Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.
Sexual activities of animals.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
An order of neotropical electric fish found chiefly in the waters of South America. They continually emit weak electric discharges, which they use in object location and communication. A most popular species of research interest is the electric eel, ELECTROPHORUS electricus.
Fishes which generate an electric discharge. The voltage of the discharge varies from weak to strong in various groups of fish. The ELECTRIC ORGAN and electroplax are of prime interest in this group. They occur in more than one family.
In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Common name for small PASSERIFORMES in the family Fringillidae. They have a short stout bill (BEAK) adapted for crushing SEEDS. Some species of Old World finches are called CANARIES.
A species of gram-negative bacteria causing chronic respiratory disease in POULTRY.
Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.

Effect of chronic social stress on delta-opioid receptor function in the rat. (1/134)

Previous studies have shown that stressors modify endogenous opioid systems. However, the consequences of social stress on the function of endogenous opioid systems is not well documented. The present studies investigated the effect of rank and housing condition on response to SNC-80, a delta receptor agonist. Triad-housed rats were assessed for dominance status by their behavior and alteration in body weights. At 3 and 50 days, triad- and individually housed rats were injected with SNC-80 (35 mg/kg i.p.) or saline, and evaluated using a test battery consisting of open field behaviors, rectal temperature, analgesia, and air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. After 50 days of housing, plasma corticosterone, adrenal catecholamines, and the density of cyclic[D-penicillamine2-D-penicillamine2]enkephalin-stimu lat ed guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding in the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, arcuate, and median eminence were also determined. The first 24 h of triad housing resulted in loss of body weight in subdominant (betas and gammas) but not dominant alpha rats. SCN-80-induced hypothermia was smaller, and there was no depression of headpoke and locomotor behavior in the periphery and the center of the field of alpha rats, in contrast to subdominant and singly housed rats. Rank status did not influence SNC-80's analgesic effect or its inhibition of air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma corticosterone levels of alphas and gammas were lower compared with betas and singly housed rats. Agonist stimulation of delta receptor guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding was lateralized in prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but not nucleus accumbens. Binding was highest in all brain areas of singly housed rats and lowest in the thalamus of beta and of gamma rats. Lateralized binding in amygdala, high locomotor activity, and sensory sensitivity correlated positively with greater sensitivity to SNC-80-induced depression in these measures. Higher binding in the right amygdala correlated with higher plasma corticosterone levels. These findings indicate that dominant rats displayed stimulant rather than depressant responses to delta-opioid activation. Therefore in rodents rank-related stress can alter responsiveness of the endogenous opioid system, and dominance can increase the excitatory effects of delta agonists.  (+info)

Agonistic behaviour and biogenic amines in shore crabs Carcinus maenas. (2/134)

To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but exercise only had an effect on octopamine levels, which showed a reduction from resting values in both winners and losers. Resting and post-fight concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT were higher in winners than in losers. 5-HT concentration increased in the blood of fought crabs from resting values, whereas dopamine concentration decreased. In winners, octopamine concentrations decreased from resting values, but in losers octopamine levels increased from resting concentrations. The escalatory behaviour or intensity of fighting performed by winners and losers was related to dopamine levels but not to those of octopamine or 5-HT. Therefore, there appears to be a link between relative concentrations of these three amines (dopamine, octopamine and 5-HT) and fighting ability; the effects are not simply a result of activity. The better competitors have higher concentrations of these three amines at rest and after fighting.  (+info)

Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. (3/134)

Throughout the course of the 20th century, many observers have noted important tensions and antipathies between public health and medicine. At the same time, reformers have often called for better engagement and collaboration between the 2 fields. This article examines the history of the relationship between medicine and public health to examine how they developed as separate and often conflicting professions. The historical character of this relationship can be understood only in the context of institutional developments in professional education, the rise of the biomedical model of disease, and the epidemiologic transition from infectious disease to the predominance of systemic chronic diseases. Many problems in the contemporary burden of disease pose opportunities for effective collaborations between population-based and clinical interventions. A stronger alliance between public health and medicine through accommodation to a reductionist biomedicine, however, threatens to subvert public health's historical commitment to understanding and addressing the social roots of disease.  (+info)

Clinical trial of a feline pheromone analogue for feline urine marking. (4/134)

Thirty-six cases of feline urine marking problem were collected through the cooperation of veterinary practitioners in the Kanto, Chubu, and Kansai areas in Japan, for an assessment of the clinical effect of treatment with a synthetic analogue of a feline cheek gland pheromone-like product. The mean frequency of urine marking was 14.2 times/week (median, 10; range, 1-77) at pre-treatment week (preW), and decreased significantly from the first week of treatment, dropping to 4.2 times/week (median, 2; range, 0-44) at the fourth week of treatment. This effect continued until the fourth week after cessation of treatment. These 36 cases were divided into 3 groups based on the effectiveness of treatment as demonstrated in the fourth week of treatment; 37% was categorized as the totally eliminated group (urine marking was not seen), 40% as the reduced group (the frequency of urine marking was equal to or less than 50% that of the preW), and 23% as the unchanged group (the frequency of urine marking was more than 50% that of the preW). Effectiveness of treatment in these groups was 38%, 24%, and 38% at the fourth week after the cessation of treatment, respectively. The decreasing rate of urine marking was compared between cats with and without intercat aggression, and it was revealed that the frequency of marking was sustained at high level in cats with intercat aggression. These results suggest that this pheromone treatment is as effective in Japan as has been reported in other countries for solving feline urine marking problems.  (+info)

Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. (5/134)

CONTEXT: Although violence among US youth is a current major concern, bullying is infrequently addressed and no national data on the prevalence of bullying are available. OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among US youth and to determine the association of bullying and being bullied with indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including problem behavior, school adjustment, social/emotional adjustment, and parenting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data from a representative sample of 15 686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the United States who completed the World Health Organization's Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey during the spring of 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-report of involvement in bullying and being bullied by others. RESULTS: A total of 29.9% of the sample reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (13.0%), one who was bullied (10.6%), or both (6.3%). Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying. The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. Perpetrating and experiencing bullying were associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment (P<.001); however, different patterns of association occurred among bullies, those bullied, and those who both bullied others and were bullied themselves. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bullying among US youth is substantial. Given the concurrent behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, the issue of bullying merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.  (+info)

Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development. (6/134)

Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools.  (+info)

The evolution of bourgeois, parasitic, and cooperative reproductive behaviors in fishes. (7/134)

Among vertebrate classes, fishes exhibit by far the greatest variability in competitive and cooperative behaviors in male reproduction. Scramble competition between reproductive males is one possibility. Another possibility occurs when resources, mates, or locations can be monopolized, in which case males may invest in primary access to fertilizations by adopting a "bourgeois" strategy, or they may employ alternative mating tactics to evade the reproductive monopoly of other males. Adaptations in morphology, physiology, and behavior to bourgeois and alternative phenotypes are highly divergent. Here I review the functional characteristics that differ between bourgeois and parasitic phenotypes, and discuss the variability of alternative reproductive tactics at the levels of plasticity, determination, and selection. Examples will illustrate the importance of ecology, and will suggest that variation in reproductive tactics is largely adaptive. Behavioral solutions to competition for mates and fertilizations often involve agonistic behavior and conflict, but also cooperation among competitors (e.g., when subordinate males pay a price to bourgeois males for gaining access to fertilizable eggs). Application of molecular genetic tools has helped to uncover intricate sexual and social relationships in various fish species, including species that display some of the most complex reproductive and social patterns known among the vertebrates.  (+info)

Competition for space among sessile marine invertebrates: changes in HSP70 expression in two Pacific cnidarians. (8/134)

The role of stress proteins-either constitutive (HSC) or inducible (HSP)-of the HSP70 family in intra- and interspecific competition for space was examined in two sessile Pacific cnidarians. Anthopleura elegantissima, an intertidal anemone, and Corynactis californica, a subtidal corallimorpharian, express HSP70 in the absence of apparent physical stress. HSP70 protein expression is concentrated in the tentacles of A. elegantissima when the animal is exposed to contact with other benthic organisms. Under the same conditions, however, HSP concentrations are similar in the body and tentacles of C. californica. When two different clones of A. elegantissima interact in the field, the outside polyps (warriors) express more HSP70 than the inside ones (2.4 versus 0.6 ng HSP70/microg Protein). When different C. californica clones interact, HSP70 expression in the outside and inside polyps is similar (1.5 versus 1.8 ng HSP70/microg P) and is fairly constant in the corallimorpharian in the different interspecific encounters. HSP70 expression is related to the different kinds of aggression encountered by both cnidarians. HSP70 expression may be involved in the recovery of tissues damaged by the allelochemical, cytotoxical, or corrosive substances produced by different enemies. C. californica clones appear prepared for war, as evidenced by the high constant expression of HSP70 in the polyps. A. elegantissima exhibits differential HSP70 expression depending on the identity of each neighboring intra- or interspecific sessile competitor. We propose that stress proteins can be used to quantify space competition or aggression among sessile marine invertebrates.  (+info)

