Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.
A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.
The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Serological classification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a slide agglutination test. (1/1654)

Serological classification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the slide agglutination test with live organisms was studied, based on the O antigen schema adopted by the international expert panel sponsored by the Subcommittee on Pseudomonas and Related Organisms of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. The typing results obtained by the slide test with well-absorbed O sera were identical to those obtained by the conventional tube agglutination test with autoclaved organisms. Most O antigens occur singly; but O2, O5, and O16 occur in four combinations. Antigens O13 and O14 are closely related, as are O7 and O8, and it would be convenient to classify organisms possessing these antigens collectively as O7,8 and O13,14.  (+info)

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (2/1654)

Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates.  (+info)

Differential immunodiagnosis between cystic hydatid disease and other cross-reactive pathologies. (3/1654)

We assessed an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid antigen-ELISA (EgHF-ELISA) as a serologic prescreening test for E. granulosus infections, supplemented by more specific confirmatory tests, including arc-5 immunoprecipitation and antigen B subunit 8-kD immunoblotting. The diagnostic sensitivity of the EgHF-ELISA was 91%. With regard to the test specificity of the EgHF-ELISA (overall = 82%), we observed relatively frequent cross-reactions in tumor patients (6%) and in patients with other parasitic diseases. Cestode-related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of E. multilocularis-specific antigens or Taenia solium cysticercosis-specific immunoblotting. Immunoblotting based upon the detection of antibody reactivity to the 8-kD antigen of EgHF, or if appropriately detectable, to the 29-kD and 34-kD bands exhibited a 91% diagnostic sensitivity and an overall specificity of 97% or 94%, respectively. Thus, immunoblotting provided a 99% discrimination between seropositive pre-operative cystic hydatid disease cases and cross-reactive non-cestode parasitic infections or malignancies.  (+info)

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (4/1654)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

Antibodies reactive with the N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen inhibit cell proliferation by agglutinating merozoites and schizonts. (5/1654)

The serine repeat antigen (SERA) is a vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization of mice with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein of the SERA N-terminal domain (SE47') induced an antiserum that was inhibitory to parasite growth in vitro. Affinity-purified mouse antibodies specific to the recombinant protein inhibited parasite growth between the schizont and ring stages but not between the ring and schizont stages. When Percoll-purified schizonts were cultured with the affinity-purified SE47'-specific antibodies, schizonts and merozoites were agglutinated. Indirect-immunofluorescence assays with unfixed parasite cells showed that SE47'-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) bound to SERA molecules on rupturing schizonts and merozoites but the IgG did not react with the schizont-infected erythrocytes (RBC). Furthermore, double-fluorescence staining against SE47'-specific IgG and anti-human RBC membrane IgG showed that the RBC membrane disappeared from SE47'-specific-IgG-bound schizonts after cultivation. These observations suggest that the SE47'-specific antibodies inhibit parasite growth by cross-linking SERA molecules that are associated with merozoites in rupturing schizonts with partly broken RBC and parasitophorous vacuole membranes, blocking merozoite release.  (+info)

Three cases of canine leptospirosis in Quebec. (6/1654)

Three dogs from different locations with acute renal failure were hospitalized in autumn 1996 and 1997. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was detected by the microscopic agglutination test. All dogs recovered after antibiotic treatment. The importance of the development of vaccines adapted to emerging serovars in dogs should be addressed.  (+info)

Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis. (7/1654)

1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.  (+info)

An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay. (8/1654)

AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. T2 - Staphylococcal coagglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AU - Shinoda, Sumio. AU - Ikeda, Mitsuyo. AU - Yamada, Sanae. AU - Kane, Haruaki. AU - Miyoshi, Noriko. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - The species-specific antigenicity of the lateral flagella of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was applied to techniques for immunological identification of the vibrio. One was a coagglutination test using staphylococcal cells sensitized with anti-lateral-flagella antibody bound to protein A located in the staphylococcal cell wall. The other technique was an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a four-layer sandwich procedure. By means of the staphylococcal coagglutination technique, about 106 vibrio cells or 60 ng of flagellar protein could be detected and the whole procedure was performed within 1 h. The sandwich ELISA procedure was more sensitive, but the time required for the whole procedure was about 8 h. Both ...
Study of diagnostic efficacy of widal slide agglutination test against widal tube agglutination test in enteric fever-IJMR-Print ISSN No:-2394-546X Online ISSN No:-2394-5478Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Microbiology Research-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication, Open Access
Author(s): Kiskároly Ferenc, Morić Ivana, Đokić Lidija, Vasiljević Branka, Šenerović Lidija, Mišić Dušan. Keywords:Salmonella, poultry, multiplex PCR, identification, taxonomy. The aim of the study was to evaluate and adapt the PCR-based protocol that utilizes the developed serotype-specific primers to identify Salmonella enterica species and its serotypes that are most frequently isolated from poultry samples in Vojvodina. Using the slide agglutination test, 64 and 33 out of 107 Salmonella isolates were identified as S. Infantis and S. Enteritidis, respectively, while ten isolates were identified as eight different Salmonella serovars. Using the same isolates, presence of 993-bp (bcfC gene), 636-bp (steB gene) and 293-bp (sdf locus) amplicons in multiplex PCR unambiguously identified 31 isolates as S. Enteritidis. Two isolates identified as Enteritidis in slide agglutination test were not identified as such in PCR-based approach since they both were missing 293-bp long PCR product. ...
Carrying out a laboratory audit, a significant quantity of particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were recognized when TPPA was used being a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). had been examined by INNO-LIA, and yet another 4 FTA-ABS-negative examples had been positive. In this scholarly study, significant quantities (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera had been shown by additional FTA-ABS and LIA (series immunoblot assay) assessment to maintain positivity. The key reason why specific sera are detrimental by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and various other syphilis confirmatory assays isnt apparent, and these preliminary findings ought to be additional explored. hemagglutination assay (TPHA), presented through the 1960s, provides been proven (17, 19) to become highly delicate and particular at discovering treponemal antibodies and continues to be utilized by many laboratories. An adjustment from the TPHA may be the particle ...
1) Mucoprotein level in serum and agglutination reaction by Rose for rheumatoid arthritis were measured in 40 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis or liver disease (mostly acute hepatitis). A raised titer of mucoprotein was often observed in cancer, and a marked rise in agglutination titer was often proved in rheumatoid arthritis. But no significant correlation was proved between the serum mucoprotein level and agglutination test in patients. (2) [n animal experiment an inereased agglutination titer was caused by sensitization with egg albumin, Arthus s phenomenon, anaphylactic, shock, thermal spring bath, X-ray irradiation, blocking of reticuloendothelial system, liver injuries, injection of A. C. T. H., adrenaline, atropin or pilocarpin. A simultaneoas rise in serum mucoprotein level was observed after sensitization, thermal bath, X-ray irradiation, administmtion of chloroform, injection of toxic agents to vegetative nerve system. And a significant positive linear ...
This invention provides particles for agglutination reaction measurement with high antigen potency. They were characterized by revealing the antigen, which has polylysine from recombinant DNA, and have combined this with the particles for agglutination reaction measurement. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement do not carry the antigen (which is infectious) and are safe. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement can be manufactured easily and in large quantities ...
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Looking for passive agglutination? Find out information about passive agglutination. in biochemistry: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Explanation of passive agglutination
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small analytes having few epitopes are disclosed, by means of using hub moieties to which multiple analytes may be bound by a first epitope, together with a further moiety capable of binding a second analyte epitope and which is also capable of binding to a detectable particle. Stable agglutinated complexes may be so formed, which may used as the basis for various assay formats.
