Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Brucella canis: A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.DextranaseDog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)HistoplasminSalmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.MercaptoethanolToxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.PolysaccharidesSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Immunochromatography: A type of affinity chromatography where ANTIBODIES are used in the affinity capture reaction on the solid support, in the mobile phase, or both.Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hexadimethrine Bromide: A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Meningitis, Haemophilus: Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.Burkholderia pseudomallei: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes MELIOIDOSIS. It has been isolated from soil and water in tropical regions, particularly Southeast Asia.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.NepalAdhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Meningitis, Pneumococcal: An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae: A serovar of the bacterial species LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS, whose primary host is RATS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune: Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Sudan: A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Exfoliatins: Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.Receptors, N-Acetylglucosamine: Cell surface receptors that bind to ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 126.96.36.199.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Pleuropneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with PLEURISY, inflammation of the PLEURA.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne: The classic form of typhus, caused by RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII, which is transmitted from man to man by the louse Pediculus humanus corporis. This disease is characterized by the sudden onset of intense headache, malaise, and generalized myalgia followed by the formation of a macular skin eruption and vascular and neurologic disturbances.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Regulated exopolysaccharide production in Myxococcus xanthus. (1/592)Myxococcus xanthus fibrils are cell surface-associated structures composed of roughly equal amounts of polysaccharide and protein. The level of M. xanthus polysaccharide production under different conditions in the wild type and in several mutants known to have alterations in fibril production was investigated. Wild-type exopolysaccharide increased significantly as cells entered the stationary phase of growth or upon addition of Ca2+ to growing cells, and the polysaccharide-induced cells exhibited an enhanced capacity for cell-cell agglutination. The activity of the key gluconeogenic pathway enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck) also increased under these conditions. Most fibril-deficient mutants failed to produce polysaccharide in a stationary-phase- or Ca2+-dependent fashion. However, regulation of Pck activity was generally unimpaired in these mutant strains. In an stk mutant, which overproduces fibrils, polysaccharide production and Pck activity were constitutively high under the conditions tested. Polysaccharide production increased in most fibril-deficient strains when an stk mutant allele was present, indicating that these fibril-deficient mutants retained the basic cellular components required for fibril polysaccharide production. In contrast to other divalent cations tested, Sr2+ effectively replaced Ca2+ in stimulating polysaccharide production, and either Ca2+ or Sr2+ was required for fruiting-body formation by wild-type cells. By using transmission electron microscopy of freeze-substituted log-phase wild-type cells, fibril material was observed as a cell surface-associated layer of uniform thickness composed of filaments with an ordered structure. (+info)
Differential expression of nonagglutinating fimbriae and MR/P pili in swarming colonies of Proteus mirabilis. (2/592)The expression of nonagglutinating fimbriae (NAF) and mannose-resistant/Proteus-like (MR/P) pili in swarming colonies of Proteus mirabilis was investigated. Elongated swarmer cells do not express pili, and the relative number of bacteria expressing NAF during swarming and early consolidation phases was very low (<5%). Relative expression of NAF in a terrace increased to approximately 30% at 48 h. We also determined the expression of NAF and MR/P pili in two phenotypically distinguishable regions of each terrace. The expression of both NAF and MR/P pili was always higher in the region closer (proximal) to the middle of the colony than in the distal region of the terrace. The relative numbers of bacteria expressing NAF or MR/P pili in the proximal region were between 39.1 and 63% and between 5.9 and 7.7%, respectively. In the distal region, expression levels were between 20.8 and 27.3% and between 3.7 and 5. 6%, respectively. A time course experiment testing NAF expression in both the proximal and distal regions of a terrace indicated that NAF expression in the proximal regions was always higher than in the distal regions and increased to a plateau 40 to 50 h after the start of the swarming phase for any given terrace. These results indicate that expression of NAF or MR/P pili in swarming colonies of P. mirabilis is highly organized, spatially and temporally. The significance of this controlled differentiation remains to be uncovered. (+info)
