Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Receptors, Melanocortin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that have specificity for MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. There are several subtypes of melanocortin receptors, each having a distinct ligand specificity profile and tissue localization.Receptors, Corticotropin: Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in MELANOCYTES. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. Loss of function mutations of the type 1 melanocortin receptor account for the majority of red hair and fair skin recessive traits in human.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Melanins: Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Intracisternal A-Particle: Genes of IAP elements (a family of retrovirus-like genetic elements) which code for virus-like particles (IAPs) found regularly in rodent early embryos. ("Intracisternal" refers to the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum.) Under certain circumstances, such as DNA hypomethylation they are transcribed. Their transcripts are found in a variety of neoplasms, including plasmacytomas, neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcomas, teratocarcinomas, and colon carcinomas.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Rats, Inbred LEC: A cinnamon-colored strain of Long-Evans rats which carries a mutation causing fulminant hepatitis and jaundice, with an associated gross accumulation of copper in the liver. This strain is a model for Wilson's Disease (see HEPATOLENTICULAR DEGENERATION).Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 3: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH; GAMMA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.MarylandHistology, Comparative: The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Animals, LaboratoryPro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Enkephalin, Methionine: One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Endorphins: One of the three major groups of endogenous opioid peptides. They are large peptides derived from the PRO-OPIOMELANOCORTIN precursor. The known members of this group are alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin. The term endorphin is also sometimes used to refer to all opioid peptides, but the narrower sense is used here; OPIOID PEPTIDES is used for the broader group.Secretory Vesicles: Vesicles derived from the GOLGI APPARATUS containing material to be released at the cell surface.beta-Endorphin: A 31-amino acid peptide that is the C-terminal fragment of BETA-LIPOTROPIN. It acts on OPIOID RECEPTORS and is an analgesic. Its first four amino acids at the N-terminal are identical to the tetrapeptide sequence of METHIONINE ENKEPHALIN and LEUCINE ENKEPHALIN.Melanosis: Disorders of increased melanin pigmentation that develop without preceding inflammatory disease.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Albinism: General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.United Arab Emirates: A federation of seven states on the southeast portion of the Arabian peninsula: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Qaiwain. In 1820 a treaty of peace was concluded between Great Britain and native rulers. During the 19th century the rulers agreed to suppression of the slave trade and restriction of foreign relations to Great Britain. The Trucial Council was established in 1952 and defense treaties with Great Britain terminated. In 1971 an independent six-member federation was formed, with Ras al-Khaimah joining the federation in 1972. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1250)Optogenetics: The combination of genetic and optical methods in controlling specific events with temporal precision in targeted cells of a functioning intact biological system.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.New YorkRhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.Arabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Monomethylhydrazine: Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.

Testing of human homologues of murine obesity genes as candidate regions in Finnish obese sib pairs. (1/158)

The human homologues of recently discovered murine obesity genes provide relevant candidates to study the genetic component of obesity in humans. We analysed the human counterparts to murine obesity genes ob, db, agouti, tub, melanocortin 4-receptor (MC4-R) and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), as well as two other chromosomal regions reported to be linked to obesity-related phenotypes in restricted populations. We found no significant evidence for linkage to any analysed loci in our total study material of 105 affected sib pairs collected from the genetically homogenous population of Finland. However, several markers on 14 cM chromosomal region flanking the MC4-R gene showed sharing of alleles identical-by-descent (IBD) more frequently than expected. A selected subset of non-diabetic obese sib pairs strengthened the P values down to 0.003 in this particular region. The smallest P value (P = 0.001) was obtained with a marker D18S487 in a subgroup containing only sib pairs with one lean and one obese parent. We therefore screened seven obese subjects included in our sib pair material for sequence changes in their MC4-R gene, but no mutations of apparent causal relationship were found. In conclusion, we could not find evidence for significant contribution of the chromosomal loci corresponding to the murine single gene obesity genes for human morbid obesity, but additional studies are still needed to clarify whether DNA alterations within or adjacent to the MC4-R gene play some role.  (+info)

A system for rapid generation of coat color-tagged knockouts and defined chromosomal rearrangements in mice. (2/158)

Gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells can be used to generate single gene mutations or defined multi-megabase chromosomal rearrangements when applied with the Cre- loxP recombination system. While single knockouts are essential for uncovering functions of cloned genes, chromosomal rearrangements are great genetic tools for mapping, mutagenesis screens and functional genomics. The conventional approach to generate mice with targeted alterations of the genome requires extensive molecular cloning to build targeting vectors and DNA-based genotyping for stock maintenance. Here we describe the design and construction of a two-library system to facilitate high throughput gene targeting and chromo-somal engineering. The unique feature of these libraries is that once a clone is isolated, it is essentially ready to be used for insertional targeting in ES cells. The two libraries each bear a complementary set of genetic markers tailored so that the vector can be used for Cre- loxP -based chromosome engineering as well as single knockouts. By incorporating mouse coat color markers into the vectors, we illustrate a widely applicable method for stock maintenance of ES cell-derived mice with single gene knockouts or more extensive chromosomal rearrangements.  (+info)

Down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling mediated by the amino terminus of Agouti protein in Xenopus melanophores. (3/158)

Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein (Agrp) regulate pigmentation and body weight, respectively, by antagonizing melanocortin receptor signaling. A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Agouti protein, Ser73-Cys131, is sufficient for melanocortin receptor antagonism, but Western blot analysis of skin extracts reveals that the electrophoretic mobility of native Agouti protein corresponds to the mature full-length form, His23-Cys131. To investigate the potential role of the amino-terminal residues, we compared the function of full-length and carboxyl-terminal fragments of Agrp and Agouti protein in a sensitive bioassay based on pigment dispersion in Xenopus melanophores. We find that carboxyl-terminal Agouti protein, and all forms of Agrp tested, act solely by competitive antagonism of melanocortin action. However, full-length Agouti protein acts by an additional mechanism that is time- and temperature-dependent, depresses maximal levels of pigment dispersion, and is therefore likely to be mediated by receptor down-regulation. Apparent down-regulation is not observed for a mixture of amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal fragments. We propose that the phenotypic effects of Agouti in vivo represent a bipartite mechanism: competitive antagonism of agonist binding by the carboxyl-terminal portion of Agouti protein and down-regulation of melanocortin receptor signaling by an unknown mechanism that requires residues in the amino terminus of the Agouti protein.  (+info)

NMR structure of a minimized human agouti related protein prepared by total chemical synthesis. (4/158)

The structure of the chemically synthesized C-terminal region of the human agouti related protein (AGRP) was determined by 2D 1H NMR. Referred to as minimized agouti related protein, MARP is a 46 residue polypeptide containing 10 Cys residues involved in five disulfide bonds that retains the biological activity of full length AGRP. AGRP is a mammalian signaling molecule, involved in weight homeostasis, that causes adult onset obesity when overexpressed in mice. AGRP was originally identified by homology to the agouti protein, another potent signaling molecule involved in obesity disorders in mice. While AGRP's exact mechanism of action is unknown, it has been identified as a competitive antagonist of melanocortin receptors 3 and 4 (MC3r, MC4r), and MC4r in particular is implicated in the hypothalamic control of feeding behavior. Full length agouti and AGRP are only 25% homologous, however, their active C-terminal regions are approximately 40% homologous, with nine out of the 10 Cys residues spatially conserved. Until now, 3D structures have not been available for either agouti, AGRP or their C-terminal regions. The NMR structure of MARP reported here can be characterized as three major loops, with four of the five disulfide bridges at the base of the structure. Though its fold is well defined, no canonical secondary structure is identified. While previously reported structural models of the C-terminal region of AGRP were attempted based on Cys homology between AGRP and certain toxin proteins, we find that Cys spacing is not sufficient to correctly determine the 3D fold of the molecule.  (+info)

