Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.
A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.
A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.
Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC
Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.
A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC
Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 73,000 kDa and is composed of two subunits of equal size.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.
A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)
Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.
Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.
Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.

Agmatine modulates polyamine content in hepatocytes by inducing spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase. (1/193)

Agmatine has been proposed as the physiological ligand for the imidazoline receptors. It is not known whether it is also involved in the homoeostasis of intracellular polyamine content. To show whether this is the case, we have studied the effect of agmatine on rat liver cells, under both periportal and perivenous conditions. It is shown that agmatine modulates intracellular polyamine content through its effect on the synthesis of the limiting enzyme of the interconversion pathway, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). Increased SSAT activity is accompanied by depletion of spermidine and spermine, and accumulation of putrescine and N1-acetylspermidine. Immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antiserum confirms the induction. At the same time S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity is significantly increased, while ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and the rate of spermidine uptake are reduced. This is not due to an effect on ODC antizyme, which is not significantly changed. All these modifications are observed in HTC cells also, where they are accompanied by a decrease in proliferation rate. SSAT is also induced by low oxygen tension which mimics perivenous conditions. The effect is synergic with that promoted by agmatine.  (+info)

Analgesic effect of agmatine and its enhancement on morphine analgesia in mice and rats. (2/193)

AIM: To study the effect of agmatine on pain and morphine analgesia. METHODS: The effect of agmatine on pain was observed in mouse heat radiant tail-flick test, mouse acetic acid writhing test, and rat 4% saline test. Its enhancing effect on analgesia of morphine and clonidine was assessed in rat and mouse heat radiant tail-flick tests. RESULTS: Agmatine did not significantly prolong tail-flick latency of mice, but reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing of mice and inhibited writhing responses to saline completely. It potentiated the analgesic effects of morphine and clonidine in dose-dependent manner and decreased the analgesic ED50 of morphine and clonidine by more than 75% in mouse heat radiant tail-flick test. These effects of agmatine were antagonized by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agmatine has weak analgesic effects and potentiates morphine and clonidine analgesia by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Agmatine inhibited tolerance to and dependence on morphine in guinea pig ileum in vitro. (3/193)

AIM: To observe effect of agmatine (Agm) on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine (Mor) in guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle (GPILM). METHODS: The experiment was performed in electric field stimulation (EFS) test in vitro. RESULTS: Mor inhibited twitch contractions of GPILM induced by EFS [IC50 = 140 (107-182) nmol.L-1]. Incubation of GPILM with Mor 270 nmol.L-1 for 8 h evoked a 37-fold increase in IC50 of Mor (tolerance) and a contractile response to naloxone (Nal, substance dependence). When the preparations were coincubated with Mor + Nal and Mor + Agm, Mor lost the ability to induce tolerance and inhibited the contractile responses of the preparations to Nal by 90% and 75%, respectively. These effects of Agm could be almost completely antagonized by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agm prevented the development of tolerance to and substance dependence on Mor in GPILM in vitro by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Effects of agmatine on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine in mice. (4/193)

AIM: To study the effects of agmatine on tolerance to and dependence on morphine. METHODS: Inhibitory effects of agmatine on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine were observed in mouse tolerant models and in mouse jumping test, respectively. RESULTS: Agmatine 0.125-2.5 prevented the development of tolerant to morphine in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of mice with morphine induced an over 3-fold increase in analgesic ED50 (20.1, 14.4-28.0 than those with normal saline (6.3, 5.1-7.8 Pretreatment of mice with both of agmatine and morphine made morphine loss the ability to induce tolerance. Withdrawal jumps and loss in body weight induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were prevented by agmatine (2.5-10 in a dose-dependent manner. ED50 of naloxone (21.4, 18.4-24 required to precipitate withdrawal jumps in mice pretreated with both agmatine and morphine was 8 times higher than that with morphine alone (2.5, 2.1-2.8 These effects of agmatine were blocked by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agmatine prevented tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine in mice by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Correlation between inhibitions of morphine withdrawal and nitric-oxide synthase by agmatine. (5/193)

AIM: To study correlation between inhibitions of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumps and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity by agmatine. METHODS: NOS activities in mouse brain were measured by determination of concentration of [3H]citrulline, the product of [3H]arginine. RESULTS: Agmatine inhibited NOS activity in naive and morphine-dependent mouse cerebellum, forebrain, and thalamus in substrate-competitive manner in vitro. Naloxone induced withdrawal jumps and an increase in NOS activity in cerebellum, forebrain, and thalamus of abstinent mice. Pretreatment of mice with morphine plus agmatine inhibited the effect of naloxone to precipitate withdrawal jumps and increase in NOS activity. The effect of agmatine was blocked by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of agmatine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumps is related to its inhibition of NOS activity by substrate competitive manner and activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. (6/193)

This study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of several imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine on glutamate-induced necrosis and on apoptosis induced by low extracellular K+ in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Exposure (30 min) of energy deprived cells to L-glutamate (1-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as determined 24 h later by a decrease in the ability of the cells to metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) into a reduced formazan product. L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (EC50=5 microM) was blocked by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine). Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully prevented neurotoxicity induced by 20 microM (EC100) L-glutamate with the rank order (EC50 in microM): antazoline (13)>cirazoline (44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole](101)>RX82 1002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>agmatine (196). No neuroprotective effect of these drugs was observed in a model of apoptotic neuronal cell death (reduction of extracellular K+) which does not involve stimulation of NMDA receptors. Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully inhibited [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors in rat brain. The profile of drug potency protecting against L-glutamate neurotoxicity correlated well (r=0.90) with the potency of the same compounds competing against [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding. In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the block was consistent with the presence of a binding site for antazoline located within the NMDA channel pore with an IC50 of 10-12 microM at 0 mV. It is concluded that imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine are neuroprotective against glutamate-induced necrotic neuronal cell death in vitro and that this effect is mediated through NMDA receptor blockade by interacting with a site located within the NMDA channel pore.  (+info)

An emerging role for agmatine. (7/193)

Polyamines, required components of proliferation, are autoregulated by the protein antizyme. To date, agmatine is the only molecule other than the polyamines that can induce antizyme, and thus influence cell homeostasis and growth. Agmatine has effectively suppressed proliferation in immortalized and transformed cell lines. An increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of agmatine observed in Ras transformed versus native cells paralleled an increase in agmatine uptake in the transformed cells. We hypothesize that agmatine may target transformed cells via selective transporters.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and acid protection in vitro but is not essential for colonization of mice or for urease activity. (8/193)

Arginase of the Helicobacter pylori urea cycle hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. H. pylori urease hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which neutralizes acid. Both enzymes are involved in H. pylori nitrogen metabolism. The roles of arginase in the physiology of H. pylori were investigated in vitro and in vivo, since arginase in H. pylori is metabolically upstream of urease and urease is known to be required for colonization of animal models by the bacterium. The H. pylori gene hp1399, which is orthologous to the Bacillus subtilis rocF gene encoding arginase, was cloned, and isogenic allelic exchange mutants of three H. pylori strains were made by using two different constructs: 236-2 and rocF::aphA3. In contrast to wild-type (WT) strains, all rocF mutants were devoid of arginase activity and had diminished serine dehydratase activity, an enzyme activity which generates ammonium. Compared with WT strain 26695 of H. pylori, the rocF::aphA3 mutant was approximately 1, 000-fold more sensitive to acid exposure. The acid sensitivity of the rocF::aphA3 mutant was not reversed by the addition of L-arginine, in contrast to the WT, and yielded a approximately 10, 000-fold difference in viability. Urease activity was similar in both strains and both survived acid exposure equally well when exogenous urea was added, indicating that rocF is not required for urease activity in vitro. Finally, H. pylori mouse-adapted strain SS1 and the 236-2 rocF isogenic mutant colonized mice equally well: 8 of 9 versus 9 of 11 mice, respectively. However, the rocF::aphA3 mutant of strain SS1 had moderately reduced colonization (4 of 10 mice). The geometric mean levels of H. pylori recovered from these mice (in log(10) CFU) were 6.1, 5.5, and 4.1, respectively. Thus, H. pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and is crucial for acid protection in vitro but is not essential for in vivo colonization of mice or for urease activity.  (+info)

One subfamily of guanidino group-modifying enzymes (GMEs) consists of the agmatine deiminases (AgDs). These enzymes catalyze the conversion of agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) to N-carbamoyl putrescine and ammonia. In plants, viruses, and bacteria, these enzymes are thought to be involved in energy production, biosynthesis of polyamines, and biofilm formation. In particular, we are interested in the role that this enzyme plays in pathogenic bacteria. Previously, we reported the initial kinetic characterization of the agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori and described the synthesis and characterization the two most potent AgD inactivators. Herein, we have expanded our initial efforts to characterize the catalytic mechanisms of AgD from H. pylori as well as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Through the use of pH rate profiles, pK(a) measurements of the active site cysteine, solvent isotope effects, and solvent viscosity effects, we have determined that the AgDs, like PADs 1 and 4
Neutralophilic bacteria have developed specific mechanisms to cope with the acid stress encountered in environments such as soil, fermented foods- and host compartments. In Escherichia coli, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system is extremely efficient: it requires the concerted action of glutamate decarboxylase (GadA/GadB) and of the glutamate/GABA antiporter, GadC. Notably, this system is operative also in new strains/species of Brucella, among which Brucella microti, but not in the
In this study, we found that agmatine protects the BBB in ischemic stroke and the BBB stabilization effect of agmatine can be monitored in vivo by quantification of permeability by using DCE-MR imaging. Ktrans, volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space, and brain tissue volume with BBB disruption were significantly less in the agmatine-treated group than in the control group at 4-hour reperfusion. Our results support a previous study that showed the protective effects of agmatine on the BBB by using Evans blue.11 Moreover, in another previous study, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase by agmatine was suggested as a possible mechanism limiting BBB disruption because matrix metalloproteinases are known to be associated with BBB disruption and subsequent vasogenic edema after cerebral ischemia.19 Although Evans blue has been widely used to assess BBB disruption with its property of binding to serum albumin, it is only available for use in animal models.20 DCE-MR imaging ...
Agmatine, a divalent diamine with two positive charges at physiological pH, is transported into the matrix of liver mitochondria by an energy-dependent mechanism the driving force of which is ΔΨ (electrical membrane potential). Although this process showed strict electrophoretic behaviour, qualitatively similar to that of polyamines, agmatine is most probably transported by a specific uniporter. Shared transport with polyamines by means of their transporter is excluded, as divalent putrescine and cadaverine are ineffective in inhibiting agmatine uptake. Indeed, the use of the electroneutral transporter of basic amino acids can also be discarded as ornithine, arginine and lysine are completely ineffective at inducing the inhibition of agmatine uptake. The involvement of the monoamine transporter or the existence of a leak pathway are also unlikely. Flux-voltage analysis and the determination of activation enthalpy, which is dependent upon the valence of agmatine, are consistent with the ...
