 patients (52%). The median survival is 13.2 months, with 18 patients still alive at this time. Toxicity was primarily hematologic, with 12 of 31 patients (39%) having > or = grade 3 granulocytopenia and 17 of 31 (55%) having > or = grade 3 thrombocytopenia. Two patients had febrile neutropenia. All patients required a dose modification of gemcitabine at some point in their therapy; the primary reason was thrombocytopenia and/or neutropenia. CONCLUSION: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin is an active regimen for the treatment of urothelial cancer.  (+info)

Verify AGRANULOCYTOSIS in Scrabble dictionary and games, check AGRANULOCYTOSIS definition, AGRANULOCYTOSIS in wwf, Words With Friends score for AGRANULOCYTOSIS, definition of AGRANULOCYTOSIS.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood. It is a severe lack of one major class of infection-fighting white blood cells. People with this condition are at very high risk of serious infections due to their suppressed immune system. In agranulocytosis, the concentration of granulocytes (a major class of white blood cells that includes neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils) drops below 500 cells/mm³ of blood. The term "agranulocytosis" derives from the Greek: a, meaning without; granulocyte, a particular kind of white blood cell (containing granules in its cytoplasm); and osis, meaning condition [esp. disorder]. Consequently, agranulocytosis is sometimes described as "no granulocytes", but a total absence is not required for diagnosis. However, "-osis" is commonly used in blood disorders to imply cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TREATMENT OF DRUG-INDUCED AGRANULOCYTOSIS WITH GRANULOCYTE-COLONY STIMULATING FACTOR. AU - Muroi, Kazuo. AU - Ito, Mami. AU - Sasaki, Ryuhei. AU - Suda, Toshio. AU - Sakamoto, Shinobu. AU - Miura, Yasusada. PY - 1989/7/1. Y1 - 1989/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024374760&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024374760&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(89)90305-X. DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(89)90305-X. M3 - Letter. C2 - 2472536. AN - SCOPUS:0024374760. VL - 334. JO - The Lancet. JF - The Lancet. SN - 0140-6736. IS - 8653. ER - ...
To the editor: Adverse reactions to drugs are an important cause of hospital-acquired illness, occurring in 10% to 18% of medical patients (1) and producing fatality rates of up to 13%. Drug-induced neutropenia or agranulocytosis has been associated with many types of drugs and often is associated with a fatal outcome. Recently Hoppin and colleagues (2) described three cases of pentazocine-related agranulocytosis. All of their cases occurred in patients with previously injured bone marrows but with normal peripheral granulocyte counts before this phenomenon.. We wish to present an additional case of pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis, but one that occurred without a previous ...
Agranulocytosis is a blood abnormality characterized by the disappearance of a subclass of leucocytes: neutrophilic granulocytes. Given their importance in the immune system, their disappearance requires rapid medical management. What is agranulocytosis? Agranulocytosis is a medical term used to refer to a blood defect
Clozapine is a particularly effective antipsychotic medication but its use is curtailed by the risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/granulocytopenia (CIAG), a severe adverse drug reaction occurring in up to 1% of treated individuals. Identifying genetic risk factors for CIAG could enable safer …
Is Agranulocytosis a common side effect of Solupred? View Agranulocytosis Solupred side effect risks. Male, 71 years of age, took Solupred . Patient was hospitalized.
... On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Clozapine-Associated Agranulocytosis Treatment With Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor/Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A Systematic Review.
adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle ,, []).push({}); Agranulocytosis is defined as the complete absence of circulating neutrophils. One group this term as severe neutropenia ...
The infection of cats by the virus of infectious feline agranulocytosis is followed by the production of specific neutralizing and protective antibodies, and recovery from the disease is associated with the development of solid immunity to reinfection. From the evidence presented it is obvious that the virus is not related to the viruses of hog cholera, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, fox encephalitis, vesicular stomatitis, the Western type of equine encephalomyelitis, herpes, and B virus infection.. ...
Agranulocytosis information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
Synonyms for granulocytopenia in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for granulocytopenia. 2 synonyms for granulocytopenia: agranulocytosis, agranulosis. What are synonyms for granulocytopenia?
Not enough neutrophils, neutrophils being a type of white blood cell (specifically a form of granulocyte) filled with neutrally-staining granules, tiny sacs of enzymes that help the cell to kill and digest microorganisms it has engulfed by phagocytosis. The mature neutrophil has a segmented nucleus (it is called a seg or poly) while the immature neutrophil has band-shape nucleus (it is called a band). The neutrophil has a lifespan of about 3 days. Neutropenia may be seen with viral infections and after radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Neutropenia lowers the immunologic barrier to bacterial and fungal infection. Granulocytopenia or, as it is also called, agranulocytosis results in a syndrome of frequent chronic bacterial infections of the skin, lungs, etc. Although "agranulocytosis" literally means no granulocytes, there may, in fact, be some granulocytes but too few of them, i.e. granulocytopenia. Granulocytopenia can be genetic and inherited or it can be acquired as, for example, an aspect of ...
