A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.
Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)
Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.
Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.
A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.
An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.
Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.
A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.
An inflammatory process with loss of supporting bone in the tissues surrounding functioning DENTAL IMPLANTS.
Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.
Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE. Members are nonmotile, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods or coccobacilli. Its members are X factor (HEMIN) independent and variably dependent on V factor (NAD).
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.
An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic pleomorphic rod-shaped often filamentous bacteria in the genus of AGGREGATIBACTER found in the oral cavity. It is associated with DENTAL PLAQUE; and BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)
Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.
A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to oral cavity and pharynx. It is associated with BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and MENINGITIS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family CARDIOBACTERIACEAE. It is found in the nasal flora of humans and causes ENDOCARDITIS.

Identification of a cytolethal distending toxin gene locus and features of a virulence-associated region in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (1/397)

A genetic locus for a cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) was identified in a polymorphic region of the chromosome of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a predominant oral pathogen. The locus was comprised of three open reading frames (ORFs) that had significant amino acid sequence similarity and more than 90% sequence identity to the cdtABC genes of some pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and Haemophilus ducreyi, respectively. Sonic extracts from recombinant E. coli, containing the A. actinomycetemcomitans ORFs, caused the distension and killing of Chinese hamster ovary cells characteristic of a CDT. Monoclonal antibodies made reactive with the CdtA, CdtB, and CdtC proteins of H. ducreyi recognized the corresponding gene products from the recombinant strain. CDT-like activities were no longer expressed by the recombinant strain when an OmegaKan-2 interposon was inserted into the cdtA and cdtB genes. Expression of the CDT-like activities in A. actinomycetemcomitans was strain specific. Naturally occurring expression-negative strains had large deletions within the region of the cdt locus. The cdtABC genes were flanked by an ORF (virulence plasmid protein), a partial ORF (integrase), and DNA sequences (bacteriophage integration site) characteristic of virulence-associated regions. These results provide evidence for a functional CDT in a human oral pathogen.  (+info)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans immunosuppressive protein is a member of the family of cytolethal distending toxins capable of causing a G2 arrest in human T cells. (2/397)

We have previously shown that Actinobacillus actinomycetecomitans produces an immunosuppressive factor (ISF) capable of impairing human lymphocyte function by perturbing cell cycle progression. We now report that ISF is the product of the cdtB gene, one of three genes encoding the family of cytolethal distending toxins (Cdt). The ISF polypeptide exhibits >/=95% identity with Hemophilus ducreyi CdtB protein and +info)

Identification and molecular analysis of rough-colony-specific outer membrane proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (3/397)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a gram-negative bacterium isolated from the human mouth, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of early-onset periodontitis. Primary isolates cultured from subgingival plaque exhibit an adherent, rough colony phenotype which spontaneously converts to a nonadherent, smooth phenotype upon in vitro subculture. The rough colony variant produces abundant fimbriae and autoaggregates, while the smooth colony variant is planktonic and produces scant fimbriae. To begin to understand the significance of colony variation in biofilm formation by A. actinomycetemcomitans, outer membrane protein profiles of four isogenic rough and smooth colony variants were compared by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two proteins with relative molecular masses of 43 and 20 kDa were expressed by the rough colony variants exclusively. Expression of these proteins was not found to be dependent on growth phase, oxygen tension, or type of complex medium. N-terminal amino acid sequences of these proteins obtained by Edman degradation were compared with sequences from the University of Oklahoma A. actinomycetemcomitans genome database. Two contiguous open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins having sequence homology with these proteins were identified. The 43-kDa protein (RcpA [rough colony protein A]) was similar to precursor protein D of the general secretion pathway of gram-negative bacilli, while the 20-kDa protein (RcpB [rough colony protein B]) appeared to be unique. The genes encoding these proteins have been cloned from A. actinomycetemcomitans 283 and sequenced. A BLASTX (gapped BLAST) search of the surrounding ORFs revealed homology with other fimbria-related proteins. These data suggest that the genes encoding the 43-kDa (rcpA) and 20-kDa (rcpB) proteins may be functionally related to each other and to genes that may encode fimbria-associated proteins.  (+info)

A novel NDP-6-deoxyhexosyl-4-ulose reductase in the pathway for the synthesis of thymidine diphosphate-D-fucose. (4/397)

The serotype-specific polysaccharide antigen of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 (serotype b) consists of D-fucose and L-rhamnose. Thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-D-fucose is the activated nucleotide sugar form of D-fucose, which has been identified as a constituent of structural polysaccharides in only a few bacteria. In this paper, we show that three dTDP-D-fucose synthetic enzymes are encoded by genes in the gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of serotype b-specific polysaccharide in A. actinomycetemcomitans. The first and second steps of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway are catalyzed by D-glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and dTDP-D-glucose 4,6-dehydratase, which are encoded by rmlA and rmlB in the gene cluster, respectively. These two reactions are common to the well studied dTDP-L-rhamnose synthetic pathway. However, the enzyme catalyzing the last step of the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway has never been reported. We identified the fcd gene encoding a dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase. After purifying the three enzymes, their enzymatic activities were analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis and gas-liquid chromatography analysis proved that the fcd gene product converts dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose to dTDP-D-fucose. Moreover, kinetic analysis of the enzyme indicated that the Km values for dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose and NADPH are 97.3 and 28.7 microM, respectively, and that the enzyme follows the sequential mechanism. This paper is the first report on the dTDP-D-fucose synthetic pathway and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxy-D-glucose reductase.  (+info)

Improved multiplex PCR using conserved and species-specific 16S rRNA gene primers for simultaneous detection of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. (5/397)

Among putative periodontal pathogens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis are most convincingly implicated as etiological agents in periodontitis. Therefore, techniques for detection of those three species would be of value. We previously published a description of a multiplex PCR that detects A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The present paper presents an improvement on that technique, which now allows more sensitive detection of all three periodontal pathogens. Sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis cells. Primer specificity was tested against (i) all gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database, (ii) six A. actinomycetemcomitans, one B. forsythus, and four P. gingivalis strains, (iii) eight different species of oral bacteria, and (iv) supra- and subgingival plaque samples from 20 healthy subjects and subgingival plaque samples from 10 patients with periodontitis. The multiplex PCR had a detection limit of 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans, 10 P. gingivalis, and 100 B. forsythus cells. Specificity was confirmed by the fact that (i) none of our forward primers were homologous to the 16S rRNA genes of other oral species, (ii) amplicons of predicted size were detected for all A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis strains tested, and (iii) no amplicons were detected for the eight other bacterial species. A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis were detected in 6 of 20, 1 of 20, and 11 of 20 of supragingival plaque samples, respectively, and 4 of 20, 7 of 20, and 13 of 20 of subgingival plaque samples, respectively, from periodontally healthy subjects. Among patients with periodontitis, the organisms were detected in 7 of 10, 10 of 10, and 7 of 10 samples, respectively. The simultaneous detection of three periodontal pathogens is an advantage of this technique over conventional PCR assays.  (+info)

Identification of genes coding for exported proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (6/397)