Surfactant protein D binds to Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and lipoarabinomannan via carbohydrate-lectin interactions resulting in reduced phagocytosis of the bacteria by macrophages. (3/592)Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is a collectin produced in the distal lung airspaces that is believed to play an important role in innate pulmonary immunity. Naive immunologic responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are especially important in the lung, since entry of this inhaled pathogen into the alveolar macrophage is a pivotal event in disease pathogenesis. Here we investigated SP-D binding to M.tb and the effect of this binding on the adherence of M. tb to human macrophages. These studies demonstrate specific binding of SP-D to M.tb that is saturable, calcium dependent, and carbohydrate inhibitable. In addition to purified SP-D, SP-D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from healthy donors and patients with alveolar proteinosis also binds to M.tb. Incubation of M.tb with SP-D results in agglutination of the bacteria. In contrast to its binding to M.tb, SP-D binds minimally to the avirulent Mycobacterium smegmatis. SP-D binds predominantly to lipoarabinomannan from the virulent Erdman strain of M.tb, but not the lipoarabinomannan from M. smegmatis. The binding of SP-D to Erdman lipoarabinomannan is mediated by the terminal mannosyl oligosaccharides of this lipoglycan. Incubation of M.tb with subagglutinating concentrations of SP-D leads to reduced adherence of the bacteria to macrophages (62.7% of control adherence +/- 3.3% SEM, n = 8), whereas incubation of bacteria with surfactant protein A leads to significantly increased adherence to monocyte-derived macrophages. These data provide evidence for specific binding of SP-D to M. tuberculosis and indicate that SP-D and surfactant protein A serve different roles in the innate host response to this pathogen in the lung. (+info)
Binding of [125I] wheat germ agglutinin to Chinese hamster ovary cells under conditions which affect the mobility of membrane components. (4/592)The binding of [125I]wheat germ agglutinin ([125I]WGA) of high specific activity to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been examined over a millionfold range of WGA concentrations and correlated with the phenomena of agglutination and capping by WGA. Analysis of the binding data by the method of Scatchard gives a complex curve indicative of positive cooperativity amongst high-affinity binding sites. Binding assays performed under conditions which inhibit capping and/or agglutination, such as low temperature or glutaraldehyde fixation, give similarly complex binding curves. Thus, the gross mobility of WGA receptors in the membrane does not appear to be responsible for the cooperative binding of WGA to CHO cells. (+info)
Natural polyreactive immunoglobulin A antibodies produced in mouse Peyer's patches. (5/592)To understand the biological function of natural immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in Peyer's patches (PP), we generated IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb) clones from the PP of normal, unimmunized, specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice and examined their reactivities by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Many of these antibodies reacted with more than one antigen examined, suggesting that they were polyreactive Abs. Two mAbs agglutinated several different strains of commensal bacteria isolated from mice. To examine the genetic features of these polyreactive mAbs, the VH genes of seven different IgA mAbs were sequenced. The VH genes from the VGAM, J558 and 7183 families were compared with sequence from the mAbs with distinct VDJ rearrangements. One of the mAbs that agglutinated bacteria was encoded by a germline VH gene, but the VH region of the other polyreactive mAbs contained between seven and 11 mutated sites. No indication of antigenic selection was observed in the pattern of these mutated sites. Our results show that polyreactive IgA Abs are present in PP as a part of the normal B-cell repertoire. These polyreactive Abs may establish a natural immune homeostasis, and function as a polyreactive sensor to detect pathogenic invasion and to control immune response in the gut. (+info)
Development of antibodies against chondroitin sulfate A-adherent Plasmodium falciparum in pregnant women. (6/592)In areas where Plasmodium falciparum is endemic, pregnant women are at increased risk for malaria, and this risk is greatest during the first pregnancy. The placenta sequesters parasites that are able to cytoadhere to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), a molecule expressed by the placental syncytiotrophoblast, while parasites from a nonpregnant host do not bind to CSA. Cytoadherence is mediated by the expression of variants of the P. falciparum-erythrocyte membrane protein 1 family. Each member of this molecule family induces antibodies that specifically agglutinate infected erythrocytes and inhibit their cytoadherence ability. We investigated whether the higher susceptibility of primigravidae was related to the lack of immune response towards CSA-binding parasites. In a cross-sectional study, primigravidae delivering with a noninfected placenta were less likely to have antibodies agglutinating CSA-binding parasites than multigravidae (P < 0.01). In contrast, parasites from nonpregnant hosts were as likely to be recognized by the sera from women of various parities. In a longitudinal study, at 6 months of pregnancy, antibodies against CSA-binding parasites were present in 31.8% of primigravidae and in 76.9% of secundigravidae (P = 0.02). The antibodies against CSA-binding parasites inhibited the cytoadherence of a CSA-adherent parasite strain to the human placental trophoblast. Our data support the idea that the higher susceptibility of primiparae is related to a lack of a specific immune response to placental parasites. (+info)