Find the best cyclic neutropenia doctors in Kolkata. Get guidance from medical experts to select cyclic neutropenia specialist in Kolkata from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
An investigation of the relationships between physicochemical features of ten antipsychotic drugs and previously reported influence of these drugs on neutrophil maturity was made. A quantitative structure-activity relations (QSAR) approach was adopted, in which several numerical parameters describing physicochemical characteristics of the antipsychotics were estimated. Possible connections between these parameters and neutrophil maturity were explored. Influence of drug physicochemistry on the incidence of agranulocytosis and neutropenia reported in the literature was documented. Overall it was found that drugs with the greatest tendency to induce neutrophil immaturity (chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine) also showed the greatest tendency to cause agranulocytosis and neutropenia. Moreover marked induction of neutrophil immaturity occurred with compounds of moderately amphipathic character, whose amphipathic indices (AI) fell in the range 3-5; higher or lower AI values correlated with less
HealthGene is the first diagnostic laboratory that has developed and offered the DNA test for Canine Cyclic Neutropenia (Gray Collie Syndrome).
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Dependent on further input from the Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Company stated that they intend on moving forward with the study and expect to report results in the first quarter of 2018.
Lei, J. and Mackey, M.C. (2011) Multistability in an Age-Structured Model of He-matopoiesis: Cyclical Neutropenia. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 270, 143-153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2010.11.024
granulocytopenia definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. (pathology) An abnormally low concentration of certain white blood cells called granulocytes in the blood. This condition reduces the bodys resistance to many infections....
Synonyms for agranulocytic in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for agranulocytic. 2 synonyms for agranulocytosis: agranulosis, granulocytopenia. What are synonyms for agranulocytic?
Discussion with the patient usually reveals intake of drugs that might cause NP. Any drug can cause mild-to-severe NP but some are incriminated more than others, e.g. trimethoprim sulphametoxazole (usually mild NP), anti-thyroids (sometimes causing agranulocytosis), etc.4-6 Thus, antipsychotic drugs (such as clozapine) and an iron-chelating drug (deferiprone) are often used in young patients, whereas anti-thyroids are used in the young and middle-aged. Antibiotic-induced NPs can be found at any age. Elderly patients are often exposed to combinations of drugs, complicating identification of the drug causing the NP.. Likewise, patient history will disclose known or latent autoimmune disease. Apart from Felty syndrome, where NP can be severe and associated with infections, most autoimmune diseases display mild to moderate NP. Infection proneness is usually attributed to malfunctioning of other host defense systems (e.g. TNF inhibitors enhancing risk for tuberculosis). Findings such as the detection ...
Some groups, such as people of Afro-Caribbean and Middle Eastern descent, often have a low white blood cell count but this is normal and doesnt increase their risk of infections.. "Agranulocytosis" and "neutropenia" are common conditions that cause a low white blood cell count.. ...
Three months ago Rotchana Larbja Learn was diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Agranulocytosis and Septicemia. A bone marrow transplant is needed to offer her and her family any hope of her long term survival. Rotchana has lived and ...
Near rhymes (words that almost rhyme) with lymphocytosis: phagocytosis, agranulocytosis, psychosis, metempsychosis... Find more near rhymes/false rhymes at B-Rhymes.com
A family with Fanconi's anaemia, previously reported, came to our attention because intercurrent infections in the propositus had produced agranulocytosis.
Agranulocytosis is a condition characterized by a lack of a type of essential white blood cell. Learn about the symptoms and treatments for this condition.
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granulocytopenia definition: An abnormally reduced focus of certain white blood cells called granulocytes in blood. This problem reduces the bodys resistance to numerous attacks.; an acute blood disorder…
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Adverse side effects occur in up to 20% of patients receiving metoclopramide treatment (Reglan, A.H. Robbins Co., Richmond, Virginia) (1). Agranulocytosis has not been described previously. Two unpublished reports suggest metoclopramide may have caused agranulocytosis (Board A, A.H. Robbins Co., Personal communication). The first case involved the use of metoclopramide and triamterene; the second case involved the use of metoclopramide and acetaminophen. These patients were not rechallenged with metoclopramide or other agents. In several other unpublished reports, patients received multiple drug regimens and no clear causal relationship could be determined. A few patients were rechallenged with metoclopramide without adverse side ...
Looking for online definition of blood dyscrasia in the Medical Dictionary? blood dyscrasia explanation free. What is blood dyscrasia? Meaning of blood dyscrasia medical term. What does blood dyscrasia mean?
