Latex Fixation Tests
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
Sensitivity and Specificity
Complement Fixation Tests
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
False Positive Reactions
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
False Negative Reactions
Receptors, Concanavalin A
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Blood Grouping and Crossmatching
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Nephelometry and Turbidimetry
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
ABO Blood-Group System
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Blood Group Antigens
Staphylococcal Protein A
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
von Willebrand Factor
A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Trypanosoma brucei gambiense
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
P Blood-Group System
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)
Rh-Hr Blood-Group System
Polymerase Chain Reaction
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Adhesins, Escherichia coli
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae
Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune
Indicators and Reagents
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
Clinical Laboratory Techniques
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Binding Sites, Antibody
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne
The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.
Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (1/592)Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure. (+info)
Differential expression of nonagglutinating fimbriae and MR/P pili in swarming colonies of Proteus mirabilis. (2/592)The expression of nonagglutinating fimbriae (NAF) and mannose-resistant/Proteus-like (MR/P) pili in swarming colonies of Proteus mirabilis was investigated. Elongated swarmer cells do not express pili, and the relative number of bacteria expressing NAF during swarming and early consolidation phases was very low (<5%). Relative expression of NAF in a terrace increased to approximately 30% at 48 h. We also determined the expression of NAF and MR/P pili in two phenotypically distinguishable regions of each terrace. The expression of both NAF and MR/P pili was always higher in the region closer (proximal) to the middle of the colony than in the distal region of the terrace. The relative numbers of bacteria expressing NAF or MR/P pili in the proximal region were between 39.1 and 63% and between 5.9 and 7.7%, respectively. In the distal region, expression levels were between 20.8 and 27.3% and between 3.7 and 5. 6%, respectively. A time course experiment testing NAF expression in both the proximal and distal regions of a terrace indicated that NAF expression in the proximal regions was always higher than in the distal regions and increased to a plateau 40 to 50 h after the start of the swarming phase for any given terrace. These results indicate that expression of NAF or MR/P pili in swarming colonies of P. mirabilis is highly organized, spatially and temporally. The significance of this controlled differentiation remains to be uncovered. (+info)
Surfactant protein D binds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and lipoarabinomannan via carbohydrate-lectin interactions resulting in reduced phagocytosis of the bacteria by macrophages. (3/592)Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a collectin produced in the distal lung airspaces that is believed to play an important role in innate pulmonary immunity. Naive immunologic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are especially important in the lung, since entry of this inhaled pathogen into the alveolar macrophage is a pivotal event in disease pathogenesis. Here we investigated SP-D binding to M.tb and the effect of this binding on the adherence of M. tb to human macrophages. These studies demonstrate specific binding of SP-D to M.tb that is saturable, calcium dependent, and carbohydrate inhibitable. In addition to purified SP-D, SP-D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from healthy donors and patients with alveolar proteinosis also binds to M.tb. Incubation of M.tb with SP-D results in agglutination of the bacteria. In contrast to its binding to M.tb, SP-D binds minimally to the avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis. SP-D binds predominantly to lipoarabinomannan from the virulent Erdman strain of M.tb, but not the lipoarabinomannan from M. smegmatis. The binding of SP-D to Erdman lipoarabinomannan is mediated by the terminal mannosyl oligosaccharides of this lipoglycan. Incubation of M.tb with subagglutinating concentrations of SP-D leads to reduced adherence of the bacteria to macrophages (62.7% of control adherence +/- 3.3% SEM, n = 8), whereas incubation of bacteria with surfactant protein A leads to significantly increased adherence to monocyte-derived macrophages. These data provide evidence for specific binding of SP-D to M. tuberculosis and indicate that SP-D and surfactant protein A serve different roles in the innate host response to this pathogen in the lung. (+info)
Binding of [125I] wheat germ agglutinin to Chinese hamster ovary cells under conditions which affect the mobility of membrane components. (4/592)The binding of [125I]wheat germ agglutinin ([125I]WGA) of high specific activity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been examined over a millionfold range of WGA concentrations and correlated with the phenomena of agglutination and capping by WGA. Analysis of the binding data by the method of Scatchard gives a complex curve indicative of positive cooperativity amongst high-affinity binding sites. Binding assays performed under conditions which inhibit capping and/or agglutination, such as low temperature or glutaraldehyde fixation, give similarly complex binding curves. Thus, the gross mobility of WGA receptors in the membrane does not appear to be responsible for the cooperative binding of WGA to CHO cells. (+info)
Natural polyreactive immunoglobulin A antibodies produced in mouse Peyer's patches. (5/592)To understand the biological function of natural immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in Peyer's patches (PP), we generated IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones from the PP of normal, unimmunized, specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice and examined their reactivities by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Many of these antibodies reacted with more than one antigen examined, suggesting that they were polyreactive Abs. Two mAbs agglutinated several different strains of commensal bacteria isolated from mice. To examine the genetic features of these polyreactive mAbs, the VH genes of seven different IgA mAbs were sequenced. The VH genes from the VGAM, J558 and 7183 families were compared with sequence from the mAbs with distinct VDJ rearrangements. One of the mAbs that agglutinated bacteria was encoded by a germline VH gene, but the VH region of the other polyreactive mAbs contained between seven and 11 mutated sites. No indication of antigenic selection was observed in the pattern of these mutated sites. Our results show that polyreactive IgA Abs are present in PP as a part of the normal B-cell repertoire. These polyreactive Abs may establish a natural immune homeostasis, and function as a polyreactive sensor to detect pathogenic invasion and to control immune response in the gut. (+info)
Development of antibodies against chondroitin sulfate A-adherent Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women. (6/592)In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, pregnant women are at increased risk for malaria, and this risk is greatest during the first pregnancy. The placenta sequesters parasites that are able to cytoadhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), a molecule expressed by the placental syncytiotrophoblast, while parasites from a nonpregnant host do not bind to CSA. Cytoadherence is mediated by the expression of variants of the P. falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family. Each member of this molecule family induces antibodies that specifically agglutinate infected erythrocytes and inhibit their cytoadherence ability. We investigated whether the higher susceptibility of primigravidae was related to the lack of immune response towards CSA-binding parasites. In a cross-sectional study, primigravidae delivering with a noninfected placenta were less likely to have antibodies agglutinating CSA-binding parasites than multigravidae (P < 0.01). In contrast, parasites from nonpregnant hosts were as likely to be recognized by the sera from women of various parities. In a longitudinal study, at 6 months of pregnancy, antibodies against CSA-binding parasites were present in 31.8% of primigravidae and in 76.9% of secundigravidae (P = 0.02). The antibodies against CSA-binding parasites inhibited the cytoadherence of a CSA-adherent parasite strain to the human placental trophoblast. Our data support the idea that the higher susceptibility of primiparae is related to a lack of a specific immune response to placental parasites. (+info)
Concanavalin A receptors on the surface membrane of lymphocytes from patient's with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas. (7/592)Concanavalin A (Con A) induces movement of its receptors on the cell surface membrane. This induction results in a concentration of Con A site complexes on one pole of the cell to form a cap. A marked difference was found in the mobility of Con A receptor between lymphocytes from normal persons and lymphocytes from patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas. Lymphocytes isolated from tonsils of patients undergoing tonsillectomy and from axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients exhibited approximately 30% of cells with caps, which is identical with the cap formation ability of normal lymphocytes. In biopsy material from patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas, a significant decrease in the ability of the lymphocytes to form caps was observed. This difference in the mobility of Con A sites was even more pronounced in lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood. In 123 patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas, cap formation ranged between 3 and 12%. The ability of cells, from a normal donor or a lymphoma patient, to form caps was independent of the source from which the lymphocytes were isolated, e.g., lymph node, spleen, or blood. Lymphocytes from patients with lymphoma were also agglutinated by Con A to a higher degree than normal lymphocytes. These findings are discussed in relation to the association of the lymphocytes with these malignancies and as a possible aid in their differential diagnosis. (+info)
