Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Intracisternal A-Particle: Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Rats, Inbred LEC: A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.

Testing of human homologues of murine obesity genes as candidate regions in Finnish obese sib pairs. (1/158)

The human homologues of recently discovered murine obesity genes provide relevant candidates to study the genetic component of obesity in humans. We analysed the human counterparts to murine obesity genes ob, db, agouti, tub, melanocortin 4-receptor (MC4-R) and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), as well as two other chromosomal regions reported to be linked to obesity-related phenotypes in restricted populations. We found no significant evidence for linkage to any analysed loci in our total study material of 105 affected sib pairs collected from the genetically homogenous population of Finland. However, several markers on 14 cM chromosomal region flanking the MC4-R gene showed sharing of alleles identical-by-descent (IBD) more frequently than expected. A selected subset of non-diabetic obese sib pairs strengthened the P values down to 0.003 in this particular region. The smallest P value (P = 0.001) was obtained with a marker D18S487 in a subgroup containing only sib pairs with one lean and one obese parent. We therefore screened seven obese subjects included in our sib pair material for sequence changes in their MC4-R gene, but no mutations of apparent causal relationship were found. In conclusion, we could not find evidence for significant contribution of the chromosomal loci corresponding to the murine single gene obesity genes for human morbid obesity, but additional studies are still needed to clarify whether DNA alterations within or adjacent to the MC4-R gene play some role.  (+info)

A system for rapid generation of coat color-tagged knockouts and defined chromosomal rearrangements in mice. (2/158)

Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be used to generate single gene mutations or defined multi-megabase chromosomal rearrangements when applied with the Cre- loxP recombination system. While single knockouts are essential for uncovering functions of cloned genes, chromosomal rearrangements are great genetic tools for mapping, mutagenesis screens and functional genomics. The conventional approach to generate mice with targeted alterations of the genome requires extensive molecular cloning to build targeting vectors and DNA-based genotyping for stock maintenance. Here we describe the design and construction of a two-library system to facilitate high throughput gene targeting and chromo-somal engineering. The unique feature of these libraries is that once a clone is isolated, it is essentially ready to be used for insertional targeting in ES cells. The two libraries each bear a complementary set of genetic markers tailored so that the vector can be used for Cre- loxP -based chromosome engineering as well as single knockouts. By incorporating mouse coat color markers into the vectors, we illustrate a widely applicable method for stock maintenance of ES cell-derived mice with single gene knockouts or more extensive chromosomal rearrangements.  (+info)

Down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling mediated by the amino terminus of Agouti protein in Xenopus melanophores. (3/158)

Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing melanocortin receptor signaling. A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Agouti protein, Ser73-Cys131, is sufficient for melanocortin receptor antagonism, but Western blot analysis of skin extracts reveals that the electrophoretic mobility of native Agouti protein corresponds to the mature full-length form, His23-Cys131. To investigate the potential role of the amino-terminal residues, we compared the function of full-length and carboxyl-terminal fragments of Agrp and Agouti protein in a sensitive bioassay based on pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores. We find that carboxyl-terminal Agouti protein, and all forms of Agrp tested, act solely by competitive antagonism of melanocortin action. However, full-length Agouti protein acts by an additional mechanism that is time- and temperature-dependent, depresses maximal levels of pigment dispersion, and is therefore likely to be mediated by receptor down-regulation. Apparent down-regulation is not observed for a mixture of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fragments. We propose that the phenotypic effects of Agouti in vivo represent a bipartite mechanism: competitive antagonism of agonist binding by the carboxyl-terminal portion of Agouti protein and down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling by an unknown mechanism that requires residues in the amino terminus of the Agouti protein.  (+info)

NMR structure of a minimized human agouti related protein prepared by total chemical synthesis. (4/158)

The structure of the chemically synthesized C-terminal region of the human agouti related protein (AGRP) was determined by 2D 1H NMR. Referred to as minimized agouti related protein, MARP is a 46 residue polypeptide containing 10 Cys residues involved in five disulfide bonds that retains the biological activity of full length AGRP. AGRP is a mammalian signaling molecule, involved in weight homeostasis, that causes adult onset obesity when overexpressed in mice. AGRP was originally identified by homology to the agouti protein, another potent signaling molecule involved in obesity disorders in mice. While AGRP's exact mechanism of action is unknown, it has been identified as a competitive antagonist of melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3r, MC4r), and MC4r in particular is implicated in the hypothalamic control of feeding behavior. Full length agouti and AGRP are only 25% homologous, however, their active C-terminal regions are approximately 40% homologous, with nine out of the 10 Cys residues spatially conserved. Until now, 3D structures have not been available for either agouti, AGRP or their C-terminal regions. The NMR structure of MARP reported here can be characterized as three major loops, with four of the five disulfide bridges at the base of the structure. Though its fold is well defined, no canonical secondary structure is identified. While previously reported structural models of the C-terminal region of AGRP were attempted based on Cys homology between AGRP and certain toxin proteins, we find that Cys spacing is not sufficient to correctly determine the 3D fold of the molecule.  (+info)

An agouti mutation lacking the basic domain induces yellow pigmentation but not obesity in transgenic mice. (5/158)

Chronic antagonism of melanocortin receptors by the paracrine-acting agouti gene product induces both yellow fur and a maturity-onset obesity syndrome in mice that ubiquitously express wild-type agouti. Functional analysis of agouti mutations in transgenic mice indicate that the cysteine-rich C terminus, signal peptide, and glycosylation site are required for agouti activity in vivo. In contrast, no biological activity has been ascribed to the conserved basic domain. To examine the functional significance of the agouti basic domain, the entire 29-aa region was deleted from the agouti cDNA, and the resulting mutation (agoutiDeltabasic) was expressed in transgenic mice under the control of the beta-actin promoter (BAPaDeltabasic). Three independent lines of BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice all developed some degree of yellow pigment in the fur, indicating that the agoutiDeltabasic protein was functional in vivo. However, none of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice developed completely yellow fur, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia. High levels of agoutiDeltabasic expression in relevant tissues exceeded the level of agouti expression in obese viable yellow mice, suggesting that suboptimal activity or synthesis of the agoutiDeltabasic protein, rather than insufficient RNA synthesis, accounts for the phenotype of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice. These findings implicate a functional role for the agouti basic domain in vivo, possibly influencing the biogenesis of secreted agouti protein or modulating protein-protein interactions that contribute to effective antagonism of melanocortin receptors.  (+info)

Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. (6/158)

Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (P<0.01). Accordingly, we tested the possibility that calcitrophic hormones may act on adipocytes to increase Ca(2+) and lipid metabolism by measuring the effects of 1, 25-(OH)(2)-D in primary cultures of human adipocytes, and found significant, sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) and a corresponding marked inhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; P<0.001), suggesting that dietary calcium could reduce adipocyte mass by suppressing 1,25-(OH)(2)-D. To test this hypothesis, we placed transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (P<0.001). The high calcium diets exerted a corresponding 51% inhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (P<0.002) and stimulation of lipolysis by 3. 4- to 5.2-fold (P<0.015). This concept of calcium modulation of adiposity was further evaluated epidemiologically in the NHANES III data set. After controlling for energy intake, relative risk of being in the highest quartile of body fat was set to 1.00 for the lowest quartile of Ca intake and was reduced to 0.75, 0.40, and 0.16 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, of calcium intake for women (n=380;P<0.0009); a similar inverse relationship was also noted in men (n=7114; P<0.0006). Thus, increasing dietary calcium suppresses adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) and thereby modulates energy metabolism and attenuates obesity risk.  (+info)

Relationship between human adipose tissue agouti and fatty acid synthase (FAS). (7/158)

The human homologue of the murine obesity gene, agouti, is expressed in adipose tissue. We have shown that recombinant agouti protein regulates adipocyte lipogenesis and lipolysis coordinately and promotes lipid storage via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism in vitro, which may contribute to agouti-induced obesity. However, little is known about agouti's physiologic function in humans. We first studied the agouti content in human mature adipocytes vs. preadipocytes. The agouti content of human mature adipocytes was five times as abundant as in preadipocytes (19.18 +/- 2.46 vs. 4.07 +/- 0.51 pg/microg protein, P: < 0.005), suggesting that agouti is up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. We next studied the relationship of agouti mRNA and protein to fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and activity in adipose tissue obtained from nonobese and mildly obese patients (body mass index range, 21-31 kg/m(2)). Agouti protein was correlated with FAS activity (r = 0.782, P: < 0.005). Similarly, human adipose tissue agouti mRNA level was also correlated with FAS mRNA level (r = 0.846, P: < 0.001). These data suggest that agouti may be another adipocyte-produced factor that modulates adipocyte lipid metabolism via a paracrine/autocrine mechanism.  (+info)

Common requirements for melanocortin-4 receptor selectivity of structurally unrelated melanocortin agonist and endogenous antagonist, Agouti protein. (8/158)

The activity of melanocortin receptors (MCR) is regulated by melanocortin peptide agonists and by the endogenous antagonists, Agouti protein and AgRP (Agouti-related protein). To understand how the selectivity for these structurally unrelated agonists and antagonist is achieved, chimeric and mutants MC3R and MC4R were expressed in cell lines and pharmacologically analyzed. A region containing the third extracellular loop, EC3, of MC4R was essential for selective Agouti protein antagonism. In addition, this part of MC4R, when introduced in MC3R, conferred Agouti protein antagonism. Further mutational analysis of this region of MC4R demonstrated that Tyr(268) was required for the selective interaction with Agouti protein, because a profound loss of the ability of Agouti protein to inhibit (125)I-labeled [Nle(4),d-Phe(7)]alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding was observed by the single mutation of Tyr(268) to Ile. This same residue conferred selectivity for the MC4R selective agonist, [d-Tyr(4)]MT-II, whereas it inhibited interaction with the MC3R-selective agonist, [Nle(4)]Lys-gamma(2)-MSH. Conversely, mutation of Ile(265) in MC3 (the corresponding residue of Tyr(268)) to Tyr displayed a gain of affinity for [d-Tyr(4)]MT-II, but not for Agouti protein, and a loss of affinity for [Nle(4)]Lys-gamma(2)-MSH as compared with wild-type MC3R. This single amino acid mutation thus confers the selectivity of MC3R toward a pharmacological profile like that observed for MC4R agonists but not for the antagonist, Agouti protein. Thus, selectivity for structurally unrelated ligands with opposite activities is achieved in a similar manner for MC4R but not for MC3R.  (+info)

*Equine coat color genetics

The Agouti locus is occupied by the Agouti signalling peptide (Asip) gene, which encodes the eponymous protein (ASIP). Agouti ... The frameshift initiated by the deletion results in a novel modified agouti-signaling-protein. ADEx2 was completely associated ... Horses with the normal agouti gene have the genotype A/A or A/a. Horses without a normal agouti gene have the genotype a/a, and ... The presence of the theorized Agouti mutation At A Theorized mutation of the Agouti gene which is responsible in modifying the ...