Random fusions of genomic DNA fragments to a partial gene encoding a signal sequence-deficient bacterial alkaline phosphatase were utilized to screen for exported proteins of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in Escherichia coli. Twenty-four PhoA(+) clones were isolated and sequenced. Membrane localization signals in the form of signal sequences were deduced from most of these sequences. Several of the deduced amino acid sequences were found to be homologous to known exported or membrane-associated proteins. The complete genes corresponding to two of these sequences were isolated from an A. actinomycetemcomitans lambda phage library. One gene was found to be homologous to the outer membrane lipoprotein LolB. The second gene product had homology with a Haemophilus influenzae protein and was localized to the inner membrane of A. actinomycetemcomitans.  (+info)

Microtubules are associated with intracellular movement and spread of the periodontopathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (7/397)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 465, the invasion prototype strain, enters epithelial cells by an actin-dependent mechanism, escapes from the host cell vacuole, and spreads intracellularly and to adjacent epithelial cells via intercellular protrusions. Internalized organisms also egress from host cells into the assay medium via protrusions that are associated with just a single epithelial cell. Here we demonstrate that agents which inhibit microtubule polymerization (e.g., colchicine) and those which stabilize polymerized microtubules (e.g., taxol) both increase markedly the number of intracellular A. actinomycetemcomitans organisms. Furthermore, both colchicine and taxol prevented the egression of A. actinomycetemcomitans from host cells into the assay medium. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that protrusions that mediate the bacterial spread contain microtubules. A. actinomycetemcomitans SUNY 465 and 652, strains that are both invasive and egressive, interacted specifically with the plus ends (growing ends) of the filaments of microtubule asters in a KB cell extract. By contrast, neither A. actinomycetemcomitans 523, a strain that is invasive but not egressive, nor Haemophilus aphrophilus, a noninvasive oral bacterium with characteristics similar to those of A. actinomycetemcomitans, bound to microtubules. Together these data suggest that microtubules function in the spread and movement of A. actinomycetemcomitans and provide the first evidence that host cell dispersion of an invasive bacterium may involve the usurption of host cell microtubules.  (+info)

Direct selection of IS903 transposon insertions by use of a broad-host-range vector: isolation of catalase-deficient mutants of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. (8/397)

Transposon mutagenesis in bacteria generally requires efficient delivery of a transposon suicide vector to allow the selection of relatively infrequent transposition events. We have developed an IS903-based transposon mutagenesis system for diverse gram-negative bacteria that is not limited by transfer efficiency. The transposon, IS903phikan, carries a cryptic kan gene, which can be expressed only after successful transposition. This allows the stable introduction of the transposon delivery vector into the host. Generation of insertion mutants is then limited only by the frequency of transposition. IS903phikan was placed on an IncQ plasmid vector with the transposase gene located outside the transposon and expressed from isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoters. After transposase induction, IS903phikan insertion mutants were readily selected in Escherichia coli by their resistance to kanamycin. We used IS903phikan to isolate three catalase-deficient mutants of the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from a library of random insertions. The mutants display increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, and all have IS903phikan insertions within an open reading frame whose predicted product is closely related to other bacterial catalases. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the catalase gene (designated katA) and flanking intergenic regions also revealed several occurrences of an 11-bp sequence that is closely related to the core DNA uptake signal sequence for natural transformation of Haemophilus influenzae. Our results demonstrate the utility of the IS903phikan mutagenesis system for the study of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Because IS903phikan is carried on a mobilizable, broad-host-range IncQ plasmid, this system is potentially useful in a variety of bacterial species.  (+info)

'Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Pasteurellaceae. It is facultatively anaerobic, meaning it can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen. This bacterium is commonly found as part of the oral microbiota in humans and is associated with periodontal diseases such as localized aggressive periodontitis. Additionally, it has been implicated in various extraoral infections, including endocarditis, meningitis, and septicemia, particularly in individuals with underlying medical conditions. The bacterium's virulence factors include leukotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin, and adhesins, which contribute to its pathogenicity.

Pasteurellaceae is a family of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic or aerobic, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract of animals and humans. Some members of this family can cause a variety of diseases in animals and humans, including pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia, and localized infections such as abscesses and cellulitis.

Some notable genera within Pasteurellaceae include:

* Pasteurella: includes several species that can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and soft tissue infections in animals and humans. The most common species is Pasteurella multocida, which is a major pathogen in animals and can also cause human infections associated with animal bites or scratches.
* Haemophilus: includes several species that are normal flora of the human respiratory tract and can cause respiratory tract infections, including bronchitis, pneumonia, and meningitis. The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which can cause severe invasive diseases such as meningitis and sepsis, particularly in young children.
* Mannheimia: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract of ruminants (such as cattle and sheep) and can cause pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections in these animals. The most common species is Mannheimia haemolytica, which is a major pathogen in cattle and can also cause human infections associated with animal contact.
* Actinobacillus: includes several species that are normal flora of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal tract of animals and can cause respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and localized infections in these animals. The most common species is Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, which causes a severe form of pneumonia in pigs.

Overall, Pasteurellaceae family members are important pathogens in both veterinary and human medicine, and their infections can range from mild to severe and life-threatening.

Pasteurellaceae infections refer to illnesses caused by bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae. This family includes several genera of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, with the most common pathogenic genus being Pasteurella. These bacteria are commonly found as normal flora in the upper respiratory tracts of animals, including pets like cats and dogs, and can be transmitted to humans through bites, scratches, or contact with contaminated fluids.

Pasteurellaceae infections can cause a range of clinical manifestations, depending on the specific species involved and the site of infection. Common Pasteurella species that cause human infections include P. multocida and P. pneumotropica. Infections caused by these bacteria often present as localized skin or soft tissue infections, such as cellulitis, abscesses, or wound infections, following animal contact.

In addition to skin and soft tissue infections, Pasteurellaceae can also cause respiratory tract infections (pneumonia, bronchitis), septicemia, and, rarely, meningitis or endocarditis. Immunocompromised individuals, those with chronic lung disease, or those who have alcohol use disorder are at increased risk for severe Pasteurellaceae infections.

Treatment typically involves antibiotics active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate, doxycycline, or fluoroquinolones. Prompt treatment is essential to prevent potential complications and the spread of infection.

Actinobacillus infections are caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Actinobacillus, which are gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, and non-motile rods. These bacteria can cause a variety of infections in humans and animals, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and septicemia.

The most common species that causes infection in humans is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, which is associated with periodontal disease, endocarditis, and soft tissue infections. Other species such as A. suis, A. lignieresii, and A. equuli can cause infections in animals and occasionally in humans, particularly those who have close contact with animals.

Symptoms of Actinobacillus infections depend on the site of infection and may include fever, chills, swelling, redness, pain, and purulent discharge. Diagnosis is typically made through culture and identification of the bacteria from clinical samples such as blood, wound secretions, or respiratory specimens. Treatment usually involves antibiotics that are effective against gram-negative bacteria, such as aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or third-generation cephalosporins. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of periodontal disease that affects the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. It is characterized by rapid destruction of the periodontal tissues and can result in significant tooth loss if left untreated.