Membrane difference in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Hodgkin's disease. (8/592)Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of 21 normal persons and 66 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), CLL in remission, Hodgkin's disease, Hodgkin's disease in remission, various other tumors, or cardiovascular diseases; The lymphocytes were studied for cap formation and agglutinability by concanavalin A, and for cell attachment to the surface of a petri dish. The frequency of cap formation was lowest in lymphocytes from patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease (2.1 plus or minus 0.8%), next lowest in lymphocytes from patients with CLL who were or were not under treatment (7,0 plus or minus 1;3%), and also low in Hodgkin's disease in remission (10.6 plus or minus 1.2%). The frequencies of cap formation by lymphocytes from patients with various other tumors (19.1 plus or minus 2.5%), with CLL in remission (24.0 plus or minus 0.9%), and with nonmalignant diseases (26.0 plus or minus 2.2%) were more similar to the frequency found in lymphocytes from normal persons (29.4 plus or minus 2.8%). Lymphocytes from all the patients, including those in remission, showed a higher degree of agglutinability by concanavalin A than lymphocytes from normal persons. Cell attachment to a petri dish was highest with CLL, next highest with CLL in remission, and low for normal persons and all the other patients. Lymphocytes from normal persons that consisted predominantly of thymus-derived cells gave similar results to isolated normal bone marrow-derived cells. The results indicate that there were different changes in the surface membrane of lymphocytes from patients with CLL, CLL in remission, Hodgkin's disease, and Hodgkin's disease in remission, and that the patients in clinical remission still showed abnormalities in their lymphocytes. (+info)
Agglutinability - definition of agglutinability by The Free Dictionary
Define agglutinability. agglutinability synonyms, agglutinability pronunciation, agglutinability translation, English dictionary definition of agglutinability. adj. Capable of being agglutinated. ag·glu′tin·a·bil′i·ty n
Autoreactive factors identify tumor-host heterogeneity and responsiveness to immunotherapy | SpringerLink
The heterogeneity of tumor-bearing animals was defined by the presence of an autoreactive antibody and cell agglutination factor in the sera of leukemic mi
CHEMICAL STUDIES ON BACTERIAL AGGLUTINATION | JEM
1. Application of the quantitative agglutination procedure to hemolytic streptococci and their antisera is shown to yield values indicative of the antibody content of the antisera in weight units.. 2. Estimations are given of type-specific and group-specific antibody in a number of antisera.. 3. An incomplete analysis is given of the antigenic components and antibodies involved in the agglutination.. 4. Adaptation of the experimental conditions to a simple qualitative type determination of hemolytic streptococci is suggested.. ...
Tynax~Patent Brokers & I.P. Strategists
This invention provides particles for agglutination reaction measurement with high antigen potency. They were characterized by revealing the antigen, which has polylysine from recombinant DNA, and have combined this with the particles for agglutination reaction measurement. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement do not carry the antigen (which is infectious) and are safe. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement can be manufactured easily and in large quantities ...
Passive agglutination | Article about passive agglutination by The Free Dictionary
Looking for passive agglutination? Find out information about passive agglutination. in biochemistry: see immunity immunity, ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying foreign substances or organisms. Explanation of passive agglutination
acidic agglutination是什么意思 海词词典
海词词典，最权威的学习词典，专业出版acidic agglutination是什么意思，acidic agglutination的用法，acidic agglutination翻译和读音等详细讲解。海词词典：学习变容易，记忆很深刻。
Single amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of Vibrio cholerae TcpA affect colonization, autoagglutination, and serum...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Publications | SBRC
Habib, I., D. Smolarek, C. Hattab, M. Grodecka, G. Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, S. Muyldermans, S. Sagan, C. Gutiérrez, S. Laperche, C. Le-Van-Kim, et al., V(H)H (nanobody) directed against human glycophorin A: a tool for autologous red cell agglutination assays., Anal Biochem, vol. 438, issue 1, pp. 82-9, 2013 Jul 1. ...
How does agglutination occur? | Reference.com
Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell clumps, called agglutinates, are visible, making them a reliable test for...
The Effect of Desiccation on Antigenic Structure | Microbiology Society
SUMMARY: Two different organisms were dried in normal rabbit serum and in the presence of specific antibody. Reconstitution of the dried products showed that the presence of antibody did not affect the viability, agglutinability or the absorptive capacity of the bacteria.
Agglutination reaction | definition of agglutination reaction by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of agglutination reaction in the Medical Dictionary? agglutination reaction explanation free. What is agglutination reaction? Meaning of agglutination reaction medical term. What does agglutination reaction mean?
RIIP - Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur - Cerastotin, a serine protease from Cerastes cerastes venom, with platelet...
Cerastotin, a thrombin-like enzyme from the venom of the desert viper Cerastes cerastes, has been purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and two ion-exchange chromatographies on Mono S columns. It is a neutral glycoprotein (pI = 6.6), present as a single polypeptide chain of 40 kDa. Its N-terminal sequence shows strong similarity with those of other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. Cerastotin possesses esterase and amidolytic activities measured with N(alpha)-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester and the thrombin chromogenic substrate D-phenylalanyl-L-pipecolyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide, respectively. The amidolytic activity is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethane, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethane, D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl chloromethane and benzamidine, suggesting that cerastotin is a serine protease. Cerastotin efficiently clots human plasma and cleaves preferentially the alpha chain of fibrinogen. Cerastotin did not induce
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Quantitative Determination of Fibrinogen of Patients with Coronary Heart Diseases through...
Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91). The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the
Characterisation and differentiation of lactobacilli by lectin typing
Lactobacillus isolates from healthy Estonian and Swedish children were characterised by a lectin typing technique; 56 isolates from six species (L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. brevis and L. buchneri) were tested. The typing system was based on an agglutination assay with a panel of six commercially available lectins, which,were chosen on the basis of their carbohydrate specificities. The isolates were also subjected to proteolytic degradation before lectin typing to decrease auto-agglutination of whole cells in the assay. The 56 isolates were divided into 15 different lectin types by their lectin agglutination patterns. Proteolytic treatment reduced auto-agglutination for the majority of species, apart from L. acidophilus, which remained predominantly auto-agglutinating (eight of nine strains). The system produced stable and reproducible results under standardised culture conditions. Lactobacilli are important bacteria for use as probiotics and this system may ...
Multivalent Dendritic Molecules as Broad Spectrum Bacteria Agglutination Agents
This study reports the first set of synthetic molecules that act as broad spectrum agglutination agents and thus are complementary to the specific targeting of antibodies. The molecules have dendritic architecture and contain multiple copies of zinc(II)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) units that have selective affinity for the bacterial cell envelope. A series of molecular structures were evaluated, with the number of appended ZnDPA units ranging from four to thirty-two. Agglutination assays showed that the multivalent probes rapidly cross-linked ten different strains of bacteria, regardless of Gram-type and cell morphology. Fluorescence microscopy studies using probes with four ZnDPA units indicated a high selectivity for bacteria agglutination in the presence of mammalian cells and no measurable effect on the health of the cells. The high bacterial selectivity was confirmed by conducting in vivo optical imaging studies of a mouse leg infection model. The results suggest that multivalent ZnDPA molecular ...
Antigen-Antibody reactions: Agglutination and types • Microbe Online
The procedure involves adding a suspension of dead typhoid bacterial cells to a series of tubes containing the patients serum, which has been diluted out to various concentrations. After the tubes have been incubated for 30 minutes at 37° C, they are centrifuged and examined to note the amount of agglutination that has occurred. The reciprocal of the highest dilution at which agglutination is seen is designated as the antibody titer of the patients serum. For example, if the highest dilution at which agglutination occurs is 1:320, the titer is 320 antibody units per milliliter of serum. Naturally, the higher the titer, the greater is the antibody response of the individual to the disease.. ...
