Effect of chronic social stress on delta-opioid receptor function in the rat. (1/134)

Previous studies have shown that stressors modify endogenous opioid systems. However, the consequences of social stress on the function of endogenous opioid systems is not well documented. The present studies investigated the effect of rank and housing condition on response to SNC-80, a delta receptor agonist. Triad-housed rats were assessed for dominance status by their behavior and alteration in body weights. At 3 and 50 days, triad- and individually housed rats were injected with SNC-80 (35 mg/kg i.p.) or saline, and evaluated using a test battery consisting of open field behaviors, rectal temperature, analgesia, and air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. After 50 days of housing, plasma corticosterone, adrenal catecholamines, and the density of cyclic[D-penicillamine2-D-penicillamine2]enkephalin-stimu lat ed guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding in the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, arcuate, and median eminence were also determined. The first 24 h of triad housing resulted in loss of body weight in subdominant (betas and gammas) but not dominant alpha rats. SCN-80-induced hypothermia was smaller, and there was no depression of headpoke and locomotor behavior in the periphery and the center of the field of alpha rats, in contrast to subdominant and singly housed rats. Rank status did not influence SNC-80's analgesic effect or its inhibition of air-puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. Plasma corticosterone levels of alphas and gammas were lower compared with betas and singly housed rats. Agonist stimulation of delta receptor guanylyl 5'-[gamma[35S]thio]-triphosphate binding was lateralized in prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but not nucleus accumbens. Binding was highest in all brain areas of singly housed rats and lowest in the thalamus of beta and of gamma rats. Lateralized binding in amygdala, high locomotor activity, and sensory sensitivity correlated positively with greater sensitivity to SNC-80-induced depression in these measures. Higher binding in the right amygdala correlated with higher plasma corticosterone levels. These findings indicate that dominant rats displayed stimulant rather than depressant responses to delta-opioid activation. Therefore in rodents rank-related stress can alter responsiveness of the endogenous opioid system, and dominance can increase the excitatory effects of delta agonists.  (+info)

Agonistic behaviour and biogenic amines in shore crabs Carcinus maenas. (2/134)

To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but exercise only had an effect on octopamine levels, which showed a reduction from resting values in both winners and losers. Resting and post-fight concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT were higher in winners than in losers. 5-HT concentration increased in the blood of fought crabs from resting values, whereas dopamine concentration decreased. In winners, octopamine concentrations decreased from resting values, but in losers octopamine levels increased from resting concentrations. The escalatory behaviour or intensity of fighting performed by winners and losers was related to dopamine levels but not to those of octopamine or 5-HT. Therefore, there appears to be a link between relative concentrations of these three amines (dopamine, octopamine and 5-HT) and fighting ability; the effects are not simply a result of activity. The better competitors have higher concentrations of these three amines at rest and after fighting.  (+info)

Antagonism and accommodation: interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. (3/134)

Throughout the course of the 20th century, many observers have noted important tensions and antipathies between public health and medicine. At the same time, reformers have often called for better engagement and collaboration between the 2 fields. This article examines the history of the relationship between medicine and public health to examine how they developed as separate and often conflicting professions. The historical character of this relationship can be understood only in the context of institutional developments in professional education, the rise of the biomedical model of disease, and the epidemiologic transition from infectious disease to the predominance of systemic chronic diseases. Many problems in the contemporary burden of disease pose opportunities for effective collaborations between population-based and clinical interventions. A stronger alliance between public health and medicine through accommodation to a reductionist biomedicine, however, threatens to subvert public health's historical commitment to understanding and addressing the social roots of disease.  (+info)

Clinical trial of a feline pheromone analogue for feline urine marking. (4/134)

Thirty-six cases of feline urine marking problem were collected through the cooperation of veterinary practitioners in the Kanto, Chubu, and Kansai areas in Japan, for an assessment of the clinical effect of treatment with a synthetic analogue of a feline cheek gland pheromone-like product. The mean frequency of urine marking was 14.2 times/week (median, 10; range, 1-77) at pre-treatment week (preW), and decreased significantly from the first week of treatment, dropping to 4.2 times/week (median, 2; range, 0-44) at the fourth week of treatment. This effect continued until the fourth week after cessation of treatment. These 36 cases were divided into 3 groups based on the effectiveness of treatment as demonstrated in the fourth week of treatment; 37% was categorized as the totally eliminated group (urine marking was not seen), 40% as the reduced group (the frequency of urine marking was equal to or less than 50% that of the preW), and 23% as the unchanged group (the frequency of urine marking was more than 50% that of the preW). Effectiveness of treatment in these groups was 38%, 24%, and 38% at the fourth week after the cessation of treatment, respectively. The decreasing rate of urine marking was compared between cats with and without intercat aggression, and it was revealed that the frequency of marking was sustained at high level in cats with intercat aggression. These results suggest that this pheromone treatment is as effective in Japan as has been reported in other countries for solving feline urine marking problems.  (+info)

Bullying behaviors among US youth: prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. (5/134)

CONTEXT: Although violence among US youth is a current major concern, bullying is infrequently addressed and no national data on the prevalence of bullying are available. OBJECTIVES: To measure the prevalence of bullying behaviors among US youth and to determine the association of bullying and being bullied with indicators of psychosocial adjustment, including problem behavior, school adjustment, social/emotional adjustment, and parenting. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of data from a representative sample of 15 686 students in grades 6 through 10 in public and private schools throughout the United States who completed the World Health Organization's Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey during the spring of 1998. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Self-report of involvement in bullying and being bullied by others. RESULTS: A total of 29.9% of the sample reported moderate or frequent involvement in bullying, as a bully (13.0%), one who was bullied (10.6%), or both (6.3%). Males were more likely than females to be both perpetrators and targets of bullying. The frequency of bullying was higher among 6th- through 8th-grade students than among 9th- and 10th-grade students. Perpetrating and experiencing bullying were associated with poorer psychosocial adjustment (P<.001); however, different patterns of association occurred among bullies, those bullied, and those who both bullied others and were bullied themselves. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bullying among US youth is substantial. Given the concurrent behavioral and emotional difficulties associated with bullying, as well as the potential long-term negative outcomes for these youth, the issue of bullying merits serious attention, both for future research and preventive intervention.  (+info)

Anti-bullying interventions at school: aspects of programme adaptation and critical issues for further programme development. (6/134)

Recently, a growing interest in problems at school of peer aggression and victimization was observed. As a result, intervention strategies appropriate for this kind of problem were required. The Norwegian anti-bullying intervention that was developed and evaluated by Olweus (1992) in the region of Bergen was considered to be a good model for other countries to implement interventions against peer aggression within the school environment. It was therefore adapted to the educational settings of other countries. This paper aims to discuss the adaptation processes of the Bergen anti-bullying programme and to give guidelines to advance further programme development. For this, the DFE Sheffield Bullying Project (Smith and Sharp, 1994), the Anti-bullying Intervention in Toronto schools (Pepler et al., 1994) and the Flemish anti-bullying project (Stevens and Van Oost, 1994) were considered in the analyses. Discussion of the adaptation processes of the Bergen model programme revealed that the adapted interventions largely succeeded in incorporating the core components of the Bergen model programme, taking into account the characteristics of the implementation environment. This suggests that for bully/victim interventions, the dilemma of programme fidelity and programme adaptation could be solved adequately. However, from a health promotion perspective, some critical issues for programme improvement were observed. Three suggestions for change were made, indicating that anti-bullying actions at schools may benefit from: (i) a clear overview of the learning objectives, specified per target population; (ii) more attention to parental involvement and family interventions; and (iii) additional information about the adoption processes of the anti-bullying interventions within schools.  (+info)

The evolution of bourgeois, parasitic, and cooperative reproductive behaviors in fishes. (7/134)

Among vertebrate classes, fishes exhibit by far the greatest variability in competitive and cooperative behaviors in male reproduction. Scramble competition between reproductive males is one possibility. Another possibility occurs when resources, mates, or locations can be monopolized, in which case males may invest in primary access to fertilizations by adopting a "bourgeois" strategy, or they may employ alternative mating tactics to evade the reproductive monopoly of other males. Adaptations in morphology, physiology, and behavior to bourgeois and alternative phenotypes are highly divergent. Here I review the functional characteristics that differ between bourgeois and parasitic phenotypes, and discuss the variability of alternative reproductive tactics at the levels of plasticity, determination, and selection. Examples will illustrate the importance of ecology, and will suggest that variation in reproductive tactics is largely adaptive. Behavioral solutions to competition for mates and fertilizations often involve agonistic behavior and conflict, but also cooperation among competitors (e.g., when subordinate males pay a price to bourgeois males for gaining access to fertilizable eggs). Application of molecular genetic tools has helped to uncover intricate sexual and social relationships in various fish species, including species that display some of the most complex reproductive and social patterns known among the vertebrates.  (+info)

Competition for space among sessile marine invertebrates: changes in HSP70 expression in two Pacific cnidarians. (8/134)

The role of stress proteins-either constitutive (HSC) or inducible (HSP)-of the HSP70 family in intra- and interspecific competition for space was examined in two sessile Pacific cnidarians. Anthopleura elegantissima, an intertidal anemone, and Corynactis californica, a subtidal corallimorpharian, express HSP70 in the absence of apparent physical stress. HSP70 protein expression is concentrated in the tentacles of A. elegantissima when the animal is exposed to contact with other benthic organisms. Under the same conditions, however, HSP concentrations are similar in the body and tentacles of C. californica. When two different clones of A. elegantissima interact in the field, the outside polyps (warriors) express more HSP70 than the inside ones (2.4 versus 0.6 ng HSP70/microg Protein). When different C. californica clones interact, HSP70 expression in the outside and inside polyps is similar (1.5 versus 1.8 ng HSP70/microg P) and is fairly constant in the corallimorpharian in the different interspecific encounters. HSP70 expression is related to the different kinds of aggression encountered by both cnidarians. HSP70 expression may be involved in the recovery of tissues damaged by the allelochemical, cytotoxical, or corrosive substances produced by different enemies. C. californica clones appear prepared for war, as evidenced by the high constant expression of HSP70 in the polyps. A. elegantissima exhibits differential HSP70 expression depending on the identity of each neighboring intra- or interspecific sessile competitor. We propose that stress proteins can be used to quantify space competition or aggression among sessile marine invertebrates.  (+info)

*Dear enemy effect

Burrow-holding males engage in agonistic contests with both intruding males that attempt burrow take-overs and with other ... As territory owners become accustomed to their neighbours, they expend less time and energy on defensive behaviors directed ... 71-83 Alcock, John (2009). Animal Behavior, 9th Ed. Sinauer Associates. pp. 281-282. ISBN 978-0-87893-225-2. Bee, M.A., (2003 ... Animal Behaviour, 65: 391-396 McMann, S. and Paterson, A.V., (2012). Display behavior of resident brown anoles (Anolis sagrei) ...

