Effect of chronic social stress on delta-opioid receptor function in the rat. (1/134)

Previous studies have shown that stressors modify endogenous opioid systems. However, the consequences of social stress on the function of endogenous opioid systems is not well documented. The present studies investigated the effect of rank and housing condition on response to SNC-80, a delta receptor agonist. Triad-housed rats were assessed for dominance status by their behavior and alteration in body weights. At 3 and 50 days, triad- and individually housed rats were injected with SNC-80 (35 mg/kg i.p.) or saline, and evaluated using a test battery consisting of open field behaviors, rectal temperature, analgesia, and air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. After 50 days of housing, plasma corticosterone, adrenal catecholamines, and the density of cyclic[D-penicillamine2-D-penicillamine2]enkephalin-stimu lat ed guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding in the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, arcuate, and median eminence were also determined. The first 24 h of triad housing resulted in loss of body weight in subdominant (betas and gammas) but not dominant alpha rats. SCN-80-induced hypothermia was smaller, and there was no depression of headpoke and locomotor behavior in the periphery and the center of the field of alpha rats, in contrast to subdominant and singly housed rats. Rank status did not influence SNC-80's analgesic effect or its inhibition of air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma corticosterone levels of alphas and gammas were lower compared with betas and singly housed rats. Agonist stimulation of delta receptor guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding was lateralized in prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but not nucleus accumbens. Binding was highest in all brain areas of singly housed rats and lowest in the thalamus of beta and of gamma rats. Lateralized binding in amygdala, high locomotor activity, and sensory sensitivity correlated positively with greater sensitivity to SNC-80-induced depression in these measures. Higher binding in the right amygdala correlated with higher plasma corticosterone levels. These findings indicate that dominant rats displayed stimulant rather than depressant responses to delta-opioid activation. Therefore in rodents rank-related stress can alter responsiveness of the endogenous opioid system, and dominance can increase the excitatory effects of delta agonists.  (+info)

Agonistic behaviour and biogenic amines in shore crabs Carcinus maenas. (2/134)

To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but exercise only had an effect on octopamine levels, which showed a reduction from resting values in both winners and losers. Resting and post-fight concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT were higher in winners than in losers. 5-HT concentration increased in the blood of fought crabs from resting values, whereas dopamine concentration decreased. In winners, octopamine concentrations decreased from resting values, but in losers octopamine levels increased from resting concentrations. The escalatory behaviour or intensity of fighting performed by winners and losers was related to dopamine levels but not to those of octopamine or 5-HT. Therefore, there appears to be a link between relative concentrations of these three amines (dopamine, octopamine and 5-HT) and fighting ability; the effects are not simply a result of activity. The better competitors have higher concentrations of these three amines at rest and after fighting.  (+info)

Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. (3/134)

Throughout the course of the 20th century, many observers have noted important tensions and antipathies between public health and medicine. At the same time, reformers have often called for better engagement and collaboration between the 2 fields. This article examines the history of the relationship between medicine and public health to examine how they developed as separate and often conflicting professions. The historical character of this relationship can be understood only in the context of institutional developments in professional education, the rise of the biomedical model of disease, and the epidemiologic transition from infectious disease to the predominance of systemic chronic diseases. Many problems in the contemporary burden of disease pose opportunities for effective collaborations between population-based and clinical interventions. A stronger alliance between public health and medicine through accommodation to a reductionist biomedicine, however, threatens to subvert public health's historical commitment to understanding and addressing the social roots of disease.  (+info)

Clinical trial of a feline pheromone analogue for feline urine marking. (4/134)

Thirty-six cases of feline urine marking problem were collected through the cooperation of veterinary practitioners in the Kanto, Chubu, and Kansai areas in Japan, for an assessment of the clinical effect of treatment with a synthetic analogue of a feline cheek gland pheromone-like product. The mean frequency of urine marking was 14.2 times/week (median, 10; range, 1-77) at pre-treatment week (preW), and decreased significantly from the first week of treatment, dropping to 4.2 times/week (median, 2; range, 0-44) at the fourth week of treatment. This effect continued until the fourth week after cessation of treatment. These 36 cases were divided into 3 groups based on the effectiveness of treatment as demonstrated in the fourth week of treatment; 37% was categorized as the totally eliminated group (urine marking was not seen), 40% as the reduced group (the frequency of urine marking was equal to or less than 50% that of the preW), and 23% as the unchanged group (the frequency of urine marking was more than 50% that of the preW). Effectiveness of treatment in these groups was 38%, 24%, and 38% at the fourth week after the cessation of treatment, respectively. The decreasing rate of urine marking was compared between cats with and without intercat aggression, and it was revealed that the frequency of marking was sustained at high level in cats with intercat aggression. These results suggest that this pheromone treatment is as effective in Japan as has been reported in other countries for solving feline urine marking problems.  (+info)

Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. (5/134)

CONTEXT: Although violence among US youth is a current major concern, bullying is infrequently addressed and no national data on the prevalence of bullying are available. OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among US youth and to determine the association of bullying and being bullied with indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including problem behavior, school adjustment, social/emotional adjustment, and parenting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data from a representative sample of 15 686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the United States who completed the World Health Organization's Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey during the spring of 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-report of involvement in bullying and being bullied by others. RESULTS: A total of 29.9% of the sample reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (13.0%), one who was bullied (10.6%), or both (6.3%). Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying. The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. Perpetrating and experiencing bullying were associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment (P<.001); however, different patterns of association occurred among bullies, those bullied, and those who both bullied others and were bullied themselves. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bullying among US youth is substantial. Given the concurrent behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, the issue of bullying merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.  (+info)

Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development. (6/134)

Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools.  (+info)

The evolution of bourgeois, parasitic, and cooperative reproductive behaviors in fishes. (7/134)

Among vertebrate classes, fishes exhibit by far the greatest variability in competitive and cooperative behaviors in male reproduction. Scramble competition between reproductive males is one possibility. Another possibility occurs when resources, mates, or locations can be monopolized, in which case males may invest in primary access to fertilizations by adopting a "bourgeois" strategy, or they may employ alternative mating tactics to evade the reproductive monopoly of other males. Adaptations in morphology, physiology, and behavior to bourgeois and alternative phenotypes are highly divergent. Here I review the functional characteristics that differ between bourgeois and parasitic phenotypes, and discuss the variability of alternative reproductive tactics at the levels of plasticity, determination, and selection. Examples will illustrate the importance of ecology, and will suggest that variation in reproductive tactics is largely adaptive. Behavioral solutions to competition for mates and fertilizations often involve agonistic behavior and conflict, but also cooperation among competitors (e.g., when subordinate males pay a price to bourgeois males for gaining access to fertilizable eggs). Application of molecular genetic tools has helped to uncover intricate sexual and social relationships in various fish species, including species that display some of the most complex reproductive and social patterns known among the vertebrates.  (+info)

Competition for space among sessile marine invertebrates: changes in HSP70 expression in two Pacific cnidarians. (8/134)

The role of stress proteins-either constitutive (HSC) or inducible (HSP)-of the HSP70 family in intra- and interspecific competition for space was examined in two sessile Pacific cnidarians. Anthopleura elegantissima, an intertidal anemone, and Corynactis californica, a subtidal corallimorpharian, express HSP70 in the absence of apparent physical stress. HSP70 protein expression is concentrated in the tentacles of A. elegantissima when the animal is exposed to contact with other benthic organisms. Under the same conditions, however, HSP concentrations are similar in the body and tentacles of C. californica. When two different clones of A. elegantissima interact in the field, the outside polyps (warriors) express more HSP70 than the inside ones (2.4 versus 0.6 ng HSP70/microg Protein). When different C. californica clones interact, HSP70 expression in the outside and inside polyps is similar (1.5 versus 1.8 ng HSP70/microg P) and is fairly constant in the corallimorpharian in the different interspecific encounters. HSP70 expression is related to the different kinds of aggression encountered by both cnidarians. HSP70 expression may be involved in the recovery of tissues damaged by the allelochemical, cytotoxical, or corrosive substances produced by different enemies. C. californica clones appear prepared for war, as evidenced by the high constant expression of HSP70 in the polyps. A. elegantissima exhibits differential HSP70 expression depending on the identity of each neighboring intra- or interspecific sessile competitor. We propose that stress proteins can be used to quantify space competition or aggression among sessile marine invertebrates.  (+info)