Patent US8211365 - Immunodiagnostic test cards having indicating indicia - Google Patents
An immunodiagnostic test card includes a plurality of transparent chambers wherein each chamber includes a quantity of testing material that combines with a patient sample, when mixed, to produce an agglutination reaction. A plurality of indicia are disposed to aid in the manufacture and determining the usability of the cards prior to test and also in objectively grading the agglutination reactions that are formed or lack of agglutination.
Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood in Ghatkopar West, Mumbai. View Prices, Labs & Book online only on | Practo
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THE IDENTITY OF THE MECHANISMS OF TYPE-SPECIFIC AGGLUTININ AND PRECIPITIN REACTIONS WITH PNEUMOCOCCUS | JEM
The experimental results which have been described demonstrate the following facts:. 1. In the type-specific agglutination reaction, when the organisms are not present in sufficient numbers to absorb completely all the antibodies from the serum, more antibody is bound by cellular S than is required for the process of agglutination.. 2. The excess of antibody thus bound can then unite with additional amounts of the specific substance when this is added in soluble form to the agglutinated material.. 3. If an excess of the free S is added to an agglutinated mass of antibody and bacteria, the organisms are redispersed and in the suspended state are again specifically agglutinable.. 4. When a solution of the specific polysaccharide is added in excess to an homologous immune serum, a prozone is created in which precipitation is inhibited; moreover, if, at this point, type-specific pneumococci are added to the mixture, inhibition of agglutination also occurs.. 5. The reactive substance in the ...
Agglutination | physiology | Britannica.com
Agglutination: …antibodies usually results in clumping-agglutination-of the red cells; therefore, antigens on the surfaces of these red cells are often referred to as agglutinogens.
Group agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Definition of group agglutination. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Carolina Forensics Mystery with Synthetic Blood Kit
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Carolina Forensics Mystery with Synthetic Blood Kit
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Wickerhamomyces canadensis | Semantic Scholar
Trypsin digestion of Hansenula wingei 21-cells releases a protein (21-factor-T) that inhibits the agglutination of 21-cells by… Expand ...
Alpha-agglutinin elisa and antibody
Shop Alpha-agglutinin ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Alpha-agglutinin Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Failure to detect human polymorphism with modification of red cells by Bacillus | Meta
Antibody-mediated agglutination is the clumping of cells in the presence of antibody, which binds multiple cells together. This enhances the clearance of pathogens. Find the latest research on antibody-mediated agglutination here. ...
Agglutinate synonyms | Best 5 synonyms for agglutinate
The best 5 synonyms for agglutinate, including: agglutination, agglutinative, lyse, motile, multinucleate and more... Find another word for agglutinate at YourDictionary.
Latex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination test
Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean in law?
SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES | Journal of...
Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the ...
Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Agglunation reactions - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Agglutination occurs when an antibody interacts with antigen, resulting in cross-linking of the antigen particles by the antibody. This eventually leads to clumping. Agglutination comes from the Latin root agglutinare. Agglutinare means, to glue. Cross-linking, or cross-matching is done to determine matches. Agglutination may occur when an unideterminate, multivalent antigen interacts with a single antibody. It may also occur if a multi determinate, univalent antigen interacts with at least two distinct antibodies. Cross Agglutination: when an antibody that is raised against a similar antigen agglutinates that antigen. Group Agglutination: when a collection of similar organisms is agglutinated by an agglutinin that is specific for that collection. Applications for the agglutination test BLOOD TYPING There are different blood groups like A,B, AB and O. The different blood types are differentiated according to the types of proteins on the surfaces of the red blood cells. Human red blood ...
O Blood group has both antibobies then why dont it cause agglutination with any of blood group A or B as it has A antigen and...
Why dont antibodies of o blood group does not cause agglutination reaction with any of antigens in other blood group? Study Blood Types Review.
Patent US9201065 - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small analytes having few epitopes are disclosed, by means of using hub moieties to which multiple analytes may be bound by a first epitope, together with a further moiety capable of binding a second analyte epitope and which is also capable of binding to a detectable particle. Stable agglutinated complexes may be so formed, which may used as the basis for various assay formats.
Decreased agglutinability of human erythrocytes by attachment of methoxy polyethylene glycol and the effect on erythrocyte...
In the interest of creating readily transfusable blood, we have developed a method of covalently bonding methoxy polyethylene gylcol (mPEG) to the erythrocyte membrane to mask antigens which would otherwise cause immunorejection in unmatched blood tr
LEXILINE JOURNAL: What is Agglutination in Linguistics? - Language Structures in Estonian vs. Latvian Maja - House - Words for...
An example in English would be the forming of the word likeness from like, by pasting like and -ness together. A similar example in English would be the glued on -ance in inherit+ance or import+ance or maintain+ance, or the many -tion or -sion endings following words such as deci(de)+sion, exclamation, (exclaim+tion), and yes, even agglutination or inflection ...
Category: Rapid Test and Serology Test
Routine clinical examination is generally used as an initial screening to help diagnose before specific examination performed. Serologic tests performed using rapid test method, agglutination reaction and immunochromatography. ...
Free Biology Flashcards about Micro lab 47
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Micro 204, agglutination reaction: blood grouping and the Rh Factor. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
US5583003A - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
The assay off the present Invention is of particular use for detecting drugs, hormones, steroids, antibodies and other molecules circulating in the blood of a mammal or other animal.
Agglutination Potentiators Archives - Rapid Labs
diagnostic Archives - VetSci
A simple and rapid method of quantifying the amount of virus in a sample. Haemagglutination is the agglutination of red blood cells. Viruses with envelops or surface proteins ...
10th Biology Life Processes Important Questions and Answers
A: When the blood samples of different blood groups are mixed with each other clumps are formed. The Clumping of blood cells is called agglutination ...
All 14-letter words containing Letters A, G, G, L and U
There are 18 fourteen-letter words containing A, 2G, L and U: AGGLUTINATIONS AGGLUTINOGENIC CONGLOBULATING ... SLUGGARDLINESS SLUGGARDNESSES VILLEGGIATURAS. Every word on this site can be played in scrabble. Create other lists, that start with or end with letters of your choice.
Ueda, Yoshio - Author List - OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENT REPOSITORY
1) Mucoprotein level in serum and agglutination reaction by Rose for rheumatoid arthritis were measured in 40 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis or liver disease (mostly acute hepatitis). A raised titer of mucoprotein was often observed in cancer, and a marked rise in agglutination titer was often proved in rheumatoid arthritis. But no significant correlation was proved between the serum mucoprotein level and agglutination test in patients. (2) [n animal experiment an inereased agglutination titer was caused by sensitization with egg albumin, Arthus s phenomenon, anaphylactic, shock, thermal spring bath, X-ray irradiation, blocking of reticuloendothelial system, liver injuries, injection of A. C. T. H., adrenaline, atropin or pilocarpin. A simultaneoas rise in serum mucoprotein level was observed after sensitization, thermal bath, X-ray irradiation, administmtion of chloroform, injection of toxic agents to vegetative nerve system. And a significant positive linear ...
Neutralization Of Agglutination On Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells By Pertussigen
Monoclonal antibodies specific for epitopes on the perstussigen molecule, s-1, were developed by the Fetuin-ELISA test, radioimmunoassays and Western Blott(27). Hybridoma fluids already established for specificity on s-2, s-4 and the undigested molecule were exposed to pertussigen to detect the neutralization of agglutination to Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The results showed that no appreciable neutralization occurred. Many more monoclonals need to be developed and tested to find the critical epitope or epitopes which cause agglutination to CHO cells. This research may provide a clue to the specific antigenic site which causes toxicity attributed to whooping cough in humans ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Sperm agglutination | Read by QxMD
Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrodes capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN ...
Biomérieux Slidex* Latex Agglutination For Streptococci Kits - Strepto Plus A Reagent;6656015pk
bioMérieux Slidex* Latex Agglutination for Streptococci Kits - Strepto Plus A Reagent;6656015PK : Pack of 50 bioMerieux No.:58818
Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system - UQ eSpace
Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed ...