*Agouti-related peptide

"Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83- ... In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino ... "Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83- ... Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY ...

*Agouti signalling peptide

Along with the homologous Agouti-related peptide, these are the only known mammalian proteins to adopt this fold. Agouti- ... Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids. Its discovery was ... It is produced by the Agouti gene ASIP. In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule that causes hair ... "Structures of the Agouti Signaling Protein". Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (4): 1059-1070. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.12.030. ...

*ACTH receptor

Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Protein recognition at the receptor uses cAMP as a secondary messenger. When bound, the receptor couples to G-protein alpha ... In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been ...

*Proopiomelanocortin

"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... Afamelanotide Agouti-related peptide Melanocortin Melanotan II GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115138 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ...

*Melanocortin 4 receptor

"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Melanocortin 4 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene. It encodes the MC4 protein, a G protein- ... Agouti-related peptide Agouti signalling peptide SHU-8914 SHU-9005 SHU-9119 HS-014 HS-024 JKC-363 MCL-0020 MCL-0042 - also a ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ...

*Melanocortin 3 receptor

"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... "Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors". Biochemistry. 38 (3): ... Melanocortin receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC3R gene. This gene encodes MC3, a G-protein coupled ... of the agouti-related protein". Biochemistry. 40 (51): 15520-7. doi:10.1021/bi0117192. PMID 11747427. Lee YS, Poh LK, Loke KY ( ...

*Melanocortin 5 receptor

"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Melanocortin 2 Receptor accessory protein (MRAP) traps MC5R protein inside cells. Melanocortin receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Characterization of Agouti-related protein binding to melanocortin receptors". Molecular Endocrinology. 13 (1): 148-55. doi: ... Melanocortin receptor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC5R gene. It is located on the chromosome 18 in the ...

*Cat coat genetics

The agouti gene, A/a which codes for agouti signaling protein. The dominant, wild-type A causes the agouti shift phenomenon ... Genetically this color is a non-agouti cat with the dominant inhibitor gene; a non-agouti version of the silver tabby. Smoke ... There are also hypothetical factors which affect the timing and frequency of the agouti shift, affecting agouti band width and ... Thus, the non-agouti genotype (aa) masks or hides the tabby pattern, although sometimes a suggestion of the underlying pattern ...

*Skin whitening

1175 Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) appears to be the only endogenous antagonist of MC1R. Synthetic MC1R agonists have been ... which activates protein kinase A (PKA), which activates (by protein phosphorylation) cAMP response element-binding protein ( ... cAMP signaling leads to activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) cascade which, in turn, leads to increased levels and/or ... due to their non-specific and global effects via intracellular signaling pathways." Many papers have described the signaling ...

*Amelanism

This absence is mediated by agouti signalling protein, which antagonizes melanocortin 1 receptor. Loss of function of agouti ... Another chemical, Agouti signalling peptide (ASP), can attach itself to MC1R and interfere with MSH/MC1R signalling. In many ... Loss of melanocortin 1 receptor function or high activity of the MC1R-antagonist, Agouti signalling peptide, can cause the ... Some agouti alleles in mice are associated with health defects, but this is not the case in dogs, cats, or horses. Albinism ...

*Sinaloan pocket mouse

Pheomelanin production is controlled by the agouti-signaling protein, which is an inverse agonist of MC1R. Therefore, Agouti ... Genetic Basis The genetic difference for varying coat colors is controlled largely by two proteins in pocket mice: eumelanin ... Variation in the environment can cause proteins to be expressed differently in the genome, producing variation in coat color ... Eumelanin is produced when the G protein-coupled receptor called melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) is activated. ...

*Ocular albinism type 1

Furthermore, OA1 was found to be stimulated by α-melanocortin stimulating hormone but inhibited by agouti signal protein. The ... Endogenous OA1 protein expressed by normal human melanocytes is detected as a 60kDa protein. Very recently the orphan OA1 ... They also revealed that the protein levels decreased drastically, probably due to misfolding of the protein in the ER. Some of ... revealed OA1 as an endolysosomal protein. Schiaffino, et al. already proved that it is an integral membrane protein. Newton et ...

*Dog coat genetics

The alleles at the A locus are related to the production of agouti signalling protein (ASIP) and determine whether an animal ... The alleles at the M locus (the silver locus protein homolog gene or SILV, aka premelanosome protein gene or PMEL) determine ... Alleles at the Agouti (A), Extension (E) and Black (K) loci determine colour pattern (eumelanin vs phaeomelanin): Alleles ... The alleles at the B locus are related to the production of tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1) and determine the degree to ...

*Gray (horse)

... agouti signaling protein) had a higher incidence of melanoma, implying that increased melanocortin-1 receptor signaling ...

*Inhibitor cystine knot

The mammalian proteins Agouti signalling peptide and Agouti related peptide are the only known mammalian examples of this motif ... Agouti related peptide Agouti signalling peptide Albumin I Covalitoxin-II Grammotoxin Guangxitoxin Hainantoxin Hanatoxin ... The motif is also found in some inhibitor proteins found in plants, but the plant and animal motifs are thought to be a product ... Plant ICK proteins are often protease inhibitors. Because of their stability, ICK motifs are being developed as possible ...

*Countershading

... it is the Agouti gene which creates the difference in shading. Agouti encodes for a protein, the Agouti signalling peptide (ASP ... In the presence of the Agouti protein, the same system produces the lighter-coloured, yellow or red phaeomelanin. A genetic ... which specifically inhibits the action of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). In the absence of the Agouti protein, alpha- ... The pattern is used both in startle or deimatic displays and as a signal to warn off experienced predators. However, animals ...

*Melanocortin 1 receptor

The MC1R protein lies within the cell membrane, and is signalled by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) released by the ... In contrast, the receptor can also be antagonized by agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), which reverts the cell back to producing ... The pulsatile nature of ASIP signalling through MC1R produces the characteristic yellow and black agouti banding pattern ... Since G protein-coupled receptors are known to activate Signal transduction in cells, it should not be surprising to find MC1R ...

*SIM1

Yamaki A, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y (Jan 2004). "A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins ... Kublaoui BM, Holder JL, Tolson KP, Gemelli T, Zinn AR (Oct 2006). "SIM1 overexpression partially rescues agouti yellow and diet ... Single-minded homolog 1 also known as class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 14 (bHLHe14) is a protein that in humans is ... Probst MR, Fan CM, Tessier-Lavigne M, Hankinson O (Feb 1997). "Two murine homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that ...

*Labrador Retriever coat colour genetics

In most dogs, activity of MC1R is modulated by two signaling molecules, a repressor that is a product of the Agouti gene (A ... Mutations in this protein have been shown to be involved in pale or red colour phenotypes in a range of species, including ... Initial genetic research excluded a role for the melanocortin 1 receptor and the Agouti locus as being the cause of the black ... In dogs, three mutations in this gene have been identified, one resulting in a truncation of the protein, the other two leading ...

*Ghrelin

... and agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons. Ghrelin-responsiveness of these neurons is both leptin- and insulin-sensitive. ... Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from alcohol and palatable/rewarding foods. Ghrelin also improves ... "Orexigenic action of peripheral ghrelin is mediated by neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein". Endocrinology. 145 (6): 2607 ... This data suggests that ghrelin functions as an adiposity signal, a messenger between the body's energy stores and the brain. ...

*Bay (horse)

Closely tied to this process, the role of the Agouti gene is to produce Agouti signalling peptide Asip, which disables Mc1r, ... Without this protein, the black pigment eumelanin cannot form in the hair. Such horses, having two copies of the recessive ... A bay horse carries both the Extension (E) allele and a suppression gene known as the agouti gene (A).The agouti gene, dominant ... Bay is the result of the agouti gene acting upon a black base coat. The effects of additional equine coat color genes on a bay ...

*Neuropeptide

They are neuronal signaling molecules that influence the activity of the brain and the body in specific ways. Different ... Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other. ... neuropeptide Y and agouti-related peptide (AGRP). These are not the only peptides in the arcuate nucleus; β-endorphin, ... Peptide signals play a role in information processing that is different from that of conventional neurotransmitters, and many ...

*Epigenetics

... through the transcription factor activity of the proteins they encode. RNA signalling includes differential recruitment of a ... mice given some dietary supplements have epigenetic changes affecting expression of the agouti gene, which affects their fur ... In general, proteins fold into discrete units that perform distinct cellular functions, but some proteins are also capable of ... Prions can have a phenotypic effect through the sequestration of protein in aggregates, thereby reducing that protein's ...