*Channel catfish

These cells do not open directly to the surface of the skin, but injury caused by fighting and other agonistic behaviors may ... 2006). "Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication". Communication in Fishes. 1: 121-148. Fine, Michael L. (1996). " ... Feeding behavior to food is due to amino acids released by food. It is reported that this causes maxillary and mandibular ... Different sounds may be used for different functions in communication, such as in behavior towards predators and in asserting ...

*Mexican howler

in the American Journal of Primatology; November 2001 Klein, L. L. (1974). Agonistic behavior in neotropical primates. In ... The Mexican howler exhinbits limited interaction with members of its species and very minor aggressive behavior. There is ... Females also show aggression when asserting dominance, though this is usually limited to harassment behavior like hair pulling ...

*Catfish

2006). "Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication". Communication in Fishes. 1: 121-148. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... According to a study by Kaatz, sounds for disturbance (e.g. alarm) and agonistic behavior were not significantly different, ... This is a very important fish communication mechanism, especially during agonistic and distress behaviors. Catfish are able to ... During courtship behavior in three species of Corydoras catfishes, all males actively produced stridulation sounds before egg ...

*William Lay Thompson

Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I. Annual Cycle and Display Patterns. The Condor, 62(4) :245-271. Agonistic ... Agonistic Behavior of the House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). University of California Graduate Division, Northern Section. ... Singing behavior of the Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) (U. S. A.) Abstracts - XI Congressus Internationalis Ornithologicus. ... Singing Behavior of the Indigo Bunting, Passerina cyanea, Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, 31 :39-59. A Behavioral and ...

*House finch

Thompson, William L (1960). "Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... Evanden, Fred G. (1957). "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ...

*Marginocephalia

"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia, Dinosauria); a new look at head-butting behavior". Rocky Mountain ... or for horn-locking agonistic behavior. The study of sexual dimorphism in dinosaurs is incredibly difficult. The varying size ... or to butt into the softer flank of other pachycephalosaurs for intraspecific communication or as a form of agonistic behavior ... Snively, Eric; Cox, Andres (2008). "Structural Mechanics of Pachycephalosaur Crania Permitted Head-Butting Behavior". ...

*West African bichir

2006). "Five: Agonistic Behavior and Acoustic Communication" (PDF). Communication in Fishes. Science Publications. pp. 122-148 ...

*Courtship display

In many primate species, males direct agonistic behavior towards females prior to courtship behaviors. Such behavior can ... agonistic behavior between males and females during courtship displays is seen in nature. Intraspecific agonistic behavior that ... However, agonistic behavior that turns dangerous does occur. In some species, physical traits that are sexually selected for in ... In some birds and mammals, the male may participate in agonistic behaviors with other candidate males. Although rare, ...

*Autothysis

doi:10.1007/s00040-011-0210-x. Sands, W.A. (1982). "Agonistic behavior of African soldierless apico-termitinae (Isoptera, ... Shorter, J.R.; Reuppell, O. (2011). "A review on self-destructive defense behaviors in social insects". Insectes Sociaux. 59 (1 ... C. Bordereau; A. Robert; V. Van Tuyen; A. Peppuy (1997). "Suicidal defensive behavior by frontal gland dehiscence in ...

*Bare-tailed woolly opossum

Individuals tend to be aggressive to one another; hisses, grunts and even distress calls accompany agonistic behavior. Largely ... A study of the foraging behavior of the bare-tailed woolly opossum and the sympatric kinkajou showed that both feed on a ...

*Austrolestes colensonis

... agonistic behavior. Larvae remain still and sit in one spot for hours and are easily bothered by disturbance. Rowe (1992) ... Rowe , R. J. (1992). Agonistic behaviour in final-instar larvae of Austrolestes colensonis (Odonata: Lestidae). New Zealand ... Lock On Austrolestes colensonis also exhibit thermoregulation behavior. There are two mechanisms involved: physiological colour ... When the animal displayed this type of movement others joined in and followed the same behavior. Slow Pull Down Abdomen Raise ...

*Agonistic behaviour

page needed] McGlone JJ (April 1986). "Agonistic behavior in food animals: review of research and techniques". Journal of ... Although agonistic behaviour varies among species, agonistic interaction consists of three kinds of behaviours: threat, ... though ritualistic or display behaviours are the most common form of agonistic behaviours. The type of agonistic behaviour ... Some forms of agonistic behaviour are between contestants who are competing for access to the same resources, such as food or ...

*Kangaroo rat

Newmark, J. E.; Jenkins, S. H. (April 2000). "Sex Differences in Agonistic Behavior of Merriam's Kangaroo Rats (Dipodomys ... This caching behavior affects the range-land and croplands where the animals live. Kangaroo rats must harvest as much seed as ... Schroder, G. D. (August 1979). "Foraging Behavior and Home Range Utilization of the Bannertail Kangaroo Rat". Ecology. ...

*Cape ground squirrel

Home ranges can overlap however core areas are defended though agonistic behavior. Male group live in home ranges envelop those ... Males groups number up to 19 individuals who are not related and are not agonistic. Within a male group, 4-5 males may form ... During agonistic encounters, squirrels emit deep growls as signs of aggression. Juvenile squirrels make play calls, nest- ... When threatened by predators, like snakes, ground squirrel will engage in mobbing behavior. Multiple squirrels will rush at the ...

*Platystomatidae

Agonistic behavior in Achias australis (Diptera, Platystomatidae) and the significance of eyestalks. In: Blum, M. S. and Blum, ... Families of acalyptrate flies exhibiting morphological development associated with agonistic behaviour include: Clusiidae, ... all of which serve to supplement agonistic behaviour. Such behaviour underlies social and sexual interaction between ...

*Wedge-capped capuchin

This dominance hierarchy is particularly helpful in explaining female-initiated agonistic behavior. Females higher in the ... Even more interesting is that this nursing behavior in wedge-capped capuchins is not correlated with relatedness. This behavior ... Grooming behavior plays an important role in the group dynamics of wedge-capped capuchins. Grooming may be a way for both sub- ... Foraging behavior varies seasonally, as well as with age and sex. In general, these monkeys spend approximately equal amounts ...

*Stygimoloch

"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia:Dinosauria): a new look at head-butting behavior". Contributions to ... the small dome of Stygimoloch suggests that this behavior was not as important. Instead, the skull ornament might have ...

*Black-eared mouse

1996). "Interspecific agonistic behavior in small mammals in a Mexican high-elevational grassland". Journal of Zoology. 239 (2 ...

*Zygoballus sexpunctatus

Z. sexpunctatus males exhibit ritualized agonistic behavior when encountering other males of the same species. This behavior ... sexpunctatus males exhibit ritualized courtship and agonistic behavior. The specific name is derived from the Latin sex meaning ... During agonistic display, males will also extend their pedipalps and fangs. Lethal attacks between males appear to be rare, ... "Gallery of Salticid Behavior: A Collection of Digital Photographs that Represent Interesting, or Little-known, Aspects of ...

*Homalocephale

"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia:Dinosauria): a new look at head-butting behavior". Contributions to ...

*Emperor tamarin

Social Behavior of the Emperor Tamarin in Captivity: Components of Agonistic Display and the Agonistic Network. Research . ... Long calls and tongue flicking was sometimes part of the agonistic behavior repertoire. Communication is a key behavior, a ... y Donald Stone Sade there has been found that these species have an agonistic behavior and a dominance rank in their colony, ... The dynamics of agonistic relations within a group is not just only for the status of the breeding pair but may also influence ...

*Estemmenosuchidae

They are distinguished by horn-like structures, probably for display or agonistic behavior. Apart from the best known genus, ...

*Kob

Territoriality and the spatial distribution of sexual and agonistic behavior at a territorial ground. Z. Tierpsychol, 37:192- ... "Wild Fact #292 - Better Than Corn On The Cob - Kob". Buechner, H. K., Schleoth,R. K., (1965) Ceremonial mating behavior in ... Estes, R. (1991). The Behavior Guide to African Mammals, Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Los Angeles, The ...

*Pachycephalosauria

"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia:Dinosauria): a new look at head-butting behavior" (PDF). Contributions to ... lends strong support to the hypothesis that pachycephalosaurids used their unique cranial structures for agonistic behavior. ... Lehman 2010 argued that the growth patterns discussed by Goodwin and Horner are not inconsistent with head-butting behavior. ... Anatomical evidence for combative behavior includes vertebral articulations providing spinal rigidity, and the shape of the ...