An agouti mutation lacking the basic domain induces yellow pigmentation but not obesity in transgenic mice. (5/158)

Chronic antagonism of melanocortin receptors by the paracrine-acting agouti gene product induces both yellow fur and a maturity-onset obesity syndrome in mice that ubiquitously express wild-type agouti. Functional analysis of agouti mutations in transgenic mice indicate that the cysteine-rich C terminus, signal peptide, and glycosylation site are required for agouti activity in vivo. In contrast, no biological activity has been ascribed to the conserved basic domain. To examine the functional significance of the agouti basic domain, the entire 29-aa region was deleted from the agouti cDNA, and the resulting mutation (agoutiDeltabasic) was expressed in transgenic mice under the control of the beta-actin promoter (BAPaDeltabasic). Three independent lines of BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice all developed some degree of yellow pigment in the fur, indicating that the agoutiDeltabasic protein was functional in vivo. However, none of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice developed completely yellow fur, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia. High levels of agoutiDeltabasic expression in relevant tissues exceeded the level of agouti expression in obese viable yellow mice, suggesting that suboptimal activity or synthesis of the agoutiDeltabasic protein, rather than insufficient RNA synthesis, accounts for the phenotype of the BAPaDeltabasic transgenic mice. These findings implicate a functional role for the agouti basic domain in vivo, possibly influencing the biogenesis of secreted agouti protein or modulating protein-protein interactions that contribute to effective antagonism of melanocortin receptors.  (+info)

Regulation of adiposity by dietary calcium. (6/158)

Recent data from this laboratory demonstrate that increasing adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) results in a coordinated stimulation of lipogenesis and inhibition of lipolysis. We have also noted that increasing dietary calcium of obese patients for 1 year resulted in a 4.9 kg loss of body fat (P<0.01). Accordingly, we tested the possibility that calcitrophic hormones may act on adipocytes to increase Ca(2+) and lipid metabolism by measuring the effects of 1, 25-(OH)(2)-D in primary cultures of human adipocytes, and found significant, sustained increases in intracellular Ca(2+) and a corresponding marked inhibition of lipolysis (EC(50) approximately 50 pM; P<0.001), suggesting that dietary calcium could reduce adipocyte mass by suppressing 1,25-(OH)(2)-D. To test this hypothesis, we placed transgenic mice expressing the agouti gene specifically in adipocytes on a low (0.4%) Ca/high fat/high sucrose diet either unsupplemented or with 25 or 50% of the protein replaced by non-fat dry milk or supplemented to 1.2% Ca with CaCO(3) for 6 wk. Weight gain and fat pad mass were reduced by 26-39% by the three high calcium diets (P<0.001). The high calcium diets exerted a corresponding 51% inhibition of adipocyte fatty acid synthase expression and activity (P<0.002) and stimulation of lipolysis by 3. 4- to 5.2-fold (P<0.015). This concept of calcium modulation of adiposity was further evaluated epidemiologically in the NHANES III data set. After controlling for energy intake, relative risk of being in the highest quartile of body fat was set to 1.00 for the lowest quartile of Ca intake and was reduced to 0.75, 0.40, and 0.16 for the second, third, and fourth quartiles, respectively, of calcium intake for women (n=380;P<0.0009); a similar inverse relationship was also noted in men (n=7114; P<0.0006). Thus, increasing dietary calcium suppresses adipocyte intracellular Ca(2+) and thereby modulates energy metabolism and attenuates obesity risk.  (+info)

Relationship between human adipose tissue agouti and fatty acid synthase (FAS). (7/158)

The human homologue of the murine obesity gene, agouti, is expressed in adipose tissue. We have shown that recombinant agouti protein regulates adipocyte lipogenesis and lipolysis coordinately and promotes lipid storage via a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism in vitro, which may contribute to agouti-induced obesity. However, little is known about agouti's physiologic function in humans. We first studied the agouti content in human mature adipocytes vs. preadipocytes. The agouti content of human mature adipocytes was five times as abundant as in preadipocytes (19.18 +/- 2.46 vs. 4.07 +/- 0.51 pg/microg protein, P: < 0.005), suggesting that agouti is up-regulated during adipocyte differentiation. We next studied the relationship of agouti mRNA and protein to fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA and activity in adipose tissue obtained from nonobese and mildly obese patients (body mass index range, 21-31 kg/m(2)). Agouti protein was correlated with FAS activity (r = 0.782, P: < 0.005). Similarly, human adipose tissue agouti mRNA level was also correlated with FAS mRNA level (r = 0.846, P: < 0.001). These data suggest that agouti may be another adipocyte-produced factor that modulates adipocyte lipid metabolism via a paracrine/autocrine mechanism.  (+info)

Common requirements for melanocortin-4 receptor selectivity of structurally unrelated melanocortin agonist and endogenous antagonist, Agouti protein. (8/158)