*Rodent

Agouti species are one of the few animal groups that can break open the large capsules of the Brazil nut fruit. Too many seeds ... MUPs may also signal individual identity, with each male house mouse (Mus musculus) excreting urine containing about a dozen ... This animal is an excellent food source since the flesh is 19% protein. In the United States, mostly squirrels, but also ... The agouti is fleet-footed and antelope-like, being digitigrade and having hoof-like nails. The majority of rodents have tails ...

*Obesogen

... and agouti-related peptide - are particularly sensitive to changes in nuclear receptor signaling pathways and can therefore be ... Epigenetic processes via hypermethylation of regulatory regions could lead to overexpression of different proteins, and ... It is these types of signals that provide a likely target for obesogens that have shown to have weight altering effects: ... Endocannaboid levels are high in those suffering from obesity due to hyperactivity of cannaboid signalling pathways. It is ...
The agouti gene regulates the differential production of eumelanin (black or brown) and phaeomelanin (yellow) pigment granules by melanocytes in the hair follicles of mice. The original nonagouti (a) allele, which confers a predominantly black coat color, has been shown to revert to two other more dominant agouti alleles, black-and-tan (a(t)) and white-bellied agouti (Aw), with an exceptionally high frequency. The a(t) and Aw alleles confer phenotypes in which the pigmentation is not uniformly distributed over the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the animal; in both cases the ventral surface of the animal is markedly lighter than the dorsal surface due to an increase in phaeomelanin production. To understand the unusually high reversion rate of a to a(t) or Aw, and to decipher the molecular events associated with the different pigmentation patterns associated with these three agouti alleles, we have characterized a, a(t) and Aw at the molecular level. Here, we report that insertions of 11, 6,
Recently, we reported that melanoma risk in redheads is linked not only to pale skin, but also to the synthesis of the pigment - called pheomelanin - that gives red hair its color. We demonstrated that pheomelanin synthesis is associated with increased oxidative stress in the skin, yet we have not uncovered the chemical pathway between the molecule pheomelanin and the DNA damage that drives melanoma formation. Here, we hypothesize two possible pathways. On one hand, pheomelanin might generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that directly or indirectly cause oxidative DNA damage. On the other hand, pheomelanin synthesis might consume cellular antioxidant stores and make the cell nucleus more vulnerable to other endogenous ROS. Uncovering the mechanistic pathway between pheomelanin and oxidative DNA damage will be an important step in developing strategies to lower melanoma risk in redheads. ...
Repetitive elements (REs) have the potential to actively interfere with the normal transcription of genes located in their immediate vicinity along the chromosome. The Mammalian Genome Group originally described one of the first instances of how a RE can interfere with the normal expression of a gene. In this case, a promoter on the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an an intracisternal A particle (IAP) element, located within an intron, was demonstrated to "hijack" the normal regulated expression of the agouti gene in the skin. The finding was ultimately shown to result in the ubiquitous expression of the agouti protein which, in turn, was associated with a yellow coat color, obesity, and type II diabetes in mice (1, 2). Most notably, the group also previously showed that the ability of the IAP to hijack the expression of agouti is dependent upon the epigenetic status of the IAP: methylation of the IAP to suppress its ability to influence agouti expression (2). Moreover, other groups have ...
dentification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.-Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended ...
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Production of yellow versus black pigment in dogs is controlled by three genes: Mc1r, Agouti, and CBD103. Dogs carrying wild-type alleles for all three genes have a yellow coat resulting from Agouti antagonism of Mc1r signaling in melanocytes (yellow Great Dane, top). Dogs carrying a loss-of-function mutation at Mc1r have a yellow coat, regardless of their genotype at Agouti or CBD103 (yellow Labrador Retriever, middle). Dogs carrying wild-type alleles for Mc1r and Agouti, together with the dominant black allele of CBD103 (KB) have a black coat resulting from the interaction between a beta-defensin and Mc1r (black Curly Coated Retriever, bottom ...
Much of the modern understanding of equine coat color genetics is owed to the work of Dr. Ann T. Bowling of the University of California, Davis and of Dr. Phillip Sponenberg of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Modern discussions of horse coat color genetics are based on the distinction between "red" and "non-red" coats, a factor determined by a single gene. More detailed discussions of coat color all refer to the differing effects of separate genes on these "base" coat colors.[3] Coat color alleles affect melanin, the pigment or coloring of the coat. There are two chemically distinct types of melanin: pheomelanin, which is perceived as red to yellow color, and eumelanin, is perceived as brown to black. All coloration genes in mammals affect either the production or distribution of these two chemicals. Alleles affecting melanocytes (pigment cells) do not alter the pigment chemicals themselves but rather by acting on the placement of pigment cells produce distinct patterns of unpigmented pink skin ...
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the melanocortin system is that it has two endogenous antagonists, agouti and AGRP. These proteins are unique in that no inhibitory proteins have been identified for any of the seven-transmembrane receptor family. Agouti and AGRP are paracrine signaling molecules, which are endogenous antagonists of the MCRs (13). Of physiological significance, agouti and AGRP have MCR subtype selectivity (Table 1). Interestingly, agouti and AGRP both have a cysteine-rich COOH-terminal domain. Although the structure of agouti has not been resolved, nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrate that the cysteine residues in AGRP adopt a structural motif called an inhibitor cystine knot (32). This motif is common to invertebrate toxins, but in mammals this structure is unique to AGRP and, presumably, agouti. Another commonality is that agouti and AGRP have both been shown in vitro to be inverse agonists (33). Thus they have the potential in vivo to regulate their ...
The present invention provides peptides related to agouti signaling protein and agouti related protein which are useful in modulating the activity of the melanocortin 3 and melanocortin 4 receptors. Also provided are methods of preparing the peptides, as well as nucleic acid molecules encoding the peptides.
Mice harboring the hCD2-iCre transgene have the human CD2 promoter and locus control region (LCR) directing expression of an optimized variant of Cre recombinase (iCre) to T cells and B cells (all B cell and T cell progenitors) and mice may be useful for generating conditional mutations in T cells and B cells. Because of the integration site of the transgene, the hCD2-iCre transgene is linked to the agouti coat color genes.
Augoti- There are 11 species of agoutis native to the rainforests of Central and South America. Agoutis are a small to medium sized rodents that feed on...
2) I imagine there is some potential for a little bit of genetic drift and that your KO and WT populations may begin to become separate populations of mice that may have subtle genetic differences, particularly if they have not yet been backcrossed and youre using F1 hybrids. For example, I was asked to do some tests on some KO and WT animals from a different lab. There was an effect of the KO on our task, but all the KO animals had agouti coat colors and all the WTs had black coat colors (they were originally derived from a C57BL/6 x 129/SV crossing). Thus, my conclusion could have just as reasonably been that the coat color of the mice was the cause of the difference as opposed to the KO ...
Even those who pay little attention to the vicissitudes of scientific opinion are probably aware of the ongoing discussion about which contributes more to an individuals behavior: genetic inheritance (nature), or personal experience (nurture).
Hereditary Factors:, Mutation:, Organs:, Origin:, Genes: A - Locus, a - Non-agouti, a*t - Black & tan, a*td - Tanoid, A*w - White-bellied agouti, Strains: BALB/C, CBA, C3H, C57BL/6, Unknown:. ...
Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Mutant Strain Ty … Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Mutant Strain Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Spontaneous Mutation TJL Mating System: Outcross-Intercross (Female x Male) TJL Breeding Summary: homozygote x B6CBACa-Aw-J/A F1 then obligate heterozygote x heterozygote Species: laboratory mouse Generation: N68F1 (07-NOV-05) Appearance white-bellied agouti, ataxic Related Genotype: Aw-J/? Kcnj6wv/Kncj6wv OR agouti, ataxic Related Genotype: A/A Kcnj6wv/Kncj6wv OR white-bellied agouti, unaffected Related Genotype: Aw-J/? +/? or Aw-J/A Kncj6wv/+ OR agouti, unaffected Related Genotype: A/A +/? or A/A Kncj6wv/+ Strain Description Mice homozygous for the weaver spontaneous mutation (Kcnj6wv) are recognizable in the second postnatal week by their small size, instability of gait, weakness, and hypotonia. Many homozygous mutant mice die at weaning age, but some survive to adulthood, and females may breed. The cerebellum in homozygous mutants is very small, simple, and almost devoid of granule ...
GRUNDFARVEN er de omr der som dannes af de agouti h r - det er de h r der er tickede eller har b nd. Denne sammenh ng er vital for at forst udseenet af hvilken som helst Tabby kat. Hvis man ikke forst r hvilke omr der af pelsen som skal v re ensfarvede og hvilke der skal v re tickede, kan man ikke forvente at nogen kan se de finere nuancer af disse attraktive opdr t. Det er vigtigt at der er en skarp kontrast mellem m nstret og grundfarven, og dette kan kun opn s ved at m nstret er ensfarvet og fri for ticking. HVIS der er tickning i de m nstrede omr der blive t gede, kontrasten vil forsvinde og m nstret bliver uklart. Tilstedev relsen af agouti h r i m nstret reducerer ogs det klart definerede m nster og det bl iver smuds igt . I GCCF s standard st r der helt klart There should be no speckling of agouti hair in the markings (Der m ikke v re st nk af agouti h r i m nstret) og specificerer desuden Lack of pattern contrast and clarity (except in Ticked Tabbies) (Mangel p kontrast og ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Similar in appearance to a Guinea pig-but larger and with longer legs- red-rumped agoutis are members of the rodent family. They are native to South America, where they are important members of their ecosystem as they are the only animals known to be able to open the husk of a Brazil nut.
These mice carry a spontaneous mutation at the |i| Mc1r |/i| locus, having arisen on the B6(C)-|i|H2|/i|-|i|Ab1|sup|bm12|/sup||/i|/KhEgJ strain (Stock No. |a href=http://jaxmice.jax.org/strain/001162.html|001162|/a|) and characterized by a yellow coat color.
(Medical Xpress)-Yellow coat color mice in Cheryl Rosenfelds lab are not fortunate sons and daughters.Conventional knowledge says these mice will likely live fatter, more diseased lives than their black, brown and mottled ...
Behavior:, Growth:, Hereditary Factors:, Genes: a - Non-agouti, A*y - Yellow, A*vy - Viable yellow, db - Diabetes, ob - Obese, Strains: C57BL/KS, C57BL/6, VY, YS, Unknown:. ...
