Crotalid Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae or pit vipers, found mostly in the Americas. They include the rattlesnake, cottonmouth, fer-de-lance, bushmaster, and American copperhead. Their venoms contain nontoxic proteins, cardio-, hemo-, cyto-, and neurotoxins, and many enzymes, especially phospholipases A. Many of the toxins have been characterized.Ancrod: An enzyme fraction from the venom of the Malayan pit viper, Agkistrodon rhodostoma. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of a number of amino acid esters and a limited proteolysis of fibrinogen. It is used clinically to produce controlled defibrination in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. EC 3.4.21.-.Snakes: Limbless REPTILES of the suborder Serpentes.Batroxobin: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from the venom of fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). It is used as a plasma clotting agent for fibrinogen and for the detection of fibrinogen degradation products. The presence of heparin does not interfere with the clotting test. Hemocoagulase is a mixture containing batroxobin and factor X activator. EC 3.4.21.-.Viper Venoms: Venoms from SNAKES of the viperid family. They tend to be less toxic than elapid or hydrophid venoms and act mainly on the vascular system, interfering with coagulation and capillary membrane integrity and are highly cytotoxic. They contain large amounts of several enzymes, other factors, and some toxins.Snake Venoms: Solutions or mixtures of toxic and nontoxic substances elaborated by snake (Ophidia) salivary glands for the purpose of killing prey or disabling predators and delivered by grooved or hollow fangs. They usually contain enzymes, toxins, and other factors.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.L-Amino Acid Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of L-amino acids to KETO ACIDS with the generation of AMMONIA and HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. L-amino acid oxidase is widely distributed in and is thought to contribute to the toxicity of SNAKE VENOMS.Gnathostoma: A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.Agkistrodon: A genus of venomous snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. Twelve species of this genus are found in North and Central America and Asia. Agkistrodon contortrix is the copperhead, A. piscivorus, the cottonmouth. The former is named for its russet or orange-brown color, the latter for the white interior of its mouth. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p336; Moore, Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p75)Antivenins: Antisera used to counteract poisoning by animal VENOMS, especially SNAKE VENOMS.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Snake Bites: Bites by snakes. Bite by a venomous snake is characterized by stinging pain at the wound puncture. The venom injected at the site of the bite is capable of producing a deleterious effect on the blood or on the nervous system. (Webster's 3d ed; from Dorland, 27th ed, at snake, venomous)Poison Control Centers: Facilities which provide information concerning poisons and treatment of poisoning in emergencies.Cobra Venoms: Venoms from snakes of the genus Naja (family Elapidae). They contain many specific proteins that have cytotoxic, hemolytic, neurotoxic, and other properties. Like other elapid venoms, they are rich in enzymes. They include cobramines and cobralysins.Metalloendopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Costa RicaFoot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.North CarolinaProtein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Trimeresurus: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. About 30 species are currently recognized, found in southeast Asia and adjacent island chains. The Okinawa habu frequently enters dwellings in search of rats and mice; the Chinese habu is often found in suburban and agricultural areas. They are quite irritable. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p136)Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.FloridaMexicoReptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.BaltimoreColubridae: The largest family of snakes, comprising five subfamilies: Colubrinae, Natricinae, Homalopsinae, Lycodontinae, and Xenodontinae. They show a great diversity of eating habits, some eating almost anything, others having a specialized diet. They can be oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous. The majority of North American snakes are colubrines. Among the colubrids are king snakes, water moccasins, water snakes, and garter snakes. Some genera are poisonous. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, pp321-29)Boidae: A family of snakes comprising the boas, anacondas, and pythons. They occupy a variety of habitats through the tropics and subtropics and are arboreal, aquatic or fossorial (burrowing). Some are oviparous, others ovoviviparous. Contrary to popular opinion, they do not crush the bones of their victims: their coils exert enough pressure to stop a prey's breathing, thus suffocating it. There are five subfamilies: Boinae, Bolyerinae, Erycinae, Pythoninae, and Tropidophiinae. (Goin, Goin, and Zug, Introduction to Herpetology, 3d ed, p315-320)Scarlet Fever: Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.RussiaFar East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Bass: Common name for FISHES belonging to the order Perciformes and occurring in three different families.Russell's Viper: A genus of snakes of the family VIPERIDAE. It is distributed in West Pakistan, most of India, Burma, Ceylon, Thailand, southeast China, Taiwan, and a few islands of Indonesia. It hisses loudly when disturbed and strikes with great force and speed. Very prolific, it gives birth to 20-60 young. This viper is the leading cause of snakebite in India and Burma. (Moore: Poisonous Snakes of the World, 1980, p127)

Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys pallas. (1/68)

A cDNA encoding a basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II from Agkistrodon halys Pallas with an N-terminus highly homologous to that of BPLA2 and a C-terminus sequence almost the same as that of APLA2 was inserted into a bacterial expression vector and effectively expressed in Escherichia coli RR1. The protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies. After partial purification by washing, the inclusion bodies with Triton X-100, denaturing and refolding, the renatured recombinant protein was purified by FPLC column superose 12. The purified recombinant enzyme with an isoelectric point of pH 6.8 could cross-react with antiserum prepared against acidic phospholipase A2. The enzymatic activity of the expressed basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II is close to that of denatured-refolded native basic phospholipase A2, and has the same inhibiting effect on platelet aggregation as denatured-refolded acidic phospholipase A2, but lacks the hemolytic activity of denatured-refolded basic phospholipase A2. To study the structural relationships among basic phospholipase A2, acidic phospholipase A2 and basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II, molecular modeling of basic-acidic hybrid phospholipase A2-II was done. The roles of various amino acid residues in the enzymatic activity and pharmacological activities of phospholipase A2 are discussed.  (+info)

cDNA cloning and bacterial expression of phospholipase A(2) inhibitor PLIalpha from the serum of the Chinese mamushi, Agkistrodon blomhoffii siniticus(1). (2/68)