1500 mg per serving. AgmaPure® agmatine, the purest form of agmatine available. No bad sulfur taste. Unflavored. Available in 100 or 200-gram size. Overview. Muscle Feast AgmaPure® Agmatine may help to:. Enhance nitric oxide production. Improve nutrient delivery to muscle cells. Boost endurance & decrease recovery time. Improve muscle cell insulin sensitivity. Increase muscular pumps for more intense workouts. What is AgmaPure® Agmatine?. AgmaPure® is the unique green, high purity agmatine sulfate. Its produced by a natural biological process and away from the neurohazard impurity Arcaine, which exists in almost all the other brands of Agmatine Sulfate.. What are the benefits of AgmaPure® Agmatine?. Recently Agmatine has gained wide interest as a breakdown metabolite of Arginine with a multitude of physiological functions. Agmatine Sulfate, the commonly used stable salt of Agmatine, is a promising supplement rapidly drawing the attention of the athletic performance market. Agmatine ...
Bacteria that survive in the acidic environment of the stomach have mechanisms to maintain a high intracellular pH. In Escherichia coli, glutamate (Glu) and arginine (Arg) are decarboxylated intracellularly and the reaction products are exchanged with extracellular Glu and Arg. Gao et al. now report a crystal structure of AdiC, an arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli. AdiC exhibits the same fold as that of the Na+-coupled symporters, including LeuT. It contains 12 transmembrane segments, forms a homodimer, and exists in an outward-facing, open conformation in the crystals. The structure, together with biochemical data, suggests how the antiporter senses the pH and responds to transport the reaction product agmatine out of the cell and Arg into the cell.. X. Gao, F. Lu, L. Zhou, S. Dang, L. Sun, X. Li, J. Wang, Y. Shi, Structure and mechanism of an amino acid antiporter. Science 324, 1565-1568 (2009). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
Agmatine Sulfate - Nitric Oxide Perpetual Pump WHAT IS AGMATINE? Agmatine is a small molecule that the body makes naturally from the amino acid, arginine. Agmatine is a decarboxylized Arginine metabolite. More simply, Agmatine is what Arginine becomes within the body. Agmatine has dual functions: A) Selective inhibitio Clinically Oriented Anatomy (9781451119459) by Keith L. Moore; Anne M. R. Agur; Arthur F. Dalley and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
1-Oxoelemicin-putrescine is a completely theoretical adduct of 1-oxoelemicin and the endogenous polyamine putrescine. Because of its very low lipid solubility it is unlikely to produce psychoactivity.. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The Ellinbank Public Hall Committee will be holding its Annual General Meeting (AGM) on Monday 19 July at 7.30pm. Community members interested in having input into the management of Ellinbank Public Hall are welcome to attend. Enquiries can be directed to the Committee Chair on 0448 361 213. RSVPs are required to manage attendance numbers.
This study is an attempt to elucidate of agmatine effects upon leukocyte apoptosis in experimental diabetes mellitus (EDM). We demonstrated the increase in numbers of the leukocytes with both early and late signs of apoptosis at diabetes. Further changes in the morphofunctional state of the leukocyt …
Shop Arginine decarboxylase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Arginine decarboxylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In enzymology, an agmatinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } putrescine + urea Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, whereas its two products are putrescine and urea. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine amidinohydrolase. Other names in common use include agmatine ureohydrolase, and SpeB. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups. In humans, the enzyme is encoded by the AGMAT gene. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GQ6, 1GQ7, 1WOG, 1WOH, and 1WOI. Piperazine-1-carboxamidine GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116771 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040706 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Mouse ...
The regulation of SA to the changes of polyamine metabolism under salt stress in leaves of Yali Pear were studied. In order to reduce environmental effects on results, leaf disk tests were first used to confirm whether the salicylic acid affected the metabolism of polyamines. The results show that in the leaf disk experiment, exogenous salicylic acid changes the endogenous polyamine levels and different SA concentrations have different effects. Under the NaCI treatment the ADC activity increased significantly, but the ODC activity did not have a significant increase and was lower than ADC activity. Polyamine contents increased under the NaCI treatment at the low concentrations and did not increase or decrease with the NaCI concentration increasing. SA increased ODC activity in the control and NaCI treatment, did not significantly affect ADC activity, but increased the free polyamine contents under NaCI treatment ...
Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate 14923-17-2 route of synthesis, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate chemical synthesis methods, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate synthetic routes ect.
Ilgü, H.; Jeckelmann, J. M.; Gapsys, V.; Ucurum, Z.; de Groot, B. L.; Fotiadis, D.: Insights into the molecular basis for substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type L-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 113 (37), pp. 10358 - 10363 (2016 ...
Insecticides (India) Ltd has informed BSE that the Board of Directors of the Company at its meeting held on May 28, 2018, inter alia, has recommend a final dividend of Rs. 2/- per equity share for the
ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp.167-176. ISSN 1517-8382. The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic ...
Read Putrescine promotes changes in the endogenous polyamine levels and proteomic profiles to regulate organogenesis in Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Overexpression of human arginine decarboxylase rescues human mesenchymal stem cells against H2O2 toxicity through cell survival protein activation. AU - Seo, Su Kyoung. AU - Yang, Wonsuk. AU - Park, Yu Mi. AU - Lee, Won Taek. AU - Park, Kyung Ah. AU - Lee, Jong Eun. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - In this study, we explored the potentiality of human arginine decarboxylase (ADC) to enhance the survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) against unfavorable milieu of host tissues as the low survival of MSCs is the issue in cell transplantation therapy. To address this, human MSCs overexpressing human ADC were treated with H2O2 and the resultant intracellular events were examined. First, we examined whether human ADC is overexpressed in human MSCs. Then, we investigated cell survival or death related events. We found that the overexpression of human ADC increases formazan production and reduces caspase 3 activation and the numbers of FITC, hoechst, or propidium iodide positive ...
Agmatine can regulate nitric oxide levels, which leads to the pump often felt at the gym after taking pre workout supplements containing this ingredient.*. Citrulline is another supplement which raises plasma arginine concentration. Its unknown whether citrulline and agmatine taken together further enhance systemic nitric oxide production.* Some research suggests that they compete for uptake, so its likely not worthwhile to combine arginine and citrulline. Other supplements that do not go well with agmatine include creatine, DAA, and Yohimbine. Read more about these interactions at ...
The University of Auckland Library When examining egg hatchability in relation to the genetic background and age of the parental flies, it is necessary to examine a large number of eggs and also to minimize factors that may affect the egg hatchability. It is known that the availability of food affects the female fecundity (David et al., 1971), so it is important to keep the parental flies well fed during the egg collection period. In this communication, we present an easy way of manipulating flies and collecting their eggs without harassment. A disposable egg collection container made of a Blue MaxTM 50 ml polypropylene conical tube (30 mm diameter Falcon tubes, Becton Dickinson Labware) was adapted as follows: the tube is cut to its conical base and replaced by a ???soft drink??? plastic cap (only a few brands do not fit). The screw end of the tube is then sealed with a cotton or sponge cork. The plastic caps are partially filled with the agar-apple juice egg collection medium reported by ...
ESOP; It was good to have discussions at this AGM on the companys employee share ownership plans (ESOP) - as CEO Bharat Thakar explained that the board had approved for 6 million shares a per year to be availed through the ESOP to key revenue drivers and to ensure that senior managers were very well incentivized. All managers get targets, which entitles them to some options at the end of the year. The Chairman added that that the shares were not free, were paid for by managers to the company and were priced on the date of acceptance i.e. market price. The report 2007 report noted that was ESOP set up under a trust deed in February 2008 but that no options have been granted so far, though shareholders have approved 15 million shares ...
Cleft NZ hosted their AGM on Tuesday 28th April, via a Zoom meeting. Thanks to everyone who dialed in, to listen to an update on Cleft NZs finances and operations, ». Continue Reading →. ...
Ml REVEILLE PUBLISHED BY THE SENIOR CLASS MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE COLLEGE PARK, MD. iei3 VOLUME SIXTEEN ®0 in grateful apprrrialinu fatlitful fri^it&5t)t^j tn nitr Alma Mntn anb as a Sribut^ tn a p^rf^rt lunman, unblg planitpb m^ ftritratr iRfunlb MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE (iwcttng: W.0 our true frtcnb©, foI]o e6er foisl] us tuell; to our *olh boos, 6tI]0 rljensb foitb memories, grabe aub t^ay, of tl,eir ofou bays at tl]e olb college, cl]augeb tliouglj it may be; to our faculty, past mxb preseut, &il]0 l]abe so patieittly borue loitI, us; auh to our motI,ers, sisters, aith sloeetI]earts, lol,0 look forfuarb aub back aqaiu to tl]e rosy joys auh proub monteuts of Olommeuceuteut; - frotix tl]e ^eittor Class of tl,e ^JHarylaub Agricultural CUollege, mxct rats,- uofu lueu: (ireetiug. pie l,abe joyfully hone mud] ebil iu our libes; but if foe e&er hlh auy ebil to you, 6ie repeitt, auh ask your forgibeuess^ ^e lay before you our (oork for tbe year, iu atl]letic, liter- ary, auh ...
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Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine. In the non-classical pathway, Arg is converted to agmatine (Agm) by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and Agm is converted to putrescine by agmatinase (AGMAT). Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were designed and synthesized to inhibit translational initiation of the mRNAs for ODC1 and ADC, in ovine conceptuses. The morphologies of MAO control, MAO-ODC1, and MAO-ADC conceptuses were normal. Double knockdown of ODC1 and ADC (MAO-ODC1:ADC)
Opioid-based pharmacotherapy remains the most commonly prescribed treatment for patients suffering from neuropathic pain conditions. Although opioids are effective for treating neuropathic pain, when used chronically the development of adverse side effects, such as opioid analgesic tolerance, can develop. Previous studies have shown that exogenously delivered agmatine, (decarboxylated L-arginine) can prevent the development of opioid analgesic tolerance, dependence, and self-administration. This study investigated the impact of intrathecal adeno-associated virus serotype 5-human arginine decarboxylase (AAV5-hADC) in models of opioid analgesic tolerance. Pharmacological dose-response curves were collected from two cohorts using two different models of opioid analgesic tolerance. Tissues from the central nervous system of the subjects were further analyzed for hADC gene expression and for spinal agmatine levels. Investigations of the choroid plexus as a target for intrathecal gene therapeutics were also
Abstract Arginine is catabolized by NOS2 and other nitric oxide synthases to form nitric oxide. We evaluated the roles of dietary arginine and Nos2 in Apc -dependent intestinal tumorigenesis in Min mice with and without a functional Nos2 gene. NOS2 protein was expressed only in intestinal tissues of ApcMin/+Nos2+/+ mice. NOS3 expression was higher in intestinal tissues of mice lacking Nos2, mainly in the small intestine. When diet was supplemented with arginine (0.2% and 2% in drinking water), lack of Nos2 results in decreased tumorigenesis in both small intestine and colon. In Nos2 knockout mice, supplemental arginine (up to 2%) caused a decrease in small intestinal tumor number and size. The arginine-dependent decrease was associated with an increase in nitrotyrosine formation and apoptosis in the region of intestinal stem cells. Mice expressing Nos2 did not show these changes. These mice did, however, show an arginine-dependent increase in colon tumor number and incidence, while no effect on ...