Concanavalin A receptors on the surface membrane of lymphocytes from patient's with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas. (7/592)Concanavalin A (Con A) induces movement of its receptors on the cell surface membrane. This induction results in a concentration of Con A site complexes on one pole of the cell to form a cap. A marked difference was found in the mobility of Con A receptor between lymphocytes from normal persons and lymphocytes from patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas. Lymphocytes isolated from tonsils of patients undergoing tonsillectomy and from axillary lymph nodes of breast cancer patients exhibited approximately 30% of cells with caps, which is identical with the cap formation ability of normal lymphocytes. In biopsy material from patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas, a significant decrease in the ability of the lymphocytes to form caps was observed. This difference in the mobility of Con A sites was even more pronounced in lymphocytes isolated from the peripheral blood. In 123 patients with Hodgkin's disease and other malignant lymphomas, cap formation ranged between 3 and 12%. The ability of cells, from a normal donor or a lymphoma patient, to form caps was independent of the source from which the lymphocytes were isolated, e.g., lymph node, spleen, or blood. Lymphocytes from patients with lymphoma were also agglutinated by Con A to a higher degree than normal lymphocytes. These findings are discussed in relation to the association of the lymphocytes with these malignancies and as a possible aid in their differential diagnosis. (+info)
Membrane difference in peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Hodgkin's disease. (8/592)Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of 21 normal persons and 66 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), CLL in remission, Hodgkin's disease, Hodgkin's disease in remission, various other tumors, or cardiovascular diseases; The lymphocytes were studied for cap formation and agglutinability by concanavalin A, and for cell attachment to the surface of a petri dish. The frequency of cap formation was lowest in lymphocytes from patients with untreated Hodgkin's disease (2.1 plus or minus 0.8%), next lowest in lymphocytes from patients with CLL who were or were not under treatment (7,0 plus or minus 1;3%), and also low in Hodgkin's disease in remission (10.6 plus or minus 1.2%). The frequencies of cap formation by lymphocytes from patients with various other tumors (19.1 plus or minus 2.5%), with CLL in remission (24.0 plus or minus 0.9%), and with nonmalignant diseases (26.0 plus or minus 2.2%) were more similar to the frequency found in lymphocytes from normal persons (29.4 plus or minus 2.8%). Lymphocytes from all the patients, including those in remission, showed a higher degree of agglutinability by concanavalin A than lymphocytes from normal persons. Cell attachment to a petri dish was highest with CLL, next highest with CLL in remission, and low for normal persons and all the other patients. Lymphocytes from normal persons that consisted predominantly of thymus-derived cells gave similar results to isolated normal bone marrow-derived cells. The results indicate that there were different changes in the surface membrane of lymphocytes from patients with CLL, CLL in remission, Hodgkin's disease, and Hodgkin's disease in remission, and that the patients in clinical remission still showed abnormalities in their lymphocytes. (+info)
Agglutinability - definition of agglutinability by The Free Dictionary
Autoreactive factors identify tumor-host heterogeneity and responsiveness to immunotherapy | SpringerLink
CHEMICAL STUDIES ON BACTERIAL AGGLUTINATION | JEM
1. Application of the quantitative agglutination procedure to hemolytic streptococci and their antisera is shown to yield values indicative of the antibody content of the antisera in weight units.. 2. Estimations are given of type-specific and group-specific antibody in a number of antisera.. 3. An incomplete analysis is given of the antigenic components and antibodies involved in the agglutination.. 4. Adaptation of the experimental conditions to a simple qualitative type determination of hemolytic streptococci is suggested.. ...
Tynax~Patent Brokers & I.P. Strategists
This invention provides particles for agglutination reaction measurement with high antigen potency. They were characterized by revealing the antigen, which has polylysine from recombinant DNA, and have combined this with the particles for agglutination reaction measurement. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement do not carry the antigen (which is infectious) and are safe. The particles for agglutination reaction measurement can be manufactured easily and in large quantities ...
Passive agglutination | Article about passive agglutination by The Free Dictionary
acidic agglutination是什么意思 海词词典
Single amino acid substitutions in the N-terminus of Vibrio cholerae TcpA affect colonization, autoagglutination, and serum...
