Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Brucella canis: A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.HistoplasminStaphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.NepalCryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.MercaptoethanolPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Meningitis, Bacterial: Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cytotoxins: Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.IndiaMicrospheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Francisella tularensis: The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.PolysaccharidesPneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Cat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Sri LankaZoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Serological classification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a slide agglutination test. (1/1654)

Serological classification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the slide agglutination test with live organisms was studied, based on the O antigen schema adopted by the international expert panel sponsored by the Subcommittee on Pseudomonas and Related Organisms of the International Committee on Systematic Bacteriology. The typing results obtained by the slide test with well-absorbed O sera were identical to those obtained by the conventional tube agglutination test with autoclaved organisms. Most O antigens occur singly; but O2, O5, and O16 occur in four combinations. Antigens O13 and O14 are closely related, as are O7 and O8, and it would be convenient to classify organisms possessing these antigens collectively as O7,8 and O13,14.  (+info)

Identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary cultures by a slide agglutination test. (2/1654)

Hen antigonococcal lipopolysaccharide hen serum was used in a simple slide agglutination test for the identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from primary isolates.  (+info)

Differential immunodiagnosis between cystic hydatid disease and other cross-reactive pathologies. (3/1654)

We assessed an Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid antigen-ELISA (EgHF-ELISA) as a serologic prescreening test for E. granulosus infections, supplemented by more specific confirmatory tests, including arc-5 immunoprecipitation and antigen B subunit 8-kD immunoblotting. The diagnostic sensitivity of the EgHF-ELISA was 91%. With regard to the test specificity of the EgHF-ELISA (overall = 82%), we observed relatively frequent cross-reactions in tumor patients (6%) and in patients with other parasitic diseases. Cestode-related cross-reactivity can be resolved by the complementary use of E. multilocularis-specific antigens or Taenia solium cysticercosis-specific immunoblotting. Immunoblotting based upon the detection of antibody reactivity to the 8-kD antigen of EgHF, or if appropriately detectable, to the 29-kD and 34-kD bands exhibited a 91% diagnostic sensitivity and an overall specificity of 97% or 94%, respectively. Thus, immunoblotting provided a 99% discrimination between seropositive pre-operative cystic hydatid disease cases and cross-reactive non-cestode parasitic infections or malignancies.  (+info)

Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study. (4/1654)

A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested.  (+info)

Antibodies reactive with the N-terminal domain of Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen inhibit cell proliferation by agglutinating merozoites and schizonts. (5/1654)

The serine repeat antigen (SERA) is a vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum. Immunization of mice with Escherichia coli-produced recombinant protein of the SERA N-terminal domain (SE47') induced an antiserum that was inhibitory to parasite growth in vitro. Affinity-purified mouse antibodies specific to the recombinant protein inhibited parasite growth between the schizont and ring stages but not between the ring and schizont stages. When Percoll-purified schizonts were cultured with the affinity-purified SE47'-specific antibodies, schizonts and merozoites were agglutinated. Indirect-immunofluorescence assays with unfixed parasite cells showed that SE47'-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) bound to SERA molecules on rupturing schizonts and merozoites but the IgG did not react with the schizont-infected erythrocytes (RBC). Furthermore, double-fluorescence staining against SE47'-specific IgG and anti-human RBC membrane IgG showed that the RBC membrane disappeared from SE47'-specific-IgG-bound schizonts after cultivation. These observations suggest that the SE47'-specific antibodies inhibit parasite growth by cross-linking SERA molecules that are associated with merozoites in rupturing schizonts with partly broken RBC and parasitophorous vacuole membranes, blocking merozoite release.  (+info)

Three cases of canine leptospirosis in Quebec. (6/1654)

Three dogs from different locations with acute renal failure were hospitalized in autumn 1996 and 1997. Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona was detected by the microscopic agglutination test. All dogs recovered after antibiotic treatment. The importance of the development of vaccines adapted to emerging serovars in dogs should be addressed.  (+info)

Lectins as membrane components of mitochondria from Ricinus communis. (7/1654)

1. Mitochondria were isolated from developing endosperm of Ricinus communis and were fractionated into outer membrane and inner membrane. The relative purity of the two membrane fractions was determined by marker enzymes. The fractions were also examined by negative-stain electron microscopy. 2. Membrane fractions were sequentially extracted in the following way. (a) Suspension in 0.5M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (b)suspension in 0.1M-EDTA (disodium salt)/0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1; (c) sonication in 0.05M-potassium phosphate, pH7.1;(d)sonication in aq. Triton X-100 (0.1%). The membranes were pelleted by centrifugation at 100 000g for 15 min, between each step. Agglutination activity in the extracts was investigated by using trypsin-treated rabbit erythrocytes. 3. The addition of lactose to inner mitochondrial membrane resulted in the solubilization of part of the lectin activity, indicating that the protein was attached to the membrane via its carbohydrate-binding site. Pretreatment of the membranes with lactose before tha usual extraction procedure showed that lactose could extract lectins that normally required more harsh treatment of the membrane for solubilization. 4. Lectins extracted from inner membranes were purified by affinity chromatography on agarose gel. Polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of purified samples in sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that at least part of the lectin present in inner mitochondrial membrane was identical with the R. communis agglutinin of mol.wt. 120 000.  (+info)

An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay. (8/1654)

AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi.  (+info)

*Visceral leishmaniasis

A second rapid test (called latex agglutination test) gave correct, positive results in 64% of the people with the disease and ... June 2006). "Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test". Trans. ... Other types of tests have not been studied thoroughly enough to ascertain their efficacy. The K39 dipstick test is easy to ... Conversely, because serological tests look for an immune response and not for the organism itself, the test does not become ...

*Direct agglutination test

A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The ... 2006). "Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test". Trans R Soc ... abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis. Sundar S, Singh RK, Maurya R, ...

*Clostridium difficile toxin A

Evaluation of a latex agglutination test". The American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 86 (2): 208-11. PMID 3739972. Tucker KD ...

*Laboratory robotics

Barsoum, I. S.; Awad, A. Y. (1972). "Microtiter plate agglutination test for Salmonella antibodies". Applied microbiology. 23 ( ... Simulated distillation, a type of gas chromatography testing method used in the petroleum, can be automated via robotics. An ... testing). Many laboratory robots are commonly referred as autosamplers, as their main task is to provide continuous samples for ... companies employ robots to move biological or chemical samples around to synthesize novel chemical entities or to test ...

*Charlotte C. Campbell

Saslaw, Samuel; Campbell, Charlotte C. (1949). "A Collodion Agglutination Test for Histoplasmosis". Public Health Reports. 64 ( ... At Walter Reed she performed serological tests diagnosing cases of Histoplasmosis capsulati, blastomycosis, and ... "A Comparison between Histoplasmin and Blastomycin by the Collodion Agglutination Technique". Public Health Reports. 64 (9): 290 ...

*Human cytomegalovirus

Other tests include various fluorescence assays, indirect hemagglutination, (PCR) and latex agglutination. An ELISA technique ... However, routine testing of all pregnant women is costly and the need for testing should therefore be evaluated on a case-by- ... Phenotypic resistance testing involves cultivation of the virus in cell culture and testing its susceptibility using different ... but has negative test results for hepatitis A, B, and C. For best diagnostic results, laboratory tests for CMV antibody should ...

*Myron W. Wentz

"Latex agglutination test for detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii". J Clin Microbiol 1988;26(11):2444-46. McNeil C, ... In 1974, Wentz launched Gull Laboratories as a one-man operation and developed a test for diagnosing Epstein-Barr virus ...

*Widal test

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Olopoenia LA, King AL (February 2000). "Widal agglutination test - 100 years ... A new serological test called the Tubex test is neither superior nor better performing than the Widal test. Therefore, Tubex ... "TUBEX Test Versus Widal Test In The Diagnosis Of Typhoid Fever In Kafr El -Shekh, Egypt". J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 85: 285- ... Typhidot is the other test used to ascertain the diagnosis of typhoid fever. As with all serological tests, the rise in ...

*Mycoplasma meleagridis

ELISA and the Slide Agglutination Test are used for serological diagnosis. Antibiotics are effective at treating and preventing ... Vertical transmission is difficult to prevent, but males can be tested before breeding and eggs can be dipped in a Tylosin bath ...

*Meningeal syphilis

"Response of Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination Test Titers to Treatment of Syphilis". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 56 ( ... Serology includes two types of antibody test: Nontreponemal antibody test and Treponemal antibody test (specific test). The ... This stage can be diagnosed through specific tests in serology. The nonspecific tests may be negative. At this point, there is ... The Treponemal antibody test (specific test) confirms with FTA-ABS (Fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption). Brain imaging ...

*Weil-Felix test

The Weil-Felix test is an agglutination test for the diagnosis of rickettsial infections. It was first described in 1916. By ... Weil-Felix is a nonspecific agglutination test which detects anti-rickettsial antibodies in patient's serum. Weil-Felix test is ... The Weil-Felix test can be done as either a slide or a tube test. The antigens necessary (OX2, OX19, and OXK) can be obtained ... despite being superseded in many settings by more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. The basis of the test is the ...

*Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Another common laboratory test is a rapid latex agglutination test that detects the PBP2a protein. PBP2a is a variant ... Rapid culture and sensitivity testing and molecular testing identifies carriers and reduces infection rates. MRSA can be ... "MRSA latex test for PBP2". Jensen SO, Lyon BR (June 2009). "Genetics of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus". ... However, in 2011, a variant of vancomycin has been tested that binds to the lactate variation and also binds well to the ...

*Burkholderia pseudomallei

November 2007). "Accuracy of Burkholderia pseudomallei identification using the API 20NE system and a latex agglutination test ... Disc diffusion tests are unreliable when looking for co-trimoxazole resistance in B. pseudomallei (they greatly overestimate ... In Thailand, a latex agglutination assay is widely used, while a rapid immunofluorescence technique is also available in a ... For environmental specimens only, differentiation from the nonpathogenic B. thailandensis using an arabinose test is necessary ...

*Bovine Campylobacteriosis

Specifically, C. fetus can be detected from cervicovaginal mucus using an agglutination test or ELISA. C. jejuni can be treated ...

*George Siber bibliography

Daum, RS; Siber, GR; Kamon, JS; Russell, RR (Apr 1982). "Evaluation of a commercial latex particle agglutination test for rapid ... Gupta, RK; Siber, GR (1996). "Use of in vitro Vero cell assay and ELISA in the United States potency test of vaccines ... Endotoxin neutralizing capacity of sera from different patient populations assessed by the limulus lysate test. In: Watson SW, ... Gupta, RK; Siber, GR (Aug 1995). "Reappraisal of existing methods for potency testing of vaccines against tetanus and ...

*Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens

Bacteria may be detected beneath the seedcoat by means of a combined cultural and slide agglutination test. Bean seed from ... Since most plant pathogens are Gram-negative detection of Gram-positive bacterium, using methods such as the KOH test, is a ...

*Serotype

"Determining the serotype of isolated Salmonella strains in the veterinary sector using the rapid slide agglutination test". ... First of all, the use of the agglutination method on slides is required in order to get the antigen formula. The agglutination ... The antigen O is tested with a bacterial suspension from an agar plate whereas the antigen H is tested with a bacterial ... The scheme is used to classify the serovar depending on its antigen formula obtained with the reaction of the agglutination. ...

*Leptospirosis

... microscopic agglutination test), a serological test, is considered the gold standard in diagnosing leptospirosis. As a large ... Kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) as well as blood tests for liver functions are performed. The latter ... Antigenically related serovars are grouped into 24 serogroups, which are identified using the microscopic agglutination test ( ... Laboratory testing is lacking in many areas. In context of global epidemiology, the socioeconomic status of many of the world's ...

*Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida

Slide agglutination test using specific antiserum is needed for a confirmative identification of the microorganism (Romalde, ... The presumptive identification of the pathogen is based on standard biochemical tests. In addition, although Ph. damselae subsp ...

*Mycoplasma synoviae

Bacterial culture, immunofluorescence, PCR, ELISA or slide agglutination tests (SAT) can be used to make a more definitive ...

*Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-RhE)

Blood testing for the mother is called an Indirect Coombs Test (ICT) or an Indirect Agglutination Test (IAT). This test tells ... This blood test is non-invasive to the fetus and is an easy way of checking antigen status and risk of HDN. Testing has proven ... Fetal antigen status can be tested as early as 15 weeks by PCR of fetal cells. CVS is possible as well to test fetal antigen ... This test is run from cord blood. In some cases, the direct coombs will be negative but severe, even fatal HDN can occur. An ...

*Brucella

Oxidase and catalase tests are positive for most members of the genus Brucella. Serum agglutination with a titer > 1:160 in the ... developed the agglutination test, diagnostic of the disease. In 1905, Zammit, a Maltese physician, identified goats as the ... five patients with positive ELISA had a negative tube agglutination test. In the setting of Brucella arthritis, the synovial- ... PCR testing for fluid and tissue samples other than blood has also been described. A history of animal contact is pivotal; in ...

*Rheumatoid factor

Banchuin, N; Janyapoon, K; Sarntivijai, S; Parivisutt, L (1992). "Re-evaluation of ELISA and latex agglutination test for ... It is still referred to as the Waaler-Rose test. Falkenburg, W.J.J. (November 2015). "IgG Subclass Specificity Discriminates ... Rose, HM; Ragan, C (1948). "Differential agglutination of normal and sensitized sheep erythrocytes by sera of patients with ... RF on MedlinePlus Rheumatoid Factor on Lab Tests Online Rheumatoid Factor at eMedicine Rheumatoid Factor on WebMD. ...

*Haemophilus influenzae

The latex particle agglutination test (LAT) is a more sensitive method to detect H. influenzae than is culture. Because the ... 2007). "Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination ... However, antibiotic sensitivity testing is not possible with LAT alone, so a parallel culture is necessary. Polymerase chain ... Lab tests showed neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae than unexposed ...

*Mallein test

"Comparative Evaluation of Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination Test, Mallein Test, and Some Conventional Serological Tests for ... The mallein test is a sensitive and specific clinical test for glanders, a common bacterial disease of equids (horses, donkeys ... mules). This test is an allergic hypersensitivity test used as a diagnosis for glanders. It is caused by a bacterium called ... Hagebock, J.M., Schlater, L.K., Frerichs, W.M., & Olsen, D.D. (1993). "Serologic Responses to the Mallein Test for Glanders". ...

*Index of linguistics articles

Agglutination - Agglutinative language - Allative case - Allomorph - Allophone - Alphabet - Analytic language - Anaphora - ... Wug test X-bar theory Zipf's law. ...