Agranulocytosis caused by thioamides is uncommon, with incidence considered to be around 0.2% and almost always developing in the first 90 days of commencement of therapy (1, 2). Although the mechanism is not entirely known, it is thought that a myelosuppressive effect on granulocyte production leads to suppression of neutrophil development, possibly due to anti-granulocyte auto-antibodies and/or direct toxicity at the haematopoietic stem cell level (2).. There are a number of pharmacological options used historically as monotherapy when thioamides are contraindicated in hyperthyroid patients. They each have a unique mechanism of action, which are likely to be synergistic.. Propanolol is a beta-blocker used to attenuate hyperadrenergic symptoms of palpitations, anxiety, heat intolerance, shortness of breath and tremor (1). At a starting dose of 40-160 mg daily, it has an advantage over other beta-blockers in helping decrease the peripheral conversion of T4-T3 by being more lipid soluble and ...
as cyclical neutropenia and Grey Collie Syndrome, is an inherited blood disorder that results due to an autosomal dominant cell mutating. This disorder causes extremely low neutrophil blood levels in the body. Neutrophils are better known as white blood cells and they aid the body in fighting off infections. With this recurring condition, it approximately occurs every three weeks, while lasting anywhere from three to six days. When neutrophil level are low, the pet may be prone to more frequent infections. Symptoms of cyclic neutropenia are joint pain, diarrhea, skin infections, mouth ulcers, fevers, and frequent infections. Collie dog breeds tend to be the most common breed that suffers from this condition. Unfortunately there is no current cure available for pets who suffer from cyclic neutropenia, however, there are some medications your veterinarian can prescribe that may prolong your cat or dogs life by several years.. To learn more about Cyclic Neutropenia in pets, check out our Pet Health ...
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Looking for information on Chronic Neutropenia? Medigest has all you need to know about Chronic Neutropenia - Symptoms and Signs, Causes, Treatments and definition
Severe chronic neutropenia may be present at birth (congenital neutropenia) or may occur at any stage in life (acquired neutropenia). There are four main types of severe chronic neutropenia:. Congenital Neutropenia - a rare inherited form of the disease usually detected soon after birth. It affects children mainly and may result in premature loss of teeth and peremptory gum infections. The most severe form of chronic congenital neutropenia is known as Kostmanns Syndrome.. Cyclic Neutropenia - tends to occur every three weeks and lasting three to six days at a time due to changing rates of cell production by the bone marrow. It is often present among several members of the same family although improves after puberty in most cases. This is the rarest form of severe chronic neutropenia.. Idiopathic Neutropenia - a rare form of neutropenia which develops in children and adults usually in response to an illness. It is diagnosed when the disorder cannot be attributed to any other diseases and often ...
Dale, David C.; Cottle, Tammy E.; Fier, Carol J.; Bolyard, Audrey Anna; Bonilla, Mary Ann; Boxer, Laurence A.; Cham, Bonnie; Freedman, Melvin H.; Kannourakis, George; Kinsey, Sally E.; Davis, Robert; Scarlata, Debra; Schwinzer, Beate; Zeidler, Cornelia; Welte, Karl (2003). "Severe chronic neutropenia: Treatment and follow-up of patients in the Severe Chronic Neutropenia International Registry". American Journal of Hematology. 72 (2): 82-93. doi:10.1002/ajh.10255. ISSN 0361-8609 ...
Ingredients : Glibenclamide 2.5 mg. Packing : 10 Tabs/Strip. Dosage : As directed by the physician.. Precautions: Elderly, malnourished, mild to moderate renal, hepatic disorders, impaired alertness, alcohol, careful monitoring of blood-glucose concentration, adrenocortical insufficiency, changes in diet or prolonged exercise may also provoke hypoglycaemia, increased risk of hypoglcaemia due to its long half-life, avoid in severe hepatic impairment, pregnancy, lactation.. Contraindications: Severe or life-threatening hyperglycaemia, severe liver or renal failure, type 1 diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis with or without coma, patients with severe infection or trauma.. Side Effects: Hypoglycaemia, cholestatic jaundice, agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, blood dyscrasias (reversible), liver dysfunction, hypoglycaemia, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, allergic skin reactions, prolonged hypoglycaemia seen in elderly or debilitated patients with hepatic or renal diseases.. Storage ...
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Levamisole Initially marketed as antihelminthixc drug and immunomodulator. Was used to treat cancers, and different autoimmune diseases. Was withdrawn from market in 1999 due to side effects (agranulocytosis and vasculitis). Levamisole as an adulterant in cocaine Metabolite of levamisole can inhibit NE reuptake, therefore prolonging cocaine effect. Levamisole induced vasculopathy Pathognomonic lesion is purpura bilaterally…
There were 13 confirmed suicides. The usual risk increase in schizophrenia seems to be around 20 times that of the national population standardised mortality rate (SMR) ie about 2000. The risk in this group was an SMR of about 500; ie 4 x less than typical figures for schizophrenia.. The inverse risk finding is counter-intuitive and one would want to be confident that this is not an artifact caused by dose lowering in those perceived (correctly) to be at risk. An intriguing possibility is that it is related to auto-inhibition of a cytochrome P450 enzyme responsible for the production of a toxic metabolite.. This is the Journal letter from me, and the reply:. Ti: Paradoxical pattern of haematological risk with clozapine. I would be intrigued to hear further comments from Munro et al (1999) concerning the apparent paradox of the inverse relationship between dose and risk, both of neutropenia and of agranulocytosis.. A curious interaction of enzymes and metabolites, as briefly alluded too, is a ...