*Field sparrow

Ph.D. (1974). AGONISTIC AND COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR OF FIELD SPARROWS, SPIZELLA PUSILLA (WILSON). University of Michigan, United ... 1969). On Territorial Behavior and Other Factors Influencing Habitat Distribution in Birds Part 3 Breeding Success in a Local ... 2001). Nest desertion by field sparrows and its possible influence on the evolution of Cowbird behavior. The Auk. vol 118, no 3 ... Ph.D. (1972). THE VOCAL BEHAVIOR OF THE FIELD SPARROW. The Ohio State University, United States, Ohio. Heckenlively DB. ...

*Pachycephalosaurus

"Agonistic behavior in pachycephalosaurs (Ornithischia: Dinosauria): a new look at head-butting behavior" (pdf). Contributions ... In 2012, a study showed that cranial pathologies in a P. wyomingensis specimen were likely due to agonistic behavior. It was ... lends strong support to the hypothesis that pachycephalosaurids used their unique cranial structures for agonistic behavior. CT ... Accessed 2012 Dec 4. Snively E, Theodor JM (2011) "Common Functional Correlates of Head-Strike Behavior in the Pachycephalosaur ...
We investigated the effects of sex, age, season and competitive context on the intergroup agonistic behaviour of free-ranging dogs (Canis familiaris). Data were collected in different places to record competitive cooperative behaviour during intergroup conflicts. Observations of 21 free-ranging dogs belonging to four neighbouring groups were made in Katwa town, India. Throughout the 12-month study period, 85 % of all intergroup agonistic interactions recorded were aggressive and 15 % submissive. Intergroup aggressive interactions were more frequent during the late monsoon months when the females were in oestrus, while submissive interactions reached a peak during the winter months when the females were lactating. Adult dogs, particularly males, displayed a higher rate of aggressive behaviour than other age classes, whereas juvenile dogs, particularly males, displayed the highest rate of submissive behaviour. Male dogs were observed to perform more agonistic behaviours in mating contexts and at ...
In many social species, there are important connections between social behaviour and reproduction that provide critical insights into the evolution of sociality. In this study, we describe associations between agonistic behaviour and male reproductive success in stable social groups of bluebanded gobies (Lythrypnus dalli). This highly social, sex-changing species forms linear hierarchies of a dominant male and multiple subordinate females. Males reproduce with each female in the harem and care for the eggs. Since aggression tends to be associated with reduced reproduction in social hierarchies, we hypothesized that males in groups with high rates of aggression would fertilise fewer eggs. We also hypothesized that a males agonistic behaviour would be associated with his reproductive success. Dominants often exert substantial control over their harem, including control over subordinate reproduction. To address these hypotheses, we quantified egg laying/fertilisation over 13 days and observed agonistic
In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves from play fighting to adult aggression. Attack types change as targets ...
In comparison to studies investigating the roles of 5-HT1, 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors in aggressive behaviour there is a dearth of material examining the function of 5-HT4 receptors in this behaviour. In view of this, the current study examined the effects of the 5-HT4 receptor partial agonist RS 67333 and antagonist RS 39604 in murine agonistic behaviour. RS 67333 failed to produce any significant changes in the offensive. Significant variation in the frequency of evade behaviour was detected but this occurred between treatment groups rather than with controls. Interestingly, both the frequency and duration of stretched attend behaviour were increased by RS 67333 0.1 mg/kg, a result indicative of increased risk assessment. The administration of RS 39604 (0.01 - 1 mg/kg) produced significant variation in the fre-quency and duration of following, and aggressive grooming. Frozen crouch behaviour was also increased significantly at 0.1 mg/kg. It is concluded that since the 5-HT4 receptor ligands employed in
Yanai, J and Ginsburg, B E., "Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol." (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 2397 ...
Discussion. At 4 days of age, Banana group piglets did not show an immediate preference for the scented arm of the V-maze, but later recognized and were attracted to the scent, as the total time spent in this arm was higher than that spent in the nonscented arm, in agreement with the work of authors such as Morrow-Tesch and McGlone.21 These investigators found that piglets showed greater preference for an odor they contacted at an early age and were able to identify it during the first few hours after birth. Furthermore, our results suggest that as the piglets matured, the bond between Banana group individuals and the banana odor strengthened. This conclusion is based on the preference of a greater number of Banana group piglets to enter the scented arm first and their significantly lower frequency for changing arms. Furthermore, Banana group piglets spent more time in the scented arm than did Control group piglets. The V-maze test at 21 days of age shows that the Banana group piglets, which had ...
In a previous study (Navarro, Miñarro and Simón, 1993) it was observed that 24 hours after administration of haloperidol, this drug still showed antiaggressive effects while immobility effects disappeared. Likewise, other studies have shown prolonged behavioural effects after one moderate dose of the drug (Cohen, Babb, Campbell and Baldessarini, 1988). Typically quoted halflives for neuroleptics, including haloperidol, are approximately 24 hours or less (Baldessarini, 1990); however, there is suggestive evidence that elimination of haloperidol slows with time after dosing (Hubbard, Ganes and Midha, 1987) and that the near terminal elimination half-life may be measured in days rather than hours (Cohen et al, 1988). Recently, Cohen, Tsuneizumi, Baldessarini, Campbell and Babb (1992) have determined the persistence of haloperidol (1 mg/kg ip) in rat plasma and brain tissue, using high pressure liquid cromatography. In this study, the authors found that plasma levels of the drug were not ...
Agami Heron (1) American Bittern (1) American Kestrel (3) American Oystercatcher (2) American White Pelican (2) Andean Cock-of-the-rock (1) Anhinga (1) Aplomado Falcon (1) Ash-throated Flycatcher (1) Azure-crowned Hummingbird (4) Bairds Sandpiper (1) Bald Eagle (5) Baltimore Oriole (1) Banded Wren (1) Bank Swallow (1) Bare-throated Tiger-heron (1) Barn Swallow (1) Barred Antshrike (1) Barred Forest-falcon (1) Berylline Hummingbird (1) Bicknells Thrush (2) Bird identification (17) Birding Rally Challenge (4) Black Caracara (1) Black Noddy (1) Black Storm-Petrel (1) Black Tern (3) Black Vulture (1) Black-and-white Owl (1) Black-and-white Warbler (1) Black-billed Cuckoo (2) Black-capped Squirrel Monkey (1) Black-fronted Nunbird (1) Black-headed Trogon (1) Black-necked Stilt (3) Black-throated Blue Warbler (3) Black-throated Green Warbler (5) Blackburnian Warbler (1) Blackpoll Warbler (1) Blue-and-white Swallow (1) Blue-footed Booby (2) Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (3) Blue-gray Tanager (1) Blue-hooded ...
1. Behavior patterns of blue crabs (Callinectes safridus) were observed in both field and laboratory. Most agonistic acts employ the chelipeds, which can serve as organs of expression as well as weapons. They are spread in threat, used to ward off or grasp an opponent, or folded in
This experiment consisted of 75 different pairs composed of two male adults Xiphophorus helleri meeting each other twice. On the first occasion, one of the fish was familiarized with the meeting place for 3h (resident) while its opponent was familiarized with another aquarium (intruder). Upon dominance of one individual over the other, the pair members were separated and returned to their respective home groups for 168 hours (7 days). After this period of separation, the same pair members were reunited and met while roles had been reversed: the initial resident became the intruder, and the initial intruder was given prior-residency. Individuals in the initial resident role defeated the initial intruder in a significant majority of cases (76%). On their second meeting, the newly established dominance relationship was noted in favour of the new resident in a significant majority of cases (82%), and in a reversed direction as compared to the initially established dominance order. This shows that ...
Though social behavior has not been overlooked by behavior geneticists, the number of studies is small when compared to those on individual traits. One reason for the neglect may be the difficulty of making connections between genes and social behaviors, which by definition involve the interaction of two or more organisms. Fuller and Hahn (1976) addressed this issue and described three means of establishing social groups that would facilitate genetic analysis. We survey the literature on agonistic behavior in mice from 1976 through 1994 and describe interesting uses of those three methods. One of those methods (the standard tester design) often employs a "noninteractive" social partner. We present data showing that the standard tester design may be more valuable when using an evocative and interactive standard tester. ...
From Agonistic Behavior to Dominance Hierarchy: An Evolutionary Parable. Picture a wild animal of your morphological choosing. Its solitary and highly territorial. Outside the mating season most of its encounters with conspecifics take the form of agonistic clashes over resources. It has consequently evolved some fairly simple neurocognitive machinery for dealing effectively in these encounters. What it does, briefly put, is first assess the size of any competing conspecific relative to itself and then do one of two things: If the conspecific is clearly bigger, the animal flees; if it is roughly the same size or smaller, the animal attacks and attempts to drive it off.. Now, suppose the habitat of this animal shrinks dramatically, squeezing the entire population into a very limited (but still survivable) space and greatly increasing the encounter rate between individuals. This solitary species, in other words, is forced into a kind of impromptu sociality. Now, under these new conditions a ...
Parasites can influence traits related to the fitness of the host, including host behavior. I studied the behavior of the Ozark zigzag salamander (Plethodon angusticlavius), that was naturally infected with the larval stage of an ectoparasitic mite (Hannemania eltoni) to determine if parasitism was associated with altered behavioral patterns. Experiments were designed to answer three specific questions: (1) Can level of parasitism be detected via chemical cues by conspecifics? (2) Does level of parasitism influence agonistic behavior of males in male-male interactions? and (3) Is parasitism associated with altered foraging behavior of females? In experiment 1, males and females were tested in separate two-choice experiments in the following test conditions: (a) fecal pellet of male with low parasite load versus fecal pellet of male with high parasite load, (b) fecal pellet of male with low parasite load versus control (chemical blank) pellet, and (c) fecal pellet of male with high parasite load versus
Environmental factors. Lack of socialization or unfortunate experiences with strangers during the "sensitive" period of development (3 to 12 weeks of age) sets the stage for fear aggression. Relative isolation from strangers leads to a global mistrust and suspicion of unfamiliar persons, whereas adverse experiences produce more targeted response. Men and children are most likely to be the subjects of dogs fearfulness with respect to of people, probably because of their greater propensity for agonistic behavior toward animals. Although the early period of life provides the most rapid and indelible form of learning, extremely distressing incidents later in life can also result in permanent learning of the regrettable type. In their wisdom, dogs sometimes generalize their learning to include all men or all children, though fearful learning can be as specific as being associated with only men wearing tall hats or men with white beards. A pup that is destined to become fear-aggressive is usually ...
Bone cracking capabilities also independently developed in two lineages of late Cenozoic Canidiae in North America (hesperocyonines and borophagines). Interestingly, both lineages also exhibit a zigzag pattern of crystalline fibers in the enamel which increased the enamels strength. I wonder if any theropods had such an enamel pattern? Cheers, Guy Leahy ---------------------------------------- , Date: Sun, 9 Aug 2009 20:11:54 -0700 , From: [email protected] , To: [email protected] , CC: [email protected]; [email protected] , Subject: Bone-eating (was RE: T.rex was a chicken) , , , , Jaime Headden wrote: , , ,, We assume that carnivores are in fact biting herbivores; ,, this is a given. Bite marks on other bones show this to be ,, the case (as in *Sinraptor* agonistic behavior, a ,, *Triceratops* ilium and sacrum with tooth gouges and holes, ,, etc. What we do not assume here is the particularly ,, intentional habit of taking whole, defleshed bone and ,, processing it orally for the purpose of ...
