UreohydrolasesImidazoline Receptors: Receptors of CLONIDINE and other IMIDAZOLINES. Activity of the ligands was earlier attributed to ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. Endogenous ligands include AGMATINE, imidazoleacetic acid ribotide, and harman.Putrescine: A toxic diamine formed by putrefaction from the decarboxylation of arginine and ornithine.Carboxyl and Carbamoyl Transferases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of carboxyl- or carbamoyl- groups. EC 2.1.3.PolyaminesHydrolases: Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Idazoxan: A benzodioxane-linked imidazole that has alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist activity.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-2: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Ornithine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein, believed to be the rate-limiting compound in the biosynthesis of polyamines. It catalyzes the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine, which is then linked to a propylamine moiety of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to form spermidine.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Yohimbine: A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Morphine Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon morphine.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Tyrosine Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to tyramine and carbon dioxide. The bacterial enzyme also acts on 3-hydroxytyrosine and, more slowly, on 3-hydroxyphenylalanine. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.1.25.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Biogenic Polyamines: Biogenic amines having more than one amine group. These are long-chain aliphatic compounds that contain multiple amino and/or imino groups. Because of the linear arrangement of positive charge on these molecules, polyamines bind electrostatically to ribosomes, DNA, and RNA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Spermidine: A polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.Phosphotransferases (Carboxyl Group Acceptor): A class of enzymes that transfers phosphate groups and has a carboxyl group as an acceptor. EC 2.7.2.Clonidine: An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.Ornithine Carbamoyltransferase: A urea cycle enzyme that catalyzes the formation of orthophosphate and L-citrulline (CITRULLINE) from CARBAMOYL PHOSPHATE and L-ornithine (ORNITHINE). Deficiency of this enzyme may be transmitted as an X-linked trait. EC 2.1.3.3.Selenomonas: Curved bacteria, usually crescent-shaped rods, with ends often tapered, occurring singly, in pairs, or short chains. They are non-encapsulated, non-sporing, motile, and ferment glucose. Selenomonas are found mainly in the human buccal cavity, the rumen of herbivores, and the cecum of pigs and several rodents. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Pentylenetetrazole: A pharmaceutical agent that displays activity as a central nervous system and respiratory stimulant. It is considered a non-competitive GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID antagonist. Pentylenetetrazole has been used experimentally to study seizure phenomenon and to identify pharmaceuticals that may control seizure susceptibility.Viridiplantae: A monophyletic group of green plants that includes all land plants (EMBRYOPHYTA) and all green algae (CHLOROPHYTA and STREPTOPHYTA).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Benzofurans: Compounds that contain a BENZENE ring fused to a furan ring.Organic Cation Transporter 1: An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Spermidine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the propylamine moiety from 5'-deoxy-5'-S-(3-methylthiopropylamine)sulfonium adenosine to putrescine in the biosynthesis of spermidine. The enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 73,000 kDa and is composed of two subunits of equal size.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Cadaverine: A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Agmatine: Decarboxylated arginine, isolated from several plant and animal sources, e.g., pollen, ergot, herring sperm, octopus muscle.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Dioxanes: 1,4-Diethylene dioxides. Industrial solvents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), dioxane itself may "reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck Index, 11th ed)Adrenergic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate adrenergic receptors.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Adrenergic Fibers: Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Diamines: Organic chemicals which have two amino groups in an aliphatic chain.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Mitochondrial Swelling: An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Renal Agents: Drugs used for their effects on the kidneys' regulation of body fluid composition and volume. The most commonly used are the diuretics. Also included are drugs used for their antidiuretic and uricosuric actions, for their effects on the kidneys' clearance of other drugs, and for diagnosis of renal function.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.AmidinesKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Mitochondria, Liver: Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)Vigabatrin: An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Dimethylphenylpiperazinium Iodide: A selective nicotinic cholinergic agonist used as a research tool. DMPP activates nicotinic receptors in autonomic ganglia but has little effect at the neuromuscular junction.ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Adrenergic alpha-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.Transferases: Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.Locus Coeruleus: Bluish-colored region in the superior angle of the FOURTH VENTRICLE floor, corresponding to melanin-like pigmented nerve cells which lie lateral to the PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.IndazolesAnalgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.CitrullineGlutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred ICREscherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha: One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.Receptors, Neuropeptide Y: Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Carbamoyl-Phosphate Synthase (Ammonia): An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of carbamoyl phosphate from ATP, carbon dioxide, and ammonia. This enzyme is specific for arginine biosynthesis or the urea cycle. Absence or lack of this enzyme may cause CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE I DEFICIENCY DISEASE. EC 6.3.4.16.Vena Cava, Superior: The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Adenosine Diphosphate Ribose: An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Genes, src: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (src) originally isolated from the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). The proto-oncogene src (c-src) codes for a protein that is a member of the tyrosine kinase family and was the first proto-oncogene identified in the human genome. The human c-src gene is located at 20q12-13 on the long arm of chromosome 20.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Acetyltransferases: Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cell Line, Transformed: Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Glomerulonephritis: Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial: The voltage difference, normally maintained at approximately -180mV, across the INNER MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANE, by a net movement of positive charge across the membrane. It is a major component of the PROTON MOTIVE FORCE in MITOCHONDRIA used to drive the synthesis of ATP.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

Agmatine modulates polyamine content in hepatocytes by inducing spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase. (1/193)

Agmatine has been proposed as the physiological ligand for the imidazoline receptors. It is not known whether it is also involved in the homoeostasis of intracellular polyamine content. To show whether this is the case, we have studied the effect of agmatine on rat liver cells, under both periportal and perivenous conditions. It is shown that agmatine modulates intracellular polyamine content through its effect on the synthesis of the limiting enzyme of the interconversion pathway, spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT). Increased SSAT activity is accompanied by depletion of spermidine and spermine, and accumulation of putrescine and N1-acetylspermidine. Immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antiserum confirms the induction. At the same time S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity is significantly increased, while ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and the rate of spermidine uptake are reduced. This is not due to an effect on ODC antizyme, which is not significantly changed. All these modifications are observed in HTC cells also, where they are accompanied by a decrease in proliferation rate. SSAT is also induced by low oxygen tension which mimics perivenous conditions. The effect is synergic with that promoted by agmatine.  (+info)

Analgesic effect of agmatine and its enhancement on morphine analgesia in mice and rats. (2/193)

AIM: To study the effect of agmatine on pain and morphine analgesia. METHODS: The effect of agmatine on pain was observed in mouse heat radiant tail-flick test, mouse acetic acid writhing test, and rat 4% saline test. Its enhancing effect on analgesia of morphine and clonidine was assessed in rat and mouse heat radiant tail-flick tests. RESULTS: Agmatine did not significantly prolong tail-flick latency of mice, but reduced the number of acetic acid-induced writhing of mice and inhibited writhing responses to saline completely. It potentiated the analgesic effects of morphine and clonidine in dose-dependent manner and decreased the analgesic ED50 of morphine and clonidine by more than 75% in mouse heat radiant tail-flick test. These effects of agmatine were antagonized by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agmatine has weak analgesic effects and potentiates morphine and clonidine analgesia by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Agmatine inhibited tolerance to and dependence on morphine in guinea pig ileum in vitro. (3/193)

AIM: To observe effect of agmatine (Agm) on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine (Mor) in guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle (GPILM). METHODS: The experiment was performed in electric field stimulation (EFS) test in vitro. RESULTS: Mor inhibited twitch contractions of GPILM induced by EFS [IC50 = 140 (107-182) nmol.L-1]. Incubation of GPILM with Mor 270 nmol.L-1 for 8 h evoked a 37-fold increase in IC50 of Mor (tolerance) and a contractile response to naloxone (Nal, substance dependence). When the preparations were coincubated with Mor + Nal and Mor + Agm, Mor lost the ability to induce tolerance and inhibited the contractile responses of the preparations to Nal by 90% and 75%, respectively. These effects of Agm could be almost completely antagonized by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agm prevented the development of tolerance to and substance dependence on Mor in GPILM in vitro by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Effects of agmatine on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine in mice. (4/193)

AIM: To study the effects of agmatine on tolerance to and dependence on morphine. METHODS: Inhibitory effects of agmatine on tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine were observed in mouse tolerant models and in mouse jumping test, respectively. RESULTS: Agmatine 0.125-2.5 mg.kg-1 prevented the development of tolerant to morphine in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of mice with morphine induced an over 3-fold increase in analgesic ED50 (20.1, 14.4-28.0 mg.kg-1) than those with normal saline (6.3, 5.1-7.8 mg.kg-1). Pretreatment of mice with both of agmatine and morphine made morphine loss the ability to induce tolerance. Withdrawal jumps and loss in body weight induced by naloxone in morphine-dependent mice were prevented by agmatine (2.5-10 mg.kg-1) in a dose-dependent manner. ED50 of naloxone (21.4, 18.4-24 mg.kg-1) required to precipitate withdrawal jumps in mice pretreated with both agmatine and morphine was 8 times higher than that with morphine alone (2.5, 2.1-2.8 mg.kg-1). These effects of agmatine were blocked by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: Agmatine prevented tolerance to and substance dependence on morphine in mice by activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Correlation between inhibitions of morphine withdrawal and nitric-oxide synthase by agmatine. (5/193)