The activity of melanocortin receptors (MCR) is regulated by melanocortin peptide agonists and by the endogenous antagonists, Agouti protein and AgRP (Agouti-related protein). To understand how the selectivity for these structurally unrelated agonists and antagonist is achieved, chimeric and mutants MC3R and MC4R were expressed in cell lines and pharmacologically analyzed. A region containing the third extracellular loop, EC3, of MC4R was essential for selective Agouti protein antagonism. In addition, this part of MC4R, when introduced in MC3R, conferred Agouti protein antagonism. Further mutational analysis of this region of MC4R demonstrated that Tyr(268) was required for the selective interaction with Agouti protein, because a profound loss of the ability of Agouti protein to inhibit (125)I-labeled [Nle(4),d-Phe(7)]alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) binding was observed by the single mutation of Tyr(268) to Ile. This same residue conferred selectivity for the MC4R selective agonist, [d-Tyr(4)]MT-II, whereas it inhibited interaction with the MC3R-selective agonist, [Nle(4)]Lys-gamma(2)-MSH. Conversely, mutation of Ile(265) in MC3 (the corresponding residue of Tyr(268)) to Tyr displayed a gain of affinity for [d-Tyr(4)]MT-II, but not for Agouti protein, and a loss of affinity for [Nle(4)]Lys-gamma(2)-MSH as compared with wild-type MC3R. This single amino acid mutation thus confers the selectivity of MC3R toward a pharmacological profile like that observed for MC4R agonists but not for the antagonist, Agouti protein. Thus, selectivity for structurally unrelated ligands with opposite activities is achieved in a similar manner for MC4R but not for MC3R.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The embryonic lethality of homozygous lethal yellow mice (A(y)/A(y)) is associated with the disruption of a novel RNA-binding protein. AU - Michaud, E. J.. AU - Bultman, S. J.. AU - Stubbs, L. J.. AU - Woychik, R. P.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - Lethal yellow (A(y)) is a mutation at the mouse agouti (a) locus that is associated with an all-yellow coat color, obesity, diabetes, tumors in heterozygotes, and preimplantation embryonic lethality in homozygotes. Previously, we cloned and characterized the wild-type agouti gene and demonstrated that it expresses a 0.8-kb mRNA in neonatal skin. In contrast, A(y) expresses a 1.1-kb transcript that is ectopically overexpressed in all tissues examined. The A(y) mRNA is identical to the wild-type a transcript for the entire coding region, but the 5-untranslated sequence of the a gene has been replaced by novel sequence. Here, we demonstrate that the novel 5 sequence in the A(y) mRNA corresponds to the 5-untranslated sequence of ...
The agouti gene regulates the differential production of eumelanin (black or brown) and phaeomelanin (yellow) pigment granules by melanocytes in the hair follicles of mice. The original nonagouti (a) allele, which confers a predominantly black coat color, has been shown to revert to two other more dominant agouti alleles, black-and-tan (a(t)) and white-bellied agouti (Aw), with an exceptionally high frequency. The a(t) and Aw alleles confer phenotypes in which the pigmentation is not uniformly distributed over the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the animal; in both cases the ventral surface of the animal is markedly lighter than the dorsal surface due to an increase in phaeomelanin production. To understand the unusually high reversion rate of a to a(t) or Aw, and to decipher the molecular events associated with the different pigmentation patterns associated with these three agouti alleles, we have characterized a, a(t) and Aw at the molecular level. Here, we report that insertions of 11, 6,
Repetitive elements (REs) have the potential to actively interfere with the normal transcription of genes located in their immediate vicinity along the chromosome. The Mammalian Genome Group originally described one of the first instances of how a RE can interfere with the normal expression of a gene. In this case, a promoter on the long terminal repeat (LTR) of an an intracisternal A particle (IAP) element, located within an intron, was demonstrated to "hijack" the normal regulated expression of the agouti gene in the skin. The finding was ultimately shown to result in the ubiquitous expression of the agouti protein which, in turn, was associated with a yellow coat color, obesity, and type II diabetes in mice (1, 2). Most notably, the group also previously showed that the ability of the IAP to hijack the expression of agouti is dependent upon the epigenetic status of the IAP: methylation of the IAP to suppress its ability to influence agouti expression (2). Moreover, other groups have ...
dentification of the fundamental polypeptide difference between yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow mice is important for biomedical research because of the influence of the yellow genotype on normal and neoplastic growth and obesity. The complexity of the "yellow mouse syndrome" makes attainment of this objective dependent on the separation of those pleiotropic enzyme differences which are secondary, and depend on the background genome, from those which are primary, and depend primarily on the agouti locus genotype.-Four of nine hepatic enzyme activities assayed simultaneously differed between eight-week-old yellow (Ay/-, Avy/-) and non-yellow (A/-, a/a) male inbred and F1 hybrid mice. Among these four, only cytoplasmic malic enzyme activity was elevated in all yellow mice, as compared with the non-yellow sibs, regardless of background genome. Glucokinase, serine dehydratase, and tyrosine α-ketoglutarate transaminase activities were also changed in yellow mice, but these alterations depended ...
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans ...
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Production of yellow versus black pigment in dogs is controlled by three genes: Mc1r, Agouti, and CBD103. Dogs carrying wild-type alleles for all three genes have a yellow coat resulting from Agouti antagonism of Mc1r signaling in melanocytes (yellow Great Dane, top). Dogs carrying a loss-of-function mutation at Mc1r have a yellow coat, regardless of their genotype at Agouti or CBD103 (yellow Labrador Retriever, middle). Dogs carrying wild-type alleles for Mc1r and Agouti, together with the dominant black allele of CBD103 (KB) have a black coat resulting from the interaction between a beta-defensin and Mc1r (black Curly Coated Retriever, bottom ...
Much of the modern understanding of equine coat color genetics is owed to the work of Dr. Ann T. Bowling of the University of California, Davis and of Dr. Phillip Sponenberg of Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Modern discussions of horse coat color genetics are based on the distinction between "red" and "non-red" coats, a factor determined by a single gene. More detailed discussions of coat color all refer to the differing effects of separate genes on these "base" coat colors.[3] Coat color alleles affect melanin, the pigment or coloring of the coat. There are two chemically distinct types of melanin: pheomelanin, which is perceived as red to yellow color, and eumelanin, is perceived as brown to black. All coloration genes in mammals affect either the production or distribution of these two chemicals. Alleles affecting melanocytes (pigment cells) do not alter the pigment chemicals themselves but rather by acting on the placement of pigment cells produce distinct patterns of unpigmented pink skin ...
Perhaps one of the most interesting aspects of the melanocortin system is that it has two endogenous antagonists, agouti and AGRP. These proteins are unique in that no inhibitory proteins have been identified for any of the seven-transmembrane receptor family. Agouti and AGRP are paracrine signaling molecules, which are endogenous antagonists of the MCRs (13). Of physiological significance, agouti and AGRP have MCR subtype selectivity (Table 1). Interestingly, agouti and AGRP both have a cysteine-rich COOH-terminal domain. Although the structure of agouti has not been resolved, nuclear magnetic resonance studies demonstrate that the cysteine residues in AGRP adopt a structural motif called an inhibitor cystine knot (32). This motif is common to invertebrate toxins, but in mammals this structure is unique to AGRP and, presumably, agouti. Another commonality is that agouti and AGRP have both been shown in vitro to be inverse agonists (33). Thus they have the potential in vivo to regulate their ...
The present invention provides peptides related to agouti signaling protein and agouti related protein which are useful in modulating the activity of the melanocortin 3 and melanocortin 4 receptors. Also provided are methods of preparing the peptides, as well as nucleic acid molecules encoding the peptides.
Mice harboring the hCD2-iCre transgene have the human CD2 promoter and locus control region (LCR) directing expression of an optimized variant of Cre recombinase (iCre) to T cells and B cells (all B cell and T cell progenitors) and mice may be useful for generating conditional mutations in T cells and B cells. Because of the integration site of the transgene, the hCD2-iCre transgene is linked to the agouti coat color genes.