*Semen quality

... abnormal postcoital test. Several tests are presently available including Sperm Immobilization test, Sperm Agglutination tests ... Hemizona test is a test to evaluate sperm zona-binding capacity. In this test, the two halves of human zona pellucida is ... One of the most informative and specific tests is Immunobead Rosette Test which can identify different antibody classes ... Men who scored high on a battery of intelligence tests tended to have higher counts of healthy sperm, while low scorers tended ...
Comparative evaluation of freeze-dried and liquid antigens in the direct agglutination test for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (ITMA-DAT/VL) ...
A rapid technique is disclosed for the identification of enteric bacteria which elaborate cholera-related heat-labile enterotoxin antigens which have the ability to cause diarrheal disease in man or animals. The invention includes a sensitized carrier particle for use as a reagent in an agglutination test for heat-labile enterotoxins and the use of said reagent in immunological determinations.
Author(s): Kiskároly Ferenc, Morić Ivana, Đokić Lidija, Vasiljević Branka, Šenerović Lidija, Mišić Dušan. Keywords:Salmonella, poultry, multiplex PCR, identification, taxonomy. The aim of the study was to evaluate and adapt the PCR-based protocol that utilizes the developed serotype-specific primers to identify Salmonella enterica species and its serotypes that are most frequently isolated from poultry samples in Vojvodina. Using the slide agglutination test, 64 and 33 out of 107 Salmonella isolates were identified as S. Infantis and S. Enteritidis, respectively, while ten isolates were identified as eight different Salmonella serovars. Using the same isolates, presence of 993-bp (bcfC gene), 636-bp (steB gene) and 293-bp (sdf locus) amplicons in multiplex PCR unambiguously identified 31 isolates as S. Enteritidis. Two isolates identified as Enteritidis in slide agglutination test were not identified as such in PCR-based approach since they both were missing 293-bp long PCR product. ...
Carrying out a laboratory audit, a significant quantity of particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were recognized when TPPA was used being a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). had been examined by INNO-LIA, and yet another 4 FTA-ABS-negative examples had been positive. In this scholarly study, significant quantities (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera had been shown by additional FTA-ABS and LIA (series immunoblot assay) assessment to maintain positivity. The key reason why specific sera are detrimental by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and various other syphilis confirmatory assays isnt apparent, and these preliminary findings ought to be additional explored. hemagglutination assay (TPHA), presented through the 1960s, provides been proven (17, 19) to become highly delicate and particular at discovering treponemal antibodies and continues to be utilized by many laboratories. An adjustment from the TPHA may be the particle ...
This invention provides particles for agglutination reaction measurement with high antigen potency. They were characterized by revealing the antigen, which has polylysine from recombinant DNA, and have combined this with the particles for agglutination reaction measurement. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement do not carry the antigen (which is infectious) and are safe. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement can be manufactured easily and in large quantities ...
Words that end in agglutinations, words that end with agglutinations, words ending in agglutinations, words ending with agglutinations
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Looking for passive agglutination? Find out information about passive agglutination. in biochemistry: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Explanation of passive agglutination
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small analytes having few epitopes are disclosed, by means of using hub moieties to which multiple analytes may be bound by a first epitope, together with a further moiety capable of binding a second analyte epitope and which is also capable of binding to a detectable particle. Stable agglutinated complexes may be so formed, which may used as the basis for various assay formats.
Passive agglutination is performed using tanned sheep red blood cells and P. aeruginosa LPS (heated for 1 hour at 100oC prior to use). Sheep erythrocytes are washed three times in saline (0.9% NaCl), adjusted to 4% erythrocytes (v/v) in PBS, pH 7.5 and 2.5mg of tannic acid in 50ml PBS is added to 50ml of the cell suspension. After a 15 minutes incubation at 37oC with occasional mixing, the cells are centrifuged (100 x g for 20 minutes) and washed with 100ml PBS. One half of the cells are kept as a control in PBS containing 1mM NaN3. To the other half of the cells, 20µg/ml LPS or protein is added, and the mixture is incubated for 1 hour at 37oC with very gentle agitation at regular intervals. The antigen-coated cells are washed three times in saline and 1mM NaN3 is added for storage at 4oC. The cells are made up to 1% (v/v) in saline before use.. Passive agglutination is performed in 96 well conical bottom plates (Linbro, Flow Labs) using 50µl of antiserum serially diluted in saline and 50µl ...
Vi agglutination is to date the best serological method for detecting typhoid carriers. The usual technique may present certain difficulties, which are accentuated by South African conditions. These difficulties are largely due to the lengthiness of the usual procedure. This lengthiness causes the serums, which are often not sterile, to decompose and also allows growth of contaminants. Dark-ground studies of Vi agglutination suggested that centrifugalisation would speed up the process by providing just that contact between the bacteria which is the typical pattern of Vi agglutination. In practice it proved possible, by incubating the mixtures of serum and bacteria for a very short time and then centrifugalising them at high speed, to circumvent the difficulties mentioned. This improved technique is descriptionbed in detail.
Eight strains of pneumococci of serological type 1, eight strains of type 2, and eleven strains belonging to neither type have been tested by the method of acid agglutination.. Strains belonging to the two typical groups have, as a rule, narrow zones of agglutination. The optimum hydrogen ion concentrations are different in the two cases. Other pneumococci have broad zones or, in a few cases, narrow zones not coincident with those occupied by the typical organisms.. The agglutination of most of the pneumococci of types 1 and 2 is extremely susceptible to the inhibiting action of salts. This is not true of the other pneumococci.. Old broth cultures may show an optimum hydrogen ion concentration different from that shown by young broth cultures.. ...
List of words make out of Agglutinations. All anagrams of Agglutinations. Words made after unscrambling Agglutinations. Scrabble Points. Puzzle Solver. Word Creation.
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The experimental results which have been described demonstrate the following facts:. 1. In the type-specific agglutination reaction, when the organisms are not present in sufficient numbers to absorb completely all the antibodies from the serum, more antibody is bound by cellular S than is required for the process of agglutination.. 2. The excess of antibody thus bound can then unite with additional amounts of the specific substance when this is added in soluble form to the agglutinated material.. 3. If an excess of the free S is added to an agglutinated mass of antibody and bacteria, the organisms are redispersed and in the suspended state are again specifically agglutinable.. 4. When a solution of the specific polysaccharide is added in excess to an homologous immune serum, a prozone is created in which precipitation is inhibited; moreover, if, at this point, type-specific pneumococci are added to the mixture, inhibition of agglutination also occurs.. 5. The reactive substance in the ...
Agglutination: …antibodies usually results in clumping-agglutination-of the red cells; therefore, antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens.
The assay off the present Invention is of particular use for detecting drugs, hormones, steroids, antibodies and other molecules circulating in the blood of a mammal or other animal.
Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell clumps, called agglutinates, are visible, making them a reliable test for...
Agglutination is a process of word formation. In an agglutinative language, morphemes, each having one relatively constant shape, are combined without fusion or morphophonemic change. Each grammatical category is typically represented by a single morpheme in the resulting word. Hilinqwo uses a system of bases to represent core concepts, and a system of affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to transform the bases into words.. ...
In biology, agglutination can mean a couple of things: The clumping together of cells due to the binding of agglutinin (a protein) molecules...
Looking for online definition of agglutination reaction in the Medical Dictionary? agglutination reaction explanation free. What is agglutination reaction? Meaning of agglutination reaction medical term. What does agglutination reaction mean?
Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean in law?
Definition of sperm agglutination test in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is sperm agglutination test? Meaning of sperm agglutination test as a finance term. What does sperm agglutination test mean in finance?
Aim: We determined the antibody response in cattle naturally infected with brucellosis and normal healthy adult cattle vaccinated during calf hood with strain 19.. Materials and Methods: The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols.. Results: The mean STAT titers were 1.963 0.345 in infected cattle and 1.200 0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was extremely significant (p,0.0001). The mean MAT titers were 2.244 0.727 in infected cattle and 1.200 0.155 in healthy vaccinated cattle. The difference was very significant (p,0.005). The mean IHA titers in infected cattle were 2.284 0.574, and those in healthy vaccinated cattle were 1.200 0.155. The difference was extremely significant (p=0.0002). However, the difference in mean iELISA titers of infected cattle (1.3678 0.014) and healthy ...
Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic disease in some parts of Iran. Many techniques have been used for diagnosis of VL, among which the urine based la-tex agglutination test (KAtex) is a promising one. Objective: To compare three diag-nostic tests of VL including KAtex, ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in VL patients and healthy controls in the south west of Iran. Methods: Serum (n = 29) and urine samples (n = 31) were collected from parasitologically confirmed VL patients. Control samples were obtained from healthy individuals (n = 61) and also from patients with infectious diseases other than VL. The collected serum samples were tested by DAT and ELISA using crude antigen from promastigotes of Leishmania infantum and the urine samples were tested by KAtex. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of KAtex for diagnosis of VL was found to be 83.9% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivities of DAT and ELISA were 93.1% and 86.2% and their specificities were 100% and 90.5%, respectively.
Lectins are carbohydrate-interacting proteins that play a pivotal role in multiple physiological and developmental aspects of all organisms. They can specifically interact with different bacterial and viral pathogens through carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRD). In addition, lectins are also of biotechnological interest because of their potential use as biosensors for capturing and identifying bacterial species. In this work, three C-type lectins from the Lepidoptera Spodoptera exigua were produced as recombinant proteins and their bacterial agglutination properties were characterized. The lowest protein concentration producing bacterial agglutination against a panel of different Gram+ and Gram− as well as their carbohydrate binding specificities was determined for the three lectins. One of these lectins, BLL2, was able to agglutinate cells from a broad range of bacterial species at an extremely low concentration, becoming a very interesting protein to be used as a biosensor or for other
Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91). The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the
Passive Agglutination Tests in which Antigen is adsorbed onto Latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed Antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed ...
... ,A Color-Enhanced Slide Agglutination Test for the Rapid Qualitative and Semi-Quantitative Detection of Rheumatoid Factor in Serum.,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Bain, G O., "Agglutinin response to sheep erythrocytes in mice following intra- peritoneal injection of allogeneic spleen cells." (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 57 ...
Abstract. This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA ...
An immunodiagnostic test card includes a plurality of transparent chambers wherein each chamber includes a quantity of testing material that combines with a patient sample, when mixed, to produce an agglutination reaction. A plurality of indicia are disposed to aid in the manufacture and determining the usability of the cards prior to test and also in objectively grading the agglutination reactions that are formed or lack of agglutination.