  • In general, herding breeds may be more at risk of developing fearful behaviors than other breeds, though any dog may become fearful and aggressive to strangers if circumstances dictate. (petplace.com)
  • In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. (utexas.edu)
  • In many dyads dogs never exchanged agonistic behaviours, but bi-directional relationships were rare, and most dogs formed some dominance relationships with other dogs. (brillonline.com)
  • Abilitation of reproductive behavior. (slideserve.com)
  • The dominance status determines access to resources and profoundly affects survival, health, reproductive success, and multiple behaviors ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Gorillas are particularly interesting species to examine the causes and consequences of social behavior because of the variability environments they inhabit, the high level of reproductive competition among males, and their variable grouping patterns. (mpg.de)
  • We have combined behavioral observations with endocrine measures to study female reproductive behavior (Habumuremyi et al. (mpg.de)
  • This study highlights the possible relationships of the color and physiological state of the reproductive system, which could help in future studies of behavior, avoiding the need to dissect and/or remove individuals from nature for assessment of sexual maturity. (scielo.br)
  • Lasioglossum species which occupy parts of Africa and central Europe demonstrate varying types of social behavior-ranging from solitary to communal and even semi-social. (wikipedia.org)
  • the evolution of of species adapted to different ecologies and behaviors. (sialis.org)
  • Many species perform elaborate physical displays to court mates and compete with rivals, but the biomechanical mechanisms underlying such behavior are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • Anyone who's gone camping has seen birds foraging for picnic crumbs, and according to new research in The Condor: Ornithological Applications, the availability of food in campgrounds significantly alters jays' behavior and may even change how they interact with other bird species. (brightsurf.com)
  • SARAH GOUZOULES Rockefeller University Field Research Center, Millbrook, New York 12545 KEY WORDS Nepotism Kin recognition, Primates, Recognition mechanisms, ABSTRACT The degree to which cooperative behavior is kin-correlated in different primate species is reviewed. (docme.ru)
  • To a lesser extent, information is also available on "kin-correlated' behavior for those species that have been studied over several generations (most notably some Old World monkeys, e.g., the rhesus and Japanese macaque, and one of the great apes, the chimpanzee). (docme.ru)
  • This program supports research using a broad range of experimental systems: investigators must justify their choice of species within the framework of mental-health relevant emotional and social behavior and demonstrate that the experimental paradigms used are appropriate to the species studied. (nih.gov)
  • a) An increase in cardiovascular activity b) A sudden narrowing of the eyes c) A contraction of the abdominal muscles d) The author does not say which change is most significant 9) Based on the information in the passage about agonistic behavior, it is reasonable to conclude that: I. the purpose of agonistic behavior is to help ensure the survival of the species. (allinterview.com)
  • Genes that modulate absolute numbers of neurons are key determinants of development, individual behavior, species differences in brain structure, and rates of brain evolution. (nervenet.org)
  • Analogues 5a-c exhibited full agonistic activity in transactivation. (elsevier.com)
  • 2-Amino-4-benzo[1,ioxol-5-yl-6-(2-hydroxyethylsulfanyl)pyridine-3,5-dicarbonitrile (70, LUF 5853) shows full agonistic behavior comparable with the reference compound CPA, while also displaying comparable receptor binding affinity (K(i) = 11 nM). (nih.gov)
  • The crystal structures of VDR-LBD complexed with 3a, 4a, 5a, and 5c were solved, and the results confirmed that butyl pocket formation in VDR strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behaviors of ligands. (elsevier.com)
  • But findings have been conflicting, and some have proposed another hypothesis, termed "social salience" stating that oxytocin might be involved in amplifying the perception of diverse social cues, which could then result in pro-social or antagonistic behaviors, depending on such factors as individual character and their environment. (mpg.de)
  • Explores the ways in which genetics and the environment impact human behavior. (study.com)
  • Although I welcome the interest of scientists and social scientists in such an important and widespread area of human behavior - art making and appreciation - I find in general that their pronouncements are peculiarly unsatisfying to someone like myself who has been concerned with the arts (of all kinds) in all times and places, including the evolutionary past, and with exploring their universality and probable adaptive value. (fupress.net)
  • There are many opportunities for students to conduct research under my direction, and I am currently seeking motivated students interested in behavior and ecology. (utica.edu)
  • My work is at the interface between behavior, ecology and evolutionary biology with a central focus on the extent to which populations are at adaptive equilibria with respect to their physical and biotic environments. (utk.edu)
  • A major goal of the gorilla group at the MPI-EVAN is to understand the causes and consequences of variability in ecology, behavior, life histories, and population dynamics of gorillas. (mpg.de)
  • Following a varying period of freezing, the rat then engages in repetitive approach-withdrawal reactions to and from the shock prod, and finally the rat begins to bury the prod with the bedding material using vigorous forepaw movements until the prod is typically covered (see Pinel & Wilkie, 1983, and Fanselow, Sigmundi, & Williams, 1987, for more complete descriptions and interpretations of the significance of this type of burying behavior). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Continuous agonistic interaction increased c-Fos/FRA protein expression in the brains of subordinate males compared to control and dominant males. (nih.gov)