Augoti- There are 11 species of agoutis native to the rainforests of Central and South America. Agoutis are a small to medium sized rodents that feed on...
The A locus is responsible for a number of common coat patterns in the dog. Expression of all of them requires any combination of two Ky or Kbr alleles at the K locus, and at least one E or EM allele at the E locus. The gene involved is the Agouti gene, and variations in it are responsible for fawn and sable dogs (A
This study examined the effect of glutathione on the in vivo depigmenting potency of N-acetyl-4-S-cysteaminylphenol (N-acetyl-4-S-CAP) in black and yellow mice after multiple intraperitoneal injections on 10 consecutive days. In black mice (C57BL/6J, a/a), N-acetyl-4-S-CAP showed dose-dependent depigmenting potency (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mmol/kg), which was in parallel to the tissue eumelanin content (98%, 28%, and 3% of controls, respectively) and to the tissue glutathione content (94%, 85%, and 76%, respectively). In lethal yellow mice (C57BL/6J, Ay/a), only a dose of 2.0 mmol/kg showed the color change of hair to dark, not to white as seen in black mice. This was reflected by the decrease of pheomelanin content (56%) and the increase of eumelanin content (28% of black mice). The simultaneous administration of N-acetyl-cysteine, which up-regulated glutathione content, completely abolished the depigmenting potency of N-acetyl-4-S-CAP, whereas administration of buthionine sulfoximine, which depleted ...
Even those who pay little attention to the vicissitudes of scientific opinion are probably aware of the ongoing discussion about which contributes more to an individuals behavior: genetic inheritance (nature), or personal experience (nurture).
Hereditary Factors:, Mutation:, Organs:, Origin:, Genes: A - Locus, a - Non-agouti, a*t - Black & tan, a*td - Tanoid, A*w - White-bellied agouti, Strains: BALB/C, CBA, C3H, C57BL/6, Unknown:. ...
Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Mutant Strain Ty … Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Mutant Strain Type: JAX GEMM Strain - Spontaneous Mutation TJL Mating System: Outcross-Intercross (Female x Male) TJL Breeding Summary: homozygote x B6CBACa-Aw-J/A F1 then obligate heterozygote x heterozygote Species: laboratory mouse Generation: N68F1 (07-NOV-05) Appearance white-bellied agouti, ataxic Related Genotype: Aw-J/? Kcnj6wv/Kncj6wv OR agouti, ataxic Related Genotype: A/A Kcnj6wv/Kncj6wv OR white-bellied agouti, unaffected Related Genotype: Aw-J/? +/? or Aw-J/A Kncj6wv/+ OR agouti, unaffected Related Genotype: A/A +/? or A/A Kncj6wv/+ Strain Description Mice homozygous for the weaver spontaneous mutation (Kcnj6wv) are recognizable in the second postnatal week by their small size, instability of gait, weakness, and hypotonia. Many homozygous mutant mice die at weaning age, but some survive to adulthood, and females may breed. The cerebellum in homozygous mutants is very small, simple, and almost devoid of granule ...
GRUNDFARVEN er de omr der som dannes af de agouti h r - det er de h r der er tickede eller har b nd. Denne sammenh ng er vital for at forst udseenet af hvilken som helst Tabby kat. Hvis man ikke forst r hvilke omr der af pelsen som skal v re ensfarvede og hvilke der skal v re tickede, kan man ikke forvente at nogen kan se de finere nuancer af disse attraktive opdr t. Det er vigtigt at der er en skarp kontrast mellem m nstret og grundfarven, og dette kan kun opn s ved at m nstret er ensfarvet og fri for ticking. HVIS der er tickning i de m nstrede omr der blive t gede, kontrasten vil forsvinde og m nstret bliver uklart. Tilstedev relsen af agouti h r i m nstret reducerer ogs det klart definerede m nster og det bl iver smuds igt . I GCCF s standard st r der helt klart There should be no speckling of agouti hair in the markings (Der m ikke v re st nk af agouti h r i m nstret) og specificerer desuden Lack of pattern contrast and clarity (except in Ticked Tabbies) (Mangel p kontrast og ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
Similar in appearance to a Guinea pig-but larger and with longer legs- red-rumped agoutis are members of the rodent family. They are native to South America, where they are important members of their ecosystem as they are the only animals known to be able to open the husk of a Brazil nut.
These mice carry a spontaneous mutation at the |i| Mc1r |/i| locus, having arisen on the B6(C)-|i|H2|/i|-|i|Ab1|sup|bm12|/sup||/i|/KhEgJ strain (Stock No. |a href=http://jaxmice.jax.org/strain/001162.html|001162|/a|) and characterized by a yellow coat color.
(Medical Xpress)-Yellow coat color mice in Cheryl Rosenfelds lab are not fortunate sons and daughters.Conventional knowledge says these mice will likely live fatter, more diseased lives than their black, brown and mottled ...
This panel includes all of the colour and disorder genes that we have seen in Australian Miniature horses and ponies.. The coat colour genes in this panel are agouti, red/black, cream, silver, champagne, dun and d1, grey, frame overo, Lp, PATN1, roan, sabino 1, SW1, tobiano, W13 and W20.. The disorder genes in this panel are D1, D2, D3, and D4 and skeletal atavisim (SA). The health effects of grey, Lp, SW1 and frame overo are also addressed. ...
Results: One week after the AMI operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in both AMI and N+AMI group were significantly higher than those in the sham group, but there were no significant differences between AMI and N+AMI mice. Contents of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the noninfarct area of the left ventricle in the N+AMI mice were significantly higher than those in the AMI mice, with no difference in the infarct area. Coagulation necrosis in the cardiomyocytes was observed in both AMI and N+AMI mice; however, it was less severe in the N+AMI mice. Western blot analyses showed that nitrite pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and p21waf1/cip1 signal proteins, but down-regulation of the proapoptotic factor Bax signal protein. Furthermore, nitrite pretreatment also showed significant alleviation of AMI-induced signal protein expressions of inflammatory factors of NF-KB and oxidative factors of Hsp 70 and HO-1 ...
Results: One week after the AMI operation, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in both AMI and N+AMI group were significantly higher than those in the sham group, but there were no significant differences between AMI and N+AMI mice. Contents of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the noninfarct area of the left ventricle in the N+AMI mice were significantly higher than those in the AMI mice, with no difference in the infarct area. Coagulation necrosis in the cardiomyocytes was observed in both AMI and N+AMI mice; however, it was less severe in the N+AMI mice. Western blot analyses showed that nitrite pretreatment resulted in up-regulation of antiapoptotic factors Bcl-2 and p21waf1/cip1 signal proteins, but down-regulation of the proapoptotic factor Bax signal protein. Furthermore, nitrite pretreatment also showed significant alleviation of AMI-induced signal protein expressions of inflammatory factors of NF-KB and oxidative factors of Hsp 70 and HO-1 ...
For example, some mice have an epigenetic modification that alters the expression of the agouti gene: adult mice that are affected are yellow-furred, obese and diabetic, while genetically identical mice are sleek, brown-furred and healthy. This epigenetic modification is inherited from the mother, and can be affected by the chemicals the mother is exposed to during pregnancy, such as the nutritional supplements folic acid and vitamin B12, and bisphenol A, a chemical used in the manufacture of plastics. And its not just the mothers diet and chemical exposure during pregnancy that affects expression of agouti - epigenetic changes caused by diet can be passed on to grandchildren.. And while most of the research has focused on mice, for obvious ethical and practical reasons, data has been emerging that humans are similarly affected. For example, the detailed records of births, deaths and harvests in Sweden have been used to look at how the availability of food affects lifespan of subsequent ...
Extension Series (E): Em, E, Ebr, e. But newer reseach indicates that dominant black As does not belong in the Agouti series at all - and this is consistent with other mammals which also share the Agouti series, none of which has a dominant phaeomelanin suppressor like As at the top of the series. This research also indicates that brindle (Ebr in the old system) and dominant black form a separate series of at least 3 alleles, which we will call K (for blacK): K=dominant black, kbr=brindle, k=normal. Finally, we have removed Em (black mask) and placed it in its own separate series which we call Super Extension (Se); again this agrees with current research.. So in this genetic configuration, we have used ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Agregátor zliav zlavy.sme.sk zhromažďuje všetky zľavy z niekoľkých desiatok zľavových portálov, vrátane ZlavaDna.sk, PrimaZlavy.sk, ZaMenej.sk, Morezliav.sk, Zlavoking.sk, CenyNaDne.sk, Zlavodom.sk a ďalších. Nemusíte tak prechádzať zľavy a akcie na jednotlivých zľavových portáloch. U nás všetky zľavy a akcie nájdete na jednom mieste, rozdelené prehľadne na Pobyty, Krása, Tovar a ďalšie kategórie, či podkategórie zliav.. ...