Bone marrow toxicity can cause anemia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, thrombocytopenia and, rarely, agranulocytosis and eosinophilia. Other side effects can be nausea, vomiting, anorexia, bloating, diarrhea, and, rarely, bowel perforation. Reversible elevations in liver enzymes have been reported. Occasionally, rashes may be a side effect. Some side effects that have only been seen very rarely are confusion, hallucinations, headaches, sedation, vertigo and liver enlargement.There has also been a case of severe allergic-type reaction to the drug in at least one person with AIDS. This type of reaction is called anaphylaxis ...
The mortality rate is an important concept to diarrheal illness in patients with various MIC values. After the initiation of the lowest ankle-brachial index (ABI). Patients with phenothiazine-induced agranulocytosis is often delayed because it purchase mircette online typically is limited benefit. Amiodarone and bacteriologic responses observed for previous deeds. However, please go to reflect on their triage protocols for which there cheapest bupropion xl is established, it is based on weekends, and efficacy of drug-induced skin reaction is approximately 50%. Patients who are readily available. The albumin-to-creatinine ratio has also been incorporated into a low transfusion requirement are a more reversible fashion through carbamylation compared with risk for several months after therapy is a priming dose of all deaths due to the liver of the IV infusion. The lesion results from purchase mircette online the Wells Handbook, HIV-infected patients should be rapidly offered to Chapter 12. Thus, ...
Sulfonamide bacteriostatic antibiotic or "Sulfamethoxazole" (sul-fa-me-thak-se-zol), the main component in Septran, is absolutely one of a class of medications known as antibiotics, which capture the development of microbes in the human body. Rarely, however, sometimes deadly responses happen with consumption of Septran. These responses tackle "Stevens-Johnson-syndrome" (extreme emissions around the many parts of the body), dynamic breaking down on the external layer of the dermis, sudden and serious harm to the liver, agranulocytosis, and an absence of RBC & WBC…. Read More Read More. ...
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Feltys syndrome, also called Felty syndrome, is characterized by the combination of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly and neutropenia. The condition is more common in those aged 50-70 years, and is more prevalent in females than males and more in Caucasians than blacks. It is a deforming but inactive disease and seropositive for RF. ...
Dr. Engel responded: If you are the one... Who is neutropenic, at 33yo, you would likely know the answer to the question if your |a href="/topics/neutropenia" track_data="{
Agranulocytosis; bone marrow depression; leukopenia;thrombocytopenia; purpura; eosinophilia. Gastrointestinal: Nausea and ...
Kostmann R (1956). "Infantile genetic agranulocytosis; agranulocytosis infantilis hereditaria". Acta Paediatr. 45 (Suppl 105): ...
Agranulocytosis occurs rarely when dapsone is used alone but more frequently in combination regimens for malaria prophylaxis. ... Firkin FC, Mariani AF (1977). "Agranulocytosis due to dapsone". Med. J. Aust. 2 (8): 247-51. PMID 909500. Foucauld J, Uphouse W ...
Agranulocytosis induced by vinpocetine. Medicine Online, Retrieved March 08, 2008. The Complete German Commission E Monographs ... Vinpocetine has been implicated in one case to induce agranulocytosis,[unreliable medical source?] a serious condition in which ...
Agranulocytosis and cancer. Ampiroxicam. Related to piroxicam.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. No data.. Rheumatoid arthritis and ... Haematologic toxicity (including agranulocytosis, aplastic anaemia) and AEs typical of NSAIDs. Piketoprofen. Comes in free form ... For systemic use haematological side effects such as aplastic anaemia; agranulocytosis; leucopenia; neutropenia; etc. ...
Agranulocytosis Bandemia Complete blood count. ...
... can also cause agranulocytosis. Phenylbutazone amplifies the anticoagulant effect of vitamin K antagonists such ...
Psychiatric medicine can also cause Agranulocytosis. Psychiatric medicines also affect the stomach, where the mentally ill have ... ". "Clozapine-Induced Agranulocytosis" July 15, 1993 DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199307153290303 Sonnenburg, Justin Sonnenburg, Erica. " ...
This should not be confused with agranulocytosis. Low white cell count may be due to acute viral infections, such as a cold or ...
Andersohn F, Konzen C, Garbe E (May 2007). "Systematic review: agranulocytosis induced by nonchemotherapy drugs". Ann. Intern. ... with a risk of agranulocytosis in rare cases Carbamazepine and phenytoin lower serum levels of mebendazole. Cimetidine does not ...
Agranulocytosis was sometimes reported as adverse effect. Methyprylon Piperidione Glutethimide Becker, E. L.; Fabing, H. D.; ... Ibáñez, L.; Ballarín, E.; Pérez, E.; Vidal, X.; Capellà, D.; Laporte, J. R. (2000). "Agranulocytosis Induced by Pyrithyldione, ... Covner, A. H.; Halpern, S. L. (1950). "Fatal Agranulocytosis Following Therapy with Presidon (3,3-Diethyl-2,4- ...
Other side effects may include: agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, decreased white blood cell count, and a low platelet count. ... "Phenytoin-induced agranulocytosis: a nonimmunologic idiosyncratic reaction?". Acta Haematol. 86: 212-3. doi:10.1159/000204838. ...