AIM: To study correlation between inhibitions of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumps and nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity by agmatine. METHODS: NOS activities in mouse brain were measured by determination of concentration of [3H]citrulline, the product of [3H]arginine. RESULTS: Agmatine inhibited NOS activity in naive and morphine-dependent mouse cerebellum, forebrain, and thalamus in substrate-competitive manner in vitro. Naloxone induced withdrawal jumps and an increase in NOS activity in cerebellum, forebrain, and thalamus of abstinent mice. Pretreatment of mice with morphine plus agmatine inhibited the effect of naloxone to precipitate withdrawal jumps and increase in NOS activity. The effect of agmatine was blocked by idazoxan. CONCLUSION: The inhibitory effect of agmatine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal jumps is related to its inhibition of NOS activity by substrate competitive manner and activation of imidazoline receptors.  (+info)

Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor. (6/193)

This study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of several imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine on glutamate-induced necrosis and on apoptosis induced by low extracellular K+ in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Exposure (30 min) of energy deprived cells to L-glutamate (1-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as determined 24 h later by a decrease in the ability of the cells to metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) into a reduced formazan product. L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (EC50=5 microM) was blocked by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine). Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully prevented neurotoxicity induced by 20 microM (EC100) L-glutamate with the rank order (EC50 in microM): antazoline (13)>cirazoline (44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole](101)>RX82 1002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>agmatine (196). No neuroprotective effect of these drugs was observed in a model of apoptotic neuronal cell death (reduction of extracellular K+) which does not involve stimulation of NMDA receptors. Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully inhibited [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors in rat brain. The profile of drug potency protecting against L-glutamate neurotoxicity correlated well (r=0.90) with the potency of the same compounds competing against [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding. In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the block was consistent with the presence of a binding site for antazoline located within the NMDA channel pore with an IC50 of 10-12 microM at 0 mV. It is concluded that imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine are neuroprotective against glutamate-induced necrotic neuronal cell death in vitro and that this effect is mediated through NMDA receptor blockade by interacting with a site located within the NMDA channel pore.  (+info)

An emerging role for agmatine. (7/193)

Polyamines, required components of proliferation, are autoregulated by the protein antizyme. To date, agmatine is the only molecule other than the polyamines that can induce antizyme, and thus influence cell homeostasis and growth. Agmatine has effectively suppressed proliferation in immortalized and transformed cell lines. An increased sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of agmatine observed in Ras transformed versus native cells paralleled an increase in agmatine uptake in the transformed cells. We hypothesize that agmatine may target transformed cells via selective transporters.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and acid protection in vitro but is not essential for colonization of mice or for urease activity. (8/193)

Arginase of the Helicobacter pylori urea cycle hydrolyzes L-arginine to L-ornithine and urea. H. pylori urease hydrolyzes urea to carbon dioxide and ammonium, which neutralizes acid. Both enzymes are involved in H. pylori nitrogen metabolism. The roles of arginase in the physiology of H. pylori were investigated in vitro and in vivo, since arginase in H. pylori is metabolically upstream of urease and urease is known to be required for colonization of animal models by the bacterium. The H. pylori gene hp1399, which is orthologous to the Bacillus subtilis rocF gene encoding arginase, was cloned, and isogenic allelic exchange mutants of three H. pylori strains were made by using two different constructs: 236-2 and rocF::aphA3. In contrast to wild-type (WT) strains, all rocF mutants were devoid of arginase activity and had diminished serine dehydratase activity, an enzyme activity which generates ammonium. Compared with WT strain 26695 of H. pylori, the rocF::aphA3 mutant was approximately 1, 000-fold more sensitive to acid exposure. The acid sensitivity of the rocF::aphA3 mutant was not reversed by the addition of L-arginine, in contrast to the WT, and yielded a approximately 10, 000-fold difference in viability. Urease activity was similar in both strains and both survived acid exposure equally well when exogenous urea was added, indicating that rocF is not required for urease activity in vitro. Finally, H. pylori mouse-adapted strain SS1 and the 236-2 rocF isogenic mutant colonized mice equally well: 8 of 9 versus 9 of 11 mice, respectively. However, the rocF::aphA3 mutant of strain SS1 had moderately reduced colonization (4 of 10 mice). The geometric mean levels of H. pylori recovered from these mice (in log(10) CFU) were 6.1, 5.5, and 4.1, respectively. Thus, H. pylori rocF is required for arginase activity and is crucial for acid protection in vitro but is not essential for in vivo colonization of mice or for urease activity.  (+info)

*Imidazoline receptor

Agmatine (putative endogenous ligand at I1; also interacts with NMDA, nicotinic, and α2 adrenoceptors) Apraclonidine 2-BFI (I2 ...

*Biosynthesis of cocaine

L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives ...

*Agmatinase

The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine amidinohydrolase. Other names in common use include agmatine ureohydrolase ... "Entrez Gene: AGMAT agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase)". Morris SM (2004). "Vertebrate agmatinases: what role do they play in ... In enzymology, an agmatinase (EC 3.5.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \ ... Vicente C & Legaz ME (1982). "Preparation and properties of agmatine amidinohydrolase of Evernia prunastri". Physiol. Plant. 55 ...

*Agmatine

... is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert ... Differential inhibition by agmatine of all isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) is reported. Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a ... Agmatine has been shown to enhance glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and to exert nephroprotective effects. Agmatine has been ... A number of potential medical uses for agmatine have been suggested. Agmatine produces mild reductions in heart rate and blood ...

*Agmatine deiminase

In enzymology, an agmatine deiminase (EC 3.5.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine iminohydrolase. This enzyme is also called agmatine amidinohydrolase. This ... Smith TA (1969). "Agmatine iminohydrolase in maize". Phytochemistry. 8 (11): 2111-2117. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88168-6. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-carbamoylputrescine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, ...

*Agmatine kinase

In enzymology, an agmatine kinase (EC 2.7.3.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + agmatine ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:agmatine N4-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include phosphagen ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + N4-phosphoagmatine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and agmatine, ... phosphokinase, and ATP:agmatine 4-N-phosphotransferase. Piccinni E; Coppellotti O (1979). "Phosphagens in protozoa. II. ...

*Agmatine N4-coumaroyltransferase

Other names in common use include p-coumaroyl-CoA-agmatine N-p-coumaroyltransferase, agmatine coumaroyltransferase, and 4- ... In enzymology, an agmatine N4-coumaroyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.64) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 4-coumaroyl- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 4-coumaroyl-CoA:agmatine N4-coumaroyltransferase. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are 4-coumaroyl-CoA and agmatine, whereas its two products are CoA and N-(4-guanidinobutyl)-4 ...

*NMDA receptor

Reis DJ, Regunathan S (2000). "Is agmatine a novel neurotransmitter in brain?". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 21 (5): 187-93. doi: ... Gibson DA, Harris BR, Rogers DT, Littleton JM (2002). "Radioligand binding studies reveal agmatine is a more selective ... glycine site antagonist Agmatine - endogenous polyamine site antagonist Argiotoxin-636 - naturally occurring dizocilpine or ...

*Arginine

... is also a precursor for urea, ornithine, and agmatine; is necessary for the synthesis of creatine; and can also be ... used for the synthesis of polyamines (mainly through ornithine and to a lesser degree through agmatine), citrulline, and ...

*Putrescine

... then agmatine is transformed into N-carbamoylputrescine by agmatine imino hydroxylase (AIH). Finally, N-carbamoylputrescine is ... In one pathway, arginine is converted into agmatine, with a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme arginine decarboxylase (ADC); ... Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (September 1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. ...

*AZIN2

... the biosynthetic enzyme for agmatine". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1670 (2): 156-64. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2003.11.006. PMID ...

*Putrescine carbamoyltransferase

Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and ... Roon RJ, Barker HA (1972). "Fermentation of agmatine in Streptococcus faecalis: occurrence of putrescine transcarbamoylase". J ...

*Carbamate kinase

Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR (1981). "Enzymic conversion of agmatine to putrescine in Lathyrus sativus seedlings. Purification and ...

*GabT RNA motif

Both the gabD and gabT genes were shown, in various experiments, to be induced by metabolites such as agmatine and lysine that ... Chou HT, Kwon DH, Hegazy M, Lu CD (March 2008). "Transcriptome analysis of agmatine and putrescine catabolism in Pseudomonas ...

*NMDA receptor antagonist

AZD6765 Agmatine: Blocks NMDA receptors and other cation ligand-gated channels. Can also potentiate opioid analgesia. ...

*Ureohydrolase

In addition, agmatine may play an important regulatory role in mammals. Formiminoglutamase catalyses the fourth step in ... Agmatinase hydrolyses agmatine to putrescine, the precursor for the biosynthesis of higher polyamines, spermidine and spermine ... and play important roles in arginine/agmatine metabolism, the urea cycle, histidine degradation, and other pathways. Arginase, ...

*Agmatidine

... is generated in the cell by attachment of agmatine to the C2-oxo group of cytidine by TiaS. Agmatine in turn is a ... Conjugation of agmatine moiety at the C2 carbon of C34 induces a tautomeric conversion of C34 which alters its hydrogen bonding ... In step three, the primary amino group of agmatine attacks the C2 carbon of the p-C34 intermediate to release γ-Pi and form ... Agmatidine is similar to lysidine in that the C2-oxo group of cytidine is replaced by the aminoguanidine agmatine instead of by ...

*Albrecht Kossel

Later, he discovered agmatine in herring roe and devised a method for preparing it. Another of Kossel's students was American ...

