A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
Association of the aggrecan keratan sulfate-rich region with collagen in bovine articular cartilage. (1/821)Aggrecan, the predominant large proteoglycan of cartilage, is a multidomain macromolecule with each domain contributing specific functional properties. One of the domains contains the majority of the keratan sulfate (KS) chain substituents and a protein segment with a proline-rich hexapeptide repeat sequence. The function of this domain is unknown but the primary structure suggests a potential for binding to collagen fibrils. We have examined binding of aggrecan fragments encompassing the KS-rich region in a solid-phase assay. A moderate affinity (apparent Kd = 1.1 microM) for isolated collagen II, as well as collagen I, was demonstrated. Enzymatic digestion of the KS chains did not alter the capacity of the peptide to bind to collagen, whereas cleavage of the protein core abolished the interaction. The distribution of the aggrecan KS-rich region in bovine tarsometatarsal joint cartilage was investigated using immunoelectron microscopy. Immunoreactivity was relatively low in the superficial zone and higher in the intermediate and deep zones of the uncalcified cartilage. Within the pericellular and territorial matrix compartments the epitopes representing the aggrecan KS-rich region were detected preferentially near or at collagen fibrils. Along the fibrils, epitope reactivity was non-randomly distributed, showing preference for the gap region within the D-period. Our data suggest that collagen fibrils interact with the KS-rich regions of several aggrecan monomers aligned within a proteoglycan aggregate. The fibril could therefore serve as a backbone in at least some of the aggrecan complexes. (+info)
Fatty acids modulate the composition of extracellular matrix in cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells by altering the expression of genes for proteoglycan core proteins. (2/821)In diabetes-associated microangiopathies and atherosclerosis, there are alterations of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the intima of small and large arteries. High levels of circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) are present in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. High concentrations of NEFAs might alter the basement membrane composition of endothelial cells. In arteries, smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are the major producers of proteoglycans and glycoproteins in the intima, and this is the site of lipoprotein deposition and modification, key events in atherogenesis. We found that exposure of human arterial SMCs to 100-300 micromol/albumin-bound linoleic acid lowered their proliferation rate and altered cell morphology. SMCs expressed 2-10 times more mRNA for the core proteins of the proteoglycans versican, decorin, and syndecan 4 compared with control cells. There was no change in expression of fibronectin and perlecan. The decorin glycosaminoglycan chains increased in size after exposure to linoleic acid. The ECM produced by cells grown in the presence of linoleic acid bound 125I-labeled LDL more tightly than that of control cells. Darglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma ligand, neutralized the NEFA-mediated induction of the decorin gene. This suggests that some of the NEFA effects are mediated by PPAR-gamma. These actions of NEFAs, if present in vivo, could contribute to changes of the matrix of the arterial intima associated with micro- and macroangiopathies. (+info)
Immune responses to cartilage link protein and the G1 domain of proteoglycan aggrecan in patients with osteoarthritis. (3/821)OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with osteoarthritis (OA) express cellular immunity to cartilage link protein (LP) and the G1 globular domain of proteoglycan (PG) aggrecan, and whether immunity to the G1 domain is influenced by the removal of keratan sulfate (KS). METHODS: LP and the G1 globular domain of PG were isolated from human and/or bovine cartilage and used in proliferation assays with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from 42 patients with OA and 40 healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Patients with OA expressed a higher prevalence of cellular immunity to human cartilage LP (42.4%) compared with the control group (13.3%). The prevalence of immune reactivity to bovine LP in patients with OA was lower (35.7%) compared with the immunity to human LP, but remained similar in the control group (13.8%). PBL from patients with OA exhibited low reactivity to the native G1 domain of bovine PG. However, removal of KS chains from the G1 globular domain resulted in increased cellular immune responses to the G1 domain in OA patients (45.8%) compared with the control group (7.7%). CONCLUSION: These results indicate the presence of immunity to cartilage-derived LP and the G1 globular domain of PG aggrecan in patients with OA and the inhibitory effect of KS chains on the G1 domain on the expression of this immunity in OA patients. This immune reactivity is commonly observed in patients with inflammatory joint disease and can experimentally induce arthritis. Thus, it may be involved in the pathogenesis of OA. (+info)