Abstract does not appear. First page follows. Introduction All who have used the agglutination test for the detection of fowls that harbor Bacterium pullorum have observed the occurrence of excessive turbidity in many tubes which seriously interfered with accurate reading of the reactions. Hitchner, in 1923, reported that the turbidity resulted from the precipitation of fat that is present in the blood serum of some fowls and that it could be avoided by starving fowls for thirty-six hours before blood samples were drawn. Matthews, in 1926, reported studies which he believed demonstrated that such turbidity was due to the presence of a protein rather than a fatty substance in blood serum of fowls. He stated that this protein substance was soluble in weak alkali solution and that clouding of agglutination tests could be avoided by adding a small amount of sodium hydroxide solution to antigen. Bushnell,
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A process for producing a microcapsule diagnostic material utilizing passive agglutination which comprises binding an antigen or antibody onto a microcapsule wall negatively charged, in an acidic solution is provided. The microcapsule diagnostic material thus produced has an extremely high sensitivity in agglutination without causing any non-specific agglutination.
Biology Animations includes selected, high quality biological animations; about cell biology, microbiology, genetics, immunology, cancer treatments and diagnosis.... ...
1. The agglutination inhibition zone, artificially produced by heating, has been studied.. 2. The phenomenon is specific and is dependent upon the presence in the inhibition zone serum of altered agglutinin (agglutinoid).. ...
Definition of group agglutination. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
About - ABIBA PHARMACIA ABIBA Pharmacia Pvt. Ltd. Was established in the year 2014 and engages in manufacturing, trading, supplying and exporting of quality...
In biology, agglutination can mean a couple of things: The clumping together of cells due to the binding of agglutinin (a protein) molecules...
The results of this study demonstrate that MAT results are discordant among different laboratories in dogs recently vaccinated against leptospirosis and in dogs with clinical leptospirosis. The percentage agreement among the VDLs was as low as 11% for the vaccinated dogs, and was only 31% for initial titers from the clinical cases, and 27% for the results from the convalescent samples. In addition, the data show that MAT results vary over time in individual dogs with the disease. These observations suggest that MAT titers cannot be relied upon to predict the infecting serogroup in dogs with leptospirosis.. Dogs in this study that were vaccinated with a 4-serovar subunit vaccine developed positive MAT titers at all VDLs. These dogs frequently developed the highest titers to nonvaccinal serogroups. This finding has been reported in a previous study in which dogs vaccinated with a subunit vaccine containing serovars Pomona and Grippotyphosa developed the highest MAT titers to serogroup Autumnalis.8 ...
Abstract. Background: Different serological tests are used in serologic diagnosis of brucellosis. The most widely used of these are Standard Tube Agglutination and Coombs anti-brucella tests. Whereas ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests have been in use for a long time, immuncapture agglutination test has been recently introduced and used in serological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic values of ELISA Ig M and Ig G and immuncapture agglutination tests with Coombs anti-brucella test.. Methods: Sera from 200 patients with presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis were included into the study. Coombs anti-brucella test, ELISA Ig M and Ig G tests and Immuncapture test were investigated in these sera. Then, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were calculated.. Results: Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive and positive predictive values were found to be 90,6 %, 76,3 %, 94,2 %, and 65,9 % respectively for the Immuncapture test, whereas they ...
A patient with a metastatic colon carcinoma was treated by immunoadsorption (IA) therapy using heat-killed, formalin-stabilized protein A-containing Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I as the immunoadsorbent. The patient experienced both subjective and objective positive clinical response without undue morbidity. The patients response correlated well with laboratory findings of decreased concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), immune complexes (IC) and histopathologic data. The patient underwent surgery following 15 IA treatments; she lived for eighteen months, post-treatment.
We evaluated the field use of two serologic tests for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the direct agglutination test (DAT) and rK39 dipstick test, in the context of a case-control study. Most VL cases in Nepal are currently diagnosed on clinical grounds and with relatively non-specific tests such as the formol-gel test. Among 14 newly diagnosed VL patients with bone-marrow slides confirmed positive in two independent laboratories, the sensitivity of both tests was 100%. Among 113 controls with no personal or household history of VL, the specificity of the rK39 was 100% while that of the DAT was 93%. The rK39 was less expensive than DAT, and has the advantages of ease of use and obtaining results within minutes. The wider use of the rK39 dipstick test could improve the specificity of VL diagnosis in Nepal.
A newly developed latex agglutination assay for the detection of genus-specific Leptospira antibodies in human sera was evaluated. The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. The latex agglutination test was evaluated with groups of serum samples from patients with leptospirosis and control patients from Hawaii, the Seychelles, Thailand, and The Netherlands. The mean overall sensitivity was 82.3%, and the mean overall specificity was 94.6%. The assay is easy to perform and does not require special skills or equipment. The reagents have a long shelf life, even at tropical temperatures. Together, these factors make the assay suitable for use even at the peripheral level of a health care system as a rapid screening test for leptospirosis. ...
The analysis of 4450 toxoplasma serology results showed that 59 (1.3%) latex agglutination reactions were not confirmed in the dye test. These discrepant results were associated with an unspecified IgM antibody but not associated with kit batch variation, inactivation of sera, concurrent cytomegalovirus infection, or the presence of hepatitis B virus "e" antigen. The latex agglutination test is useful as a screen for toxoplasma infection but false positive reactions do occur. Patients at risk of severe toxoplasmosis should be investigated by additional tests.. ...
I am a 38 years old male, who had severe weakness, dizziness, breathlessness and chest pain for over period of one month last year. It started with a throat infection. Finally, |b|I underwent Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:160 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 3500.|/b| Based on this, I was treated for typhoid. But I never had fever in this period. I also underwent ECG and 2D echo cardiogram, which came normal. However, I was diagnosed with GERD. Two months back, I again went for Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:20 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 6300. Now, I am again experiencing fatigue and chest pain. Widal test has revealed Typhi O as 1:80 and Typhi H 1:160. WBC came 4300. Is Widal test a confirmation of typhoid? I have no loose motions, fever and do exercise regularly.
Synonyms for Agglutination (linguistics) in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Agglutination (linguistics). 1 synonym for agglutination: agglutinating activity. What are synonyms for Agglutination (linguistics)?
Visceral Leishmaniasis, also known as Kala Azar, commonly presents with prolonged fever, enlarged spleen and liver, sometimes with diffusely enlarged lymph nodes, and bone marrow involvement which can lead to anemia and low platelet and white cell counts. It often coexists with HIV infection, though not so much in Old Fangak where HIV is still relatively rare. It can be diagnosed with a rapid diagnostic test which detects rK-39 antibodies and is about 80% sensitive. If this is negative, a DAT (direct agglutination test) is performed which should detect 95% of cases. A lymph node aspirate can detect the actual organism, which is helpful when the immune response is not vigorous, like with HIV coinfection. It is about 60% sensitive, and can be used for detection of recurrence, unlike antibody and agglutination tests. Spleen aspirates, also useful in recurrence, have sensitivities as high as 95%. The lab staff is capable and confident in performing lymph node aspirates, which in the US would be a ...
OBJECTIVE: To study the predominant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain types in Pakistan and to evaluate their correlation with fluoroquinolone resistance. METHOD: A total of 314 strains were collected from 2007-2009. Of these 112 strains were randomly selected for serotyping via the coagglutination technique. Fluoroquinolone susceptibility was checked through the E-test method. Chi square was performed to assess the correlation between the strain type and fluoroquinolone resistance pattern. RESULTS: N. gonorrhoeae isolates were typed in two serogroups and 28 serovars. Serogroup WI comprised 40% (n = 45) whereas WII/WIII was 60% (n = 67). Most commonly isolated serovar belonged to serogroup WI namely Aorst (10%). The other predominant circulating serovars of the serogroup WI were Aost (9%) and Ast (8%) and Bsy (8%), Bopyt (5%) and Bprt (4.5%) in the serogroup WII/III. Fluoroquinolone resistance was 98%, with an MIC of 2 microg/mL in 47%, 4 microg/mL in 36% and | 32 microg/mL in 12% of the isolates. On
Toxoplasmosis is the major parasitic disease affecting sheep. It is important for veterinary medicine, animal science and public health since it causes reproductive and economic losses in the herd, as well as damaging human health due to consumption of contaminated meat and milk, which can facilitate zoonotic transmission. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in ovine milk and lack of data in the literature describing differentiation between acute and chronic disease for this species stimulated the elaboration of the present research project. To achieve the aim of this study, the animals were allocated to two groups of 20 ewes each, of which group 1 was composed of animals with positive serology and group 2 with negative serology. Acute and chronic stages of the disease were differentiated by modified direct agglutination test (MAT), in which antigens were fixed with formalin (MAT-AF) and methanol (MAT-AM). The parasite was detected in milk by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the molecular ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that thrives in Estonia. In this nationwide cross-sectional study, we tested sera from 3991 cattle, collected from 228 farms in 2012-2013, for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using a commercial direct agglutination test. Titer of 100 was set as cut-off: samples that tested positive at the dilution 1:100 were defined as positive. The app ...
Agglutination occurs when an antibody interacts with antigen, resulting in cross-linking of the antigen particles by the antibody. This eventually leads to clumping. "Agglutination" comes from the Latin root agglutinare. "Agglutinare" means, "to glue". Cross-linking, or cross-matching is done to determine matches. Agglutination may occur when an unideterminate, multivalent antigen interacts with a single antibody. It may also occur if a multi determinate, univalent antigen interacts with at least two distinct antibodies. Cross Agglutination: when an antibody that is raised against a similar antigen agglutinates that antigen. Group Agglutination: when a collection of similar organisms is agglutinated by an agglutinin that is specific for that collection. Applications for the agglutination test BLOOD TYPING There are different blood groups like A,B, AB and O. The different blood types are differentiated according to the types of proteins on the surfaces of the red blood cells. Human red blood ...
The gonococcal isolates from 15 contact pairs and three large contact groups were examined using various methods to assess the stability of different typing markers. With the exception of one contact group which showed variable proline requirements, the auxotypes were stable during natural transmission. Serogrouping using the coagglutination method to detect W and M antigens was undertaken. The lipopolysaccharide M antigens were readily lost and gained during transmission whereas the protein W antigens represented stable markers and are thus useful for epidemiological studies.. ...
serum agglutinin An antibody which coats erythrocytes; the cells do not agglutinate when suspended in saline, but do agglutinate when suspended in serum or other protein media such as albumin. ...
In AB case, say the one with type AB Blood is transfused with type A Blood. We know that on type A Blood there is antigen A + anti-B. This anti will clump antigen B of the type AB blood. Also, when the one with type AB Blood is transfused with type B Blood. We know that on type B Blood there is antigen B + anti-A. This anti will clump antigen A of the type AB blood. There is an agglutination reaction less or more ...
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. Prostate-specific antigen has, however, insufficient diagnostic specificity. Novel complementary diagnostic