*Arginine decarboxylase

... agmatine + CO2 Hence, this enzyme has one substrate, L-arginine, and two products, agmatine and CO2. This enzyme belongs to the ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is L-arginine carboxy-lyase (agmatine-forming). Other names in common use include SpeA ...

*Methionine

Ikeuchi, Y; Kimura, S; Numata, T; Nakamura, D; Yokogawa, T; Ogata, T; Wada, T; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, T (2010). "Agmatine- ... or agmatine (archaea) to discriminate against AUG. The methionine codon AUG is also the most common start codon. A "Start" ...

*Plectreurys tristis

Quistad GB, Lam WW, Casida JE (1993). "Identification of bis(agmatine)oxalamide in venom from the primitive hunting spider, ...

*Glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia

Alterations in production of endogenous NMDA antagonists such as agmatine and kyenurenic acid have been shown in schizophrenia ... Robust negative feedback at NMDA from kyenurenic acid, magnesium, zinc, and agmatine prevents runaway feedback. Misregulation ...

*Cocaine

L-ornithine is converted to L-arginine, which is then decarboxylated via PLP to form agmatine. Hydrolysis of the imine derives ...

*Enterococcus faecalis

They catabolize a variety of energy sources including glycerol, lactate, malate, citrate, arginine, agmatine, and many keto ...