Effect of Concanavalin A on Cells Infected with Enveloped RNA Viruses | Microbiology Society
Summary A variety of cells infected with different enveloped RNA viruses are specifically agglutinated by Concanavalin A. The production of envelope-components seems to be essential for the agglutinability of cells infected with myxovirus. A strong flocculation of purified virus particles by Concanavalin A indicates that the specific receptor of the host cell membrane is incorporated into the virus envelope.
SHEAR INDUCED CONCANAVALIN A AGGLUTINATION OF HUMAN-ERYTHROCYTES | UBC Chemistry
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
new biochemistry techniques
313 Immunochemical Techniques BIOCHEMISTRY MODULE Biochemistry Notes zImmunoassay zCompetitive binding zOther methods - includes immunofluoroscence, immunoelectron microscopy, etc. We make use of diverse chromatographic techniques including affinity, ion exchange, reverse phase, and size exclusion chromatography. Medlars. Each chapter contains suggestions for further reading for those in need of a follow-up. University of Texas at Arlington. 6 Suggestions for further reading4 Microscopy 100. 188.8.131.52 Agglutination Agglutination (from Latin, agglutino - to glue/ attach) is a process of formation of clumping of cells; it occurs due to reaction of antibody on a particulate antigen The series is published in hardbound … January 2013; Edition: 1st Edition ; Authors: Ioannis Patrikios. Many graduates also undertake further postgraduate study. This new structure can then be analyzed using different techniques to see if the proteins connected, how many connected, or other desired information. Export ...
Brevet US5004923 - Capillary flow device - Google Brevets
Novel methods and devices are provided involving at least one chamber, at least one capillary, and at least one reagent involved in a system providing for a detectable signal. As appropriate, the devices provide for measuring a sample, mixing the sample with reagents, defining a flow path, and reading the result. Of particular interest is the use of combinations of specific binding pair members which result in agglutination information, where the resulting agglutination particles may provide for changes in flow rate, light patterns of a flowing medium, or light absorption or scattering. A fabrication technique particularly suited for forming internal chambers in plastic devices is also described along with various control devices for use with the basic device.
C A L Q U E: Blinding Moment by Gert Jonke, translated by Vincent Kling; reviewed by Hans Gabriel
Jonke often seems determined in his writing to deny the possibility of any such delicately balanced translation. The fact that Kling is able to maintain this balance through the variety of prose, lyric and dramatic dialogue that he selects only adds to his accomplishment. Most notable in this regard are his renderings of Jonkes gleefully exaggerated word agglutinations that, however improbable in the original, are still theoretically possible according to German word-formational convention. In these instances, Kling opts for an effective and playful variation as opposed to consistency. He sometimes follows Jonkes lead with impossible but still comprehensible English agglutinations, but he also takes the more standard English route, and in some cases, he even opts for both. Perhaps the most extreme example, itself a sort of linguistic Blinding Moment from the piece of the same name, illustrates Klings skill in mixing it up. When Jonkes exuberance produces ...
how to overcome sperm agglutination - Fertilace
Polybead® Carboxylate Yellow Dyed Microspheres 3.00μm
Polysciences is the leading supplier of dyed microspheres to the latex agglutination and membrane-enhanced immunoassay marketplace.
BCS XP System - Siemens Healthineers Česká republika
The BCS® XP System, one of the most widely used fully automated hemostasis analyzers, delivers accurate and precise results. The high-speed, random-access analyzer performs clotting, chromogenic, immunologic, and agglutination testing while allowing the consolidation of both specialty and routine reagents onto one high throughput analyzer.
But since agglutination can arise in languages that previously had a non-agglutinative typology and it can be lost in languages ... Agglutination is a typological feature and does not imply a linguistic relation, but there are some families of agglutinative ... The process of agglutination results in generally more easily deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which ... "agglutination". Online Etymology Dictionary. K. Alexander Adelaar; Nikolaus Himmelmann (2005). The Austronesian Languages of ...
Carcass performed at 70000 Tons of Metal in January 2014 and headlined the Agglutination Festival on 23 August that year. In a ... "XX Edizione con CARCASS headliner's !!". Agglutination.it. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014 ...
Conversely, agglutination can also be used to identify new bacteria or cells with a specific antigen by exposing them to serum ... Agglutination, using blood agglutinins known as hemagglutinins, is used diagnostically to identify blood types of human beings ... This phenomenon known as agglutination is of great importance in medicine, as it serves as a diagnostic tool. Reaction of ... "Agglutination test definition, Types, Uses, Advantages, Disadvantages". Microbiology Note. 2020-06-29. Retrieved 2021-02-21. " ...
Ruth May Tunnicliff
Tunnicliff, Ruth (1919-01-01). "Agglutination in Measles". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 24 (1): 76-77. doi:10.1093/ ...
Serum agglutination with a titer > 1:160 in the presence of a compatible illness supports the diagnosis of brucellosis. ... developed the agglutination test, diagnostic of the disease. In 1905, Zammit, a Maltese physician, identified goats as the ... five patients with positive ELISA had a negative tube agglutination test. In the setting of Brucella arthritis, the synovial- ...
... then centrifuging the sample and observing for agglutination or hemolysis. A lack of agglutination or hemolysis indicates a ... Presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility. Occasionally a light microscope may be needed. If laboratory services are ... This method depends on the presence or absence of agglutination (clumping of red blood cells), which can usually be visualized ...
For "L'ivet" with article agglutination. (Northern) French if (Yew-tree) and suffixe -etu(m) > -ey / -oy /-ay > -aie, used to ...
ISBN 978-0-618-25210-7. Conference on Differential Agglutination of Erythorocytes. National Research Council, 1952. ASIN ...
1939 in science
"An unusual case of intragroup agglutination". JAMA. 113 (2): 126-7. doi:10.1001/jama.1939.72800270002007a.. ...
Charlotte C. Campbell
Saslaw, Samuel; Campbell, Charlotte C. (1949). "A Collodion Agglutination Test for Histoplasmosis". Public Health Reports. 64 ( ... "A Comparison between Histoplasmin and Blastomycin by the Collodion Agglutination Technique". Public Health Reports. 64 (9): 290 ...
Fannie Eleanor Williams
Martin, Christopher J.; Williams, Fannie E. (June 1918). "Agglutination in the diagnosis of dysentery". British Medical Journal ...
Max von Gruber
As a bacteriologist he discovered specific agglutination in 1896 with his English colleague Herbert Durham (Gruber-Widal- ... Geschichte der Entdeckung der spezifischen Agglutination. In Rudolf Kraus (1868-1932) and Constantin Levaditi (1874-1953), ... discovered the agglutination which gained him international fame. Gruber eventually left Vienna in 1902, and in October that ...
Rh blood group system
Levine P, Stetson RE (1939). "An unusual case of intragroup agglutination". JAMA. 113 (2): 126-7. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
Clostridium difficile toxin A
Evaluation of a latex agglutination test". The American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 86 (2): 208-11. doi:10.1093/ajcp/86.2. ...
ABO blood group system
Landsteiner, Karl (1961) . "On Agglutination of Normal Human Blood". Transfusion. 1 (1): 5-8. doi:10.1111/j.1537- ...
If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If ... The presence of an antigen on the surface of the blood cells is indicated by agglutination. In these tests, rather than ... Landsteiner, Karl (1961) . "On Agglutination of Normal Human Blood". Transfusion. 1 (1): 5-8. doi:10.1111/j.1537- ... There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody (for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and ...
"Agglutination.it. Archived from the original on 16 July 2014. Retrieved 24 August 2014.. ... and headlined the Agglutination Festival on 23 August of the same year. ...
Ii antigen system
Daniels G (2013-01-28). "I and i Antigens, and Cold Agglutination". Human Blood Groups. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 469- ... are able to cause agglutination of red blood cells and activate complement to cause hemolysis, leading to anemia. Rarely, ...
Levine, Philip; Stetson, Rufus E. (1939). "An Unusual Case of Intra-Group Agglutination". Journal of the American Medical ...