Results: One week after the AMI operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in both AMI and N+AMI group were significantly higher than those in the sham group, but there were no significant differences between AMI and N+AMI mice. Contents of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the noninfarct area of the left ventricle in the N+AMI mice were significantly higher than those in the AMI mice, with no difference in the infarct area. Coagulation necrosis in the cardiomyocytes was observed in both AMI and N+AMI mice; however, it was less severe in the N+AMI mice. Western blot analyses showed that nitrite pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and p21waf1/cip1 signal proteins, but down-regulation of the proapoptotic factor Bax signal protein. Furthermore, nitrite pretreatment also showed significant alleviation of AMI-induced signal protein expressions of inflammatory factors of NF-KB and oxidative factors of Hsp 70 and HO-1 ...
Results: One week after the AMI operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in both AMI and N+AMI group were significantly higher than those in the sham group, but there were no significant differences between AMI and N+AMI mice. Contents of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the noninfarct area of the left ventricle in the N+AMI mice were significantly higher than those in the AMI mice, with no difference in the infarct area. Coagulation necrosis in the cardiomyocytes was observed in both AMI and N+AMI mice; however, it was less severe in the N+AMI mice. Western blot analyses showed that nitrite pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and p21waf1/cip1 signal proteins, but down-regulation of the proapoptotic factor Bax signal protein. Furthermore, nitrite pretreatment also showed significant alleviation of AMI-induced signal protein expressions of inflammatory factors of NF-KB and oxidative factors of Hsp 70 and HO-1 ...
For example, some mice have an epigenetic modification that alters the expression of the agouti gene: adult mice that are affected are yellow-furred, obese and diabetic, while genetically identical mice are sleek, brown-furred and healthy. This epigenetic modification is inherited from the mother, and can be affected by the chemicals the mother is exposed to during pregnancy, such as the nutritional supplements folic acid and vitamin B12, and bisphenol A, a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics. And its not just the mothers diet and chemical exposure during pregnancy that affects expression of agouti - epigenetic changes caused by diet can be passed on to grandchildren.. And while most of the research has focused on mice, for obvious ethical and practical reasons, data has been emerging that humans are similarly affected. For example, the detailed records of births, deaths and harvests in Sweden have been used to look at how the availability of food affects lifespan of subsequent ...
Inbr (Nctr) 84. Mottled yellow, pseudoagouti,black, piebald, depending on genotype. Avy/a, or a/a,s. Origin: Jackson Laboratory to Chase in 1942. Crossed to get mice with a B/b and ss genotype to develop a strain designated Yz57 . Chase to Inst. of Cancer Research 1959 at F38-39. In 1962 outcrossed to an N3 male from a (C3H/HeJxC57BL/6)xC57BL/6 cross. Avy/a mice were backcrossed to the YS strain to N35. To Nctr in 1972, then caesarian derived and fostered on C3Hf. ...
Inbr. F70+10 (Shi). Albino: a,B,c,D,S. Origin: One pair of inbred dd mice (F69) from Ms to Shionogi Research Labs. in 1971. Coat colour genes of DM/Ms are reported to be A,b,c (Exp. Anim. 17:31, 1968), but this substrain is a,B. Maintained by Shi. ...
Agregátor zliav zlavy.sme.sk zhromažďuje všetky zľavy z niekoľkých desiatok zľavových portálov, vrátane ZlavaDna.sk, PrimaZlavy.sk, ZaMenej.sk, Morezliav.sk, Zlavoking.sk, CenyNaDne.sk, Zlavodom.sk a ďalších. Nemusíte tak prechádzať zľavy a akcie na jednotlivých zľavových portáloch. U nás všetky zľavy a akcie nájdete na jednom mieste, rozdelené prehľadne na Pobyty, Krása, Tovar a ďalšie kategórie, či podkategórie zliav.. ...
C57BL/6-derived ES cells are preferred for generation of genetically modified mouse models, but limitations exist in the currently available blastocyst donors for injection of such ES cells. Taconic generated C57BL/6NTac mice carrying a tyrosinase loss-of function mutation and a reversion of the nonagouti locus to agouti....
Though Oriolus chinensis (above) would win hands down in terms of sporting a bright, yellow coat, its common name is the Black-naped Oriole. Of course, in its juvenile state, the back of its head (or nape) is still a sulphuric yellow. Talk about being misleading. :) Anyway, this was another bird that kicked me into a frenzy. I still remembered catching sight of it initially at the top of the Macarthur Palms (read as Mac-Arthur) as it was in the process of picking and swallowing the ripe fruits. Skittish by a sudden human presence, it immediately flew down to a drain below. By this time, I was tingling with excitement as I was pretty certain I have never seen the likes of this bird in my life (the truth wasnt revealed till I showed the picture to LK). By then I was straining to either stay in the spot to observe the bird or go back into my friends room and grab my camera, I decided on the latter whilst cursing (blast it, of all times my camera wasnt there when I needed it) and hoping ...
4AVY: The Aeropath Project Targeting Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Crystallographic Studies for Assessment of Potential Targets in Early-Stage Drug Discovery
Northern and Southern blot analysis. (A) Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+RNA isolated from the ears of Lewis, Brown Norway, Hooded Lister, Dark Agouti, and S
n 21 stands for agouti, undefined tabby pattern - many of them are probably mackerels. Parents of Lukerja Samotsvet/Lukerja Samotsvetin vanhemmat ...
Spojen st ty dajn ji p ed za tkem jedn n s Polskem o um st n americk protiraketov z kladny na jeho zem p i ly s po adavkem, aby Var ava na projekt finan n p isp la. Ameri t p edstavitel podle dne n ho internetov ho vyd n listu Rzeczpospolita neud lali nic pro dodate n pos len obrany Polska, co je jedn m z po adavk Var avy.. Americk n vrh je nep ijateln . Nesta , e n m necht j d t rakety Patriot, ale dom haj se je t toho, abychom se pod leli na n kladech na v stavbu a ochranu americk z kladny, st oval si Pawel Gra , poslanec nejv t opozi n strany, Ob ansk platformy.. Krom toho si Ameri an je t p ed za tkem ofici ln ch vyjedn v n p li, aby Polsko p ipravilo prostor o rozloze 300 hektar , napsal d le list Rzeczpospolita. http://tinyurl.com/247nm8. ...
Hyal-Drop multi, ktorý zvlhčuje povrch očí, príjemne oči osviežuje, upokojuje a prináša dlhotrvajúci pocit úľavy od ťažkostí spojených s nedostatočným zvlhčovaním očí. Inovovaná verzia Hyal-Drop multi s patentovaným mechanizmom s pumpičkou bez konzervačných látok. Môže sa používať i súčasne s mäkkými aj tvrdými kontaktnými šošovkami... Informácie o produkte >> ...
Hyal-Drop multi, ktorý zvlhčuje povrch očí, príjemne oči osviežuje, upokojuje a prináša dlhotrvajúci pocit úľavy od ťažkostí spojených s nedostatočným zvlhčovaním očí. Inovovaná verzia Hyal-Drop multi s patentovaným mechanizmom s pumpičkou bez konzervačných látok. Môže sa používať i súčasne s mäkkými aj tvrdými kontaktnými šošovkami... Informácie o produkte >> ...
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Americk agentura pro ochranu ivotn ho prost ed (EPA) za ala vy et ovat n meckou automobilku Audi kv li mo n m manipulac m s m en m emis oxidu uhli it ho (CO2). Informoval o tom n meck ned ln k Bild am Sonntag bez uveden zdroj .
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Define mahogany tree. mahogany tree synonyms, mahogany tree pronunciation, mahogany tree translation, English dictionary definition of mahogany tree. Noun 1. mahogany tree - any of various tropical timber trees of the family Meliaceae especially the genus Swietinia valued for their hard yellowish- to...
Robert A. Waterland, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, "The Hunt for Human Metastable Epialleles: From Agouti Viable Yellow to Africa" in 2268 Scott ...
Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) have been involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have carried out a follow-up study of the expression and production of these cytokines, as well as of cells expressing these cytokines during the course of active EAE in Dark Agouti (DA) rats. As a result, IL-17, but not IFN-gamma expression and production had the peak value in draining lymph nodes (DLN) during the induction phase of the disease, and in spinal cords (SC) at the onset of clinical signs of the disease, and then declined toward the resolution of the disease. Also, a significant proportion of IFN-gamma/IL-17 double-positive cells was observed in SC of DA rats in active EAE. Importantly, the highest proportion of IL-17 single positive and double-positive cells, but not of IFN-gamma single positive cells, was observed at the onset of the disease. The observed difference in the kinetics of IFN-gamma and IL-17 expression during active EAE ...
Chinchilla in most small animals is a c-locus mutation, meaning that it is a partial albino. In rats the situation is quite difficult, and chinchilla is a fairly difficult variety to breed due to the interaction of marking and colour genes needed in order to produce the perfect chinchilla.. Colour-wise, black pigment on a chinchilla rat is exactly the same as an agouti, but the unique colour comes from the removal of all of the yellow pigment. This makes the bands that would be red on an agouti a white or pearl-white colour, so the rat becomes a combination of grey and black hairs ticked with white, with black guard hairs.. The genes for removing the yellow pigment in chinchillas only work in combination with a gene for white markings, which is why chinchilla rats are a marked variety. A chinchilla rat has one copy of this spotting gene - a rat with two copies is either never born, or born as a black eyed white type which dies very young.. Genetics: Agouti, with at least one copy of the fading ...
This wonderful mahogany caddy has turned brass feet and applied brass decoration. It has a single long drawer dovetailed. It is entirely made of mahogany. The jars are constructed of lead crystal cut with brass caps resting on red wool. Size: 3.5 tall; 3.75wide; 10.75 diameter. Weight: 1.7 lbs. Medium: Mahogany, Glass, Brass Circa: C. 1840 Condition Report: Some worm holes and minor imperfections. A bit of history: The demise of the inkwell began in the 1880s, with the invention of the first practical fountain pen by Lewis Waterman. Not only did Watermans writing instrument carry its own supply of ink, the flow of the ink was emitted in a regular, controllable stream. In 1939, Liszlo Biro, a proofreader from Hungary patented the first ballpoint pen. Eighteen years later the U.S. Post Office would replace all straight pens and inkwells with the much improved ballpoint. After centuries of use, the inkwell virtually disappeared from daily life. Inkwells also illustrate the class distinctions ...
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The dark-like (dal) mutant mouse has a pleiotropic phenotype that includes dark dorsal hairs and reproductive degeneration. Their pigmentation phenotype is similar to Attractin (Atrn) mutants, which also develop vacuoles throughout the brain. In further characterizing the testicular degeneration of dal mutant males, we found that they had reduced serum testosterone and developed vacuoles in their testes. Genetic crosses placed dal upstream of the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and downstream of agouti, although dal suppressed the effect of agouti on pigmentation but not body weight. Atrnmg-3J and dal showed additive effects on pigmentation, testicular vacuolation, and spongiform neurodegeneration, but transgenic overexpression of Attractin-like-1 (Atrnl1), which compensates for loss of ATRN, did not rescue dal mutant phenotypes. Our results suggest dal and Atrn function in the same pathway and that identification of the dal gene will provide insight into molecular mechanisms of vacuolation in ...