In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves from play fighting to adult aggression. Attack types change as targets ...
Agonistic Behavior of the Big Clawed Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus Heterochaelis, Say) With Special Reference to Aggressive and Sexual Behavior (Part I) and Communicative Behavior (Part II ...
Canine Ethogram-Social and Agonistic Behavior is a catalog of a class of canine behaviors. It includes the most commonly observed behaviors but its not an exhaustive list.
Yanai, J and Ginsburg, B E., Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2397 ...
Discussion. At 4 days of age, Banana group piglets did not show an immediate preference for the scented arm of the V-maze, but later recognized and were attracted to the scent, as the total time spent in this arm was higher than that spent in the nonscented arm, in agreement with the work of authors such as Morrow-Tesch and McGlone.21 These investigators found that piglets showed greater preference for an odor they contacted at an early age and were able to identify it during the first few hours after birth. Furthermore, our results suggest that as the piglets matured, the bond between Banana group individuals and the banana odor strengthened. This conclusion is based on the preference of a greater number of Banana group piglets to enter the scented arm first and their significantly lower frequency for changing arms. Furthermore, Banana group piglets spent more time in the scented arm than did Control group piglets. The V-maze test at 21 days of age shows that the Banana group piglets, which had ...
In a previous study (Navarro, Miñarro and Simón, 1993) it was observed that 24 hours after administration of haloperidol, this drug still showed antiaggressive effects while immobility effects disappeared. Likewise, other studies have shown prolonged behavioural effects after one moderate dose of the drug (Cohen, Babb, Campbell and Baldessarini, 1988). Typically quoted halflives for neuroleptics, including haloperidol, are approximately 24 hours or less (Baldessarini, 1990); however, there is suggestive evidence that elimination of haloperidol slows with time after dosing (Hubbard, Ganes and Midha, 1987) and that the near terminal elimination half-life may be measured in days rather than hours (Cohen et al, 1988). Recently, Cohen, Tsuneizumi, Baldessarini, Campbell and Babb (1992) have determined the persistence of haloperidol (1 mg/kg ip) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using high pressure liquid cromatography. In this study, the authors found that plasma levels of the drug were not ...
The inclusion of Aggressive behaviors (stage 2) is the key distinction between Escalated aggression from Mediated aggression, where Aggressive behaviors are seen in Escalated aggression but not Mediated aggression. In observing home-cage behavior, this is by far the most important distinction to make. Mediated aggression normally represents the vast majority of mouse agonistic interactions, and is widely misinterpreted in the literature. In contrast, Escalated aggression occurs when a subordinate responds to a threat behavior with an aggressive behavior, most typically an aggressive bite. Escalated aggression, as the name implies, escalates until one animal shows flight and submissive behavior, or, in a worst-case scenario, is killed or castrated. (Male mice attempt to castrate each other when they fight, and consequently withdraw their testicles into the body cavity during aggression). In terms of both assessing welfare, and assessing social competence (as might be desirable in an assay for ...
This experiment consisted of 75 different pairs composed of two male adults Xiphophorus helleri meeting each other twice. On the first occasion, one of the fish was familiarized with the meeting place for 3h (resident) while its opponent was familiarized with another aquarium (intruder). Upon dominance of one individual over the other, the pair members were separated and returned to their respective home groups for 168 hours (7 days). After this period of separation, the same pair members were reunited and met while roles had been reversed: the initial resident became the intruder, and the initial intruder was given prior-residency. Individuals in the initial resident role defeated the initial intruder in a significant majority of cases (76%). On their second meeting, the newly established dominance relationship was noted in favour of the new resident in a significant majority of cases (82%), and in a reversed direction as compared to the initially established dominance order. This shows that ...
From Agonistic Behavior to Dominance Hierarchy: An Evolutionary Parable. Picture a wild animal of your morphological choosing. Its solitary and highly territorial. Outside the mating season most of its encounters with conspecifics take the form of agonistic clashes over resources. It has consequently evolved some fairly simple neurocognitive machinery for dealing effectively in these encounters. What it does, briefly put, is first assess the size of any competing conspecific relative to itself and then do one of two things: If the conspecific is clearly bigger, the animal flees; if it is roughly the same size or smaller, the animal attacks and attempts to drive it off.. Now, suppose the habitat of this animal shrinks dramatically, squeezing the entire population into a very limited (but still survivable) space and greatly increasing the encounter rate between individuals. This solitary species, in other words, is forced into a kind of impromptu sociality. Now, under these new conditions a ...
Parasites can influence traits related to the fitness of the host, including host behavior. I studied the behavior of the Ozark zigzag salamander (Plethodon angusticlavius), that was naturally infected with the larval stage of an ectoparasitic mite (Hannemania eltoni) to determine if parasitism was associated with altered behavioral patterns. Experiments were designed to answer three specific questions: (1) Can level of parasitism be detected via chemical cues by conspecifics? (2) Does level of parasitism influence agonistic behavior of males in male-male interactions? and (3) Is parasitism associated with altered foraging behavior of females? In experiment 1, males and females were tested in separate two-choice experiments in the following test conditions: (a) fecal pellet of male with low parasite load versus fecal pellet of male with high parasite load, (b) fecal pellet of male with low parasite load versus control (chemical blank) pellet, and (c) fecal pellet of male with high parasite load versus
Environmental factors. Lack of socialization or unfortunate experiences with strangers during the sensitive period of development (3 to 12 weeks of age) sets the stage for fear aggression. Relative isolation from strangers leads to a global mistrust and suspicion of unfamiliar persons, whereas adverse experiences produce more targeted response. Men and children are most likely to be the subjects of dogs fearfulness with respect to of people, probably because of their greater propensity for agonistic behavior toward animals. Although the early period of life provides the most rapid and indelible form of learning, extremely distressing incidents later in life can also result in permanent learning of the regrettable type. In their wisdom, dogs sometimes generalize their learning to include all men or all children, though fearful learning can be as specific as being associated with only men wearing tall hats or men with white beards. A pup that is destined to become fear-aggressive is usually ...
Two neighboring breeding sites with eyries 2100 m apart (but more than an hour on foot) in the heart of the Allier gorges, one of the most scenic spots of the Massif Central with a great biodiversity an no measures of protection. The area is a border of the massif of La Margeride and the Velays hight plateaux, on the margeridian slope. Here, the valley is 400 m deep with slopes of 60%. Generaly, those birds avoid meeting but some hunting grounds are shared that can cause agonistic behavior.. ...
Bone cracking capabilities also independently developed in two lineages of late Cenozoic Canidiae in North America (hesperocyonines and borophagines). Interestingly, both lineages also exhibit a zigzag pattern of crystalline fibers in the enamel which increased the enamels strength. I wonder if any theropods had such an enamel pattern? Cheers, Guy Leahy ---------------------------------------- , Date: Sun, 9 Aug 2009 20:11:54 -0700 , From: [email protected] , To: [email protected] , CC: [email protected]; [email protected] , Subject: Bone-eating (was RE: T.rex was a chicken) , , , , Jaime Headden wrote: , , ,, We assume that carnivores are in fact biting herbivores; ,, this is a given. Bite marks on other bones show this to be ,, the case (as in *Sinraptor* agonistic behavior, a ,, *Triceratops* ilium and sacrum with tooth gouges and holes, ,, etc. What we do not assume here is the particularly ,, intentional habit of taking whole, defleshed bone and ,, processing it orally for the purpose of ...
Bullying is the most common form of youth aggression. Although 49 of all 50 states in the U.S. have an anti-bullying law in place to prevent bullying, little is known about the effectiveness of these laws. Our objective was to measure the effectiveness of Iowas anti-bullying law in preventing bullying and improving teacher response to bullying. Sixth, 8th, and 11th grade children who completed the 2005, 2008 and 2010 Iowa Youth Survey were included in this study (n = 253,000). Students were coded according to exposure to the law: pre-law for 2005 survey data, one year post-law for 2008 data, and three years post-law for 2010 data. The outcome variables were: 1) being bullied (relational, verbal, physical, and cyber) in the last month and 2) extent to which teachers/adults on campus intervened with bullying. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed with random effects. The odds of being bullied increased from pre-law to one year post-law periods, and then decreased from one year to three years
When Benjamin Bergen was working on his new book about profanity, the reaction he would most often get was bafflement. Why would he want to write about vulgarity, profanity and cussin? His answer, as a cognitive scientist, is that expletives are more than just vulgar expressions we let slip when we stub a toe or a…. .repubhubembed{display:none;}. ...
NickyKnacks, my blog where you can read about all sorts of crafting, gardening and comics made with love and profanity by me. Im not kidding about the profanity please stop yelling at me about that
Numerous forms of behaviour have been described as aggression , varying in terms of the situations in which they occur, their presumed functions and underlaying physiologies (Moyer, 1968, Brain, 1981). Because attack and defensive/submissive behaviours are intimately related, many scientists prefer to use the term agonistic behaviour to encompass the entire continuum involved in conflict. The agonistic interaction that has been most studied is that of intraspecific aggression between males. Such behaviour is ritualized , in that it seems to involve injury-limiting strategies, and its function seems to be the increasing of the possibility of gaining access to a resource (a mate, territory or social status), closely concerned with reproduction.. The concept of dominance where one animal takes precedence over another is intimately associated with the above type of aggression. Much controversy surrounds the dominance-subordination relationship, although a consensus holds that it is a relationship ...
With its folk songs, videos and Ridicule-Free Zones in classrooms, a new anti-bullying program will attempt to re-create a 1960s-style era of peace and love in some Boca Raton schools next year.
Following the suicide of a 14-year-old Iowa student who was bullied, two state lawmakers want to set up an anti-bullying hotline....
Since I was quite apalled by the AN staff to enforce profanity on groups and such, I would just like to arise the question why swearing is bad at all, and why…
b,,i,The Peoples Victory,/i,,/b, is a mirror for each of us to see our own power to fight for justice and create the change we want to see in our world. - Gavin Newsom, Lieutenant Governor of California,br,,br,In 1996, a small group of Americans from all walks of life banded together to create one of the most miraculous political victories in modern American history. Opponents attacked the issue of marriage equality as amoral and a direct threat to families. Allies warned that it was a generation away from being practicable and a selfish drain of precious political capital. ,br,,br,A stirring oral history told by those who almost inexplicably found themselves fighting on the front lines,,b, ,i,The Peoples Victory,/i,,/b, recounts the successes - and the setbacks - that only served to strengthen everyones resolve to resist, fight, and bring equal marriage rights to an entire nation. Through it all, these love warriors found their voice and home in Marriage Equality USA, the nations oldest ...