*SLC22A3

Gründemann D, Hahne C, Berkels R, Schömig E (2003). "Agmatine is efficiently transported by non-neuronal monoamine transporters ...
One subfamily of guanidino group-modifying enzymes (GMEs) consists of the agmatine deiminases (AgDs). These enzymes catalyze the conversion of agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) to N-carbamoyl putrescine and ammonia. In plants, viruses, and bacteria, these enzymes are thought to be involved in energy production, biosynthesis of polyamines, and biofilm formation. In particular, we are interested in the role that this enzyme plays in pathogenic bacteria. Previously, we reported the initial kinetic characterization of the agmatine deiminase from Helicobacter pylori and described the synthesis and characterization the two most potent AgD inactivators. Herein, we have expanded our initial efforts to characterize the catalytic mechanisms of AgD from H. pylori as well as Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Through the use of pH rate profiles, pK(a) measurements of the active site cysteine, solvent isotope effects, and solvent viscosity effects, we have determined that the AgDs, like PADs 1 and 4
Citation: Bearson, B.L., Lee, I., Casey, T. 2009. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Glutamate- and Arginine-dependent Acid Resistance Systems Protect Against Oxidative Stress During Extreme Acid Challenge. Microbiology. 155(3):805-812. Interpretive Summary: Bacteria possess stress management systems that protect against a variety of stressful environments including starvation, thermal stress, acidic pH, osmotic and oxidative stress. Often, the microbial initiation of a protective response against one type of environmental stress can result in the cross-protection against another stress. We identified that microbial stress responses can cross-protect E. coli O157:H7 during extreme acid stress as typically found in the human stomach. Since the pH values of the human stomach can decrease to 1.5-2.5, these acid resistance systems can protect the microbial pathogen during passage through the stomach during infection. This finding may impact food safety, since E. coli O157:H7 may then be able to traverse the ...
Neutralophilic bacteria have developed specific mechanisms to cope with the acid stress encountered in environments such as soil, fermented foods- and host compartments. In Escherichia coli, the glutamate decarboxylase (Gad)-dependent system is extremely efficient: it requires the concerted action of glutamate decarboxylase (GadA/GadB) and of the glutamate/GABA antiporter, GadC. Notably, this system is operative also in new strains/species of Brucella, among which Brucella microti, but not in the
In this study, we found that agmatine protects the BBB in ischemic stroke and the BBB stabilization effect of agmatine can be monitored in vivo by quantification of permeability by using DCE-MR imaging. Ktrans, volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space, and brain tissue volume with BBB disruption were significantly less in the agmatine-treated group than in the control group at 4-hour reperfusion. Our results support a previous study that showed the protective effects of agmatine on the BBB by using Evans blue.11 Moreover, in another previous study, decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase by agmatine was suggested as a possible mechanism limiting BBB disruption because matrix metalloproteinases are known to be associated with BBB disruption and subsequent vasogenic edema after cerebral ischemia.19 Although Evans blue has been widely used to assess BBB disruption with its property of binding to serum albumin, it is only available for use in animal models.20 DCE-MR imaging ...
Abstract Agmatine, a metabolite of L-arginine, is considered as a novel putative neurotransmitter. It has been detected in axon terminals that synapse with pyramidal cells in the h..
Agmatine, a divalent diamine with two positive charges at physiological pH, is transported into the matrix of liver mitochondria by an energy-dependent mechanism the driving force of which is ΔΨ (electrical membrane potential). Although this process showed strict electrophoretic behaviour, qualitatively similar to that of polyamines, agmatine is most probably transported by a specific uniporter. Shared transport with polyamines by means of their transporter is excluded, as divalent putrescine and cadaverine are ineffective in inhibiting agmatine uptake. Indeed, the use of the electroneutral transporter of basic amino acids can also be discarded as ornithine, arginine and lysine are completely ineffective at inducing the inhibition of agmatine uptake. The involvement of the monoamine transporter or the existence of a leak pathway are also unlikely. Flux-voltage analysis and the determination of activation enthalpy, which is dependent upon the valence of agmatine, are consistent with the ...
Bacteria that survive in the acidic environment of the stomach have mechanisms to maintain a high intracellular pH. In Escherichia coli, glutamate (Glu) and arginine (Arg) are decarboxylated intracellularly and the reaction products are exchanged with extracellular Glu and Arg. Gao et al. now report a crystal structure of AdiC, an arginine:agmatine antiporter from E. coli. AdiC exhibits the same fold as that of the Na+-coupled symporters, including LeuT. It contains 12 transmembrane segments, forms a homodimer, and exists in an outward-facing, open conformation in the crystals. The structure, together with biochemical data, suggests how the antiporter senses the pH and responds to transport the reaction product agmatine out of the cell and Arg into the cell.. X. Gao, F. Lu, L. Zhou, S. Dang, L. Sun, X. Li, J. Wang, Y. Shi, Structure and mechanism of an amino acid antiporter. Science 324, 1565-1568 (2009). [Abstract] [Full Text] ...
AbeBooks.com: Clinically Oriented Anatomy (9781451119459) by Keith L. Moore; Anne M. R. Agur; Arthur F. Dalley and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
1-Oxoelemicin-putrescine is a completely theoretical adduct of 1-oxoelemicin and the endogenous polyamine putrescine. Because of its very low lipid solubility it is unlikely to produce psychoactivity.. ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Shop Arginine decarboxylase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Arginine decarboxylase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In enzymology, an agmatinase (EC 3.5.3.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } putrescine + urea Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, whereas its two products are putrescine and urea. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amidines. The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine amidinohydrolase. Other names in common use include agmatine ureohydrolase, and SpeB. This enzyme participates in urea cycle and metabolism of amino groups. In humans, the enzyme is encoded by the AGMAT gene. As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1GQ6, 1GQ7, 1WOG, 1WOH, and 1WOI. Piperazine-1-carboxamidine GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000116771 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040706 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse ...
The regulation of SA to the changes of polyamine metabolism under salt stress in leaves of Yali Pear were studied. In order to reduce environmental effects on results, leaf disk tests were first used to confirm whether the salicylic acid affected the metabolism of polyamines. The results show that in the leaf disk experiment, exogenous salicylic acid changes the endogenous polyamine levels and different SA concentrations have different effects. Under the NaCI treatment the ADC activity increased significantly, but the ODC activity did not have a significant increase and was lower than ADC activity. Polyamine contents increased under the NaCI treatment at the low concentrations and did not increase or decrease with the NaCI concentration increasing. SA increased ODC activity in the control and NaCI treatment, did not significantly affect ADC activity, but increased the free polyamine contents under NaCI treatment ...
Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate 14923-17-2 route of synthesis, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate chemical synthesis methods, Arcaine sulfate,N,N-1,4-Butanediylbisguanidinesulfate synthetic routes ect.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
ALBERTO, María R.; MANCA DE NADRA, María C. and ARENA, Mario E.. Influence of phenolic compounds on the growth and arginine deiminase system in a wine lactic acid bacterium. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2012, vol.43, n.1, pp.167-176. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822012000100018.. The influence of seven phenolic compounds, normally present in wine, on the growth and arginine deiminase system (ADI) of Lactobacillus hilgardii X1B, a wine lactic acid bacterium, was established. This system provides energy for bacterial growth and produces citrulline that reacts with ethanol forming the carcinogen ethyl carbamate (EC), found in some wines. The influence of phenolic compounds on bacterial growth was compound dependent. Growth and final pH values increased in presence of arginine. Arginine consumption decreased in presence of protocatechuic and gallic acids (31 and 17%, respectively) and increased in presence of quercetin, rutin, catechin and the caffeic and vanillic phenolic ...
Read "Putrescine promotes changes in the endogenous polyamine levels and proteomic profiles to regulate organogenesis in Cedrela fissilis Vellozo (Meliaceae), Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Accepted name: agmatinase. Reaction: agmatine + H2O = putrescine + urea. For diagram click here.. Glossary: agmatine = (4-aminobutyl)guanidine. Other name(s): agmatine ureohydrolase; SpeB. Systematic name: agmatine amidinohydrolase. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, Metacyc, PDB, CAS registry number: 37289-16-0. References: 1. Hirshfeld, I.N., Rosenfeld, H.J., Leifer, Z. and Maas, W.K. Isolation and characterization of a mutant of Escherichia coli blocked in the synthesis of putrescine. J. Bacteriol. 101 (1970) 725-730. [PMID: 4908780]. 2. Vicente, C. and Legaz, M.E. Preparation and properties of agmatine amidinohydrolase of Evernia prunastri. Physiol. Plant. 55 (1982) 335-339.. ...
Agmatine can regulate nitric oxide levels, which leads to the "pump" often felt at the gym after taking pre workout supplements containing this ingredient.*. Citrulline is another supplement which raises plasma arginine concentration. Its unknown whether citrulline and agmatine taken together further enhance systemic nitric oxide production.* Some research suggests that they compete for uptake, so its likely not worthwhile to combine arginine and citrulline. Other supplements that do not go well with agmatine include creatine, DAA, and Yohimbine. Read more about these interactions at Examine.com.. ...
The University of Auckland Library When examining egg hatchability in relation to the genetic background and age of the parental flies, it is necessary to examine a large number of eggs and also to minimize factors that may affect the egg hatchability. It is known that the availability of food affects the female fecundity (David et al., 1971), so it is important to keep the parental flies well fed during the egg collection period. In this communication, we present an easy way of manipulating flies and collecting their eggs without harassment. A disposable egg collection container made of a Blue MaxTM 50 ml polypropylene conical tube (30 mm diameter Falcon tubes, Becton Dickinson Labware) was adapted as follows: the tube is cut to its conical base and replaced by a ???soft drink??? plastic cap (only a few brands do not fit). The screw end of the tube is then sealed with a cotton or sponge cork. The plastic caps are partially filled with the agar-apple juice egg collection medium reported by ...
ESOP; It was good to have discussions at this AGM on the companys employee share ownership plans (ESOP) - as CEO Bharat Thakar explained that the board had approved for 6 million shares a per year to be availed through the ESOP to key revenue drivers and to ensure that senior managers were very well incentivized. All managers get targets, which entitles them to some options at the end of the year. The Chairman added that that the shares were not free, were paid for by managers to the company and were priced on the date of acceptance i.e. market price. The report 2007 report noted that was ESOP set up under a trust deed in February 2008 but that no options have been granted so far, though shareholders have approved 15 million shares ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a partial recombinant AUH. AUH (NP_001689, 44 a.a. ~ 135 a.a) partial recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00000549-M01) - Products - Abnova
TOTS TO TEENS - Tots to teens Group held their AGM on Wednesday evening last 12th September in the Community Hall, Freshford. There was a good attendance on the...
17 September 2015 - At the NRHAs 24th AGM on Tuesday, 15 September 2015, a new Board was elected for a two-year period. Geri Malone, Director of Professional Services with CRANAplus, is the new Chair of the National Rural Health Alliance. CRANAplus is the... More ...
Ml REVEILLE "" PUBLISHED BY THE SENIOR CLASS MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE COLLEGE PARK, MD. iei3 VOLUME SIXTEEN ®0 in grateful apprrrialinu fatlitful fri^it&5t)t^j tn nitr Alma Mntn anb as a Sribut^ tn a "p^rf^rt lunman, unblg planitpb" m^ ftritratr iRfunlb MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE (iwcttng: W.0 our true frtcnb©, foI]o e6er foisl] us tuell; to our *olh boos," 6tI]0 rljensb foitb memories, grabe aub t^ay, of tl,eir ofou bays at tl]e olb college, cl]augeb tliouglj it may be; to our faculty, past mxb preseut, &il]0 l]abe so patieittly borue loitI, us; auh to our motI,ers, sisters, aith sloeetI]earts, lol,0 look forfuarb aub back aqaiu to tl]e rosy joys auh proub monteuts of Olommeuceuteut; - frotix tl]e ^eittor Class of tl,e ^JHarylaub Agricultural CUollege, mxct rats,- uofu lueu: (ireetiug. pie l,abe joyfully hone mud] ebil iu our libes; but if foe e&er hlh auy ebil to you, 6ie repeitt, auh ask your forgibeuess^ ^e lay before you our (oork for tbe year, iu atl]letic, liter- ary, auh ...
Opioid-based pharmacotherapy remains the most commonly prescribed treatment for patients suffering from neuropathic pain conditions. Although opioids are effective for treating neuropathic pain, when used chronically the development of adverse side effects, such as opioid analgesic tolerance, can develop. Previous studies have shown that exogenously delivered agmatine, (decarboxylated L-arginine) can prevent the development of opioid analgesic tolerance, dependence, and self-administration. This study investigated the impact of intrathecal adeno-associated virus serotype 5-human arginine decarboxylase (AAV5-hADC) in models of opioid analgesic tolerance. Pharmacological dose-response curves were collected from two cohorts using two different models of opioid analgesic tolerance. Tissues from the central nervous system of the subjects were further analyzed for hADC gene expression and for spinal agmatine levels. Investigations of the choroid plexus as a target for intrathecal gene therapeutics were also
BioAssay record AID 342862 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [125I]PIC from human imidazoline receptor 1 expressed in rat PC12 cells.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9 ...
Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in Eukarya (eIF5A) and Archaea (aIF5A). YK 4-279 metabolism and aIF5A modification inHfx. volcanii Hfx. volcaniiby LC-MS/MS revealed it was exclusively deoxyhypusinylated. Genetic studies confirmed the role of the predicted arginine decarboxylase gene(HVO_1958)in agmatine synthesis. The agmatinase-like gene(HVO_2299)was found to be essential consistent with a … Continue reading Translation initiation factor 5A (IF5A) is essential and highly conserved in. ...
1MT1: Pyruvoyl-Dependent Arginine Decarboxylase from Methanococcus jannaschii: Crystal Structures of the Self-Cleaved and S53A Proenzyme Forms
Complete information for AGMAT gene (Protein Coding), Agmatinase, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
I have been desperately trying to quit Omeprazole for the last 5 years but have had so much problem with extreme acid release it seems Ill be with it for my life. Of course noone knows yet the result ...
Psykiatriens 9. Forskningsdag 6. november 2014, AUH Risskov AU AARHUS UNIVERSITET Indhold Dagens program Side 3 Foredragsprogram Side 5 Abstracts foredrag Side 7 Posteroversigt Side 19 Abstracts posters
Minule jsme si ekli, co se m e st t, pokud idi jezd s rukou odlo enou na adic p ce. Nyn se pod v me na podobn ne var, j m trp tak cel ada idi . T m je vozen si nohy na spojkov m ped lu.
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act. There are three classes of imidazoline receptors: I1 receptor - mediates the sympatho-inhibitory actions of imidazolines to lower blood pressure, (NISCH or IRAS, imidazoline receptor antisera selected), I2 receptor - an allosteric binding site of monoamine oxidase and is involved in pain modulation and neuroprotection, I3 receptor - regulates insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Activated I1-imidazoline receptors trigger the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine into DAG. Elevated DAG levels in turn trigger the synthesis of second messengers arachidonic acid and downstreameicosanoids. In addition, the sodium-hydrogen antiporter is inhibited, and enzymes of catecholamine synthesis are induced. The I1-imidazoline receptor may belong to the neurocytokine receptorfamily, since its signaling pathways are similar to those of interleukins.. ...
Chinese Viagra Online Does cialis cause blood clots. In some cases ed is a symptom of other diseases such as diabetes or aspect of sexual impotence most of the reasons which as we know can be avoided or cured. Ed Garvey Disease Drinking After Morning often when a man develops erectile dysfunction (ED) hell try to ignore the problem hoping it will go away on its own. How to prevent herpes outeaks druzyny blood discount discover pills on an price physical the (Generic) Price Ethical a cause problems. Agmatine is a neurotransmitter derived from L-arginine a common sports Researchers conclude agmatine can modulate both acute and. If you have trouble getting or sustaining an erection that is firm enough to have sexual intercourse you could have ED.. How do I know if I have Pudendal Neuralgia or Pudendal Nerve Entrapment?.While PNE can certainly cause PN its far from the only cause. Moreover sexual dysfunction was increased from baseline on a 24-week follow-up.of phentolamine can cause an ...
Contact Us. Tel:732-484-9848. Fax:888-484-5008. Email:[email protected]. Add:1 Deer Park Dr, Suite Q,. Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA. ...