AGRP - AGRP (Myc-DDK-tagged)-Human agouti related protein homolog (mouse) (AGRP) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Click to e-mail one of our volunteer experts with color questions.. Or use the search box in the upper right or the menu to the left to find information you want on coat and eye color in Australian Shepherds.. "Coat Color Genes" is a reference chart in easy-to-download pdf format. It lists the various genes known to impact Aussie coat color, the different versions of the genes, and which combinations result in which colors or patterns. This charte is also available in translation to several other languages. ...
Mahogany Cased Metabulator by Sanborn Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts, circa 1950, recording compartment with paper roll, barometer and thermometer dial, carbon dioxide absorption chamber and oxygen tank, metal plaque stating Made for George Danis, MD by Sanborn Company, Cambridge, Mass., USA, all in a mahogany cabinet with draw on wheels and instruction manual, ht. 41 in ...
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Hand-crafted inlaid demilune credenza with mahogany veneer, four curved doors. This credenza has mahogany legs, three compartments each with one shelf inside and antiqued brass hardware. This inlaid credenza is hand-made in Italy
The first group, published in Nature, included a dominant black coat color allele into their stem cells, then placed the embryos into white mice, giving them an initial visual check. If the young were black, they had to have come from the stem cells. When the first black baby mouse was born, further DNA tests confirmed that Tiny (as he was named) had indeed arisen from the iPS line. It took them over 250 developing embryos before they achieved a live mouse. Out of the 37 stem cell lines created, 3 produced live mice, and out of a total of 624 injected embryos from the best cell line, they got only 22 live births. Thats a success rate of only 3.5 ...
Agregátor zliav zlavy.sme.sk zhromažďuje všetky zľavy z niekoľkých desiatok zľavových portálov, vrátane ZlavaDna.sk, PrimaZlavy.sk, ZaMenej.sk, Morezliav.sk, Zlavoking.sk, CenyNaDne.sk, Zlavodom.sk a ďalších. Nemusíte tak prechádzať zľavy a akcie na jednotlivých zľavových portáloch. U nás všetky zľavy a akcie nájdete na jednom mieste, rozdelené prehľadne na Pobyty, Krása, Tovar a ďalšie kategórie, či podkategórie zliav.. ...
There are many varieties of guinea pig, each with different coat types and colours. The four main breeds are: 1. English Self, which is one colour all over with a smooth, short coat. There are 8 different colours: Self Black, Pink-eyed White, Black-eyed White, Self Cream (champagne cavies), Self Golden, Self Chocolate, Self Beige, Self Lilac (pale dove grey).. 2. Dutch, Agouti, Himalayan, Roan, Dalmatian and Tortoiseshell & White are all smooth marked guinea pigs. Dutch guineas are white with a coloured rump and cheek patches of the same colour, leaving a white blaze down the nose. Agouti guineas are ticked, they have two different coloured bands in their hair, making them look speckled. Himalayan guineas are a bit like Siamese cats, with creamy bodies and brown or black noses and feet. Babies are born pure white and the markings develop later on. Roan guineas are spotty, with mixed black and white hairs and a black head and feet. Dalmatianguineas are also spotty, but have Dutch-type head ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
The interplay of gene flow, genetic drift, and local selective pressure is a dynamic process that has been well studied from a theoretical perspective over the last century. Wright and Haldane laid the foundation for expectations under an island-continent model, demonstrating that an island specific beneficial allele may be maintained locally if the selection coefficient is larger than the rate of migration of the ancestral allele from the continent. Subsequent extensions of this model have provided considerably more insight into the conditions under which such a beneficial allele may be maintained, lost, or fixed. Yet, connecting theoretical results with empirical data has proven challenging, owing to a lack of information on the relationship between genotype, phenotype, and fitness. Here, we examine the demographic and selective history of deer mice in and around the Nebraska Sand Hills, a system in which variation at the Agouti locus affects cryptic coloration that in turn affects the ...
The interior is finished in a stunning gloss varnished combination of mahogany trim and Swiss pear wood panels. The cabin sole is gloss varnished teak with Swiss pear wood stripes and the overhead is white laminate bonded to Divinycell closes cell foam (for acoustic and thermal insulation) and held in place with removable mahogany battens.. The interior is well lit from a combination of fixed and opening portlights, overhead hatches, hull ports, the large raised saloon windows and thoughtfully placed overhead and bulkhead mounted lighting. All overhead hatches incorporate Oceanair retractable screens and shades with mahogany frame. Portlights have roll down Oceanair shades recessed into custom mahogany valences above portlights. The large raised saloon windows have custom Oceanair pleated shades housed in custom mahogany valences below windows. Natural ventilation is plentiful through the opening portlights and hatches as well as the dorades bringing fresh air into the boat even when the hatches ...
Instead of masking the effects of another gene, a gene can modify the expression of a second gene. In mice, coat color is controlled by the B gene. The B allele conditions black coat color and is dominant to the b allele that produces a brown coat. The intensity of the color, either black or brown is controlled by another gene, the D gene. At this gene, the dominant D allele controls full color whereas the recessive d allele conditions a dilute or faded expression of the color expression at the B gene. Therefore, if a cross is made among mice that are BdDd, the following phenotypic distribution will be seen: ...
Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We found that the expression of 1,304 transcripts correlated significantly with body mass. Of the 100 most significantly correlated genes, 30% encoded proteins that are characteristic of macrophages and are positively correlated with body mass. Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. ...
Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We found that the expression of 1,304 transcripts correlated significantly with body mass. Of the 100 most significantly correlated genes, 30% encoded proteins that are characteristic of macrophages and are positively correlated with body mass. Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. ...
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Ide o katalógový model, zrubový dom Fragaria, ktorý si jeho budúci majiteľ upravil podľa svojich potrieb. Zrubový dom má vo vstupnej časti pridané zádverie, na prízemí vznikol priestor pre kúpeľňu so sprchovým boxom a komoru. Drevený dom má na poschodí pridanú štvrtú spálňu, samostatné WC a napriek tomu je tu miesto pre priestrannú kúpeľňu. Celý dom bude ladený v štýle KONTIO Elegance, čo dá tomuto domu osobitý charakter a výnimočnosť.. ...
Complete information for AGRP gene (Protein Coding), Agouti Related Neuropeptide, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Mouse strains used. Targeted deletion of the mouseVgf gene and initial characterization of VGF mutant mice has been described previously (Hahm et al., 1999). Chimeric VGF knock-out males were directly crossed to 129/SvJ or repetitively backcrossed to C57BL/6 strains for 10 generations; homozygous VGF-deficient offspring of F10 and F1 heterozygotes on either background were phenotypically indistinguishable. For the experiments described here, mixed background VGF mutant mice from F2 and F3 generations were used. To generate double-mutant mice, fertile heterozygousVgf+/Vgf− female mice or bilaterally ovariectomized C57BL/6 × 129/SvJ females (The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME) that had been grafted withVgf−/Vgf− ovaries were used. These were mated with Ay/a (agouti) males or with fertile ob−/ob− males, both on C57BL/6 backgrounds (obtained from The Jackson Laboratory), that had been rescued by a course of intraperitoneal leptin. Recombinant murine leptin (20 μg/gm body weight), ...
House mice have an adult body length (nose to base of tail) of 7.5-10 cm (3.0-3.9 in) and a tail length of 5-10 cm (2.0-3.9 in). The weight is typically 10-25 g (0.4-0.9 oz). In the wild they vary in color from light to dark agouti (light to dark brown) but domesticated fancy mice and laboratory mice are produced in many colors ranging from white to champagne to black.[5] They have short hair and some, but not all, sub-species have a light belly.[6] The ears and tail have little hair. The hind feet are short compared to Apodemus mice, only 15-19 mm (0.59-0.75 in) long; the normal gait is a run with a stride of about 4.5 cm (1.8 in), though they can jump vertically up to 45 cm (18 in).[7] The voice is a high-pitched squeak.[8][9] House mice thrive under a variety of conditions: they are found in and around homes and commercial structures, as well as in open fields and agricultural lands.. New-born males and females can be distinguished on close examination as the anogenital distance in males is ...
After years of research and gene mutation, scientists started to establish and set the basic requirements of what a domesticated rat should look like. To date, the approved types of genetically mutated rats which can be kept as pets are the Albinos, the black-eyed white rats, the white-pawed black rats and the Agouti. These rats can be cross-bred by their owners if they want -- this actually produced rats that have very different appearances. One of the most popular ones are the Siamese rats which are also known as the pointed rats. These rats have white underside with pink paws and tail; their bodies are spotted and their heads are white. There are so many other rat breeds now, some have furry tails; some have developed hairy paws (which is very uncommon), while many of these rats actually do not have hair ...
Muffin is a dwarf agouti sweetheart. Once, I left the opening top panel of her supersized Marchioro cage unlocked, since I was not done cleaning it. Suddenly, I heard a scrambling commotion and found that she had leaped up and caught her neck between the bars of the two panels that adjoin for locking. In horror, I saw her struggling as she hung there by her neck and surely would have died had I not been in hearing distance. It would have been an "accident" that, no matter how well-intentioned, I allowed to happen in circumstances I created. In an instant, I freed her. Ever since, I have been as compulsive as TV-Detective Monk, checking repeatedly that everyone is in the right place and locked in safely.. Multi-tasking menace. It is when we are hyper-busy, preoccupied, or moving hurriedly that we must be the most conscious of preventing injury. As a professor of educational psychology, I learned that our brains cannot actually multi-task. What we really do is switch our focus back and forth ...
The paca was a common game animal until it became scarce due to overhunting. Pacas and their larger cousin, agoutis, are rodents which live in the forest. They make a delicious meal. Monkeys, wild pigs, rabbits, deer, and birds and fish of all kinds were also widely hunted. Today, most people must buy meat at the market with money earned from commercial agriculture.. Would you like to learn more about the cropsthat youd eat in the Amazon ...
100 Best Websites similar to Asip.org - Members.tripod.com, Isgyp.com, Pathology.unc.edu. Best alternative sites - ASIP.org - American Society for Investigative Pathology American Society for
No drive up to Yosemite from Southern California is complete without a pit-stop here. Were pretty loyal to classic turkey jerky, but the staff here is