"Reportage/VIII Agglutination Metal Festival" (in Italian). Metallo Italiano. Archived from the original on January 2, 2014. ... On August 12, the band performed live for the first time at the Agglutination Metal Festival in Chiaromonte. The same year, ...
Barsoum, I. S.; Awad, A. Y. (1972). "Microtiter plate agglutination test for Salmonella antibodies". Applied Microbiology. 23 ( ...
The Arcis or Larcis (with article agglutination; Occitan: Arsís) is a river in Southwestern France. It is a right tributary of ...
Aronoff, Mark and S. N. Sridhar (1984). Agglutination and composition in Kannada verb morphology. In David Testen, Veena Mishra ...
Sendai virus-induced agglutination of liposomes containing glycophorin". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. ...
... they include the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay. Nontreponemal assays can be used to indicate the progress of ...
... β2-GP1 has a complex involvement in agglutination. It appears to alter adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-mediated agglutination of ... and inhibits agglutination by the contact activation of the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. β2-GP1 causes a reduction of ...
If agglutination occurs, the subject is not pregnant. If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and ... Gravindex is an agglutination inhibition test performed on a urine sample to detect pregnancy. It is based on double antigen ... If no agglutination occurs, the subject is pregnant. Advantages : It gives result in 5 to 30 minutes Disadvantages : ... The test detects the prevention of agglutination of HCG-coated latex particles by HCG present in the urine of pregnant women. ...
Identify via agglutination with cardiolipin sensitive chicken erythrocytes. RCN infected Strain 143 human osteosarcoma cells ...
Northeast Caucasian languages
These languages can be characterized by strong suffixal agglutination. Weak tendencies towards inflection may be noted as well ...
The antigens and antibodies combine by a process called agglutination. It is the fundamental reaction in the body by which the ... There are two types, namely active and passive agglutination. They are used in blood tests for diagnosis of enteric fever. ...
Agglutination | Encyclopedia.com
agglutination* The clumping together by antibodies of microscopic foreign particles, such as red blood cells or bacteria, so ... agglutination (clumping) (ă-gloo-tin-ay-shŏn) n. the sticking together of such microscopic antigenic particles as red blood ... agglutination The clumping of cells that is caused by the reaction between antigens on their surfaces and antibodies in their ... Agglutination is a specific reaction, i.e. a particular antigen will only clump in the presence of its specific antibody; it ...
Agglutination | physiology | Britannica.com
Agglutination - Wikipedia
... both fusional and isolating languages may use agglutination in the most-often-used constructs, and use agglutination heavily in ... For Greenberg, agglutination means that the morphs are joined only with slight or no modification. A morpheme is said to be ... The index of agglutination is equal to the average ratio of the number of agglutinative junctures to the number of morph ... Hungarian uses extensive agglutination in almost every part of it. The suffixes follow each other in special order based on the ...
Latex agglutination test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Agglutination (biology) - Wikipedia
Agglutination is the clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination ... Landsteiners agglutination tests and his discovery of ABO blood groups was the start of the science of blood transfusion and ... Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens and the identity of such bacteria, and ... If agglutination occurs, this indicates that the donor and recipient blood types are incompatible. When a person produces ...
Group agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Cold agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Patent US9201065 - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small ... Agglutination immunoassays are well-known in the art, and rely upon agglutination of particles to which an antigen or antibody ... Such agglutination-based immunoassays are known in the art, and rely upon agglutination of particles to which an antigen or ... detecting agglutination of the hub, second binding partner and analyte in the porous carrier, wherein agglutination indicates ...
How does agglutination occur? | Reference.com
Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell ... Various agglutination tests are used to determine if an antibody is present in a blood sample, including direct agglutination, ... Direct agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies to a particular antigen in a blood sample. Indirect agglutination, ... Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell ...
What Is Agglutination? (with pictures)
Agglutination is a situation in which biological particles clump together. Its essential for human health, since its what ... In biology, agglutination refers to the bunching together of particles. This process is especially important as part of the ... Agglutination is one way in which antibodies mark antigens for destruction. Antibodies have at least two sites where an antigen ... If the antibody binds to the red blood cells in a sample, agglutination occurs, and blood type can be confirmed based on which ...
STUDIES IN AGGLUTINATION | JEM
Latex Agglutination Test | Medical Tests | UCSF Health
The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies or antigens in a variety of body fluids. ... The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies. or antigens. in a variety of body fluids ... Latex agglutination results take about 15 minutes to an hour.. How to Prepare for the Test. Your health care provider may tell ...
Tube agglutination test - definition of tube agglutination test by The Free Dictionary
tube agglutination test synonyms, tube agglutination test pronunciation, tube agglutination test translation, English ... 2. A clumped mass of material formed by agglutination. Also called agglutinate . ... dictionary definition of tube agglutination test. n. 1. The act or process of agglutinating; adhesion of distinct parts. ... agglutination. [əˌgluːtɪˈneɪʃən] N → aglutinación f. agglutination. n → Agglutination f (also Ling), → Verklumpung f, → ...
Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. - PubMed - NCBI
Agglutination Synonyms, Agglutination Antonyms | Thesaurus.com
Synonyms for agglutination at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive ... AGGLUTINATION. Thidreks Saga is not an epic, though it is made by an agglutination of ballads. ... Agglutination or aggregation is carried to its widest extent, and words of inordinate length are not uncommon. ... Having utilized the technic devised by Teague, I have had no difficulty in performing the agglutination test in plague. ...
CHEMICAL STUDIES ON BACTERIAL AGGLUTINATION | JEM
Microplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated Beads
... Yussaira Castillo,1 Masato ... L. W. George and L. E. Carmichael, "A plate agglutination test for the rapid diagnosis of canine brucellosis," The American ... M. Watarai, S. Kim, J. Yamamoto et al., "A rapid agglutination assay for canine brucellosis using antigen coated beads," The ... M. Kawaguchi, N. Saito, C. Katsukawa, and T. Soma, "Detection of anti-Brucella canis agglutination antibodies by microtiter and ...
Image: Slide Agglutination - Merck Veterinary Manual
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
StrepPro Grouping Latex Agglutination Tests by Hardy Diagnostics | Medline Industries, Inc.
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Agglutination Tests, Latex - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Latex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - FR
Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... Identify a wide range of species and Legionella pneumophila serogroups from culture with a trusted name in latex agglutination. ... Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... with a complete kit for Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination (RPLA). ...
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... large selection of Staphylococcus Aureus Testing products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Staphaurex Latex Agglutination ... Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. 400 Tests/Kit. 2°C to 8°C. Pack of 400 for $688.28 N/A Due to product restrictions, please ... Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. 120 Tests/Kit. 2°C to 8°C. Pack of 120 for $249.90 N/A Due to product restrictions, please ... strong agglutination of the latex particles. Proven Performance *Rely on tried-and-true tests with more than 50 years of ...
Agglutination by anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody is associated with protection against experimental human pneumococcal...
D) Flow cytometry agglutination assay comparing the titers at which a 3-fold increase in percent agglutination for strains in ... Flow cytometric agglutination assay comparing the titers at which a 3-fold increase in percent agglutination of pneumococci is ... Percent agglutination is calculated by the sum of events in Q1, Q2 and Q3. Representative images are shown from Amnis ... The baseline percent agglutination was calculated for each individual experiment and ranged from only 2-10%. (E) Passive ...
Cilial agitation prevents sperm agglutination | Science Translational Medicine
Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper - Analyst (RSC Publishing)
In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-load ... Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper Purim Jarujamrus,ab Junfei Tian,a Xu Li,a Atitaya ... In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-loaded paper. We semi- ... Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper P. Jarujamrus, J. Tian, X. Li, A. Siripinyanond, J. ...