0084] In a preferred embodiment the presence of Gallibacterium is determined by an immune test. An immune test uses monoclonal antibodies or polyclonal antisera specific to Gallibacterium. The generation of monoclonal antibodies is known in the art (Kearney, J. F., Radbruch A., Liesegang B., Rajewski K. A new mouse myeloma cell line that has lost immunoglobulin expression but permits construction of antibody-secreting hybrid cell lines. J. Immunol. 1979, 123: 1548-1550., Kohler, G., Milstein, C. Continous culture of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specifity. Nature 1975, 265: 495-497) Immune tests include the methods of detection known in the art such as the ELISA test (enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay) or the so-called sandwich-ELISA test, dot blots, immunoblots, radioimmuno tests (radioimmunoassay RIA), diffusion-based Ouchterlony test or rocket immunofluorescent assays) or agglutination tests (rapid plate or micro-plate agglutination tests). Another immune test is the so-called ...
Question - Typhoid infection, fever, abdominal pain. Widal test shows S typhi O, H positive. Recurring infection?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Typhoid, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
Agglutination definition, n. - The building of words from component morphemes that retain their form and meaning in the process of combining; A clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies.. See more.
Introduction, Principle, Methods, Procedure, Result Interpretation and Limitations of Widal Test for Salmonella typhi and paratyphi.
books.google.comhttps://books.google.com/books/about/Essentials_of_practical_microtechnique.html?id=HWLXAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareEssentials of practical microtechnique ...
... : Latex agglutination tests for the detection of C-reactive protein. Results provided in
Principal Investigator:MIYAZAKI Chiaki, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1991, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Pediatrics
An example in English would be the forming of the word likeness from "like", by pasting "like" and "-ness" together. A similar example in English would be the glued on "-ance" in "inherit+ance" or "import+ance" or "maintain+ance", or the many -tion or -sion endings following words such as deci(de)+sion, exclamation, (exclaim+tion), and yes, even agglutination or inflection ...
Routine clinical examination is generally used as an initial screening to help diagnose before specific examination performed. Serologic tests performed using rapid test method, agglutination reaction and immunochromatography. ...
An agglutination test used in the laboratory to diagnose rickettsial diseases. It depends on a nonspecific cross reaction between antibodies produced by the rickettsial infection with the OX-2, OX-19 and OXK antigens of the Gram negative rod, Proteus.. ...
gone through the prelim inary culture Box templates free printable to Lentz and Tietz. URINE 209 fragments of carcinoma exfoliated acute primary epide have also. Olicana font agglutination test food rests are found lying close together in other infectious diseases as. the coloration Olicana font until the peptone or a saturated watery. Stain 2 fifteen to a few isolated bacilli. In addition the ex are added which are made as soon as possible after evacua any. URINE 209 the urine is determined Olicana font the usual manner the hydrochloric acid solution ...
Synonyms for agglutinating activity in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for agglutinating activity. 1 synonym for agglutinating activity: agglutination. What are synonyms for agglutinating activity?
There are 18 fourteen-letter words containing A, 2G, L and U: AGGLUTINATIONS AGGLUTINOGENIC CONGLOBULATING ... SLUGGARDLINESS SLUGGARDNESSES VILLEGGIATURAS. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. Create other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Zbinden, R; Ritzler, M; Ritzler, E; Berger-Bächi, B (2001). Detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a by rapid slide latex agglutination test in coagulase-negative staphylococci. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 39(1):412. ...
Summary An agglutination assay for detecting intermicrobial adherence between the cells of Candida albicans and various oral bacteria is described. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, S. salivarius, S. mutans, S. mitis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces viscosus all coagglutinated with C. albicans. No interaction could be demonstrated between the cells of Bacteroides melaninogenicus and those of C. albicans. Preliminary investigations of these interactions suggest that binding of F. nucleatum and A. viscosus to C. albicans is mediated by bacterial proteins, possibly lectins. Other mechanisms must account for the binding of oral streptococci to C. albicans. The possible implications of these findings in relation to oral mucosal colonisation and oral candidal clearance are discussed.
To understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to sequestration of red blood cells infected with mature stages of Plasmodium falciparum and to examine the relevance of earlier studies on adherence properties of laboratory-derived P falciparum parasites to the natural parasite population, we analyzed Gambian and Tanzanian isolates for in vitro cytoadherence and antibody-mediated microagglutination. Eighteen cryopreserved isolates of ring-stage parasites were cultured for 20 to 30 hours in vitro, in the patients original erythrocytes, to the trophozoite and schizont stage. All parasites were positive in the microagglutination assay with at least one of four African hyperimmune sera. In a rosetting assay, only 2 of the 18 isolates were strongly positive (35% and 41% of parasitized erythrocytes with more than two uninfected cells bound). Thirteen isolates showed either intermediate (5% to 18%) or low (less than 5%) rosetting while three isolates did not form rosettes. Infected cell-binding of the ...
In our previous paper (Matsuo, K., Isogai, E., and Araki, Y., Carbohydr. Res., 328: 517-524, 2000), antigenic polysaccharides obtained from the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fraction of a nonpathogenic leptospira, Leptospira biflexa patoc Patoc I, are shown to be broadly crossreactable with most rabbit antisera elicited by immunization with various pathogenic leptospires. The result led us to test a protective effect of the same LPS in a hamster model system by heterologously challenging with a pathogenic leptospira, L. interrogans manilae UP-MMG. Firstly, a similarity in the antigenic epitopes of L. biflexa and L. interrogans was confirmed by the following assays. In the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), a hamster antiserum elicited by immunization with the L. biflexa-LPS preparation was shown to agglutinate cells of L. interrogans. Contrarily, in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the L. biflexa-LPS preparation was shown to crossreact with a hamster antiserum elicited by immunization with
ABSTRACT. A serological survey of leptospirosis in cattle originating from rural communities of the province of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) in South Africa was carried out between March 2001 and December 2003. The survey was designed as a 2-stage survey, using the local diptank as the primary sampling point. In total, 2021 animals from 379 diptanks in 33 magisterial districts were sampled and tested with the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The apparent prevalence at district level was adjusted for clustering and diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity and displayed in maps. The prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle originating from communal grazing areas of KZN was found to be 19.4 % with a 95 % confidence interval of 14.8-24.1 %. At district level the prevalence of leptospirosis varied from 0 to 63 % of cattle. Bovine leptospirosis was found to occur in communal grazing areas throughout the province with the exception of 2 districts. The southeastern regions showed a higher prevalence than ...
Leptospirosis has a varied clinical presentation with complications like myocarditis and acute renal failure. There are many predictors of severity and mortality including clinical and laboratory parameters. Early detection and treatment can reduce complications. Therefore recognizing the early predictors of the complications of leptospirosis is important in patient management. This study was aimed at determining the clinical and laboratory predictors of myocarditis or acute renal failure. This was a prospective descriptive study carried out in the Teaching Hospital, Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. Patients with clinical features compatible with leptospirosis case definition were confirmed using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Clinical features and laboratory measures done on admission were recorded. Patients were observed for the development of acute renal failure or myocarditis. Chi-square statistics, Fishers exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare patients with
Indirect immunofluorescence, competitive radioimmunoassay, HTLV I-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gelatin particle agglutination Serodia-ATLA were compared in terms of their ability to detect antibody to human T cell leukaemia virus I (HTLV I). The sensitivities were 96.9%, 92%, 97.0%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificities 99.3%, 98.9%, 98.6%, and 96.3%. Particle agglutination was very simple to perform and was the most sensitive, though the least specific test. Antibody titres were 10-100 times higher when measured by particle agglutination than by other tests, and antibody titers were considerably higher in patients with neurological disease related to HTLV I than in those with other conditions. Serodia-ATLA is the method of choice for preliminary screening of specimens for antibody to HTLV I, but positive results must be confirmed by another technique.. ...
ABSTRACT. A case-control study was carried out to investigate a syndrome in smallholder dairy cattle in East Usambara Mountains characterised by urination of clotted blood. Smallholder dairy farms with the problem (cases) were matched with nearest farms without the problem (controls). In total, 30 farmers from Mbomole (19), Shebomeza (9) and Mlesa (2) villages in Amani division participated in the study. Using a structured questionnaire, information on risk factors associated with conditions characterised by passage of red urine in cattle was collected. In addition, serum samples from 80 smallholder dairy animals were collected and submitted for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis and babesiosis by microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Laboratory analysis showed that the seroprevalence of leptospirosis and babesiosis was 21.3% and 46.3%, respectively and there was no significant difference between case and control farms ...
The Cand-Tec Candida detection system and enzyme immunoassay for serum mannan were retrospectively compared in a controlled collaborative evaluation of antigen detection in 32 patients with candidiasis proven by biopsy or culture from a normally sterile site and with sera drawn within 7 days of inclusion. With a threshold titer of 1/8, which excluded false-positive results in 17 hospitalized patients without candidiasis, sensitivities for all 32 patients with candidiasis were 44% for the Cand-Tec assay and 17% for the enzyme immunoassay. Both assays provided greater sensitivity when sera were drawn within 24 h of inclusion in the study and in the category of patients with invasive candidiasis (57% by Cand-Tec and 33% by enzyme immunoassay). The Cand-Tec assay gave false-positive results (titer, greater than or equal to 1/8) in 4 of 6 patients with transient candidemia, in 1 of 20 otherwise healthy patients with rheumatoid factor, and in 1 patient with a positive cryptococcal latex agglutination ...
OBJECTIVES. The Leishmaniasis presents cosmopolitan distribution, being endemic in 88 countries 66 in the Old World and 22 in the New World. Affected so much to human as animals and in general terms, it is considered as a zoonosis disease. In Spain the Leishmaniosis is endemic and annually they are reported from 100 to 200 cases of visceral form and more than 5000 in dogs. An important point to consider is that in the basin of Mediterranean 70% of the cases of visceral Leishmaniosis in adults is presented in association with the VIH.. The dog is the main reservoir of L. infantum in the Mediterranean basin. The role of other animals, like cats for example, in the transmission needs to be studied.. MATERIALS. There were collected a total of 50 cat serum of animals that went to consultation for some immune dysfunction. These samples were analyzed by the Direct Agglutination Test DAT, considering as positive those samples whose holding antibodies title were 1/800 or more.. RESULTS. The 42% (21/50) ...
0023]It is known that ultrasound can be used to enhance coated particle agglutination immunoassays by using a ultrasonic standing wave field. A large amount of reports were published from the mid-1980s to the late 1990s, wherein ultrasound was used to enhance both rate and sensitivity of an agglutination assay. Such documents disclose only ultrasound-enhanced agglutination, whereas none of the publications in this group report usage of ultrasound to disrupt specific ligand anti-ligand bonds. Examples of documents disclosing such ultrasonic enhancement of agglutination are GB-A-2,233,089, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,575,485, 5,227,312, 5,665,605, 5,853,994, 5,912,182 and Ellis et al. "Diagnostic particle agglutination using ultrasound: a new technology to rejuvenate old microbiological methods" J. Med. Microbiol. 49 853 (2000). In the present invention, the sonication disrupts the binding which is the opposite effect from enhancing or driving the binding reaction. However, such use of ultrasound to enhance ...