Changes in joint cartilage aggrecan after knee injury and in osteoarthritis. (4/821)OBJECTIVE: To determine the concentrations of aggrecan fragments in synovial fluid from patients with knee joint injury, osteoarthritis (OA), or acute pyrophosphate arthritis (PPA; pseudogout), and to test their relative reactivity with the 846 epitope, a putative marker of cartilage aggrecan synthesis. METHODS: Samples of knee joint fluid from 385 patients and 9 healthy-knee volunteers were obtained in a cross-sectional study. Study groups were acute PPA/ pseudogout (n = 60), anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture (n = 159), meniscus lesion (n = 129), and primary knee OA (n = 37). The 846 epitope on aggrecan was assayed by competitive solution-phase radioimmunoassay. Aggrecan fragments were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody (1-F21). Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), C-propeptide of type II collagen (CPII), bone sialoprotein, matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 were previously quantified by immunoassays. RESULTS: Reactivity of the 846 epitope was increased in all study groups compared with the reference group, and was highest in patients with primary OA. The median levels (in microg fetal aggrecan equivalents/ml) of the epitope were 0.28 (range 0.24-0.47) in the reference group, 0.48 (range 0.26-1.32) in PPA/pseudogout, 0.61 (range 0.12-2.87) in ACL rupture, 0.53 (range 0.22-3.02) in meniscus lesion, and 0.68 (range 0.31-4.31) in primary OA. The 846 epitope reactivity per microg aggrecan fragments in the joint fluid was higher in late-stage OA than in early-stage OA. Epitope 846 reactivity correlated positively with several markers of matrix turnover, particularly with COMP (r(s) = 0.421) and CPII (r(s) = 0.307). CONCLUSION: The observed differences in 846 epitope reactivity in synovial fluid, and its concentration in relation to aggrecan and other markers of matrix turnover, were consistent with marked ongoing changes in aggrecan turnover after joint injury and in the development of OA. OA is thus a disease characterized by dynamic changes in tissue macromolecule turnover, which is reflected by measurable changes in aggrecan epitopes in the synovial fluid. (+info)
Longitudinal and cross-sectional variability in markers of joint metabolism in patients with knee pain and articular cartilage abnormalities. (5/821)OBJECTIVE: To determine the within- and between-patient variability in the concentrations of synovial fluid, serum and urine markers of joint tissue metabolism in a cohort of patients with knee pain and cartilage changes consistent with early-stage knee osteoarthritis. DESIGN: Samples of synovial fluid, serum, and urine were obtained from 52 patients on eight different occasions during 1 year, as part of a clinical trial in patients with cartilage abnormalities and knee pain. In joint fluid, aggrecan fragments were quantified by dye precipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -3, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 by sandwich ELISAs. In serum, keratan sulfate was quantified by ELISA. Type I collagen N-telopeptide cross-links in urine were determined by ELISA. RESULTS: The degree of cross-sectional variability in marker concentrations did not vary between the different sampling occasions, and did not differ between the periods of weeks 0 (baseline), 1-4 (treatment) and 13-26 (follow-up). Both between-patient and within-patient coefficients of variation varied for markers in different body fluid compartments, with the lowest variability for serum keratan sulfate, followed by urine type I collagen N-telopeptide crosslinks, and the highest for synovial fluid markers. For synovial fluid, aggrecan fragments showed the least variability, and matrix metalloproteinases the highest. One patient with septic arthritis showed a fivefold peak increase in joint fluid aggrecan fragment concentrations, while the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-3 increased 100-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Molecular markers of joint tissue metabolism have been suggested as, for example, outcome measures for clinical trials of disease-modifying drugs in osteoarthritis. This report is the first to present data on between- and within-patient variability for such molecular markers in three different body fluid compartments in stable cohort of patients. The availability of such data enables calculations to determine the number of patients needed in prospective studies using these markers as outcome measures. (+info)