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The experimental results which have been described demonstrate the following facts:. 1. In the type-specific agglutination reaction, when the organisms are not present in sufficient numbers to absorb completely all the antibodies from the serum, more antibody is bound by cellular S than is required for the process of agglutination.. 2. The excess of antibody thus bound can then unite with additional amounts of the specific substance when this is added in soluble form to the agglutinated material.. 3. If an excess of the free S is added to an agglutinated mass of antibody and bacteria, the organisms are redispersed and in the suspended state are again specifically agglutinable.. 4. When a solution of the specific polysaccharide is added in excess to an homologous immune serum, a prozone is created in which precipitation is inhibited; moreover, if, at this point, type-specific pneumococci are added to the mixture, inhibition of agglutination also occurs.. 5. The reactive substance in the ...
Agglutination: …antibodies usually results in clumping-agglutination-of the red cells; therefore, antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens.
The assay off the present Invention is of particular use for detecting drugs, hormones, steroids, antibodies and other molecules circulating in the blood of a mammal or other animal.
Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell clumps, called agglutinates, are visible, making them a reliable test for...
[Part 2 of 6 in a series investigating Paulings work on the serological properties of simple substances.] The first four papers published by Linus Pauling and his Caltech colleagues on the serological properties of simple substances described general aspects of the precipitation reactions that occur between antibodies and antigens. This work was spurred by a…
TY - JOUR. T1 - A rapid slide agglutination test contrasted with a Radioimmunoassay for myoglobin measurement for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. AU - Fitzgerald, RJ. AU - Tormey, William. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. M3 - Article. VL - 157. SP - 293. EP - 294. JO - IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. JF - IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. SN - 0021-1265. ER - ...
Looking for online definition of agglutination reaction in the Medical Dictionary? agglutination reaction explanation free. What is agglutination reaction? Meaning of agglutination reaction medical term. What does agglutination reaction mean?
Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean in law?
Trypsin treatment of Leishmania promastigote antigen has proved to be indispensible in the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). In the present study four antigen batches were prepared with pronase (400 micrograms/ml …
Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19.. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols.. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963 0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200 0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p,0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244 0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200 0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p,0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284 0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200 0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678 0.014) and healthy ...
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic disease in some parts of Iran. Many techniques have been used for diagnosis of VL, among which the urine based la-tex agglutination test (KAtex) is a promising one. Objective: To compare three diag-nostic tests of VL including KAtex, ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in VL patients and healthy controls in the south west of Iran. Methods: Serum (n = 29) and urine samples (n = 31) were collected from parasitologically confirmed VL patients. Control samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n = 61) and also from patients with infectious diseases other than VL. The collected serum samples were tested by DAT and ELISA using crude antigen from promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and the urine samples were tested by KAtex. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex for diagnosis of VL was found to be 83.9% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of DAT and ELISA were 93.1% and 86.2% and their specificities were 100% and 90.5%, respectively.
Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91). The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the
The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies or antigens in a variety of body fluids. Learn more about this test here.
Passive Agglutination Tests in which Antigen is adsorbed onto Latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed Antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed ...
Colorcard RF Rheumatoid Factor Test,A Color-Enhanced Slide Agglutination Test for the Rapid Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative Detection of Rheumatoid Factor in Serum.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Bain, G O., Agglutinin response to sheep erythrocytes in mice following intra- peritoneal injection of allogeneic spleen cells. (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 57 ...