The most dangerous side-effect is agranulocytosis (1/250, more in PTU); this is an idiosyncratic reaction which generally ... Zambrana, J.; Zambrana, F.; Neto, F.; Gonçalves, A.; Zambrana, F.; Ushirohira, J. (2005). "Agranulocytosis with tonsillitis ...
Nancy Y Zhu; Donald F. LeGatt; A Robert Turner (February 2009). "Agranulocytosis After Consumption of Cocaine Adulterated With ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (December 2009). "Agranulocytosis associated with cocaine use - four States, ...
One of the more serious side effects of levamisole is agranulocytosis, or the depletion of the white blood cells. In particular ... Nancy Y Zhu; Donald F. LeGatt; A Robert Turner (February 2009). "Agranulocytosis After Consumption of Cocaine Adulterated With ... Levamisole suppresses the production of white blood cells, resulting in neutropenia and agranulocytosis. With the increasing ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (December 2009). "Agranulocytosis associated with cocaine use - four States, ...
... carries a black box warning for drug-induced agranulocytosis. Without monitoring, agranulocytosis occurs in about 1% ... The study recommends carbamazepine to not be used concurrently with clozapine due to increased risk of agranulocytosis. ... Clozapine also carries five black box warnings, including warnings for agranulocytosis, central nervous system depression, ... Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis can be transient. Myocarditis is a sometimes fatal side effect of clozapine, which usually ...
... of all patients develop agranulocytosis. Members of the thioamide group include methimazole, carbimazole (converted in vivo to ...
Metiamide was an effective agent; however, it was associated with unacceptable nephrotoxicity and agranulocytosis. It was ...
Pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, reversible agranulocytosis, low blood platlets, neutropenia. Chloroquine has not been shown to ...
Metiamide was an effective agent; it was associated, however, with unacceptable nephrotoxicity and agranulocytosis. The ...
2004). "NQO2 gene is associated with clozapine-induced agranulocytosis". Tissue Antigens. 62 (6): 483-91. doi:10.1046/j.1399- ...
Closely related terms include agranulocytosis (etymologically, "no granulocytes at all"; clinically, granulocyte levels less ...
Agranulocytosis: develops rapidly, sore throat and fever are hallmark symptoms. Can be fatal if drug is not discontinued ...
... with a risk of agranulocytosis in rare cases ...
... agranulocytosis,[20] aplastic anemia,[21] decreased white blood cell count,[22] and a low platelet count.[23] ... Sharafuddin MJ, Spanheimer RG, McClune GL (1991). "Phenytoin-induced agranulocytosis: a nonimmunologic idiosyncratic reaction ...
Agranulocytosis; eosinophilia; leukopenia; hemolytic anemia; thrombocytopenic purpura; pancytopenia.. Hepatic. Jaundice.. ...
The terms agranulocytosis, granulocytopenia and neutropenia are sometimes used interchangeably. Agranulocytosis implies a more ... "agranulocytosis" (which can be misinterpreted as "agranulocyt-osis", meaning proliferation of agranulocytes (i.e. lymphocytes ... The term "agranulocytosis" derives from the Greek: a, meaning without; granulocyte, a particular kind of white blood cell ( ... Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia ( ...
When the body has too few granulocytes, the condition is called agranulocytosis. This makes it harder for the body to fight off ... If you are having treatment or taking medicine that could cause agranulocytosis, your health care provider will use blood tests ...
Agranulocytosis is a condition characterized by a lack of a type of essential white blood cell. Learn about the symptoms and ... Agranulocytosis is when the body is not producing enough granulocytes. The symptoms of agranulocytosis are usually similar to ... Acquired agranulocytosis means that a person develops the condition, whereas congenital agranulocytosis means that a person is ... Agranulocytosis can be a dangerous condition because it can put someone at risk for a serious infection. If a person does not ...
Fatal Case of Agranulocytosis Due to Chlorpromazine Br Med J 1958; 2 :289 ... Fatal Case of Agranulocytosis Due to Chlorpromazine. Br Med J 1958; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5091.289 (Published 02 ...
Make research projects and school reports about agranulocytosis easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... agranulocytosis (ă-gran-yoo-loh-sy-toh-sis) n. a disorder in which there is a severe acute deficiency of certain blood cells ( ... agranulocytosis (əgrăn´yəlōsītō´sis), disease in which the production of granulated white blood cells by the bone marrow is ... agranulocytosis A Dictionary of Nursing © A Dictionary of Nursing 2008, originally published by Oxford University Press 2008. ...
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is a condition that occurs when the bone marrow (the soft tissue ... Agranulocytosis Diagnosis. Agranulocytosis is diagnosed through blood and urine tests. These tests are used to check for ... Agranulocytosis Causes and Types. Agranulocytosis can be acquired or congenital (a condition you are born with). ... Agranulocytosis Treatment. If agranulocytosis is caused by another condition, that condition will first be treated. ...
The authors of Mays Clinical Case Study provided us with an exclusive question that will not appear in the published version of the Case. Wed love to hear your answers to this question in the comments section!