C57BL/6-derived ES cells are preferred for generation of genetically modified mouse models, but limitations exist in the currently available blastocyst donors for injection of such ES cells. Taconic generated C57BL/6NTac mice carrying a tyrosinase loss-of function mutation and a reversion of the nonagouti locus to agouti....
Though Oriolus chinensis (above) would win hands down in terms of sporting a bright, yellow coat, its common name is the Black-naped Oriole. Of course, in its juvenile state, the back of its head (or nape) is still a sulphuric yellow. Talk about being misleading. :) Anyway, this was another bird that kicked me into a frenzy. I still remembered catching sight of it initially at the top of the Macarthur Palms (read as Mac-Arthur) as it was in the process of picking and swallowing the ripe fruits. Skittish by a sudden human presence, it immediately flew down to a drain below. By this time, I was tingling with excitement as I was pretty certain I have never seen the likes of this bird in my life (the truth wasnt revealed till I showed the picture to LK). By then I was straining to either stay in the spot to observe the bird or go back into my friends room and grab my camera, I decided on the latter whilst cursing (blast it, of all times my camera wasnt there when I needed it) and hoping ...
4AVY: The Aeropath Project Targeting Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: Crystallographic Studies for Assessment of Potential Targets in Early-Stage Drug Discovery
TY - JOUR. T1 - First exit from an open set for a matrix-exponential Lévy process. AU - Chen, Yu Ting. AU - Chen, Yu Tzu. AU - Sheu, Yuan-Chung. PY - 2017/8/1. Y1 - 2017/8/1. N2 - We study the first exit from a general open set for a one-dimensional Lévy process, where the Lévy measure is proportional to a two-sided matrix-exponential distribution. Under appropriate conditions on the Lévy measure, we obtain an explicit solution for the joint distribution of the first-exit time and the position of the Lévy process upon first exit, in terms of the zeros and poles of the corresponding Laplace exponent. The present result complements several earlier works on the use of exit sets for Lévy processes with algebraically similar Laplace exponents, where exits from open intervals are the main focus.. AB - We study the first exit from a general open set for a one-dimensional Lévy process, where the Lévy measure is proportional to a two-sided matrix-exponential distribution. Under appropriate ...
Northern and Southern blot analysis. (A) Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+RNA isolated from the ears of Lewis, Brown Norway, Hooded Lister, Dark Agouti, and S
n 21 stands for agouti, undefined tabby pattern - many of them are probably mackerels. Parents of Lukerja Samotsvet/Lukerja Samotsvetin vanhemmat ...
Masážne pomôcky na sklade. ✅ Doručíme do 24 hodín. ✅ Poradíme s výberom. ✅ Pravidelné akcie a zľavy na Masážne pomôcky. ✅ Široká ponuka značiek Sissel, Black...
Spojen st ty dajn ji p ed za tkem jedn n s Polskem o um st n americk protiraketov z kladny na jeho zem p i ly s po adavkem, aby Var ava na projekt finan n p isp la. Ameri t p edstavitel podle dne n ho internetov ho vyd n listu Rzeczpospolita neud lali nic pro dodate n pos len obrany Polska, co je jedn m z po adavk Var avy.. Americk n vrh je nep ijateln . Nesta , e n m necht j d t rakety Patriot, ale dom haj se je t toho, abychom se pod leli na n kladech na v stavbu a ochranu americk z kladny, st oval si Pawel Gra , poslanec nejv t opozi n strany, Ob ansk platformy.. Krom toho si Ameri an je t p ed za tkem ofici ln ch vyjedn v n p li, aby Polsko p ipravilo prostor o rozloze 300 hektar , napsal d le list Rzeczpospolita. http://tinyurl.com/247nm8. ...
Hyal-Drop multi, ktorý zvlhčuje povrch očí, príjemne oči osviežuje, upokojuje a prináša dlhotrvajúci pocit úľavy od ťažkostí spojených s nedostatočným zvlhčovaním očí. Inovovaná verzia Hyal-Drop multi s patentovaným mechanizmom s pumpičkou bez konzervačných látok. Môže sa používať i súčasne s mäkkými aj tvrdými kontaktnými šošovkami... Informácie o produkte >> ...
Hyal-Drop multi, ktorý zvlhčuje povrch očí, príjemne oči osviežuje, upokojuje a prináša dlhotrvajúci pocit úľavy od ťažkostí spojených s nedostatočným zvlhčovaním očí. Inovovaná verzia Hyal-Drop multi s patentovaným mechanizmom s pumpičkou bez konzervačných látok. Môže sa používať i súčasne s mäkkými aj tvrdými kontaktnými šošovkami... Informácie o produkte >> ...
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Channel a bit of black magic with your look with these stunning black coat eyelets, which are set with an eye catching vitrail CZ gem!
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Americk agentura pro ochranu ivotn ho prost ed (EPA) za ala vy et ovat n meckou automobilku Audi kv li mo n m manipulac m s m en m emis oxidu uhli it ho (CO2). Informoval o tom n meck ned ln k Bild am Sonntag bez uveden zdroj .
Bio certifikovaný rúž Zuii Organic, ktorý vaše pery hydratuje, vyživuje a chráni. Jedinečné zloženie prírodných ingrediencií bez pridania chémie.
Define mahogany tree. mahogany tree synonyms, mahogany tree pronunciation, mahogany tree translation, English dictionary definition of mahogany tree. Noun 1. mahogany tree - any of various tropical timber trees of the family Meliaceae especially the genus Swietinia valued for their hard yellowish- to...
The agouti signaling protein (ASIP or the agouti protein) and its neuropeptide homolog the agouti-related protein (AgRP) are paracrine signaling molecules that act as inverse agonists at distinct subsets of melanocortin receptors. ASIP antagonizes the binding of α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) to melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), switching melanin synthesis from eumelanin (black/brown) to phaeomelanin (red/yellow). The effect of ASIP on pigment type-switching is responsible for a variety of coat color patterns accross a broad range of mammalian species. AgRP is involved in energy balance and acts normally at the MC3R and MC4R to control body weight regulation and metabolism [1,2]. Sequence similarity between ASIP and AgRP is confined to their Cys-rich C-terminal domains, which are also responsible for melanocortin receptor binding activity in vitro. Approximately 40 residues in length, there are ten cysteine residues in the C-terminal domain that form a network of five disulfide bonds ...
Table 2: Modulation of Signal Proteins: A Plausible Mechanism to Explain How a Potentized Drug Secale Cor 30C Diluted beyond Avogadros Limit Combats Skin Papilloma in Mice
Robert A. Waterland, PhD, Associate Professor, Departments of Pediatrics and of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, "The Hunt for Human Metastable Epialleles: From Agouti Viable Yellow to Africa" in 2268 Scott ...
Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Protein recognition at the receptor uses cAMP as a secondary messenger. When bound, the receptor couples to G-protein alpha ... In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... Afamelanotide Agouti-related peptide Melanocortin Melanotan II GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115138 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Melanocortin 4 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC4R gene. It encodes the MC4 protein, a G protein- ... Agouti-related peptide Agouti signalling peptide SHU-8914 SHU-9005 SHU-9119 HS-014 HS-024 JKC-363 MCL-0020 MCL-0042 - also a ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... "Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors". Biochemistry. 38 (3): ... Melanocortin receptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC3R gene. This gene encodes MC3, a G-protein coupled ... of the agouti-related protein". Biochemistry. 40 (51): 15520-7. doi:10.1021/bi0117192. PMID 11747427. Lee YS, Poh LK, Loke KY ( ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Melanocortin 2 Receptor accessory protein (MRAP) traps MC5R protein inside cells. Melanocortin receptor GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Characterization of Agouti-related protein binding to melanocortin receptors". Molecular Endocrinology. 13 (1): 148-55. doi: ... Melanocortin receptor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MC5R gene. It is located on the chromosome 18 in the ...
The agouti gene, A/a which codes for agouti signaling protein. The dominant, wild-type A causes the agouti shift phenomenon ... Genetically this color is a non-agouti cat with the dominant inhibitor gene; a non-agouti version of the silver tabby. Smoke ... There are also hypothetical factors which affect the timing and frequency of the agouti shift, affecting agouti band width and ... Thus, the non-agouti genotype (aa) masks or hides the tabby pattern, although sometimes a suggestion of the underlying pattern ...
The Agouti locus is occupied by the Agouti signalling peptide (Asip) gene, which encodes the eponymous protein (ASIP). Agouti ... The frameshift initiated by the deletion results in a novel modified agouti-signaling-protein. ADEx2 was completely associated ... Horses with the normal agouti gene have the genotype A/A or A/a. Horses without a normal agouti gene have the genotype a/a, and ... The presence of the theorized Agouti mutation At A Theorized mutation of the Agouti gene which is responsible in modifying the ...