When Benjamin Bergen was working on his new book about profanity, the reaction he would most often get was bafflement. Why would he want to write about vulgarity, profanity and cussin? His answer, as a cognitive scientist, is that expletives are more than just vulgar expressions we let slip when we stub a toe or a…. .repubhubembed{display:none;}. ...
Numerous forms of behaviour have been described as aggression , varying in terms of the situations in which they occur, their presumed functions and underlaying physiologies (Moyer, 1968, Brain, 1981). Because attack and defensive/submissive behaviours are intimately related, many scientists prefer to use the term agonistic behaviour to encompass the entire continuum involved in conflict. The agonistic interaction that has been most studied is that of intraspecific aggression between males. Such behaviour is ritualized , in that it seems to involve injury-limiting strategies, and its function seems to be the increasing of the possibility of gaining access to a resource (a mate, territory or social status), closely concerned with reproduction.. The concept of dominance where one animal takes precedence over another is intimately associated with the above type of aggression. Much controversy surrounds the dominance-subordination relationship, although a consensus holds that it is a relationship ...
Vice-Admiral Nagumo, who was transferred to shore duty after the battle, reported to the Combined Fleet with greater than usual insight and honesty, "This battle was a tactical win, but a shattering strategic loss for Japan. Considering the great superiority of our enemys industrial capacity, we must win every battle overwhelmingly to win this war. This last one, although a victory, unfortunately, was not an overwhelming victory." Naval victories are usually counted in ships lost but given the destruction of the cream of the Japanese Navys aircrews, it could even be argued that, in the case of the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, the Japanese came off worst. Reporting several weeks after the battle, Nimitz too correctly calibrated the result of the battle: "This battle cost us the lives of many gallant men, many planes and two ships that could ill be spared... We nevertheless turned back the Japanese again in their offensive to regain Guadalcanal and shattered their carrier air strength on ...
Following the suicide of a 14-year-old Iowa student who was bullied, two state lawmakers want to set up an anti-bullying hotline....
Since I was quite apalled by the AN staff to enforce profanity on groups and such, I would just like to arise the question why swearing is bad at all, and why…
I laughed out loud at Blairs comments about choreographing my victory dance because I was just thinking about how close I am to doing a victory dance when I happened to log on and read his comment. Im not sure if I should try to do a back flip in the NIH parking lot, especially since Ive never really been coordinated enough before chemo to attempt a back flip. I could do some sort of end zone dance and spike a football as I run laps around my car in front of the building. Do I scream "WOO HOOOOOOOOOOOOO!" as I leave the building or save that for after my CT/PET scan results on August 16th? I feel like celebrating at least this first part because I wont need chemo (hopefully) ever again and Im excited. I know I may have a hospital visit next week to look "forward to," but at least the chemo part is DONE! No more chemo coladas for me and hopefully Priscilla is nothing but a tiny nit and nothing to worry about any more ...
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What was the scope of Barack Obamas victory? His 365 electoral votes (the number so far-Missouri remains too close to call) represent a formidable tally, more than double John McCains 162. True, Obamas electoral-vote total as of this writing is smaller than Bill Clintons in either 1992 (370) or 1996 (379). But it is worth remembering that because of Ross Perots third-party candidacies in those years, Clinton did not receive 50 percent of the popular vote in either race-he won 43 percent in 1992 and precisely 49.24 percent four years later, whereas Obama took about 52.6 percent, beating McCain by 6.5 percent. Jimmy Carter won just 297 electoral votes in 1976 and defeated Gerald Ford by only 1.7 million votes out of 80 million cast.1. When measuring victory by some combination of electoral and popular votes, then, one must go back to 1964, when Lyndon Johnson won 61 percent of the popular vote and 486 electoral votes to Barry Goldwaters 52, to find a more impressive Democratic win. Obama ...
November 18-22 has been designated Anti-Bullying Week in Ontario. While we focus on anti-bullying education throughout the year, this week helps us to really focus our attention on this important issue. Bullying comes in many forms; we want to help our students understand what bullying is and some support strategies to get through difficult times. Above all else, when we see that we ... Continue reading "Nov. 18-22: Anti-Bullying Week at SGG!". ...
They must now hope for a comprehensive victory over Zimbabwe in Bulawayo on Tuesday and that England lose by a big margin to Australia tomorrow for them to qualify on net run rate.. Rahul Dravid and Yuvraj Singh sealed the victory with a magnificent partnership of 99 off 114 balls when Tendulkar departed just short of what would have been his 35th one-day century.. Singh scored an exceptional half-century off just 53 balls with six fours, while Dravid hit the winning boundary to finish with 44 not out.. Tendulkar carved his way past 12,000 runs in his innings and recorded his 60th half century in quick time, falling just short of what would have been the third quickest century in World Cup history.. Tendulkar took on the Pakistani bowling from the beginning, putting on a 50 partnership with Virender Sehwag in just five overs before Pakistan captain Waqar Younis struck twice in as many balls to give his side a glimmer of hope.. Sehwag was on 21 off just 14 balls before he hit one off Waqar on the ...
The only thing that would have made this victory sweeter is if we could of all been there cheering, together! Victories in football for our Utah State Aggies are so sweet and very much appreciated. Tonight they defeated BYU at home. Its been a long time since this has happened ... 1993. Go Aggies. Love my school. Thanks, Natalie for the picture ...
We identified strong connections between L. dalli social network structure and multiple aspects of reproduction, including male RS. Overall, fewer eggs hatched in high-density social networks (figure 1a), similar to our previous study [36]. We demonstrated that a specific pattern of agonistic interaction was responsible: males were more successful in social networks with low agonistic reciprocity (figure 1b,c). Across species, hierarchies are defined by asymmetrical agonism, directed from dominant to subordinate [17]. Although L. dalli hierarchies were linear, the variation we observed in reciprocity indicates that subordinates can and do displace dominants, an action that reduced, or was reduced by, fitness. Reciprocity was negatively related to HS (figure 1c), specifically, and factor analysis identified a central role for agonism directed at beta females by alpha and gamma females (figure 3a,b). Using different analytical methods, we previously identified a role for these females, suggesting ...
I know it is not polite to brag. However, when you have a special needs child, bragging tends to come with the territory. Especially when your childs prognosis for neurological status and mental capacity are unknown. Marissa has Agenisis of the Corpus Callosum. This means that the piece of her brain that connects the left and right hemispheres and allows them to communicate is missing some parts. At this time in her life, no one can tell us what, if any, effect this diagnosis will have on her future and her ability to learn. It is a wait and see kind of game. It is cause for celebration your special needs child reaches a milestone or accomplishes something you as a parent were not sure they would. Therefore, I choose not to call it bragging. I call it a victory dance. So join me in a little victory dance for Marissa, wont you?. ...
Social learning can be defined as learning influenced by observation of, or interaction with, another animal [30]. It thus encompasses two rather different processes. Learning through social interaction, including social play and agonistic interactions, generally involves the acquisition of social skills. Learning via social information is essential for the acquisition of non-social skills, although it may also be used in the acquisition of social skills (e.g. through eavesdropping: [31]). This second kind of social learning can take different forms of varying complexity, ranging from mechanisms as simple as local or stimulus enhancement to complex forms of imitation (e.g. summarized in [32]). It must be pointed out, however, that most social learning in animals is not direct copying. Indeed, along with a variable involvement of dedicated cognitive mechanisms [33-35], social learning almost invariably includes an important element of individual evaluation [36], and may indeed largely rely on ...
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I went in for my P+3 US to confirm that my follicle ruptured. Well it was my lucky day bc they asked me which nurse I wanted and my favorite nice nurse J was there. She does not judge me and she takes her time and explains everything. She said my lining looked great and luteal. I think my follicle ruptured which would be a huge victory. My ovary is covered in junk and I have a large pocket of fluid so it was really hard for her to say 100%. But, I did not see the obvious follicle. Usually I go in and it has grown and will mock me. In fact she said she saw a possible corpus luteum.......Woah!!!!! I have never heard those words before. This is all due to the lupron trigger. This was my first time taking it so I cannot say that it is really working until it happens again. I will take my happy thoughts bc I really needed some today. So if this is true then it will be a huge victory bc I have only had one other possible rupture in a year. I have to remember that I still have to address my new ...
In learning genetics, many students misunderstand and misinterpret what "dominance" means. Understanding is easier if students realize that dominance is not a mechanism, but rather a consequence of underlying cellular processes. For example, metabolic pathways are often little affected by changes in enzyme concentration. This means that enzyme-producing alleles usually show complete dominance. For genes producing nonenzymatic proteins such as collagen or hemoglobin, the amount of product matters, and dominance relationships are more complicated. Furthermore, with hemoglobin, dominance can change depending on what aspect of the phenotype is being studied and on the environmental conditions. X-linked genes are a special case, whether enzymatic or not. Because of X-chromosome inactivation, only one X-linked allele can be active in a cell, which means that the concept of dominance cannot be applied at the cellular level. Instead, a type of dominance is demonstrated at the individual level; but even ...
Simulations enabled us to test the relative importance of individual aspects of the melanistic phenotype (such as a mating advantage for melanistic individuals) in facilitating gene flow between host plants. Indeed, the simulations found that the presence of melanistic T. cristinae reduced adaptive differentiation between populations on different hosts and increased rates of inter-host mating (see figure below). These results show how the melanistic phenotype acts as an anti-speciation phenotype, mitigating the effects of divergent selection acting on the stripe phenotype. Moreover, we found that these results were robust to removing individual factors attributed to the melanistic phenotype, such as their mating advantage or their propensity to disperse. The one factor that, when removed from the model, did reduce the anti-speciation effect of melanistic individuals was the genetic architecture of the colour and pattern traits: when we removed dominance relationships among alleles at the ...
In my eyes the problem starts when people dont realize theyre ignoring all the non confrontational polite calming signals directed towards you. If youre doing something theyre not comfortable with the majority of the time theyll let you know well in advance that its not sitting well with them. Subtle signs like; the look away, lick lips, sniff, back away, yawn. If you dont take note at that time, the dog will kick things up a notch and use more overt agonistic signals like; freeze, hairy eyeball, growl, lunge, air snap, or even a pressure bite, barely felt by your skin. If they INHIBIT themselves from a full on bite, puncture and tear causing stitches...I call all those signals being "opinionated ...