Victory Square Remembrance Day Ceremony and Parade When: Monday, Nov. 11, 2013 at 10:00 a.m. PT Where: Cenotaph at Victory Square on Hastings Street at Cambie Street in Vancouver The event will open with a performance by the Vancouver Bach Youth Choir and Sarabande. While the choir are performing, the all-Cadet Vancouver Flag Party will lead a parade of veterans, military marching units and bands to Victory…
Victory Boning Knife Curved Blade Blue - 15cmVictory Curved Boning Knife is a professional grade, high quality knife which makes boning a breeze. These Victory Boning Knives have been designed to perform for maximum efficiency with their wear resistant blade and improved edge retention.Victory Boning Knife features durable and easy to maintain blade Flat grinds.High polish surface makes cutting easier and reduces corrosion. No gap at handle and blade joint for better hygiene. Finger guard for added safety MFA and FDA approved handle and blade.
I laughed out loud at Blairs comments about choreographing my victory dance because I was just thinking about how close I am to doing a victory dance when I happened to log on and read his comment. Im not sure if I should try to do a back flip in the NIH parking lot, especially since Ive never really been coordinated enough before chemo to attempt a back flip. I could do some sort of end zone dance and spike a football as I run laps around my car in front of the building. Do I scream WOO HOOOOOOOOOOOOO! as I leave the building or save that for after my CT/PET scan results on August 16th? I feel like celebrating at least this first part because I wont need chemo (hopefully) ever again and Im excited. I know I may have a hospital visit next week to look forward to, but at least the chemo part is DONE! No more chemo coladas for me and hopefully Priscilla is nothing but a tiny nit and nothing to worry about any more ...
Victory Infratech has launched an ambitious residential project in the city of Noida titled Victory Crossroads. Victory Crossroads is located at sector 143 B Noida Ex..
The newly re-designed Victory 9.2! The latest updates to the ever-popular Victory line from Pride are here! Pride has re-designed the Victory to accentuate its already great style with some...
What was the scope of Barack Obamas victory? His 365 electoral votes (the number so far-Missouri remains too close to call) represent a formidable tally, more than double John McCains 162. True, Obamas electoral-vote total as of this writing is smaller than Bill Clintons in either 1992 (370) or 1996 (379). But it is worth remembering that because of Ross Perots third-party candidacies in those years, Clinton did not receive 50 percent of the popular vote in either race-he won 43 percent in 1992 and precisely 49.24 percent four years later, whereas Obama took about 52.6 percent, beating McCain by 6.5 percent. Jimmy Carter won just 297 electoral votes in 1976 and defeated Gerald Ford by only 1.7 million votes out of 80 million cast.1. When measuring victory by some combination of electoral and popular votes, then, one must go back to 1964, when Lyndon Johnson won 61 percent of the popular vote and 486 electoral votes to Barry Goldwaters 52, to find a more impressive Democratic win. Obama ...
November 18-22 has been designated Anti-Bullying Week in Ontario. While we focus on anti-bullying education throughout the year, this week helps us to really focus our attention on this important issue. Bullying comes in many forms; we want to help our students understand what bullying is and some support strategies to get through difficult times. Above all else, when we see that we ... Continue reading Nov. 18-22: Anti-Bullying Week at SGG!. ...
I have no strong opinion about the alcohol rule. Personally, I dont drink at work (or work functions) as I have seen the deleterious effects of same. Feels like a liability issue as well.. Im also super-supportive of a harassment policy that prohibits language that is used to harass, be it profanity or not. (case in point, many people dont consider the R word to be an official profanity, but I will object to its casual use every time, as it is pretty terrible).. All that said, I swear in general, because profanity is really interesting. I moderate my language around people who object to it, sure. But I also do things like use words that sound dirty but are not in fact official profanities, or perhaps are marginal. Referring to someone as a turd hurler, for example, skirts the line. I find it an interesting challenge to develop insults that can be applied to a specific person without pulling in old racist / imperialistic / patriarchal (&c.) tropes.. Further, actual semiotic disruption is ...
NEWPORT: Swedens Alex Noren won the Wales Open by two strokes yesterday to claim his second European Tour victory.. The second and thirdround leader was never threatened as he closed with a oneunder 70 for a nine-under 275 total, two better than Dane Anders Hansen and Frenchman Gregory Bourdy.. Although Noren hardly got into top gear over the first nine holes in soaking conditions at Celtic Manor, his rivals never looked like catching him.. He had built a four-shot lead by the 12th before making a rare mistake when finding a hazard on the 15th. A bogey when playing partner Hansen birdied, though, merely reduced his margin of a victory.. Norens only other title came in the 2009 European Masters in Switzerlan-d and the 28-year-old from Stockholm explained why it had taken so long to win again.. Last year was testing what I needed to do with my game, he said. This year Ive tried to improve my whole game. This is the result.. He tees off in the 36-hole British Open qualifier at Sunningdal-e ...
They must now hope for a comprehensive victory over Zimbabwe in Bulawayo on Tuesday and that England lose by a big margin to Australia tomorrow for them to qualify on net run rate.. Rahul Dravid and Yuvraj Singh sealed the victory with a magnificent partnership of 99 off 114 balls when Tendulkar departed just short of what would have been his 35th one-day century.. Singh scored an exceptional half-century off just 53 balls with six fours, while Dravid hit the winning boundary to finish with 44 not out.. Tendulkar carved his way past 12,000 runs in his innings and recorded his 60th half century in quick time, falling just short of what would have been the third quickest century in World Cup history.. Tendulkar took on the Pakistani bowling from the beginning, putting on a 50 partnership with Virender Sehwag in just five overs before Pakistan captain Waqar Younis struck twice in as many balls to give his side a glimmer of hope.. Sehwag was on 21 off just 14 balls before he hit one off Waqar on the ...
Goodbye Harper! Canada Celebrates New PM Trudeaus Overwhelming Victory With Analysis and Predictions! Because Canada is so tightly connected to the US and because this victory by the opponent of the pro-US neocon Harper is so symptomatic of the Earth Shift we are experiencing, this is important for all to read! Liberal Justin Trudeau has received…
The only thing that would have made this victory sweeter is if we could of all been there cheering, together! Victories in football for our Utah State Aggies are so sweet and very much appreciated. Tonight they defeated BYU at home. Its been a long time since this has happened ... 1993. Go Aggies. Love my school. Thanks, Natalie for the picture ...
We identified strong connections between L. dalli social network structure and multiple aspects of reproduction, including male RS. Overall, fewer eggs hatched in high-density social networks (figure 1a), similar to our previous study [36]. We demonstrated that a specific pattern of agonistic interaction was responsible: males were more successful in social networks with low agonistic reciprocity (figure 1b,c). Across species, hierarchies are defined by asymmetrical agonism, directed from dominant to subordinate [17]. Although L. dalli hierarchies were linear, the variation we observed in reciprocity indicates that subordinates can and do displace dominants, an action that reduced, or was reduced by, fitness. Reciprocity was negatively related to HS (figure 1c), specifically, and factor analysis identified a central role for agonism directed at beta females by alpha and gamma females (figure 3a,b). Using different analytical methods, we previously identified a role for these females, suggesting ...
Our Lady of Victory School does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in admission to its programs, services, or activities, in access to them, in treatment of individuals, or in any aspect of their operations. The lack of English language skills shall not be a barrier to admission or participation in the districts activities and programs. Our Lady of Victory School also does not discriminate in its hiring or employment practices.. ...
Our Lady of Victory School does not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability in admission to its programs, services, or activities, in access to them, in treatment of individuals, or in any aspect of their operations. The lack of English language skills shall not be a barrier to admission or participation in the districts activities and programs. Our Lady of Victory School also does not discriminate in its hiring or employment practices.. ...
I know it is not polite to brag. However, when you have a special needs child, bragging tends to come with the territory. Especially when your childs prognosis for neurological status and mental capacity are unknown. Marissa has Agenisis of the Corpus Callosum. This means that the piece of her brain that connects the left and right hemispheres and allows them to communicate is missing some parts. At this time in her life, no one can tell us what, if any, effect this diagnosis will have on her future and her ability to learn. It is a wait and see kind of game. It is cause for celebration your special needs child reaches a milestone or accomplishes something you as a parent were not sure they would. Therefore, I choose not to call it bragging. I call it a victory dance. So join me in a little victory dance for Marissa, wont you?. ...
Social learning can be defined as learning influenced by observation of, or interaction with, another animal [30]. It thus encompasses two rather different processes. Learning through social interaction, including social play and agonistic interactions, generally involves the acquisition of social skills. Learning via social information is essential for the acquisition of non-social skills, although it may also be used in the acquisition of social skills (e.g. through eavesdropping: [31]). This second kind of social learning can take different forms of varying complexity, ranging from mechanisms as simple as local or stimulus enhancement to complex forms of imitation (e.g. summarized in [32]). It must be pointed out, however, that most social learning in animals is not direct copying. Indeed, along with a variable involvement of dedicated cognitive mechanisms [33-35], social learning almost invariably includes an important element of individual evaluation [36], and may indeed largely rely on ...
Oyo State Governor, Senator Abiola Ajimobi, has described the victory of Dr. Kayode Fayemi in the just-concluded gubernatorial election in Ekiti State as a demonstration of the peoples trust in the All Progressives Congress (APC) as a party that has the capacity to liberate the state from mis-governance and gross under-development.. The governor stated this in a congratulatory message issued by his Special Adviser on Communication and Strategy, Mr. Bolaji Tunji in Ibadan, on Sunday.. He said that the outcome of the election which he described as free, fair and credible, was a reflection of the wishes and aspirations of the people of the state and a further demonstration of their faith that Fayemis second coming as governor would bring the socio-economic development which the state had been yearning for.. While congratulating the governor-elect for engaging in intellectual and issue-based electioneering in all parts of the state, Ajimobi described his victory at the polls as ...
Victory Vision Counseling is a Substance, Drug and Alcohol Abuse center in Mount Prospect, IL. Research Victory Vision Counseling or find alcohol and drug treatment through Rehab.com
I finally had to resort to freeway travel in order to arrive home before dark which would have definitely resulted in a ?white-knuckle? riding experience in the near-freezing cold and wet scenario. Thanks to the stability and manageability of the Boardwalk, I finally arrived home safely. The bike?s power delivery proved to be smooth, along with smooth gear changes, and the seat and riding position was ideal - suitable for a wide variety of rider statures. Riding later in more suitable weather, the bike was even more enjoyable, while it drew admiring glances and comments. Bottom-line, if you?re looking for a stylish, comfortable and affordable cruiser with a retro-custom flavor, the 2013 Victory Boardwalk certainly fills the bill. ?SPECIFICATIONS: Victory Boardwalk-?13 Base Price:??????????????? ??????????? ??$15,499.00 Price as Tested:??????? ??????????? ??$16,498.98 Engine Type and Size: ??????????? 1731cc? four-stroke 50 degree V-Twin - air and oil ??????????? ??????????? ??????????? ...