Aggressive periodontitis typically affects younger individuals, often before the age of 30, and can progress rapidly, even in the absence of obvious dental plaque or calculus accumulation. It is often associated with a genetic predisposition and may cluster in families.

The disease is classified as localized or generalized based on the distribution of affected sites. Localized aggressive periodontitis typically affects no more than two teeth next to each other, while generalized aggressive periodontitis involves at least three or four teeth in different areas of the mouth.

In addition to genetic factors, other risk factors for aggressive periodontitis include smoking, diabetes, and hormonal changes. Treatment typically involves a combination of thorough dental cleanings, antibiotics, and sometimes surgical intervention to remove damaged tissue and promote healing. Regular maintenance care is essential to prevent recurrence and further progression of the disease.

According to the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, 'actinobacillus' is defined as:

"A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic rods (family Pasteurellaceae) that are parasites or commensals in animals and occasionally cause disease in humans. Some species produce a polysaccharide capsule."

In simpler terms, Actinobacillus is a type of bacteria that can be found in animals, including sometimes as normal flora in their mouths and throats. These bacteria can sometimes infect humans, usually through close contact with animals or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. Some species of Actinobacillus can produce a polysaccharide capsule, which can make them more resistant to the body's immune defenses and more difficult to treat with antibiotics.

It is worth noting that while some species of Actinobacillus can cause disease in humans, they are generally not considered major human pathogens. However, they can cause a variety of clinical syndromes, including respiratory tract infections, wound infections, and bacteremia (bloodstream infections). Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics that are active against gram-negative bacteria, such as amoxicillin/clavulanate or fluoroquinolones.

Exotoxins are a type of toxin that are produced and released by certain bacteria into their external environment, including the surrounding tissues or host's bloodstream. These toxins can cause damage to cells and tissues, and contribute to the symptoms and complications associated with bacterial infections.

Exotoxins are typically proteins, and they can have a variety of effects on host cells, depending on their specific structure and function. Some exotoxins act by disrupting the cell membrane, leading to cell lysis or death. Others interfere with intracellular signaling pathways, alter gene expression, or modify host immune responses.

Examples of bacterial infections that are associated with the production of exotoxins include:

* Botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum
* Diphtheria, caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Tetanus, caused by Clostridium tetani
* Pertussis (whooping cough), caused by Bordetella pertussis
* Food poisoning, caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus

Exotoxins can be highly potent and dangerous, and some have been developed as biological weapons. However, many exotoxins are also used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, such as botulinum toxin (Botox) for the treatment of wrinkles or dystonia.

Periodontitis is a severe form of gum disease that damages the soft tissue and destroys the bone supporting your teeth. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. It is caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. The body's immune system fights the bacterial infection, which causes an inflammatory response. If the inflammation continues for a long time, it can damage the tissues and bones that support the teeth.

The early stage of periodontitis is called gingivitis, which is characterized by red, swollen gums that bleed easily when brushed or flossed. When gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to periodontitis. In addition to plaque, other factors that increase the risk of developing periodontitis include smoking or using tobacco products, poor oral hygiene, diabetes, a weakened immune system, and genetic factors.

Regular dental checkups and good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing twice a day, flossing daily, and using an antimicrobial mouth rinse, can help prevent periodontitis. Treatment for periodontitis may include deep cleaning procedures, medications, or surgery in severe cases.

Chronic periodontitis is a type of gum disease that is characterized by the inflammation and infection of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. It is a slow-progressing condition that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, which can result in loose teeth or tooth loss if left untreated.

Chronic periodontitis is caused by the buildup of dental plaque and calculus (tartar) on the teeth, which harbor bacteria that release toxins that irritate and inflame the gums. Over time, this chronic inflammation can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues, including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The signs and symptoms of chronic periodontitis include:

* Red, swollen, or tender gums
* Bleeding gums during brushing or flossing
* Persistent bad breath (halitosis)
* Receding gums (exposure of the tooth root)
* Loose teeth or changes in bite alignment
* Deep periodontal pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums)

Risk factors for chronic periodontitis include poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, genetics, and certain medications. Treatment typically involves a thorough dental cleaning to remove plaque and calculus, followed by additional procedures such as scaling and root planing or surgery to eliminate infection and promote healing of the periodontal tissues. Good oral hygiene practices, regular dental checkups, and quitting smoking are essential for preventing chronic periodontitis and maintaining good oral health.

Gingiva is the medical term for the soft tissue that surrounds the teeth and forms the margin of the dental groove, also known as the gum. It extends from the mucogingival junction to the base of the cervical third of the tooth root. The gingiva plays a crucial role in protecting and supporting the teeth and maintaining oral health by providing a barrier against microbial invasion and mechanical injury.

'Campylobacter rectus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause periodontal disease, an infection and inflammation of the tissues surrounding the teeth. It is normally found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontitis, a severe form of gum disease. The bacteria are microaerophilic, meaning they require reduced levels of oxygen to grow. Infection with 'Campylobacter rectus' can lead to tissue destruction, bone loss, and potentially systemic infections in individuals with weakened immune systems. Proper oral hygiene and dental care are important in preventing infection and controlling the spread of this bacterium.

A periodontal pocket is a pathological space or gap that develops between the tooth and the surrounding gum tissue (gingiva) as a result of periodontal disease. This condition is also known as a "periodontal depth" or "probing depth." It is measured in millimeters using a dental probe, and it indicates the level of attachment loss of the gingival tissue to the tooth.

In a healthy periodontium, the sulcus (the normal space between the tooth and gum) measures 1-3 mm in depth. However, when there is inflammation due to bacterial accumulation, the gums may become red, swollen, and bleed easily. As the disease progresses, the sulcus deepens, forming a periodontal pocket, which can extend deeper than 3 mm.

Periodontal pockets provide an environment that is conducive to the growth of harmful bacteria, leading to further tissue destruction and bone loss around the tooth. If left untreated, periodontal disease can result in loose teeth and eventually tooth loss. Regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings are essential for maintaining healthy gums and preventing periodontal pockets from developing or worsening.

According to the American Academy of Periodontology, periodontal diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. These tissues include the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The primary cause of periodontal disease is bacterial plaque, a sticky film that constantly forms on our teeth.

There are two major stages of periodontal disease:

1. Gingivitis: This is the milder form of periodontal disease, characterized by inflammation of the gums (gingiva) without loss of attachment to the teeth. The gums may appear red, swollen, and bleed easily during brushing or flossing. At this stage, the damage can be reversed with proper dental care and improved oral hygiene.
2. Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can progress to periodontitis, a more severe form of periodontal disease. In periodontitis, the inflammation extends beyond the gums and affects the deeper periodontal tissues, leading to loss of bone support around the teeth. Pockets filled with infection-causing bacteria form between the teeth and gums, causing further damage and potential tooth loss if not treated promptly.

Risk factors for developing periodontal disease include poor oral hygiene, smoking or using smokeless tobacco, genetic predisposition, diabetes, hormonal changes (such as pregnancy or menopause), certain medications, and systemic diseases like AIDS or cancer. Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices are crucial for preventing periodontal disease and maintaining overall oral health.

Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that accumulates on the surface of the teeth, restorative materials, and prosthetic devices such as dentures. It is initiated when bacterial colonizers attach to the smooth surfaces of teeth through van der Waals forces and specific molecular adhesion mechanisms.

The microorganisms within the dental plaque produce extracellular polysaccharides that help to stabilize and strengthen the biofilm, making it resistant to removal by simple brushing or rinsing. Over time, if not regularly removed through oral hygiene practices such as brushing and flossing, dental plaque can mineralize and harden into tartar or calculus.

The bacteria in dental plaque can cause tooth decay (dental caries) by metabolizing sugars and producing acid that demineralizes the tooth enamel. Additionally, certain types of bacteria in dental plaque can cause periodontal disease, an inflammation of the gums that can lead to tissue damage and bone loss around the teeth. Regular professional dental cleanings and good oral hygiene practices are essential for preventing the buildup of dental plaque and maintaining good oral health.

Gingival hemorrhage is the medical term for bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It refers to the condition where the gums bleed, often as a result of trauma or injury, but also can be caused by various systemic conditions such as disorders of coagulation, leukemia, or scurvy.

Gingival hemorrhage is commonly seen in individuals with poor oral hygiene and periodontal disease, which can cause inflammation and damage to the gums. This can lead to increased susceptibility to bleeding, even during routine activities such as brushing or flossing. It's important to address any underlying causes of gingival hemorrhage to prevent further complications.

Treponema denticola is a gram-negative, spiral-shaped bacterium that belongs to the genus Treponema. It is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal diseases such as chronic periodontitis. T. denticola is one of the "red complex" bacteria, which also includes Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia, that are strongly associated with periodontal disease. These bacteria form a complex biofilm in the subgingival area and contribute to the breakdown of the periodontal tissues, leading to pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

T. denticola has several virulence factors, including lipopolysaccharides (LPS), proteases, fimbriae, and endotoxins, that allow it to evade the host's immune system and cause tissue damage. It can also modulate the host's immune response, leading to a chronic inflammatory state that contributes to the progression of periodontal disease.

In addition to its role in periodontal disease, T. denticola has been linked to several systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis. However, more research is needed to fully understand the relationship between T. denticola and these conditions.

"Fusobacterium nucleatum" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and plays a significant role in periodontal disease. It has also been implicated in various extraintestinal infections, including septicemia, brain abscesses, and lung and liver infections. This bacterium is known to have a variety of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenicity, such as the ability to adhere to and invade host cells, produce biofilms, and evade the immune response. It has been linked to several systemic diseases, including colorectal cancer, where it may promote tumor growth and progression through various mechanisms.

Prevotella intermedia is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity, upper respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. It is a normal resident of the human microbiota but can also be an opportunistic pathogen, causing various types of infections such as periodontitis, endocarditis, and brain abscesses. P. intermedia has been associated with several diseases, including respiratory tract infections, bacteremia, and joint infections. It is often found in mixed infections with other anaerobic bacteria. Proper identification of this organism is important for the selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy.

"Porphyromonas gingivalis" is a gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the oral cavity and is associated with periodontal disease. It is a major pathogen in chronic periodontitis, which is a severe form of gum disease that can lead to destruction of the tissues supporting the teeth, including the gums, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone.

The bacterium produces several virulence factors, such as proteases and endotoxins, which contribute to its pathogenicity. It has been shown to evade the host's immune response and cause tissue destruction through various mechanisms, including inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases.

P. gingivalis has also been linked to several systemic diseases, such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease, although the exact mechanisms of these associations are not fully understood. Effective oral hygiene practices, including regular brushing, flossing, and professional dental cleanings, can help prevent the overgrowth of P. gingivalis and reduce the risk of periodontal disease.

Dental devices for home care are products designed for use by individuals or their caregivers in a home setting to maintain oral hygiene, manage dental health issues, and promote overall oral health. These devices can include:

1. Toothbrushes: Manual, electric, or battery-operated toothbrushes used to clean teeth and remove plaque and food debris.
2. Dental floss: A thin string used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
3. Interdental brushes: Small brushes designed to clean between the teeth and around dental appliances, such as braces or implants.
4. Water flossers/oral irrigators: Devices that use a stream of water to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
5. Tongue scrapers: Tools used to clean the tongue's surface, removing bacteria and reducing bad breath.
6. Rubber tips/gum stimulators: Devices used to massage and stimulate the gums, promoting blood circulation and helping to maintain gum health.
7. Dental picks/sticks: Pointed tools used to remove food particles and plaque from between the teeth and under the gum line.
8. Mouthguards: Protective devices worn over the teeth to prevent damage from grinding, clenching, or sports-related injuries.
9. Night guards: Similar to mouthguards, these are designed to protect the teeth from damage caused by nighttime teeth grinding (bruxism).
10. Dental retainers: Devices used to maintain the alignment of teeth after orthodontic treatment.
11. Whitening trays and strips: At-home products used to whiten teeth by applying a bleaching agent to the tooth surface.
12. Fluoride mouth rinses: Anticavity rinses containing fluoride, which help strengthen tooth enamel and prevent decay.
13. Oral pain relievers: Topical gels or creams used to alleviate oral pain, such as canker sores or denture irritation.

Proper use of these dental devices, along with regular dental check-ups and professional cleanings, can help maintain good oral health and prevent dental issues.

Bacterial load refers to the total number or concentration of bacteria present in a given sample, tissue, or body fluid. It is a measure used to quantify the amount of bacterial infection or colonization in a particular area. The bacterial load can be expressed as colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter (ml), gram (g), or other units of measurement depending on the sample type. High bacterial loads are often associated with more severe infections and increased inflammation.

Biofilms are defined as complex communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that adhere to surfaces and are enclosed in a matrix made up of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS matrix is composed of polysaccharides, proteins, DNA, and other molecules that provide structural support and protection to the microorganisms within.

Biofilms can form on both living and non-living surfaces, including medical devices, implants, and biological tissues. They are resistant to antibiotics, disinfectants, and host immune responses, making them difficult to eradicate and a significant cause of persistent infections. Biofilms have been implicated in a wide range of medical conditions, including chronic wounds, urinary tract infections, middle ear infections, and device-related infections.

The formation of biofilms typically involves several stages, including initial attachment, microcolony formation, maturation, and dispersion. Understanding the mechanisms underlying biofilm formation and development is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat biofilm-associated infections.

The periodontium is a complex structure in the oral cavity that surrounds and supports the teeth. It consists of four main components:
1. Gingiva (gums): The pink, soft tissue that covers the crown of the tooth and extends down to the neck of the tooth, where it meets the cementum.
2. Cementum: A specialized, calcified tissue that covers the root of the tooth and provides a surface for the periodontal ligament fibers to attach.
3. Periodontal ligament (PDL): A highly vascular and cell-rich connective tissue that attaches the cementum of the tooth root to the alveolar bone, allowing for tooth mobility and absorption of forces during chewing.
4. Alveolar bone: The portion of the jawbone that contains the sockets (alveoli) for the teeth. It is a spongy bone with a rich blood supply that responds to mechanical stresses from biting and chewing, undergoing remodeling throughout life.