BioAssay record AID 342862 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [125I]PIC from human imidazoline receptor 1 expressed in rat PC12 cells.
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9 ...
Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A) and Archaea (aIF5A). YK 4-279 metabolism and aIF5A modification inHfx. volcanii Hfx. volcaniiby LC-MS/MS revealed it was exclusively deoxyhypusinylated. Genetic studies confirmed the role of the predicted arginine decarboxylase gene(HVO_1958)in agmatine synthesis. The agmatinase-like gene(HVO_2299)was found to be essential consistent with a … Continue reading Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in. ...
1MT1: Pyruvoyl-Dependent Arginine Decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii: Crystal Structures of the Self-Cleaved and S53A Proenzyme Forms
We like the ethical practices of Gorilla Spirits company, that they donate £1 from every bottle to endangered mountain gorillas through the Gorilla Foundation. Or as they put it - saving gorillas, one drink at a time!. Now that we have selected our bespoke gin, Andy and his team will distill it in bulk for us to sell. We do hope you will join us at the Number 63 AGM on Saturday 25 January 2020 when we will officially launch the Number 63 Gin and a specially designed Number 63 gin cocktail after the AGM, back at Number 63.. Thanks to Finance Director Kay for organising this project with Gorilla Gins and to Barbara Jeremiah for designing the label, which was facilitated by Noisy graphic designers.. ...
and says that the ordinary Veneziano scattering amplitudes is the product of the inverse of its $p$-adic versions over all $p$. Ever since one also speaks of adelic string theory.. This is open and bosonic string theory: the boundary of the open bosonic string is regarded as an object in p-adic geometry. In traditional literature on $p$-adic string theory it is usually stated that the generalization of the $p$-adic theory to closed strings remains unclear, since it remains unclear which adic version of the complex numbers (parameterizing the interior of the string worldsheet) one should use. But now by the above, in algebraic geometry there is in fact an obvious concept at least of adic genus-1 closed string worldsheets: these are just the elliptic curves over the $p$-adics. And moreover, since the Witten genus, being the partition function, is a particular case of a string scattering amplitude, it follows by the above story of the String-orientation of $tmf$ that making this identification ...
I have been desperately trying to quit Omeprazole for the last 5 years but have had so much problem with extreme acid release it seems Ill be with it for my life. Of course noone knows yet the result ...
Psykiatriens 9. Forskningsdag 6. november 2014, AUH Risskov AU AARHUS UNIVERSITET Indhold Dagens program Side 3 Foredragsprogram Side 5 Abstracts foredrag Side 7 Posteroversigt Side 19 Abstracts posters
Pentru că el reclamă vina Serviciului de Telecomunicaţii Speciale în eşuarea salvării celor două vieţi din Apuseni.. Numai că localizarea s-a făcut pe baza unor softuri vândute STS-ului de chiar onor Sebi Ghiţă, prietenul premierului premierilor.. Cu mantă: dacă e o vină, cum susţine Ponta, atunci ea îi aparţine şi celui care a vândut aparatura şi sistemele către STS, adică boier Ghiţă.. În fine, cine l-o mai înţelege pe VP! Mai ales că, atenţie, dom prim-ministru!, chiar Raportul guvernului, prezentat parţial presei, nu scoate o vorbă despre culpa STS.. Mi-a venit să râd însă când stimabilul premier a zis: şeful ROMATSA a demisionat, şeful ISU la fel, era şi rândul STS.. Măi să fie! Adică, n-are nicio vină, dar trebuie executat şeful STS ca să nu rămână singuri ceilalţi doi. Demisie la grămadă, ca la prefecţii deszăpezirii. Hai, că suntem în aer!. Tot discursul de aseară al primului-ministru a fost în acelaşi stil. Nimic serios, ...
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Minule jsme si ekli, co se m e st t, pokud idi jezd s rukou odlo enou na adic p ce. Nyn se pod v me na podobn ne var, j m trp tak cel ada idi . T m je vozen si nohy na spojkov m ped lu.
The minutes of EDWTA Meetings are linked below for your review or download. EDWTA AGM Minutes 2020 EDWTA AGM Agenda 2020 MINUTES OF THE AGM 2019 EDWTA AGM Agenda 2019…
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act. There are three classes of imidazoline receptors: I1 receptor - mediates the sympatho-inhibitory actions of imidazolines to lower blood pressure, (NISCH or IRAS, imidazoline receptor antisera selected), I2 receptor - an allosteric binding site of monoamine oxidase and is involved in pain modulation and neuroprotection, I3 receptor - regulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Activated I1-imidazoline receptors trigger the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into DAG. Elevated DAG levels in turn trigger the synthesis of second messengers arachidonic acid and downstreameicosanoids. In addition, the sodium-hydrogen antiporter is inhibited, and enzymes of catecholamine synthesis are induced. The I1-imidazoline receptor may belong to the neurocytokine receptorfamily, since its signaling pathways are similar to those of interleukins.. ...
Since Bousquet et al. discovered the imidazoline binding sites (IBS) two decades ago, when they realized that the antihypertensive drug clonidine interacts not only with the alpha2-adrenenoceptors (alpha2-AR) but also with a distinct imidazoline preferring binding site, these receptors have been pai …
Chinese Viagra Online Does cialis cause blood clots. In some cases ed is a symptom of other diseases such as diabetes or aspect of sexual impotence most of the reasons which as we know can be avoided or cured. Ed Garvey Disease Drinking After Morning often when a man develops erectile dysfunction (ED) hell try to ignore the problem hoping it will go away on its own. How to prevent herpes outeaks druzyny blood discount discover pills on an price physical the (Generic) Price Ethical a cause problems. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter derived from L-arginine a common sports Researchers conclude agmatine can modulate both acute and. If you have trouble getting or sustaining an erection that is firm enough to have sexual intercourse you could have ED.. How do I know if I have Pudendal Neuralgia or Pudendal Nerve Entrapment?.While PNE can certainly cause PN its far from the only cause. Moreover sexual dysfunction was increased from baseline on a 24-week follow-up.of phentolamine can cause an ...
In this regard, the study of pleiotropic hepatoprotective properties of the agonist of peripheral imidazoline receptors C7070 seems interesting from an applied point of view. Models of a skin flap on a feeding leg, ischemia-reperfusion of the liver and rat heart isolated from Langendorff (ischemia-reperfusion and doxorubicin cardiomyopathy) were used. The I2 agonist C7070 at a dose of 10 mg/kg 4.5-fold prevents the increase in ALT and AST (332.56 ± 22.05/825.49 ± 22.46 ALT/AST 526.90 ± 17.97/1045.16 ± 80.02 units/l in control) and 2.5 times reduces the areas of ischmeic damage and necrosis (0.058 ± 0.029/0.046 ± 0.013 mm2) in the modeling of 15-minute ischemia liver. Moxonidine and metformin had a hepatoprotective effect: 44.99 and 36.88 for moxonidine (ALT and AST) and 34.20 / 21.02 for metformin (ALT / AST). The coefficients of histological hepatoprotective activity: 72.33 and 38.96 (moxonidine and metformin ...
The endogenous polyamine spermine has multiple effects on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. These include an increase in the magnitude of NMDA-induced whole-cell currents that is seen in the presence of saturating concentrations of glycine (glycine-independent stimulation), an increase in the affinity of the receptor for glycine (glycine-dependent stimulation), and voltage-dependent inhibition. Although many of the properties of native NMDA receptors are seen with homomeric NR1 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, we have found that the effects of spermine are differentially regulated by NR2 subunits in heteromeric NR1/NR2 receptors. Glycine-independent stimulation by spermine occurred at homomeric NR1A receptors, which lack the amino-terminal insert in NR1, and at heteromeric NR1A/NR2B receptors but not at heteromeric NR1A/NR2A or NR1A/NR2C receptors. Glycine-independent stimulation was not seen at homomeric NR1B receptors, which include the amino-terminal insert in NR1, or at ...
The transcriptional activator GadE, for Glutamic acid decarboxylase, is positively autoregulated [3, 14]and controls the transcription of genes involved in the maintenance of pH homeostasis, including the principal acid resistance system [3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 17, 18, 19] glutamate dependent (GAD), also referred as the GAD system, and genes involved in multidrug efflux, among others [3, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22] GadE also controls the expression of two transcription factors related to acid resistance, GadW and GadX, and for this reason it is considered the central activator of the acid response system [3, 4] GadE is encoded by the gadE-mdtEF operon, inducible by low pH [8] which is located in the region called the acid fitness island [21] Expression of gadE is controlled by an unusually large 798-bp upstream intergenic region, termed the sensory integration locus [15] At least six regulators related to the acid resistance system, GadE, GadX, GadW, EvgA, YdeO, and MnmE, are involved in the direct regulation ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
SWISS-MODEL Repository entry for A0KIP8 (SPEA_AERHH), Biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp hydrophila (strain ATCC 7966 / DSM 30187 / JCM1027 / KCTC 2358 / NCIMB 9240)
Ncondezi Energy Limited (LON:NCCL) has said its annual general meeting (AGM) is scheduled to be held at 12.00pm SAST on December 16, 2020, at Club Room 1, Main Club House Inanda Club, Forrest Rd & 6th Avenue, Inanda, Sandton, Johannesburg, 2196, South Africa. In view of the current South African Governments guidance the groups board recommends that shareholders should not attend the meeting in person and urges shareholders wishing to vote on any of the resolutions to do so by appointing the chairman of the meeting as a proxy to vote on their behalf. Voting on all resolutions at the Meeting will be by way of poll. Given that there will not be any formal Q&A session at the meeting, the company will host an online investor meeting, open to all existing and potential shareholders following the AGM on Wednesday, December 16, 2020, at 2.00pm SAST (12.00pm GMT). On the call, Ncondezi Energy CEO Hanno Pengilly will provide an update on the business followed by a question and answer session. ...