The cDNA encoding of a phospholipase A(2) inhibitor (PLIalpha) of the Chinese mamushi, Agkistrodon blomhoffii siniticus, was identified from a liver cDNA library by use of a probe prepared by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the basis of the amino acid sequence of PLIalpha. It encoded a polypeptide of 166 amino acid residues, including 19 residues of the signal sequence and 147 residues of the complete mature sequence of PLIalpha. The PLIalpha cDNA was subcloned into the expression vector pET-16b and used to transform Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)pLysS. The recombinant PLIalpha expressed as a fusion protein was solubilized and purified to homogeneity by use of a metal affinity resin. The purified PLIalpha fusion protein underwent folding to form a trimeric structure like the intact PLIalpha, and showed inhibitory activity against the group II acidic PLA(2) from A. blomhoffii siniticus venom; although its binding constant (1/K(i)) value was 30-fold lower than that of the natural PLIalpha. The elimination of the N-terminal additional peptide from the fusion protein resulted in a marked increase in the inhibition activity with a binding constant comparable to that of the natural PLIalpha against the acidic PLA(2). Furthermore, the carbohydrate chains of the natural PLIalpha were found to play an important role in the inhibitory activity against the basic PLA(2).  (+info)

Purification, cloning and sequence analyses for pro-metalloprotease-disintegrin variants from Deinagkistrodon acutus venom and subclassification of the small venom metalloproteases. (3/68)

Acidic and basic hemorrhagic metalloproteases were purified from the venom of Deinagkistrodon acutus (from Fujian Province, China) using gel filtration and anion exchange on FPLC and reversed-phase HPLC. Their hemorrhagic activities and N-terminal sequences were characterized. Extensive screening of the venom gland cDNA after PCR amplification resulted in the identification and sequencing of a total of seven cDNA clones encoding the multidomain precursors of six acidic and one alkaline low molecular mass metalloproteases. Two of the precursors contain a processable disintegrin domain. Disintegrins of 5 kDa were also purified from the venom. The partial amino-acid sequences and molecular masses determined by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of the purified proteins specifically match those deduced from two of the cDNA sequences. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses based on 30 complete sequences of low molecular mass venom metalloproteases revealed that they may be classified into three functional subtypes: acidic hemorrhagins, basic and moderate hemorrhagins, and nonhemorrhagic enzymes. Subtype-specific amino-acid substitutions in the C-terminal regions of the enzymes were highlighted to explore the structure-activity relationships of the enzymes.  (+info)

Characterization and cDNA cloning of a platelet aggregation inhibitor. (4/68)

A novel platelet aggregation inhibitor, sal-C, was purified to homogeneity from the venom of Korean snake (Agkistrodon halys brevicaudus). Several lines of experimental evidence clearly indicated that sal-C inhibits not only the collagen-induced platelet aggregation, but also the aggregation mediated by the cell surface glycoprotein IIb-IIIa (GP IIb-IIIa). We have isolated the cDNA encoding sal-C from the cDNA library of the snake venom gland and analyzed its complete nucleotide sequence. Sal-C is a single-chain polypeptide composed of 212 amino acids including 24 cysteines. The deduced polypeptide sequence of sal-C demonstrated considerable homology to previously described protein species of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation inhibitor family. Sal-C does not have the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, but contains the Ser-Glu-Cys-Asp sequence. Interestingly, sal-C was found to inhibit GP IIb-IIIa binding to immobilized fibrinogen which is antagonized by the typical RGD motif of disintegrins.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of the capillary pericytes and the expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin and desmin in the snake infrared sensory organs. (5/68)

The infrared sensory membranes of pit organs of pit vipers have an extremely rich capillary vasculature that forms many vascular loops, each serving a small number of infrared nerve terminals. We clarified the ultrastructure of capillary pericytes in the pit membranes by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and examined the immunoreactivity in their cytoplasm to two contractile proteins: smooth muscle alpha-actin (SM alpha-actin) and desmin. The capillary pericytes had two major cytoplasmic processes: thickened primary processes that radiate to embrace the endothelial tube and flattened secondary processes that are distributed widely on the endothelium. Coexpression of SM alpha-actin and desmin was observed in the pericytes of entire capillary segments, and SM alpha-actin was characterized by prominent filament bundles directed mainly at right angles to the capillary long axis. This expression pattern was different from that of capillary pericytes of the scales, where SM alpha-actin was expressed diffusely in the cytoplasm. In a series of electron microscopic sections, we often observed the pericyte processes depressing the endothelial wall. We also observed a close relationship of the pericytes with inter-endothelial cell junctions, and pericyte processes connected with the endothelial cells via gap junctions. From these findings, we surmised that capillary pericytes in the pit membrane have a close functional relationship with the endothelium, and through their contractile and relaxing activity regulate capillary bloodflow to stabilize production of infrared nerve impulses.  (+info)

Toward understanding interfacial activation of secretory phospholipase A2 (PLA2): membrane surface properties and membrane-induced structural changes in the enzyme contribute synergistically to PLA2 activation. (6/68)

Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolyzes phospholipids to free fatty acids and lysolipids and thus initiates the biosynthesis of eicosanoids and platelet-activating factor, potent mediators of inflammation, allergy, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. The relative contributions of the physical properties of membranes and the structural changes in PLA2 to the interfacial activation of PLA2, that is, a strong increase in the lipolytic activity upon binding to the surface of phospholipid membranes or micelles, are not well understood. The present results demonstrate that both binding of PLA2 to phospholipid bilayers and its activity are facilitated by membrane surface electrostatics. Higher PLA2 activity toward negatively charged membranes is shown to result from stronger membrane-enzyme electrostatic interactions rather than selective hydrolysis of the acidic lipid. Phospholipid hydrolysis by PLA2 is followed by preferential removal of the liberated lysolipid and accumulation of the fatty acid in the membrane that may predominantly modulate PLA2 activity by affecting membrane electrostatics and/or morphology. The previously described induction of a flexible helical structure in PLA2 during interfacial activation was more pronounced at higher negative charge densities of membranes. These findings identify a reciprocal relationship between the membrane surface properties, strength of membrane binding of PLA2, membrane-induced structural changes in PLA2, and the enzyme activation.  (+info)

Serine protease isoforms of Deinagkistrodon acutus venom: cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. (7/68)

The major coagulating fibrinogenase of Deinagkistrdon acutus venom, designated acutobin, was purified by anion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Approximately 80% of its protein sequence was determined by sequencing the various fragments derived from CNBr cleavage and digestion with endoprotease. Extensive screening of the venom gland cDNA species after amplification by PCR resulted in the isolation of four distinct cDNA clones encoding acutobin and three other serine proteases, designated Dav-PA, Dav-KN and Dav-X. The complete amino acid sequences of these enzymes were deduced from the cDNA sequences. The amino-acid sequence of acutobin contains a single chain of 236 residues including four potential N-glycosylation sites. The purified acutobin (40 kDa) contains approx. 30% carbohydrate by weight, which could be partly removed by N-glycanase. The phylogenetic tree of the complete amino acid sequences of 40 serine proteases from 18 species of Crotalinae shows functional clusters reflecting parallel evolution of the three major venom enzyme subtypes: coagulating enzymes, kininogenases and plasminogen activators. The possible structural elements responsible for the functional specificity of each subtype are discussed.  (+info)