1175 Agouti signaling protein (ASIP) appears to be the only endogenous antagonist of MC1R. Synthetic MC1R agonists have been ... which activates protein kinase A (PKA), which activates (by protein phosphorylation) cAMP response element-binding protein ( ... cAMP signaling leads to activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) cascade which, in turn, leads to increased levels and/or ... due to their non-specific and global effects via intracellular signaling pathways." Many papers have described the signaling ...
This absence is mediated by agouti signalling protein, which antagonizes melanocortin 1 receptor. Loss of function of agouti ... Another chemical, Agouti signalling peptide (ASP), can attach itself to MC1R and interfere with MSH/MC1R signalling. In many ... Loss of melanocortin 1 receptor function or high activity of the MC1R-antagonist, Agouti signalling peptide, can cause the ... Some agouti alleles in mice are associated with health defects, but this is not the case in dogs, cats, or horses. Albinism ...
Pheomelanin production is controlled by the agouti-signaling protein, which is an inverse agonist of MC1R. Therefore, Agouti ... Genetic Basis The genetic difference for varying coat colors is controlled largely by two proteins in pocket mice: eumelanin ... Variation in the environment can cause proteins to be expressed differently in the genome, producing variation in coat color ... Eumelanin is produced when the G protein-coupled receptor called melanocortin-1-receptor (MC1R) is activated. ...
1997). „Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action.". Mol. Endocrinol. 11 (3): 274-80. PMID 9058374 ... 1999). „Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors.". Biochemistry. ... 2002). „Neither agouti-related protein nor neuropeptide Y is critically required for the regulation of energy homeostasis in ... 2006). „Mutation analysis of the agouti related protein promoter region and the melanocortin-3 receptor in anorexia nervosa ...
Furthermore, OA1 was found to be stimulated by α-melanocortin stimulating hormone but inhibited by agouti signal protein. The ... Endogenous OA1 protein expressed by normal human melanocytes is detected as a 60kDa protein. Very recently the orphan OA1 ... They also revealed that the protein levels decreased drastically, probably due to misfolding of the protein in the ER. Some of ... revealed OA1 as an endolysosomal protein. Schiaffino, et al. already proved that it is an integral membrane protein. Newton et ...
The mammalian proteins Agouti signalling peptide and Agouti related peptide are the only known mammalian examples of this motif ... Agouti related peptide Agouti signalling peptide Albumin I Covalitoxin-II Grammotoxin Guangxitoxin Hainantoxin Hanatoxin ... The motif is also found in some inhibitor proteins found in plants, but the plant and animal motifs are thought to be a product ... Plant ICK proteins are often protease inhibitors. Because of their stability, ICK motifs are being developed as possible ...
... it is the Agouti gene which creates the difference in shading. Agouti encodes for a protein, the Agouti signalling peptide (ASP ... In the presence of the Agouti protein, the same system produces the lighter-coloured, yellow or red phaeomelanin. A genetic ... which specifically inhibits the action of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). In the absence of the Agouti protein, alpha- ... The pattern is used both in startle or deimatic displays and as a signal to warn off experienced predators. However, animals ...
The alleles at the A locus are related to the production of agouti signalling protein (ASIP) and determine whether an animal ... The alleles at the M locus (the silver locus protein homolog gene or SILV, aka premelanosome protein gene or PMEL) determine ... Alleles at the Agouti (A), Extension (E) and Black (K) loci determine colour pattern (eumelanin vs phaeomelanin): Alleles ... The alleles at the B locus are related to the production of tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1) and determine the degree to ...
... agouti signaling protein) had a higher incidence of melanoma, implying that increased melanocortin-1 receptor signaling ...
positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein kinase C signaling. • G-protein coupled ... In contrast, the receptor can also be antagonized by agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), which reverts the cell back to producing ... signal transduction. • positive regulation of protein kinase A signaling. • intracellular signal transduction. • pigmentation. ... G-protein coupled peptide receptor activity. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • signal transducer activity. • melanocyte- ...
The MC1R protein lies within the cell membrane, and is signalled by melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) released by the ... In contrast, the receptor can also be antagonized by agouti signalling peptide (ASIP), which reverts the cell back to producing ... The pulsatile nature of ASIP signalling through MC1R produces the characteristic yellow and black agouti banding pattern ... Since G protein-coupled receptors are known to activate Signal transduction in cells, it should not be surprising to find MC1R ...
"Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83- ... In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. AgRP is a paracrine signalling molecule made up of 112 amino ... "Agouti-related protein is posttranslationally cleaved by proprotein convertase 1 to generate agouti-related protein (AGRP)83- ... Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY ...
Along with the homologous Agouti-related peptide, these are the only known mammalian proteins to adopt this fold. Agouti- ... Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids. Its discovery was ... It is produced by the Agouti gene ASIP. In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule that causes hair ... "Structures of the Agouti Signaling Protein". Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (4): 1059-1070. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.12.030. ...
In most dogs, activity of MC1R is modulated by two signaling molecules, a repressor that is a product of the Agouti gene (A ... Mutations in this protein have been shown to be involved in pale or red colour phenotypes in a range of species, including ... Initial genetic research excluded a role for the melanocortin 1 receptor and the Agouti locus as being the cause of the black ... In dogs, three mutations in this gene have been identified, one resulting in a truncation of the protein, the other two leading ...
Agouti signaling protein. *Agouti-related protein. *Angiogenic protein. *CCN intercellular signaling protein *Cysteine-rich ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • bone mineralization. • negative regulation of chondrocyte development. ... Parathyroid hormone-related protein (or PTHrP) is a protein member of the parathyroid hormone family. It is occasionally ... adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • cAMP metabolic process. • positive regulation of ...
Yamaki A, Kudoh J, Shimizu N, Shimizu Y (Jan 2004). "A novel nuclear localization signal in the human single-minded proteins ... Kublaoui BM, Holder JL, Tolson KP, Gemelli T, Zinn AR (Oct 2006). "SIM1 overexpression partially rescues agouti yellow and diet ... Single-minded homolog 1 also known as class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 14 (bHLHe14) is a protein that in humans is ... Probst MR, Fan CM, Tessier-Lavigne M, Hankinson O (Feb 1997). "Two murine homologs of the Drosophila single-minded protein that ...
Agouti-related protein. *血管新生蛋白. *CCN intercellular signaling protein *Cysteine-rich protein 61 ... Protein-binding assays in biological liquids using microscale thermophoresis. Nature Communications. 2010, 1 (7): 100. Bibcode: ... BindingDB, a public database of measured protein-ligand binding affinities.. *BioLiP, a comprehensive database for ligand- ... Teif VB, Rippe K. Statistical-mechanical lattice models for protein-DNA binding in chromatin.. Journal of Physics: Condensed ...
Agouti signaling protein. *Agouti-related protein. *Angiogenic protein. *CCN intercellular signaling protein *Cysteine-rich ... Receptor/signaling modulators. Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Growth factor receptor modulators. Cytokine ... These proteins interact with a conserved family of cell surface serine/threonine-specific protein kinase receptors, and ... Human genes encoding proteins that contain this domain include:. AMH; ARTN; BMP10; BMP15; BMP2; BMP3; BMP4; BMP5; BMP6; BMP7; ...
Other peptides in the hypothalamus that induce eating are neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[20] ... Environmental signals and ghrelin are not the only signals that initiate hunger, there are other metabolic signals as well. As ... There are numerous signals given off that initiate hunger. There are environmental signals, signals from the gastrointestinal ... Long-term satiety signals from adipose tissue regulates short-term satiety signals.[20] ...