Elevated plasma glycocalicin levels and decreased ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination in hemodialysis patients
Latex Agglutination Test: Technique and Risks
The Latex agglutination test is also called as latex fixation test. Read more about the technique, preparation and risks ... Medical Health Tests Medical Tests Latex Agglutination Test Technique and Risks Associated With Latex Agglutination Test. ... The Latex agglutination technique is used in this test, and it is popular because results can be derived very quickly, in ... Latex Agglutination Test Samples and Preparation. Various types of body fluids such as urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or ...
ASMscience | Bacterial Agglutination
Agglutination Assays | Microbiology
Agglutination Assays. Learning Objectives. *Compare direct and indirect agglutination. *Identify various uses of ... Agglutination of latex beads in indirect agglutination assays can be used to detect the presence of specific antigens or ... Agglutination of Bacteria and Viruses. The use of agglutination tests to identify streptococcal bacteria was developed in the ... This technique is called an indirect agglutination assay (or latex fixation assay), because the agglutination of the beads is a ...
Latex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination test
What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean ... Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... agglutination. (redirected from latex agglutination test). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, ... Latex agglutination test (LAT) is the most commonly used serological method due to its simplicity in performance (14-17).. ...
AssayAntibodiesHemagglutinationReactionParticlesAssaysReagentsReactionsDiagnosisSperm agglutinationDetectionWidalTitreTreponemaTube agglutination testBACTERIAL AGGLUTINATIONClump togetherReagentSerologicMicroscopic agglutination testOccursDirect agglutinationPassiveTiterTitersInhibitionSlide AgglutinationParticle agglutination testSeraErythrocytesTestsProcedureClumpsBrucellosisCell agglutinationELISABloodQuantitative agglutinationToxoplasma
- In the assay, a diluted sample of virus is added to a diluted blood cell sample, and agglutination is allowed to occur for about 30 minutes. (wisegeek.com)
- A rapid agglutination assay for canine brucellosis using antigen coated beads," The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science , vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 477-480, 2007. (hindawi.com)
- We used a flow cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating. (nih.gov)
- The method developed by Lancefield is a direct agglutination assay , since the bacterial cells themselves agglutinate. (lumenlearning.com)
- This technique is called an indirect agglutination assay (or latex fixation assay ), because the agglutination of the beads is a marker for antibody binding to some other antigen (Figure 2). (lumenlearning.com)
- Latex agglutination tests (LATs)  first established in 1959 for the assay of serologic rheumatoid factor (2), commonly use latex microspheres with conjugated proteins to magnify effects of antigen-antibody interactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A newly developed latex agglutination assay for the detection of genus-specific Leptospira antibodies in human sera was evaluated. (asm.org)
- The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. (asm.org)
- Moreover, the latex agglutination assay gives rapid advantage for quick results within a shorter period of time. (pharmiweb.com)
- This assay, called Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP), could be broadly deployed to screen at-risk populations using OF in many settings, including those where cold chain shipping is not available (low-resource settings) and where needles are inconvenient (pediatrics) or unsafe (prisons). (pnas.org)
- Here we report the development of an HIV OF assay based on Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) technology. (pnas.org)
- The present invention relates to a reagent and a method for detecting an antigen, antibody or other analyte in a sample, such as human or animal blood, by an agglutination assay. (google.com)
- gondii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and indirect agglutination test (ELISA, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) according to the manufacturer's instructions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination technique (TP.PA) was evaluated, in comparison with the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, microhemagglutination assay for Treponema pallidum antibodies (MHA-TP), and fluorescent treponemal antibody-ABS (FTA-Abs) test for the diagnosis of neurosyphilis. (nih.gov)
- The objective of this work was to develop a novel non-treponemal magnetic particle-based agglutination assay (NT-MAA) and evaluate its feasibility for syphilis testing. (bmj.com)
- Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) assay and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were included. (bmj.com)
- A dot immunobinding assay (DIA) was compared with the standard tube agglutination test (SAT) for detecting antibodies in sera from vaccinated and unvaccinated chickens challenged with Salmonella gallinarum var duisburg. (eurekamag.com)
- The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. (veterinaryworld.org)
- Bacterial culture, agglutination test and ELISA assay were performed to detect Brucella spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using 30 bulls with neosporosis diagnosed by modified agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 15 healthy bulls, some sperm parameters such as sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology were studied and compared. (readbyqxmd.com)
- We have also developed two methods for nanoparticle agglutination assays (a particle gel agglutination test and a magnetic microparticle [MMP]-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and two electrochemical biosensors (impedimetric and amperometric) for DNA and antibody detection. (begellhouse.com)
- The autologous red cell agglutination assay reagent consists of an antibody or antibody fragment of a human erythrocyte-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated to an antigen of interest. (edu.au)
- The aim of the work reported in this article was to explore the production of the agglutination assay reagent as both a single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment and recombinant full-length mAb, expressed in a secreted form in commonly used mammalian cell lines. (edu.au)
- agglutination The clumping together by antibodies of microscopic foreign particles, such as red blood cells or bacteria, so that they form a visible pellet-like precipitate. (encyclopedia.com)
- The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies or antigens in a variety of body fluids including saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, or blood. (medlineplus.gov)
- agglutination by antibodies specific for minor (group) antigens common to several microorganisms, each of which possesses its own major specific antigen. (drugs.com)
- Direct agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies to a particular antigen in a blood sample. (reference.com)
- Agglutination is one way in which antibodies mark antigens for destruction. (wisegeek.com)
- 3. An incomplete analysis is given of the antigenic components and antibodies involved in the agglutination. (rupress.org)
- D. M. Myers, V. M. Varela Diaz, and E. A. Coltorti, "Comparative sensitivity of gel diffusion and tube agglutination tests for the detection of Brucella canis antibodies in experimentally infected dogs," Journal of Applied Microbiology , vol. 23, pp. 894-902, 1974. (hindawi.com)
- M. Kawaguchi, N. Saito, C. Katsukawa, and T. Soma, "Detection of anti- Brucella canis agglutination antibodies by microtiter and, study the effect of hemolysis," Journal of the Japan Veterinary Medical Association , vol. 64, pp. 957-961, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- Our results indicate that pneumococcal agglutination mediated by CPS-specific antibodies is a key mechanism of protection against acquisition of carriage. (nih.gov)
- In addition to causing precipitation of soluble molecules and flocculation of molecules in suspension, antibodies can also clump together cells or particles (e.g., antigen-coated latex beads) in a process called agglutination ( Figure 7 in Overview of Specific Adaptive Immunity ). (lumenlearning.com)
- Agglutination can be used as an indicator of the presence of antibodies against bacteria or red blood cells. (lumenlearning.com)
- however, to improve visualization of the agglutination, the antibodies may be attached to inert latex beads . (lumenlearning.com)
- Thirteen species from 9 families had positive agglutination reactions for antibodies to MG, but all birds tested negative by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The presence and quantity of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the test sample were determined by performing the Differential Agglutination Test with Toxoplasma organisms. (cdc.gov)
- Indirect agglutination test was done between cervicovaginal secretions and sperm of the participats' husbands for the detection of antibodies against sperm in cervicovaginal secretions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Direct agglutination test and other assays for measuring antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This bi-functional reagent causes the agglutination of the patient's erythrocytes in the presence of the antigen-specific antibodies in the patient's serum. (edu.au)
- Why dont antibodies of o blood group does not cause agglutination reaction with any of antigens in other blood group? (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
- When serum containing incomplete anti-Rh antibodies is mixed with Rh+ erythrocytes in saline, incomplete antibody antiglobulin coats the surface of erythrocytes but does not cause any agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
- Agglutination occurs if antibodies are present in serum. (microbenotes.com)
- Latex agglutination can also be performed with the antigen conjugated to the beads for testing the presence of antibodies in a serum specimen. (microbenotes.com)
- Agglutination enhancers can influence the zeta potential so that incomplete antibodies can agglutinate red cells and can increase the binding (association) between antibody and antigen. (sanquin.org)
- Various agglutination tests are used to determine if an antibody is present in a blood sample, including direct agglutination, indirect agglutination, hemagglutination and Rh factor testing. (reference.com)