The Importance of Cobalamin (Vitamin B12 in Companion Animals). This year the college will also be hosting Two hour workshops for an added cost of £20 per workshop in the following:. Practical Haematology (cost £20). This workshop covers practical haematology for the veterinary nurse in practice, including interpretation of basic haematology results; performing slide agglutination test; preparing a perfect blood smear and blood cell identification.. Managing the Cardiac Patient (cost £20). In this workshop there will be a practical heart dissection to review the basic anatomy of the cardiovascular system. We will be reviewing common congenital and acquired heart disease along with pharmaceuticals used and nursing care required.. Back to Whats On ...
This study comprises two parts: part one was conducted to isolate E.coli O157: H7 from children in Pediatric Hospital of Karballa city. The bacteria were identified by bacteriological, biochemical and serological methods.( 14 )isolates of E.coli O157:H7 isolated from children with diarrhea (230) and children had urinary tract infection(200) were isolated. Part two of the study was included detection of antibodies against E.coli O157:H7 somatic (inactivated bacterium by heating) and flagellar (inactivated bacterium by formaldehyde) antigens in rabbits by using ELISA test. Twelve adult healthy rabbits were divided randomly for three equal groups A, B and C used for immunization study. All rabbits had negative fecal bacteriological culture of E.coli O157:H7 and serum was collected before immunization. Serum antibodies titers were estimated by using ELISA and tube agglutination test pre and post each immunization. No antibody titers were detected Pre immunization in all rabbits. Elisa test
This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular ...
The procedure involves adding a suspension of dead typhoid bacterial cells to a series of tubes containing the patients serum, which has been diluted out to various concentrations. After the tubes have been incubated for 30 minutes at 37° C, they are centrifuged and examined to note the amount of agglutination that has occurred. The reciprocal of the highest dilution at which agglutination is seen is designated as the antibody titer of the patients serum. For example, if the highest dilution at which agglutination occurs is 1:320, the titer is 320 antibody units per milliliter of serum. Naturally, the higher the titer, the greater is the antibody response of the individual to the disease.. ...
An immunodiagnostic test card includes a plurality of transparent chambers wherein each chamber includes a quantity of testing material that combines with a patient sample, when mixed, to produce an agglutination reaction. A plurality of indicia are disposed to aid in the manufacture and determining the usability of the cards prior to test and also in objectively grading the agglutination reactions that are formed or lack of agglutination.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows. Introduction All who have used the agglutination test for the detection of fowls that harbor Bacterium pullorum have observed the occurrence of excessive turbidity in many tubes which seriously interfered with accurate reading of the reactions. Hitchner, in 1923, reported that the turbidity resulted from the precipitation of fat that is present in the blood serum of some fowls and that it could be avoided by starving fowls for thirty-six hours before blood samples were drawn. Matthews, in 1926, reported studies which he believed demonstrated that such turbidity was due to the presence of a protein rather than a fatty substance in blood serum of fowls. He stated that this protein substance was soluble in weak alkali solution and that clouding of agglutination tests could be avoided by adding a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution to antigen. Bushnell,
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1. The agglutination inhibition zone, artificially produced by heating, has been studied.. 2. The phenomenon is specific and is dependent upon the presence in the inhibition zone serum of altered agglutinin (agglutinoid).. ...
Definition of group agglutination. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
The Remel line of Wellcolex® rapid latex agglutination test kits is designed for rapid and accurate identification of enteric bacteria such as Salmonella, Shigella and E.coli. With its high positive and negative predictive values, Wellcolex tests can save up to 2 days testing time over traditional screening procedures and its easy-to-use, cost effective methodology will meet your laboratorys needs.. ...
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Antibody-mediated agglutination is the clumping of cells in the presence of antibody, which binds multiple cells together. This enhances the clearance of pathogens. Find the latest research on antibody-mediated agglutination here. ...
The best 5 synonyms for agglutinate, including: agglutination, agglutinative, lyse, motile, multinucleate and more... Find another word for agglutinate at YourDictionary.
A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins ...