Periodontal diseases, such as gingivitis and periodontitis, affect the health and integrity of the periodontium, leading to inflammation, bleeding, pocket formation, bone loss, and ultimately tooth loss if left untreated.

Peri-implantitis is a medical term used to describe the inflammatory condition that affects the soft and hard tissues surrounding dental implants, leading to their progressive loss. It's characterized by an infection that causes inflammation in the gums and potentially in the bone around the implant.

The primary cause of peri-implantitis is bacterial biofilm accumulation, similar to what leads to periodontal disease around natural teeth. Other factors contributing to its development can include poor oral hygiene, smoking, diabetes, and genetic predisposition.

Symptoms may include redness, swelling, bleeding, and pus formation in the gums around the implant, as well as pain, mobility, or even loss of the affected dental implant if left untreated. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition but often involve mechanical debridement, antibiotic therapy, and possible surgical intervention to regenerate lost tissue.

Alveolar bone loss refers to the breakdown and resorption of the alveolar process of the jawbone, which is the part of the jaw that contains the sockets of the teeth. This type of bone loss is often caused by periodontal disease, a chronic inflammation of the gums and surrounding tissues that can lead to the destruction of the structures that support the teeth.

In advanced stages of periodontal disease, the alveolar bone can become severely damaged or destroyed, leading to tooth loss. Alveolar bone loss can also occur as a result of other conditions, such as osteoporosis, trauma, or tumors. Dental X-rays and other imaging techniques are often used to diagnose and monitor alveolar bone loss. Treatment may include deep cleaning of the teeth and gums, medications, surgery, or tooth extraction in severe cases.

Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease (periodontal disease) that causes irritation, redness, swelling and bleeding of the gingiva, or gums. It's important to note that it is reversible with good oral hygiene and professional dental treatment. If left untreated, however, gingivitis can progress to a more severe form of gum disease known as periodontitis, which can result in tissue damage and eventual tooth loss.

Gingivitis is most commonly caused by the buildup of plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on our teeth. When not removed regularly through brushing and flossing, this plaque can harden into tartar, which is more difficult to remove and contributes to gum inflammation. Other factors like hormonal changes, poor nutrition, certain medications, smoking or a weakened immune system may also increase the risk of developing gingivitis.

'Aggregatibacter' is a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are part of the normal flora in the human mouth and respiratory tract. Some species of Aggregatibacter can cause infections, particularly in the mouth and throat, as well as in the brain, heart, and other parts of the body. These infections can include abscesses, endocarditis, meningitis, and pneumonia.

The name 'Aggregatibacter' comes from the Latin word "aggregatus," which means "to gather together or collect." This is a reference to the fact that these bacteria are often found in clusters or aggregates.

It's important to note that Aggregatibacter species can be difficult to distinguish from other related genera, such as Haemophilus and Actinobacillus, based on traditional biochemical tests alone. Therefore, molecular methods such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing are often used to confirm the identification of these bacteria in clinical laboratories.

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

Streptococcus gordonii is a species of gram-positive, non-spore forming, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the viridans group of streptococci. It is part of the normal flora in the oral cavity and is commonly found on the teeth and mucous membranes.

S. gordonii is a commensal organism, meaning it usually exists harmoniously with its human host without causing harm. However, under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is compromised or there is damage to the oral tissues, S. gordonii can cause infections. It has been implicated in dental caries (cavities), endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), and other invasive infections.

Like other streptococci, S. gordonii is a coccus-shaped bacterium that tends to occur in pairs or chains. It is catalase-negative, which means it does not produce the enzyme catalase, and it ferments various sugars to produce acid as a byproduct. These characteristics help distinguish S. gordonii from other types of bacteria.

It's important to note that maintaining good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing and flossing regularly, can help prevent the overgrowth of S. gordonii and reduce the risk of dental caries and other infections.

The Periodontal Index (PI) is not a current or widely used medical/dental term. However, in the past, it was used to describe a method for assessing and measuring the severity of periodontal disease, also known as gum disease.

Developed by Henry H. Klein and colleagues in 1978, the Periodontal Index was a scoring system that evaluated four parameters: gingival inflammation, gingival bleeding, calculus (tartar) presence, and periodontal pocket depths. The scores for each parameter ranged from 0 to 3, with higher scores indicating worse periodontal health. The overall PI score was the sum of the individual parameter scores, ranging from 0 to 12.

However, due to its limited ability to predict future disease progression and the introduction of more comprehensive assessment methods like the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE), the use of the Periodontal Index has become less common in dental practice and research.

The dental plaque index (DPI) is a clinical measurement used in dentistry to assess the amount of dental plaque accumulation on a person's teeth. It was first introduced by Silness and Löe in 1964 as a method to standardize the assessment of oral hygiene and the effectiveness of oral hygiene interventions.

The DPI is based on a visual examination of the amount of plaque present on four surfaces of the teeth, including the buccal (cheek-facing) and lingual (tongue-facing) surfaces of both upper and lower first molars and upper and lower incisors. The examiner assigns a score from 0 to 3 for each surface, with higher scores indicating greater plaque accumulation:

* Score 0: No plaque detected, even after probing the area with a dental explorer.
* Score 1: Plaque detected by visual examination and/or probing but is not visible when the area is gently dried with air.
* Score 2: Moderate accumulation of soft deposits that are visible upon visual examination before air drying, but which can be removed by scraping with a dental explorer.
* Score 3: Abundant soft matter, visible upon visual examination before air drying and not easily removable with a dental explorer.

The DPI is calculated as the average score of all surfaces examined, providing an overall measure of plaque accumulation in the mouth. It can be used to monitor changes in oral hygiene over time or to evaluate the effectiveness of different oral hygiene interventions. However, it should be noted that the DPI has limitations and may not accurately reflect the presence of bacterial biofilms or the risk of dental caries and gum disease.

Bacterial adhesins are proteins or structures on the surface of bacterial cells that allow them to attach to other cells or surfaces. This ability to adhere to host tissues is an important first step in the process of bacterial infection and colonization. Adhesins can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, such as proteins or sugars, enabling the bacteria to establish a close relationship with the host and evade immune responses.

There are several types of bacterial adhesins, including fimbriae, pili, and non-fimbrial adhesins. Fimbriae and pili are thin, hair-like structures that extend from the bacterial surface and can bind to a variety of host cell receptors. Non-fimbrial adhesins are proteins that are directly embedded in the bacterial cell wall and can also mediate attachment to host cells.

Bacterial adhesins play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal infections. Understanding the mechanisms of bacterial adhesion is important for developing new strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections.

'Aggregatibacter segnis' is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal oral flora in humans. It can sometimes cause infections, particularly in immunocompromised individuals or those with underlying medical conditions. These infections can include abscesses, endocarditis, and respiratory tract infections. The name 'segnis' refers to the slow growth of this bacterium in culture.