I would like to thank all those who helped and supported me over the last four years to carry out my role as chairman of Laois Down Syndrome.. Mick Gorman spoke from the heart as he stepped down from his role as chairperson at the Laois Down Syndrome AGM on Wednesday February 19 in Gort na nOir, Abbeyleix.. Conor Glynn was elected to fill the shoes of Mr Gorman as chairperson, alongside a new committee for 2014.. Mr Gorman expressed his confidence in the newly elected chairperson.. It has been a privilege to serve as chair and help to make our branch one of the best in the country, given our size.. ...
On Thursday (24 July), SABMiller will give a trading update for its first quarter. The company also hosts its AGM on the same day. Here, just-drinks looks at how the UK-headquartered brewer and soft drinks firm has fared in the three months to the end of June. related to Beer & cider, Company results, SABMiller, Molson Coors,
It is with mixed emotions that we announce Miriam Needobas departure from her role as Executive Director at Oxygen Art Centre. She is leaving to pursue the next chapter in her remarkable career. Mark you calendar for our AGM on November 27th when we will celebrate Miriams steadfast commitment and dynamic presence at the Centre these past many years. This means that Oxygen Art Centre is looking for a new Executive Director. The posting closes on October 27th.. Oxygen Art Centre - Executive Director Job Description. ...
Metoda Nirvana susține cu argumente: toate plăcerile noastre sunt provocate de hormoni;toate gândurile și ideile noastre sunt produse de și cu hormoni;tot ceea ce gândește și face omul este mijlocit prin intermediul hormonilor;ba chiar și toate mirosurile umane sunt produse de hormoni;și chiar toate durerile noastre sunt mediate de hormoni si atenuate de asemenea de hormoni,care fac durerile mai suportabile,însoțindu-le de descărcări de hormoni opiozi ,adică care produc si plăcere(pe aceasta conexiune între plăcere și durere se bazează sado-masochismul);și sinapsele dintre neuroni sunt efectuate ,tot de hormoni(chiar ei hormonii sunt mediatorii)! ...
We are holding our 22nd AGM at Methold House, North Street, Worthing on Wednesday 18th October at 6pm, and would like to invite you to find out about the vital help we provide in the community and our future plans ...
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Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine. *Aspartic acid (aspartate). *Cycloserine. *Glutamic acid ( ...
Agmatine (putative endogenous ligand at I1; also interacts with NMDA, nicotinic, and α2 adrenoceptors) Apraclonidine (α2 ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine amidinohydrolase. Other names in common use include agmatine ureohydrolase ... "Entrez Gene: AGMAT agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase)". Morris SM (2004). "Vertebrate agmatinases: what role do they play in ... In enzymology, an agmatinase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Vicente C, Legaz ME (1982). "Preparation and properties of agmatine amidinohydrolase of Evernia prunastri". Physiol. Plant. 55 ...
Gibson DA, Harris BR, Rogers DT, Littleton JM (October 2002). "Radioligand binding studies reveal agmatine is a more selective ... Reis DJ, Regunathan S (May 2000). "Is agmatine a novel neurotransmitter in brain?". Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 21 (5 ... glycine site antagonist Agmatine - endogenous polyamine site antagonist Argiotoxin-636 - naturally occurring dizocilpine or ...
Alterations in production of endogenous NMDA antagonists such as agmatine and kyenurenic acid have been shown in schizophrenia ... Robust negative feedback at NMDA from kyenurenic acid, magnesium, zinc, and agmatine prevents runaway feedback. Misregulation ... "Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 47 (8): 1054-60. doi:10.1016 ...
... is also a precursor for urea, ornithine, and agmatine; is necessary for the synthesis of creatine; and can also be ... Moreover, cluster analyses revealed that L-arginine and its main metabolites L-citrulline, L-ornithine and agmatine formed ... Assays also confirmed significantly reduced levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but increased agmatine concentration and ... used for the synthesis of polyamines (mainly through ornithine and to a lesser degree through agmatine, citrulline, and ...
... then agmatine is transformed into N-carbamoylputrescine by agmatine imino hydroxylase (AIH). Finally, N-carbamoylputrescine is ... In one pathway, arginine is converted into agmatine, with a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase (ADC); ... Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (September 1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. ...
... the biosynthetic enzyme for agmatine". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1670 (2): 156-64. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2003.11.006. PMC 3118518 ...
Agmatine: Blocks NMDA receptors and other cation ligand-gated channels. Can also potentiate opioid analgesia. Chloroform: an ...
Agmatine is also often used as an alternative or supplement to arginine. Taurine is also a common ingredient in pre-workout, ... Laube G, Bernstein HG (July 2017). "Agmatine: multifunctional arginine metabolite and magic bullet in clinical neuroscience?". ...
Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and ... Roon RJ, Barker HA (1972). "Fermentation of agmatine in Streptococcus faecalis: occurrence of putrescine transcarbamoylase". J ...
Gong S, Richard H, Foster JW (August 2003). "YjdE (AdiC) is the arginine:agmatine antiporter essential for arginine-dependent ... Iyer R, Williams C, Miller C (November 2003). "Arginine-agmatine antiporter in extreme acid resistance in Escherichia coli". ... is an enzyme responsible for catalyzing the conversion of L-arginine into agmatine and carbon dioxide. The process consumes a ...
Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and ...
Both the gabD and gabT genes were shown, in various experiments, to be induced by metabolites such as agmatine and lysine that ... Chou HT, Kwon DH, Hegazy M, Lu CD (March 2008). "Transcriptome analysis of agmatine and putrescine catabolism in Pseudomonas ...
In addition, agmatine may play an important regulatory role in mammals. Formiminoglutamase catalyses the fourth step in ... Agmatinase hydrolyses agmatine to putrescine, the precursor for the biosynthesis of higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine ... and play important roles in arginine/agmatine metabolism, the urea cycle, histidine degradation, and other pathways. Arginase, ...
Another pathway in plants starts with decarboxylation of L-arginine to produce agmatine. The imine functional group in agmatine ... then is hydrolysed by agmatine deiminase, releasing ammonia, converting the guanidine group into a urea. The resulting N- ...
Agmatine. *25I-NBOH and its 2-methoxy-analog 25I-NBOMe[47]. *18F FECIMBI-36, radiolabelled agonist ligand for mapping 5-HT2A / ...
... is generated in the cell by attachment of agmatine to the C2-oxo group of cytidine by TiaS. Agmatine in turn is a ... Conjugation of agmatine moiety at the C2 carbon of C34 induces a tautomeric conversion of C34 which alters its hydrogen bonding ... In step three, the primary amino group of agmatine attacks the C2 carbon of the p-C34 intermediate to release γ-Pi and form ... Agmatidine is similar to lysidine in that the C2-oxo group of cytidine is replaced by the aminoguanidine agmatine instead of by ...
Later, he discovered agmatine in herring roe and devised a method for preparing it. Another of Kossel's students was American ...
Ikeuchi Y, Kimura S, Numata T, Nakamura D, Yokogawa T, Ogata T, Wada T, Suzuki T, Suzuki T (April 2010). "Agmatine-conjugated ...
Quistad GB, Lam WW, Casida JE (1993). "Identification of bis(agmatine)oxalamide in venom from the primitive hunting spider, ...
Li G, Regunathan S, Barrow CJ, Eshraghi J, Cooper R, Reis DJ: Agmatine: an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance in the ... Regunathan S, Piletz JE: Regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and agmatine synthesis in macrophages and astrocytes. ... Agmatine: clinical applications after 100 years in translation. Drug Discov Today. 2013 Jun 13. pii: S1359-6446(13)00163-3. doi ... Neuroprotective effect of agmatine in rats with transient cerebral ischemia using MR imaging and histopathologic evaluation. ...
L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives ...
It catabolizes a variety of energy sources, including glycerol, lactate, malate, citrate, arginine, agmatine, and many keto ...
Srivenugopal, K.S. and Adiga, P.R. (1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. ... Smith, T.A. (1969). "Agmatine iminohydrolase in maize". Phytochemistry 8: 2111-2117. ...
... has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) agmatine (CHEBI:17431) is a guanidines (CHEBI:24436) agmatine ( ... CHEBI:17431 - agmatine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ... N1-aminoaminopropylagmatine (CHEBI:64339) has functional parent agmatine (CHEBI:17431). N4-phosphoagmatine (CHEBI:17358) has ... feruloylagmatine (CHEBI:75544) has functional parent agmatine (CHEBI:17431). agmatinium(2+) (CHEBI:58145) is conjugate acid of ...
Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the amino acid arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert ... Agmatine has been shown to enhance glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and to exert nephroprotective effects. Agmatine has been ... In 1994, endogenous agmatine synthesis in mammals was discovered. Agmatine biosynthesis by arginine decarboxylation is well- ... A number of potential medical uses for agmatine have been suggested. Agmatine produces mild reductions in heart rate and blood ...
In enzymology, an agmatine deiminase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine iminohydrolase. This enzyme is also called agmatine amidinohydrolase. This ... Smith TA (1969). "Agmatine iminohydrolase in maize". Phytochemistry. 8 (11): 2111-2117. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88168-6. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-carbamoylputrescine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, ...
Brands A-Z GAT Agmatine Sulfate Categories Sports Nutrition Pre-Workout Supplements Nitric Oxide Formulas Agmatine Sulfate ...
Find patient medical information for AGMATINE on WebMD including its uses, effectiveness, side effects and safety, interactions ... AGMATINE Uses & Effectiveness Insufficient Evidence for:. *Herniated disc. Early research shows that taking agmatine might ... AGMATINE Dosing. The appropriate dose of agmatine depends on several factors such as the users age, health, and several other ... AGMATINE Overview Information. Agmatine is a chemical found in bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. It is made from ...
... has granted Gilad&Gilad an additional patent for agmatine use in dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and foods. ... Another Agmatine Patent for Gilad&Gilad. The US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted Gilad&Gilad an additional ... Agmatine is a metabolite of the amino acid arginine. It is biosynthesized via decarboxylation of arginine and exerts a wide ... "Agmatine with its postulated molecular shotgun-like mechanism of action is so unique, because as a single dietary ingredient it ...
Mediates the hydrolysis of agmatine into N-carbamoylputrescine in the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway of putrescine ...
Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter.. Wang S1, Yan R1, Zhang X1, Chu Q1 ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ...
Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps with Agmatine! ... Prime Nutrition Agmatine helps promote and support your nitric ... Agmatine also promotes performance, enhances mood and increases energy. What more could you ask for from a nitric oxide booster ... Prime Nutrition Agmatine helps promote and support your nitric oxide levels! Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps ... Arginine has a long history of use as the premier nitric oxide booster - until now! Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of arginine ...
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Exchanges extracellular arginine for its intracellular decarboxylation product agmatine (Agm) thereby expelling intracellular ... sp,P60063,ADIC_ECO57 Arginine/agmatine antiporter OS=Escherichia coli O157:H7 OX=83334 GN=adiC PE=1 SV=1 ... Exchanges extracellular arginine for its intracellular decarboxylation product agmatine (Agm) thereby expelling intracellular ...
Get a list of Agmatine sulfate producers, manufacturers, distributors, vendors, in USA, Europe, Asia, South & central America, ... 3. Agmatine Sulfate , TCI AMERICA. ... Singapore Other Asia/Pacific Region Agmatine Sulfate Synonym : 1-Amino-4-guanidobutane ... rat, and an agmatine-treated MCAO rat. Agmatine attenuates MCAO-induced overexpression of ... Beneficial effect of ... URL: ... 7. BMC Pharmacology , Full text , Beneficial effect of agmatine on brain apoptosis, astrogliosis, and e. ...
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ADP-Ribosyltransferase, NAD-Agmatine. An enzyme that catalyzes the Transfer of the ADP-Ribose moiety from NAD+ or NADP+ to ... specific protein substrates with Arginine, Arginine-type compounds, Agmatine, or Guanidine as acceptors. This mono-ADP- ...
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Agmatine [ 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine ], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L-arginine and is a metabolic ... , Forum , Supplement Forum , Supplements , a good quick read on Agmatine ... a good quick read on Agmatine Agmatine [4-(aminobutyl)guanidine], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L- ... Is it ok to mix bulk Agmatine together with Leucine? I Normally mix 1 gram Agmatine to 3 grams Leucine Pre work out. ...
... an agmatine degrader isolated from wine, and to compare it with three other different species, previously reported as ... Agmatine / metabolism*. Arginine / metabolism. Bacillus cereus / metabolism. Biogenic Amines / metabolism*. Enterococcus ... This article aims to study putrescine production in Lactobacillus hilgardii strain X(1)B, an agmatine degrader isolated from ... Spermine and spermidine always produced a diminution in agmatine deamination. In this work, we have also demonstrated that ...
Two researchers in the US took high dose of agmatine for five years. They each consumed 2.67g of Agmatine per day, split into ... Agmatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is naturally present in food like meat and shellfish, and is produced from L- ... Secongly, agmatine is though to stimulate the release of the hormones that tell the body to make more testosterone. In this way ... On top of this, agmatine can reduce the perception of pain, which can help athletes push through to the next level, and it may ...
Agmatine. Description. Agmatine ((4-aminobutyl)guanidine, NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-C(-NH2)(=NH)) is the decarboxylation product ... Showing metabocard for Agmatine (HMDB0001432). Jump To Section: IdentificationTaxonomyOntologyPhysical propertiesSpectra ... Decarboxylates L-arginine to agmatine. Truncated splice isoforms probably lack activity. Gene Name:. ADC. Uniprot ID:. Q96A70 ... Appears not to be the agmatine transporter. Gene Name:. SLC22A15. Uniprot ID:. Q8IZD6 Molecular weight:. 60539.5. ...
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Current analytical techniques do not allow the detection of agmatine in extracellular fluid, making it difficult to study its ... However, a new method for in vivo monitoring agmatine in the brain was developed. Capillary zone ele … ... Agmatine is a putative neurotransmitter in the brain. ... Agmatine is a putative neurotransmitter in the brain. Current ... Detectable amounts of agmatine were found in dialysates from probes located in the hippocampus but not from the probes located ...
Uptake of agmatine and extrusion of putrescine by agmatine-grown cells of E. faecalis appeared to be catalyzed by an agmatine- ... agmatine, or glucose. Rapid uncoupler-insensitive uptake of agmatine was observed only in agmatine-grown cells. A high ... Kinetic analysis revealed competitive inhibition for uptake between putrescine and agmatine. Agmatine uptake by membrane ... Transport of diamines by Enterococcus faecalis is mediated by an agmatine-putrescine antiporter.. A J Driessen, E J Smid, W N ...
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Previous studies have shown that agmatine, a potential neuromodulator or co-transmitter, exhibited antidepressant-like action ... Depression Agmatine I1-imidazoline receptor α2-adrenergic receptor Zhao-Di Chen and Wen-Qiang Chen contributed equally to this ... Halaris AE, Plietz JE (2007) Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain. CNS Drugs 21:885-900CrossRefPubMed ... Reis DJ, Regunathan S (2000) Is agmatine a novel neurotransmitter in brain? Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:187-193CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
... agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting Tms indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand ... The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to ... Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into ... "Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into ...
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agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase). Synonyms: 5033405N08Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID ... Vega: OTTMUSG9931 (Agmat, agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase))*CCDS: 20027.1, 38941*Gene Ontology: Agmat *Mouse Phenome DB: ...
  • Insulin-like partial effects of agmatine derivatives in adipocytes. (
  • Concurrent administration of efaroxan (1 mg/kg, i.p.) completely abolished the antidepressant-like effects of agmatine (40 mg/kg, p.o.) whereas yohimbine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to exert similar effects, suggesting that the acute antidepressant-like effects of agmatine was mainly mediated by I 1 R but not α 2 AR. (
  • In summary, we found that the antidepressant-like effects of agmatine in the TST and the FST were mediated by activating I 1 R and in the sub-acute LH test were mediated by activating both I 1 R and α 2 AR. (
  • Our aim was to evaluate the effects of agmatine on BBB stabilization in a rat model of transient cerebral ischemia by using permeability dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging at early stages and subsequently to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging for the investigation of new therapies. (
  • Here we investigated the antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects of agmatine in a mouse model of AD induced by a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of amyloid-β 1-40 (Aβ). (
  • These results demonstrate the antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects of agmatine in a mouse model of AD, indicating the potential of agmatine for the treatment of depression associated to AD. (
  • It is theorized that the effects of Agmatine sulfate are more pronounced than L-arginine. (
  • Neuroprotective effects of agmatine against cell damage caused by glucocorticoids in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (
  • Background Although agmatine therapy in a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia is highly protective against neurological injury, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of agmatine are not fully elucidated. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of agmatine on brain apoptosis, astrogliosis and edema in the rats with transient cerebral ischemia. (
  • Since then, the growing body of research has revealed some surprising effects of agmatine. (
  • One notable study examined the effects of agmatine on mice that had undergone 4 weeks of standardized stressors. (
  • For example, one notable study examined the effects of agmatine against stroke in rats. (
  • Most of the beneficial anti-depressant, anti-convulsant, anti-OCD and memory retrieval effects of agmatine are due to the activation of the α2-adrenoreceptors and the imidazoline binding sites in addition to NMDA and nitric oxide antagonism ( R , R ). (
  • Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the beneficial effects of agmatine in the brain of rats exposed to streptozotocin. (
  • Allmax Nutrition Agmatine Sulfate Powder is a decarboxylized Arginine metabolite that promotes serious muscular pumps for increased vascularity and enhanced muscle contractions. (
  • Feyza Aricioglu and Hale Altunbas [5] reported modulatory effect of agmatine on anxiety and depression . (
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of agmatine in a transient ischemic cat model by using MR perfusion imaging and histopathologic analyses. (
  • As a matter of fact, you could almost consider walking around with full, hard, pumped muscles simply a nice side effect of Agmatine supplementation when compared to some of its other benefits. (
  • Hypotensive effect of agmatine, arginine metabolite, is affected by NO synthase. (
  • These compliment the desired effect of agmatine very well for a more comprehensive pre-workout stack. (
  • To further investigate the underlying protective effect of agmatine, primary hippocampal neurons were treated with Aβ (20µM), MK801 (NMDA receptor antagonist), or combination of these agents, respectively. (
  • This effect of agmatine was comparable to it of MK801. (
  • Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is an aminoguanidine that was discovered in 1910 by Albrecht Kossel. (
  • An enzyme that catalyzes the Transfer of the ADP-Ribose moiety from NAD+ or NADP + to specific protein substrates with Arginine , Arginine -type compounds, Agmatine , or Guanidine as acceptors. (
  • Agmatine [ 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine ], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L-arginine and is a metabolic product of mammalian cells. (
  • Agmatine ((4-aminobutyl)guanidine, NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-C(-NH2)(=NH)) is the decarboxylation product of the amino acid arginine and is an intermediate in polyamine biosynthesis. (
  • Agmatine ((4-aminobutyl) guanidine, NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-C(-NH2)(=NH )) is a byproduct of Arginine that is produced through a process called decarboxylation. (
  • Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is a derivative of the amino acid l-arginine. (
  • Agmatine, or (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is created from arginine. (
  • Some of the other names for Agmatine include (4-Aminobutyl)guanidine and 1-Amino-4-guanidinobutane. (
  • AGMA1, a prevailingly cationic amphoteric polyamidoamine obtained by polyaddition of (4-aminobutyl)guanidine (agmatine) to 2,2-bis(acrylamido)acetic acid, was studied as a potential DNA carrier and transfection promoter. (
  • Allmax Agmatine Sulfate is a great supplement to help raise your nitric oxide levels and give you bigger veins! (
  • Agmatine was formerly known as the post form of Arginine once digested, but with technological advances, scientist have been able to take the pure form of agmatine and allow it to be used as a supplement. (
  • Get the Most from Your N.O. Supplement and Get ALLMAX AGMATINE SULFATE! (
  • Agmatine is an essential supplement to the serious body builder or athlete. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate, the commonly used stable salt of Agmatine, is a promising supplement rapidly drawing the attention of the athletic performance market. (
  • Because health is too important to play around with, people using a nutriceutical supplement in the long term, even a natural and seemingly benign amino acid such as agmatine, is urged to discuss this with their doctor. (
  • Once known primarily as a supplement for bodybuilders, Agmatine Sulfate is gaining popularity among men and women of all ages and walks of life as a way to increase energy and enhancement mental and physical wellbeing. (
  • For this reason, Agmatine sulfate is beginning to become even more popular as a bodybuilding supplement than L-Arginine. (