THE VIRUS OF INFECTIOUS FELINE AGRANULOCYTOSIS. J. S. Lawrence, J. T. Syverton, R. J. Ackart, W. S. Adams, D. M. Ervin, A. L. ... THE VIRUS OF INFECTIOUS FELINE AGRANULOCYTOSIS. J. S. Lawrence, J. T. Syverton, R. J. Ackart, W. S. Adams, D. M. Ervin, A. L. ... The infection of cats by the virus of infectious feline agranulocytosis is followed by the production of specific neutralizing ...
Systematic Review: Agranulocytosis Induced by Nonchemotherapy Drugs Annals of Internal Medicine; 146 (9): 657-665 ... The Drug Etiology of Agranulocytosis and Aplastic Anemia Annals of Internal Medicine; 117 (12): 1072 ... We wish to present an additional case of pentazocine-induced agranulocytosis, but one that occurred without a previous ... MARKS A, ABRAMSON N. Pentazocine and Agranulocytosis. Ann Intern Med. 1980;92:433. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-92-3-433_1 ...
In approximately 5% of cases drug-induced agranulocytosis may be fatal. Management of drug-induced agranulocytosis includes the ... Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a severe complication that has been implicated with most classes of medications. Medications ... Nonchemotherapy drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis: could medications be the culprit?. Pick AM1, Nystrom KK2. ... such as clozapine, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and methimazole have been more commonly associated with agranulocytosis than ...
The increasing risk of agranulocytosis with age and the reduced incidence after the first six months of treatment provide ... The occurrence of agranulocytosis is a substantial hazard of the administration of clozapine, but this hazard can be reduced by ... Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Incidence and risk factors in the United States N Engl J Med. 1993 Jul 15;329(3):162-7. doi ... Results: Agranulocytosis developed in 73 patients, resulting in death from infectious complications in 2 patients. Episodes of ...
Severe Hyperthyroidism Complicated by Agranulocytosis Treated with Therapeutic Plasma Exchange: Case Report and Review of the ... disease patient with agranulocytosis and hemophagocytosis using double filtration plasmapheresis," Journal of Clinical ... "Plasmapheresis in the treatment of hyperthyroidism associated with agranulocytosis: a case report," Journal of Clinical ... "Successful treatment of thyroid storm with plasmapheresis in a patient with methimazole-induced agranulocytosis.," Endocrine ...
View Agranulocytosis Solupred side effect risks. Male, 71 years of age, took Solupred . Patient was hospitalized. ... Is Agranulocytosis a common side effect of Solupred? ... This Agranulocytosis side effect was reported by a consumer or ... Solupred Agranulocytosis Side Effect Reports. Home → Solupred → Agranulocytosis The following Solupred Agranulocytosis side ... Solupred Agranulocytosis Causes and Reviews We are sorry, but no medical information on this topic currently exists in our ...
Although the disease may occur spontaneously it is usually... Explanation of agranulocytosis ... Find out information about agranulocytosis. disease in which the production of granulated white blood cells by the bone marrow ... Related to agranulocytosis: neuroleptic malignant syndrome. agranulocytosis. (əgrănyəlōsītō`sis), disease in which the ... Agranulocytosis. (also, agranulocytic angina), the absence or drastic reduction of granulocytes in the blood. Agranulocytosis ...
Medications that are commonly linked to agranulocytosis development include clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic used in the ... Agranulocytosis is defined as having an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ,500/mm3. Drug-induced agranulocytosis is an adverse ... of drug-induced agranulocytosis cases are fatal. Medications that are commonly linked to agranulocytosis development include ... Abstract: Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a severe complication that has been implicated with most classes of medications. ...
Agranulocytosis, a marked decrease in white blood cells which increases the risk for infection, is a rare complication of ... Agranulocytosis: a marked decrease in the white blood cell count that causes a patient to be more likely to develop an ... No agranulocytosis occurred in patients with 1-5 months of a gap. None of the patients in the continuous treatment group who ... Most cases of agranulocytosis occur within 3 months of beginning therapy with these drugs. There has been speculation that re- ...
Four cases were associated with agranulocytosis, 2 had no white blood cell counts available and 1 had a high white blood cell ... Due to some cases of agranulocytosis, Acorda Therapeutics has decided to increase the frequency of blood cell count monitoring ...
The International Agranulocytosis and Aplastic Anemia Study.. [No authors listed]. Abstract. The risks of agranulocytosis and ... Risks of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. A first report of their relation to drug use with special reference to analgesics ... Analgesic use in the week before the onset of illness was compared between 221 cases of agranulocytosis and 1425 hospital ... Analgesics significantly associated with agranulocytosis were dipyrone (metamizol sodium), indomethacin, and butazones ( ...
Clozapine-Induced Late Agranulocytosis and Severe Neutropenia Complicated with Streptococcus pneumonia, Venous Thromboembolism ... "Clozapine-Induced Late Agranulocytosis and Severe Neutropenia Complicated with Streptococcus pneumonia, Venous Thromboembolism ...
... is a particularly effective antipsychotic medication but its use is curtailed by the risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/ ... Clozapine-induced Agranulocytosis Is Associated With Rare HLA-DQB1 and HLA-B Alleles Nat Commun. 2014 Sep 4;5:4757. doi: ... is a particularly effective antipsychotic medication but its use is curtailed by the risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/ ...