It is important to note that while Aggregatibacter segnis can cause infections, it is relatively uncommon compared to other oral bacteria. Proper dental hygiene and regular dental check-ups can help prevent infections caused by oral bacteria.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is defined as the serum transudate or inflammatory exudate that flows from the gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket. It is a physiological fluid found in the narrow space between the tooth and the surrounding gum tissue, which deepens during periodontal disease. The analysis of GCF has been used as a non-invasive method to assess the status of periodontal health and disease since it contains various markers of inflammation, host response, and bacterial products.

Periodontal attachment loss (PAL) is a clinical measurement in dentistry that refers to the amount of connective tissue attachment between the tooth and its surrounding supportive structures (including the gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone) that has been lost due to periodontal disease. It is typically expressed in millimeters and represents the distance from the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), which is the point where the tooth's crown meets the root, to the bottom of the periodontal pocket.

Periodontal pockets are formed when the gums detach from the tooth due to inflammation and infection caused by bacterial biofilms accumulating on the teeth. As the disease progresses, more and more of the supporting structures are destroyed, leading to increased pocket depths and attachment loss. This can eventually result in loose teeth and even tooth loss if left untreated.

Therefore, periodontal attachment loss is an important indicator of the severity and progression of periodontal disease, and its measurement helps dental professionals assess the effectiveness of treatment interventions and monitor disease status over time.

'Aggregatibacter aphrophilus' is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is part of the normal flora in the human mouth. However, it can cause infections in other parts of the body, such as the brain, heart, and lungs, when it enters the bloodstream through procedures like dental work or invasive medical treatments. These infections are often associated with underlying conditions, such as valvular heart disease or recent surgery. The bacterium is difficult to culture and identify, which can make diagnosing and treating infections caused by 'Aggregatibacter aphrophilus' challenging.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Bacteroides are a genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are normally present in the human gastrointestinal tract. They are part of the normal gut microbiota and play an important role in breaking down complex carbohydrates and other substances in the gut. However, some species of Bacteroides can cause opportunistic infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or when they spread to other parts of the body. They are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, making infections caused by these bacteria difficult to treat.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found as part of the normal microbiota of the human respiratory tract. However, some species can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions.

The most well-known species is Haemophilus influenzae, which was originally identified as a cause of influenza (hence the name), but it is now known that not all strains of H. influenzae cause this disease. In fact, the majority of H. influenzae infections are caused by strains that produce a polysaccharide capsule, which makes them more virulent and able to evade the host's immune system.

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was once a major cause of serious bacterial infections in children, including meningitis, pneumonia, and epiglottitis. However, since the introduction of vaccines against Hib in the 1980s, the incidence of these infections has decreased dramatically.

Other Haemophilus species that can cause human infections include Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Haemophilus ducreyi (which causes chancroid), and Haemophilus aphrophilus (which can cause endocarditis).

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Gram-negative bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the Gram staining method, a standard technique used in microbiology to classify and identify different types of bacteria based on their structural differences. This method was developed by Hans Christian Gram in 1884.

The primary characteristic distinguishing Gram-negative bacteria from Gram-positive bacteria is the composition and structure of their cell walls:

1. Cell wall: Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan layer, making it more susceptible to damage and less rigid compared to Gram-positive bacteria.
2. Outer membrane: They possess an additional outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are endotoxins that can trigger strong immune responses in humans and animals. The outer membrane also contains proteins, known as porins, which form channels for the passage of molecules into and out of the cell.
3. Periplasm: Between the inner and outer membranes lies a compartment called the periplasm, where various enzymes and other molecules are located.

Some examples of Gram-negative bacteria include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., and Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria are often associated with various infections, such as urinary tract infections, pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Due to their complex cell wall structure, Gram-negative bacteria can be more resistant to certain antibiotics, making them a significant concern in healthcare settings.

A bacterial genome is the complete set of genetic material, including both DNA and RNA, found within a single bacterium. It contains all the hereditary information necessary for the bacterium to grow, reproduce, and survive in its environment. The bacterial genome typically includes circular chromosomes, as well as plasmids, which are smaller, circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes. These genes encode various functional elements such as enzymes, structural proteins, and regulatory sequences that determine the bacterium's characteristics and behavior.

Bacterial genomes vary widely in size, ranging from around 130 kilobases (kb) in Mycoplasma genitalium to over 14 megabases (Mb) in Sorangium cellulosum. The complete sequencing and analysis of bacterial genomes have provided valuable insights into the biology, evolution, and pathogenicity of bacteria, enabling researchers to better understand their roles in various diseases and potential applications in biotechnology.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Haemophilus somnus (also known as Histophilus somni) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary, but it is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause various diseases in animals, particularly in cattle. It is part of the Haemophilus genus and Pasteurellaceae family.

H. somnus can lead to respiratory illnesses, reproductive disorders (such as infertility, abortions, and stillbirths), and systemic infections like sepsis or joint inflammation (arthritis). The bacterium is often found in the upper respiratory tract of healthy cattle, but it can become pathogenic under stressful conditions or when the animal's immune system is weakened.

While Haemophilus somnus primarily affects animals and not humans, there have been rare cases where people working closely with infected animals (such as veterinarians, farmers, or slaughterhouse workers) may develop infections due to exposure. However, this is uncommon, and H. somnus does not typically pose a significant risk to human health.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

'Cardiobacterium' is a genus of Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are part of the normal flora found in the respiratory and upper gastrointestinal tracts of humans. One species within this genus, Cardiobacterium hominis, is known to cause infective endocarditis, which is an infection of the inner layer of the heart. This bacterium is often found in the mouth and can enter the bloodstream through dental procedures or other sources of trauma to the mouth or gums. Infection with Cardiobacterium hominis typically occurs in people with underlying heart conditions and can be difficult to diagnose due to its slow growth and fastidious nature. Treatment usually involves long-term antibiotic therapy.

nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, nonmotile bacterium that is often found in ... Type strain of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short ... Haubek D (September 2010). "The highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: evolutionary aspects, ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans • Aim toothpaste • Akers' clasp • Alberta Dental Association and College • Alfred Fones ...
found in the mouth (e.g. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans). These are a cause of aggressive juvenile periodontitis. ... Bhattacharjee, MK; Childs (June 2011). "Sensitivity of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at mildly ... Other capnophilic pathogens occur in the gram-negative Aggregatibacter spp. ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and E. coli. That is, they are toxic to leukocytes as well as many other cell types and ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Prevotella intermedia Eubacterium spp. Treponema spp. Porphyromonas gingivalis ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Klinger, 1912) Nørskov-Lauritsen and Kilian, 2006 - family Pasteurellaceae. A Gram- ... nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Henderson B, Ward JM, Ready D (October 2010). "Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* ... Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. ...
Various studies have associated Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, formerly known as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, ... As well as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans being associated with this, the synergism of the disease also accounts for ... High levels of Aggregatibacter (or Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans and, in some populations, Porphyromonas gingivalis. ... This is due to the suppression of serum IgG2 and antibody against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans found in smokers. ...
The in vivo Th17 and Treg immune response to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Mol Oral Microbiol 2017;32:490-99. Junka A ... "The in vivo Th17 and Treg immune responses to Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans". Sedghizadeh, Parish P.; Chen, Meng-Tse; ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative coccobacillus prevalent in subgingival plaques. Acinetobacter strains ...
JA01 is conserved only among A. actinomycetemcomitans. JA02 is present in both A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. multocida. JA 03 ... sequence were identified by bioinformatics analysis in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans HK1651 called JA01-JA04. The ... "Novel iron-regulated and Fur-regulated small regulatory RNAs in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans". Molecular Oral ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been identified as being of note in periodontal disease.[citation needed] The genus ... The genus Actinomyces comprises the following species: "A. actinomycetemcomitans" Iinuma et al. 1994 "A. bouchesdurhonensis" ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram negative coccobacillus which is prevalent in subgingival plaques. Acinetobacter ...
Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. Nov., comb. Nov., ... Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. Nov. And Aggregatibacter segnis comb. Nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Aggregatibacter is a genus in the phylum Pseudomonadota (Bacteria), which contains three species, namely: A. ... actinomycetemcomitans (Klinger 1912) Nørskov-Lauritsen and Kilian 2006, (type species of the genus); (from Greek noun aktis, ...
Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. nov., ... Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Aggregatibacter segnis is a species of bacteria. A. segnis can be cultured on chocolate agar. Norskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M. ( ... and clinical significance of Haemophilus and Aggregatibacter species with host specificity for humans". Clinical Microbiology ...
Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. nov., ... Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Aggregatibacter aphrophilus is a species of bacteria. It is one of the HACEK organisms. Norskov-Lauritsen N, Kilian M. (2006 ... "Aggregatibacter aphrophilus". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved March 21, 2022. "HACEK ...
Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. nov., ... Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... A. actinomycetemcomitans occurs in the human oral microflora, and together with anaerobic or capnophilic organisms (HACEK group ... An analysis of A. actinomycetemcomitans indicated it was monophyletic with Haemophilus aphrophilus and H. segnis, and they were ...
The retainment of viability despite a dam gene knockout is also seen in Salmonella and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. ... A knockout of the dam gene in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans resulted in dysregulated levels of the protein, leukotoxin ... "Inactivation of DNA adenine methyltransferase alters virulence factors in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". Oral ...
Research in 2004 indicated three gram negative anaerobic species: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas ...
Slots is responsible for discovering the role of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus ... "Comparison of Two Selective Media for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans." J Clin Microbiol 1986;24:636-638. Fryman A, ... actinomycetemcomitans) in aggressive periodontitis, previously known as juvenile periodontitis. In 1982, Slots developed ...
... is produced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, a Gram-negative oral bacterium, when it needs to detach and ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The bacteria secrete Dispersin B to release adherent cells from a mature biofilm colony ... A. actinomycetemcomitans forms asymmetric biofilm lobed colonies that release single cells or small clusters of bacterial cells ... Kaplan JB, Ragunath C, Ramasubbu N, Fine DH (August 2003). "Detachment of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans biofilm cells by ...
... is a type of agar plate medium used in microbiological testing to select for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.). It ... "Comparison of Two Selective Media for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Archived 2023-08-12 at the Wayback Machine." J Clin ... Slots, J. "Selective medium for isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans." J Clin Microbiol 1982;15:606-609. ( ...
Haemophilus parahaemolyticus Haemophilus parainfluenzae Aggregatibacter Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously ... Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) Aggregatibacter aphrophilus (previously Haemophilus aphrophilus) Aggregatibacter ... However, taxonomic rearrangements have changed the A to Aggregatibacter species and the H to Haemophilus species to reflect the ... HACEK is an abbreviation of the initials of the genera of this group of bacteria: Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter (previously ...
Actinobacteria spp Actinomyces naeslundii Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Anaerococcus spp Atopobium vaginae Bacteroides ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; the latter functional defects were improved by treating the ...
Medically important CDT producers include: Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroids) Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ( ...
H+ The enzyme from bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans participates in the biosynthesis of the serotype c-specific ... diphosphate-6-deoxy-L-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase synthesizing dTDP-6-deoxy-L-talose from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans". ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Porphyromonas gingivalis Tannerella forsythia (formerly Bacteroides forsythus) Treponema ...
nov., Aggregatibacter aphrophilus comb. nov. and Aggregatibacter segnis comb. nov., and emended description of Aggregatibacter ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, nonmotile bacterium that is often found in ... Type strain of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short ... Haubek D (September 2010). "The highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: evolutionary aspects, ...
This study examined the genome arrangement of A. actinomycetemcomitans using the genome sequences of serotypes a-c strains. The ... However, genome rearrangement did not disrupt the operons of the A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. A higher proportion of the ... Individual clonal types of A. actinomycetemcomitans may exhibit variable virulence and different patterns of disease ... actinomycetemcomitans. The distinct patterns of genome arrangement may suggest phenotypic differences between serotype a and ...
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Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans D7S-1. organism-specific. BioCyc. GOLD: Go0006666. organism-specific. Genomes On Line ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans D7S-1. Taxonomy ID: 694569 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid694569). ... 2540341078: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans sv. A D7S-1. organism-specific. Integrated Microbial Genomes. ... Genome sequence of a naturally competent Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype a strain D7S-1. J. Bacteriol. (2010) ...
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... and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Peptostreptococci, Prevotella species, Bacteroides species Amoxicillin 500 mg PO TID ... Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. See the list below:. * Amoxicillin 500 mg PO TID for 10d plus ... and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. [3] Peptostreptococci, Prevotella species, Bacteroides species. See the list below: ... Slots J, Ting M. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human periodontal disease: occurrence and ...
... actinomycetemcomitans dan P. gingivalis. Metode: Penelitian in vitro dengan post-test-only control design pada Laboratorium ... actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis growth. Green tea extract could increase cefadroxil antibacterial effect up to twice ... actinomycetemcomitans dan P. gingivalis. Ekstrak teh hijau dapat meningkatkan efek sefadroksil hingga dua kali lipat. ... Objective: To examine the antibacterial effect of GTE combined with cefadroxil on A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis ...
Prevalence; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Prevotella intermedia; Age groups. · Portugués · ... FERNANDES, Camila Borges et al. Prevalence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, on different groups, with and without ... We observed that the newborns allocated A. actinomycetemcomitans alone (2.56%). On children with 6-13 years old population we ...
Orally Administered Probiotics Decrease Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans but Not Other Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria ... Orally Administered Probiotics Decrease Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans but Not Other Periodontal Pathogenic Bacteria ...
... followed by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) (66.67%; 28 of 42), ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / genetics * Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / isolation & purification * Carotid ...
