Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to dental surfaces. It is associated with PERIODONTITIS; BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and ACTINOMYCOSIS.Pasteurellaceae: A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.Pasteurellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family PASTEURELLACEAE.Actinobacillus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOBACILLUS.Aggressive Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is characterized by rapid attachment loss and bone destruction in the presence of little local factors such as DENTAL PLAQUE and DENTAL CALCULUS. This highly destructive form of periodontitis often occurs in young people and was called early-onset periodontitis, but this disease also appears in old people.Aggregatibacter segnis: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic pleomorphic rod-shaped often filamentous bacteria in the genus of AGGREGATIBACTER found in the oral cavity. It is associated with DENTAL PLAQUE; and BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS.Aggregatibacter aphrophilus: A species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic spherical or rod-shaped bacteria indigenous to oral cavity and pharynx. It is associated with BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; and MENINGITIS.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Aggregatibacter: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE. Members are nonmotile, Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rods or coccobacilli. Its members are X factor (HEMIN) independent and variably dependent on V factor (NAD).Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Chronic Periodontitis: Chronic inflammation and loss of PERIODONTIUM that is associated with the amount of DENTAL PLAQUE or DENTAL CALCULUS present. Chronic periodontitis occurs mostly in adults and was called adult periodontitis, but this disease can appear in young people.Campylobacter rectus: A species of CAMPYLOBACTER isolated from cases of human PERIODONTITIS. It is a microaerophile, capable of respiring with OXYGEN.Periodontal Pocket: An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment and bone resorption.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Gingival Hemorrhage: The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.Treponema denticola: A species of bacteria in the family SPIROCHAETACEAE, frequently isolated from periodontal pockets (PERIODONTAL POCKET).Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Fusobacterium nucleatum: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the gingival margin and sulcus and from infections of the upper respiratory tract and pleural cavity.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Actinobacillus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE described as gram-negative, nonsporeforming, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Most members are found both as pathogens and commensal organisms in the respiratory, alimentary, and genital tracts of animals.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Cardiobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family CARDIOBACTERIACEAE. It is found in the nasal flora of humans and causes ENDOCARDITIS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Peri-Implantitis: An inflammatory process with loss of supporting bone in the tissues surrounding functioning DENTAL IMPLANTS.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Alveolar Bone Loss: Resorption or wasting of the tooth-supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS) in the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Haemophilus somnus: A species of gram-negative bacteria (currently incertae sedis) causing multisystem disease in CATTLE.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Periodontal Attachment Loss: Loss or destruction of periodontal tissue caused by periodontitis or other destructive periodontal diseases or by injury during instrumentation. Attachment refers to the periodontal ligament which attaches to the alveolar bone. It has been hypothesized that treatment of the underlying periodontal disease and the seeding of periodontal ligament cells enable the creating of new attachment.Gingival Crevicular Fluid: A fluid occurring in minute amounts in the gingival crevice, believed by some authorities to be an inflammatory exudate and by others to cleanse material from the crevice, containing sticky plasma proteins which improve adhesions of the epithelial attachment, have antimicrobial properties, and exert antibody activity. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.

Phenotypic variation in Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans during laboratory growth: implications for virulence. (1/6)

This study examined alteration of specific virulence traits associated with phenotypic changes seen when a low-passage disease-associated and well maintained parent strain of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was compared to a laboratory-grown spontaneous variant/mutant. Clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans recovered from periodontitis patients typically grow as rough, adherent colonies on primary culture but undergo transformation to smooth, non-adherent colonies following repeated passage in vitro. The relationship of these phenotypic changes to the virulence of the organism or to the processes that underlie this transformation are not understood. A fresh clinical isolate, designated strain CU1000, was obtained from the first molar site of a patient with classical signs of localized juvenile periodontitis and used as the parent strain to study virulence-related phenotypes. Following several passages of CU1000 on selective agar, a spontaneous variant that demonstrated smooth, opaque, non-adherent colonies was isolated and designated strain CU1060. This study compared the properties of these two strains with respect to colony morphology, autoaggregation, surface appendages, adherence to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (SHA), LPS chemotype and activity, induction of fibroblast proteinase activity and antigenic properties. CU1000 demonstrated rough, raised, star-positive colonies which upon electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of large, flexible, bundled fibrils. In addition, CU1000 showed adherence to SHA, several unique protein antigens and elevated endotoxin and fibroblast proteinase activity. CU1060, on the other hand, showed minimal adherence to SHA and fewer reactive proteins compared to the fresh clinical isolates. This strain formed smooth, opaque colonies on agar, showed minimal fibril formation and limited endotoxin and fibroblast-proteinase-inducing activity. These findings demonstrate that clinical isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans undergo significant virulence-reducing phenotypic alterations during in vitro passage and support the need to study this organism in its clinical form.  (+info)

Structural and genetic analyses of O polysaccharide from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype f. (2/6)