How does agglutination occur? | Reference.com
The Effect of Desiccation on Antigenic Structure | Microbiology Society
Agglutination reaction | definition of agglutination reaction by Medical dictionary
RIIP - Réseau International des Instituts Pasteur - Cerastotin, a serine protease from Cerastes cerastes venom, with platelet...
Cerastotin, a thrombin-like enzyme from the venom of the desert viper Cerastes cerastes, has been purified by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and two ion-exchange chromatographies on Mono S columns. It is a neutral glycoprotein (pI = 6.6), present as a single polypeptide chain of 40 kDa. Its N-terminal sequence shows strong similarity with those of other thrombin-like enzymes from snake venoms. Cerastotin possesses esterase and amidolytic activities measured with N(alpha)-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester and the thrombin chromogenic substrate D-phenylalanyl-L-pipecolyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide, respectively. The amidolytic activity is inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethane, N(alpha)-tosyl-L-phenylalanyl chloromethane, D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginyl chloromethane and benzamidine, suggesting that cerastotin is a serine protease. Cerastotin efficiently clots human plasma and cleaves preferentially the alpha chain of fibrinogen. Cerastotin did not induce
Sensors | Free Full-Text | Quantitative Determination of Fibrinogen of Patients with Coronary Heart Diseases through...
Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. In addition, the standard curve between plasma agglutination time and fibrinogen concentration was established to determinate fibrinogen content quantitatively. The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. The correlation coefficient was 0.91 (γ = 0.91). The determination can be completed within 10 minutes. The fibrinogen concentration in the
Characterisation and differentiation of lactobacilli by lectin typing
Lactobacillus isolates from healthy Estonian and Swedish children were characterised by a lectin typing technique; 56 isolates from six species (L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. brevis and L. buchneri) were tested. The typing system was based on an agglutination assay with a panel of six commercially available lectins, which,were chosen on the basis of their carbohydrate specificities. The isolates were also subjected to proteolytic degradation before lectin typing to decrease auto-agglutination of whole cells in the assay. The 56 isolates were divided into 15 different lectin types by their lectin agglutination patterns. Proteolytic treatment reduced auto-agglutination for the majority of species, apart from L. acidophilus, which remained predominantly auto-agglutinating (eight of nine strains). The system produced stable and reproducible results under standardised culture conditions. Lactobacilli are important bacteria for use as probiotics and this system may ...
Patent US8211365 - Immunodiagnostic test cards having indicating indicia - Google Patents
An immunodiagnostic test card includes a plurality of transparent chambers wherein each chamber includes a quantity of testing material that combines with a patient sample, when mixed, to produce an agglutination reaction. A plurality of indicia are disposed to aid in the manufacture and determining the usability of the cards prior to test and also in objectively grading the agglutination reactions that are formed or lack of agglutination.
Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood in Ghatkopar West, Mumbai. View Prices, Labs & Book online only on | Practo
THE IDENTITY OF THE MECHANISMS OF TYPE-SPECIFIC AGGLUTININ AND PRECIPITIN REACTIONS WITH PNEUMOCOCCUS | JEM
The experimental results which have been described demonstrate the following facts:. 1. In the type-specific agglutination reaction, when the organisms are not present in sufficient numbers to absorb completely all the antibodies from the serum, more antibody is bound by cellular S than is required for the process of agglutination.. 2. The excess of antibody thus bound can then unite with additional amounts of the specific substance when this is added in soluble form to the agglutinated material.. 3. If an excess of the free S is added to an agglutinated mass of antibody and bacteria, the organisms are redispersed and in the suspended state are again specifically agglutinable.. 4. When a solution of the specific polysaccharide is added in excess to an homologous immune serum, a prozone is created in which precipitation is inhibited; moreover, if, at this point, type-specific pneumococci are added to the mixture, inhibition of agglutination also occurs.. 5. The reactive substance in the ...
Agglutination | physiology | Britannica.com
Group agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Carolina Forensics Mystery with Synthetic Blood Kit
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Carolina Forensics Mystery with Synthetic Blood Kit
Students perform a simulated test for the presence of blood on evidence collected from 2 suspects in a murder case. They then use synthetic blood typing to test whether either suspect can be linked to the crime. The simulated agglutination reactions are extremely realistic. Kit contains no blood, blood products, or materials of biological origin, so there is no danger of disease transmission.Refill contains synthetic blood and antisera replacements ...