- Indirect fluorescent antibody test and hemagglutination - inhibition test market may show the slower growth in the latex agglutination test market due to less awareness and popularity among the people. (pharmiweb.com)
- The most commonly used in clinical tests are the indirect hemagglutination test and the latex agglutination test. (boxstoretoys.com)
- Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner found another important practical application of the agglutination reaction in 1900. (wikipedia.org)
- The other name of agglutination, which I think is a difficult word, is the Gruber-Durham reaction. (wisegeek.com)
- Except in this single matter of agglutination reaction, no constant distinction between these varieties has been demonstrated. (thesaurus.com)
- White latex particles are coated with human fibrinogen for detection of clumping factor and specific IgG for detection of protein A. When mixed on a slide with a suspension of S. aureus , reaction of clumping factor with the fibrinogen and/or protein A with the IgG causes rapid, strong agglutination of the latex particles. (fishersci.com)
- Regarding the 10% prevalence of ASA (IgG) in infertile men who have no other problems, sperm mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) should be considered as a routine test in the semen analysis of patients with varicocele (23). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The concentration of HA with a dilution 1/64 showed that the agglutination reaction between the protein immunogenic VNN 45 kDa and erythrocytes of Humpback grouper showed levels of sensitivity to concentrations are 0,015625. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is known that RF affects immunoassays based on the agglutination reaction because RF accelerates nonspecific agglutination via hydrophobic binding. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In some studies, however, the more viscous fluid from SF was treated with hyaluronidase to make the fluid clearer and the agglutination reaction easier to read. (thefreedictionary.com)
- A plate for use in an immunological analysis on the basis of agglutination reaction of particles, has formed therein a number of reaction vessels each having a conical bottom surface. (google.com)
- The reaction between a specific antibody and antigen results in visible clumping is called agglutination. (pharmiweb.com)
- The agglutination reaction may also be reversed, the use of systematic beads provide the advantages and consistency, uniformity, and stability. (pharmiweb.com)
- Additionally, latex agglutination test provides the versatility of the reaction, simple design and ability to work in small quantity of the sample. (pharmiweb.com)
- Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. (mdpi.com)
- The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. (mdpi.com)
- In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. (mdpi.com)
- The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. (mdpi.com)
- No definite rules can therefore be formulated for the interpretation of the agglutination reaction quantitatively, since it is bound up with a complicated process varying from case to case. (rupress.org)
- The test was first introduced by F. Widal in 1896 [ 2 ] and is based on a macroscopically visible serum - mediated agglutination reaction between S. typhi somatic lipopolysacharide O antigens (TO) and flagellar H antigens (TH). (biomedcentral.com)
- This reaction is termed agglutination. (edu.ly)
- Basic type of agglutination reaction that is performed on a slide. (microbenotes.com)
- After incubation, antigen-antibody reaction is indicated visible clumps of agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
- If the same antigen is present in the specimen, the agglutination reaction is inhibited. (boxstoretoys.com)
- This is called reverse indirect agglutination inhibition reaction. (boxstoretoys.com)
- Cooperative agglutination reaction is also suitable for direct detection of bacteria. (boxstoretoys.com)
- In the indirect agglutination reaction, there are many types of particles that can be used as carriers. (boxstoretoys.com)
- The formation of lot of soluble antibody and antigen molecules is required for the visibility of a precipitation reaction, it is lesser sensitive than agglutination reaction. (vspages.com)
- A precipitation reaction can be converted into agglutination reaction by attaching soluble antigens to large latex beads or erythrocytes which are large carriers. (vspages.com)
- This means that if a person is to be tested for a bacterial infection then agglutination reaction can be used effectively. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination is a more sensitive reaction in comparison to precipitation. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination is the clumping of particles. (wikipedia.org)
- In biology , agglutination refers to the bunching together of particles. (wisegeek.com)
- In this way, agglutination enables the body to disarm and remove harmful invading particles. (wisegeek.com)
- Passive Agglutination Tests in which Antigen is adsorbed onto Latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed Antigen . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
- Automation is not usually used to measure agglutination reactions , but nephelometry in which the amount of light scatter by particles is measured, has been used to measure agglutination and is then called a particle-enhanced immunoassay. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The test used to analyze the variation on the clumping ability of the antigen when it reacted with an antibody placed on the surface of latex particles is called latex agglutination test. (pharmiweb.com)
- agglutination of particles that have been coated with soluble antigen, by antiserum specific for the adsorbed antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Passive agglutination employs carrier particles that are coated with soluble antigens. (microbenotes.com)
- In latex agglutination, many antibody or antigen molecules are bound to latex beads (particles), which increases the number of antigen-binding sites. (microbenotes.com)
- The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. (google.com.au)
- Agglutination assays are usually quick and easy to perform on a glass slide or microtiter plate (Figure 1). (lumenlearning.com)
- The rapid quantitative and qualitative agglutination D-dimer assays for the exclusion of VTE are not sensitive enough as stand-alone tests and should be used in combination with clinical score assessment. (unboundmedicine.com)
- For the agglutination tests, micro- and nanoparticles were coupled with flamentous bacteriophages displaying the selected mimotopes on their surfaces, which has favored the formation of the antigen-antibody or peptide-protein complexes, amplifying the optical detection in ELISA assays or after the chromatographic separation of the microagglutinates. (begellhouse.com)
- Microtiter plates have an array of wells to hold small volumes of reagents and to observe reactions (e.g., agglutination) either visually or using a specially designed spectrophotometer. (lumenlearning.com)
- PEGylation effectively masks the Rh(D) antigen, (5,6) therefore by quantifying agglutination reactions with anti-D sera before, during and after subjecting the PEGylated RBCs to each simulated condition above, a standardized determination of dePEGylation can be established. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To evaluate any change in PEGylation, microscopic agglutination reactions were graded, in quadruplicate, on a hemocytometer for each RBC type and each simulated condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The analysis of 4450 toxoplasma serology results showed that 59 (1.3%) latex agglutination reactions were not confirmed in the dye test. (bmj.com)
- The latex agglutination test is useful as a screen for toxoplasma infection but false positive reactions do occur. (bmj.com)
- So-called cross reactions may occur, however, in agglutination tests with specimens of blood from some of the patients with these infections. (jamanetwork.com)
- Agglutination reactions where the antigens are found naturally on a particle are known as direct agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
- Precipitation reactions and agglutination reactions are the two most popular serological reactions which are used in diagnosing the antigen and antibody reactions in our body. (vspages.com)
- Antigens are soluble molecules in precipitation reactions while they are large and insoluble molecules in case of agglutination. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination reactions are used in typing blood cells for blood transfusion. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens and the identity of such bacteria, and therefore is an important technique in diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, the Widal test , used for the diagnosis of typhoid fever , looks for agglutination of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhi in patient sera. (lumenlearning.com)
- However, the latex agglutination principle also used in the diagnosis of infections like Hepatitis B, H.influenzae, N. meningitidis, etc. (pharmiweb.com)
- However, the latex agglutination test also applied to the diagnosis of the autoimmune disorder and Hepatitis B infections, since the increasing the Hepatitis B infection to the children's expected to boost the latex agglutination test market in future. (pharmiweb.com)
- Europe region expected to show the second dominating market for latex agglutination test, since the increasing demand for the novel diagnostic methods for the infectious diseases and people preferring the invasive techniques for the diagnosis as compared to the traditional methods. (pharmiweb.com)
- The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is commonly used for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. (wiley.com)
- The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies on an initial serologic screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for T. b. gambiense, followed by parasitologic confirmation in most endemic areas. (msf.org)
- The current diagnosis of Brucellosis predominantly relies on the traditional bacterial culture and serum agglutination test. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sperm agglutination symptoms Since 15 November 2007 Agglutination mixte directe MAR. Assisted Semen Analysis ou CASA 389 anastomose 341, 503. (savemarket.site)
- Bazar phmre hagondange sperm agglutination symptoms journalistes anne 80 staley extrareturn Sperm agglutination symptoms slime sans colle recette Rf: BMM291. (savemarket.site)