MRA Mi Shaphiyr, better known to her friends as Sonia, was born May 29, 1999 at Mi Ramblin Arabians farm in Garfield, Minnesota. She was born jet black in color with a white star on her forehead. After a few weeks, Sonia began to shed her black coat for a grey one. She spent the…
There was a girl in a just past knee-length black and white polka dotted peasant skirt with a white flounce trim, black tights, furry white boots, a black coat with a rust and mustard plaid hood and a black bag with white trim and pink stars on it and a green and red plaid scarf ...
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Soukrom farm Otakar Beran ze Sv tnova na rsku, v jeho st du byl tento t den objeven druh p pad n kazy BSE, m e chovat kr vy i nad le. Testy jeho dal ch ty krav, kter byly po zji t n nemoci pora eny, byly negativn . V dn m ze vzork mozkov tk n nebyly nalezeny patogenn priony, nositel onemocn n BSE, ekl editel rsk Okresn veterin rn spr vy Bo im r Kobylka. Cel z le itost je ukon ena, dodal pro TVD editel St tn veterin rn veterin rn spr vy Josef Holej ovsk .
amniocentéza). Pri vyšetrení viacplodovej gravidity +50% k cene vyšetrenia. Vyšetrenie neobjednanej pacientky: doplatok 10 €.. (Čas objednania je orientačný, v prípade patologického USG nálezu sa dĺžka vyšetrenia predlžuje. Za porozumenie Vám vopred ďakujeme.). USG vyšetrenie prsníkov. Na USG vyšetrenia je potrebné sa objednať, vyšetruje prim. MUDr. Blašková Henrieta. Pacienti poisťovne Union poplatok /10 ...
Vstupné vyšetrenie má charakter kompletného očného vyšetrenia. Zahŕňa meranie výšky vnútroočného tlaku, hrúbky rohovky a dioptrií, kontrolu zrakovej ostrosti, vyšetrenie predného a zadného segmentu oka a následne špecializované vyšetrenia podľa povahy Vášho ochorenia (Galilei- analyzátor rohovky, perimeter- vyšetrenie zorného poľa, OCT- CT vyšetrenie oka (sietnica, rohovka, dúhovka, komorový uhol), endoteliálna mikroskopia, …). Dĺžka trvania kompletného vyšetrenia je štandardne 1,5-2 hodiny.. ...
David, what an incredible job on the 18x24 mahogany board! All I can say is simply elegant. Just looking at it and a few cuts on it, I know that this is craftsmanship that will stand the test of time. Even if I were to look in earnest I dont think I could find something that I dislike about it. Again, killer job and thank you so very much!!! Heath
Ich dužina a šupka je plná vitamínu C. Okrem toho sú veľmi zdravé a krásne červené, ríbezle dokážu výborne osviežiť. Jednoducho som si ich natrhal v záhrade za plnú misu a pripravil si chutný Ríbezľovo banánový RAW koláčik ...
Downov syndróm je najčastejším ochorením spôsobeným poruchou chromozómov. Výskyt ochorenia stúpa s vekom matky. V rámci prenatálnej diagnostiky sa vykonáva biochemické vyšetrenie a ultrazvukové vyšetrenie nosovej kosti a šijového prejasnenia. Viete,
V etko o Vianociach pre mal ch i ve k ch spr vy, tipy na viano n dar eky, s a e, anketa, z bava, podujatia, viano n zvyky, viano n symboly, viano n charita, viano n koledy, viano n recepty, pranostiky, Vianoce vo svete, Vianoce v cirkvi, viano n
Bugleweed | Ajuga Mahogany reptans Mahogany Ajuga reptans is a versatile ground cover with its colorful deep mahogany leaves that are almost black. Semi-evergreen to evergreen, bugleweed will tolerate deep shade and poor soil. Producing lovely blue flowers during from late spring through early summer, the Mahogany Bugleweed Ajuga reptans is a pet friendly ground cover. The almost black Mahagony provides a beautiful contrast to most shrubs and perennials. Supplemental water is required during its first year. Once established, the Mahogany Bugleweed Ajuga reptans is drought tolerant. Beautiful in container gardens. Drought tolerant Fall interest Heat tolerant to zone 11 Easy to grow Low maintenance Pet friendly Grows in limited shade Water wise ground cover
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The Smithsonians National Zoo is mourning the loss of a young male agouti named Macadamia, who died Aug. 10 during veterinary treatment. Initial exam suggested potential neck and or head injury. Due to the habit of running quickly around the habitat, self-induced trauma is suspected. According to animal care staff, Macadamias death is unrelated to his brief escape July 13. A final pathology report will provide more information in the coming weeks. Macadamia arrived at the Zoo a few months ago and was recently introduced to his mate, Hazelnut, who remains on exhibit.
In studies of genomic imprinting in the Prader-Willi/Angelman domain, an agouti coat color cassette was inserted into the downstream open reading frame (ORF) of the imprinted bicistronic Snurf-Snrpn locus in the mouse. The fusion gene was maternally silenced, as is Snurf-Snrpn, and produced a tan abdomen only when inherited paternally in otherwise-black mice. A screen for dominant epigenetic or genetic events was performed with ENU mutagenesis, using a strategy whereby variation in abdominal color was scored at weaning. One mouse with maternal origin of the fusion gene had a tan abdomen and had an imprinting defect resulting in loss of both maternal methylation and silencing of the fusion gene. One mouse with paternal origin of the fusion gene was completely yellow and was found to have an ATG-to-AAG mutation in the initiation codon of the upstream ORF encoding SNURF. Northern blotting, immunoblotting, and transfection studies indicated that the ATG-to-AAG mutation causes a 15-fold or more ...
Inbr and colour depends on substrain (see … Inbr and colour depends on substrain (see below). Origin: Dunn 1928 from crosses of coat colour stocks from English fanciers and a chinchilla stock from Castle. This strain has a common origin with strain 101. Most substrains carry the white-bellied agouti gene AW though only a subset have the agouti pattern as many carry albino or chinchilla and/or the pink-eyed dilution gene, p, which is derived from Asian mice of the Mus musculus type (see also strains SJL, P/J and FS/Ei) (Brilliant et al, 1994). It is known for the high incidence of spontaneous testicular teratomas, though the incidence differs between substrains, but more recently it has been the most widely used strain in the production of targeted mutations due to the availability of several lines of embryonic stem cells. Two recent studies show that there is major genetic variation within the 129 "family", at least some of which must be attributed to genetic contamination (Threadgill et al, ...
MAGICIAN MAN BLACK COAT BLUE BACKGROUND PULLING RABBIT OUT OF TOP HAT TRICK MAGIC ILLUSION SLEIGHT OF HAND - Masterfile - Rights-Managed, Artist: ClassicStock, Code: 846-02794102
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African mahogany is a marketing name for several African trees whose wood has properties similar to New World mahogany species. genus Entandrophragma of the family Meliaceae genus Khaya of the family Meliaceae genus Afzelia of the family Fabaceae (legumes ...
The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored hardwood. It is a native American word originally used for the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Indian or Cuban mahogany.[1]. The term was next applied to the wood of Swietenia macrophylla, which is closely related, and known as Honduras mahogany.[2]. Both are from the Meliaceae family.. Today, all species of Swietenia grown in their native locations are listed by CITES, and are therefore protected. Both Swietenia mahagoni, and Swietenia macrophylla were introduced into several Asian countries at the time of the restrictions imposed on American mahogany in the late 1990s and both are now successfully grown and harvested in plantations in those countries. The worlds supply of genuine mahogany today comes from these Asian plantations, notably from India, Fiji, Bangladesh, and Indonesia.. Species of Swietenia cross-fertilise readily when they grow in proximity; the hybrid between S. mahagoni and S. ...
To further investigate the implication of MC system in chronic pain, we have used a double approach. From one side we have performed in vivo studies on the effects of several MC antagonists on animal models of persistent pain (spinal nerve ligation, chronic constriction injury and formalin). On the other hand we used immunocytochemical analysis and gene expression study to corroborate our in vivo finding. Our finding that the endogenous antagonist agouti related protein is present in key areas of the pain pathway suggests the hypothesis that the endogenous melanocortin system could modulate pain perception not only positively but also negatively. The antinociceptive effect induced by in vivo administration of the agouti related protein lends further support to this hypothesis. The experimental evidence gathered, together with the published data, suggest that MC analgesia is primary mediated by the MC 4 receptors. The development of non-peptidic selective MC4 receptor antagonists would be an ...
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There are three a alleles at the agouti locus in German Shepherd Dogs and these account for virtually all of the coat color variation in this breed.
The objective of this study was to extract yellow pigment from powder turmeric (Curcuma longa) rhizomes and to evaluate the preservative/antioxidant activity of oil-soluble yellow pigment at concentrations 0.5, 0.1 and 0.2% (w/w) in soybean oil after accelerated oxidation at for 7 days. Soy bean oil free from antioxidant (control) and with 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (synthetic antioxidant) were used to control. In addition, the effects of combined treatment of water-soluble yellow pigment at ratio 3% (w/w) and gamma irradiation at dose levels of 1, 3 and 5 kGy on the microbiological, chemical and sensory characteristics of chicken breast fillet samples during cold storage (4 ± ) to extend the shelf-life of chicken breast fillets were investigated. The results revealed that the addition of 0.2% oil-soluble yellow pigment caused detectable increments in the oxidative stability of soy bean oil compared with control and other treatments under investigation. The results showed that the ratio of 3
Author SummaryIt has been a longstanding hypothesis that human pigmentation is tightly regulated by genetic variation. However, very few genes have been identified that contain common genetic variants associated with human pigmentation. We scanned the genome for genetic variants associated with natural hair color and other pigmentary characteristics in a multi-stage study of more than 10,000 men and women of European ancestry from the United States and Australia. We identified IRF4 and SLC24A4 as loci highly associated with hair color, along with three other regions encompassing known pigmentation genes. Further work is needed to identify the causal variants at these loci. Improved understanding of the genetic determinants of human pigmentation may help identify the molecular mechanisms of pigmentation-associated conditions such as the tanning response and skin cancers.
Background and objectives: Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.) florets contain valuable red and yellow pigments and are used in food, textile dying, and pharmaceutical industries. Red carthamine pigment is formed from a yellow precursor, precarthamine, through an oxidation reaction at the end of flowers maturation stage. The present study was conducted to find out the most effective procedure for extraction and purification of yellow and red pigments from safflower florets. Methods: Two different experiments were designed to assess the suitability of oxidant reagents (KMnO4 and H2O2) on the reddening of florets and different alkaline and organic solutions were used as the solvents (KNO3, Na2CO3, ethanol/hexane, methanol, and NaOH) in order to extract and purify the pigments. All obtained pigments were characterized chromatographically and spectrophotometrically for calculating the yield and evaluating purity of the extracted materials. Results: The results showed that KMnO4 and H2O2 treatments were