Wickerhamomyces canadensis | Semantic Scholar
Alpha-agglutinin elisa and antibody
Failure to detect human polymorphism with modification of red cells by Bacillus | Meta
Latex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination test
SUPPRESSION OF BLOOD GROUP AGGLUTINABILITY OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTES BY CERTAIN BACTERIAL POLYSACCHARIDES | Journal of...
Erythrocytes coated with bacterial capsular polysaccharides, notably the Vi antigen, were no longer agglutinated by antibodies directed against the various antigens native to the red cell surface. These effects could not be attributed to prevention of antibody uptake even though in some systems the uptake of antibody was diminished. In fact, agglutination by Rh-incomplete antibody was brought back to the original titer only after the sensitized Vi-coated cells had been subjected to ten alternating exposures to globulin and antiglobulin. Hemagglutination by Newcastle, mumps, and influenza viruses was also suppressed. Erythrocytes coated with Vi polysaccharide assumed the distinctive physicochemical attributes of this acidic polymer which results in a stabilization of the erythrocyte suspension as manifested by increased electrophoretic mobility and a striking decrease in the rate of sedimentation. Among the possible models for explaining the nature of the Vi effect on immune agglutination, the ...
Structural Biochemistry/Proteins/Agglunation reactions - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
Agglutination occurs when an antibody interacts with antigen, resulting in cross-linking of the antigen particles by the antibody. This eventually leads to clumping. "Agglutination" comes from the Latin root agglutinare. "Agglutinare" means, "to glue". Cross-linking, or cross-matching is done to determine matches. Agglutination may occur when an unideterminate, multivalent antigen interacts with a single antibody. It may also occur if a multi determinate, univalent antigen interacts with at least two distinct antibodies. Cross Agglutination: when an antibody that is raised against a similar antigen agglutinates that antigen. Group Agglutination: when a collection of similar organisms is agglutinated by an agglutinin that is specific for that collection. Applications for the agglutination test BLOOD TYPING There are different blood groups like A,B, AB and O. The different blood types are differentiated according to the types of proteins on the surfaces of the red blood cells. Human red blood ...
O Blood group has both antibobies then why dont it cause agglutination with any of blood group A or B as it has A antigen and...
Patent US9201065 - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small analytes having few epitopes are disclosed, by means of using hub moieties to which multiple analytes may be bound by a first epitope, together with a further moiety capable of binding a second analyte epitope and which is also capable of binding to a detectable particle. Stable agglutinated complexes may be so formed, which may used as the basis for various assay formats.
Decreased agglutinability of human erythrocytes by attachment of methoxy polyethylene glycol and the effect on erythrocyte...
LEXILINE JOURNAL: What is Agglutination in Linguistics? - Language Structures in Estonian vs. Latvian Maja - House - Words for...
An example in English would be the forming of the word likeness from "like", by pasting "like" and "-ness" together. A similar example in English would be the glued on "-ance" in "inherit+ance" or "import+ance" or "maintain+ance", or the many -tion or -sion endings following words such as deci(de)+sion, exclamation, (exclaim+tion), and yes, even agglutination or inflection ...
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Free Biology Flashcards about Micro lab 47
US5583003A - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
10th Biology Life Processes Important Questions and Answers
All 14-letter words containing Letters A, G, G, L and U
Ueda, Yoshio - Author List - OKAYAMA UNIVERSITY SCIENTIFIC ACHIEVEMENT REPOSITORY
1) Mucoprotein level in serum and agglutination reaction by Rose for rheumatoid arthritis were measured in 40 cases of rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis or liver disease (mostly acute hepatitis). A raised titer of mucoprotein was often observed in cancer, and a marked rise in agglutination titer was often proved in rheumatoid arthritis. But no significant correlation was proved between the serum mucoprotein level and agglutination test in patients. (2) [n animal experiment an inereased agglutination titer was caused by sensitization with egg albumin, Arthus s phenomenon, anaphylactic, shock, thermal spring bath, X-ray irradiation, blocking of reticuloendothelial system, liver injuries, injection of A. C. T. H., adrenaline, atropin or pilocarpin. A simultaneoas rise in serum mucoprotein level was observed after sensitization, thermal bath, X-ray irradiation, administmtion of chloroform, injection of toxic agents to vegetative nerve system. And a significant positive linear ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Sperm agglutination | Read by QxMD
Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrodes capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN ...