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Victory Shards are a Pre-Hardmode crafting material that are dropped by the Desert Scourge, Eye of Cthulhu, Cnidrion and the Aquatic Scourge. They are used to craft Victide Bars and other early-game items. They can also combine with boss trophies to create Lore items. Victory Shards are a...
England have secured a famous 227-run victory against India in the first Test in Chennai. Here are the numbers behind the landmark victory for Joe Roots side.
Faith is the victory that overcomes this world. All who accept the true Sabbath will face problems that seem unsolvable, but faith in YAH will bring victory!
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I went in for my P+3 US to confirm that my follicle ruptured. Well it was my lucky day bc they asked me which nurse I wanted and my favorite nice nurse J was there. She does not judge me and she takes her time and explains everything. She said my lining looked great and luteal. I think my follicle ruptured which would be a huge victory. My ovary is covered in junk and I have a large pocket of fluid so it was really hard for her to say 100%. But, I did not see the obvious follicle. Usually I go in and it has grown and will mock me. In fact she said she saw a possible corpus luteum.......Woah!!!!! I have never heard those words before. This is all due to the lupron trigger. This was my first time taking it so I cannot say that it is really working until it happens again. I will take my happy thoughts bc I really needed some today. So if this is true then it will be a huge victory bc I have only had one other possible rupture in a year. I have to remember that I still have to address my new ...
In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what dominance means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that enzyme-producing alleles usually show complete dominance. For genes producing nonenzymatic proteins such as collagen or hemoglobin, the amount of product matters, and dominance relationships are more complicated. Furthermore, with hemoglobin, dominance can change depending on what aspect of the phenotype is being studied and on the environmental conditions. X-linked genes are a special case, whether enzymatic or not. Because of X-chromosome inactivation, only one X-linked allele can be active in a cell, which means that the concept of dominance cannot be applied at the cellular level. Instead, a type of dominance is demonstrated at the individual level; but even ...
Simulations enabled us to test the relative importance of individual aspects of the melanistic phenotype (such as a mating advantage for melanistic individuals) in facilitating gene flow between host plants. Indeed, the simulations found that the presence of melanistic T. cristinae reduced adaptive differentiation between populations on different hosts and increased rates of inter-host mating (see figure below). These results show how the melanistic phenotype acts as an anti-speciation phenotype, mitigating the effects of divergent selection acting on the stripe phenotype. Moreover, we found that these results were robust to removing individual factors attributed to the melanistic phenotype, such as their mating advantage or their propensity to disperse. The one factor that, when removed from the model, did reduce the anti-speciation effect of melanistic individuals was the genetic architecture of the colour and pattern traits: when we removed dominance relationships among alleles at the ...
I called the children, do Pandari bhajan! (Enthusiastically singing songs to a certain aspect of God, while dancing.) Good anklets were worn around the feet. Good cymbals were taken. Jumping nicely along, all the children would go street to street. Even people who were asleep used to get up. In that village they did not used to get up before 7 oclock in the morning. However, due to Me teaching the children bhajan, they were ones who got up at 5 oclock, took bath and prayed to God.. Holding cymbals in the hand, ________ __________ _________, destroying desire and anger, staying on the path leading to Shirdi, Victory, victory to Ranga! Victory, Victory to Sai! Everyone say victory, victory, and come ...
Agonistic behaviorEdit. Unlike other species of Lasiolgossum,L. hemichalceum rarely display agonistic behaviors towards another ... BehaviorEdit. Communal behaviorEdit. Lasioglossum hemichalceum demonstrates behavior typical for a communal species.[14] This ... This demonstrates that although they are capable of displaying agonistic behaviors, they choose not to.[7] Lack of agonistic ... Mating behaviorEdit. L. hemichalceum displays different mating behaviors for different morphologies.[6] Males who are born with ...
These cells do not open directly to the surface of the skin, but injury caused by fighting and other agonistic behaviors may ... Ladich F, Myrberg AA (2006). "Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication". Communication in Fishes. 1: 121-148. Fine ML, ... Feeding behavior to food is due to amino acids released by food. This is reported to cause maxillary and mandibular barbell ... Different sounds may be used for different functions in communication, such as in behavior towards predators and in asserting ...
in the American Journal of Primatology; November 2001 Klein, L. L. (1974). Agonistic behavior in neotropical primates. In ... The Mexican howler exhinbits limited interaction with members of its species and very minor aggressive behavior. There is ... Females also show aggression when asserting dominance, though this is usually limited to harassment behavior like hair pulling ...
2006). "Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication". Communication in Fishes. 1: 121-148.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors ... According to a study by Kaatz, sounds for disturbance (e.g. alarm) and agonistic behavior were not significantly different, ... This is a very important fish communication mechanism, especially during agonistic and distress behaviors. Catfish are able to ... During courtship behavior in three species of Corydoras catfish, all males actively produced stridulation sounds before egg ...
Takeuchi T (January 2017). "Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in ... Broom DM (1998). "Welfare, Stress, and the Evolution of Feelings". Stress and Behavior. Advances in the Study of Behavior. 27. ... Takeuchi T, Imafuku M (September 2005). "Territorial behavior of a green hairstreak Chrysozephyrus smaragdinus (Lepidoptera: ... Journal of Mind and Behavior. 5 (2): 119-130. ISSN 0271-0137. JSTOR 43853318. Morgan CL (1903). "Chapter 3. Other minds than ...
Boal, C. W. (2001). Agonistic behavior of Cooper's Hawks. Raptor Research 35:253-256. Lien, L. A., Millsap, B. A., Madden, K ... Breeding adults generally engage in agonistic behavior when an interloper of their sex is present; 11 responses showed that ... Anti-predator behavior by parent Cooper's hawks against crows, red-tailed hawks and eastern gray squirrels were observed in ... Roth II, T. C., & Lima, S. L. (2003). Hunting behavior and diet of Cooper's hawks: an urban view of the small-bird-in-winter ...
Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I. Annual Cycle and Display Patterns. The Condor, 62(4) :245-271. Agonistic ... Agonistic Behavior of the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). University of California Graduate Division, Northern Section. ... Singing behavior of the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) (U. S. A.) Abstracts - XI Congressus Internationalis Ornithologicus. ... Singing Behavior of the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea, Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 31 :39-59. A Behavioral and ...
Thompson, William L (1960). "Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... Evanden, Fred G. (1957). "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ...
"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia, Dinosauria); a new look at head-butting behavior". Rocky Mountain ... or for horn-locking agonistic behavior. The study of sexual dimorphism in dinosaurs is incredibly difficult. The varying size ... or to butt into the softer flank of other pachycephalosaurs for intraspecific communication or as a form of agonistic behavior ... Snively, Eric; Cox, Andres (2008). "Structural Mechanics of Pachycephalosaur Crania Permitted Head-Butting Behavior". ...
Coutlee, Ellen L. (1967). "Agonistic behavior in the American goldfinch". The Wilson Bulletin. 79 (1): 89-109. ISSN 0043-5643. ... Avoidance behaviors include showing only the side of the body to an aggressor, leaning away, flexing the legs, retracting the ... Popp, James W. (1987). "Resource value and dominance among American goldfinches". Bird Behavior. 7 (2): 73-77. doi:10.3727/ ...
2006). "Five: Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication" (PDF). Communication in Fishes. Science Publications. pp. 122-148 ...
Information on agonistic behavior is also limited. However, territorial calling and aerial displays have been noted, while ... Fisher, C, Lindgren, E & Dawson, W 1972, Drinking patterns and behavior of Australian desert birds in relation to their ecology ...
In calves, the frequency of agonistic behavior decreases as space allowance increases, but this does not occur for changes in ... Such agonistic behavior reduces the risk of injury. Dominance status depended on age and sex, with older animals generally ... "The effect of group size and space allowance on the agonistic and spacing behavior of cattle". Applied Animal Behaviour Science ... By adjusting their behavior, cattle obtain heavier bites in swards that are tall and sparse compared with short, dense swards ...
Caldwell, Roy L.; Dingle, Hugh (1975). "Ecology and evolution of agonistic behavior in stomatopods". Die Naturwissenschaften. ...
... there is no observed cooperative or agonistic behavior. Main and lateral burrows are kept open by packing soil into the side of ... The cell lining behavior consisted of brushing motions over the cell using the female's metasoma. Females do not open cells ... M. portalis has both territorial male behavior in a female emergence site (inside the nests) as well as a resource-based ... Further, large headed males are very conscious of female reproductive behavior: during cell provisioning, large headed males ...
In many primate species, males direct agonistic behavior toward females prior to courtship behaviors. Such behavior can include ... agonistic behavior between males and females during courtship displays is seen in nature. Intraspecific agonistic behavior that ... However, agonistic behavior that turns dangerous does occur. In some species, physical traits that are sexually selected for in ... In some birds and mammals, the male may participate in agonistic behaviors with other candidate males. Although rare, ...
Sands, W.A. (1982). "Agonistic behavior of African soldierless apico-termitinae (Isoptera, Termitidae)". Sociobiology. 7 (1): ... Shorter, John R.; Rueppell, Olav (2011). "A review on self-destructive defense behaviors in social insects" (PDF). Insectes ... Bordereau, Christian; Robert, Annie R.; Van Tuyen, V.; Peppuy, Alexis (1997). "Suicidal defensive behavior by frontal gland ...
doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194465 Yabuta, S. (2000). Behaviors in agonistic interaction of the butterflyfish (Chaetodon ... Animal Behavior, 63, 165-173. doi:10.1006/anbe.2001.1869 Pratchett, M.S. (2005). Dietary overlap among coral-feeding ... It is performed towards conspecifics in territorial disputes as well as in non-agonistic interactions with a pair partner. C. ... A tail-up display is a common antagonistic behavior in the Chaetodon species. ...
Individuals tend to be aggressive to one another; hisses, grunts and even distress calls accompany agonistic behavior. Largely ... A study of the foraging behavior of the bare-tailed woolly opossum and the sympatric kinkajou showed that both feed on a ...
Rice, Clifford G (1988). "Agonistic and sexual behavior of Nilgiri tahr (Hemitragus hylocrius)". Ethology. 78 (2): 89-112. doi: ... Midway Reprint) Edward M. Barrows (2011-04-26). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology …. ... Similar urine-spraying behavior is common in other deer species, and is known as automarking. Throughout the year white-tailed ... doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1972.tb00876.x. Xu, Z.; Stoddart, D.M.; Ding, H.; Zhang, J. (1995). "Self-anointing behavior in the ...
A. colensonis has been found to show aggressive, agonistic behavior. Larvae remain still and sit in one spot for hours and are ... Rowe, R. J. (January 1992). "Agonistic behaviour in final-instar larvae of Austrolestes colensonis (Odonata: Lestidae)". New ... As adults A. colensonis also exhibit thermoregulation behavior. There are two mechanisms involved: physiological colour changes ...