Pretreatment with agouti signaling protein or HBD3 prohibited responsiveness to α-MSH, but not forskolin, suggesting receptor ... Defining MC1R regulation in human melanocytes by its agonist α-melanocortin and antagonists agouti signaling protein and β- ... Defining MC1R Regulation in Human Melanocytes by Its Agonist α-Melanocortin and Antagonists Agouti Signaling Protein and β- ... Defining MC1R Regulation in Human Melanocytes by Its Agonist α-Melanocortin and Antagonists Agouti Signaling Protein and β- ...
... β-defensin103 and agouti signaling protein genes, and their association with coat color phenotypes in Akita-inu dogs ... Variations in the Coding Region of the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene Do Not Explain Agouti/Non-agouti Phenotypes in Macaques. ... Loop-swapped chimeras of the agouti-related protein and the agouti signaling protein identify contacts required for ... Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on a Macrocyclic Agouti-Related Protein (AGRP) Scaffold Reveal Agouti Signaling Protein ...
... both agouti and melanistic RrC lineage I from Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, and 2) agouti RrC lineages I and II from South Australia ... We investigated 38 agouti (i.e., banded wildtype) and four melanistic Rattus rattus species complex (RrC) lineage II specimens ... Phylogeographic analysis found that Asip sequences from Okinawan RrC lineage II, including both agouti and melanistic specimens ... but was absent in agouti specimens, suggesting that the p.124C,S mutation is responsible for the observed melanism. ...
"Agouti Signaling Protein" by people in this website by year, and whether "Agouti Signaling Protein" was a major or minor topic ... "Agouti Signaling Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Agouti Signaling Protein" by people in Profiles. ...
To simplify breeding schemes, the dominant agouti coat color gene was restored in JM8 cells by targeted repair of the C57BL/6 ... Agouti Signaling Protein * DNA Primers * a protein, mouse Grant support * WT077187/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom ... Agouti C57BL/6N embryonic stem cells for mouse genetic resources Nat Methods. 2009 Jul;6(7):493-5. doi: 10.1038/nmeth.1342. ... To simplify breeding schemes, the dominant agouti coat color gene was restored in JM8 cells by targeted repair of the C57BL/6 ...
Along with the homologous Agouti-related peptide, these are the only known mammalian proteins to adopt this fold. Agouti- ... Agouti signalling peptide, a product of the Agouti gene, is a peptide consisting of 131 amino acids. Its discovery was ... It is produced by the Agouti gene ASIP. In mice, the agouti gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule that causes hair ... "Structures of the Agouti Signaling Protein". Journal of Molecular Biology. 346 (4): 1059-1070. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.12.030. ...
agouti signal protein; As; ASP; As; agouti; agouti suppressor; AGTI; SHEP9; AGSW; AGTIL. ... Northern analysis of mRNA from skin of homozygotes shows a smaller agouti message and levels 8 fold lower than found in wild- ... Mutations in a novel CLN6-encoded transmembrane protein cause variant neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in man and mouse. Am J Hum ... into the first intron of the agouti gene. The VL30 element itself contains an additional 5.5 kb sequence, flanked by 526 bp of ...
agouti signal protein; As; ASP; As; agouti; agouti suppressor; AGTI; SHEP9; AGSW; AGTIL. ... Complete overview of protein-inactivating sequence variations in 36 sequenced mouse inbred strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... Complete overview of protein-inactivating sequence variations in 36 sequenced mouse inbred strains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ... For example,the C3H and CBA mouse sublines are homozygous for agouti. Hairs are black with a subapical yellow band. This black- ...
"Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... The encoded protein is synthesized mainly in corticotroph cells of the anterior pituitary, where four cleavage sites are used; ... Afamelanotide Agouti-related peptide Melanocortin Melanotan II GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115138 - Ensembl, May 2017 ... by the removal of a 44-amino-acid-long signal peptide sequence during translation. POMC is cleaved to give rise to multiple ...
Modulation of murine melanocyte function in vitro by agouti signal protein. EMBO J. 16, 3544 (1997). doi:10.1093/emboj/16.12. ... Microarray analysis sheds light on the dedifferentiating role of agouti signal protein in murine melanocytes via the Mc1r. Proc ... A to H) In situ hybridization against Agouti in mainland (top) and Agouti LL (bottom) embryos. Agouti expression is shown at ... S1) (10). Because there were no differences in Agouti protein sequence between beach and mainland mice (11), we measured the ...
Agouti-related protein and Agouti-signaling protein are antagonist peptides to MC2R. ACTH receptor is primarily found in the ... "Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action". Molecular Endocrinology. 11 (3): 274-80. doi:10.1210/ ... Protein recognition at the receptor uses cAMP as a secondary messenger. When bound, the receptor couples to G-protein alpha ... In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been ...
Voisey, J., Kelly, G., & Van Daal, A. (2003). Agouti signal protein regulation in human melanoma cells. Pigment Cell Research, ... Pertussis toxin-sensitive signaling of melanocortin-4 receptors in hypothalamic GT1-7 cells defines agouti-related protein as a ... 2007). Melanocortins and agouti-related protein modulate the excitability of two arcuate nucleus neuron populations by ... Haskell-Luevano, C., & Monck, E. K. (2001). Agouti-related protein functions as an inverse agonist at a constitutively active ...
This absence is mediated by agouti signalling protein, which antagonizes melanocortin 1 receptor. Loss of function of agouti ... Another chemical, Agouti signalling peptide (ASP), can attach itself to MC1R and interfere with MSH/MC1R signalling. In many ... Loss of melanocortin 1 receptor function or high activity of the MC1R-antagonist, Agouti signalling peptide, can cause the ... Some agouti alleles in mice are associated with health defects, but this is not the case in dogs, cats, or horses. Albinism ...
... signal transduction, and immunity and defense pathways. This is the first sequencing of a horse genome by next-generation ... agouti-signaling protein precursor. Black and bay color. Del 11 bp. ND ... Shin EK, Perryman LE, Meek K: A kinase-negative mutation of DNA-PK(CS) in equine SCID results in defective coding and signal ... Rieder S, Taourit S, Mariat D, Langlois B, Guerin G: Mutations in the agouti (ASIP), the extension (MC1R), and the brown (TYRP1 ...
ASIP: agouti signalling protein; AGRP: agouti-related protein; MSH: alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone; MC1R: melanocortin 1 ... agouti-signalling (ASIP) and agouti-related (AGRP) proteins (Boswell & Takeuchi 2005). In the context of the melanocortin ... 2008 An update of the honesty of melanin-based color signals in birds. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21, 133-138. (doi:10.1111/j. ... 2006 A complex plumage pattern as an honest social signal. Anim. Behav. 72, 423-430. (doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2006.01.016). ...
OptoXR proteins, GPCR chimeras with photo-activatable domains that allow for light-induced G-protein coupled signaling have ... Activation of agouti-related peptide (AGRP) positive neurons and their axon terminals in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH ... These include G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) opsins, termed OptoXRs; intracellular signaling opsins; and even opsins that ... Oh E, Maejima T, Liu C, Deneris E, Herlitze S. Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled ...
This absence is mediated by agouti signalling protein, which antagonizes melanocortin 1 receptor ... Loss of function of agouti ... Genus Dasyprocta Azaras Agouti, (D.azarae) Coiban Agouti, (D ... coibae) Crested Agouti, (D ... cristata) Black Agouti, (D ... ... medium caramel, dark caramel, dark (red) caramel, silver-light grey agouti, medium grey agouti, dark grey agouti, black with ... Agouti. Agouti refers to a number of species of New World rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in ...
agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... agouti signaling protein Rat pro-agouti signalling peptide A, agouti, agouti , Agouti (coat color), agouti signaling protein, ...
agouti ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs. ... agouti signaling protein Human pro-agouti signalling peptide agouti (mouse)-signaling protein, agouti signaling protein, ...
1999) Physiological and anatomical circuitry between Agouti-related protein and leptin signaling. Endocrinology 140:2387-2397. ... Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is homologous to agouti, which is synthesized exclusively in a population of ARC neurons that are ... Agouti is a protein that is normally expressed in the skin and is an antagonist of the cutaneous MC receptor involved in ... 1997) ART (protein product of agouti-related transcript) as an antagonist of MC-3 and MC-4 receptors. Biochem Biophys Res ...