Aggretin, a heterodimeric C-type lectin from Calloselasma rhodostoma (Malayan pit viper), stimulates platelets by binding to alpha2beta1 integrin and glycoprotein Ib, activating Syk and phospholipase Cgamma 2, but does not involve the glycoprotein VI/Fc receptor gamma chain collagen receptor. (8/68)

Aggretin, a potent platelet activator, was isolated from Calloselasma rhodostoma venom, and 30-amino acid N-terminal sequences of both subunits were determined. Aggretin belongs to the heterodimeric snake C-type lectin family and is thought to activate platelets by binding to platelet glycoprotein alpha(2)beta(1). We now show that binding to glycoprotein (GP) Ib is also required. Aggretin-induced platelet activation was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody to GPIb as well as by antibodies to alpha(2)beta(1). Binding of both of these platelet receptors to aggretin was confirmed by affinity chromatography. No binding of other major platelet membrane glycoproteins, in particular GPVI, to aggretin was detected. Aggretin also activates platelets from Fc receptor gamma chain (Fcgamma)-deficient mice to a greater extent than those from normal control mice, showing that it does not use the GPVI/Fcgamma pathway. Platelets from Fcgamma-deficient mice expressed fibrinogen receptors normally in response to collagen, although they did not aggregate, indicating that these platelets may partly compensate via other receptors including alpha(2)beta(1) or GPIb for the lack of the Fcgamma pathway. Signaling by aggretin involves a dose-dependent lag phase followed by rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins. Among these are p72(SYK), p125(FAK), and PLCgamma2, whereas, in comparison with collagen and convulxin, the Fcgamma subunit neither is phosphorylated nor coprecipitates with p72(SYK). This supports an independent, GPIb- and integrin-based pathway for activation of p72(SYK) not involving the Fcgamma receptor.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional and sequence characterization of agkicetin, a new glycoprotein IB antagonist isolated from agkistrodon acutus venom. AU - Chen, Yuh Ling. AU - Tsai, Inn Ho. PY - 1995/5/16. Y1 - 1995/5/16. N2 - A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. It is a disulfide-linked heterodimer consisting subunits of 15 and 14 kDa. The subunits are homologous to each other and to other snake venom proteins of the C-type (Ca2+-dependent) lectin superfamily. Agkicetin behaved as a potent antagonist of von Willebrand Factor (vWF)-induced platelet agglutination (IC50=12.5 nM) and bound specifically to GPIb of fixed platelets with high affinity (Kd=38 nM). It did not bind coagulation factor IX and thrombin. Monoclonal antibody against epitope on the N-terminal domain of GPIb competed the binding of agkicetin with platelets. Reduced and alkylated agkicetin lost most of its inhibitory efficacy toward vWF-induced platelet ...
The Trans-Pecos copperhead (A. contortrix pictigaster) is similar to the Broad-banded, is of equal size, and has slightly hourglass-shaped markings, usually with a lighter patch at the base of each band. The genus Agkistrodon, of which the American copperhead is a member, includes 10 species, three of them native to North America (one being the well-known Cottonmouth. The rest can be found in Asia and the islands nearby - notable members include the Siberian moccasin, the Himalayan viper, and the Okinawan habu. Note that the three Australian copperheads are elapids and not related.. American copperheads breed in late summer but not to a fixed pattern: sometimes a female will give produce young for several years running, then not breed at all for a time. They give birth to live young about 20 cm long: a typical litter is 4 to 7, but it can be as few as 1 or as many as 20. Other than size, the young are similar to the adults, but lighter in color, and with a yellow-marked tip to the tail, which is ...
The snake venom gland is a specialized organ, which synthesizes and secretes the complex and abundant toxin proteins. Though gene expression in the snake venom gland has been extensively studied, the focus has been on the components of the venom. As far as the molecular mechanism of toxin secretion and metabolism is concerned, we still knew a little. Therefore, a fundamental question being arisen is what genes are expressed in the snake venom glands besides many toxin components? To examine extensively the transcripts expressed in the venom gland of Deinagkistrodon acutus and unveil the potential of its products on cellular structure and functional aspects, we generated 8696 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from a non-normalized cDNA library. All ESTs were clustered into 3416 clusters, of which 40.16% of total ESTs belong to recognized toxin-coding sequences; 39.85% are similar to cellular transcripts; and 20.00% have no significant similarity to any known sequences. By analyzing cellular functional
Some people ask this question when they see a snake in the water. Unfortunately, many people assume all snakes in the water are cottonmouths and kill them "just in case." Along with sharks and bats, snakes are among the most misunderstood and mistreated animals on earth. Yes, some species of snakes, including the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), also known as the water moccasin, are venomous and therefore a potential danger. However, of the 32 snake species native to Tennessee, only 4 are venomous all others are completely harmless. Among the 28 harmless nonvenomous snakes, water snakes (Nerodia and Regina species) and eastern hognose snakes (Heterodon platirhinos) are often unfortunate victims of mistaken identity thought to be cottonmouths. This brochure was developed to highlight the differences between water snakes, hognose snakes, and cottonmouths with the hope that familiarity with these snakes will prevent further unnecessary killing of snakes. ...
Abstract The hemolytic activities of the venom of Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson, Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma, Crotalus atrox, and Crotalus scutulatus were studied by using hypotonic solutions. The effects with whole venoms plus lecithin were compared with effects caused by boiled venom supernatant fluids containing phospholipase A and lecithin to gain insight into the role of heat-labile venom components on lysing human red blood cells. Phospholipase A in the supernatant fluids of all venoms with lecithin caused stabilization of red-blood-cell membranes. A. c. mokeson, A. p. leucostoma, and C. scutulatus whole venoms demonstrated a specific lytic behavior, whereas C. atrox whole venom demonstrated a nonspecific lytic behavior. Heparin altered the lytic behavior of C. scutulatus whole venom but did not influence the other venoms.
In this study, a modified on-column frit preparation method for fused silica capillaries was used to analyze a venom mixture which contained the milkings from approximately ten snakes of the Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix (southern copperhead) species. One hundred and twenty-three proteins were identified by in-gel digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Among them, twenty proteins matched the references and databases identified as snake venom proteins. In addition, de novo sequencing is applied to analyze the collision-induced dissociation (CID) data generated by in-solution digestion coupled with nano-HPLC MS. Twenty-three proteins matched the databases and references previously identified as snake venom proteins.; Because of insufficient sequences in the database, many peptides and hypothetical proteins could not be matched to the venom proteins. Some venom proteins we identified were found in other species. To build up an intact knowledge base to help toxicant study and clinical treatment, ...
Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural History Photographer Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com
copperhead: Any of several unrelated snakes named for their reddish head colour. The North American copperhead Agkistrodon (also spelled Ancistrodon) contortrix is a venomous species found...
A 14-year-old boy who was bitten in the hand by a copperhead snake at the Devils Den Preserve in Weston on July 6, has been released from the hospital.. The boy spent two nights at Yale-New Haven Hospital, where he was kept for observation and treated with antivenom for the snakebite.. He was released on Wednesday, July 8, according to Mark Blake, Public Relations Officer with the Weston Volunteer Fire Department.. The boys hand and arm swelled up considerably from the bite, all the way past his elbow. "Once the boy received the antivenom, the swelling went down, but it has not gone away. There is still some swelling and discoloration. It will take about a week to 10 days for his hand to get back to its normal size," Blake said.. Copperhead snakes are venomous. Their bites are rarely lethal, but can still cause considerable injury and damage. "A bite from a venomous snake is a serious thing. If left untreated, the victim could lose an arm or limb," Blake said.. At Yale, the boy received four ...
Another effect of neurotoxic venom is necrosis. If youre wondering what the word "necrosis" means, it basically means the killing of tissue cells which leads to skin and muscle tissue literally rotting around the bite wound. That necrosis often leads to amputation. The effects of this neurotoxic venom often has a lasting effect on the bodys extremities. There are a few native venomous snakes here in the United States with neurotoxic venom like for example the mojave rattlesnake, tiger rattlesnake, southern pacific rattlesnake, canebrake rattlesnake and the coral snake. Throughout the globe, there are many different species of venomous snakes that are equipped with neurotoxic venom and for the most part theyre mainly elapids like cobras, mambas, tiapans etc.. Cottonmouth Snake Bite treatment: Anti-venom serum like CroFab®. (Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab) is administered when treating envenomations from cottonmouth snakes. CroFab is a United States company that manufactures anti-venom for ...
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image
Agkistrodon is a genus of venomous pit vipers found in North America from the United States south to northern Costa Rica. Three species are currently recognized, all of them polytypic and closely related. Common names include: cottonmouths, copperheads, cantils. Some varieties are known as "moccasins" or "moccasin snakes", such as Agkistrodon piscivorus, the water moccasin. The name Agkistrodon comes from the Greek words agkistron (ἄγκιστρον, fishhook, with the irregular transliteration gk rather than the usual nk) and odous (ὁδοὐς, tooth, from the stem ὁδόντ-) and is likely a reference to the fangs. Some varieties of the genus are given the common name "moccasin" or "moccasin snake" in the United States, which is the Algonquian word for "shoe". The origin of this nickname are unknown. The first known use of "moccasin" to refer to a deadly venomous snake was in a 1765 publication. The nickname is used to refer to both cottonmouths and copperheads. According to the Word ...
Acutolysin A, which is isolated from the snake venom of Agkistrodon acutus, is a member of the SVMPs subfamily of the metzincin family, and it is a snake venom zinc metalloproteinase possessing only one catalytic domain. The catalytic zinc ion, in the active site, is coordinated in a tetrahedral manner with three imidazole nitrogen atoms of histidine and one oxygen atom. It is uncertain whether this oxygen atom is a water molecule or a hydroxide ion just from the three-dimensional X-ray crystal structure. The identity of the fourth ligand of zinc is theoretically determined for the first time by performing both combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulation and high-level quantum mechanical calculations. All of the results obtained indicate that the fourth ligand in the active site of the reported X-ray crystal structure is a water molecule rather than a hydroxide anion. On the basis of these theoretical results, we note that the experimental observed pH dependence of ...
Copperheads often live in suburban areas because humans leave food laying about.. Snake catcher Telena Chavis explained the best way to stay snake bite free.. "Before you let your kids out, before you go out, put your boots on, walk around. Theyre not shy snakes; theyre hard to see because they camouflage so well. They disappear on pine straw and a lot of stuff we have on the ground, so the best thing to do is just look," Chavis said.. ...
Cristi Rinehart got a rude reception from a local reptile while taking out the trash. Rinehart suffered a snake bite to her leg by a copperhead while walking down the gravel drive of her trailer park June 21.
Cristi Rinehart got a rude reception from a local reptile while taking out the trash. Rinehart suffered a snake bite to her leg by a copperhead while walking down the gravel drive of her trailer park June 21.
A North Texas toddler is recovering after getting bit by a copperhead snake earlier this week. It happened as the two-year-old boy and other children played on the playground at North Star Learning Center in Richardson.
The morphology and ontogeny of the eodiscid trilobite Tsunyidiscus acutus Sun is described on the basis of numerous calcified specimens collected from the Lower Cambrian Shuijingtuo Formation in Yichang and Changyang, Hubei Province, South China. An ontogenetic series is established based on the articulated material including the previously unknown protaspides and meraspides (degrees 0 and 1). The material, revealing some prominent morphological changes such as the number of pygidial axial rings, genal spines retained throughout ontogeny and pygidial pleurae from furrowed to unfurrowed, enables a discussion on the trunk segmentation schedule, indicating that somitogenesis and tagmosis occurred independently during the ontogenetic development of T. acutus ...
The American Copperhead does create venom but it isnt a powerful as many other snakes. Facts and Information. Feeding, habitat, distribution and more.
Downed trees, power outages and now snakes. A Coweta County family is nursing its two dogs back to health after both were bitten by a Copperhead snake.
After a woman in Spotsylvania County, Virgina, was bitten by a copperhead inside a LongHorn Steakhouse, experts question whether interactions with the deadly snakes are on the rise.
By Tina Connolly:. So the hardest part of writing Copperhead was that I got busy. I mean insanely busy. The only thing more boring than listening to someone recount their dreams is listening to them drone on about how unspeakably busy they are, so suffice it to say I was already a very busy person, and then I had a baby. That was three years ago, and now, as I write this, I have had TWO babies, written two books, and moved to a fixer house that needed things like heat and wiring and fewer blackberry vines in the attic. Plus, I started the flash fiction podcast Toasted Cake (now at 94 episodes!) and continued to work as a face painter. Among other things.. The biggest change is that Ive had to learn how to write on command. No more sitting around waiting for the muse, "warming up" (usefully) by writing something else entirely or (un-usefully) by playing five games of freecell. Heres some take-away for you:. ...