The results of this study demonstrate that MAT results are discordant among different laboratories in dogs recently vaccinated against leptospirosis and in dogs with clinical leptospirosis. The percentage agreement among the VDLs was as low as 11% for the vaccinated dogs, and was only 31% for initial titers from the clinical cases, and 27% for the results from the convalescent samples. In addition, the data show that MAT results vary over time in individual dogs with the disease. These observations suggest that MAT titers cannot be relied upon to predict the infecting serogroup in dogs with leptospirosis.. Dogs in this study that were vaccinated with a 4-serovar subunit vaccine developed positive MAT titers at all VDLs. These dogs frequently developed the highest titers to nonvaccinal serogroups. This finding has been reported in a previous study in which dogs vaccinated with a subunit vaccine containing serovars Pomona and Grippotyphosa developed the highest MAT titers to serogroup Autumnalis.8 ...
A patient with a metastatic colon carcinoma was treated by immunoadsorption (IA) therapy using heat-killed, formalin-stabilized protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I as the immunoadsorbent. The patient experienced both subjective and objective positive clinical response without undue morbidity. The patients response correlated well with laboratory findings of decreased concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immune complexes (IC) and histopathologic data. The patient underwent surgery following 15 IA treatments; she lived for eighteen months, post-treatment.
A newly developed latex agglutination assay for the detection of genus-specific Leptospira antibodies in human sera was evaluated. The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. The latex agglutination test was evaluated with groups of serum samples from patients with leptospirosis and control patients from Hawaii, the Seychelles, Thailand, and The Netherlands. The mean overall sensitivity was 82.3%, and the mean overall specificity was 94.6%. The assay is easy to perform and does not require special skills or equipment. The reagents have a long shelf life, even at tropical temperatures. Together, these factors make the assay suitable for use even at the peripheral level of a health care system as a rapid screening test for leptospirosis. ...
The analysis of 4450 toxoplasma serology results showed that 59 (1.3%) latex agglutination reactions were not confirmed in the dye test. These discrepant results were associated with an unspecified IgM antibody but not associated with kit batch variation, inactivation of sera, concurrent cytomegalovirus infection, or the presence of hepatitis B virus e antigen. The latex agglutination test is useful as a screen for toxoplasma infection but false positive reactions do occur. Patients at risk of severe toxoplasmosis should be investigated by additional tests.. ...
I am a 38 years old male, who had severe weakness, dizziness, breathlessness and chest pain for over period of one month last year. It started with a throat infection. Finally, |b|I underwent Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:160 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 3500.|/b| Based on this, I was treated for typhoid. But I never had fever in this period. I also underwent ECG and 2D echo cardiogram, which came normal. However, I was diagnosed with GERD. Two months back, I again went for Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:20 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 6300. Now, I am again experiencing fatigue and chest pain. Widal test has revealed Typhi O as 1:80 and Typhi H 1:160. WBC came 4300. Is Widal test a confirmation of typhoid? I have no loose motions, fever and do exercise regularly.
Salmonella O Antigen Group D (Typhi O). Rapid Labs stained febrile antigen suspensions can be used to identify and quantitate specific antibodies in human sera following infection with certain Salmonellae pathogens. These febrile antigens are suitable for both the rapid slide and tube agglutination tests against human sera for the detection of these agglutinins.. These antigen suspensions are killed bacteria, stained to enhance the reading of agglutination tests. The blue stained antigens are specific to the somatic 0 antigens whilst the red stained antigens are specific to the flagellar H antigens.. Available in 5ml vials or bulk sizes.. ...
OBJECTIVE: To study the predominant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain types in Pakistan and to evaluate their correlation with fluoroquinolone resistance. METHOD: A total of 314 strains were collected from 2007-2009. Of these 112 strains were randomly selected for serotyping via the coagglutination technique. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was checked through the E-test method. Chi square was performed to assess the correlation between the strain type and fluoroquinolone resistance pattern. RESULTS: N. gonorrhoeae isolates were typed in two serogroups and 28 serovars. Serogroup WI comprised 40% (n = 45) whereas WII/WIII was 60% (n = 67). Most commonly isolated serovar belonged to serogroup WI namely Aorst (10%). The other predominant circulating serovars of the serogroup WI were Aost (9%) and Ast (8%) and Bsy (8%), Bopyt (5%) and Bprt (4.5%) in the serogroup WII/III. Fluoroquinolone resistance was 98%, with an MIC of 2 microg/mL in 47%, 4 microg/mL in 36% and | 32 microg/mL in 12% of the isolates. On