A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romaña's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent
Carrying out a laboratory audit, a significant quantity of particle agglutination assay (TPPA)-negative sera were recognized when TPPA was used being a confirmatory assay of syphilis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening-reactive sera (SSRS). had been examined by INNO-LIA, and yet another 4 FTA-ABS-negative examples had been positive. In this scholarly study, significant quantities (18/26) of SSRS- and TPPA-negative sera had been shown by additional FTA-ABS and LIA (series immunoblot assay) assessment to maintain positivity. The key reason why specific sera are detrimental by TPPA but reactive by treponemal EIA and various other syphilis confirmatory assays isnt apparent, and these preliminary findings ought to be additional explored. hemagglutination assay (TPHA), presented through the 1960s, provides been proven (17, 19) to become highly delicate and particular at discovering treponemal antibodies and continues to be utilized by many laboratories. An adjustment from the TPHA may be the particle ...
Question - How long syphilis virus can active in body ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay is advised, Ask a Sexual Diseases Specialist
Typhoid is endemic in almost all parts of Bangladesh. Widal test is one of the easily available tools in many areas of the developing countries for the diagnosis of typhoid fever. The interpretation of Widal test depends upon the baseline titer which is prevalent amongst healthy individuals in a particular geographical area. In the endemic areas, the healthy people may contain antibodies which are capable of reacting up to a variable titer in the Widal test due to a past exposure, vaccination and cross reacting antigens. Therefore, it varies widely from place to place and is referred to as the baseline titer of that area. The objectives of this study were to determine the average baseline titer of the apparently healthy students of a private medical college of Dhaka and to find out the correlation among age; sex and the history of typhoid fever, antibiotics and vaccines against typhoid in regard to the Widal titers. The blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy students over the ...
Concurrent surveys of sex workers in Liuzhou, China, using different sampling methods found significantly different estimates of the prevalence of a biomarker of syphilis (24.0% vs 8.5%) and other characteristics. This is the first study to compare biomarker outcomes from concurrently implemented venue-based and RDS investigations of sex workers. Previous studies have compared findings from different time periods or from samples not designed to compare estimates.21-24. We expected the two protocols to obtain similar estimates. Without a gold standard measure, interpretation is difficult, although some insight is available from comparison with a 2005 study25 and exploratory analysis of possible explanations of the difference. The 2005 study of sex workers in urban districts of Liuzhou estimated the prevalence of syphilis to be 11% using a two-stage testing algorithm consisting of a rapid plasma regain (RPR) test followed by a Passive Particle Agglutination Test for those with a positive RPR test. ...
A patient is suspected to acquire leptospirosis when experiencing symptoms for about 1-2 weeks after exposure to the urine of the carrier animals. This disease can only be confirmed through blood tests to detect the presence of leptospira bacteria. Leptospira bacteria can be isolated from blood, urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the first phase of the illness. [35] They are several criteria to confirm if a patient has the leptospirosis disease. Firstly, it may be confirmed through the isolation of leptospira from a clinical specimen. Besides, leptospirosis infection is confirmed if there is fourfold or greater increase in leptospira agglutination titer between acute and convalescent phase serum specimens obtained in 2 weeks or more apart and studied at the same laboratory. [36] Other than that, urine analysis is also reliable. If a urine test gives a positive result during the second week of illness and continues on up to 30 days, the patient is confirmed to have leptospirosis. [37 ...
A patient is suspected to acquire leptospirosis when experiencing symptoms for about 1-2 weeks after exposure to the urine of the carrier animals. This disease can only be confirmed through blood tests to detect the presence of leptospira bacteria. Leptospira bacteria can be isolated from blood, urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the first phase of the illness. [35] They are several criteria to confirm if a patient has the leptospirosis disease. Firstly, it may be confirmed through the isolation of leptospira from a clinical specimen. Besides, leptospirosis infection is confirmed if there is fourfold or greater increase in leptospira agglutination titer between acute and convalescent phase serum specimens obtained in 2 weeks or more apart and studied at the same laboratory. [36] Other than that, urine analysis is also reliable. If a urine test gives a positive result during the second week of illness and continues on up to 30 days, the patient is confirmed to have leptospirosis. [37 ...
S there difference between indirect and direct coombs test - S there difference between indirect and direct Coombs test? Yes. The direct Coombs test is typically used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia, a disorder involving destruction of red blood cells. It determines whether or not antibodies are present on the surface of the patients rbcs. The indirect Coombs test is typically used to test for blood type compatibility prior to a transfusion, and detects the presence of antibodies in the serum of the patient.
Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrodes capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN ...
bioMérieux Slidex* Latex Agglutination for Streptococci Kits - Strepto Plus A Reagent;6656015PK : Pack of 50 bioMerieux No.:58818
COOMBs test主要用於檢查溶血是否由於抗體造成》直接檢查是偵測紅血球和這種自體抗體結合的情形3間接檢測則是查血清中是否出現這種抗體》 本處介紹的是直接型Coombs Test3主要偵測細胞模上的IgG和C3補體》根據IgG和C3的附著結果3可以分為四型 ...
Kalamazoo, MI, and Foster City, CA -- August 8, 1996. Pharmacia & Upjohn (NYSE: PNU) and Gilead Sciences, Inc. (NASDAQ:GILD) announced today that they have entered into a collaboration to market VISTIDE (cidofovir injection) in all countries outside the United States. Gilead received marketing clearance for VISTIDE from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in June and will continue to independently market the product in the U.S. through its antiviral specialty sales force. Under the terms of the agreement, which is valued at (US) $60 million, exclusive of royalties, Pharmacia & Upjohn will pay Gilead an initial license fee of $10 million. Upon receipt of a European marketing authorization for VISTIDE, Gilead will receive a single milestone payment of $10 million, and Pharmacia & Upjohn will acquire $40 million of newly issued, Gilead preferred stock. The stock will be priced at 145 percent of the average closing price of Gileads common stock over the thirty trading days prior to receipt of ...
Wampole ColorCard® ASO is a latex agglutination test for the rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative detection of Antistreptolysin O antibodies in serum.
The Thermo Scientific Easy-Titer Human IgG (gamma chain) Assay Kit includes antibody-sensitized microspheres to measure the specific concentration of antibodies by an easy and rapid microagglutination technique using standard microplates and UV-Vis plate reader (spectrophotometer). This kit is speci
Novel methods and devices are provided involving at least one chamber, at least one capillary, and at least one reagent involved in a system providing for a detectable signal. As appropriate, the devices provide for measuring a sample, mixing the sample with reagents, defining a flow path, and reading the result. Of particular interest is the use of combinations of specific binding pair members which result in agglutination information, where the resulting agglutination particles may provide for changes in flow rate, light patterns of a flowing medium, or light absorption or scattering. A fabrication technique particularly suited for forming internal chambers in plastic devices is also described along with various control devices for use with the basic device.
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
Jonke often seems determined in his writing to deny the possibility of any such delicately balanced translation. The fact that Kling is able to maintain this balance through the variety of prose, lyric and dramatic dialogue that he selects only adds to his accomplishment. Most notable in this regard are his renderings of Jonkes gleefully exaggerated word agglutinations that, however improbable in the original, are still theoretically possible according to German word-formational convention. In these instances, Kling opts for an effective and playful variation as opposed to consistency. He sometimes follows Jonkes lead with impossible but still comprehensible English agglutinations, but he also takes the more standard English route, and in some cases, he even opts for both. Perhaps the most extreme example, itself a sort of linguistic "Blinding Moment" from the piece of the same name, illustrates Klings skill in mixing it up. When Jonkes exuberance produces ...
CARMONA-GASCA, Carlos Alfredo et al. Detection of Leptospira santarosai and L. kirschneri in cattle: new isolates with potential impact in bovine production and public health. Vet. Méx [online]. 2011, vol.42, n.4, pp.277-288. ISSN 0301-5092.. Bovine leptospirosis causes high economic losses in cattle mainly due to reproductive failure, as well as representing public health risk. Since the last century, antibody titers against several Leptospira serovars have been detected by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) in Mexico. With the exception of very few cases, the presence of serovars causing leptospirosis in cattle and other animal species has not been demonstrated by isolation in Mexico, and in such cases characterization had to be done abroad by complex and slow immunological approaches, by comparison with a number of reference strains. The present study was conducted to perform the molecular characterization of Leptospira isolates by multiple locus sequencing typing (MLST). A hundred and ...
To investigate the seroprevalence of leptospiral infection in sheep in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran, bloodsamples were taken from 181 female sheep. Sera were stored at -20°C until use. They were initially screenedat serum dilution of 1:100 against six live antigens of Leptospira interrogans serovars pomona, canicola,hardjo, ballum, icterohaemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Thesamples were considered positive if ≥ 50% of agglutination of leptospire in a dilution test serum of ≥ l:100were observed. Sera with positive results were titrated against reacting antigens in serial two-fold dilutionsfrom l:100 to 1:1600. Antibodies against one or more serovars were detected in 27 (14.9%) sera at dilution≥1:100. Antibodies against more than one serovar were found in 5 (18.5%) positive sera. Among the positivesera, antibodies were most frequent to serovar pomona (43.8%) followed by canicola (21.9%),icterohaemorrhagiae (12.5%), grippotyphosa (9.4%), ballum and hardjo (each
Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses.. ...
The excretion of Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in the urine of cattle was studied in naturally and experimentally infected animals. Five of 15 naturally infected animals with microscopic agglutination test titres of , or = 1:300 shed leptospires for between 28 and 40 weeks. Twenty yearling heifers, experimentally infected by either the supraconjunctival or intrauterine routes, shed leptospires for from eight to 60 weeks; the 10 infected via the uterus shed L interrogans serovar hardjo for a mean of 26 weeks (range eight to 54 weeks) and the 10 infected by the supraconjunctival route shed the organism for a mean of 32 weeks (range 12 to 60 weeks). The results suggest that natural infection results in more prolonged excretion than experimental infection. No intermittent or seasonal excretion of the organism was observed. After the initial experimental infection, large numbers of leptospires were shed in the urine for several weeks, and thereafter there was a progressive decline in the ...
The card agglutination test for Trypanosoma evansi (CATT/T. evansi) for the detection of antibodies, and Suratex for the detection of circulating antigens were compared in a cross-sectional study involving camels in eastern and central parts of Kenya. Of the 2227 camels screened, 2038 were owned by nomadic pastoralists in T. evansi endemic areas in eastern Kenya. A herd of 86 camels were from a ranch in Mugwoni. In Athi River area, 35 camels belonged to Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, and 68 were slaughter animals. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 51 camels that had been found to be parasitologically positive by the haematocrit centrifugation technique, buffy-coat technique and mouse inoculation. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 35 camels known to be trypanosome-free. Positive and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated using a range of prevalence values. The sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (68.6%) was higher than that ...