  • SNS Agmatine XT is a truly versatile supplement, with users reporting improved endurance, improved recovery, enhanced performance, dramatic and long lasting pumps, and improved overall body composition including increased lean muscle and decreased body-fat. (
  • This makes agmatine sulfate a popular pump-inducing supplement choice. (
  • Dietary protein can slow the absorption of agmatine, and because of this diminish the benefits of this supplement. (
  • Agmatine is typically listed on supplement labels as agmatine sulfate . (
  • It should be noted that while stand-alone agmatine sulfate products are popular, agmatine is also found in pre-workout and nootropic supplement blends, as well as in Machine Fuel BCAAs by MTS Nutrition . (
  • com)-- Gilad&Gilad LLC has served a Cease and Desist Letter to a dietary supplement marketer for alleged patent infringements upon Gilad&Gilad's agmatine patents covering methods of use. (
  • All these things together make Agmatine a well-known option for a pump-initiating supplement. (
  • We have seen the advantages of Agmatine, now let us look at some of the side effects of this pre-workout and bodybuilding supplement. (
  • For required amounts to improve performance you would be best suited to getting the free form supplement Agmatine Sulfate which is now quite popular in both pre and intra-workout supplements. (
  • Directions For Agmatine: As a dietary supplement consume 1 serving 30 minutes prior to exercise. (
  • Agmatine, a natural neurotransmitter, has become a popular supplement for its purported antidepressant and anti-anxiety effects, as well as other health benefits. (
  • Agmatine sulfate is the most popular form of this supplement. (
  • If you're looking for something extra to add to your current supplement stack, nothing will bring as many benefits as pure pharmaceutical grade Agmatine Sulfate! (
  • Agmatine is the new and more effective supplement to increase Nitric Oxide Production. (
  • Athletes and avid life extensionists can and should supplement with Agmatine for its many health benefits. (
  • Agmatine sulfate is an incredible supplement for boosting Nitric Oxide levels. (
  • This Agmatine Sulfate is a Good Pre-Workout supplement in Allmax Nutrition products.Buy Original and Authentic, Genuine supplement at best price in India from online store Bodymart.Cash on delivery also available.Customers can give reviews on supplements too. (
  • Agmatine sulfate is a popular form of health supplement which provides the same health benefits as Agmatine and is much more effective. (
  • Agmatine is a relatively new compound in the supplement market that is gaining popularity. (
  • Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the amino acid arginine. (
  • Agmatine is a metabolite of the amino acid arginine. (
  • This article aims to study putrescine production in Lactobacillus hilgardii strain X(1)B, an agmatine degrader isolated from wine, and to compare it with three other different species, previously reported as putrescine producers from agmatine: Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC11700 and Bacillus cereus CECT 148(T). The effect of different biogenic amines, organic acids, cofactors, amino acids and sugars on putrescine production was evaluated. (
  • Agmatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is naturally present in food like meat and shellfish, and is produced from L-Arginine in the human body. (
  • Agmatine is a metabolite of the amino acid L-arginine, and like its parent compound, it boosts the body's production of nitric oxide, which can dilate blood vessels to facilitate blood flow to the muscles, brain and other tissues. (
  • Ilgü H, Jeckelmann J-M, Colas C, Ucurum Z, Schlessinger A, Fotiadis D. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l -Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l -Type Amino Acid Transporters. (
  • Indeed, the use of the electroneutral transporter of basic amino acids can also be discarded as ornithine, arginine and lysine are completely ineffective at inducing the inhibition of agmatine uptake. (
  • Agmatine is a small molecule that the body makes naturally from the amino acid, arginine. (
  • Agmatine is a byproduct of the amino acid arginine, but goes well beyond arginine in terms of benefits. (
  • As a result, if you do choose to consume this amino acid, Agmatine supplementation is a must! (
  • Arginine is a basic amino acid and serves as an essential precursor for the synthesis of biologically important molecules such as protein, ornithine, proline, polyamines, creatinine, nitric oxide and agmatine (Wu and Morris, 1998). (
  • Agmatine is a subsidiary of the amino acid l-arginine . (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is derived from the amino acid L-arginine. (
  • Agmatine is the end product of the decarboxylation of the popular amino acid arginine. (
  • Produced naturally in the brain, agmatine is derived from the amino acid l-arginine. (
  • Agmatine sulfate is a molecule that is derived from arginine, an essential amino acid in the body. (
  • By consuming Agmatine Sulfate before meals, it is possible to enhance our bodies level of anabolism* via an increase in insulin meaning, less circulating blood sugar and more amino acids deposited directly into our muscle cells. (
  • Agmatine is a semi-essential amino acid. (
  • Agmatine is a molecule that is a derivative of amino acid L-arginine. (
  • Agmatine also supports higher insulin levels, allowing more amino acids to deposit directly into your muscle cells for more muscle gain. (
  • A. In addition to promoting a large increase in nitric oxide production, agmatine increases insulin sensitivity, therefore increasing muscular uptake of sugar and amino acids for greater anabolism. (
  • Agmatine produces mild reductions in heart rate and blood pressure, apparently by activating both central and peripheral control systems via modulation of several of its molecular targets including: imidazoline receptors subtypes, norepinephrine release and NO production. (
  • Agmatine binds to 2-adrenergic receptor and imidazoline binding sites, and blocks NMDA receptors and other cation ligand-gated channels. (
  • Halaris AE, Piletz JE (2003) Relevance of imidazoline receptors and agmatine to psychiatry: a decade of progress. (
  • The I 2 imidazoline receptor, which binds agmatine to the mitochondrial membrane, can also be excluded as a possible transporter since its inhibitor, idazoxan, was ineffective at inducing the inhibition of agmatine uptake. (
  • Agmatine is an imidazoline receptor agonist. (
  • The modulation of imidazoline receptors by agmatine has also been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. (
  • Agmatine binding to imidazoline and α₂-adrenoceptors induces a variety of physiological and pharmacological effects. (
  • Agmatine is known for activating imidazoline receptors. (
  • Agmatine is present in various brain structures, especially in the areas of the hippocampus and cortex, and its concentration correlates, among others, with the amount of imidazoline receptors. (
  • Agmatine has greater potential to reduce morphine dependency than other imidazoline-1-specific ligands such as moxonidine and rilmenidine. (
  • Prime Nutrition Agmatine helps promote and support your nitric oxide levels! (
  • Prime Nutrition Agmatine is derived from arginine to support a natural increase in nitric oxide, LH, and HGH for a variety of fitness performance and bodybuilding benefits. (
  • Agmatine sulfate injection can increase food intake with carbohydrate preference in satiated, but not in hungry rats and this effect may be mediated by neuropeptide Y. However, supplementation in rat drinking water results in slight reductions in water intake, body weight and blood pressure. (
  • Agmatine supplementation can also protect from strokes and benefit cognitive health. (
  • This section will look at the major potential benefits of agmatine supplementation. (
  • 3][4] Agmatine supplementation also shows a statistically significant potential to reduce perceived pain. (
  • Agmatine supplementation likewise demonstrates a factually unique potential to diminish perceived pain. (
  • Such the phenomenon is observed upon exogenous agmatine administration and not by L-arginine supplementation. (
  • In several different tests, agmatine supplementation was shown to significantly reduce anxiety-related behaviors. (
  • Research has shown that agmatine supplementation may protect brain cells from damage . (
  • This wide variety of benefits makes Agmatine supplementation beneficial and desirable for athletes and bodybuilders as well as fitness enthusiasts and people in search of a healthier lifestyle as they age. (
  • Further research is needed to determine if oral agmatine supplementation provides the same benefits as were observed in animal studies. (
  • Recently Agmatine has gained wide interest as a breakdown metabolite of Arginine with a multitude of physiological functions. (
  • Agmatine is a decarboxylated Arginine metabolite. (
  • Agmatine is a decarboxylized Arginine metabolite. (
  • Agmatine, a vasoactive metabolite of L-arginine, is widely distributed in mammalian tissues including blood vessels. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate - Agmatine is a metabolite of arginine and is considered to be both a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. (
  • Agmatine is a metabolite of L-Arginine . (
  • The US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted Gilad&Gilad an additional patent for agmatine use in dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, and foods. (
  • It now grants the company a unique market position by providing exclusive rights to tell users that supplements, nutraceuticals and foods which contain the effective high amounts of agmatine, afford not just protection of nerve cells, but can also impart general cytoprotection, i.e., protect many other cell types. (
  • Two supplements that often come up, when talking penis enlargement , are: L-Arginine and Agmatine sulfate. (
  • Agmatine sulfate is quite common in pre-workout supplements for it's blood flow promoting properties. (
  • Agmatine can regulate nitric oxide levels, which leads to the "pump" often felt at the gym after taking pre workout supplements containing this ingredient. (
  • Other supplements that do not go well with agmatine include creatine, DAA, and Yohimbine. (
  • Here, we've summarized the science and listed some of the surprising potential benefits of agmatine supplements. (
  • Agmatine supplements should be consumed in dosages as recommended by physicians. (
  • Our results suggest that agmatine has neuroprotective effects against reperfusion injury and ischemia. (
  • Conclusions The data suggest that agmatine may improve outcomes of transient cerebral ischemia in rats by reducing brain apoptosis, astrogliosis and edema. (
  • These findings suggest that agmatine may be effective in reducing symptoms of depression independent of serotonin levels. (
  • The findings cited above suggest that agmatine may be able to help with managing "hangover anxiety. (
  • Therefore, the current data suggest that agmatine stimulates both cell survival and antioxidant related protein involving pathway to support cognitive function. (
  • In enzymology, an agmatine deiminase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-carbamoylputrescine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, whereas its two products are N-carbamoylputrescine and NH3. (
  • Results presented in this paper indicate differences in regulation mechanisms of agmatine deiminase pathway among P. aeruginosa PAO1 and L. hilgardii X(1)B, E. faecalis ATCC11700 and B. cereus CECT 148(T). These results are significant from two points of view, first food quality, and second the toxicological and microbiological aspects. (
  • Via the highly homologous deiminase pathways, arginine and agmatine are converted into CO2, NH3, and the end products ornithine and putrescine, respectively. (
  • A homologof the gene encoding agmatine deiminase, AgDI, which mediates acid tolerance in L. (
  • Mechanistic studies of agmatine deiminase from multiple bacterial spec" by Justin E. Jones, Christina J. Dreyton et al. (
  • Previously, we reported the initial kinetic characterization of the agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori and described the synthesis and characterization the two most potent AgD inactivators. (
  • Agmatine degradation occurs mainly by hydrolysis, catalyzed by agmatinase into urea and putrescine, the diamine precursor of polyamine biosynthesis. (
  • Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. (
  • Mediates the hydrolysis of agmatine into N-carbamoylputrescine in the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway of putrescine biosynthesis, a basic polyamine. (