The aim of the study was to test the effect of Nupharidine on neutrophil function against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ... Nupharidine enhances Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans clearance by priming neutrophils and augmenting their effector ...
Aa, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis; Td, Treponema denticola; Tf, Tannerella forsythia; Pi ... Dm, male dogs; Df, female dogs; Hm, men; Hf, women; Aa, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis; Td ... Dm, male dogs; Df, female dogs; Hm, men; Hf, women; Aa, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans; Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis; Td ... Schacher B, Baron F, Rossberg M, Wohlfeil M, Arndt R, Eickholz P. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans as indicator for ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella spp., and Kingella kingae) is a rare cause of IE, ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and Kingella kingae, are identified by ...
Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Exposure to Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans before Symptom Onset and the ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies, leukotoxin A, rheumatoid arthritis National ... Here, we investigate the association between exposure to the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) ... Exposure to Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans before Symptom Onset and the Risk of Evolving to Rheumatoid Arthritis. ...
Also, there are many other candidates as human periodontal pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. were not detected in any of the specimens [42]. Actinomyces canis. and Corynebacterium ... Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. , Prevotella intermedia. , Prevotella nigrescens. , Fusobacterium nucleatum. , ... Also, there are many other candidates as human periodontal pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, ...
Sustained mitogen‐activated protein kinase activation with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans causes inflammatory bone loss ...
The propensity to cause IE ranged from 62 in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to 6% in Eikenella. Risk factors for IE were ... The propensity to cause IE ranged from 62 in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to 6% in Eikenella. Risk factors for IE were ... IE is common in bacteremia with Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, and Kingella but relatively rare in Haemophilus and Eikenella ... IE is common in bacteremia with Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, and Kingella but relatively rare in Haemophilus and Eikenella ...
... was investigated for its antibacterial activity against the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, ...
Pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analysis of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, ...
... or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans may bring about an aspiration of bacterial foci from the oral cavity into the lungs, ... There is also a group of organisms called the HACEK group, which consists of Haemophilus species, Aggregatibacter species, ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. *HACEK. Legionellales. *Legionella pneumophila/Legionella longbeachae *Legionnaires ...
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans 31% * Porphyromonas gingivalis 28% 25 被引用数 (Scopus) ...
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. B04 - Viruses. Simian virus 5. Parainfluenza Virus ...
Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. B04 - Viruses. Simian virus 5. Parainfluenza Virus ...
Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans With Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis(. opens in new tab/window. ). ...
Endocarditis due to Aggregatibacter (formerly: Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, a bacterium that grows in characteristic ... Signaling transduction analysis in gingival epithelial cells after infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Mol ... Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, [10] Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and ...
Endocarditis due to Aggregatibacter (formerly: Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, a bacterium that grows in characteristic ... Signaling transduction analysis in gingival epithelial cells after infection with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Mol ... Aggregatibacter (formerly Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, [10] Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, and ...
  • Slots J, Ting M. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis in human periodontal disease: occurrence and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The present cross-sectional study aimed to verify the prevalence of three periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, on different groups, with and without teeth. (bvsalud.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid calcium (II) disodium salt (Ca (II)-EDTA) was investigated for its antibacterial activity against the periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. (scirp.org)
  • Colonizing organisms include Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Eikenella corrodens , and many gram-negative bacilli. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It was reclassified as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans by Topley & Wilson (1929) and as Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans by Potts et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans: a triple A* periodontopathogen? (wikipedia.org)
  • Reclassification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Haemophilus aphrophilus, Haemophilus paraphrophilus and Haemophilus segnis as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans gen. nov., comb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly always part of a mixed infection, especially with flora such as Aggregatibacter (ex Actinobacillus ) actinomycetemcomitans , Eikenella corrodens , Bacteroides spp , S. aureus , Streptococcus spp . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • endocarditis (The "A" of HACEK is Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, now known as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Cardiobacterium hominis , Eikenella corrodens , and Kingella kingae , are identified by positive blood cultures. (cdc.gov)
  • The propensity to cause IE ranged from 62 in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to 6% in Eikenella. (lu.se)
  • IE is common in bacteremia with Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, and Kingella but relatively rare in Haemophilus and Eikenella. (lu.se)
  • Recent studies have shown a phylogenetic similarity of A. actinomycetemcomitans and Haemophilus aphrophilus, H. paraphrophilus, and H. segnis, suggesting the new genus Aggregatibacter for them. (wikipedia.org)
  • They consist of several species, such as Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , and are collectively called dental plaque bacteria (DPB). (holisticdentistry.news)
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobe, nonmotile bacterium that is often found in association with localized aggressive periodontitis, a severe infection of the periodontium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gram-negative species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a major etiologic agent of human periodontitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that carolacton acts also on S. gordonii, S. oralis and the periodontitis pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, causing elongated cells and growth inhibition. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • MG1655 and RbsB of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ) as queries revealed that 17 thermophilic bacteria from phyla Deinococcus- Thermus and Firmicutes possess complete AI-2 system (LuxS and LsrB and/or RbsB). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest a significant evolutionary divergence between serotype a strains and serotypes b/c strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the assessment of antibody to A. actinomycetemcomitans, a mixed suspension of three strains (ATCC#43718, #29523 and #33384) was used (A. actinomycemtecomitans mix) as well as individual preparations from A. actinomycemtecomitans serotype a (ATCC strain #29523) and serotype b (ATCC strain #43718, Y4). (cdc.gov)
  • Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui efek antibakteri kombinasi ekstrak Camellia sinensis dengan sefadroksil terhadap pertumbuhan A. actinomycetemcomitans dan P. gingivalis. (trisakti.ac.id)
  • Kesimpulan: Terjadi efek potensiasi kombinasi sefadroksil 8 μg/mL dengan ekstrak teh hijau 3,125 mg/mL dan 6,25 mg/mL terhadap pertumbuhan A. actinomycetemcomitans dan P. gingivalis. (trisakti.ac.id)
  • Objective: To examine the antibacterial effect of GTE combined with cefadroxil on A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis growth. (trisakti.ac.id)
  • Conclusion: Potentiation effect occurred on combination of cefadroxil 8 μg/mL with GTE 3,125 mg/mL and 6,25 mg/mL against A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis growth. (trisakti.ac.id)
  • This study examined the genome arrangement of A. actinomycetemcomitans using the genome sequences of serotypes a-c strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, genome rearrangement did not disrupt the operons of the A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to test the effect of Nupharidine on neutrophil function against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , JP2 clone (Aa-JP2). (bvsalud.org)
  • Less frequently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is associated with nonoral infections such as endocarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haplotype block rs1057028 was also significantly associated with pathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, increased GCF-IL-1β levels, and extent of probing depth ≥4 mm (P ≤0.05). (nih.gov)
  • On the other hands, only two of the seven pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus anginosus, were more abundant in saliva from cancer patients. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Overall, the researchers determined that an increased prevalence of Streptococcus anginosus and Tannerella forsythia in dental plaque and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in saliva, and also alcohol consumption, were associated with a high risk of esophageal cancer. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 2. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Leukotoxin (LtxA) Requires Death Receptor Fas, in Addition to LFA-1, To Trigger Cell Death in T Lymphocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 20. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxin utilizes a cholesterol recognition/amino acid consensus site for membrane association. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to analyse associations between Interleukin-6 (IL6) single nucleotide polymorphisms and presence and levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and other subgingival microbes in a rural Indian population. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic factors have recently been associated with presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans subgingivally in populations living in industrialized countries. (nih.gov)
  • The IL6-74 GG genotype was associated with high (above median) counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans (both in all subjects and in periodontally healthy only) and with presence and counts of Capnocytophaga sputigena. (nih.gov)