We also heard from John Councelman, a representative of CMS, who talked about how we can become more involved in the anti-bullying scene in Mecklenburg Schools. We discussed attending an anti-bullying Summit in late October as either participants or volunteers. After designing a Beyond Bullying Week last year at South Mecklenburg High School, we have decided to continue engaging in the fight against bullying in our area, and hopefully, Mr. Councelman can help us find opportunities to help ...
If you are aware of bullying in the workplace and do not take action, then you are accepting a share of the responsibility for any future abuses. This means that witnesses of bullying behavior should be encouraged to report any such incidences. Individuals are less likely to engage in antisocial behavior when it is understood that the organization does not tolerate such behavior and that the perpetrator is likely to be punished ...
Hi Fiona and Tyson, Firstly, I want to say how brave I think Tyson is, and how proud you must be, Fiona, that Tyson has been handling this situation so far. The school will definitely need to be notified of these incidents asap as schools have a zero tolerance policy when it comes to bullying. Step 1 is to ensure the school has the information so they can deal with the child(ren) involved in the bullying. Because you live in Toronto, you might be very interested to hear that the Toronto Argonauts are VERY involved with speaking at schools regarding anti-bullying. Please see this link for their program entitled Huddle Up Bullying Prevention Program http://www.argonauts.ca/page/huddleupOur childrens school was included in a visit last month for an anti-bullying rally in which one of the Toronto Argonauts along with one of the staff came to our school TWICE - once to talk to the kids, and then in the evening to speak to the parents. It was GREAT and the kids and parents loved it! The evening talk ...
We had no idea about sports bullying until we began talking to parents, coaches and bullying experts about how bullying causes kids to lose confidence
June 26-27, 2014 , Wyndham Peachtree Hotel and Conference Center , Peachtree City, GA. We would like to thank all of our sponsors/partners!. ...
Gee, shocked again. A left wing moonbat faggot wishes oral cancer on Sarah Palin. Hmm, wonder what the reaction would have been had Palin said she saw the upside of aids? http://twitchy.com/2013/05/04/sarah-palins-tobacco-dip-shows-anti-bullying-advocate-dan-savage-the-upsides-of-oral-cancer/
The same teammates who once shunned the goalkeeper Hope Solo were the beneficiaries of her steadiness as the United States won the Olympic gold medal with a victory over Brazil in overtime.
NEWS ANALYSIS: Apple has won $1.048 billion in a patent victory against Samsung that could spark major changes in both the companies operations as well as in the mobile industry as a whole.
Queensland pensioner and grandmother, 69-year-old Yvonne DArcy, who has twice beaten breast cancer, won an important victory in the High Court on October 7. DArcy brought a landmark legal challenge against US-based biotech company Myriad Genetics after it was granted a patent over the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations in the genes dramatically increase a womans chance of
Connors wins match, 1st victory since 89Jimmy Connors is back, and Andre Agassi and Boris Becker are still around -- barely. Connors, 38, won for the first time since October 1989 when he beat
Chris Kamara compares and contrasts victories for Chelsea, Arsenal, Manchester City and Liverpool after all of the Premier Leagues top four won this weekend.
I have to admit, on my first glance through this paper early this morning it made me drop a bunch of profanities in my living room. Then I moved down to the figures and stared at the ceiling for a while and realized that this has some merit and may just be a way of looking at MS/MS spectra that Ive never considered and that I maybe I was just being sleepy, under caffeinated, and a little old fashioned. BTW, if you know me you know I pretty much drop profanities all the time. (Recent uncited studies circulating Facebook have suggested that people who swear a lot may be more honest...just saying...aaaannnnnddddd....Snopes says this is another viral silly thing...fucking skeptics...nevermind ...
WASHINGTON  -- WARNING: This story contains graphic language. White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders defended Anthony Scaramuccis vulgar attacks on Reince Priebus Thursday night, just hours after she was unable to say if the President has confidence in his chief of staf...
Luckily, I have been fortunate enough in my 27 years of existence to have avoided the need for any surgical procedures; however, Ive experienced being put to sleep twice. If youve never had anesthesia before, I will be the first to tell you that entering a state of sleep that borders death isnt half bad.…
With UFC 134: Silva vs. Okami being the UFCs return to Brazil and such a big event, with one of the best crowds in company history, UFC president Dana White decided to hand out bonus checks worth $100,000 on Saturday night. Dana ended up saving a little bit of money though, as no "Submission of the Night" bonus was awarded due to no fighter being able to lock up a limb in the home on Brazilian jiu-jitsu.. Antonio Rodrigo Nogueira picked up the "Knockout of the Night" bonus thanks to his thrilling KO victory against Brendan Schaub. "Big Nog" put "The Hybrid" out cold with a quick one-two combination followed by a flurry of strikes that sent the heavyweight prospect crashing face first down to the mat just over three minutes into the first round. The KO win was only Nogueiras third career stoppage by (T)KO and his first since 2005.. "Fight of the Night" was awarded to lightweights Ross Pearson and Edson Barboza for their back and forth fifteen minute affair that saw Barbozas hand raised in ...
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In an effort to spur cable carriage, upstart Twin Cities regional sports network Victory Sports said it will offer local operators its service free of charge until the early spring. The network - which is offering a rate card of $2.10 per subscriber - will provide the service free-of-charge to the top operators in the market: Charter Communications Inc., Comcast Corp. and Mediacom Communications Corp.
In the 4 x 5 km ladies competition, the Swedish team with Anna Olsson, Sara Lindborg, Anna Haag and Charlotte Kalla took the victory. - FIS-SKI
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This animated short focuses on Mrs. Plugger, who is eager to start her own Victory Garden. Reminding her that tools are hard to get and that neither of them know much about gardening, Plugger organizes his neighbours to cultivate vegetables in a vacant lot. A message about the importance of cooperation and knowledge sharing . . . especially during war time.
So how did the Komets go from being dismal against the Adirondack Thunder to dominant in a 7-1 victory tonight over the Quad City Mallards? Well, fo ...
With the race supposedly tightening, for so we are being told, McCain was on Meet the Press yesterday morning. Among other things, he … guaranteed victory?. Heres what he said: "I guarantee you that two weeks from now, you will see this has been a very close race, and I believe that Im going to win it. Were going to do well in this campaign, my friend. Were going to win it, and its going to be tight, and were going to be up late.. To be precise, he guaranteed that it would be close and predicted a win. But what else were we to expect? That he would throw in the towel with just over a week left? That he would throw another Hail Mary and fire Palin on national TV? That, like other Republicans, he would endorse Obama?. But is the race tightening? According to the Politico article linked above, there are indeed "signs of a tightening race, and reports of renewed determination among his staff." But the key sign is just one poll, from Reuters, C-SPAN, and Zogby, that shows Obama with just a ...
WASHINGTON -- Emerging from its first test as a solo superpower, the United States is a frustrated giant, still unable to turn its victory over Iraq into enduring stability and unwilling to impose
President Obama needed to provide a more affirmative vision of successes in Iraq, a vision that casts it as a victory over totalitarianism, which has always been a central aspect of Americas civilizing mission." More →. September 1, 2010 , Comments (5) ...
Learn more about Fighting Prostate Cancer: Eat Your Way to Victory at Reston Hospital Center If you could reduce your risk of prostate cancer by adjusting...
Download Pattern for Victory: Forging and Leading Air Power at War ebook by UnknowType: pdf, ePub, zip, txt Publisher: Penny Hill Press Inc,Released: May 16,
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The Sunday Age Photographer Sebastian Costanzo captured the thrill and highlights of Melbourne Victorys 2-1 win over Melbourne Heart.
Many Democrats believe president-elects convincing victory sets stage for political realignment that could benefit party for years to
Aughild's Victory are a set of items with a required character level of 42. Gathering pieces of the set and equipping them will bestow the player with bonuses, depending on how many set items are equipped.
Italy's Roberta Vinci, left, and Sara Errani taste sweet victory as winners of the women's doubles final at the Australian Open in Melbourne, Australia on Jan. 25.
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A brace of goals from Newports striker Raith Plant was a foundation for a comfortable 4-0 victory over Andover in their FA Cup third-round qualifying round.
J.A. Happ pitched four-hit ball into the eighth inning and drove in two runs with a double in the Houston Astros 7-1 victory over the Florida Marlins on Sunday.
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David Freese homered, doubled and drove in three runs, leading the St. Louis Cardinals to a 5-3 victory over the Chicago White Sox on Thursday night.
The Government has published the death rate of every hospital in the nation – a victory for The Sunday Telegraphs campaign to improve hospital care.
Lyrics to Kings by Chasing Victory: Well please, please, oh please / Im beggin on my knees / Put one in the cup / I got a fatal disease
SINGAPORE - Top seed Simona Halep looked completely at ease on Sunday afternoon in a ruthless 6-0, 6-3 victory over Flavia Pennetta in her opening match of the BNP Paribas WTA Finals Singapore presented by SC Global.. Read more at straitstimes.com.
Connacht went through 28 phases in search of a last-gasp try but Leinster held out to clinch an engrossing 21-18 derby victory in the Guinness PRO14.
Logically, lets say an enemy can only beat you on opposed d6s if it rolls a 6 and you roll a 1. This will happen, on average, one out of 36 times. If you fight two opponents in succession, by rolling separately for each opponent, the chance of you losing at least one fight is... At this point, I realise Ive forgotten nearly all the statistical knowledge that I painstakingly absorbed at school. I spend some time researching probability distributions. Okay. The other version is easier. If you win unless you roll a 1 while they roll a 6, your probability of victory is 35/36. If you fight two opponents and roll separately for each, the probability of you winning both is 35/36 x 35/36. This makes 1225/1296, or 0.95. The probability of losing one or more fights is 0.05, or about 5%. For three opponents, the probability of flawless victory is 42875/46656, or 92%, while theres an 8% chance of you losing at least one. Next, you fight two enemies using the roll allocation mechanic. If the enemies roll ...
WHAT WENT RIGHT: Plenty in a season that did contain some minor disappointments. But, just how disappointing can things have been (see below) when the team shared first place (11 straight seasons and counting of outright or shared regular-season titles), and won the MAACs post-season tournament for its ninth straight trip to the NCAA event? Overall, the teams victory total marked the eighth straight season of at least 26 wins and 11th in a row of at least 20. Just about every other MAAC program would be happy to string, maybe, two or three 20-victory seasons in a row. Some would be overjoyed to get just one of those. The very obvious common denominator is Brian Giorgis, who long ago proved himself to be not only the best coach the MAAC has ever had (and, were considering mens coaches, too), but one of the best anywhere at any level. His career .779 winning percentage in his 12 years in Poughkeepsie (306-87) is fourth-best among active Division I coaches. Only Geno Auriemma of UConn, Tara ...
Trump clearly has many disgusting qualities. However I dont believe people voted for him because of them. The reason he did so well is two reasons: 1- the so called democratic firewall of...
Europe was about to tear itself apart, but Londoners in 1914 were more preoccupied with the overcrowding on the Tube and a profanity uttered in a new West End play ... Down at the Kennington Oval, a proud cricketer swings his bat and asks, "Hows this for a six?" - a patriotic in-joke as England was celebrating winning an away series against South Africa, with the great Jack Hobbs being the talk of the town ... Monday. ... ...