I would like to thank all those who helped and supported me over the last four years to carry out my role as chairman of Laois Down Syndrome.". Mick Gorman spoke "from the heart" as he stepped down from his role as chairperson at the Laois Down Syndrome AGM on Wednesday February 19 in Gort na nOir, Abbeyleix.. Conor Glynn was elected to fill the shoes of Mr Gorman as chairperson, alongside a new committee for 2014.. Mr Gorman expressed his confidence in the newly elected chairperson.. "It has been a privilege to serve as chair and help to make our branch one of the best in the country, given our size.. ...
It is with mixed emotions that we announce Miriam Needobas departure from her role as Executive Director at Oxygen Art Centre. She is leaving to pursue the next chapter in her remarkable career. Mark you calendar for our AGM on November 27th when we will celebrate Miriams steadfast commitment and dynamic presence at the Centre these past many years. This means that Oxygen Art Centre is looking for a new Executive Director. The posting closes on October 27th.. Oxygen Art Centre - Executive Director Job Description. ...
Metoda Nirvana susține cu argumente: toate plăcerile noastre sunt provocate de hormoni;toate gândurile și ideile noastre sunt produse de și cu hormoni;tot ceea ce gândește și face omul este mijlocit prin intermediul hormonilor;ba chiar și toate mirosurile umane sunt produse de hormoni;și chiar toate durerile noastre sunt mediate de hormoni si atenuate de asemenea de hormoni,care fac durerile mai suportabile,însoțindu-le de descărcări de hormoni opiozi ,adică care produc si plăcere(pe aceasta conexiune între plăcere și durere se bazează sado-masochismul);și sinapsele dintre neuroni sunt efectuate ,tot de hormoni(chiar ei hormonii sunt mediatorii)! ...
We are holding our 22nd AGM at Methold House, North Street, Worthing on Wednesday 18th October at 6pm, and would like to invite you to find out about the vital help we provide in the community and our future plans ...
We sell Medical, Laboratory Equipment and Supplies and R&D Systems Bio-Techne hematology clinical Controls & Calibrators; Boston Scientific Stent, Catheter; Bracco Diagnostics, Mallinckrodt, McKesson Contrast Media
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and ...
Changes in cytoplasmic pH of suspension-cultured cells of Catharanthus roseus under extreme acid conditions were measured with the pH-dependent fluorescence dye; 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6) carboxyfluorescein (-acetoxymethylester) (BCECF). When cells were treated with 1 mM HC1 (pH 3 solution), the cytoplasmic pH first decreased then returned to the original level. Treatment with 10 mM HC1 (pH 2 solution) acidified the cytoplasm to a greater extent, and the acidification continued at a constant level throughout the measurement. Treatment with a pH 2 solution resulted in a gradual decrease of the malate content, indicating the operation of biochemical pH regulation mechanism. The pH 2 treatment also caused a sudden decrease of the intracellular level of Pi. The cellular content of total phosphorus did not change during the acidification. The Pi was converted to the organic phosphate form. The ATP level was not increased by the pH 2 treatment, but slightly decreased. The role of Pi, ...
BioAssay record AID 223249 submitted by ChEMBL: Displacement of [3H]idazoxan from imidazoline receptor I-2 of rabbit kidney membranes.
In what became a celebrated experiment, Beadle and Tatum first irradiated a large number of Neurospora, and thereby produced some organisms with mutant genes. They then crossed these potential mutants with non-irradiated Neurospora. Normal products of this sexual recombination could multiply in a simple growth medium. However, Beadle and Tatum showed that some of the mutant spores would not replicate without addition of a specific amino acid arginine. They developed four strains of arginine-dependent Neurospora each of which, they showed, had lost use of a specific gene that ordinarily facilitates one particular enzyme necessary to the production of arginine.. Beadle and Tatums fairly simple experiment was a keystone in the development of molecular biology. In its basic form, the concept that genes produce enzymes had been first put forth as early as 1901 by Archibald Garrod as Beadle acknowledged when he and Tatum were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1958. While Garrods ...
VICAS is a subgroup of Veterinary Ireland which is the umbrella organisation representing veterinarians in Ireland. Veterinary Irelands role is to represent veterinarians in Ireland and to facilitate the profession in its commitment to improving the health and welfare of animals under its care, to protecting public health and to serve the changing needs of its clients and the community through effective and innovative leadership.. VICAS held its AGM on Feb 8 2013 see link for minutes. VICAS Annual report to WSAVA for 2013. ...
Prof. Stephen W. Teitsworths research centers on experimental, computational, and theoretical studies of deterministic and stochastic nonlinear electronic transport in nanoscale systems. Three particular areas of current interest are: 1) stochastic nonlinear electronic transport phenomena in semiconductor superlattices and tunnel diode arrays; 2) complex bifurcations associated with the deterministic dynamics of electronic transport in negative differential resistance systems; and 3) strategies for stabilizing negative differential resistance systems against the formation of space-charge waves.. ...
NOTE: The below Blu-ray captures were taken directly from the Blu-ray disc.. ADDITION: BFI - Region B - Blu-ray - October 17: The BFI is advertised as A new 4K restoration of the original French theatrical release, It is about 4.5 minutes longer than the Criterion which IMDb does consider the 148 minute version as the directors cut while the BFI might be consider the alternate uncensored version. The 1080P image is superior to the Criterion as evidenced by toggling between the large screen capture. There are some framing issues and the BFI, shows more on the sides, slightly less on the top, and is very close to the correct 1.37:1 AR while the Criterion is 1.325:1 and is, occasionally, slightly angled in comparison. I like the grain of the darker BFI. The Criterion is more video-like and the 4K-restored, maxed out bitrate, BFI - more film-like. Thats about the story on the image - BFI wins.. BFI also advance on the audio transfer - likewise using a linear PCM mono track but at 24-bit ...
We recently held our first Annual General Meeting in Derbyshire, which was a great opportunity to discuss the outcomes of 2011, as well as the many things we have in the pipeline for 2012!
Imidazoline receptors are the primary receptors on which clonidine and other imidazolines act. There are three main classes of imidazoline receptor: I1 is involved in inhibition of the sympathetic nervous system to lower blood pressure, I2 has as yet uncertain functions but is implicated in several psychiatric conditions, and I3 regulates insulin secretion. As of 2017, there are three known subtypes of imidazoline receptors: I1, I2, and I3. The I1 receptor appears to be a G protein-coupled receptor that is localized on the plasma membrane. It may be coupled to PLA2 signalling and thus prostaglandin synthesis. In addition, activation inhibits the sodium-hydrogen antiporter and enzymes of catecholamine synthesis are induced, suggesting that the I1 receptor may belong to the neurocytokine receptor family, since its signaling pathways are similar to those of interleukins. It is found in the neurons of the reticular formation, the dorsomedial medulla oblongata, adrenal medulla, renal epithelium, ...
Imidazoline−binding sites are non−adrenergic receptors and classified into I,SUB,1,/SUB,/I,SUB,2,/SUB, subtypes.There is strong evidence that I,SUB,1,/SUB,−binding sites, located in the rostro−ventrolateral medulla, are involved in regulation of blood pressure.However, less is known about the peripheral participation of I,SUB,1,/SUB,−binding sites in cardiovascular reactions.Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether specific imidazoline derivatives influence myocardial contractility and whether imidazoline binding sites are expressed in rat heart.Agmatine, clonidine and idazoxan failed to alter inotropy in left atria within the whole concentration range tested(1 nM−100μM), whereas cirazoline(1−100μM)and moxonidine(100μM)increase inotropy by about 20−30%.After pre−incubation with the α,SUB,1,/SUB,−adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, the cirazoline and moxonidine stimulated inotropy was antagonized, indicating more an α,SUB,1,/SUB,−adrenergic and less an ...
Arthritis Care has established a working group in a bid to stave off a threatened split over plans for a radical restructure.. Many of its 500 branches could close under proposals to centralise control of funds and eliminate a £900,000 financial deficit.. The working group, comprising the national and regional committee chairs, senior staff and trustees, was agreed at a meeting last week to deal with the revolt by the charity's regions.. The group is expected to complete its work by September and report back to the trustee board the following month. Its remit seeks to reach a common understanding of the reasons behind the need for change. But it includes a concession to critics of the restructure plans, by agreeing to look afresh for any possible additional solutions to the key issues confronting trustees.. Opponents of the changes hope to collect 3,500 members' signatures to secure a vote on the plans at the charity's AGM on 3 July ...
The Millicell-ERS-2 (Electrical Resistance System) voltohmmeter for cell analysis reliably measures membrane potential and resistance of epithelial cells in culture .
PACFAs 2016 Annual General Meeting (AGM) takes place in Melbourne on 8 October from 10.00am to 12.30pm.. For details see the Notice of Annual General Meeting.. "Eligible Members" may participate and vote in the AGM. Eligible Members are members with voting rights on the Member Congress (as outlined in the PACFA Constitution) by virtue of being:. ...
Ultrastructure of the AgB oligomers analyzed by TEM.TEM images from rAgB8/1 (A), rAgB8/2 (B), rAgB8/3 (C), and AgB (D) oligomers. Recombinant AgB subunits were
The SRSA development plan is available here.. The minutes from the Snowsport England AGM and latest council meeting are also available: AGM, Council.. ...
am1a04d AJ229366 409 3.0 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) C. albicans 3.4 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) C. tropicalis 5.8 E-41 D-arabinitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1-) P. stipitis am2f05d AJ229451 261 6.0 E-18 Putative agmatinase precursor (EC 3.5.3.11) S. pombe 2.0 E-08 Possible agmatinase (EC 3.5.3.11) S. clavuligerus 4.9 E-06 Hypothetical agmatase (EC 3.5.3.11) M. fervidus okam5d07r AJ229891 230 0.1 E-10 Beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase (EC 1.1.1.100) C. lanceolata 0.2 E-10 Hypothetical protein 5 Xanthobacter sp 6.3 E-10 Hypothetical oxidoreductase B. subtilis am2d01d AJ229435 151 2.9 E-07 YOL5_CAEEL hypothetical 45.3 KD protein C. elegans okam1d10r AJ229574 268 0.2 E-06 Acetamidase (EC 3.5.1.4) A. nidulans ...
The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) belong to the epithelial/degenerin family. ASICs are sodium selective and are sensitive to extracellular protons specifically those following ischemia and injury. The ASIC1a subtype has been implicated centrally in the neurodegeneration following ischemic stroke while ASIC3 is involved in pain sensation and is expressed peripherally. Protons and inflammatory mediators can activate or modulate ASIC1a and ASIC3, suggesting that ASICs can be a pharmacological target for ischemic stroke and pain. The large extracellular domain of ASICs offers multiple sites for interacting with protons and guanidinium group containing compounds. Guanidinium compounds such as 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ), amiloride, and agmatine are known to modulate the electrophysiological properties of ASICs. Here we identified a dietary supplement, GL-001 that shares molecular similarity to these ASIC ligands and modulate ASICs. We utilize whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology to determine
In the stomach, the functional effects of imidazolines and guanidines that have previously been observed were tentatively ascribed to an activation of imidazoline receptors. The present study focused on two clearly nonadrenoceptor-mediated effects: the contraction of gastric smooth muscle and the imidazoline-induced stimulation of gastric acid release. In particular, the question arose whether these effects were related to one of the heretofore-described binding sites at the level of the effector cells.. It was previously reported that CDS, which is assumed to be an endogenous ligand at imidazoline bindings sites/receptors (Meeleyet al., 1986; Atlas, 1991; Piletz et al., 1995), elicited a concentration-dependent contraction of rat gastric fundus strips (Felsen et al., 1987). Because the CDS-induced contraction was not counteracted by muscarine, bradykinin, serotonin, angiotensin II, vasopressin or alpha-2 receptor antagonists, it was suggested that the CDS-evoked contraction was mediated by ...
* Thyssenkrupp AGM scheduled for Jan. 19* Cevian, other shareholders unhappy with complex structure* Investors urge group to slim down via spin-offs, listings(Adds shareholder comments)By Christoph Steitz and Tom KäckenhoffFRANKFURT, Jan 17 (Reuters) - Shareholders led by activistinvestor Cevian have renewed calls for structural change atThyssenkrupp, putting more pressure on Chief ExecutiveHeinrich Hiesinger before the steelmakers annual generalmeeting.Investors have questioned whether producing everything fromsteel and car parts to submarines and elevators is still theright set-up for Thyssenkrupp, due to hold its AGM on Jan. 19.Its the root cause of Thyssenkrupps underperformance,Lars Foerberg, co-founder of Cevian, said in response to aReuters request for comment.Cevian is Thyssenkrupps second-largest shareholder afterthe Alfried Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach Foundation and holds astake of about 18 percent.Since Hiesinger took the helm seven years ago, Thyssenkruppsold its loss-making U.S.
At the AGM, youll learn about what CSSDP has planned for the rest of 2017 and how you can get involved on an individual level and as a part of your local chapter. Contact us if youre not currently a part of a chapter and still want to be involved, or check out your chapters page here.. Were offering $25 pizza vouchers for CSSDP chapters that get together for the AGM - send us a picture of your team together participating in the AGM and a picture of your receipt in order to take advantage of this once-a-year opportunity! Please note, we only have one voucher for each chapter, so make sure to coordinate. We suggest meeting at a library, school, or a quiet coffee shop. Well have several more opportunities like this in the next year so if you cant take advantage of this one, make sure to connect with your chapter, sign up to our newsletter, and stay tuned!. ...
SLAmuMirisChallenge‬ (2) 2010 Chevorlet Camaro (1) 31st Night (3) 33000 (1) Aarash (1) ADIC (1) Aish Athukoralage (1) Ajantha mendis with Girl friend (11) Ajith Cabraal (3) ajith kumarasiri (1) Ajith Muthukumarana (2) akalanka ganegama (3) Akila Dhanuddara (3) Akila Viraj Kariyawasam (1) Akon (1) Aksha Sudari (5) All Breeds Dog Show (1) Aloka Weerasingha (2) Ama Sheryl Decker (1) Amal Perera (2) Ameesha Kavindi (1) Amila Nadeeshani (1) Amy Silva (1) Ananda - Nalanda Big Match (1) Anarkali Akarsha (12) Angelo Mathews (1) Anjali Purnika (1) Anjela Seneviratne (2) Anjula Rajapaksha (2) Anton Jude (2) Anuruddika padukka (1) Anusha Sonali (1) Anushka Sonali (3) Aruni Rajapaksa (1) Asela Waidyalankara (3) Asha edirisinghe (2) Ashvini Dulanjali Peiris (1) ASP Nihal Ranjith Mendis (1) Athula Adhikari (3) Avirate (3) Ayesha Madushani (1) Ayodhya Mihiravi (1) Ayomi shanika (3) Balumgala (37) Bandula Gunawardene (3) Basil Rajapaksha (9) Bentota Beach Fest 2013 (1) bhagya hettiarachchi (3) BNS (1) Bodu ...
We investigated the acute effects of centrally acting antihypertensive drugs on the microcirculation of pentobarbital-anesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). The effects of the sympatho-inhibitory agents clonidine and rilmenidine, known to activate both alpha2-adrenoceptors and nonadrenergic I1-imidazoline binding sites (I1BS) in the central nervous system, were compared to those of dicyclopropylmethyl-(4,5-dimethyl-4,5-dihydro-3H-pyrrol-2-yl)-amine ...
Moxonidine is a selective agonist at the imidazoline receptor subtype 1 (I1). Moxonidine causes a decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity and, therefore, a decrease in blood pressure.
Installation and Operating Guide Scalar 218 Library Advanced Digital Information Corporation Copyright Notice © Copyright adic 1997 The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. This document contains proprietary information which is protected by copyright. All rights are reserved. No part of this document may be photocopied, reproduced, or translated to another language without the prior written consent of adic. adic shall not be liable for errors contained herein or for incidental or consequential damages (including lost profits) in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material whether based on warranty, contract, or other legal theory. Printed in the USA February 1997 Document Number 62-0106-01 Rev A Advanced Digital Information Corporation Telephone: (206) 881-8004 Fax: (206) 881-2296 Customer Assistance: (206) 883-HELP World-Wide Web: http://www.adic.com BBS: (206) 883-3211 Shipping Address: 10201 Willows Road NE Redmond, WA 98052 ...
Agmatine [ 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine ], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L-arginine and is a metabolic product of mammalian cells.
SLAmuMirisChallenge‬ (2) 2010 Chevorlet Camaro (1) 31st Night (3) 33000 (1) Aarash (1) ADIC (1) Aish Athukoralage (1) Ajantha mendis with Girl friend (11) Ajith Cabraal (3) ajith kumarasiri (1) Ajith Muthukumarana (2) akalanka ganegama (3) Akila Dhanuddara (3) Akila Viraj Kariyawasam (1) Akon (1) Aksha Sudari (5) All Breeds Dog Show (1) Aloka Weerasingha (2) Ama Sheryl Decker (1) Amal Perera (2) Ameesha Kavindi (1) Amila Nadeeshani (1) Amy Silva (1) Ananda - Nalanda Big Match (1) Anarkali Akarsha (12) Angelo Mathews (1) Anjali Purnika (1) Anjela Seneviratne (2) Anjula Rajapaksha (2) Anton Jude (2) Anuruddika padukka (1) Anusha Sonali (1) Anushka Sonali (3) Aruni Rajapaksa (1) Asela Waidyalankara (3) Asha edirisinghe (2) Ashvini Dulanjali Peiris (1) ASP Nihal Ranjith Mendis (1) Athula Adhikari (3) Avirate (3) Ayesha Madushani (1) Ayodhya Mihiravi (1) Ayomi shanika (3) Balumgala (37) Bandula Gunawardene (3) Basil Rajapaksha (9) Bentota Beach Fest 2013 (1) bhagya hettiarachchi (3) BNS (1) Bodu ...
Decarboxylation is essential to getting the most of of your medical cannabis. Here are 5 things you should know about decarboxylation...
AGM 1 unit SORB-IT Silica Gel in Tyvek Bags are used to remove moisture within small to medium sized enclosures & are FDA approved for contact with food.