Biomérieux Slidex* Latex Agglutination For Streptococci Kits - Strepto Plus A Reagent;6656015pk
Comparison of five blood-typing methods for the feline AB blood group system - UQ eSpace
Procedures-Sample selection was purposely biased toward those from anemic, type B, or type AB cats or those with autoagglutination. All blood samples were tested by use of GEL, SLIDE, and TUBE methods. Fifty-eight samples were also tested by use of CARD and CHROM methods. The presence of alloantibodies in all cats expressing the B antigen as detected by use of any method was also assessed ...
SHEAR INDUCED CONCANAVALIN A AGGLUTINATION OF HUMAN-ERYTHROCYTES | UBC Chemistry
Brevet US5004923 - Capillary flow device - Google Brevets
Novel methods and devices are provided involving at least one chamber, at least one capillary, and at least one reagent involved in a system providing for a detectable signal. As appropriate, the devices provide for measuring a sample, mixing the sample with reagents, defining a flow path, and reading the result. Of particular interest is the use of combinations of specific binding pair members which result in agglutination information, where the resulting agglutination particles may provide for changes in flow rate, light patterns of a flowing medium, or light absorption or scattering. A fabrication technique particularly suited for forming internal chambers in plastic devices is also described along with various control devices for use with the basic device.
C A L Q U E: "Blinding Moment" by Gert Jonke, translated by Vincent Kling; reviewed by Hans Gabriel
Jonke often seems determined in his writing to deny the possibility of any such delicately balanced translation. The fact that Kling is able to maintain this balance through the variety of prose, lyric and dramatic dialogue that he selects only adds to his accomplishment. Most notable in this regard are his renderings of Jonkes gleefully exaggerated word agglutinations that, however improbable in the original, are still theoretically possible according to German word-formational convention. In these instances, Kling opts for an effective and playful variation as opposed to consistency. He sometimes follows Jonkes lead with impossible but still comprehensible English agglutinations, but he also takes the more standard English route, and in some cases, he even opts for both. Perhaps the most extreme example, itself a sort of linguistic "Blinding Moment" from the piece of the same name, illustrates Klings skill in mixing it up. When Jonkes exuberance produces ...
how to overcome sperm agglutination - Fertilace
Polybead® Carboxylate Yellow Dyed Microspheres 3.00μm
BCS XP System - Siemens Healthineers Česká republika
The BCS® XP System, one of the most widely used fully automated hemostasis analyzers, delivers accurate and precise results. The high-speed, random-access analyzer performs clotting, chromogenic, immunologic, and agglutination testing while allowing the consolidation of both specialty and routine reagents onto one high throughput analyzer.
Study of diagnostic efficacy of widal slide agglutination test against widal tube agglutination test in enteric fever-IJMR-IP...
Study of diagnostic efficacy of widal slide agglutination test against widal tube agglutination test in enteric fever-IJMR-Print ISSN No:-2394-546X Online ISSN No:-2394-5478Article DOI No:-10.18231,Indian Journal of Microbiology Research-IP Innovative Publication Pvt Limited, Medical Journals Publication, Open Access
A rapid slide agglutination test contrasted with a Radioimmunoassay for myoglobin measurement for the early diagnosis of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A rapid slide agglutination test contrasted with a Radioimmunoassay for myoglobin measurement for the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. AU - Fitzgerald, RJ. AU - Tormey, William. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. M3 - Article. VL - 157. SP - 293. EP - 294. JO - IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. JF - IRISH JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCE. SN - 0021-1265. ER - ...
Latex Agglutination Test | Medical Tests | UCSF Health
Agglutination Tests, Latex - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
THE CARDIAC OUTPUT AND VASCULAR RESPONSE TO TRAUMA.