George Washington capitalized on some early turnovers by John F. Kennedy and rolled to a 48-0 victory in the first game of a Saturday triple-header at All-City Stadium. Elzy Spruell ran rampant with five touchdowns behind a dominant offensive line in the Zero Week contest. But Patriots coach Steve Finesilver was quick to say that the lopsided victory is no reason to get cocky. "We were pleased, but we realize that we will play them again later this season and we expect that to be a tough game," Finesilver said. Steamboat Springs 31, Kent Denver 13 Steamboat Springs - Ben DeLine kicked three field goals, including a 42-yarder, and his booming kickoffs gave the visiting Sun Devils too long of a field to work with in a cross-classification nonleague game. "If I had to pick an MVP for us it would be Ben DeLine," Steamboat Springs coach Aaron Finch said. Steamboat Springs running back Jay Hanley picked up more than 140 yards on the ground, and the Sailors first-team defense did not give up a point. ...
IN-FORM Present Bleu, representing the champion combination of trainer Martin Pipe and jockey Tony McCoy, can put punters in the black by continuing his winning sequence in the Dean & Dyball Handicap Hurdle at Exeter this afternoon.
England fly-half George Ford ensured that Bath launched their European Champions Cup campaign in winning fashion at the Recreation Ground - but Irish heavyweights Leinster are lurching
Lucas 5:00 AM Lucas found himself alone tonight. He was standing in the middle of the forest on a moonless night without his battle armor. Suddenly a twig snapp
7:32 - Coopers Coffee 19 minutes. 5:46 - Max 30 minutes. I was astonished to have a seat on the Max, but apparently theyre commonplace if one takes a train half an hour later than Id normally. I wouldnt know this, but at the Max station, on a public street in the heart of downtown and next to the door to Borders, a man had forced a woman into a corner between two buildings and was bellowing profanity into her face, slamming his body into hers to bounce her off the wall, and waving his balled fists in her face and over her head. She was screaming and crying and trying to get away.. The commuters split themselves into groups; those who looked away, those who watched with interest, and those who went up the block so as to have space between themselves and the spectacle. The man was about my size, and I considered directly intervening, but decided it would be a bad idea. The woman was being terrorized but not hurt, and I would lose any fight with the man unless I ditched coat, hat, and bag ...
Novak Djokovic s quest to win the 2013 French Open has already begun. While Paris towering Grand Slam title cannot be won in February, the world ATP No...
In a thrilling game in Croke Park, Ireland rallied back from a ten point deficit to take the lead, only to be denied victory by a late French try. France won 20-17, destroying the Grand Slam hopes of the Irish and preventing a first victory over France since 2003.. ...
SKIINGVONN EARNS FIRST VICTORY SINCE ILLNESSCORTINA DAMPEZZO, Italy - Lindsey Vonn is back at full speed.Vonn won a World Cup downhill Saturday for her first victory in more than five weeks, b
Im not sure Im buying it. For one thing, the scientists used a very simplistic rubric for each category. For example, each child was assigned either a 1 (ever victimized, either physically or verbally) or 0 (never victimized). Ethnicity was ranked as 1 (white) or 0 (non-white) and sex as 1 (male) or 0 (female). Not a lot of nuance in those categories. That may be why race did not seem to affect levels of bullying. After all, its not hard to imagine that not every non-white ethnicity is equal in terms of victimization. Yet, all minorities were lumped together in this study. Also, other studies have shown that anti-bullying programs, especially ones that target gang violence, are effective in reducing school violence. ...
BOSTON - To identify trends in bullying, the Massachusetts House is expected on Wednesday to pass legislation that creates a statewide data reporting system. Four years after passing an anti-bullying law, lawmakers believe a reporting mechanism on bullying incidents would help policy makers and educators better identity trends and allocate resources. Under the bill, which received initial House approval on Monday, the data would be culled by the Department of Elementary and Secondary
Power: "the ability to do or act." This is true whether the power is white or black. There is a feeling that some whites resent not being able to have pride in their race in the same way that other nations do, and some reaction to this is inevitable. But despite gains made by White Power advocates, such as the BNP, the general consensus is that their inherent racism is not respected in mainstream political arenas. This can only be considered a saving grace. And the issue of resentment is neither here nor there. As we endeavour to make our judgment about the legitimacy of power and pride, one has to ask whether the power can be seen as just or justified. When drawing comparisons between White Power and Black Power, one may do well to question whether it is offensive or defensive, ultimately pursuing equity or simply some profanity.. Lawna E. Tapper is with Ricenpeas Magazine, where this piece first appeared. Please e-mail comments to [email protected] ...
Meet 1D/OD, the new line of school supplies from boy band One Direction and the notebook pros at Office Depot. The line raises money to support an anti-bullying alliance. [Refinery29] Ever hear of those blood-type diets? Forget em --...
The definitive parents guide to movies and video since 1992, Kids-In-Mind rates films according to how much sex, nudity, violence, gore and profanity they contain.
The definitive parents guide to movies and video since 1992, Kids-In-Mind rates films according to how much sex, nudity, violence, gore and profanity they contain.
To investigate the role of certain neurohormones in agonistic behaviour, fights were staged between pairs of size-matched male shore crabs Carcinus maenas, and blood samples were taken immediately after the contests had been resolved. Samples were also taken from these crabs at rest (before and after fighting) and after walking on a treadmill. A control group of crabs also had samples taken on each experimental day. Concentrations of tyramine, dopamine, octopamine, serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine were determined in each blood sample using a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system. Norepinephrine was not detectable in any of the samples, but the standards were recovered. Tyramine values were not significantly different between the control group and the fought group, so tyramine does not appear to be important in agonistic behaviour. A comparison between the control and fought groups shows that fighting had an effect on the concentrations of octopamine, dopamine and 5-HT, but ...
This paper provides a review of classical and recent studies dealing with the effects of social isolation on ant physiology and behaviour, including the newest findings obtained by our team from Laboratory of Ethology of the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology in Warsaw. We first discuss several theoretical notions used in the research dealing with that question, such as group effect, mass effect, worker-worker interactions and social context. Then we describe the effects of social context on behavioural ontogeny of workers of social Hymenoptera and on the expression/suppression of single behaviour patterns. We also describe some methods of identification of exact factors underlying these effects and the mode of action of primer and releaser pheromones. We provide a detailed description of various types of social contacts encountered in ant colonies, including trophallaxis, allogrooming, antennal contacts, nestmate transport, passive body friction and various forms of agonistic behaviour. ...
Background Clownfishes (Pomacentridae) are brightly colored coral reef fishes well known for their mutualistic symbiosis with tropical sea anemones. These fishes live in social groups in which there is a size-based dominance hierarchy. In this structure where sex is socially controlled, agonistic interactions are numerous and serve to maintain size differences between individuals adjacent in rank. Clownfishes are also prolific callers whose sounds seem to play an important role in the social hierarchy. Here, we aim to review and to synthesize the diversity of sounds produced by clownfishes in order to emphasize the importance of acoustic signals in their way of life. Methodology/Principal Findings Recording the different acoustic behaviors indicated that sounds are divided into two main categories: aggressive sounds produced in conjunction with threat postures (charge and chase), and submissive sounds always emitted when fish exhibited head shaking movements (i.e. a submissive posture). Both types of
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of greetings in some dyads. However comparison post hoc ...
Populations of bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were monitored during a 4-year study in southern Belgium to assess the influence of agonistic behavior, reproductive status, mobility, and distribution of the rodents on the dynamics of Puumala virus (abbreviation: PUUV; genus: Hantavirus) infection. Concordance was high between data from serologic testing and results of viral RNA detection. Wounds resulting from biting or scratching were observed mainly in adult rodents. Hantavirus infection in adults was associated with wounds in the fall, i.e., at the end of the breeding season, but not in spring. In addition, sexually active animals were significantly more often wounded and positive for infection. Hantavirus infection was associated with higher mobility in juvenile and subadult males. Seroconversions observed 6 months apart also occurred more frequently in animals that had moved longer distances from their original capture point. During nonepidemic years, the distribution of infection was patchy,
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Tobacco advertising ban is a huge victory for public health As the Tobacco Advertising and Promotion bill reached its final stages, [1] ASH said the measure marked a major step forward in the campaign to reduce smoking. ASH Research Manager Amanda Sandford commented:. "This is a victory for public health. The government is to be congratulated for putting the health of the nation firmly before the commercial interests of the tobacco industry. The measure is long overdue but we are delighted that at long last the UK will be joining the growing list of countries that have banned tobacco advertising and promotion. It is an important health measure that will save around 3,000 lives a year.". Ms Sandford added that the ban will strengthen the call for international action to curb tobacco promotion.. "The ban should bolster the UKs position in the current negotiations of the WHOs Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which, if successful, will result in a global treaty on tobacco control." ...
In an effort to address under- and malnourishment in Haiti, feed formulations for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were developed using regionally available and sustainable foodstuffs that are not commonly eaten by people, to support the development of aquaculture-based protein in Haiti. Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera), spent brewers grain (Hordeum vulgare), wet and dried spent brewers yeast (Saccharomy cescerevisiae), cassava root (Manihot esculenta), breadfruit (Arthocarpus altilis) and blood meal were examined as ingredients in six feed formulations developed using linear programming. Two experiments with six experimental isonitrogenous diets were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to examine fish growth, and feed palatability, digestibility and pellet stability. Results from Experiment 1 indicated that tilapia fingerlings had better growth (120% weight gain), feed conversion, efficiency and palatability fed with Diet2 compared with Diet 1 (58% weight gain) after 69 ...
Hardback, 50. Medicine and Victory: British Military Medicine in the Second World War is an important and archivally well-grounded study at the intersection of military and medical history that points to a marked improvement in the provision of British medical care during the course of the conflict. Defeat in the early years of the war led to many problems. The level of care available in the field was affected by the disruption attendant on defeat and rapid retreat. In no theatre of the war, however, did the medical services suffer a complete collapse. The planning of medical arrangements left much to be desired, as in Norway and Malaya, but there was no need for commissions of inquiry, such as those which followed the campaigns in Gallipoli and Mesopotamia during World War One. Harrison argues that, although the early campaigns of World War Two permitted little in the way of innovation, they at least provided some valuable experience. During the campaigns in Norway and France, it became ...