Ph.D. (1974). AGONISTIC AND COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR OF FIELD SPARROWS, SPIZELLA PUSILLA (WILSON). University of Michigan, United ... 1969). On Territorial Behavior and Other Factors Influencing Habitat Distribution in Birds Part 3 Breeding Success in a Local ... 2001). Nest desertion by field sparrows and its possible influence on the evolution of Cowbird behavior. The Auk. vol 118, no 3 ... Ph.D. (1972). THE VOCAL BEHAVIOR OF THE FIELD SPARROW. The Ohio State University, United States, Ohio. Heckenlively DB. ...
... these sounds are used for agonistic behaviors, including territory defense. Males are known to mature between three and seven ... In combination with habitat patchiness and limited larva dispersal distance, this behavior means separate populations genetics ...
Newmark, J. E.; Jenkins, S. H. (April 2000). "Sex Differences in Agonistic Behavior of Merriam's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys ... This caching behavior affects the range-land and croplands where the animals live. Kangaroo rats must harvest as much seed as ... Schroder, G. D. (August 1979). "Foraging Behavior and Home Range Utilization of the Bannertail Kangaroo Rat". Ecology. 60 (4): ...
Sullivan, R. M. (1982). "Agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in the harbor seal, Phoca vitulina". Journal of ... Nicholson, T. E. (2000). Social structure and underwater behavior of harbor seals in southern Monterey Bay, California. M.S. ... Beier, J. C.; Wartzok, D. (1979). "Mating behavior of captive spotted seals (Phoca largha)". Animal Behaviour. 27: 772-781. doi ... estrus are typically more dispersed than land-breeding pinnipeds and the distinction between foraging and reproductive behavior ...
Baxter, RM (1995). "A Laboratory Study of Agonistic Behavior in the Red Musk Shrew". Zeitschrift für Saugetierkunde- ... Article includes data on territorial and nocturnal behavior. v t e. ...
Intra- and inter-specific agonistic behavior is documented, but varies greatly among slug species. Slugs often resort to ... Rollo, C. D.; Wellington, W. G. (1979). "Intra- and inter-specific agonistic behavior among terrestrial slugs (Pulmonata: ... Some species present different response behaviors when attacked, such as the Kerry slug. In contrast to the general behavioral ... During winter, the aggressive responses are substituted by a gregarious behavior. The great majority of slug species are ...
"Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological ...
This dominance hierarchy is particularly helpful in explaining female-initiated agonistic behavior. Females higher in the ... Even more interesting is that this nursing behavior in wedge-capped capuchins is not correlated with relatedness. This behavior ... Grooming behavior plays an important role in the group dynamics of wedge-capped capuchins. Grooming may be a way for both sub- ... Foraging behavior varies seasonally, as well as with age and sex. In general, these monkeys spend approximately equal amounts ...
This auditory courtship behavior is also seen in fruit flies like A. suspensa when they perform calling and pre-copulatory ... Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Hazlett, Brian A. (1974-01-01). "Examination of the Agonistic Behaviour of the Crayfish Orconectes ... Webb, J. C.; Sivinski, J.; Litzkow, C. (1984-06-01). "Acoustical Behavior and Sexual Success in the Caribbean Fruit Fly, ...
"Norway Rat Behavior Repertoire". ratbehavior.org.. *^ a b Barnett, S. (1975). The Rat: a study in behavior (pp. 52-115). ... Haney, M.; Miczek, K.A. (1993). "Ultrasounds during agonistic interactions between female rats (Rattus norvegicus)". Journal of ... "Rat Behavior and Biology. ratbehavior.org. Retrieved 1 December 2007.. *^ "Rats Capable Of Reflecting On Mental Processes". ... "pre-encounter defensive behavior", as opposed to a "post-encounter defensive behavior", such as flight, freezing, or avoidance ...
Unlike most passerines, the agonistic call of the black-chinned hummingbird is acoustically complex, with notes ordered in non- ... Black-chinned hummingbirds can exhibit territorial behavior around feeders as well as at other small feeding sites, and become ... "Organization of Agonistic Vocalizations in Black-chinned Hummingbirds" (PDF). The Condor. 98 (3): 557-566. doi:10.2307/1369568 ...
"Epilepsy & Behavior. 70 (Pt B): 288-291. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2016.11.021. PMID 28169144.. ... Due to its partial agonistic activity, THC appears to result in greater downregulation of cannabinoid receptors than ...
A hyrax showing the characteristic chewing/grunting behavior: Note the incisor tusks. ... This chewing behaviour may be a form of agonistic behaviour when the animal feels threatened.[9] ...
Males are more likely to engage in agonistic behaviors,[29] such as slowly circling each other, chasing, or actual fighting.[14 ... M.; Miranda Mourão, G. de; Camilo-Alves, C. de S. e; Mourão, G (2008). "Anteater behavior and ecology". In Vizcaíno, S. F; ... Shaw, J. H.; Machado-Neto, J.; Carter, T. J. (1987). "Behavior of Free-Living Giant Anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)". ... the hunters were agitating and wounding cornered animals and the attacks appeared to be defensive behaviors.[38] In April 2007 ...
31,0 31,1 31,2 31,3 Andrén, C. (1986) "Courtship, mating and agonistic behaviour in a free-living population of adders, Vipera ... "Hormones, Brain, and Behavior", lk 138.. *↑ Lilliwhite, H. B.; Seymour, R. S. (1978) "Regulation of arterial blood pressure in ...
Coppinger, Raymond and Lorna (2001). Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior, & Evolution. New York: ... Growling, making up about 65% of the vocalisations, is used in an agonistic context for dominance, and as a defensive sound. ... It was only observed in an agonistic context, mostly as a defence against obtrusive pups or for defending resources. It was ...
Hobson, E.S. (1963). "Feeding Behavior in Three Species of Sharks". Pacific Science. 17: 171-194.. ... "A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark-human interactions". Marine ... If the final male disappears, changes to the largest female occur, with male behavior occurring within several hours and sperm ... Porat, D.; Chadwick-Furman, N. E. (2004). "Effects of anemonefish on giant sea anemones: expansion behavior, growth, and ...
Ciani, A. C. (1986). Intertroop Agonistic Behavior of a Feral Rhesus Macaque Troop in Ranging in Town and Forest Areas in India ... Aggressive Behavior 12: 433−439. Consultado o 5 January 2016.. *↑ Rishi, Kumar; Anindya, Sinha; Sindhu, Radhakrishna (2013). " ... Primate behavior: developments in field and laboratory research, Volume 2. New York : Academic Pr. p 1-106. ... 12,0 12,1 12,2 12,3 12,4 Southwick, C., Beg, M., and R. Siddiqi (1965) "Rhesus Monkeys in North India." Primate Behavior: Field ...
Schafer, Susan F.; Krekorian, C. O'Neill (1983). "Agonistic behavior of the Galapagos tortoise, Geochelone elephantopus, with ... 1988). "Defensive behavior in the Galapagos tortoise (Geochelone elephantopus), with comments on the evolution of insular ... Carpenter, Charles C. (1966). "Notes on the behavior and ecology of the Galapagos tortoise on Santa Cruz island". Proceedings ...
Guo, Rongxing (2017). An Economic Inquiry into the Nonlinear Behaviors of Nations: Dynamic Developments and the Origins of ... In particular, the Babylonian text Dialogue of Pessimism contains similarities to the agonistic thought of the Sophists, the ...
Messenger, M.T.; Su, N.Y. Agonistic behavior between colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) ... 兩群體間的競爭往往是透過儀式性打鬥(agonistic behaviour(英语:agonistic behaviour)) 進行,競爭會導致個體死亡,和領地的得失[147][148]。打鬥中死去的個體可能會被集中埋起來[149]。 ... Traniello, J.F.A.; Leuthold, R.H. Behavior and Ecology of Foraging in Termites. Springer Netherlands. 2000: 141-168. ISBN 978- ... Choe, J.C.;
Popp, JW (1989). "Use of Agonistic Displays by Purple Finches During Interspecific Encounters". Bird Behavior. 8 (1): 48-50. ... Popp, JW (1988). "Scanning Behavior of Finches in Mixed-Species Groups". Condor. 90 (2): 510-512. doi:10.2307/1368587.. ... Astheimer, L; Ramenofsky, M; Wingfield, JC; Buttemer, W (1989). "Corticosterone Feeding Behavior and Food Deprivation in ...
"Walrus: Odobenidae - Behavior And Reproduction". Retrieved August 12, 2008.. *^ Budzinski, David; Schlosberg, Jason. "Battle at ... "Context-dependent third-party intervention in agonistic encounters of male Przewalski horses". Behavioural Processes. 121: 54- ... Mech, L.David (2003). Wolves: Behavior,Ecology and conservation. university of Chicago press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-226-51696-7. . ... In the science of ethology (the study of behavior), and more generally in the study of social evolution, on occasion, some ...
Engaging in agonistic behavior can be very costly and thus there are many examples in nature of animals who achieve dominance ... In some, the dominance status of an individual is clearly visible, eliminating the need for agonistic behavior. In wintering ... These often involve characteristics that provide an advantage during agonistic behavior, such as size of body, displays, etc. ... The association between resource availability and agonistic behavior suggests that animal conflict is adaptive by enabling ...
"Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 90 (4): 540-4. doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2008.04.010. PMC 2806670. PMID 18534670.. ... Because of its wide spectrum of serotonergic receptor inhibition, Mirtazapine exhibits an agonistic effect on 5-HT1A receptors ... animal behavior. • regulation of synaptic vesicle exocytosis. • G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway, coupled to cyclic ... and aggressive behavior in mice". Psychopharmacology. 185 (4): 441-50. doi:10.1007/s00213-006-0333-3. PMID 16550387.. ...
Coppedge, B. R. C., T.S.; Shaw, J.H.; Hamilton, R.G. (1997). "Agonistic behavior associated with orphan bison (Bison bison) ... McMillan, Brock R.; Cottam, Michael R.; Kaufman, Donald W. (2000). "Wallowing Behavior of American Bison (Bos Bison) in ... claves released into a mixed resident population". Applied Animal Behavior Science 55: 1. doi:10.1016/S0168-1591(97)00035-X ...
"Health and Behavior. USA Today. Archived from the original on 2008-06-28. Retrieved 2008-06-24.. Cite uses deprecated parameter ... Effect: + = Estrogenic / agonistic. ± = Mixed or neutral. - = Antiestrogenic / antagonistic. Sources: See template. Other ... Gallo MA, Kaufman D (February 1997). "Antagonistic and agonistic effects of tamoxifen: significance in human cancer". Seminars ...
"Effects of Water Availability and Habitat Quality on Bark-Stripping Behavior in Barbary Macaques". Conservation Biology. 15 (1 ... Deag, John M (1980). "Interactions Between Males and Unweaned Barbary Macaques: Testing the Agonistic Buffering Hypothesis". ... Brauch, K.; Pfefferle, D.; Hodges, K.; Mohle, U.; Fischer, J.; Heistermann, M. (2007). "Female Sexual Behavior and Sexual ... Hormones and Behavior. 52 (3): 375-83. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.06.001. PMID 17644098.. ...
Social behavior[edit]. Two male gazelles in an agonistic display with females nearby ... a b c d e f g h Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los ... Estes, R. D. (1967). "The Comparative Behavior of Grant's and Thomson's Gazelles". Journal of Mammalogy. 48 (2): 189-209. doi: ...
2010). "Initiation of Escape Behavior by the Texas Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)". Herpetologica. 66 (1): 23-30. doi: ... particularly during agonistic encounters. They tend to show brighter colours when displaying aggression[33] and darker colours ... Agonistic behaviour typically occurs between sexually mature males over territory or mates and may involve displays, posturing ...
Martin, R.A. Agonistic Display in Grey Reef Shark. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research. Retrieved on February 12, 2009. ... Though silvertip sharks are quite mobile, they exhibit fidelity to certain areas, with reports of territorial behavior. They ... "A review of shark agonistic displays: comparison of display features and implications for shark-human interactions". Marine ...
Its psychedelic effects are mediated by its agonistic properties at the 5-HT2A receptor. Due to its selectivity, DOM is often ... Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 75 (4): 845-52. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00159-X. PMID 12957227.. ...
Navarro JF, Maldonado E (1999). „Behavioral profile of quinpirole in agonistic encounters between male mice". Methods and ... Szechtman Henry; Sulis William; Eilam David (1998). „Quinpirole induces compulsive checking behavior in rats: A potential ...
1 2 3 4 Ito, F., Yusoff, N.R. & Idris, A.H. (1996) Colony composition and queen behavior in polygynous colonies of the Oriental ... Medeiros, F.N.S., Lopes, L.E., Moutinho, P.R.S., Oliveira, P.S. & Hölldobler, B. (1992) Functional polygyny, agonistic ... 1 2 Ehmer, B. & Hölldobler, B. (1995) Foraging behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Pysche, 102, ... Horvitz, C.C. (1981) Analysis of how ant behaviors affect germination in a tropical myrmecochore Calathea microcephala (P. & E ...