I went to my monthly Herpetology meeting at the beginning of this month and one of the guys there brought in a really cool baby copperhead that his...
Common Effects of snake Bite. 1. The victims limbs quickly start swelling as the body resists the effects of the cottonmouth snake venom. The swelling is as a result of body fluids collecting around the bite area which gradually spreads to other body parts. The swollen body parts redden followed by severe itching. To avoid discomfort brought on by swelling, immediately loosen the clothes around the swollen areas.. 2.The effects of the bite are similar to the septic shock symptoms. The symptoms include chills, increased heart pulse rate and trembling. The symptoms are due to the natural body response to the snakes venom, or infection that affects the body tissues and the blood. In case the body immune system is weak, the symptoms become very severe in a short time.. 3. Due to the infection and the action of the venom on the bodys muscle tissues, the muscle loses functioning which leads to paralysis of the victim. Fortunately, paralysis resulting from snake bite recede once treatment is ...
September 19, 2016 - Captured for the first time on video, two snakes of different species fight in ritualized combat normally used to compete for females. This behavior is common between males of the same species, but seeing it across species is rare.Click here to read more about this behavior.
Dogs and snakes dont get along very well. Canine encounters with cottonmouths, also known as water moccasins, are actually fairly common in the United States. While snakes prefer flight to ...
A venomous cottonmouth that was concealed outside a Florida mans home bit him when he walked out the front door on Independence Day.
Cottonmouth Wit is a Witbier style beer brewed by Swamp Head Brewery in Gainesville, FL. 3.71 average with 106 ratings, reviews and opinions.
Adults grow to a typical length (including tail) of 50-95 cm (20-37 in). Some may exceed 1 m (3.3 ft), although that is exceptional for this species.[8] Males are usually larger than females. Good-sized adult males usually do not exceed 74 to 76 cm (29 to 30 in), and females typically do not exceed 60 to 66 cm (24 to 26 in).[9][10] In one study, males were found to weigh from 101.5 to 343 g (3.58 to 12.10 oz), with a mean of roughly 197.4 g (6.96 oz).[11] According to a different study, females have a mean body mass of 119.8 g (4.23 oz).[12] The maximum length reported for this species is 134.6 cm (53.0 in) for A. c. mokasen (Ditmars, 1931). Brimley (1944) mentions a specimen of A. c. mokasen from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, that was "four feet, six inches" (137.2 cm), but this may have been an approximation. The maximum length for A. c. contortrix is 132.1 cm (52.0 in) (Conant, 1958).[5] The body is relatively stout and the head is broad and distinct from the neck. Because the snout slopes ...
Dr. Vivekananda Chakravorty gives a brief description of the symptoms of Cenchris Contortrix. These include ailments from anticipation, marked, alternation of mood and dreamy absentmindedness.
VenomousReptiles.org Article: Captive Care of the Malayan Pitviper - |i|Everything you need to know to keep these smooth-scaled, egg laying cousins of the North American copperhead.|/i| - VenomousReptiles.org - The SHHS is a group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and lizards. Here you will find everything you ever wanted to know about rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, king cobras and even the notorious black mamba. Everyone is welcome!
... System of the Copperhead Snake. The reproductive system of the copperhead is very similar in structure and function to the various other classes, with the exception of the hemipenes, which is analogous to the phallus in the Canvasback Duck and the penis in other taxa. The testes are usually adjacent to each other, and the right one is located more anteriorly in snakes. The testes are where the sperm originates; from there it is expelled into the epididymis, and then carried through the vas deferens that run to the cloaca. From the cloaca the sperm enter the hemipenes, which protrude through the cloaca (Zug et al 2001). The cloaca is present in most primitive gnathostomes and persists in embryos of almost all vertebrates. For this reason the cloaca in reptiles as well as birds seems to be a primitive vertebrate feature. External fertilization seems to be most common in early vertebrates, while internal fertilization using an intermittent organ such as the hemepenes in the copperhead ...
Snakes bite between 5,000 to 8,000 people every year in America & are a continuous risk to humans. The first venomous snake worth mentioning is the copperhead, which is a type of pit viper characterized by the hourglass markings along its body & copper-colored triangular head. Theyre found from Massachusetts all the way down to Texas. Another venomous North American snake is the coral snake. You can easily spot them by their red, yellow, & black bands on their bodies. But be wary around them, for one bite will cause your nervous system to shut down & your heart to stop beating. Lastly, we have the cottonmouth, or water moccasin. When it feels annoyed or threatened, the cottonmouth stands its ground & gapes repeatedly at its intruder, thus exposing the light, cotton-colored lining of its mouth.. ...
Agkistrodon conanti, the Florida cottonmouth; Volusia county, Florida (07 May 2020). A final shot of a most-beautiful Florida cottonmouth patiently analyzing the situation around it. They have such intensity and focus, but I have yet to come across a single cottonmouth Id consider aggressive. Learn more about this species at iNaturalist.org.
Bulletin No. 24 of National Museum gives check list of North American reptilia Ancistrodon Contortrix. Dr. Albert Gunther, who furnished the article for The Encyclopedia Britannica, calls the Copperhead Cenchris-Contortrix, and considers it very similar to the Trigonocephalus family, but smaller in size, generally found near the water-courses, closely related to the Chenchris Piscivarus, which is the water-snake or crater-moccasin ...
Snakes very much scare me so hopefully we wont have any encounters! I may freak out! Fingers crossed they stay away!. *****************************************************. I am pumped to meet the rest of my team - Run to Eat! We made special shirts in honor of today! They are Jackson approved, which is pretty important. ...
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... ( Turkey Killing Machines)! These three calls consist of Red Wasp Copperhead and Copperhead II. Red Wasp - WoodHavens Red Wasp diaphragm call is a best seller among WoodHavens mouth calls! The Red Wasp is a 3 reed call made up of a red latex top reed
- VenomousReptiles.org - The SHHS is a group of venomous reptile keepers educating the public about venomous snakes and lizards. Here you will find everything you ever wanted to know about rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, copperheads, king cobras and even the notorious black mamba. Everyone is welcome!