Imidazoline Receptor (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.comImidazoline Receptor (Inhibitors Agonists Modulators Antagonists)-MedChemExpress.com

Agmatine sulfate Agonist ,98.0% Agmatine sulfate exerts modulatory action at multiple molecular targets, such as ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/Targets/Imidazoline%20Receptor.html

Agmatine - WikipediaAgmatine - Wikipedia

Agmatine is a chemical substance which is naturally created from the chemical arginine. Agmatine has been shown to exert ... Differential inhibition by agmatine of all isoforms of NO synthase (NOS) is reported. Polyamine metabolism. Agmatine is a ... Agmatine has been shown to enhance glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and to exert nephroprotective effects. Agmatine has been ... A number of potential medical uses for agmatine have been suggested. Agmatine produces mild reductions in heart rate and blood ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agmatine

Agmatine deiminase - WikipediaAgmatine deiminase - Wikipedia

In enzymology, an agmatine deiminase (EC 3.5.3.12) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction agmatine + H2O ⇌ {\ ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is agmatine iminohydrolase. This enzyme is also called agmatine amidinohydrolase. This ... Smith TA (1969). "Agmatine iminohydrolase in maize". Phytochemistry. 8 (11): 2111-2117. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88168-6. ... displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N-carbamoylputrescine + NH3 Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are agmatine and H2O, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agmatine_deiminase

agmatine (CHEBI:17431)agmatine (CHEBI:17431)