Resistance of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans to proteolytic degradation during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism. (6/821)A bovine nasal-cartilage culture system has been utilized to analyse the catabolic events occurring in response to interleukin-1beta over a 14-day period. An early event following the start of interleukin-1 treatment was the release of glycosaminoglycan into the culture medium. This release was accompanied by the appearance in the tissue, and shortly thereafter also in the culture media, of a globular domain (G1)-containing aggrecan degradation product generated by the action of aggrecanase. Link protein was also released from the cartilage with a similar timeframe to that of the G1 fragment, although there was no evidence of its proteolytic degradation. By comparison with aggrecan, the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans decorin, biglycan and lumican showed a resistance to both proteolytic cleavage and release throughout the culture period. In contrast, fibromodulin exhibited a marked decrease in size after day 4, presumably due to proteolytic modification, but the major degradation product was retained throughout the culture period. Also in contrast with the early changes in the components of the proteoglycan aggregate, type II collagen did not display signs of extensive degradation until much later in the culture period. Collagen degradation products compatible with collagenase action first appeared in the medium by day 10 and increased thereafter. These data demonstrate that the leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans are resistant to proteolytic action during interleukin-1-stimulated cartilage catabolism, compared with aggrecan. This resistance and continued interaction with the surface of the collagen fibrils may help to stabilize the collagen fibrillar network and protect it from extensive proteolytic attack during the early phases of cartilage degeneration. (+info)
Alcohol promotes in vitro chondrogenesis in embryonic facial mesenchyme. (7/821)Ethanol is a well-recognized teratogen in vertebrates that can perturb the development of the facial primordia and various other embryonic structures. However,the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on embryogenesis are currently unclear. Recent evidence suggests that the cranial neural crest, which forms the entire facial skeleton, may be a particularly sensitive target of ethanol teratogenicity. In the present study we have examined the influence of in vitro ethanol exposure on cartilage differentiation in micromass cultures of mesenchymal cells isolated from the various facial primordia (maxillary, mandibular, frontonasal, and hyoid processes) of the stage 24 chick embryo. In all four populations of facial mesenchyme, exposure to 1-1.5% ethanol promoted marked increases in Alcian blue-positive cartilage matrix formation, a rise in 35SO4 accumulation into matrix glycosaminoglycans, and enhanced expression of cartilage-characteristic type II collagen and aggrecan gene transcripts. In frontonasal and mandibular mesenchyme cultures, which undergo extensive spontaneous cartilage formation, ethanol treatment quantitatively elevated both matrix production and cartilage-specific gene transcript expression. In cultures of maxillary process and hyoid arch mesenchyme, which form little or no cartilage spontaneously, ethanol exposure induced the formation of chondrogenic cell aggregates and the appearance of aggrecan and type II collagen mRNAs. These actions were not restricted to ethanol, since tertiary butanol treatment also enhanced cartilage differentiation in facial mesenchyme cultures. Our findings demonstrate a potent stimulatory effect of alcohol on the differentiation of prechondrogenic mesenchyme of the facial primordia. Further analysis of this phenomenon might yield insight into the developmental mechanisms underlying the facial dysmorphologies associated with embryonic ethanol exposure. (+info)