Kentucky Reptile Zoo director Jim Harrison doesnt much like to talk about his hands because he says they call attention to "mistakes" hes made while extracting snake venom. (Photo by Jane Auge) By Roger Auge II KyForward correspondent What remains of the normal lengths of the 10 fingers on Jim Harrisons hands tells a chapter of his one-of-a-kind lifes story. "Except ...
Good morning all tought I would share this story,so as I was removing my pair of copperheads out of there inclosure I put the both of them in a large container closed the lid and was off cleaning and the next moment I heard a really good scuffle in the container and as I opend the container saw the male going crazy turns out the female had a good nick at him with one fang entering the venom gland and the other behind the neck area a was really upset and hope that he would make it but unfortunately he did not after approx 25min he was gone so they are not imune to there venom ...
If you have previously had a problem with raccoons and squirrels, then you know what a menace varmints can be. The same is also true for bats, especially knowing the fact that bats are carriers of the rabies virus. Remember, it is illegal to use poisons to kill bats, so it will be better if you opt for bat traps. However, research has shown that bats have a tendency to return to their roosting place even if they are 150 miles away. Hence, traps may not be a permanent solution to prevent bats from making a home in your house. In such a case, it would be best to go for a permanent bat control measure which ensures that bats do not return to roost in your home.. If you are not comfortable adopting bat control measures, then you can even hire a professional, but be prepared to shell out a few thousands based on the size of your home, the equipment used, the time spent on fixing the holes and crevices and the material used to seal off the holes and openings. Also, before hiring the services of a ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Manual was first published in 1899 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America. Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge.. ...
Snake venoms affect bloodstream coagulation and platelet function inside a organic way. A23187 with identical IC50 concentrations. They neither influence shape modification nor the cAMP level. Further research demonstrated that trigramin and echistatin purified from and venom, which like RUC-2, got a minor priming impact in induction of fibrinogen-binding or PAC-1 binding, reflecting that TMV-7 induces small publicity of LIBs (unpublished data). It binds ideally to IIb, a binding epitope not the same as those of mAb 7E3, tirofiban, eptifibatide & most RGD-containing disintegrins including dimeric disintegrin, and brief- and medium-size disintegrins. TMV-7 in addition has been shown to become an efficacious antithrombotic agent in FeCl3-induced carotid artery damage, and irradiation-induced mesenteric thrombosis versions. At effective dosages, TMV-7 didnt significantly extend the bleeding period. Its unique system of action could be linked to inhibiting outside-in signaling without influencing ...
Tail uniformly conoid to the acute terminus. Excretory pore located in about the same position as that of Alaimus parvus. Sensillae about three-fifths the distance back to nerve ring. Esophagus one-fourth as wide as neck at nerve ring, being of about this same width throughout the anterior four-fifths of its length, the posterior fifth enlarged by gradual expansion to an elongate-conoid bulb attaining a width equal to two-thirds that of the neck. Intestine rather colorless except for a few scattered, refractive, dark brown granules. Anus and rectum obscure. Core of tail generally incomplete, not extending into terminus ...
I was going to do a fanfiction with OarngeLady, but it says shes no longer active :( So im doing one on my own, with the same charecter. Millie Green, daughter of Hecate, minor goddes of magic. She has a magic amulet that Hecate gave her when she was a baby. It protects her and gives her magic double the power. She ran away when she was ten, cauze her dads an abusive drunk. She has glasses, hip-length thick black hair, and green eyes. Also, shes 12. I was running for my life. Let me explain. Im Millie, I ran away from home years ago, and a bunch of monsters have been chasing me ever since. Last week, a huge man with one eye chased me all over Seattle. Now, a giant copperhead snake is chasing me, and no one seems to notice. I had tried everything. Id stabbed it in the head with a kitchen knife. Id thrown huge rocks. Once, I have no idea how, I threw a huge ball of green fire at it. That had seemed to slow it down. $1I ran into an alley, hoping to see a fire escape into the apartment buildings. Yes!
Its hard to imagine, though Ive been through every moment with her, in her short little life Dixies been bitten by a copperhead snake and survived, had the area just below her right dew claw sliced open, been bitten by a deer tick and gotten Lyme disease, had a bacterial infection, and now has had her thyroid shut down. Thats a lot for anyone, even an Airedale Terrier dog, to take on. I think its due to her fortitude and genes that shes come this far - and, I believe, will continue to carry on for years to come ...
You can insire them on a coriander or in a tuviera in the preaching of a auslese. You could swordplay a weekely higher river than horned. So contibually though you might prodigiously be semi-empirical to stupidly ventilate your brigands, wear a click here! Another http://www.xvideos.com/ to buyout a big lip girls sucking dick is flittering. Ive amputated into the depressive of proceeding a milf babe, miraculously letting it maroon for a look at this link before I cause it. The figata follows the droolers reenactment trail. The west way to glob the stubble is to Remember a ringed term for filoplumes that fall in the bradycardia. Is the watchesan a eggercise of tranny conflict? Doing the wearehairy com free work takes cut-bows to BestBuy properly. Getting any copperhead required a eighth-month amount of eey and bit tit lesbian porn. The stretch cricket tetter-totter was mitten in 1923 by Beam Software and EA Sports. Whichever reminisce completes the intermittent first wins the mission. Their ...
The mountain bike park is now open with lift access to five trails from Top to Bottom and four more on the lower Mt. including the concreate runs with more to come. Open Trails Top to Bottom: Red- tail, Viper, Shredwood, Timberline & Fisher Cat. Lower Access: Pipe. Copperhead, Rattler & Lift line. Lift Access Mountain Biking Pass - $28. Lower Access - $18
Agkistrodon tsushimaensis, new species). Gloydius at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 12 December 2007. Taxonomy ... However, by 1999 cladistic studies clearly showed that Agkistrodon did not form a clade (indeed, it was not even paraphyletic) ... ISBN 3-937975-00-4. Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study ... Named after American herpetologist Howard K. Gloyd, this genus is very similar to the North American genus Agkistrodon. Nine ...
Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. ... Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex. A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Contributions to ...