  • Comparative survey of putrescine production from agmatine deamination in different bacteria. (
  • Arginine, glucose and fructose showed an inhibitory effect, whereas the presence of agmatine induced the production of putrescine in all microorganisms. (
  • Histamine and tyramine poorly influenced the utilization of agmatine, although a small increase in putrescine production was observed in P. aeruginosa PAO1. (
  • In this work, we have also demonstrated that pyridoxal 5-phosphate, Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had no effect on putrescine production from agmatine. (
  • Transport of diamines by Enterococcus faecalis is mediated by an agmatine-putrescine antiporter. (
  • A high intracellular putrescine pool was maintained by these cells, and this pool was rapidly released by external putrescine or agmatine but not by arginine or ornithine. (
  • Kinetic analysis revealed competitive inhibition for uptake between putrescine and agmatine. (
  • Agmatine uptake by membrane vesicles was observed only when the membrane vesicles were preloaded with putrescine. (
  • Uptake of agmatine was driven by the outwardly directed putrescine concentration gradient, which is continuously sustained by the metabolic process. (
  • Uptake of agmatine and extrusion of putrescine by agmatine-grown cells of E. faecalis appeared to be catalyzed by an agmatine-putrescine antiporter. (
  • Metabolic pathway for the utilization of L-arginine, L-ornithine, agmatine, and putrescine as nitrogen sources in Escherichia coli K-12. (
  • The pathway for the utilization of L-arginine, agmatine, L-ornithine, and putrescine as the sole nitrogen source by Escherichia coli K-12 has been elucidated. (
  • Our results show that L-arginine is first decarboxylated to agmatine, which is hydrolyzed to urea and putrescine. (
  • Shared transport with polyamines by means of their transporter is excluded, as divalent putrescine and cadaverine are ineffective in inhibiting agmatine uptake. (
  • In addition, agmatine is capable of increasing the inhibition of Η-putrescine uptake in a time-dependent manner, comparable to the regulation of polyamine transport. (
  • These enzymes catalyze the conversion of agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) to N-carbamoyl putrescine and ammonia. (
  • Agmatine acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator with a vast array of actions in the body. (
  • Previous studies have shown that agmatine, a potential neuromodulator or co-transmitter, exhibited antidepressant-like action in animal models, yet its mechanism, especially the receptor mechanism, remains unclear. (
  • Due to the multitude of interactions with other neurotransmitters of the nervous system, agmatine is referred to as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator. (
  • 100% Micronized Agmatine Sulfate. (
  • Prime Nutrition is the ultimate source of 100% pure micronized agmatine sulfate for the best workout - and the best muscle growth - of your life. (
  • Ethitech Nutrition Agmatine - Mix one serving (1g/1000mgs) into 8oz of water. (
  • RSP Nutrition Agmatine Sulfate - Take 1 scoop (500 mgs) with 4-6oz of water 20 mins before training or stack with your favorite pre-workout. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is one of the newest and most promising compounds to hit the sports nutrition industry since the release of Creatine. (
  • Agmatine as a nutrition partitioning agent can help dispose glucose from the blood into the muscle cells promoting muscle cells fullness, glycogen replenishment and improvement in muscle recovery. (
  • Agmatine is a ground-breaking nutrient relatively new to the sports nutrition world. (
  • Prime Nutrition delivers a concentrated, quality source of pure, 100% agmatine for users who want to increase vascularity, muscle pumps, endurance, and muscle performance/growth. (
  • AR3 consumes intracellular protons through decarboxylation of arginine (Arg) in the cytoplasm and exchange of the reaction product agmatine (Agm) with extracellular Arg. (
  • Exchanges extracellular arginine for its intracellular decarboxylation product agmatine (Agm) thereby expelling intracellular protons. (
  • Inhibition of mammalian nitric oxide synthases by agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine. (
  • Agmatine is a primary amine formed by the decarboxylation of L-arginine and is an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance, synthesized in the mammalian brain. (
  • Agmatine (4-(aminobutyl)-guanine) - a biogenic amine naturally occurring in the body and a product of L-arginine decarboxylation. (
  • Agmatine Sulphate is derived from L-Arginine through decarboxylation. (
  • Agmatine is derived from L-arginine through decarboxylation (the removal of a carboxylic acid group). (
  • Agmatine is produced by the decarboxylation of arginine. (
  • On the other hand, the hippocampus is a brain region well known for having a population of agmatine containing neurons. (
  • Furthermore, extracellular agmatine was calcium and impulse dependent and depolarization of hippocampal neurons increased extracellular agmatine concentration. (
  • The resulting compound, Agmatine Sulfate, appears to be stored within the neurons of the brain and is released as these neurons become activated. (
  • One study on amphibians stained activated olfactory neurons with agmatine and found no difference in the stimulation of olfactory neurons between atrazine-treated and control animals (Lanzel 2008). (
  • Agmatine blocked voltage-gated calcium channel in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. (
  • Agmatine can cross the blood-brain barrier and thus increase its level in neurons. (
  • Agmatine is a neurotransmitter -a chemical messenger across neurons. (
  • 12 Agmatine reduces infarct area in a mouse model of transient focal cerebral ischemia and protects cultured neurons from ischemia-like injury Agmatine was administered either 30 minutes before the artificially-induced stroke, at the same time as the stroke, 2 hours afterward, or 5 hours afterward. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is stored within neurons and is released during neuronal activation. (
  • Agmatine protects these neurons against damage and death. (
  • Correspondingly, agmatine declined 8-oxo immunofluorescence in hippocampal neurons of rats injected with STZ, potentiating that it detoxifies oxidative condition within the cells. (
  • However, it seems that agmatine stimulates some types of nitric oxide synthase while inhibiting others . (
  • Research suggests that Agmatine is unique in that it stimulates eNOS while limiting the iNOS and eNOS. (
  • Agmatine also stimulates the release of Nitric Oxide by acting on Nitric Oxide Synthases. (
  • Agmatine, a novel hypothalamic amine, stimulates pituitary luteinizing hormone release in vivo and hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing in vivo. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate Powder stimulates accelerated blood flow into the muscles promoting an enhanced uptake of nutrients and essential elements to help the muscle grow. (
  • ALLMAX Agmatine Sulfate comes in a highly pure (assay over 99%) and stable powder form that allows you to dose very precisely and add to any stack you choose. (
  • SNS Agmatine XT Powder contains 1000 mg (1 gram) of Agmatine per scoop. (
  • One notable study examined the effects of supplementing 2 to 3 grams of agmatine daily in three subjects with major depressive disorder. (
  • I have used this product for a workout and pumps were huge, I will return to buy, not only did one thing, the product says it has 100 grams of agmatine, but also says it has 75 doses of 750 mg which gives + - 56 g, I do not know if the product contains 56 g or 100 g. (
  • In the 1920s, researchers in the diabetes clinic of Oskar Minkowski have shown that agmatine can exert mild hypoglycemic effects. (
  • 8] have shown that agmatine causes stimulation of insulin secretion but fails to affect insulin release in the absence of glucose. (
  • Several studies have shown that agmatine reduces symptoms of depression in rats. (
  • Research has also shown that agmatine can reduce stress-induced depression symptoms in rats. (
  • Sep 1996;53(3): Pentamidine blocks the conversion of agmatine to agmatine-aldehyde by DAO. (
  • In 1994, endogenous agmatine synthesis in mammals was discovered. (
  • Only in 1994, the discovery of endogenous agmatine synthesis in mammals [7] has revived research in the field. (
  • Agmatine has been shown to exert modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, notably: neurotransmitter systems, ion channels, nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and polyamine metabolism and this provides bases for further research into potential applications. (
  • Agmatine specific-selective uptake sites, organic cation transporters (mostly OCT2 subtype), extraneuronal monoamine transporters (ENT), polyamine transporters, and mitochondrial agmatine specific-selective transport system. (
  • Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. (
  • Agmatine also helps to govern nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, as well as working to properly regulate cellular energy by overseeing polyamine metabolic function. (
  • Treatment with exogenous agmatine exerts neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurotrauma. (
  • Addition of exogenous agmatine to intact post-nephrectomy tubules reduced ODC activity to near control levels (Table 1). (
  • Long-Term (5 Years), High Daily Dosage of Dietary Agmatine-Evidence of Safety: A Case Report. (
  • The majority of research recommends a daily dosage range for Agmatine Sulfate between 250 mg and 2.5 grams. (
  • Taken daily, a reasonable and effective dosage of agmatine recommend for improvement of mental function would be between 1.6 and 6.4 mg per kilogram of bodyweight. (
  • The common dosage for agmatine ranges between 100 mg and 1000 mg depending on the intended use. (
  • EVOLVE BASIX AGMATINE SULPHATE is a premium, 100% vegan, patented source of Agmatine Sulphate (AGMASS™) from Compound Solutions in the USA. (
  • What is Agmatine Sulphate? (
  • Our Agmatine Sulphate is 100% Pure and Pharmaceutical grade. (
  • A flat 5ml scoop (included) equals approx 3.5g of Agmatine Sulphate. (
  • 100% Pharmaceutical grade Agmatine Sulphate. (
  • Really happy with Agmatine Sulphate, it's great for pumps and energy. (
  • Although it is quite a new ingredient, agmatine sulphate has a good reputation for delivering results and is fast becoming an extremely popular NO booster. (
  • Like agmatine sulphate, it is sometimes deemed a HGH provider, so its natural abilities as an NO booster could, in many ways, be seen as the icing on the cake. (
  • Agmatine can also be converted into Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via metabolism of the carbamate kinase enzyme. (
  • Unlike L-arginine, agmatine is not a precursor to the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO). Nevertheless, it affects NO metabolism, mainly via α2-adrenergic receptors, which ultimately leads to the activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). (
  • For the athlete desiring body composition change, Agmatine has an independent role of insulin and testosterone management on lipid (fat) metabolism. (
  • Agmatine is amazing for the brain, exercise performance, energy metabolism and just general health. (
  • Morrissey and Klahr [3] reported that agmatine caused activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells (layer of cells on inner surface of blood vessels). (
  • Agmatine activation of nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells. (
  • Agmatine activates nitric oxide synthase in endothelial cells, [ 1 ] allowing for more blood, oxygen, and nutrients to be delivered to each individual muscle cell. (
  • Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter. (
  • In Escherichia coli, the l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC facilitates the export of agmatine in exchange of l-arginine, thus providing substrates for further removal of protons from the cytoplasm and balancing the intracellular pH. (
  • Structural analysis combined with site-directed mutagenesis and the scintillation proximity radioligand binding assay improved our understanding of substrate binding and specificity of the wild-type l-arginine/agmatine antiporter AdiC. (
  • Agmatine is a polycationic and endogenous amine which is synthesized by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). (
  • Agmatine appears to act directly on endothelial cells to increase the synthesis of nitric oxide, which induces them to cause vasodilatation [3]. (