Browsing  by Subject Agonistic behavior in animalsBrowsing by Subject "Agonistic behavior in animals"

The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain  Taravosh-Lahn, Kereshmeh (2008-08) ... puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves ... Browsing by Subject "Agonistic behavior in animals". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. ...
more infohttps://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/browse?type=subject&value=Agonistic%20behavior%20in%20animals

Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early by J Yanai and B E. Ginsburg"Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early" by J Yanai and B E. Ginsburg

Yanai, J and Ginsburg, B E., "Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol." ( ... Long term reduction of male agonistic behavior in mice following early exposure to ethanol. ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/ssbb1977/2397/

Psicothema -   TIME COURSE OF THE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL ON AGONISTIC BEHAVIOUR IN MALE MICEPsicothema - TIME COURSE OF THE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL ON AGONISTIC BEHAVIOUR IN MALE MICE

Key words: Haloperidol, Aggression, Agonistic Behavior, Mice, Time-course.. Curso temporal de los efectos del Haloperidol sobre ... studying its actions on agonistic behavior in male mice at 30 minutes, at 24 and at 48 hours after administration. When the ... Physiology and Behavior, 53, 1055-1059.. Olivier. B., van Dalen, D. and Hartog, J. (1986). A new class of psychotropic drugs: ... Physiology and Behavior, 47(2), 281-285.. Mugford, R. A. and Nowell, N. M. (1970). Pheromones and their effect on aggression in ...
more infohttp://www.psicothema.com/english/psicothema.asp?id=915

RE: Bone-eating (was RE: T.rex was a chicken)RE: Bone-eating (was RE: T.rex was a 'chicken')

Bite marks on other bones show this to be ,, the case (as in *Sinraptor* agonistic behavior, a ,, *Triceratops* ilium and ... Yep, it helps to remember that there are many different behaviors that can , lead to getting access to bone marrow. Among ... These animals have oral anatomy or ,, behaviors that are specialized to processing the bone or by ,, processing what it within ... and this behavior requires not only strong dentition, but the , ability to resist high stresses at the point of contact between ...
more infohttp://dml.cmnh.org/2009Aug/msg00150.html

Fear Aggression By Dogs Directed Toward People - PetPlaceFear Aggression By Dogs Directed Toward People - PetPlace

... probably because of their greater propensity for agonistic behavior toward animals. Although the early period of life provides ... Genetic factors. Some breeds and breed lines are quite well known for anxious and fearful behavior. In general, herding breeds ... He also learns, from strangers reactions, that a strategy of intimidation works, so he intensifies his repellent behavior. ... may be more at risk of developing fearful behaviors than other breeds, though any dog may become fearful and aggressive to ...
more infohttps://www.petplace.com/article/dogs/pet-behavior-training/fear-aggression-by-dogs-directed-toward-people/

How Prestige Ru[i]ns Our World, Part 1 - Consequential -ismsHow Prestige Ru[i]ns Our World, Part 1 - Consequential -isms

From Agonistic Behavior to Dominance Hierarchy: An Evolutionary Parable. Picture a wild animal of your morphological choosing. ... Alt-Right animal behavior anthropology biology consequentialism cosmopolitanism egalitarianism ethics evolution Far Left far ... Categories Prestige CompetitionTags animal behavior, biology, evolution, hierarchy, human evolution, politics, psychology, ... In the posts to follow, I want to hypothesize a bit about hierarchy-related behavior and affect in humans and how technology ...
more infohttp://consequentialisms.com/index.php/how-prestige-ruins-our-world-part-1/

Competition Between Native and Exotic Daphnia by Jennifer Lynne Cacka"Competition Between Native and Exotic Daphnia" by Jennifer Lynne Cacka

Does level of parasitism influence agonistic behavior of males in male-male interactions? and (3) Is parasitism associated with ... I studied the behavior of the Ozark zigzag salamander (Plethodon angusticlavius), that was naturally infected with the larval ... These data taken together indicate that subtle alterations in behavior of infected individuals may have potential fitness ... Behavior of males and females was influenced by their levels of infection. In experiment 2, levels of aggression for males with ...
more infohttps://bearworks.missouristate.edu/theses/92/

Inversion of initial dominance relationships following the interchange of roles of resident and intruder within pairs of male...Inversion of initial dominance relationships following the interchange of roles of resident and intruder within pairs of male...