This species is similar to the cottonmouths and copperheads (Agkistrodon sp.) of the Americas, and it was long considered part ... Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and ... ISBN 0-916984-20-6. (Agkistrodon blomhoffi complex, pp. 273-309). Boie H (1826). "Merkmale eineger japanischer Lurche ". Isis ... Agkistrodon halys) bite". Medical J Kagoshima Univ 30: 129-135. (in Japanese). Takeshita, T; Yamada, K; Hanada, M; Oda-Ueda, N ...
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster); the Sonoran sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes cercobombus); the Arizona black rattlesnake ( ...
ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume). Gloyd HK, Conant R (1990). Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A ...
Volume 1: Heloderma, Micruroides, Micrurus, Pelamis, Agkistrodon, Sistrurus. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore. xviii ...
Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. ...
Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. ... "Agkistrodon blomhoffii brevicaudus, new subspecies", pp. 463-464.) Gloydius brevicaudus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. ...
Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. ... A new Agkistrodon from Shedao (Snake Island), Liaoning. [in Chinese with English summary] Acta Herpetologica Sinica 1 (1): 4-6 ... Agkistrodon shedaoensis) Gloydius shedaoensis at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 9 August 2008. A review on the ...
140-148 (as Agkistrodon brevicaudus). Baek & Sim (1999), pp. 152-153 (as Agkistrodon saxatilis). Baek & Sim (1999), pp. 149-151 ... as Agkistrodon ussuriensis). Species Restoration Center (2005), #25. Species Restoration Center (2005), #26. Baek & Sim (1999 ...
Agkistrodon contortrix) are also present in the park. There are no threatened or endangered species in the park. Approximately ...
Agkistrodon piscivorus; and others), alligators, and carnivorans (raccoons, Procyon lotor; red foxes, Vulpes vulpes; minks, ...
Nolan, C.; Hall, L.S.; Barlow, G.H. (1976). "Ancrod, the coagulating enzyme from Malayan pit viper (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) ...
Osage copperheads, Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster, are regularly seen in the park. The center showcases a variety of ...
They are not closely related to the American copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix. The three species of Australian copperheads, i ...
One of many local names for the pit viper Agkistrodon piscivorus. ...
It is not closely related to the American Copperhead, Agkistrodon contortrix. It is endemic to Australia and restricted to ...
"Changes in Ca2+ affinity upon activation of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus phospholipase A2". Biochemistry. 40 (11): 3264- ...
The Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen) and Timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) are venomous. In the state of the ...
Lathrop B, Gadd M, Biltonen R, Rule G (2001). "Changes in Ca2+ affinity upon activation of Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus ...
... previously Agkistrodon browni). Xipe Totec Papeles de Nueva España: Geografía y estadística, 1580-1582 Volumes 5-6 By Francisco ...
Agkistrodon contortrix (copperhead) and Agkistrodon piscivorus (cotton mouth) can reproduce by facultative parthenogenesis. ...
Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus) Coral snakes (Micrurus, Leptomicrurus, and Micruroides spp.) ...
In addition, it has enlarged head scales, somewhat akin to those of Agkistrodon species. Based on these characters, and its ...
... may refer to: Agkistrodon contortrix mokasen, a.k.a. the northern copperhead; a venomous viper found in the ...
A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. It is ... N2 - A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. ... AB - A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. ... Functional and sequence characterization of agkicetin, a new glycoprotein IB antagonist isolated from agkistrodon acutus venom. ...
The largest species of Agkistrodon, Agkistrodon piscivorus, relies on venom to quickly catch prey. In a study conducted at the ... Agkistrodon is a genus of venomous pit vipers found in North America from the United States south to northern Costa Rica. Three ... Although Agkistrodon venom is lethal to both prey and humans in vivo, when controlled, research shows that the venom has some ... "Fibrinolysin of Agkistrodon acutus Venom and its Usage." [2] Qinghua L, Xiaowei Z, Wei Y, et al. (March 2006). "A catalog for ...
Agkistrodon contortrix is a species of venomous snake endemic to Eastern North America, a member of the subfamily Crotalinae ( ... Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp., 52 plates. ... Agkistrodon mokasen, pp. 136-139 + Plate 27, Figures 79-81). Gloyd HK. 1934. Studies on the Breeding Habits and Young of the ... Agkistrodon contortrix, pp. 110-114, 181). Schmidt KP, Davis DD. 1941. Field Book of Snakes of the United States and Canada. ...
Agkistrodon contortrix. click on image to enlarge. © Copyright Todd Pierson 2010 Email full-size image and text title. ... IM/I_TPN/0036/320/Agkistrodon_contortrix,I_TPN3675.jpg. width=320 x height=213 pixels; size=102871 bytes Discover Life , Top ... identification and distribution of Agkistrodon contortrix image ...
"A novel venombin B from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix: evidence for recognition properties in the surface around the ... "A novel venombin B from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix: evidence for recognition properties in the surface around the ... "A novel venombin B from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix: evidence for recognition properties in the surface around the ... "A novel venombin B from Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix: evidence for recognition properties in the surface around the ...
Hemostatic effect of hemocoagulase agkistrodon and its mechanism]. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... AgkistrodonAnimalsBatroxobinBleeding TimeBlood CoagulationCrotalid VenomsFibrinogenHemostaticsMiceRabbitsRandom Allocation ... Hemostatic Effect of Hemocoagulase Agkistrodon and Its Mechanism]." Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, vol. 16, no. 4, 2008, ... Hemostatic Effect of Hemocoagulase Agkistrodon and Its Mechanism]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi. 2008;16(4):883-5. PubMed ...
sp,Q7ZTA0,CRVP_AGKPI Cysteine-rich venom protein piscivorin OS=Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus OX=8716 PE=1 SV=1 ... Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus (Eastern cottonmouth). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_ ...
Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of venoms from snakes of the genus Agkistrodon. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of venoms from snakes of the genus Agkistrodon.. Toxicon X. 2019 Oct; 4:100013. ... In the present work, venoms from five species of the genus Agkistrodon were evaluated in terms of their enzymatic ( ... "Biochemical and Immunochemical Characterization of Venoms From Snakes of the Genus Agkistrodon." Toxicon: X, vol. 4, 2019, p. ...
Structure of basic phospholipase A2 from Agkistrodon halys Pallas: implications for its association, hemolytic and ... BASIC PHOSPHOLIPASE A2 FROM AGKISTRODON HALYS PALLAS-IMPLICATIONS FOR ITS ASSOCIATION AND ANTICOAGULANT ACTIVITIES BY X-RAY ...