Toxoplasmosis is the major parasitic disease affecting sheep. It is important for veterinary medicine, animal science and public health since it causes reproductive and economic losses in the herd, as well as damaging human health due to consumption of contaminated meat and milk, which can facilitate zoonotic transmission. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in ovine milk and lack of data in the literature describing differentiation between acute and chronic disease for this species stimulated the elaboration of the present research project. To achieve the aim of this study, the animals were allocated to two groups of 20 ewes each, of which group 1 was composed of animals with positive serology and group 2 with negative serology. Acute and chronic stages of the disease were differentiated by modified direct agglutination test (MAT), in which antigens were fixed with formalin (MAT-AF) and methanol (MAT-AM). The parasite was detected in milk by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the molecular ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The app ...
Agglutination occurs when an antibody interacts with antigen, resulting in cross-linking of the antigen particles by the antibody. This eventually leads to clumping. Agglutination comes from the Latin root agglutinare. Agglutinare means, to glue. Cross-linking, or cross-matching is done to determine matches. Agglutination may occur when an unideterminate, multivalent antigen interacts with a single antibody. It may also occur if a multi determinate, univalent antigen interacts with at least two distinct antibodies. Cross Agglutination: when an antibody that is raised against a similar antigen agglutinates that antigen. Group Agglutination: when a collection of similar organisms is agglutinated by an agglutinin that is specific for that collection. Applications for the agglutination test BLOOD TYPING There are different blood groups like A,B, AB and O. The different blood types are differentiated according to the types of proteins on the surfaces of the red blood cells. Human red blood ...
The gonococcal isolates from 15 contact pairs and three large contact groups were examined using various methods to assess the stability of different typing markers. With the exception of one contact group which showed variable proline requirements, the auxotypes were stable during natural transmission. Serogrouping using the coagglutination method to detect W and M antigens was undertaken. The lipopolysaccharide M antigens were readily lost and gained during transmission whereas the protein W antigens represented stable markers and are thus useful for epidemiological studies.. ...
Why dont antibodies of o blood group does not cause agglutination reaction with any of antigens in other blood group? Study Blood Types Review.
serum agglutinin An antibody which coats erythrocytes; the cells do not agglutinate when suspended in saline, but do agglutinate when suspended in serum or other protein media such as albumin. ...
0084] In a preferred embodiment the presence of Gallibacterium is determined by an immune test. An immune test uses monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antisera specific to Gallibacterium. The generation of monoclonal antibodies is known in the art (Kearney, J. F., Radbruch A., Liesegang B., Rajewski K. A new mouse myeloma cell line that has lost immunoglobulin expression but permits construction of antibody-secreting hybrid cell lines. J. Immunol. 1979, 123: 1548-1550., Kohler, G., Milstein, C. Continous culture of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specifity. Nature 1975, 265: 495-497) Immune tests include the methods of detection known in the art such as the ELISA test (enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay) or the so-called sandwich-ELISA test, dot blots, immunoblots, radioimmuno tests (radioimmunoassay RIA), diffusion-based Ouchterlony test or rocket immunofluorescent assays) or agglutination tests (rapid plate or micro-plate agglutination tests). Another immune test is the so-called ...
Question - Typhoid infection, fever, abdominal pain. Widal test shows S typhi O, H positive. Recurring infection?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Typhoid, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Essentials_of_practical_microtechnique.html?id=HWLXAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEssentials of practical microtechnique ...
50-Test Kit - CRP Slide Test Kits, ASI - Model 500050 - Each : Latex agglutination tests for the detection of C-reactive protein. Results provided in
Much of what we know today about the human immune system has been learned through research conducted using animals-primarily, mammals-as models. Besides research, mammals are also used for the production of most of the antibodies and other immune system components needed for immunodiagnostics. Vaccines, diagnostics, therapies, and translational medicine in general have all been developed through research with animal models.. Consider some of the common uses of laboratory animals for producing immune system components. Guinea pigs are used as a source of complement, and mice are the primary source of cells for making mAbs. These mAbs can be used in research and for therapeutic purposes. Antisera are raised in a variety of species, including horses, sheep, goats, and rabbits. When producing an antiserum, the animal will usually be injected at least twice, and adjuvants may be used to boost the antibody response. The larger animals used for making antisera will have blood harvested repeatedly over ...
Principal Investigator:MIYAZAKI Chiaki, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Pediatrics