Duration of urinary excretion of leptospires by cattle naturally or experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar...Duration of urinary excretion of leptospires by cattle naturally or experimentally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar...

Five of 15 naturally infected animals with microscopic agglutination test titres of , or = 1:300 shed leptospires for between ...
more infohttp://veterinaryrecord.bmj.com/content/131/19/435

HETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of PhysiciansHETEROPHILE ANTIBODY REACTION IN INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians

The sheep cell agglutination test or heterophile antibody reaction, as it is also called, is a laboratory procedure of ... In this country one frequently speaks alternately of the Paul-Bunnell test; and in Europe it is often referred to as the ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/673018/heterophile-antibody-reaction-infectious-mononucleosis

Most recent papers with the keyword Sperm agglutination | Read by QxMDMost recent papers with the keyword Sperm agglutination | Read by QxMD

Using 30 bulls with neosporosis diagnosed by modified agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 15 ... individuals and were screened by tray agglutination tests (TAT)... ... Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrodes capacitation medium with albumin, lactate ... In addition to "agglutination", the terms "association", "rouleaux", or "rosettes" are employed interchangeably to describe the ...
more infohttps://www.readbyqxmd.com/keyword/68753

Agglutination Tests, Latex - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.orgAgglutination Tests, Latex - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org

Agglutination Tests, Latex. Passive Agglutination Tests in which Antigen is adsorbed onto Latex particles which then clump in ...
more infohttp://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/definitions-a/agglutination-tests-latex.html

Direct agglutination test - WikipediaDirect agglutination test - Wikipedia

A direct agglutination test (DAT) is any test that uses whole organisms as a means of looking for serum antibodies. The ... 2006). "Serological diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis: direct agglutination test versus rK39 strip test". Trans R Soc ... abbreviation, DAT, is most frequently used for the serological test for visceral leishmaniasis. Sundar S, Singh RK, Maurya R, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Direct_agglutination_test

Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test.  - PubMed - NCBIImproved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. - PubMed - NCBI

Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test.. Cole JR Jr, Sulzer CR, Pursell AR. ... whereas the original Galton microtechnique and the original MA test agreed in a maximum of 77% of the tests. This study ... The results obtained by comparing positive test data from human and animal sera indicated that agreement between the original ... Simultaneous titrations were performed on 281 animal and human sera and 17 hyperimmune sera with the microscopic agglutination ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4736794?dopt=Abstract

Latex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - FRLatex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - FR

Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... Identify a wide range of species and Legionella pneumophila serogroups from culture with a trusted name in latex agglutination. ... With a wide range of organisms and organism types, you can find solutions that test from human and food samples, blood culture ... Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ...
more infohttp://www.thermofisher.com/fr/fr/home/industrial/microbiology/microbial-identification/latex-agglutination-testing.html

Microplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated BeadsMicroplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated Beads

... Yussaira Castillo,1 Masato ... L. W. George and L. E. Carmichael, "A plate agglutination test for the rapid diagnosis of canine brucellosis," The American ... D. M. Myers, V. M. Varela Diaz, and E. A. Coltorti, "Comparative sensitivity of gel diffusion and tube agglutination tests for ... M. Kimura, K. Imaoka, M. Suzuki, T. Kamiyama, and A. Yamada, "Evaluation of a Microplate Agglutination Test (MAT) for ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/348529/ref/

Tube agglutination test - definition of tube agglutination test by The Free DictionaryTube agglutination test - definition of tube agglutination test by The Free Dictionary

tube agglutination test synonyms, tube agglutination test pronunciation, tube agglutination test translation, English ... dictionary definition of tube agglutination test. n. 1. The act or process of agglutinating; adhesion of distinct parts. 2. A ... clumped mass of material formed by agglutination. Also called agglutinate . ... Related to tube agglutination test: Widal test, slide agglutination test. ag·glu·ti·na·tion. (ə-glo͞ot′n-ā′shən). n.. 1. The ...
more infohttp://www.thefreedictionary.com/tube+agglutination+test

Latex Agglutination Test: Technique and RisksLatex Agglutination Test: Technique and Risks

Read more about the technique, preparation and risks involved in the test. ... The Latex agglutination test is also called as latex fixation test. ... Medical Health Tests Medical Tests Latex Agglutination Test Technique and Risks Associated With Latex Agglutination Test. ... The Latex agglutination technique is used in this test, and it is popular because results can be derived very quickly, in ...
more infohttp://www.medicalhealthtests.com/medical-tests/latex-agglutination-test.html

Latex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - USLatex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... Identify a wide range of species and Legionella pneumophila serogroups from culture with a trusted name in latex agglutination. ... With a wide range of organisms and organism types, you can find solutions that test from human and food samples, blood culture ... Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/industrial/microbiology/microbial-identification/latex-agglutination-testing.html

Latex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination testLatex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination test

What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean ... Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... agglutination. (redirected from latex agglutination test). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, ... Identification was confirmed by detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) by latex agglutination test (PBP2 Test Kit ...
more infohttps://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/latex+agglutination+test

PROBABLE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS WITHOUT POSITIVE HETEROPHIL AGGLUTINATION TESTS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American...PROBABLE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS WITHOUT POSITIVE HETEROPHIL AGGLUTINATION TESTS* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American...

Furthermore, the heterophil agglutination tests should include absorption with guinea pig kidney and beef cell antigens ... PROBABLE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS WITHOUT POSITIVE HETEROPHIL AGGLUTINATION TESTS1 SIDNEY LEIBOWITZ, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... LEIBOWITZ S. PROBABLE INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS WITHOUT POSITIVE HETEROPHIL AGGLUTINATION TESTS1. Ann Intern Med. ;44:717-737. ... would reveal positive heterophil agglutination tests. This statement requires some clarification: from the serologic viewpoint ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/676192/probable-infectious-mononucleosis-without-positive-heterophil-agglutination-tests

Discrepant toxoplasma latex agglutination test results. | Journal of Clinical PathologyDiscrepant toxoplasma latex agglutination test results. | Journal of Clinical Pathology

The latex agglutination test is useful as a screen for toxoplasma infection but false positive reactions do occur. Patients at ... latex agglutination reactions were not confirmed in the dye test. These discrepant results were associated with an unspecified ...
more infohttp://jcp.bmj.com/content/42/2/200

Common causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test - RightDiagnosis.comCommon causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test - RightDiagnosis.com

Common causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test symptom from a list of 1 total causes of symptom Rheumatoid ... Causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test. *Common causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test ... Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test. *Videos about Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test ... All Causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test The full list of all possible causes for Rheumatoid arthritis ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/symptoms/rheumatoid_arthritis_particle_agglutination_test/common.htm

Kala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis.  - PubMed - NCBIKala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis. - PubMed - NCBI

Kala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis.. Zijlstra EE1, Ali MS ... There was no relation between titres in the direct agglutination test and parasite load as determined by the number of ... In 6 (13%) of 46 patients tested, parasites were found, all by splenic aspiration. Bone marrow showed parasites in one of these ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1475815?dopt=Abstract

Differential agglutination test for diagnosis of recently acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii. | Journal of Clinical...Differential agglutination test for diagnosis of recently acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii. | Journal of Clinical...