"Intertroop Agonistic Behavior of a Feral Rhesus Macaque Troop in Ranging in Town and Forest Areas in India" (PDF). Aggressive ... Makwana, S. (1979). "Field Ecology and Behavior of the rhesus macaque. Food, Feeding and Drinking in Dehra Dun Forests". Indian ... Rhesus Play Film analysis of agonistic play by Donald Symons (UCSB) on DVD ... Behavior. 12 (6): 433-439. doi:10.1002/1098-2337(1986)12:6,433::AID-AB2480120606,3.0.CO;2-C. Pristupljeno 5. 1. 2016.. ...
The relative importance of food a vailability and intruder pressure on breeding territorial behavior was studied in two ... Food Addition Agonistic Behavior Energy Availability Territorial Behavior Territory Quality These keywords were added by ... Breeding territory quality and agonistic behavior: effects of energy availability and intruder pressure in hummingbirds. ... Stiles FG, Wolf LL (1979) Ecology and evolution of lek mating behavior in the long-tailed hermit hummingbird. AOU Ornitol ...
... have been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to examine hormonal substrates ... Hormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). ... All hormonal treatments reduced agonistic behaviors when compared to SALOIL, although none of the hormonal treatments restored ... Razzoli, M., Cushing, BS., Carter Porges, C., & Valsecchi, P. (2003). Hormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior ...
Agonistic behavior and electrical stimulation of the antennae induces Fos-like protein expression in the male cricket brain.. ... Continuous agonistic interaction increased c-Fos/FRA protein expression in the brains of subordinate males compared to control ... control male crickets and of dominant and subordinate male crickets sacrificed at different time periods following an agonistic ... whether the expression of c-Fos/FRAs is increased in the brains of adult male Acheta domesticus crickets following agonistic ...
The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain  Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh (2008-08) ... puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves ... Browsing by Subject "Agonistic behavior in animals". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
... that repeated activation of oxytocin neurons in male mice can have different effects on pro-social and agonistic behaviors, ... Stimulation of Oxytocin Neurons in a Semi-natural Setup Dynamically Elevates Both Pro-social and Agonistic Behaviors Posted by ... that repeated activation of oxytocin neurons in male mice can have different effects on pro-social and agonistic behaviors, ...
... puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves ... The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain. ... Together, these data examine the role of the serotonergic system on the development of agonistic behavior. ... In adults, acute Fluoxetine treatment inhibited aggressive behavior at all doses. In juveniles, only the highest dose reduced ...
Agonistic behavior * Aggression . Control role. ABSTRACT We surveyed agonistic behaviors of 20 captive groups of pigtail ... exerted no detectable influence on agonistic behavior. Fear/submission behaviors occurred infrequently; we detected no ... Research on agonistic behavior of captive groups of nonhuman primates can be of practical value by providing evidence helpful ... Effects of group composition on agonistic behavior of captive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina.. код для вставки. код для ...
... exhibit signpost marking behavior during both the sexually active and quiescent periods (Marchinton et al. 1990, Ozoga 1989). ... Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer. ... Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer. In: Doty R.L., Müller- ... Altmann, J. 1974, Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49: 227 - 267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
It includes the most commonly observed behaviors but its not an exhaustive list. ... Canine Ethogram-Social and Agonistic Behavior is a catalog of a class of canine behaviors. ... We can use the same line of arguing for communication behavior, parental behavior, and agonistic behavior. It involves more ... sexual behavior, and even agonistic behavior.. Sociologists insist that behavior is an activity devoid of social meaning or ...
Agonistic Behavior of the Big Clawed Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus Heterochaelis, Say) With Special Reference to Aggressive and ... Agonistic Behavior of the Big Clawed Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus Heterochaelis, Say) With Special Reference to Aggressive and ... Agonistic Behavior of the Big Clawed Snapping Shrimp (Alpheus Heterochaelis, Say) With Special Reference to Aggressive and ... Sexual Behavior (Part I) and Communicative Behavior (Part II). Welcome to the IDEALS Repository. ...
... framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control species-specific and context-dependent behavior. ... Agonistic aggression has provided an excellent framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control ... species-specific and context-dependent behavior. The principal inhibitory control upon aggression is serotonin (5-HT) dependent ... Serotonergic control of agonistic behavior differs between the solitary G. omarorum and the gregarious B. gauderio. As each ...
Agonistic behaviorEdit. Unlike other species of Lasiolgossum,L. hemichalceum rarely display agonistic behaviors towards another ... BehaviorEdit. Communal behaviorEdit. Lasioglossum hemichalceum demonstrates behavior typical for a communal species.[14] This ... This demonstrates that although they are capable of displaying agonistic behaviors, they choose not to.[7] Lack of agonistic ... Mating behaviorEdit. L. hemichalceum displays different mating behaviors for different morphologies.[6] Males who are born with ...
Agonistic behavior correlated with hydrocarbon phenotypes in dampwood termites, Zootermopsis (Isoptera: Termopsidae).. ... Agonistic behavior between recently collected and laboratory cultured Reticulitermes spp. (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) from ... Seasonal foraging and feeding behavior of Reticulitermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a wildland and a residential location ...
An Assessment of the Potential Uses of Agonistic Behaviors in Termite Control. The potential use of termite-termite agonism in ... Factors Affecting the Tunneling Behavior of the Western Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes Hesperus Banks. Laboratory studies ... interspecific en-counters among termites from different colonies are known to result in aggressive or avoidance behaviors in a ... were conducted to determine factors that affect the tunneling behavior of the western subterranean termite (Reticulitermes ...
These cells do not open directly to the surface of the skin, but injury caused by fighting and other agonistic behaviors may ... Ladich F, Myrberg AA (2006). "Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication". Communication in Fishes. 1: 121-148.. ... Feeding behavior to food is due to amino acids released by food. This is reported to cause maxillary and mandibular barbell ... Pectoral stridulation has been considered to be the main means of agonistic communication towards predators in channel catfish. ...
"Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological ...
Yanai, J and Ginsburg, B E., "Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol." ( ... Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol. ...
Agonistic display or courtship behavior? A review of contests over mating opportunity in butterflies. Tsuyoshi Takeuchi ... Qualitative description of the submission and agonistic behavior of the Spixs Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Spix 1824), with ... Unique arm-flapping behavior of the pharaoh cuttlefish, Sepia pharaonis: putative mimicry of a hermit crab. Kohei Okamoto, ... Paternal care behaviors of Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus in natural populations. Sumio Okada, Yukihiro Fukuda, ...
Butyl pocket formation in the vitamin D receptor strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behavior of ligands. Journal of ... Butyl pocket formation in the vitamin D receptor strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behavior of ligands. In: ... Butyl pocket formation in the vitamin D receptor strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behavior of ligands. / ... title = "Butyl pocket formation in the vitamin D receptor strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behavior of ligands", ...
Agonistic behavior among mountain goats foraging in winter. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 66: 2585-2588. [80373]. 96. Meehan, ... Relationships between group size, feeding times, and agonistic behavior of mountain goats. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 63: ... Social behavior: Groups of mountain goats within a herd are commonly referred to as bands. Bands may consist of ,100 ... On the rutting behavior of the mountain goat. Journal of Mammalogy. 45: 551-568. [80303]. 45. Gilbert, Brian A.; Raedeke, ...
by Equine Science, 3rd ed.; Business Animal behavior Management Horse training Methods Horses Behavior Training ... agonistic behavior, mimicry behavior, investigative behavior, grooming behavior, and sleep and rest behavior. Also note any ... agonistic behavior allelomimetic behavior barn sour conditioned response cue eliminative behavior epimeletic behavior flehmen ... Agonistic Behavior Agonistic behavior includes fighting, flight, and other reactions associated with conflict. In all species ...
Behavior: Orientation in space and time; migrations; feeding and reproductive behavior; agonistic behavior. ...
Key words: Haloperidol, Aggression, Agonistic Behavior, Mice, Time-course.. Curso temporal de los efectos del Haloperidol sobre ... studying its actions on agonistic behavior in male mice at 30 minutes, at 24 and at 48 hours after administration. When the ... Physiology and Behavior, 53, 1055-1059.. Olivier. B., van Dalen, D. and Hartog, J. (1986). A new class of psychotropic drugs: ... Physiology and Behavior, 47(2), 281-285.. Mugford, R. A. and Nowell, N. M. (1970). Pheromones and their effect on aggression in ...
... his agonistic to practices (rule following behavior); and his familial to, indeed, what I call familistic behavior. Coercion ... agonistic, stylistic, and familial (1965: 15-22). Translating to my terms, his contractual refers to bargaining behavior; his ... Foresight about the later stages may influence behavior in the earlier stages. Thus, x may have a lesser interest in the issues ... International Behavior Space-Time. 5. International Expectations And Dispositions. 6. International Actor And Situation. 7. ...
Cambridge University Press.[page needed] McGlone, John J. (April 1986). "Agonistic Behavior in Food Animals: Review of Research ... Ferris, C.F.; Delville, Y. (January 1994). "Vasopressin and serotonin interactions in the control of agonistic behavior". ... Risenhoover, K.; Bailey, J. (1985). "Relationships between group size, feeding time, and agonistic behavior of mountain goats ... Caldwell, Roy L.; Dingle, Hugh (May 1975). "Ecology and evolution of agonistic behavior in stomatopods". Die ...
51 Animal Behavior: Taxis, Kinesis, and Agonistic Behavior About the Author. Darrell Vodopich ...
Without detailed knowledge of how the behavior of individuals unfolds throughout life, and not only... ... The development and temporal sequencing of agonistic behavior in the coyotes (Canis latrans). Z. Tierpsychol. 28:262-278. ... Development of agonistic behavior: Ethological and ecological perspectives. In: P. F. Brain & D. Benton, eds. Multidisciplinary ... Maternal behavior in the cat. In: H. Rheingold, ed. Maternal Behavior in Mammals, pp. 122-168. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.Google ...
Detection of selection signatures for agonistic behavior in cattle. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 135:170-177.. ...
Invasive lionfish (Pterois sp.) agonistic behavior observations pp. 1-2(2) Authors: Fogg, Alexander Q; Faletti, Meaghan E ... Comparing the behavior and morphology of wild-collected and hatchery-propagated long-spined urchins (Diadema antillarum): ...
  • Ewald PW, Orians GH (1983) Effects of resource depression on use of inexpensive and escalated aggressive behavior: experimental tests using Anna hummingbirds. (springer.com)
  • The results indicate that OT and E play a significant role in regulating male-directed aggressive behavior in females and that the presence of ovarian hormones as well as OT can increase affiliation during initial contact. (rti.org)
  • In adults, acute Fluoxetine treatment inhibited aggressive behavior at all doses. (utexas.edu)
  • Interestingly, juveniles treated with the lowest dose showed an increase in aggressive behavior. (utexas.edu)