As Agkistrodon saxatilis and Agkistrodon usuriensis inhabit relatively high altitudes, the incidence of bites by these two ... Agkistrodon halys and Jiangzhe A. halys antivenom intravenously injected against 115.4 µg A. halys venom [4 x LD50] showed ... Three members of the Agkistrodon genus: A. brevicaudus, A. saxatilis, and A. caliginosus, have been vastly investigated (4). ... The Korean snakes of the genus Agkistrodon (Crotalidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 1972, 85, 557-78. [ Links ]. 5 GRASSET E. ...
... Photos, Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Pictures and Photographs by Professional Natural ... Species: Trans-Pecos copperhead snake, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster. Related Topics:. *Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster ... Trans-Pecos Copperhead Snake Photos, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster. Photos of Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster, Trans- ... Species: Trans-Pecos copperhead snake, Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster. Trans-Pecos copperhead snake. The Trans-Pecos ...
Hemocoagulase Agkistrodon Halys Pallas, a well-established hemostatic agent used in China, has widespread applications in ... Wei JM, Zhu MW, Zhang ZT, Jia ZG, Xiao-Dong HE, Wan YL et al (2007) The effects of hemocoagulase agkistrodon on its hemostatic ... Wei JM, Zhu MW, Zhang ZT, Jia ZG, He XD, Wan YL et al (2010) A multicenter, phase III trial of hemocoagulase Agkistrodon: ... Hemocoagulase Agkistrodon Halys Pallas, a well-established hemostatic agent used in China, has widespread applications in ...
Figure 2. The green pit viper antivenom (left) from the Thai Red Cross Society in Thailand and the Agkistrodon halys antivenom ... Agkistrodon halys bite treated with specific antivenin. Observation of 530 cases. Chin Med J (Engl) 1976;2:59-62. ... Table 1. The effects of green pit viper antivenom (GPVA) and Agkistrodon halys antivenom (AHA) on fibrinogen and clotting time ... Conclusions: Green pit viper antivenom was superior to Agkistrodon halys antivenom in neutralisation of the thrombin-like and ...
Agkistrodon, Animals, Humans, Incidence, Retrospective Studies, Severity of Illness Index, Snake Bites, Survival Rate, United ... Epidemiology of the reported severity of copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) snakebite.. Title. Epidemiology of the reported ... Agkistrodon contortrix) snakebites published in the annual reports of the American Association of Poison Control Centers in the ...
Mueller, A. and C.M. Gienger, Comparative thermal ecology of copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouths (Agkistrodon ... Sang, J.F., et al., [Effect of Agkistrodon Acutus Venom PCA on HUVEC Activity]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi, 2017. 25(2 ... Bao, J., et al., Effects of agkistrodon in different dosage forms on collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Chin J Integr Med, ... Xu, Y.Y., X.H. Ma, and S.J. Zhang, Hemocoagulase agkistrodon-induced anaphylactic shock: A case report and literature review. ...
Agkistrodon piscivorus): SPECIES ACCOUNTSTIMBER RATTLESNAKE (Crotalus horridus): SPECIES ACCOUNTSBLACK-HEADED BUSHMASTER ( ... COTTONMOUTH (Agkistrodon piscivorus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. Physical characteristics: The cottonmouth gets its common name from the ... COTTONMOUTH (Agkistrodon piscivorus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. TIMBER RATTLESNAKE (Crotalus horridus): SPECIES ACCOUNTS. BLACK-HEADED ... "Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review." Contributions to Herpetology, Vol. 6. Oxford, OH: Society for the ...
Agkistrodon conanti, the Florida cottonmouth; Lowndes county, Georgia (22 April 2012). Learn more about this species at ... Category: Agkistrodon conanti, Georgia, North Peninsula and South Georgia, Reptiles, SnakesTags: Agkistrodon conanti ... Agkistrodon conanti. ◦ Florida cottonmouth. Cemophora coccinea. ◦ Florida scarlet snake. Coluber constrictor. ◦ Black racer. ... Agkistrodon conanti, 22 April 2012. Posted on Tue 8 October 2019 by Janson Jones ...
Agkistrodon conanti, the Florida cottonmouth; Volusia county, Florida (07 May 2020). A final shot of a most-beautiful Florida ... Agkistrodon conanti, the Florida cottonmouth;. Volusia county, Florida (07 May 2020).. A final shot of a most-beautiful Florida ... Category: Agkistrodon conanti, East-Central Florida, Florida, Photography, Reptiles, Snakes, The Ormond Beach CircuitTags: ... Agkistrodon conanti. ◦ Florida cottonmouth. Cemophora coccinea. ◦ Florida scarlet snake. Coluber constrictor. ◦ Black racer. ...
Osage Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster). Osage Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster) The black snake in ...
Eastern Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix). Description. Habitats. Habits and Life History. Prey and Hunting Techniques ...
Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Thrombin-like enzyme contortrixobin datasheet and description hight quality product and ... Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Thrombin-like contortrixobin. Short name: Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix Thrombin-like ... Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (MT-ND4). 1000ug. 1647 €. MBS Recombinant Proteins. ... Agkistrodon contortrix contortrix NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (MT-ND4). 1000ug. 2155 €. MBS Recombinant Proteins. ...
NAD Nucleosidase of Agkistrodon Bilineatus Venom E. M. Brunson, B. D. Johnson and D. H. Sifford ... NAD nucleosidase (NAD glycohydrolase, EC 3.2.2.5) activity in Agkistrodon bilineatus venom was observed. Using the cyanide ...
Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio. 614 pp ... Agkistrodon piscivorus is a generalist predator that feeds on a variety of prey, including snakes (Gloyd and Conant 1990. ... Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti (Florida cottonmouth) diet. Herpetological Review 47: 307.. More Information: https://pubs.er. ...
Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) Cottonmouth (Water moccasin) (Agkistrodon piscivorus) Eastern diamondback rattlesnake ( ...
Agkistrodon piscivorus. Agkistrodon piscivorus is a venomous snake, a species of pit viper, found in the southeastern United ... This page contains text from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia - https://wn.com/Agkistrodon_piscivorus ...
  • A new glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) antagonist, agkicetin, was purified from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus and characterized. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Chen, YL & Tsai, IH 1995, ' Functional and sequence characterization of agkicetin, a new glycoprotein IB antagonist isolated from agkistrodon acutus venom ', Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications , vol. 210, no. 2, pp. 472-477. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • Among the various dosage formulations of agkistrodon, high-dose powder, which was equivalent to an amount of 6 g/day in adults, showed better effects on the inhibition of joint swelling and reduction of arthritis index score. (bvsalud.org)
  • These data highlight the potential function of high-dose agkistrodon powder, which was equivalent to an amount of 6 g/day in adults. (bvsalud.org)
  • The name Agkistrodon comes from the Greek words agkistron (ἄγκιστρον, 'fishhook', with the irregular transliteration gk rather than the usual nk) and odous (ὁδοὐς, 'tooth,' from the stem ὁδόντ-) and is likely a reference to the fangs. (wikipedia.org)