The oral bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is implicated as a causative agent of localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP). A. actinomycetemcomitans is classified into five serotypes (a to e) corresponding to five structurally and antigenically distinct O polysaccharide (O-PS) components of their respective lipopolysaccharide molecules. Serotype b has been reported to be the dominant serotype isolated from LJP patients. We determined the lipopolysaccharide O-PS structure from A. actinomycetemcomitans CU1000, a strain isolated from a 13-year-old African-American female with LJP which had previously been classified as serotype b. The O-PS of strain CU1000 consisted of a trisaccharide repeating unit composed of L-rhamnose and 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose (molar ratio, 2:1) with the structure -->2)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-3)-2-O-(beta-D-GalpNAc)-alpha-L-Rhap-(1-->* O-PS from strain CU1000 was structurally and antigenically distinct from the O-PS molecules of the five known A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. Strain CU1000 was mutagenized with transposon IS903phikan, and three mutants that were deficient in O-PS synthesis were isolated. All three transposon insertions mapped to a single 1-kb region on the chromosome. The DNA sequence of a 13.1-kb region surrounding these transposon insertions contained a cluster of 14 open reading frames that was homologous to gene clusters responsible for the synthesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b, c, and e O-PS antigens. The CU1000 gene cluster contained two genes that were not present in serotype-specific O-PS antigen clusters of the other five known A. actinomycetemcomitans serotypes. These data indicate that strain CU1000 should be assigned to a new A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype, designated serotype f. A PCR assay using serotype-specific PCR primers showed that 3 out of 20 LJP patients surveyed (15%) harbored A. actinomycetemcomitans strains carrying the serotype f gene cluster. The finding of an A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype showing serological cross-reactivity with anti-serotype b-specific antiserum suggests that a reevaluation of strains previously classified as serotype b may be warranted.  (+info)

Tight-adherence genes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans are required for virulence in a rat model. (3/6)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that has been associated with localized aggressive periodontitis and infections of the heart, brain, and urinary tract. Wild-type clinical isolates have the remarkable ability to adhere tenaciously and nonspecifically to solid surfaces such as glass, plastic, and hydroxyapatite. Adherence by A. actinomycetemcomitans is mediated by the tight-adherence (tad) gene locus, which consists of 14 genes (flp-1-flp-2-tadV-rcpCAB-tadZABCDEFG). All but 2 of the genes have been shown to be required for the secretion and assembly of long, bundled Flp1 fibrils. To test whether the tad locus is required for colonization and disease, we developed a rat model for periodontal disease. To mimic the natural route of infection, Sprague-Dawley rats were inoculated orally by adding bacteria directly to their food for 8 days. After inoculation with wild-type or mutant strains defective in adherence (flp-1 and tadA), the rats were assessed for colonization of the oral cavity and pathogenesis. Wild-type A. actinomycetemcomitans was able to colonize and persist for at least 12 weeks in the oral cavity, elicit a humoral immune response, and cause significant bone loss in rats. In contrast, rats fed flp-1 or tadA mutant strains showed no bone loss and their immune responses were indistinguishable from those of the uninoculated controls. These results demonstrate the critical importance of the tad locus in the colonization and pathogenesis of A. actinomycetemcomitans.  (+info)

Novel surface structures are associated with the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to collagen. (4/6)

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative, facultative, anaerobic bacterium that colonizes the human oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract. This bacterium is strongly associated with localized aggressive periodontitis and adult periodontitis and is the causative agent for other serious systemic infections. Recently, we have identified a protein, EmaA (extracellular matrix protein adhesin A), that mediates the adhesion of A. actinomycetemcomitans to collagen. The conserved sequence and predicted secondary structure suggest that EmaA is an orthologue of the Yersinia enterocolitica adhesin YadA. Electron microscopy examinations of A. actinomycetemcomitans have identified antenna-like protrusions associated with the surface of the bacterium. These structures are absent on emaA mutant strains and can be restored by transformation of the mutant strain with emaA in trans. The loss of these structures is associated with a decrease in the binding of this bacterium to collagen. The antenna-like structures are composed of a long rod that terminates in an ellipsoidal head region. The analysis of these structures using image processing techniques has provided an initial estimate of the overall dimensions, which suggests that the appendages are oligomeric structures formed by either three or four subunits. Together, the data suggest that emaA is required for the expression of novel appendages on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans that mediate the adhesion of the bacterium to collagen.  (+info)

HACEK infective endocarditis: characteristics and outcomes from a large, multi-national cohort. (5/6)

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Epithelial cell invasion by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains from restriction fragment-length polymorphism groups associated with juvenile periodontitis or carrier status. (6/6)

The epithelial cell invasiveness of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans strains of different restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) groups associated with disease conversion and asymptomatic carrier status in localized juvenile periodontitis was examined. Twenty clinical isolates were studied for their ability to invade KB monolayers, using the quantitative gentamicin killing assay. Five isolates were found to be invasive, five were not invasive; and the other 10 did not invade better than an invasion negative control Haemophilus aphrophilus strain ATCC 19415. Using probe-specific DNA fingerprinting. 11 strains were assigned to RFLP group II (disease-associated); 4 to RFLP type XIII (carrier status associated); and the other to groups III, IV, V and VII. Eight isolates, all RFLP group II, were leukotoxin producers as determined by PCR amplification of the lkt promoter region. No correlation was found between invasiveness and RFLP group. Leukotoxin production was more associated with noninvasive than invasive strains.  (+info)

  • Estudio descriptivo transversal, en el cual se analizaron 23 pacientes diabéticos derivados consecutivamente del Policlínico de Especialidades de la Universidad de los Andes . (bvsalud.org)