  • It explicitly includes behaviors such as dominant behavior, submissive behavior, flight, pacifying, and conciliation, which are functionally and physiologically interrelated with aggressive behavior, yet fall outside the narrow definition of aggressive behavior. (ethology.eu)
  • If any of the parties incur injury, then the behavior is aggressive and not dominant. (ethology.eu)
  • We now understand that the circuits underlying social behavior may show a specific spatio-temporal pattern of activation according to the type of behavior displayed (e.g., male aggressive behavior vs. male reproductive behavior, Newman, 1999 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the 5-HT deficiency hypothesis was formulated based on the correlation between low levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and aggressive or violent behavior in humans and other primates ( Krakowski, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • [6] Members of this species do not demonstrate aggressive behavior towards one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mantis shrimp, predatory crustaceans, are an example of an aggressive and territorial organism whose agonistic behaviour has been studied in an ecological and evolutionary context. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a complex social interaction with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic determinants, aggressive behavior is predispositioned for neurochemical biasing via biogenic amines ( Eichelman, 1990 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • As predicted by the FPDH, the female cowbird mount elicited the most aggressive responses and the female cardinal mount the least aggressive, as measured by number of times more than one male redwing responded and number of times the male host attacked the mount, and by Principal Component Analyses yielding the highest redwing aggressive behavior and intimidation scores. (bioone.org)
  • One area of the CNS that seems critical for the organization of aggressive behavior is the basolateral hypothalamus, particularly the anterior hypothalamic region. (jneurosci.org)
  • Two neurotransmitter systems implicated in the control of aggressive behavior are arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serotonin (5-HT). (jneurosci.org)
  • Although AVP facilitates offensive aggression, 5-HT is reported to have the opposite effect and diminishes aggressive behavior (for review, see Olivier and Mos, 1990 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • however, the neural substrates and mechanism(s) of action of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors on aggressive behavior remain unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is possible that elevated brain levels of 5-HT inhibit the activity of the AVP system, resulting in a decrease in aggressive behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • A. alicemartinae cohabits with the native anemone Phymactis papillosa in the low intertidal zone, and given the limited mobility of both species, limited space could encourage aggressive behavior between them. (int-res.com)
  • Here, we evaluated the aggressive behavior of A. alicemartinae on 2 color morphotypes of P. papillosa . (int-res.com)
  • I am investigating the relationship between testosterone and aggressive behavior in territorial residents and intruders after short-term and long-term aggressive interactions. (utica.edu)
  • Fighting Nemo: Effect of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on aggressive behavior and social hierarchy of the false clown anemonefish Amphiprion ocellaris. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the semi-natural environment, the mice at first displayed heightened interest in one another, but this was soon accompanied by a rise in aggressive behavior. (mpg.de)
  • Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves from play fighting to adult aggression. (utexas.edu)
  • We found no relationship between social density of groups and incidence of agonistic behavior, but significantly more contact aggression (grab, hit, push, bite) and noncontact aggression (chase, open-mouth "threat," bark vocalization) occurred among females in groups containing no males than in those containing one male each. (docme.ru)
  • Agonistic behavior includes all forms of intraspecific behavior related to aggression, fear, threat, fight or flight, or interspecific when competing for resources. (ethology.eu)
  • Agonistic aggression has provided an excellent framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control species-specific and context-dependent behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aggression, defined as an overt behavior which leads to displacing, dominating, or harming another individual, occurs during the contest phase of agonistic interactions ( Nelson, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although agonistic behaviour varies among species, agonistic interaction consists of three kinds of behaviours: threat, aggression, and submission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prolonged estrogen-progesterone treatment of nonpregnant ovariectomized rats: factors stimulating home-cage and maternal aggression and short-latency maternal behavior. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The full 16-day E/P/EB treatment stimulated higher levels of home-cage and maternal aggression, and shorter maternal behavior latencies than abbreviated and partial treatments. (biomedsearch.com)
  • LPS-injected subordinate birds experienced reduced aggression from mid-ranking but not dominant flockmates, indicating status-mediated effects of sickness behaviour on agonistic interactions. (brill.com)
  • Submission was the most frequent, unidirectional and linear type of agonistic behaviour and, therefore, a better indicator of status than aggression or dominance displays. (brillonline.com)
  • Influences of prior agonistic experiences on aggression measures in the male swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). (cogprints.org)
  • Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. (wikiquote.org)
  • Effects of the synthetic estrogen, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, on aggression and courtship behavior in male zebrafish (Danio rerio). (semanticscholar.org)
  • while the first might be interesting when studying aggression, the second could be of more interest when studying mating behavior. (noldus.com)
  • In this study, we determined whether the expression of c-Fos/FRAs is increased in the brains of adult male Acheta domesticus crickets following agonistic interactions. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we designed and synthesized new analogues 5a-c and evaluated their biological activities to probe whether agonistic activity is recovered when the analogue restores interactions with the C-terminus of VDR. (elsevier.com)
  • Crowding increases the risk of agonistic interactions that, in turn, may require additional physiological defensive coping mechanisms affecting health. (awionline.org)
  • We treated subordinate or dominant finches within captive flocks with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate an acute phase response (APR), and quantified mass loss, activity, foraging behaviours, and agonistic interactions. (brill.com)
  • Our results suggest that social status in house finches influences one component of the APR (mass loss) and can interact with the APR to modulate intraspecific agonistic interactions in ways likely relevant for disease transmission. (brill.com)
  • Also, intraspecific agonistic interactions were considered in individuals of A. alicemartinae from 2 localities. (int-res.com)
  • Prior research indicates that testosterone levels drop rapidly in intruders that invade the territory of a resident and are involved in agonistic interactions. (utica.edu)
  • Ultimately, males regulate reproductive opportunity and success through their behavior and social interactions, selecting a mate from among males on offer. (stanford.edu)
  • In one wild group, the older male appeared to hold a position of importance, intervening in agonistic interactions, as well as deciding where the group traveled and participating in most hugging and lining-up events (Peetz 2001). (wisc.edu)
  • Agonistic behaviour is any social behaviour related to fighting. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "agonistic behaviour" was first implemented by J.P Scott and Emil Fredericson in 1951 in their paper "The Causes of Fighting in Mice and Rats" in Physiological Zoology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agonistic behaviour is seen in many animal species because resources including food, shelter, and mates are often limited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some forms of agonistic behaviour are between contestants who are competing for access to the same resources, such as food or mates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the availability and importance of a resource, behaviours can range from a fight to the death or a much safer ritualistic behaviour, though ritualistic or display behaviours are the most common form of agonistic behaviours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scott and Fredericson describe that agonistic behaviour is displayed in a variety of different circumstances in response to different stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scott and Fredericson studied mice and rats, and classified three main categories of agonistic behaviour these animals display, which include preliminary behaviour, attack, and defensive and escape behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another preliminary agonistic behaviour demonstrated by mice is referred to as mincing behaviour which is when mice circle their opponent before a fight begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agonistic behaviour is a result of evolution[citation needed], and this can be studied in a number of species facing different environmental pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roy Caldwell and Hugh Dingle conducted research on mantis shrimp and other stomatopods, which focused on the evolution of agonistic behaviour and how it applies to the ecology of these organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agonistic behaviour has co-evolved alongside biotic factors such as body morphology, competition both within the species and against other species, and the habitats that these shrimp inhabit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agonistic behaviour patterns of the slender mongoose, Herpestes sanguineus . (springer.com)
  • Together, these data examine the role of the serotonergic system on the development of agonistic behavior. (utexas.edu)
  • Abilitation of reproductive behavior. (slideserve.com)
  • The dominance status determines access to resources and profoundly affects survival, health, reproductive success, and multiple behaviors ( 2 - 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We described the reproductive behavior of the small South American cichlid Laetacara araguaiae in streams from Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Gorillas are particularly interesting species to examine the causes and consequences of social behavior because of the variability environments they inhabit, the high level of reproductive competition among males, and their variable grouping patterns. (mpg.de)
  • We have combined behavioral observations with endocrine measures to study female reproductive behavior (Habumuremyi et al. (mpg.de)
  • Though agonistic behaviours can be directly observed and studied in a laboratory setting, it is also important to understand these behaviours in a natural setting to fully comprehend how they have evolved and therefore differ under different selective pressures. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many dyads dogs never exchanged agonistic behaviours, but bi-directional relationships were rare, and most dogs formed some dominance relationships with other dogs. (brillonline.com)
  • Using this device, we demonstrate that repeated activation of oxytocin neurons in male mice can have different effects on pro-social and agonistic behaviors, depending on the social context. (lifeboat.com)
  • Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol. (jax.org)
  • This study is an attempt to determine the persistence of the antiaggressive and motor effects of 0.4 mg/kg of haloperidol over time, studying its actions on agonistic behavior in male mice at 30 minutes, at 24 and at 48 hours after administration. (psicothema.com)
  • We found that dominance ranking in mice is transitive, relatively stable, and highly correlates among multiple behavior measures. (sciencemag.org)
  • A growing number of studies have focused on "preferential" behavior toward kin and the mechanisms of kin discrimination or recognition in animals as diverse as sweat bees, wasps, and tadpoles, on one hand, and ground squirrels, mice, and macaques on the other. (docme.ru)
  • The separate influences of spatial density and housing quality on the behavior of captive animals are difficult to measure because the two factors are often intrinsically linked. (awionline.org)