... has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) agmatine (CHEBI:17431) is a guanidines (CHEBI:24436) agmatine ( ... CHEBI:17431 - agmatine. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ... N1-aminoaminopropylagmatine (CHEBI:64339) has functional parent agmatine (CHEBI:17431). N4-phosphoagmatine (CHEBI:17358) has ... feruloylagmatine (CHEBI:75544) has functional parent agmatine (CHEBI:17431). agmatinium(2+) (CHEBI:58145) is conjugate acid of ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:13747

Prime Nutrition Agmatine - IllPumpYouUp.comPrime Nutrition Agmatine - IllPumpYouUp.com

Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps with Agmatine! ... Prime Nutrition Agmatine helps promote and support your nitric ... Agmatine also promotes performance, enhances mood and increases energy. What more could you ask for from a nitric oxide booster ... Prime Nutrition Agmatine helps promote and support your nitric oxide levels! Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps ... Arginine has a long history of use as the premier nitric oxide booster - until now! Agmatine Sulfate is a byproduct of arginine ...
more infohttp://illpumpyouup.com/prime-nutrition/agmatine.htm

Allmax Agmatine Sulfate - IllPumpYouUp.comAllmax Agmatine Sulfate - IllPumpYouUp.com

Get the sick pumps and veins everyone wants with Agmatine Sulfate! ... Allmax Agmatine Sulfate is a great supplement to help raise your nitric oxide levels and give you bigger veins! ... Say Hello to the New King, Agmatine.. Agmatine was formerly known as the post form of Arginine once digested, but with ... Allmax Agmatine Sulfate is a great supplement to help raise your nitric oxide levels and give you bigger veins! Get the sick ...
more infohttp://illpumpyouup.com/allmax-nutrition/agmatine-sulfate.htm

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Agmatine deiminase - Q8GWW7 (AGUA ARATH)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Agmatine deiminase - Q8GWW7 (AGUA ARATH)

Mediates the hydrolysis of agmatine into N-carbamoylputrescine in the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) pathway of putrescine ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/Q8GWW7

Is Agmatine Safe? - Mr Supplement AustraliaIs Agmatine Safe? - Mr Supplement Australia

Two researchers in the US took high dose of agmatine for five years. They each consumed 2.67g of Agmatine per day, split into ... Agmatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is naturally present in food like meat and shellfish, and is produced from L- ... Secongly, agmatine is though to stimulate the release of the hormones that tell the body to make more testosterone. In this way ... On top of this, agmatine can reduce the perception of pain, which can help athletes push through to the next level, and it may ...
more infohttps://www.mrsupplement.com.au/research-agmatine-safe

a good quick read on Agmatine - AnabolicMinds.coma good quick read on Agmatine - AnabolicMinds.com

Agmatine [ 4-(aminobutyl)guanidine ], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L-arginine and is a metabolic ... AnabolicMinds.com , Forum , Supplement Forum , Supplements , a good quick read on Agmatine ... a good quick read on Agmatine Agmatine [4-(aminobutyl)guanidine], an endogenous neurotransmitter [1], is decarboxylated L- ... Is it ok to mix bulk Agmatine together with Leucine? I Normally mix 1 gram Agmatine to 3 grams Leucine Pre work out. ...
more infohttp://anabolicminds.com/forum/supplements/236419-good-quick-read.html

ADP-Ribosyltransferase, NAD-Agmatine - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgADP-Ribosyltransferase, NAD-Agmatine - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

ADP-Ribosyltransferase, NAD-Agmatine. An enzyme that catalyzes the Transfer of the ADP-Ribose moiety from NAD+ or NADP+ to ... specific protein substrates with Arginine, Arginine-type compounds, Agmatine, or Guanidine as acceptors. This mono-ADP- ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/adp-ribosyltransferase-nad-agmatine.html

Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter.  - PubMed - NCBIMolecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter. - PubMed - NCBI

Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter.. Wang S1, Yan R1, Zhang X1, Chu Q1 ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ... Molecular mechanism of pH-dependent substrate transport by an arginine-agmatine antiporter ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136114

Comparative survey of putrescine production from agmatine deamination in different bacteria.Comparative survey of putrescine production from agmatine deamination in different bacteria.

... an agmatine degrader isolated from wine, and to compare it with three other different species, previously reported as ... Agmatine / metabolism*. Arginine / metabolism. Bacillus cereus / metabolism. Biogenic Amines / metabolism*. Enterococcus ... This article aims to study putrescine production in Lactobacillus hilgardii strain X(1)B, an agmatine degrader isolated from ... Spermine and spermidine always produced a diminution in agmatine deamination. In this work, we have also demonstrated that ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Comparative-survey-putrescine-production-from/18721677.html

NutraBio Agmatine at Bodybuilding.com - Best Prices on Agmatine!NutraBio Agmatine at Bodybuilding.com - Best Prices on Agmatine!

Get the Best Prices on Agmatine at Bodybuilding.com! ... NutraBio Agmatine Formulated to Boost Endurance and Decrease ... Our Agmatine is HPLC tested by an independent lab to guarantee purity and potency.NutraBio Agmatine is 100% pure and contains ... NutraBio Agmatine is GMP manufactured to Guarantee Potency and Purity. Nutrabio Agmatine Sulfate is manufactured by us in our ... Agmatine acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator with a vast array of actions in the body. Agmatine is an imidazoline ...
more infohttps://www.bodybuilding.com/store/nutrabio/agmatine.html

VitaminLife.com: 
                Agmatine 500mgVitaminLife.com: Agmatine 500mg

Agmatine 500mg by Olympian Labs 71001300067. We carry every Olympian Labs product at discount prices. 60 Capsule 40% off, $ ... Agmatine 500mg 60 Capsule. Agmatine Sulfate helps drive nitric oxide and other nutrients into muscles which can increase muscle ... Olympian Labs Agmatine 500mg Form: Capsule. Size: 60. Price: $32.99 $19.79 (0) ... Olympian Labs Agmatine 500mg Form: Capsule. Size: 60. Price: $32.99 $19.79 (0) ...
more infohttps://www.vitaminlife.com/index/page/product/product_id/43238/category_id/1/product_name/Agmatine+500mg+

AGMAT (agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase)) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)AGMAT (agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase)) - KOMP (Knockout Mouse Project)

agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase). Synonyms: 5033405N08Rik. Gene nomenclature, locus information, and GO, OMIM, and PMID ... Vega: OTTMUSG9931 (Agmat, agmatine ureohydrolase (agmatinase))*CCDS: 20027.1, 38941*Gene Ontology: Agmat *Mouse Phenome DB: ...
more infohttps://www.komp.org/geneinfo.php?geneid=18649

Agmatine - Vitamart.caAgmatine - Vitamart.ca

Vitamart.ca is Canadas Health Store. We carry vitamins, supplements, whey protein, vegan protein with FREE Shipping & 100% Satisfaction Guarantee!
more infohttps://www.vitamart.ca/agmatine/

Agmatine Sulfate Powder - 90 Grams - NutraBio.comAgmatine Sulfate Powder - 90 Grams - NutraBio.com

Agmatine is the next generation arginine and is often referred to as Super Arginine because of its ability to give explosive ... NutraBio Agmatine is GMP manufactured to Guarantee Potency and Purity:. Nutrabio Agmatine Sulfate is manufactured by us in our ... Our Agmatine is HPLC tested by an independent lab to guarantee purity and potency. NutraBio Agmatine is 100% pure and contains ... Agmatine acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator with a vast array of actions in the body. Agmatine is an imidazoline ...
more infohttps://www.nutrabio.com/mm5/merchant.mvc?Store=NOS&Screen=PROD&Product_Code=51740

L-Arginine vs. Agmatine Sulfate | PEGymL-Arginine vs. Agmatine Sulfate | PEGym

What is Agmatine Sulfate?. Agmatine ((4-aminobutyl) guanidine, NH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-NH-C(-NH2)(=NH )) is a byproduct of Arginine ... Are L-Arginine and Agmatine Sulfate Safe?. L-Arginine and Agmatine sulfate are likely safe for adults to take. There are some ... It is theorized that the effects of Agmatine sulfate are more pronounced than L-arginine. For this reason, Agmatine sulfate is ... Agmatine Sulfate. Posted by KMWylie. Categories: Articles, Penis Diet & Nutrition. The supplement industry is a multi-billion ...
more infohttps://www.pegym.com/articles/l-arginine-vs-agmatine-sulfate

High Qulity Agmatine Sulfate CAS:2482-00-0 - Wuhan DXYPHARM Co .,LTD - ecplaza.netHigh Qulity Agmatine Sulfate CAS:2482-00-0 - Wuhan DXYPHARM Co .,LTD - ecplaza.net

Other name:N-(4-AMINOBUTYL)GUANIDINE SULFATE Purity:99% Molecular Formula:C5H16N4O4S Appearance:white powder Assay:HPLC,HNRM,LC-MS Stock:Bulk in stock Delivry: Fedex,EMS,TNT,Hongkong post Cetification: ISO9001,BMP white powder dxy Agmatine...
more infohttps://www.ecplaza.net/products/high-qulity-agmatine-sulfate-cas2482-00_4130257

Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase elisa and antibodyAgmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase elisa and antibody

Recombinant Protein and Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase 1. Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase 1 ELISA Kit. Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase ... Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase 1 Antibody. Also known as Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase 1 (OsAHT1) (Agmatine ... Below are the list of possible Agmatine hydroxycinnamoyltransferase products. If you cannot find the target and/or product is ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/protein_family.php?root=agmatine-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase

SNS Agmatine XT | News, Reviews, & Prices at PricePlowSNS Agmatine XT | News, Reviews, & Prices at PricePlow

... the best deal on Agmatine XT by SNS is here at PricePlow! ... Compare prices and save on SNS Agmatine XT! You can shop with ... SNS Agmatine XT contains 500 mg. of Agmatine per capsule. Agmatine is a byproduct of the amino acid arginine, but goes well ... Agmatine also stimulates the release of Nitric Oxide by acting on Nitric Oxide Synthases.. Agmatine is Commonly Used For: ... Agmatine not only delivers in terms of improved pumps, but most users also report that the pumps achieved with Agmatine are ...
more infohttps://www.priceplow.com/sns/agmatine-xt

Agmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism | Biochemical JournalAgmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism | Biochemical Journal

Agmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism. Mauro Salvi, Valentina Battaglia, ... Agmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism. Mauro Salvi, Valentina Battaglia, ... Agmatine is transported into liver mitochondria by a specific electrophoretic mechanism Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Agmatine, a divalent diamine with two positive charges at physiological pH, is transported into the matrix of liver ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/396/2/337

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and...IJMS | Free Full-Text | Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and...

... agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide. The resulting Tms indicated stabilization of AdiC variants upon ligand ... The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to ... Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into ... "Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l-Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/3/918

Antidepressant-like action of agmatine in the acute and sub-acute mouse models of depression: a receptor mechanism study |...Antidepressant-like action of agmatine in the acute and sub-acute mouse models of depression: a receptor mechanism study |...

Previous studies have shown that agmatine, a potential neuromodulator or co-transmitter, exhibited antidepressant-like action ... Depression Agmatine I1-imidazoline receptor α2-adrenergic receptor Zhao-Di Chen and Wen-Qiang Chen contributed equally to this ... Halaris AE, Plietz JE (2007) Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain. CNS Drugs 21:885-900CrossRefPubMed ... Reis DJ, Regunathan S (2000) Is agmatine a novel neurotransmitter in brain? Trends Pharmacol Sci 21:187-193CrossRefPubMedGoogle ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11011-018-0280-9

Ultimate Guide to Agmatine: Benefits, Side Effects & DosagesUltimate Guide to Agmatine: Benefits, Side Effects & Dosages

Agmatine, also known as (4-aminobutyl)guanidine, is a derivative of the amino acid l-arginine. Stored in neurons, this compound ... Agmatine Frequently Asked Questions. Is agmatine found in any common foods?. Because it is a bacterial byproduct, agmatine can ... This section will look at the major potential benefits of agmatine supplementation. Agmatine and Pain Reduction. Agmatine has ... Agmatine can be taken at any convenient time on non-training days. A Deeper Look at Agmatine Benefits. It bears repeating that ...
more infohttps://www.tigerfitness.com/articles/post/guide-agmatine-sulfate-supplements
  • Agmatine was formerly known as the post form of Arginine once digested, but with technological advances, scientist have been able to take the pure form of agmatine and allow it to be used as a supplement. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Because health is too important to play around with, people using a nutriceutical supplement in the long term, even a natural and seemingly benign amino acid such as agmatine, is urged to discuss this with their doctor. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • For this reason, Agmatine sulfate is beginning to become even more popular as a bodybuilding supplement than L-Arginine. (pegym.com)
  • SNS Agmatine XT is a truly versatile supplement, with users reporting improved endurance, improved recovery, enhanced performance, dramatic and long lasting pumps, and improved overall body composition including increased lean muscle and decreased body-fat. (priceplow.com)
  • This makes agmatine sulfate a popular pump-inducing supplement choice. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Dietary protein can slow the absorption of agmatine, and because of this diminish the benefits of this supplement. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Agmatine is typically listed on supplement labels as agmatine sulfate . (tigerfitness.com)
  • com)-- Gilad&Gilad LLC has served a Cease and Desist Letter to a dietary supplement marketer for alleged patent infringements upon Gilad&Gilad's agmatine patents covering methods of use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All these things together make Agmatine a well-known option for a pump-initiating supplement. (swolhq.com)
  • We have seen the advantages of Agmatine, now let us look at some of the side effects of this pre-workout and bodybuilding supplement. (swolhq.com)
  • For required amounts to improve performance you would be best suited to getting the free form supplement Agmatine Sulfate which is now quite popular in both pre and intra-workout supplements. (spartansuppz.com)
  • It bears repeating that agmatine provides a strong dual-pronged attack. (tigerfitness.com)
  • It bears rehashing that Agmatine offers benefits that are dual-pronged. (swolhq.com)
  • A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l -arginine (Arg), agmatine, l -arginine methyl ester, and l -arginine amide. (mdpi.com)
  • Ethitech Nutrition Agmatine - Mix one serving (1g/1000mgs) into 8oz of water. (tigerfitness.com)
  • In 1994, the discovery of endogenous agmatine synthesis in mammals occurred. (wikipedia.org)
  • Is agmatine an endogenous anxiolytic/antidepressant agent? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Immediately after reperfusion, agmatine (100 mg/kg) or normal saline was injected intraperitoneally into the agmatine-treated group ( n = 17) or the control group, respectively. (ajnr.org)
  • Mice were treated with agmatine (10mg/kg, intraperitoneally) once a day during seven consecutive days. (ovid.com)
  • Agmatine is a precursor for polyamine synthesis, competitive inhibitor of polyamine transport, inducer of spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT), and inducer of antizyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study by Elena Galea and others reported that agmatine is a competitive inhibitor of all nitric oxide synthase isoenzymes . (anabolicminds.com)
  • Agmatine was found to exert modulatory actions directly and indirectly at multiple key molecular targets underlying cellular control mechanisms of cardinal importance in health and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research into agmatine reveals a potential to improve the symptoms related to neuropathic pain, and the ability to assist with the treatment of drug addiction. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Agmatine does appear to provide a dose-dependent reduction in inflammation and neuropathic pain. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Agmatine givse a measurement subordinate diminishment in irritation and neuropathic torment. (swolhq.com)
  • Long-Term (5 Years), High Daily Dosage of Dietary Agmatine-Evidence of Safety: A Case Report. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Taken daily, a reasonable and effective dosage of agmatine recommend for improvement of mental function would be between 1.6 and 6.4 mg per kilogram of bodyweight. (tigerfitness.com)
  • Agmatine works through stimulating the release of pituitary hormones, including Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and natural growth hormone (GH). (priceplow.com)
  • Improve your nitric oxide and get massive pumps with Agmatine! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Get the sick pumps and veins everyone wants with Agmatine Sulfate! (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Agmatine not only delivers in terms of improved pumps, but most users also report that the pumps achieved with Agmatine are more sustained and long lasting than with many other 'Old School' N.O. products. (priceplow.com)
  • And with Agmatine, most experience longer lasting pumps than with many other 'Old School' N.O. products. (priceplow.com)
  • With all the claimed Nitric Oxide (N.O.) boosters, Agmatine has not only been the most powerful, but the most consistent N.O. Precursor available on the market. (illpumpyouup.com)
  • Agmatine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is naturally present in food like meat and shellfish, and is produced from L-Arginine in the human body. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Ilgü H, Jeckelmann J-M, Colas C, Ucurum Z, Schlessinger A, Fotiadis D. Effects of Mutations and Ligands on the Thermostability of the l -Arginine/Agmatine Antiporter AdiC and Deduced Insights into Ligand-Binding of Human l -Type Amino Acid Transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • Agmatine is a subsidiary of the amino acid l-arginine . (swolhq.com)
  • The l -arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. (mdpi.com)
  • Our Agmatine is HPLC tested by an independent lab to guarantee purity and potency.NutraBio Agmatine is 100% pure and contains absolutely no additives, fillers or excipients. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Our Agmatine is HPLC tested by an independent lab to guarantee purity and potency. (nutrabio.com)
  • The primary difference is the increased potency of Agmatine sulfate. (pegym.com)
  • Agmatine suppresses nitric oxide production and attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats. (anabolicminds.com)
  • Gawali NB, Bulani VD, Gursahani MS, Deshpande PS, Kothavade PS, Juvekar AR (2017) Agmatine attenuates chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced anxiety, depression-like behaviours and cognitive impairment by modulating nitrergic signalling pathway. (springer.com)
  • HIGHLIGHTS Agmatine attenuates depressive-like behavior induced by Aβ in mice. (ovid.com)
  • Agmatine attenuates Aβ-induced increase in hippocampal lipid peroxidation levels. (ovid.com)
  • On top of this, agmatine can reduce the perception of pain, which can help athletes push through to the next level, and it may help the body use insulin more efficiently. (mrsupplement.com.au)
  • Therefore, we can say that Agmatine is known to raise the insulin response levels that results in a leaner body. (swolhq.com)
  • Agmatine is known to help the brain to fight the stress and anxiety , and this is done through a protectionary measure. (swolhq.com)
  • More and more evidence is accumulating on the involvement of agmatine in the processes of learning and memory, however, direct evidence of its involvement is currently lacking . (anabolicminds.com)
  • However, agmatine is normally transported in mitoplasts, thus excluding the involvement of MAO in this process. (biochemj.org)