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- aureus by conventional susceptibility (oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin MIC) and molecular methods (PCR) and to evaluate latex agglutination test for the detection of PBP 2a and to compare the results of these tests for its sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Modified latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in cerebrospinal fluid and direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Identification was confirmed by detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) by latex agglutination test (PBP2' Test Kit, Oxoid, Hants, UK). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Latex agglutination is a rapid latex test technology with qualitative and semi-quantitative detection to help your core lab, hospital lab, reference lab, or physician's office lab run more efficiently. (meridianbioscience.com)
- The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. (mdpi.com)
- We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. (biomedcentral.com)
- Various agglutination tests have been developed [ 2 ] of which the Widal method is the oldest and remains the most widely used. (biomedcentral.com)
- We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Widal tube agglutination test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness and compared our results with those from previous studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- Widal agglutination test demonstrates the presence of somatic (O) and flagellar (H) agglutinins to Salmonella in the patient? (molq.in)
- Antenatal monitoring of anti-D and anti-c: could titre scores determined by column agglutination technology replace continuous flow analyser quantification? (wiley.com)
- This was followed by determining antibody titre in the sera using a direct agglutination test. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is agglutination test performed in tube and standard quantitative technique for determination of antibody titre. (microbenotes.com)
- The Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA) test is used as a confirmatory test for samples demonstrating reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test results. (uncmedicalcenter.org)
Tube agglutination test1
- invasion in positive culture or a single standard tube agglutination test (STA) against Brucella spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Direct bacterial agglutination uses whole pathogens as a source of antigen. (microbenotes.com)
- Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. (reference.com)
- An evaluation of the reactivity of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) reagent in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, Cameroon. (msf.org)
- If agglutination occurs, it means that the same antigen does not exist in the specimen, and the antibody reagent is not bound, so it still acts with the antigen on the carrier. (boxstoretoys.com)
- Most partial D red blood cells will demonstrate direct agglutination in routine serologic tests and thus type as Rh(D) positive. (thefreedictionary.com)
Microscopic agglutination test1
- Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. (nih.gov)
- When blood of incompatible blood groups (e.g. group A and group B - see ABO system ) is mixed together agglutination of the red cells occurs ( haemagglutination ). (encyclopedia.com)
- Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
- If agglutination occurs, this indicates that the donor and recipient blood types are incompatible. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, agglutination occurs if a person undergoes a blood transfusion with a blood type that doesn't match his own. (reference.com)
- Indirect agglutination, also called passive agglutination, occurs when an artificial agent is the carrier of the antigen being tested. (reference.com)
- If the antibody binds to the red blood cells in a sample, agglutination occurs, and blood type can be confirmed based on which antibody was used. (wisegeek.com)
- In active agglutination, direct agglutination of particulate antigen with specific antibody occurs. (microbenotes.com)
- In the presence of a suitable electrolyte, specific agglutination occurs, called indirect agglutination (indirectagglutination) ) Or passive agglutination (passiveagglutination). (boxstoretoys.com)
- In contact with the corresponding antigen, reverse indirect agglutination occurs. (boxstoretoys.com)
- 44) In that initial definition, Standards required a weak D test if donors' blood typed as D-negative by direct agglutination using anti-D but regarded a direct agglutination method to be sufficient for Rh typing of transfusion recipients. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Improvement of direct agglutination test for field studies of visceral leishmaniasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Detect Bacillis cereus or Clostridium perfringens enterotoxins and E. coli verocytotoxin VT1 and VT2 from food or fecal specimens, or detect staphylococcal toxic-shock syndrome toxin (TST) with a complete kit for Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination (RPLA). (thermofisher.com)
- Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomiasis (CATT) End-Dilution Titer and Cerebrospinal Fluid Cell Count as Predictors of Human African Trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma brucei gambiense) Among Serologically Suspected Individuals in Southern Sudan. (msf.org)
- Agglutination titers are reported for both types of fixed organisms and the combined results are interpreted by comparison of titers. (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, the heterophil agglutination tests should include absorption with guinea pig kidney and beef cell antigens particularly for titers that are, unabsorbed, within the normal range of 1:56 or lower, or within slightly elevated ranges such as 1:112 or 1:224. (annals.org)
- Pyrogenes serogroup was identified in one third of positive samples from Moheli and was associated with the highest agglutination titers (Figure). (thefreedictionary.com)
- 1. The agglutination inhibition zone, artificially produced by heating, has been studied. (rupress.org)
- Identification of bacterial types represents a classic example of a slide agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
Particle agglutination test4
- This information shows the various causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test , and how common these diseases or conditions are in the general population. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- This is not a direct indication as to how commonly these diseases are the actual cause of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test , but gives a relative idea as to how frequent these diseases are seen overall. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The following list of conditions have ' Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- But out of total 45 cases,lg (40oh) were diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by Latex particle agglutination test (LPAT). (banglajol.info)
- Simultaneous titrations were performed on 281 animal and human sera and 17 hyperimmune sera with the microscopic agglutination (MA) test and the improved microtechnique. (nih.gov)
- Seasonal variation in agglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. (ajtmh.org)
- Agglutination and rosette formation are in vitro characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which have been associated with host protective immune responses and also with parasite virulence. (ajtmh.org)
- M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Landsteiner's agglutination tests and his discovery of ABO blood groups was the start of the science of blood transfusion and serology which has made transfusion possible and safer. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of agglutination tests to identify streptococcal bacteria was developed in the 1920s by Rebecca Lancefield working with her colleagues A.R. Dochez and Oswald Avery . (lumenlearning.com)
- Agglutination tests are widely used in underdeveloped countries that may lack appropriate facilities for culturing bacteria. (lumenlearning.com)
- CSF cultures, Gram stain, and latex agglutination tests (Wellcogen Bacterial Antigen Kit, Lenexa, KS, USA) were performed in the local hospitals. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It has been the writer's opinion heretofore that all cases of infectious mononucleosis, if properly studied, would reveal positive heterophil agglutination tests. (annals.org)
- 1. Application of the quantitative agglutination procedure to hemolytic streptococci and their antisera is shown to yield values indicative of the antibody content of the antisera in weight units. (rupress.org)
- Rhesus D typing was done using anti-D serum (Biotec, Ipcswich, UK) agglutination method and the negative results were confirmed using the indirect agglutination test (IAT) procedure. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The tiny clumps seen in well 4 are indicative of agglutination, which is absent from all other wells. (lumenlearning.com)
- Among 235 patients with Brucellosis, 51 (21.7%) was positive for bacterial culture, 150 (63.8%) were positive by agglutination test, and 232 (98.7%) were positive by ELISA (IgG and/or IgM). (biomedcentral.com)
- In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-loaded paper. (rsc.org)
- They involve a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels that activate tissue transglutaminase (TG2), leading to a rapid actin reorganization that is pivotal in driving cell agglutination. (scienceexchange.com)
- These specific effects of toxic cereals are phenocopied by the gliadin-derived peptide p31-43, which orchestrates the activation of innate response to gliadin in CD.Discussion Our study provides the rationale for the extensive use of K562(S)-cell agglutination as a valuable tool for screening cereal toxicity. (scienceexchange.com)
- The blood count was normal and the ELISA and Indirect Agglutination serologies were negative. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Gram-positive cocci were detected in blood buffy coat of one patient, and a latex agglutination test of CSF indicated infection with S. (thefreedictionary.com)
- No special preparation is needed for Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood. (practo.com)
- Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood. (practo.com)
- O Blood group has both antibobies then why dont it cause agglutination with any of blood group A or B as it has A antigen and B antigen respectively? (biology-questions-and-answers.com)
- To determine more accurately the character of the infection in any individual cow there is needed in addition to the quantitative agglutination test a bacteriological study of the milk and of any prematurely discharged calf or fetus. (rupress.org)
- Discrepant toxoplasma latex agglutination test results. (bmj.com)