  • More studies are needed to determine the types of information intruders are obtaining about residents and how such information influences their behavior. (utica.edu)
  • To understand how development influences sociality, we are examining the ontogeny of feeding behavior and social relationships in immature gorillas. (mpg.de)
  • The crystal structures of VDR-LBD complexed with 3a, 4a, 5a, and 5c were solved, and the results confirmed that butyl pocket formation in VDR strongly affects the agonistic or antagonistic behaviors of ligands. (elsevier.com)
  • But findings have been conflicting, and some have proposed another hypothesis, termed "social salience" stating that oxytocin might be involved in amplifying the perception of diverse social cues, which could then result in pro-social or antagonistic behaviors, depending on such factors as individual character and their environment. (mpg.de)
  • As GEERG scientists, we have been engaged in non-traditional research since 1998 of the ecology and behavior of the Greenland shark in order to elucidate some of the mysteries surrounding this enigmatic animal. (xray-mag.com)
  • There are many opportunities for students to conduct research under my direction, and I am currently seeking motivated students interested in behavior and ecology. (utica.edu)
  • My work is at the interface between behavior, ecology and evolutionary biology with a central focus on the extent to which populations are at adaptive equilibria with respect to their physical and biotic environments. (utk.edu)
  • A major goal of the gorilla group at the MPI-EVAN is to understand the causes and consequences of variability in ecology, behavior, life histories, and population dynamics of gorillas. (mpg.de)
  • Most researchers define social behavior as the behavior shown by members of the same species in a given interaction. (ethology.eu)
  • That excludes behavior such as predation, which involves members of different species. (ethology.eu)
  • If so, then, sexual behavior is not social behavior when practiced by two individuals, but becomes social with three or more being involved, which is not unusual in some species. (ethology.eu)
  • [9] Lasioglossum species which occupy parts of Africa and central Europe demonstrate varying types of social behavior-ranging from solitary to communal and even semi-social. (wikipedia.org)
  • the evolution of of species adapted to different ecologies and behaviors. (sialis.org)
  • It is unclear how to balance the need to provide opportunities for species-appropriate behavior against potential risks of injury chimpanzees may inflict on each other. (usda.gov)
  • Many species perform elaborate physical displays to court mates and compete with rivals, but the biomechanical mechanisms underlying such behavior are poorly understood. (biologists.org)
  • The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species. (wikiquote.org)
  • If bonobos are the more derived species of Pan, then the selection pressure(s) that led to their evolution did not simply lead to juvenilization (e.g. bonobos develop sexual behavior before chimpanzees). (wikiquote.org)
  • SARAH GOUZOULES Rockefeller University Field Research Center, Millbrook, New York 12545 KEY WORDS Nepotism Kin recognition, Primates, Recognition mechanisms, ABSTRACT The degree to which cooperative behavior is kin-correlated in different primate species is reviewed. (docme.ru)
  • To a lesser extent, information is also available on "kin-correlated' behavior for those species that have been studied over several generations (most notably some Old World monkeys, e.g., the rhesus and Japanese macaque, and one of the great apes, the chimpanzee). (docme.ru)
  • Anyone who's gone camping has seen birds foraging for picnic crumbs, and according to new research in The Condor: Ornithological Applications, the availability of food in campgrounds significantly alters jays' behavior and may even change how they interact with other bird species. (brightsurf.com)
  • Butterflies: Agonistic display or courtship behavior? (brightsurf.com)
  • 73 74 DAZE", KUYK, OSWALD, MAHTEMON AKD ERWIN composition (primarily the presence or absence of adult males) on the expression of agonistic behavior by adult females. (docme.ru)
  • Therefore, studies of adult behavior conducted in the absence of developmental data may make unwarranted assumptions. (springer.com)
  • Administering P for 2 additional days attenuated reductions in maternal behavior latencies by E/P/EB, but did not reduce home-cage or maternal aggressiveness. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Behaviors of interest could be sexual and mating behavior, agonistic behavior, maternal behavior, etc. (noldus.com)
  • The relative importance of food a vailability and intruder pressure on breeding territorial behavior was studied in two experiments with male calliope hummingbirds. (springer.com)
  • We found that dominants were more likely than subordinates to counter-attack the resident aggressor during social defeat, and they showed less submissive and defensive behavior at conditioned defeat testing compared with subordinates. (nih.gov)
  • a) Duration (mean ± SE) of submissive/defensive behavior displayed by subordinates from both Group 1 (N = 25) and Group 2 (N = 23) during fourteen days of encounters. (nih.gov)
  • Dominants never displayed submissive/defensive behavior. (nih.gov)
  • We looked for c-Fos/FRA proteins in the brain of un-fought, control male crickets and of dominant and subordinate male crickets sacrificed at different time periods following an agonistic interaction. (nih.gov)
  • Continuous agonistic interaction increased c-Fos/FRA protein expression in the brains of subordinate males compared to control and dominant males. (nih.gov)
  • The study of social interaction can be done in a variety of set-ups, all having one thing in common: the study of behaviors between two or more animals. (noldus.com)
  • Agonistic behavior and electrical stimulation of the antennae induces Fos-like protein expression in the male cricket brain. (nih.gov)
  • In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. (utexas.edu)
  • Male white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ) exhibit signpost marking behavior during both the sexually active and quiescent periods (Marchinton et al. (springer.com)
  • Contrary to the predictions of FPDH regarding the success of nest defense behaviors, male redwings responding at naturally parasitized nests were significantly more likely to attack the mount than males with nests that were not parasitized, although our sample size was small. (bioone.org)
  • We use a uniquely appropriate fish model system dominance is reflected in maintaining a territory so when a vacated territory becomes available, a low-ranking male must quickly detect his absence, seize the opportunity to acquire this valuable resource, and initiate a dramatic transformation that spans from whole-organism behavior and coloration changes, to hormonal, cellular, and transcriptional-level changes throughout the body. (stanford.edu)
  • Presenting in captivity consists of a female lying down in front of a male and moving the tail away from the ano-genital region, while in the wild, no such behaviors were noted (van Roosmalen et al. (wisc.edu)
  • UV-filter benzophenone-3 inhibits agonistic behavior in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). (semanticscholar.org)
  • In an all-male, natural social setting, we would expect to see belligerent behavior as they compete for territory or food," says Anpilov. (mpg.de)
  • Hormones and Behavior , 43 (5), 549-553. (rti.org)
  • Stanozolol men and estradiol use for both agonistic behaviors in adulthood. (rokstok.com)
  • The neural basis for the ontogeny of behavior in vertebrates. (springer.com)
  • The importance of these closely related apes in the ontogeny of theories about the origins of human behavior cannot be overstated. (wikiquote.org)
  • These results are the first evidence that the 5-HTR1A gene potentially plays a role in regulating behavior in chimpanzees. (asp.org)
  • Chimpanzees also show sex differences in acquisition and both chimpanzees and bonobos demonstrate a female bias in tool use behaviors. (wikiquote.org)
  • The gestural repertoires of bonobos and chimpanzees are well documented, but the relationship between gestural signaling and positional behavior (i.e., body postures and locomotion) has yet to be explored. (wikiquote.org)
  • Dominant behavior is particularly important for social animals that need to cohabit and cooperate to survive. (ethology.eu)
  • When the test is performed 30 minutes after administration, there is a significant decrease of time allocated to offensive behaviors and nonsocial exploration and a significant increase in time devoted to immobility behavior in the animals that received haloperidol with respect to their controls. (psicothema.com)
  • As with all animals, horse behavior can be categorized. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Sex is the most potent selective force acting on animal behavior, shaping many aspects of animals' behavior and physiology. (stanford.edu)
  • The available evidence for kin-correlated behavior in nonhuman primates is subsequently related to recent theories of the probable selective pressures for, and mechanisms of, kin recognition. (docme.ru)
  • Our results, along with those reported by Maynard (1996), suggest a parasite-specific strategy involved in the behavior alteration caused by the acanthocephalans on their intermediate host. (scielo.cl)
  • Explores the ways in which genetics and the environment impact human behavior. (study.com)
  • Results suggest that the expansion success of A. alicemartinae could be explained by alternative strategies, such as escape behavior, asexual reproduction and high dispersal potential. (int-res.com)
  • Different mating systems, in conjunction with dispersal behavior, are hypothesized to produce particular patterns of kin association in primate groups. (docme.ru)
  • Effects of group composition on agonistic behavior of captive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina. (docme.ru)
  • yet, little research on the effects of captive conditions on the behavior and physiology of AM. J , PHYS. (docme.ru)
  • Effects of changing housing conditions on mangabey behavior (Cercocebus atys): Spatial density, housing quality, and novelty effects. (awionline.org)
  • Experiential effects on agonistic behavior in the paradise fish, Macropodus opercularis. (cogprints.org)
  • Endocrine disrupting chemicals and sexual behaviors in fish--a critical review on effects and possible consequences. (semanticscholar.org)
  • During the first hour of pairing INT females displayed higher levels of affiliation and lower levels of sniffing and agonistic behavior than SALOIL females. (rti.org)
  • There are profound sex differences in the expression of social behavior and in the incidence of many psychiatric disorders, and yet little is known about how the brain mechanisms underlying these phenomena differ in females and males. (pnas.org)
  • Lincoln, G. A., Guinness, F., and Short, R. V. 1972, The way in which testosterone controls the social and sexual behavior of the red deer stag (Cervus elaphus). (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, it seems to allow for the inclusion of everything else such as communication behavior, parental behavior, sexual behavior, and even agonistic behavior. (ethology.eu)
  • How is vertebrate sexual maturation and behavior controlled? (stanford.edu)
  • I]t is important to note that the infant bonobos showed little sexual behavior outside feeding time. (wikiquote.org)
  • Hirth, D. H. 1977, Social behavior of white-tailed deer in relation to habitat. (springer.com)
  • Monoamines dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and octopamine are recognized as important substances in modulating behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates (e.g. neurotransmitters, neuromodulators and neurohormones). (scielo.cl)
  • Individual differences in the behavior of juvenile yellow-bellied marmots. (springer.com)
  • Feeding behavior is influenced by learned patterns and preferences, palatability of the feed, the environment, and social associations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Some behaviors require little conditioning from the environment for the animal to display it while other behaviors require more. (ethology.eu)
  • Reactive behavior is a classification of activities used by an animal to keep itself in harmony with its environment and adjust to sudden, potentially harmful situations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Institute of Animal Behavior, Rutgers-State University of New Jersey, Newark 07102. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Each lesson is accompanied by a short multiple-choice quiz to help check your understanding of these animal behavior topics. (study.com)
  • We recorded behavior on four well-habituated groups (N = 18) for 2,183 animal hours over 128 days, using all-occurrences sampling methods. (asp.org)