1997). „Effects of recombinant agouti-signaling protein on melanocortin action.". Mol. Endocrinol. 11 (3): 274-80. PMID 9058374 ... 1999). „Molecular interaction of Agouti protein and Agouti-related protein with human melanocortin receptors.". Biochemistry. ... 2002). „Neither agouti-related protein nor neuropeptide Y is critically required for the regulation of energy homeostasis in ... 2006). „Mutation analysis of the agouti related protein promoter region and the melanocortin-3 receptor in anorexia nervosa ...
... displaying a putative hydrophobic signal. Processing of the potential signal peptide produces mature proteins that include an N ... Transient ectopic overexpression of agouti-signalliprotein 1 (Asip1) induces pigment anomalies in flatfish. ... The putative asip precursors have the characteristics of a secreted protein, ... asip1 mRNAs in both turbot and sole and used deduced peptide alignments to analyze the evolutionary history of the agouti- ...
A polymorphism in the agouti signaling protein gene is associated with human pigmentation. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Mar;70(3):770- ... Population differences in the frequency of the agouti signaling protein g.8818a>G polymorphism. Pigment Cell Res. 2004 Apr;17(2 ... Gene-centric meta-analyses of 108 912 individuals confirm known body mass index loci and reveal three novel signals. Hum Mol ... Serum insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 levels with risk of malignant melanoma. ...
The present invention provides peptides related to agouti signaling protein and agouti related protein which are useful in ... The present invention provides peptides related to agouti signaling protein and agouti related protein which are useful in ... The present invention provides peptides related to agouti signaling protein and agouti related protein which are useful in ... Tota, et al., "Molecular Interaction of Agouti Protein and Agouti-Related Protein with Human Melanocortin Receptors", ...
Thus, Agouti-related protein is a neuropeptide implicated in the normal control of body weight downstream of leptin signaling. ... Antagonism of central melanocortin receptors in vitro and in vivo by agouti-related protein.. Ollmann MM1, Wilson BD, Yang YK, ... Expression of Agouti protein is normally limited to the skin where it affects pigmentation, but ubiquitous expression causes ... Recombinant Agouti-related protein was a potent, selective antagonist of Mc3r and Mc4r, melanocortin receptor subtypes ...
  • However, with exposure to constant light, the rhythmic expression of the ACTH receptor and MRAP genes reversed, suggesting ACTH-independent signalling pathways for MRAP and ACTH receptor transcription and expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agouti refers to a number of species of New World rodents, as well as a number of genes affecting coat coloration in several different animal species . (primidi.com)
  • Mutations in these genes affect proteins involved in the signaling pathway for pigment production and explain a large amount of the color variation in mammals. (creation.com)
  • Genetic Polymorphism of Plasmodium Falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 and 2 and Diversity of Drug Resistance Genes in Blood Donors from Bamako, Mali. (rit.edu)
  • Developmental Regulation of Genes Encoding Universal Stress Proteins in Schistosoma mansoni. (rit.edu)
  • In the present study we used the high growth ( hg ) mouse mutant model in combination with chromosome 2 (MMU2) congenic and subcongenic strains to map genes that affect body composition, and genes that may interact with the Growth Hormone/IGF signaling pathways [ 5 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. (meta.org)
  • Each LepRb tyrosine phosphorylation site recruits specific Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing effector proteins: Tyr 985 recruits Src homology phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and attenuates LepRb signaling, but does not appear to play other roles in leptin action in vivo ( 13 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The cellular processes that cause high caloric diet (HCD)-induced infertility are poorly understood but may involve upregulation of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3) proteins that are associated with hypothalamic leptin resistance. (jneurosci.org)
  • Moreover, numerous factors mediating the pathophysiology of leptin resistance, a hallmark of obesity, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 also contribute to insulin resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hunger-mediating neurons suppress long-term inflammatory pain, but acute pain, which signals an immediate threat, dampens the activity of these neurons and thus deprioritizes feeding. (nature.com)
  • The Arc, surrounding the third ventricle and adjacent to the eminentia mediana as the blood to brain gate to the hypothalamus for circulating hormones contains two discrete neuronal populations which act as first order neurons for insulin, leptin, ghrelin and other circulating metabolic signals. (scirp.org)
  • Ewen K, Baker M, Wilhelm D, Aitken R, Koopman P. Global survey of protein expression during gonadal sex determination in mice. (labome.org)
  • These data show that deletion of SOCS3 delays the onset of leptin resistance and infertility in HCD-fed female mice, but given continued HCD feeding this state does eventually occur, presumably in response to other mechanisms inhibiting leptin signal transduction. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transgenic mice expressing Rab27a dominant/negative (Rab27a T23N and Rab27a N133I ) and constitutively active (Rab27a Q78L ) mutant proteins under the control of the tyrosinase promoter were generated and characterised as described previously. (bmj.com)
  • Since its identification in 1994, leptin has attracted much attention as one of the most important central and peripheral signals for the maintenance of energy homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • The processing of POMC involves glycosylations, acetylations, and extensive proteolytic cleavage at sites shown to contain regions of basic protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, retrograde signaling at VMN/ARC POMC synapses was markedly attenuated in periovulatory females. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, natural selection favors late-acting, tissue-specific changes in embryonic Agouti expression to produce large changes in adult color pattern. (sciencemag.org)
  • Ghrelin, an orexigenic protein with a unique lipid chain modification, is considered to be an important gut-brain signal for appetite control and energy balance. (springer.com)
  • It has been proposed that ghrelin can also increase dopaminergic transmission from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens, leading to augmentation of afferent reward signals. (springer.com)
  • Nahata M, Muto S, Oridate N, et al, 2012 Impaired ghrelin signaling is associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility in rats with gastroesophageal reflux disease. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, in vitro studies showed GHSR signals with ∼50% of the maximum activity in the absence of ghrelin (10, 11). (deepdyve.com)
  • The induction of heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) via heating, genetic manipulation or by pharmacological activation is metabolically protective in the setting of obesity-induced insulin resistance across mammalian species. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • 3 Leptin is primarily secreted by adipocytes and is a classic member of the more than 50 identified adipocytokines that participate in adipose tissue hormonal signaling. (ahajournals.org)
  • The CNS is a critical site where signals of adipose stores are sensed and where appropriate changes in intake and/or expenditure are produced. (jci.org)
  • Agouti Signaling Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • agouti protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a human study, it was found that using seventeen grams of whey protein plus fiber prior to a carbohydrate-rich meal lowered blood sugar to more manageable levels. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The enhanced IL-18 production by UVB irradiation requires ROI and AP-1 signaling in human keratiocyte cell line (HaCaT). (springer.com)
  • Agouti signal protein regulation in human melanoma cells. (expasy.org)
  • Hyperleptinemia, nearly universally observed in human obesity and animal models, is accompanied by a disruption of the usual activities of the hormone, possibly at different stages in the circulatory transport and/or in the signaling cascade. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we tested whether circulating human CRP (C-reactive protein) not only diminishes signalling of leptin within the CNS, but also impedes this adipokine's access to the CNS. (biochemj.org)
  • Recently, apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) protein was shown to modulate macrophages' function in various pathologic conditions, thereby profoundly affecting the progression of renal disorders, including AKI. (bvsalud.org)