Clinical and experimental observations indicate that only a very slight increase of cardiac output is requisite for maintenance of normal metabolism and uncomplicated recovery after a major operation. Patients with extensive sepsis or gangrene and experimental animals with induced abscesses must satisfy circulatory requirements more than double the basal value. Failure of the circulatory system to meet this demand results in acidosis and sudden death. Experiments indicate that an inflammatory area behaves in a fashion similar to an arterio-venous aneurysm. In experimental burns an increase of pulmonary vascular resistance and a decrease of compliance was found related to blood protein denaturation and red cell agglutination. Fever, water evaporation, and excess respiratory work also were demonstrated as contributing to increased crculatory demand. Observations of patients with respiratory complications indicate an efficient respirator is capable of reducing the cardiac output requirements by as
AccessGUDID - DEVICE: RF (05055273205077)
Polybead Carboxylate Blue Dyed Microspheres
Autoagglutinin | Article about autoagglutinin by The Free Dictionary
FAO Kayecee - Long term TTC & infertility - MadeForMums Chat
Hi TBD! I just replied on your other thread actually. I cant help with the agglutination as thats not something that was mentioned. My hubby had low motility (7%) and low morhpology (25% I think) back in June and count was borderline at 22ml and in his second test in July (so he only had about 7 weeks or so between tests) most figures were about the same but count had gone down to 15ml. The consultant said that while SAs have to be done, and theyre done in the most effective manner available the artificiality of the collection of the sample cannot ever be a true reflection of whats going on ...
Agglutinating activity synonyms, agglutinating activity antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com
Gentaur Molecular :Biotium \ Concanavalin A, CF350 conjugate \ 29015
U.S. Angri Calcio 1927 A.S.D. - Wikipedia
Unione Sportiva Angri 1927 Associazione Sportiva Dilettantistica is an Italian association football club located in Angri, Campania. In season 2016/17 it plays in Promozione Campania. Angri was founded in 1927 with name Sporting Group Cotoniere Angri (Gruppo Sportivo Cotoniere Angri), and in the 1946 the team was promoted in Serie C. In the 1995-1996 season the team won the Italian Cup Amateur Campania (Coppa Italia Dilettanti Campania). In the 2000-2001 season, the team was promoted in Serie D. In the 2006-2007 season, the team finished 2nd in the championship, and narrowly missed promotion to Serie C. The team at the end of the 2010-2011 season is 16th in the standings and have a financial crisis, and the team failure. Restart in the Terza Categoria in 2011-2012. In 2012-2013 season Angri has acquired the sports title of Eccellenza club Real Nocera but at the end season the sports title has sell at US Agropoli. In the 2013-2014 season and the team restart from the Seconda Categoria. In ...
But since agglutination can arise in languages that previously had a non-agglutinative typology and it can be lost in languages ... Agglutination is a typological feature and does not imply a linguistic relation, but there are some families of agglutinative ... "agglutination". Online Etymology Dictionary. Nicholas Poppe, The Uralo-Altaic Theory in the Light of the Soviet Linguistics ... An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain ...
Serum agglutination with a titer > 1:160 in the presence of a compatible illness supports the diagnosis of brucellosis. ... developed the agglutination test, diagnostic of the disease. In 1905, Zammit, a Maltese physician, identified goats as the ... five patients with positive ELISA had a negative tube agglutination test. In the setting of Brucella arthritis, the synovial- ...
No agglutination indicates a negative test reaction, or compatible match. Indications for ISCM are dependent on the ... Presence of agglutination indicates incompatibility. Occasionally a light microscope may be needed. If laboratory services are ... This method depends on the presence or absence of agglutination (clumping of red blood cells), which can usually be visualized ...
1939 in science
Charlotte C. Campbell
Fannie Eleanor Williams
Max von Gruber
As a bacteriologist he discovered specific agglutination in 1896 with his English colleague Herbert Durham (Gruber-Widal- ... Geschichte der Entdeckung der spezifischen Agglutination. In Rudolf Kraus (1868-1932) and Constantin Levaditi (1874-1953), ... discovered the agglutination which gained him international fame. Gruber eventually left Vienna in 1902, and in October that ...
Rh blood group system
Clostridium difficile toxin A
If agglutination occurs, the subject is not pregnant. If the level of HCG is high, the HCG will bind to the antibodies, and ... Gravindex is an agglutination inhibition test performed on a urine sample to detect pregnancy. It is based on double antigen ... The test detects the prevention of agglutination of HCG-coated latex particles by HCG present in the urine of pregnant women. ... thus no agglutination with the HCG-coated latex particles occurs. If no agglutination occurs, the subject is pregnant.. ...
There is no absolute limit on the length and extent of agglutination, which can lead to long words with a large number of ... Tamil lacks relative pronouns, but their meaning is conveyed by relative participle constructions, built using agglutination. ... Some nouns are formed by means of agglutination. For example, "he-who-does" or "that-which-will-become" are the so-called ...