Relation between prior agonistic intensity upon subsequent aggressive levels in winners and losers of dyads of male Green ... Biology , Animal Behavior. Biology , Ethology. ID Code:. 1933. Deposited By:. Beaugrand, Jacques. ...
more infohttp://cogprints.org/1933/

Breeding territory quality and agonistic behavior: effects of energy availability and intruder pressure in hummingbirds |...Breeding territory quality and agonistic behavior: effects of energy availability and intruder pressure in hummingbirds |...

The relative importance of food a vailability and intruder pressure on breeding territorial behavior was studied in two ... Food Addition Agonistic Behavior Energy Availability Territorial Behavior Territory Quality These keywords were added by ... Breeding territory quality and agonistic behavior: effects of energy availability and intruder pressure in hummingbirds. ... Stiles FG, Wolf LL (1979) Ecology and evolution of lek mating behavior in the long-tailed hermit hummingbird. AOU Ornitol ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00310982

Effects of group composition on agonistic behavior of captive pigtail macaques  Macaca
      nemestrina.Effects of group composition on agonistic behavior of captive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina.

Agonistic behavior * Aggression . Control role. ABSTRACT We surveyed agonistic behaviors of 20 captive groups of pigtail ... exerted no detectable influence on agonistic behavior. Fear/submission behaviors occurred infrequently; we detected no ... Research on agonistic behavior of captive groups of nonhuman primates can be of practical value by providing evidence helpful ... Effects of group composition on agonistic behavior of captive pigtail macaques Macaca nemestrina.. код для вставки. код для ...
more infohttps://www.docme.ru/doc/1943406/effects-of-group-composition-on-agonistic-behavior-of-cap..

The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brainThe development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain

... puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. Attack frequency gradually decreases as agonistic behavior evolves ... The development of agonistic behavior in male golden hamsters : from behavior to brain. ... Together, these data examine the role of the serotonergic system on the development of agonistic behavior. ... In adults, acute Fluoxetine treatment inhibited aggressive behavior at all doses. In juveniles, only the highest dose reduced ...
more infohttps://repositories.lib.utexas.edu/handle/2152/17799

Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer | Springer for Research &...Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer | Springer for Research &...

... exhibit signpost marking behavior during both the sexually active and quiescent periods (Marchinton et al. 1990, Ozoga 1989). ... Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer. ... Effects of Exogenous Testosterone on the Scent-Marking and Agonistic Behaviors of White-Tailed Deer. In: Doty R.L., Müller- ... Altmann, J. 1974, Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. Behaviour, 49: 227 - 267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9655-1_73

Hormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) | RTIHormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) | RTI

... have been implicated in the regulation of social behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to examine hormonal substrates ... Hormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior in female Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). ... All hormonal treatments reduced agonistic behaviors when compared to SALOIL, although none of the hormonal treatments restored ... Razzoli, M., Cushing, BS., Carter Porges, C., & Valsecchi, P. (2003). Hormonal regulation of agonistic and affiliative behavior ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/hormonal-regulation-agonistic-and-affiliative-behavior-female-mongolian-gerbils-meriones

Frontiers | Differential serotonergic modulation of two types of aggression in weakly electric fish | Frontiers in Behavioral...Frontiers | Differential serotonergic modulation of two types of aggression in weakly electric fish | Frontiers in Behavioral...

... framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control species-specific and context-dependent behavior. ... Agonistic aggression has provided an excellent framework to study how conserved circuits and neurochemical mediators control ... species-specific and context-dependent behavior. The principal inhibitory control upon aggression is serotonin (5-HT) dependent ... Serotonergic control of agonistic behavior differs between the solitary G. omarorum and the gregarious B. gauderio. As each ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnbeh.2012.00077/full

https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Chapter+19+Horse+behavior+and+training.-a0184379170https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Chapter+19+Horse+behavior+and+training.-a0184379170

by Equine Science, 3rd ed.; Business Animal behavior Management Horse training Methods Horses Behavior Training ... agonistic behavior, mimicry behavior, investigative behavior, grooming behavior, and sleep and rest behavior. Also note any ... agonistic behavior allelomimetic behavior barn sour conditioned response cue eliminative behavior epimeletic behavior flehmen ... Agonistic Behavior Agonistic behavior includes fighting, flight, and other reactions associated with conflict. In all species ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/Chapter+19+Horse+behavior+and+training.-a0184379170

Inter Research » Journals » AB » About the JournalInter Research » Journals » AB » About the Journal

Behavior: Orientation in space and time; migrations; feeding and reproductive behavior; agonistic behavior. ...
more infohttps://www.int-res.com/?id=20044

House finch - WikipediaHouse finch - Wikipedia

"Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemorhous_mexicanus

House finch - WikipediaHouse finch - Wikipedia

"Agonistic Behavior in the House Finch. Part I: Annual Cycle and Display Patterns" (PDF). The Condor. University of California ... He may then present the female with choice bits of food, and if she mimics the behavior of a hungry chick, he may actually feed ... "Observations on Nesting Behavior of the House Finch" (PDF). The Condor. University of California Press/Cooper Ornithological ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_Finch

Sialis Glossary (terms related to bluebirding): what is a... (definitions) ornithologySialis Glossary (terms related to bluebirding): what is a... (definitions) ornithology

Agonistic behavior: combative, as in fighting over nest sites. *AHY: After Hatch Year (bird age) ... Infanticide (al behavior): Adult kills babies (not for food), an uncommon behavior in birds. House Sparrows and House Wrens ... Stereotyped behavior: distinctive behaviors consistently used in a certain situatino, like a courtship display (wing waving by ... Sidling: a behavior that usually occurs near a nest, where the owner (e.g., a starling) moves or hops along a branch or wire ( ...
more infohttp://sialis.org/glossary.htm

Prolonged estrogen-progesterone treatment of nonpregnant ovariectomized rats: factors stimulating home-cage and maternal...Prolonged estrogen-progesterone treatment of nonpregnant ovariectomized rats: factors stimulating home-cage and maternal...

Agonistic Behavior / drug effects. Animals. Estradiol / pharmacology*. Female. Maternal Behavior*. Ovariectomy. Progesterone / ... Title: Hormones and behavior Volume: 24 ISSN: 0018-506X ISO Abbreviation: Horm Behav Publication Date: 1990 Sep ... The full 16-day E/P/EB treatment stimulated higher levels of home-cage and maternal aggression, and shorter maternal behavior ... Administering P for 2 additional days attenuated reductions in maternal behavior latencies by E/P/EB, but did not reduce home- ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Prolonged-estrogen-progesterone-treatment-nonpregnant/2227848.html

Changes in brain serotonergic activity during hierarchic behavior in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) are socially induced ...Changes in brain serotonergic activity during hierarchic behavior in Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus L.) are socially induced ...

Further, we found that previous subordinate experience inhibited aggressive behavior, an effect which, in the light of ... induces an increased serotonergic activity which in turn inhibits the neuronal circuitry which mediates aggressive behavior. ... Agonistic behavior in juveniles of two Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)) populations. ... Tyraminergic modulation of agonistic outcomes in crayfish. *Yuto Momohara, Hitoshi Aonuma, Toshiki Nagayama ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Changes-in-brain-serotonergic-activity-during-in-Winberg-Nilsson/e015b9a4c477850c253597db8ddb69068860b48e

Behavioral Development of Terrestrial Carnivores | SpringerLinkBehavioral Development of Terrestrial Carnivores | SpringerLink

Without detailed knowledge of how the behavior of individuals unfolds throughout life, and not only... ... The development and temporal sequencing of agonistic behavior in the coyotes (Canis latrans). Z. Tierpsychol. 28:262-278. ... Development of agonistic behavior: Ethological and ecological perspectives. In: P. F. Brain & D. Benton, eds. Multidisciplinary ... Maternal behavior in the cat. In: H. Rheingold, ed. Maternal Behavior in Mammals, pp. 122-168. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.Google ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-4716-4_4

Bulletin of Marine Science: Ingenta Connect Table Of ContentsBulletin of Marine Science: Ingenta Connect Table Of Contents

Invasive lionfish (Pterois sp.) agonistic behavior observations pp. 1-2(2) Authors: Fogg, Alexander Q; Faletti, Meaghan E ... Comparing the behavior and morphology of wild-collected and hatchery-propagated long-spined urchins (Diadema antillarum): ...
more infohttps://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/2018/00000094/00000001

1979-1970 Thesis & Dissertation ISU Biology  | Idaho State University1979-1970 Thesis & Dissertation ISU Biology | Idaho State University

Agonistic behavior in the tiger. M.S., Zoology 1975. Y1975 .S56. Smith, Tom Calven. Development of temperature regulation in ... Denning behavior of the red fox (Vulpes fulva) in eastern Idaho and western Wyoming. M.S., Biology 1979. Y1979 .A447. ... On the behavior and ecology of the pigmy rabbit Sylvilagus idahoensis.. M.S., Zoology 1975. Y1975 .B73. ... Territorial behavior of the sage sparrow (Amphispiza belli: Fringillidae). M.S., Biology 1977. Y1977 .R32. ...
more infohttps://www.isu.edu/bios/thesis--dissertation-archive/1979-1970-thesis--dissertation-isu-biology-/

Servicio de GenéticaServicio de Genética

Detection of selection signatures for agonistic behavior in cattle. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 135:170-177.. ...
more infohttps://www.ucm.es/genetvet/nuestras-publicaciones
  • In male golden hamsters, puberty is marked by dramatic changes in agonistic behavior. (utexas.edu)
  • These data taken together indicate that subtle alterations in behavior of infected individuals may have potential fitness consequences. (missouristate.edu)
more