In genetic infantile agranulocytosis children born lacking neutrophils (a type of white blood cell that is important in ... Genetic Infantile Agranulocytosis (Severe Congenital Neutropenia) (SCN) (Kostmann Disease). *Ron Kennedy, M.D. ... Comments Off on Genetic Infantile Agranulocytosis (Severe Congenital Neutropenia) (SCN) (Kostmann Disease) ...
... plural agranulocytoses) Etymology: New Latin Date: 1927 an acute febrile condition marked by severe decrease in blood ... agranulocytosis. noun (plural agranulocytoses) Etymology: New Latin Date: 1927 an acute febrile condition marked by severe ... agranulocytosis - agranulocytosis. См. болезнь Костманна. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». ... agranulocytosis - [ā gran΄yo͞o lō΄sī tō′sis] n. [ A 2 + GRANULOCYT(E) + OSIS] a disorder characterized by a significant ...
PP-51 Metamizole-induced agranulocytosis in an adolescent treated for chronic headache ... PP-51 Metamizole-induced agranulocytosis in an adolescent treated for chronic headache ...
As has been postulated for other types of reactive metabolites (Parket al., 1992, 1995), agranulocytosis may arise from an ... 1991) Possible role of free radical formation in clozapine (Clozaril)-induced agranulocytosis. Mol. Pharmacol. 40:846-853. ... Neutrophil Cytotoxicity of the Chemically Reactive Metabolite(s) of Clozapine: Possible Role in Agranulocytosis. Dominic P. ... Neutrophil Cytotoxicity of the Chemically Reactive Metabolite(s) of Clozapine: Possible Role in Agranulocytosis. Dominic P. ...
  • Utilization of neutrophils can occur in infections Agranulocytosis may be asymptomatic, or may clinically present with sudden fever, rigors and sore throat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory infections are quite common among people with agranulocytosis. (edu.lb)
  • Agranulocytosis is a life-threatening condition therefore people who use cocaine should seek medical attention if they experience persistent sore throat, persistent or recurrent fever, swollen glands, painful sores, skin infections or other unusual infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Agranulocytosis is the existence of a clinically significant reduction in neutrophil count.This condition is a serious threat to the patient, as he/she is at a greater risk of contracting bacterial or fungal infections, which may prove to be fatal. (elsevier.com)
  • White blood cells (WBCs) help fight infections, so agranulocytosis can result in severe and even deadly infections. (thyroid.org)
  • Graves' disease itself can cause mild decreases in WBCs that do not lead to infections, so it is important not to confuse this with agranulocytosis The goal of this study is to evaluate the how common low WBCs are seen in patients newly diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease before starting ATD treatment and the effect of this treatment on the WBC count. (thyroid.org)
  • It is important to diagnose a pre-exiting low neutrophil count before starting treatment to differentiate it from the ATD-induced agranulocytosis, which can results in life-threatening infections and requires prompt ATD discontinuation. (thyroid.org)
  • Management of drug-induced agranulocytosis includes the immediate discontinuation of the offending medication, initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics and consideration of the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in high-risk patients. (nih.gov)
  • The main factor limiting its use is the risk of potentially fatal agranulocytosis, estimated to occur in 1 to 2 percent of treated patients. (nih.gov)
  • Agranulocytosis developed in 73 patients, resulting in death from infectious complications in 2 patients. (nih.gov)
  • Episodes of agranulocytosis occurred in 61 patients within three months after they began treatment. (nih.gov)
  • There has been speculation that re-starting therapy with these drugs in patients who have relapsed after the first course of antithyroid drug treatment may increase the risk or accelerate the onset of agranulocytosis. (thyroid.org)
  • A total of 87 patients seen at the Ito Hospital in Tokyo between 1983 and 2012 were found to have agranulocytosis. (thyroid.org)
  • After excluding patients with other possible causes, 67 patients were identified as having MMI or PTU-induced agranulocytosis. (thyroid.org)
  • After re-starting MMI or PTU therapy following a 5 or month gap, patients should be observed for agranulocytosis for the first 3 months, similarly to those who start these drugs for the first time. (thyroid.org)
  • We aimed to determine changes in miR-17-92 cluster expression in serum and granulocytes from patients with antithyroid drug (ATD)-induced agranulocytosis. (springermedizin.de)
  • In this study, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect serum miR-17-92 expression levels in 20 ATD-induced agranulocytosis and 16 control patients. (springermedizin.de)
  • We found that levels of miR-17-92 expression decreased in both serum and pre-agranulocytosis granulocytes from patients with ATD-induced agranulocytosis compared with those in serum and granulocytes from both recovered patients and control patients. (springermedizin.de)
  • Patients who are undergoing chemotherapy treatment, taking certain drugs and getting exposed to certain chemical toxins or radiation are at risk of developing agranulocytosis. (explainmedicine.com)
  • In using uniretic®, consideration should be given to the fact that another ACE inhibitor, captopril, has caused agranulocytosis , particularly in patients with renal impairment or collagen-vascular disease. (rxlist.com)
  • We included 27 Japanese patients with Graves' disease with MMI-induced agranulocytosis diagnosed during follow-up. (ndsl.kr)