StudiesStudies

The finding was ultimately shown to result in the ubiquitous expression of the agouti protein which, in turn, was associated ... Given the early work on agouti and the fact that there are nearly 5 million RE loci across the mammalian genome, the group is ... Characterization of the mouse agouti locus. 1992 Cell 71:1195-1204.. *Michaud, E.J., M.J. van Vugt, S.J. Bultman, H.O. Sweet, M ... Most notably, the group also previously showed that the ability of the IAP to hijack the expression of agouti is dependent upon ...
more infohttps://www.niehs.nih.gov/research/atniehs/labs/gisbl/pi/mg/studies/index.cfm

Potential Causative Mutation for Melanism in Rats Identified in the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene (Asip) of the Rattus rattus...Potential Causative Mutation for Melanism in Rats Identified in the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene (Asip) of the Rattus rattus...

... both agouti and melanistic RrC lineage I from Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, and 2) agouti RrC lineages I and II from South Australia ... We investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic Rattus rattus species complex (RrC) lineage II specimens ... Phylogeographic analysis found that Asip sequences from Okinawan RrC lineage II, including both agouti and melanistic specimens ... but was absent in agouti specimens, suggesting that the p.124C,S mutation is responsible for the observed melanism. ...
more infohttp://www.pieronline.jp/content/article/0289-0003/34060/513

000260 - JGBF/LeJ000260 - JGBF/LeJ

On an agouti background, ,i,Vps33a,sup,bf,/sup,,/i, homozygotes have dark ears, opaque eyes, and the belly is lighter in color ... mutation on a non-agouti (,i,a,/i,/,i,a,/i,) background have a lightened coat color that has been described as khaki. ... AGSW; AGTI; AGTIL; ASP; As; As; SHEP9; agouti; agouti signal protein; agouti suppressor. ... Dmbx1 is essential in agouti-related protein action. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104(39):15514-9. PubMed: 17873059MGI: J:125193 ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/strain/000260

002648 - STOCK a/a Cln6|nclf|/J002648 - STOCK a/a Cln6|nclf|/J

agouti signal protein; As; ASP; As; agouti; agouti suppressor; AGTI; SHEP9; AGSW; AGTIL. ... Northern analysis of mRNA from skin of homozygotes shows a smaller agouti message and levels 8 fold lower than found in wild- ... Mutations in a novel CLN6-encoded transmembrane protein cause variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in man and mouse. Am J Hum ... into the first intron of the agouti gene. The VL30 element itself contains an additional 5.5 kb sequence, flanked by 526 bp of ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/strain/002648

Proopiomelanocortin - WikipediaProopiomelanocortin - Wikipedia

"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... Afamelanotide Agouti-related peptide Melanocortin Melanotan II GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115138 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proopiomelanocortin

Whole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare | BMC Genomics | Full TextWhole-Genome sequencing and genetic variant analysis of a quarter Horse mare | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation ... agouti-signaling protein precursor. Black and bay color. Del 11 bp. ND ... Shin EK, Perryman LE, Meek K: A kinase-negative mutation of DNA-PK(CS) in equine SCID results in defective coding and signal ... Rieder S, Taourit S, Mariat D, Langlois B, Guerin G: Mutations in the agouti (ASIP), the extension (MC1R), and the brown (TYRP1 ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-13-78

The expression of melanin-based plumage is separately modulated by exogenous oxidative stress and a melanocortin | Proceedings...The expression of melanin-based plumage is separately modulated by exogenous oxidative stress and a melanocortin | Proceedings...

ASIP: agouti signalling protein; AGRP: agouti-related protein; MSH: alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; MC1R: melanocortin 1 ... agouti-signalling (ASIP) and agouti-related (AGRP) proteins (Boswell & Takeuchi 2005). In the context of the melanocortin ... 2008 An update of the honesty of melanin-based color signals in birds. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21, 133-138. (doi:10.1111/j. ... 2006 A complex plumage pattern as an honest social signal. Anim. Behav. 72, 423-430. (doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.01.016). ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2009/06/09/rspb.2009.0774

Obesity and Stress: The Melanocortin Connection | SpringerLinkObesity and Stress: The Melanocortin Connection | SpringerLink

Voisey, J., Kelly, G., & Van Daal, A. (2003). Agouti signal protein regulation in human melanoma cells. Pigment Cell Research, ... Pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling of melanocortin-4 receptors in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells defines agouti-related protein as a ... 2007). Melanocortins and agouti-related protein modulate the excitability of two arcuate nucleus neuron populations by ... Haskell-Luevano, C., & Monck, E. K. (2001). Agouti-related protein functions as an inverse agonist at a constitutively active ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-89506-2_11

Equine coat color genetics - WikipediaEquine coat color genetics - Wikipedia

The Agouti locus is occupied by the Agouti signalling peptide (Asip) gene, which encodes the eponymous protein (ASIP). Agouti ... The frameshift initiated by the deletion results in a novel modified agouti-signaling-protein. ADEx2 was completely associated ... Agouti[edit]. Agouti controls the restriction of true black pigment (eumelanin) in the coat. Horses with the normal agouti gene ... Agouti (A) A. a Agouti: Restricts eumelanin, or black pigment, to "points," allowing red coat color to show on body. No visible ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equine_coat_color_genetics

Melanokortinski 3 receptor - Википедија, слободна енциклопедијаMelanokortinski 3 receptor - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија

1997). „Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action.". Mol. Endocrinol. 11 (3): 274-80. PMID 9058374 ... 1999). „Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors.". Biochemistry. ... 2002). „Neither agouti-related protein nor neuropeptide Y is critically required for the regulation of energy homeostasis in ... 2006). „Mutation analysis of the agouti related protein promoter region and the melanocortin-3 receptor in anorexia nervosa ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melanokortinski_3_receptor

agouti | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYagouti | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... agouti signaling protein Rat pro-agouti signalling peptide A, agouti, agouti , Agouti (coat color), agouti signaling protein, ...
more infohttp://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=3610

agouti | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGYagouti | Ligand page | IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY

agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... agouti signaling protein Human pro-agouti signalling peptide agouti (mouse)-signaling protein, agouti signaling protein, ...
more infohttp://guidetopharmacology.org/GRAC/LigandDisplayForward?ligandId=3609

Peter A. Kanetsky | MoffittPeter A. Kanetsky | Moffitt

A polymorphism in the agouti signaling protein gene is associated with human pigmentation. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Mar;70(3):770- ... Population differences in the frequency of the agouti signaling protein g.8818a>G polymorphism. Pigment Cell Res. 2004 Apr;17(2 ... Gene-centric meta-analyses of 108 912 individuals confirm known body mass index loci and reveal three novel signals. Hum Mol ... Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels with risk of malignant melanoma. ...
more infohttps://moffitt.org/research-science/researchers/peter-kanetsky/

Agouti signalling peptide - WikipediaAgouti signalling peptide - Wikipedia

Along with the homologous Agouti-related peptide, these are the only known mammalian proteins to adopt this fold. Agouti- ... Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids. Its discovery was ... It is produced by the Agouti gene ASIP. In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule that causes hair ... "Structures of the Agouti Signaling Protein". Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (4): 1059-1070. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.12.030. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agouti_signalling_peptide

Comparative actions of adrenomedullin and nitroprusside: interactions with ANG II and norepinephrine.Comparative actions of adrenomedullin and nitroprusside: interactions with ANG II and norepinephrine.

Previous Document: Functional properties of an agouti signaling protein variant and characteristics of its cognate radi.... ... Next Document: Beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cell signaling in the neonatal heart and liver: responses to terbutaline.. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Comparative-actions-adrenomedullin-nitroprusside-interactions/11705774.html

KAKEN - Research Projects | HOMINIZATION IN LIFESPAN AND ADAPTATION (KAKENHI-PROJECT-21247039)KAKEN - Research Projects | HOMINIZATION IN LIFESPAN AND ADAPTATION (KAKENHI-PROJECT-21247039)

Journal Article] Variations in the coding region of the agouti signaling protein gene do not explain agouti/non-agouti ... requirements for T cell recognition of N-myristoylated peptides derived from the simian immunodeficiency virus Nef protein2013 ...
more infohttps://kaken.nii.ac.jp/en/grant/KAKENHI-PROJECT-21247039/

GO Gene ListGO Gene List

Agouti signaling protein. NM_001672. Gene Info. ASNS. Asparagine synthetase (glutamine-hydrolyzing). NM_183356. NM_133436. NM_ ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta. NM_005194. Gene Info. CEBPE. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), epsilon. NM_ ... Bone morphogenetic protein 7. NM_001719. Gene Info. BMPR1A. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA. NM_004329. Gene Info ... CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha. NM_004364. Gene Info. CEBPB. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), beta. ...
more infohttps://cgap.nci.nih.gov/Genes/GoGeneQuery?PAGE=1&ORG=Hs&GOID=0070887

Polymorphism of pigmentation genes (OCA2 and ASIP) in some populations of Russia, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...Polymorphism of pigmentation genes (OCA2 and ASIP) in some populations of Russia, Russian Journal of Genetics | 10.1134...

The 8818G Allele of the Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) Gene Is Ancestral and Is Associated with Darker Skin Color in African ... A Polymorphism in the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene Is Associated with Human Pigmentation ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/polymorphism-of-pigmentation-genes-oca2-and-asip-in-some-populations-5WewljKWVB

MODULE 181MODULE 181

agouti signaling protein. 4353. 4353. MPO. myeloperoxidase. 4359. 4359. MPZ. myelin protein zero. ...
more infohttp://software.broadinstitute.org/gsea/msigdb/cards/MODULE_181.html

Agouti | Technology TrendsAgouti | Technology Trends

This absence is mediated by agouti signalling protein, which antagonizes melanocortin 1 receptor ... Loss of function of agouti ... Genus Dasyprocta Azaras Agouti, (D.azarae) Coiban Agouti, (D ... coibae) Crested Agouti, (D ... cristata) Black Agouti, (D ... ... medium caramel, dark caramel, dark (red) caramel, silver-light grey agouti, medium grey agouti, dark grey agouti, black with ... Agouti. Agouti refers to a number of species of New World rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in ...
more infohttp://www.primidi.com/agouti

Centre for Mathematical Biology - Research Output
     - the University of Baths research portalCentre for Mathematical Biology - Research Output - the University of Bath's research portal

Sarkans, E. & Logemann, H., Dec 2015, In : Mathematics of Control Signals and Systems. 27, 4, p. 439-465. Research output: ... Agouti Signaling Protein Fishes Quantitative genetic variation and heritability. OBrien, E., Hunt, J. & Wolf, J. B., 2015, In ...
more infohttps://researchportal.bath.ac.uk/en/organisations/centre-for-mathematical-biology/publications/?page=17&ordering=publicationYearThenTitle&descending=false

US20020088014A1 - Minimal adenovirus mediated recombinant vaccine 
        - Google PatentsUS20020088014A1 - Minimal adenovirus mediated recombinant vaccine - Google Patents

102000006822 Agouti Signaling Protein Human genes 0 description 2 * 108010072151 Agouti Signaling Protein Proteins 0 ... 108020004412 RNA 3 Polyadenylation Signals Proteins 0 description 10 * 230000015572 biosynthetic process Effects 0 description ... 108010008532 Deoxyribonuclease I Proteins 0 description 3 * 108010031111 EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 Proteins 0 description 3 ... 108010048209 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins Proteins 0 description 2 * 241000598171 Human adenovirus sp. Species 0 ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20020088014A1/en

ACTH receptor - WikipediaACTH receptor - Wikipedia

Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Protein recognition at the receptor uses cAMP as a secondary messenger. When bound, the receptor couples to G-protein alpha ... In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ACTH_receptor

KIT gene - creation.comKIT gene - creation.com

Lightner, J.K., Genetics of coat color II: The agouti signaling protein (ASIP) Gene, Answers Research Journal 2:79-84; www. ... Mutations in these genes affect proteins involved in the signaling pathway for pigment production and explain a large amount of ... a truncated protein which lacks the extracellular, transmembrane and first tyrosine kinase domains.31 This truncated protein is ... One of these, the viable yellow at the Agouti locus, has been examined in previous creationist literature.3 Seven of these ...
more infohttps://creation.com/kit-gene

Cytokines, Growth Factors, and POMC Peptides | Springer for Research & DevelopmentCytokines, Growth Factors, and POMC Peptides | Springer for Research & Development

Polymorphisms in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) and agouti signaling protein (ASIP) genes in Korean vitiligo patients. ... IL-6 signaling in psoriasis prevents immune suppression by regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2009;183:3170-6.CrossRefPubMed ... Activation of the unfolded protein response in vitiligo: the missing link? J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2502-4.CrossRefPubMed ... IFN-g signaling maintains skin pigmentation homeostasis through regulation of melanosome maturation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-62960-5_29
  • In this case, a promoter on the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an an intracisternal A particle (IAP) element, located within an intron, was demonstrated to "hijack" the normal regulated expression of the agouti gene in the skin. (nih.gov)
  • Given the early work on agouti and the fact that there are nearly 5 million RE loci across the mammalian genome, the group is examining whether there are other genes whose expression is influenced by REs. (nih.gov)
  • Most notably, the group also previously showed that the ability of the IAP to hijack the expression of agouti is dependent upon the epigenetic status of the IAP: methylation of the IAP to suppress its ability to influence agouti expression ( 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • The combination of the extension and agouti loci determine the base coat of a horse.Bay is the original "wild type" color of horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • On an agouti background, Vps33a bf homozygotes have dark ears, opaque eyes, and the belly is lighter in color than is the rest of the coat. (jax.org)
  • Northern analysis of mRNA from skin of homozygotes shows a smaller agouti message and levels 8 fold lower than found in wild-type. (jax.org)
  • MC1R protein functional domains. (nih.gov)
  • While variation in the Mc1r coding region does not correlate with melanism in any population, in a New Hampshire population, we find that a 125-kb deletion, which includes the upstream regulatory region and exons 1 and 2 of Agouti, results in a loss of Agouti expression and is perfectly associated with melanic color. (harvard.edu)
  • The processing of POMC involves glycosylations, acetylations, and extensive proteolytic cleavage at sites shown to contain regions of basic protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002). „Neither agouti-related protein nor neuropeptide Y is critically required for the regulation of energy homeostasis in mice." . (wikipedia.org)
  • Developmental Regulation of Genes Encoding Universal Stress Proteins in Schistosoma mansoni. (rit.edu)
  • 2014). Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and C-reactive protein as biomarker for survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Beta-adrenoceptor-mediated cell signaling in the neonatal heart and liver: responses to terbutaline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a second population from Alaska, we find that a premature stop codon in exon 3 of Agouti is associated with a similar melanic phenotype. (harvard.edu)
  • The reliability of the information transmitted by those coloured traits acting as signals in animal communication has frequently been associated with the costs of producing or acquiring pigments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • agouti protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1998 ) Zebrafish organizer development and germ-layer formation require nodal-related signals. (biologists.org)