  • The study of social interaction can be done in a variety of set-ups, all having one thing in common: the study of behaviors between two or more animals. (noldus.com)
  • Specifically, we focus on trying to understand an animal's responses to a new system, which might be a new computer-based system the animal interacts with or a new management system (such as housing, feeding, etc.), where the animal-computer interaction element is actually the tools used to measure the observed behavior. (acm.org)
  • Although not exhaustive, this list highlights factors to consider that will shape the animal's behavior and interaction with a system, factors that should influence the design of systems and subsequently influence how behaviors are interpreted. (acm.org)
  • To test the influence that exposure to inescapable shock and the presence of odors from shocked conspecifics might have on behavior, my students and I conducted a series of studies examining "shock-prod burying," rather than testing subjects on an escape-learning task in a shuttlebox. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The available evidence for kin-correlated behavior in nonhuman primates is subsequently related to recent theories of the probable selective pressures for, and mechanisms of, kin recognition. (docme.ru)
  • This type of activity is generally a normal behavior that is performed out of context, or is "displaced," because the animal is unable-physically or behaviorally-to execute another activity or otherwise occupy itself. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 2019. Mirrors improve rabbit natural behavior in a free-range breeding system. (awionline.org)
  • But a number of recent studies suggest that the actions of a mouse in a semi-natural environment can teach us much more about natural behavior, especially when we mean to apply those findings to humans. (mpg.de)
  • Results suggest that the expansion success of A. alicemartinae could be explained by alternative strategies, such as escape behavior, asexual reproduction and high dispersal potential. (int-res.com)
  • Different mating systems, in conjunction with dispersal behavior, are hypothesized to produce particular patterns of kin association in primate groups. (docme.ru)
  • During the first hour of pairing INT females displayed higher levels of affiliation and lower levels of sniffing and agonistic behavior than SALOIL females. (rti.org)
  • Our first goal," says Anpilov, "was to reach that 'sweet spot' of experimental setups in which we track behavior in a natural environment, without relinquishing the ability to ask pointed scientific questions about brain functions. (mpg.de)
  • In contrast, ethologists were wary of experimental work and instead carried out fieldwork to gain understanding of behavior in natural contexts. (acm.org)
  • As research progressed, ethology established methodology for observing and measuring behavior, whereas psychologists honed experimental design and quantification. (acm.org)
  • That's important because synthetic membranes that accurately mimic the behavior of living mammalian cell membranes could be used by biomedical researchers to develop more effective drugs that target membrane proteins and better understand the chemical changes that occur in dysfunctional membranes during disease. (brightsurf.com)
  • These conditions are strictly controlled and artificial, in part so that researchers can limit the number of variables affecting behavior. (mpg.de)
  • The interpretation of what is observed is clearly a more challenging task, one that animal behavior researchers have long grappled with using additional physiological measures and comparative approaches to attribute meaning to what is observed. (acm.org)
  • Reactive behavior is a classification of activities used by an animal to keep itself in harmony with its environment and adjust to sudden, potentially harmful situations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers-State University of New Jersey, Newark 07102. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Each lesson is accompanied by a short multiple-choice quiz to help check your understanding of these animal behavior topics. (study.com)
  • We recorded behavior on four well-habituated groups (N = 18) for 2,183 animal hours over 128 days, using all-occurrences sampling methods. (asp.org)
  • In this article we consider the challenges involved in measuring and interpreting animal behavior. (acm.org)
  • We hope that some of the experiences in observing, recording, and interpreting animal behavior that we recount here will highlight important points to consider, both when measuring behavior to evaluate interactive systems and during the design of these systems. (acm.org)
  • From these outward expressions of behavior, inferences can be drawn to further understand biology, provide indicators of welfare or well-being and identify preferences, and provide insight into animal perspectives. (acm.org)
  • Studying social behavior in animal models can help us understand more about the same behaviors in humans. (noldus.com)
  • Social behavior is also an important indicator of animal welfare . (noldus.com)
  • Analyze and visualize social behavior with TrackLab's parameters for proximity and pair relations, and gain valuable insights in social networks and animal welfare. (noldus.com)
  • 7) The passage asserts that animal social hierarchies are generally stable because: a) the behavior responses of the group are known by all its members. (allinterview.com)
  • 11) The author suggests that the question of whether agonistic behavior is genetically programmed or learned: a) still generates considerable controversy among animal behaviorists. (allinterview.com)
  • A serious omission in these new fields is that for the most part, the aesthetic experience and art behavior of pre-modern (and ancestral) humans is not part of the discourse, even though these people and societies comprise the vast majority of humans to have practiced art behaviors and to have responded (aesthetically or in other ways) to arts. (fupress.net)