  • Agmatine is the next generation arginine and is often referred to as "Super Arginine" because of its ability to give explosive increases in Nitric Oxide synthesis. (
  • DNA synthesis studies utilizing 'H-thymidine incorporation demonstrated inhibition proliferation of MCT cells exposed to agmatine for 48 hours, as compared to control MCT cells (Figure 7). (
  • In studies using Agmatine, it has been shown that its action may support the rate of protein synthesis two-fold! (
  • As an arginine by-product, agmatine has been found to increase synthesis and release of nitric oxide to a greater degree. (
  • IP also increased the expression of ADC-the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of endogenous agmatine-before, during, and after ischemic injury. (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that agmatine possesses nootropic effects and that is a novel neurotransmitter [6]. (
  • From a nootropic perspective, agmatine is known to aid in neurotransmission within the brain. (
  • Agmatine possesses nootropic effects (it acts as a "novel" neurotransmitter). (
  • Agmatine has a wide variety of benefits ranging from athletic, physique, & performance enhancing to antioxidant and neuroprotective/nootropic benefits. (
  • Agmatine also promotes performance, enhances mood and increases energy. (
  • Some even claim that agmatine increases nitric oxide production via inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enzyme, which is nonsense. (
  • Specifically, agmatine increases urinary flow and filtration. (
  • Agmatine effectively increases the secretion of nitric oxide in the human body, which translates into more responsive muscle pumps during training. (
  • In addition to priming your body for higher intensity exercise, [ 3 ] Agmatine can also increases levels of luteinizing hormone and growth hormone [ 4 ] to support a significant boost in muscle building capacity. (
  • Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps with Agmatine! (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of arginine and has demonstrated superior effectiveness in increasing the production of nitric oxide - not only will you experience more extreme pumps, they will last longer! (
  • Get the sick pumps and veins everyone wants with Agmatine Sulfate! (
  • Among body builders, Agmatine has become legendary for its ability to produce long lasting pumps. (
  • Agmatine not only delivers in terms of improved pumps, but most users also report that the pumps achieved with Agmatine are more sustained and long lasting than with many other 'Old School' N.O. products. (
  • And with Agmatine, most experience longer lasting pumps than with many other 'Old School' N.O. products. (
  • Agmatine is for users who are aiming to increase vascularity, muscle pumps, enhance endurance and muscle performance. (
  • From an athletic, physique, and performance enhancing perspective, Agmatine is commonly used for dramatic and long lasting pumps and to help improve strength, endurance, recovery, performance, and overall body composition including increased lean muscle and decreased body-fat. (
  • Agmatine is commonly used for a wide variety of benefits, but is probably most talked about for its role in providing dramatic, long lasting pumps. (
  • Not only does Agmatine deliver in terms of improved pumps, but most users also report that the pumps achieved with Agmatine are more sustained and long lasting than with many other nitric oxide products. (
  • [ 2 ] By doing so, Agmatine enables your body to experience faster recovery, greater muscle growth, and mind blowing pumps for a substantial boost in fitness performance. (
  • There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking agmatine if you are pregnant or breast feeding . (
  • Early research shows that taking agmatine might decrease pain and increase quality of life in people with nerve pain due to a herniated disc. (
  • Here's a summary on some of the most notable potential benefits of agmatine. (
  • Learn about agmatine sulfate, one of the many strong ingredients in cardazol. (
  • ALLMAX uses only the best ingredients in all of its products - Agmatine Sulfate is no exception. (
  • As the ultimate nitric oxide enhancer, agmatine vasodilates the veins to provide more blood, oxygen, and nutrients to every single one of your muscle cells. (
  • Agmatine Pure is a product containing pure agmatine sulfate in a convenient, powdered form. (
  • Nutrabio Agmatine Sulfate is manufactured by us in our own FDA registered and inspected GMP manufacturing facility to meet FDA 21 CFR Part 111 quality regulations. (
  • The company has developed the exclusive For-Nerve-Health(TM) line of products based on the breakthrough discovery of the neuroprotective properties agmatine. (
  • Preliminary research suggests agmatine has potential use in the treatment of neuropathic pain and drug addiction. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate helps drive nitric oxide and other nutrients into muscles which can increase muscle pump and provide greater endurance. (
  • So to recap, when used as a muscle pump-inducer, 500 to 1,000 mgs of agmatine sulfate should be taken 20-30 minutes prior to training. (
  • Widely associated with the effect of a muscle pump, agmatine can strongly support nervous system functioning, cognitive function improvement, alleviation of depressive symptoms, as well as neuroprotection. (
  • Apart from the increased muscle pump, agmatine also offers an improvement in well-being and motivation, as well as a reduction in pain intensity, which guarantees high effectiveness of the workout. (
  • NITRIC OXIDE - Vascularity, Blood Volume, Pump: Agmatine modulates nitric oxide (NO) through different ways. (
  • For decades people thought that L-Arginine was the best way to boost Nitric Oxide, however since the introduction of Agmatine Sulfate in Hemavol®, it's clear to see that Agmatine Sulfate truly is the Nitric Oxide and pump king! (
  • I mix my own pre workouts and like mixing agmatine for the pump and recovery. (
  • If your a pump chaser like me then add some Agmatine to your pre workout. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate will cause a massive muscle pump during training. (
  • Agmatine also helps to block the breakdown of NO in the body making your muscle pump last longer than ever before. (
  • Our Agmatine is so pure we won't even use dyes, so don't expect fancy colored capsules, we leave the gimmicks to the marketing brands. (
  • As a recent development still being studied Agmatine provides many of the same benefits as Arginine but to a greater degree and is gaining constant popularity in the fitness industry. (
  • Not only this but Agmatine has a number of other benefits. (
  • What are the benefits of AgmaPure® Agmatine? (
  • There are many claimed benefits of agmatine and a lot of disinformation is circling all over internet. (
  • Agmatine has a variety of benefits, and can be beneficial and desirable for athletes and bodybuilders as well as fitness enthusiasts and people in search of a healthier lifestyle as they age. (
  • It bears rehashing that Agmatine offers benefits that are dual-pronged. (
  • To yield the nitric oxide boosting benefits of Agmatine Sulfate is it best taken 15-30 minutes pre-workout. (
  • With AgaPure Agmatine from Beta Labs, you may be able to get the support you need to provide you with the energy to blast through your workouts, plus other special benefits. (
  • What are the Benefits of AgaPure Agmatine Sulfate from Beta Labs? (
  • All of the benefits of agmatine sulfate add up to a better body and to better overall health. (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is a multi-faceted compound that brings with it numerous benefits! (
  • Agmatine Sulfate is derived from arginine and offers variety of benefits that include increased nitric oxide production, improved mood, increased insulin sensitivity, increased energy and performance, and anti-oxidant properties, which has led many to label it as a form of "Super Arginine. (
  • Agmatine is naturally produced in the body and supplementing it has been shown to have many health and athletic performance benefits. (
  • For active lifestyle enthusiast, agmatine is a promising, multi-faceted compound that brings numerous benefits. (
  • Q. What Other Benefits Does Agmatine Provide? (
  • As mentioned above, agmatine is also stored in organs, so we can expect benefits overall in the body. (
  • Since agmatine is derived from arginine there are similarities in that they both affect nitric oxide levels. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine iminohydrolase. (
  • This enzyme is also called agmatine amidinohydrolase. (
  • Agmatine has dual functions: A) Selective inhibition of the enzyme that breaks down Nitric Oxide - the result, increased (NO) Nitric Oxide. (
  • Just like L-arginine agmatine has a powerful effect on regulation of nitric oxide through inhibition of nitric oxide synthase enzyme. (
  • The appropriate dose of agmatine depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. (
  • Two researchers in the US took high dose of agmatine for five years. (
  • Detectable amounts of agmatine were found in dialysates from probes located in the hippocampus but not from the probes located in the lateral ventricle. (
  • Research using adult rats that consumed large amounts of Agmatine sulfate over three months showed no negative effects in their behavior or in their organs. (
  • Further analysis of the inhibition by agmatine on the cardiac sympathetic outflow: Role of the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes. (
  • Differential inhibition by agmatine of all isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) is reported. (
  • We found that in the tail-suspension test (TST) and the forced swimming test (FST), acute administration of agmatine (20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly shortened the immobility time. (
  • The first administration of agmatine was 24h before the i.c.v. injection of aggregated Aβ 1-40 (400pmol/mouse). (
  • Current analytical techniques do not allow the detection of agmatine in extracellular fluid, making it difficult to study its physiological role. (
  • The methods reported here are sensitive enough to study the physiological role of brain agmatine in freely moving animals. (
  • Agmatine, a divalent diamine with two positive charges at physiological pH, is transported into the matrix of liver mitochondria by an energy-dependent mechanism the driving force of which is ΔΨ (electrical membrane potential). (
  • Agmatine transport in liver mitochondria may be of physiological importance as an indirect regulatory system of cytochrome c oxidase activity and as an inducer mechanism of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. (
  • [3] Within a year following its discovery agmatine has been found to increase blood flow in rabbits, [4] but the physiological relevance of these findings was questioned given the high concentrations (high µM range) required. (
  • Agmatine is a metabolic byproduct of Arginine. (
  • Agmatine is found in tissues throughout the body and is synthesized and stored astrocytes, glial cells in the brain and spinal cord, which provide structural and metabolic support to the nervous system. (
  • Rapid uncoupler-insensitive uptake of agmatine was observed only in agmatine-grown cells. (
  • Agmatine suppresses nitric oxide production and attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. (
  • 5 mg/kg bacterial LPS (Sigma Chemical Company) , and four additional rats received 80 mg/kg agmatine along with the LPS as an intraperitoneal injection. (
  • In the first part, rats were stereotaxically injected with streptozotocin via intra-cerebral route (STZ: 3mg/5㎕, 1st and 3rd day after surgery) and then, intra-peritoneally received agmatine (100mg/kg) for 14 days. (
  • Agmatine proved to recuperate the cognitive and memory deficit in rats exposed to STZ as evidenced by behavioral tests such as morris water maze and radial arm maze. (
  • Like what was observed in rats intra-cerebrally injected with STZ, agmatine improved the cognitive and memory impairment and inhibited caspase 3 as demonstrated by behavioral tests or immunohistochemistry, respectively. (
  • Therefore, intracerebral microdialysis was performed in the hippocampus and agmatine was extracted from the extracellular environment. (
  • Among the permeability parameters, volume transfer constant and volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space were significantly lower in the agmatine-treated group compared with the control group (0.05 ± 0.02 minutes −1 versus 0.08 ± 0.03 minute −1 , P = .012, for volume transfer constant and 0.12 ± 0.06 versus 0.22 ± 0.15, P = .02 for volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space). (