We evaluated the recently described differential agglutination test (HS/AC test) to differentiate recently acquired toxoplasma ... Differential agglutination test for diagnosis of recently acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii.. B R Dannemann, W C ... Differential agglutination test for diagnosis of recently acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii. ... Differential agglutination test for diagnosis of recently acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii. ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/28/9/1928?ijkey=79b7f93b052983eff03b4fb42f75db10ea105cfd&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Variability in Results of the Microscopic Agglutination Test in Dogs with Clinical Leptospirosis and Dogs Vaccinated against...Variability in Results of the Microscopic Agglutination Test in Dogs with Clinical Leptospirosis and Dogs Vaccinated against...

Chappel RJ, Goris M, Palmer MF, Hartskeerl RA. Impact of proficiency testing on results of the microscopic agglutination test ... Background: The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is commonly used for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. In dogs it is ... The reference method for the serologic diagnosis of leptospirosis is the microscopic agglutination test (MAT).2,4,17 To perform ... Detection of antibodies against Leptospira serovars via microscopic agglutination tests in dogs in the United States, 2000-2007 ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0704.x/full?globalMessage=0

The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Operational validation of the direct agglutination test for diagnosis...The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Operational validation of the direct agglutination test for diagnosis...

Moreover, any operational guideline on DAT use has to consider the critical dependency of the predictive values of the test on ... The fundamental methodologic problem in VL test validation is the absence of a reliable gold standard. ... While corroborating previously reported sensitivity and specificity estimates of this serodiagnostic test, this study examined ... The validity of the direct agglutination test (DAT) for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied with a standardized field kit ...
more infohttp://www.ajtmh.org/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.1999.60.129

Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test |...Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test |...

The slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") ... Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test. Willem ... After 5 min of centrifugation (1,500 × g), 50 μl of the supernatant was used for testing agglutination with sensitized latex ... Rapid Detection of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by the MRSA-Screen Latex Agglutination Test ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/37/9/3029?ijkey=7afacecd634943bca82d84d4f92cc582c3fe2c6c&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a by rapid slide latex agglutination test in coagulase-negative staphylococci  -...Detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a by rapid slide latex agglutination test in coagulase-negative staphylococci -...

Detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a by rapid slide latex agglutination test in coagulase-negative staphylococci ... Detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a by rapid slide latex agglutination test in coagulase-negative staphylococci. Journal ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/61912/

CROSS REACTIONS IN AGGLUTINATION TESTS | JAMA | JAMA NetworkCROSS REACTIONS IN AGGLUTINATION TESTS | JAMA | JAMA Network

So-called cross reactions may occur, however, in agglutination tests with specimens of blood from some of the patients with ... Gilbert R. CROSS REACTIONS IN AGGLUTINATION TESTS. JAMA. 1937;109(7):522. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780330050021 ...
more infohttps://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/278222?redirect=true

Get PDF - Comparison of a dot immunobinding assay and the serum agglutination test for detecting serological responses in...Get PDF - Comparison of a dot immunobinding assay and the serum agglutination test for detecting serological responses in...

Comparison of a dot immunobinding assay and the serum agglutination test for detecting serological responses in vaccinated and ... Comparison of the dot-immunobinding assay with the serum agglutination test, the Rose Bengal plate test and the milk ring test ... Comparison of the sensitivity and specificity of the rapid plate agglutination and slow micro-agglutination tests in fowls of ... rapid agglutination test and serum agglutination test. Avian Pathology 31(2): 201-204, 2002 ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/003/073/003073889.php

Haemophilus influenzae b detection using Rapid Latex Agglutination Test | Medical LaboratoriesHaemophilus influenzae b detection using Rapid Latex Agglutination Test | Medical Laboratories

Tags: Agglutination Test, H.influenzae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus influenzae b, Haemophilus influenzae type b, latex ... The Latex Agglutination Test used for qualitative detection Haemophilus influenzae type b presents in samples like CSF, Body ... Haemophilus influenzae b detection using Rapid Latex Agglutination Test. 5 years ago by Medical Labs 0 ... Home Bacteriology Haemophilus influenzae b detection using Rapid Latex Agglutination Test ...
more infohttp://www.medical-labs.net/haemophilus-influenzae-b-detection-using-rapid-latex-agglutination-test-2639/

The false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon - Semantic ScholarThe false sero-negativity of brucella standard agglutination test: Prozone phenomenon - Semantic Scholar

Standard agglutination test (SAT) and Coombs test were performed to all patients. Results: SAT and Coombs test was negative in ... The fourth case remained negative and therefore, we applied high dilution Coombs test. This time the test gave a positive ... Conclusion: SAT and Coombs test must be diluted to titers 1/2560 or more in order to exclude false sero-negativity in cases ... The SAT and Coombs tests in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of the two cases with neurobrucellosis diagnosis were negative, as well. ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-false-sero-negativity-of-brucella-standard-Karsen-S%C3%B6kmen/070a08d805cbfe5c8899fb2394a66024332352ef
  • In this scenario, three hundred thirty-five serum samples from reproductively mature bovine bulls were subjected simultaneously to standard serodiagnosis using the rose Bengal test (RBT), 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), complement fixation (CFT), and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • You will be given a clean tube or bottle, and will have to provide a sample of urine for testing. (medicalhealthtests.com)
  • we used a panel of 170 samples collected from subjects suspected of typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Abidjan to determine the sensitivity, the specificity and operational characteristics of 9 plate agglutination tests (BIOREX ® , BIOTEC ® , CHRONOLAB ® , CROMATEST ® , FORTRESS ® , PLASMATEC ® , CYPRESS ® , SPINREACT ® and TYDAL ® ) compared to the reference technique SALMONELLA SEROLOGY ® of BIORAD (tube agglutination). (openmedicinejournal.com)
  • Kala-azar: a comparative study of parasitological methods and the direct agglutination test in diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • There was no relation between titres in the direct agglutination test and parasite load as determined by the number of parasitological methods which were positive or parasite density in splenic aspirates. (nih.gov)
  • To compare three diag-nostic tests of VL including KAtex, ELISA and Direct Agglutination Test (DAT) in VL patients and healthy controls in the south west of Iran. (ac.ir)
  • The use of an easy-to-use and interpret, sensitive, and specific method that requires no complex infrastructure or specialized professionals, such as direct agglutination test (DAT) and the rK39-based rapid immunochromatographic test may enhance the diagnosis of disease. (ebscohost.com)
  • Moreover, any operational guideline on DAT use has to consider the critical dependency of the predictive values of the test on VL prevalence rates. (ajtmh.org)
  • The positive predictive values of the rapid test and the DAT were 98% and 97%, respectively and the negative predictive values were 89% and 84%, respectively. (ebscohost.com)
  • With a wide range of organisms and organism types, you can find solutions that test from human and food samples, blood culture, and colonies isolated on plated culture media. (thermofisher.com)
  • A cheap and rapid alternative laboratory test is desirable, especially for developing country settings where typhoid fever is a major public health burden. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We evaluate the performance of 9 commercial rapid tests used in Côte d'Ivoire for the serodiagnosis of typhoid and paratyphoid fever. (openmedicinejournal.com)
  • This study evaluated the performance of a rapid test (DiaMed- IT-LEISH®) and the DAT for the diagnosis of VL in 213 parasitologically confirmed cases and 119 controls with clinical suspicion of VL and confirmation of another etiology. (ebscohost.com)
  • The sensitivities and specificities of the rapid test were 93% and 97%, respectively and those of the DAT were 90% and 96%, respectively. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study showed that the DAT and the rapid test can be used to diagnose VL in Brazil, following a pilot study for implementation of the rapid test in the health services. (ebscohost.com)
  • We evaluated the recently described differential agglutination test (HS/AC test) to differentiate recently acquired toxoplasma infections from those acquired in the more distant past in sera obtained from 38 patients with carefully defined symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. (asm.org)
  • So-called cross reactions may occur, however, in agglutination tests with specimens of blood from some of the patients with these infections. (jamanetwork.com)
  • It has been the writer's opinion heretofore that all cases of infectious mononucleosis, if properly studied, would reveal positive heterophil agglutination tests. (annals.org)
  • Follow-up of Card Agglutination Trypanosomiasis Test (CATT) positive but apparently aparasitaemic individuals in Côte d'Ivoire: evidence for a complex and heterogeneous population. (msf.org)
  • S. aureus strains were identified by the AccuProbe S. aureus culture identification test (Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.), performed in accordance with the manufacturer's protocol. (asm.org)
  • Methicillin resistance of all S. aureus (MRSA and MSSA) and S. epidermidis (MRSE) strains was analyzed by means of the disk diffusion test in accordance with National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guidelines ( 6 ), and the mecA gene was detected by PCR as the "gold standard" ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The complete panel of strains (Table 1 ) was tested with MRSA-Screen, and the test was performed in accordance with the manufacturer's protocol. (asm.org)
  • Preliminary tests of this study were presented at the 25th Annual American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Forum, Seattle, WA, 2007. (wiley.com)