  • Stepwise multivariate regression analysis identified the monocyte and basophil counts to be significant predictors of MMI-induced agranulocytosis.Conclusion: Patients with agranulocytosis and decreased monocyte and basophil counts at onset may recover late and require careful treatment. (ndsl.kr)
  • Thioamide-induced agranulocytosis is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of which all prescribers and patients need to be aware. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Yet since its introduction, the drug has been linked to a risk for agranulocytosis, requiring regular blood monitoring, a disincentive to both clinicians and patients. (psychnews.org)
  • Engilbert Sigurdsson, M.D., and colleagues at the University of Iceland and Landspitali University, Reykjavik, sought to analyze the risk of neutropenia and the progression to agranulocytosis in a sample of patients with schizophrenia in Iceland. (psychnews.org)
  • They identified patients who developed neutropenia/agranulocytosis through neutrophil counts in the databases. (psychnews.org)
  • Only mild neutropenia (between 1500-1900/mm3) was more common in clozapine users, and none of those patients (n=24, or 12.8%) progressed to agranulocytosis. (psychnews.org)
  • However, agranulocytosis (low white blood cells) is a rare complication of ATDs occurring in 0.1-0.3% of patients. (thyroid.org)
  • People with these conditions are at higher risk for developing agranulocytosis and should be monitored periodically for this condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person with agranulocytosis or any of these risk factors should always report any signs of infection to their doctor to ensure prompt treatment and prevent a more serious infection developing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The infection of cats by the virus of infectious feline agranulocytosis is followed by the production of specific neutralizing and protective antibodies, and recovery from the disease is associated with the development of solid immunity to reinfection. (rupress.org)
  • Agranulocytosis, a marked decrease in white blood cells which increases the risk for infection, is a rare complication of treatment with the antithyroid drugs. (thyroid.org)
  • Sinusitis is another common infection that occurs in agranulocytosis. (explainmedicine.com)
  • Chronic neutropenia is an important differential diagnosis and may similarly present with a severe bacterial infection as first manifestation of the disease leading to further decline of the neutrophil count and to agranulocytosis. (diff.org)
  • Agranulocytosis does not cause harm to the body, but it leaves the patient vulnerable and less able to fight off infection. (docdoc.com)
  • A case of agranulocytosis in a man with nonspecific seronegative polyarthritis treated with levamisole in the form of a proprietary veterinary antihelmintic is descriptionbed. (journals.co.za)
  • We report a rare case of agranulocytosis associated with hepatic toxicity, probably related to the use of ticlopidine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A person showing signs of agranulocytosis can consult a general practitioner (GP) for treatment. (docdoc.com)
  • The serological tests for the etiology of agranulocytosis, as well as autoantibodies test and four blood cultures taken from the patient, resulted in negative, while the results of the measurements for thyroid functions, vitamin B12 and folate levels were also within normal range. (ommegaonline.org)
  • The occurrence of agranulocytosis is a substantial hazard of the administration of clozapine, but this hazard can be reduced by monitoring the white-cell count. (nih.gov)
  • 5 months) did not appear to increase the rapidity of occurrence of agranulocytosis. (thyroid.org)
  • Characteristics of Agranulocytosis as an Adverse Effect of Antithyroid Drugs in the Second or Later Course of Treatment. (thyroid.org)
  • Typically, doctors diagnose agranulocytosis when the number of neutrophils (granulocytes), known as the absolute neutrophil count (ANC), is less than 100 per microliter (mcL) of blood. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Agranulocytosis may develop during various infectious diseases, avitaminoses, and diseases of the hematic system and as a result of the direct action of chemicals (benzene), drugs (aminopyrine, sulfanilamides, antibiotics, and others), and ionizing radiation on the bone marrow. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A 51 year old man presented with sepsis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This case report summarises the successful emergent control of thyrotoxicosis in the setting of thioamide-induced agranulocytosis complicated by sepsis, and demonstrates the safe use of multi-modal pharmacological therapies in preparation for total thyroidectomy. (bioscientifica.com)
  • agranulocytosis (əgrăn´yəlōsītō´sis) , disease in which the production of granulated white blood cells by the bone marrow is impaired. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is a condition that occurs when the bone marrow (the soft tissue inside bones) fails to make enough white blood cells. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • J. Yang, J. Zhong, X.H. Xiao, L.Z. Zhou, Y.J. Chen, J.H. Liu, R.X. Cao, G.B. Wen, The relationship between bone marrow characteristics and the clinical prognosis of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis. (springermedizin.de)
  • In bone marrow aplasia, the development of agranulocytosis can be progressive. (mediologiest.com)
  • Agranulocytosis should not be confused with neutropenia, a condition in which the bone marrow fails to make enough neutrophils, a specific group of granulocytes. (docdoc.com)
  • Purpose: Thiamazole (MMI) is frequently used for the treatment of Graves' disease, but it occasionally induces agranulocytosis at the beginning of the treatment. (ndsl.kr)