An example in English would be the forming of the word likeness from like, by pasting like and -ness together. A similar example in English would be the glued on -ance in inherit+ance or import+ance or maintain+ance, or the many -tion or -sion endings following words such as deci(de)+sion, exclamation, (exclaim+tion), and yes, even agglutination or inflection ...
Routine clinical examination is generally used as an initial screening to help diagnose before specific examination performed. Serologic tests performed using rapid test method, agglutination reaction and immunochromatography. ...
Adcock, Penny M., Ronald I. Paul, and Gary S. Marshall. Urine Latex Agglutination Tests. Pediatrics 98.4 (1996): 798-799. Web. 15 Aug. 2020. ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Micro 204, agglutination reaction: blood grouping and the Rh Factor. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
The Immuno-Turbidimetric method measures the concentration of a protein by immunological measurements. The sample reacts with antibodies that, for example, are bound to a latex particle. The reaction is done in the antibody excess zone where the concentration of antibody is held constant and the amount of antigen-antibody complex formed depends directly on the concentration of antigen. The aggregates formed in this way cause a change in turbidity. The rate of change is detected with the absorbance delta (ΔOD) per minute, the optical curve. The intensity of turbidity change due to agglutination depends on the concentration, therefore, it requires calibration.. The agglutination between the investigated coagulation factor or product in the sample and the specific antibody starts by the addition of the reagent. The Yumizen G range systems monitor the process of agglutination based on the change of transmitted light intensity at 570 nm for Immuno-Turbidimetric method.. ...
Habib, I., D. Smolarek, C. Hattab, M. Grodecka, G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, S. Muyldermans, S. Sagan, C. Gutiérrez, S. Laperche, C. Le-Van-Kim, et al., V(H)H (nanobody) directed against human glycophorin A: a tool for autologous red cell agglutination assays., Anal Biochem, vol. 438, issue 1, pp. 82-9, 2013 Jul 1. ...
An agglutination test used in the laboratory to diagnose rickettsial diseases. It depends on a nonspecific cross reaction between antibodies produced by the rickettsial infection with the OX-2, OX-19 and OXK antigens of the Gram negative rod, Proteus.. ...
gone through the prelim inary culture Box templates free printable to Lentz and Tietz. URINE 209 fragments of carcinoma exfoliated acute primary epide have also. Olicana font agglutination test food rests are found lying close together in other infectious diseases as. the coloration Olicana font until the peptone or a saturated watery. Stain 2 fifteen to a few isolated bacilli. In addition the ex are added which are made as soon as possible after evacua any. URINE 209 the urine is determined Olicana font the usual manner the hydrochloric acid solution ...
Cisplatin 1mg/ml Pharmacia & Upjohn is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Cisplatin 1mg/ml Pharmacia & Upjohn is available on the Drugs.com website.
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313 Immunochemical Techniques BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE Biochemistry Notes zImmunoassay zCompetitive binding zOther methods - includes immunofluoroscence, immunoelectron microscopy, etc. We make use of diverse chromatographic techniques including affinity, ion exchange, reverse phase, and size exclusion chromatography. Medlars. Each chapter contains suggestions for further reading for those in need of a follow-up. University of Texas at Arlington. 6 Suggestions for further reading4 Microscopy 100. Agglutination Agglutination (from Latin, agglutino - to glue/ attach) is a process of formation of clumping of cells; it occurs due to reaction of antibody on a particulate antigen The series is published in hardbound … January 2013; Edition: 1st Edition ; Authors: Ioannis Patrikios. Many graduates also undertake further postgraduate study. This new structure can then be analyzed using different techniques to see if the proteins connected, how many connected, or other desired information. Export ...
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Synonyms for agglutinating activity in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for agglutinating activity. 1 synonym for agglutinating activity: agglutination. What are synonyms for agglutinating activity?
A: When the blood samples of different blood groups are mixed with each other clumps are formed. The Clumping of blood cells is called agglutination ...
There are 18 fourteen-letter words containing A, 2G, L and U: AGGLUTINATIONS AGGLUTINOGENIC CONGLOBULATING ... SLUGGARDLINESS SLUGGARDNESSES VILLEGGIATURAS. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. Create other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Avustralyalılaştıramadıklarımızdanmışsınızcasına is a Turkish term pronounced as a single word and an extreme example of agglutination, the process of adding affixes to the base of a word. This word is translated into English as as if you were one of those whom we could not make resemble the Australian people
Surcotec est certifiée ISO 9001. Certifiés ISO 9001: 2015. Nous traitons plusieurs millions de pièces par an pour des marchés tels que la microtechnique, loptique, lhorlogerie, le médical, le spatial, etc…. CGV. ...

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