The early molecular natural history of experimental osteoarthritis. I. Progressive discoordinate expression of aggrecan and type II procollagen messenger RNA in the articular cartilage of adult animals. (8/821)OBJECTIVE: To quantify changes in the chondrocyte metabolism of aggrecan core protein and type II procollagen messenger RNA (mRNA) during the early and middle phases of experimental osteoarthritis (OA) in animals. METHODS: Experimental OA was induced by transecting the cranial cruciate ligament of the stifle joint in adult animals; articular cartilage was harvested and analyzed after 4, 10, and 32 weeks. RESULTS: Northern blot analysis revealed no change in aggrecan mRNA 4 weeks after surgery compared with aggrecan mRNA in the unoperated contralateral control joints; aggrecan mRNA levels became significantly elevated by 10 and 32 weeks after surgery. In OA cartilage, type II procollagen mRNA was dramatically and progressively elevated at all times after surgery. The relative increases in type II procollagen mRNA exceeded the relative increases in aggrecan mRNA at all times after surgery, and these differences increased progressively over time. Articular chondrocytes became activated globally (total RNA increases) and specifically (mRNA increase) early after joint injury and remained activated throughout the early and middle phases of this experimental OA. CONCLUSION: The early natural history of experimental OA is characterized by a progressive imbalance in the mRNA expression of aggrecan and type II procollagen in articular chondrocytes. These results suggest that the stimuli for the transcription of these 2 genes are fundamentally different in this animal model. (+info)
Proteases capable of degrading aggrecans are called aggrecanases, and they are members of the ADAM (A Disintegrin And ... Nap RJ, Szleifer I (November 2008). "Structure and interactions of aggrecans: statistical thermodynamic approach". Biophys. J. ...
... s act on large proteoglycans known as aggrecans, which are components of connective tissues such as cartilage. The ...
Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation...
Western blot quantification of aggrecan fragments in human synovial fluid indicates differences in fragment patterns between...
Aggrecans Preferred Term Term UI T667465. Date03/02/2006. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2007). ... Aggrecans. Tree Number(s). D09.698.735.200.500. D12.776.395.650.750.687.100. D12.776.503.280.437.100. D12.776.860.300.140. ... Aggrecans Preferred Concept UI. M0176993. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in ... 2007; AGGRECANS was indexed under PROTEOCHONDROITIN SULFATES 2006, & under EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS, LECTINS, C-TYPE & ...
Aggrecans Preferred Term Term UI T667465. Date03/02/2006. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (2007). ... Aggrecans Preferred Concept UI. M0176993. Registry Number. 0. Scope Note. Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in ... Aggrecans. Tree Number(s). D09.400.430.930.750.687.100. D09.698.735.200.500. D12.776.395.650.750.687.100. D12.776.503.280. ... 2007; AGGRECANS was indexed under PROTEOCHONDROITIN SULFATES 2006, & under EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS, LECTINS, C-TYPE & ...
Kwang Meyung Kim - Research output - Korea University
Lai, M. H., Lee, S., Kim, K. M. & Kong, H., 2014 Jan 1, Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum 2013 - Core Programming Area at the 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting: Global Challenges for Engineering a Sustainable Future. AIChE, 1 p. (Nanoscale Science and Engineering Forum 2013 - Core Programming Area at the 2013 AIChE Annual Meeting: Global Challenges for Engineering a Sustainable Future).. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution ...
Yang-Gao Wang - 研究成果 - 國立成功大學
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MESH TREE NUMBER CHANGES - 2011 MeSH. August 17, 2010
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Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-1 | Profiles RNS
Tracheobronchomalacia in Children
These compounds are the collagens and aggrecans. Roberts et al. have shown that the mechanical properties of tracheal cartilage ... Structural Support Compounds: Cartilage (Collagen & Aggrecans). The compounds that form the structural support of the airway ... the chemical nature of the proteoglycans that constitute the aggrecans and type 1 collagen, the bulk of airway cartilage, offer ... are dependent on the ultrastructure of collagen, elastin and hydrated proteoglycans (aggrecans), which in turn are ...
The different roles of aggrecan interaction domains - PubMed
- TGF-ß signaling pathways) or proteins associated with cell/extracellular structures (e.g., aggrecans). (bvsalud.org)