The first show with Pier was the IX Agglutination Metal Festival in Chiaromonte (PZ), where Labyrinth would have been the third ... "Virgin Steele To Headline Italy's Agglutination Metal Festival". BlabbermouthNews.net. Archived from the original on 2009-03-04 ... Labyrinth performed at the 9th Agglutination Metal Festival in Chiaromonte, Italy. Other bands set to appear at the event ...
... and in the appropriate test tube conditions this can lead to agglutination of RBCs. The phenomenon of agglutination of RBCs is ... If agglutination occurs, the indirect Coombs test is positive. The two Coombs tests are based on the fact that anti-human ... IgG antibodies are smaller and require assistance to bridge well enough to form a visual agglutination reaction. Reagents used ... If this produces agglutination of RBCs, the direct Coombs test is positive, a visual indication that antibodies (and/or ...
Light exposure encouraged agglutination before much suppressor was present. Charcoal and mineral oil increased agglutination by ... The culture was then incubated under different conditions of light and darkness and it was found that agglutination was greatly ... Although light was involved in agglutination, the introduction of some light exposed myxamoebae did not cause dark-only cells ... In an experiment to study the conditions necessary for agglutination, Polysphondylium pallidum was cultured on plates of hay- ...
Myron W. Wentz
Heterophile antibody test
If agglutination is absent in both mixtures, the test is negative. A known 'positive' and 'negative' control serum is tested ... The test relies on the agglutination of the sheep RBCs by heterophile antibodies in patient's serum. Heterophile means it ... Examine for the presence or absence of red cell agglutination. If stronger with the sera adsorbed with guinea-pig kidney, the ...
ConA-mediated agglutination of other cell types has been reported, including muscle cells (myocytes), B-lymphocytes (through ... Capo C, Garrouste F, Benoliel AM, Bongrand P, Ryter A, Bell GI (Aug 1982). "Concanavalin-A-mediated thymocyte agglutination: a ... Noonan KD, Burger MM (Oct 1973). "The relationship of concanavalin A binding to lectin-initiated cell agglutination". The ... Betton GR (Nov 1976). "Agglutination reactions of spontaneous canine tumour cells, induced by concanavalin A, demonstrated by ...
Agglutination of red blood cells is used in the Coombs test. Cold agglutinin disease Hemagglutination assay ... The presence or absence of visual agglutination enables a quick and convenient method of determining the ABO and Rhesus status ... The bedside card method of blood grouping relies on visual agglutination to determine an individual's blood group. The card has ...
Nouns also display low levels of agglutination, sometimes taking possessive suffixes. Verbal derivation is not something that ... The primary factor determinative of fusion/agglutination degree is lexical category. Verbs, for example, take subject prefixes ... Yabem shows elements of morphological fusion and agglutination, but is not very high in either respect. ...
ISBN 0-7817-8215-5. Neufeld, F. (1902). "Ueber die Agglutination der Pneumokokken und uber die Theorien der Agglutination". ... but in recent years it has been challenged by the latex agglutination method, and further by molecular typing techniques such ... both as microscopic capsular swelling and macroscopic agglutination (clumping visible with the naked eye). It was initially an ...
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
Agglutination: Falsely increases the MCHC (measured haemoglobin is proportionally higher than HCT). The MCH is more accurate in ... MCHC can be falsely elevated when there is agglutination of red cells (falsely lowering the measured RBC) or when there is ... the analyzer may incorrectly report a low number of very dense red blood cells for blood samples in which agglutination has ... Auto-agglutination: Falsely ↓RBC and ↑MCV Lipaemia: Falsely ↑haemoglobin. Haemolysis: Will falsely increase the MCHC (measured ...
Comparison between Esperanto and Interlingua
Esperanto draws from largely the same languages, but uses agglutination more extensively. Rather than using an existing word ... Interlingua tends to use words derived from natural languages instead of extensive agglutination. The following table ... Interlingua and Esperanto have minor differences regarding precisely how agglutinations occur. For example, Interlingua adds ...
Focal infection theory
Platelet agglutination caused by ristocetin can occur only in the presence of von Willebrand factor multimers, so if ristocetin ... It is no longer used clinically because it caused thrombocytopenia and platelet agglutination. It is now used solely to assay ... it causes agglutination. In some types of vWD (types 2B and platelet-type), even very small amounts of ristocetin cause ...
Sirenik Eskimo language
Latex fixation test
... and observe for agglutination (clumping). Agglutination of the beads in any of the dilutions is considered a positive result, ... Agglutination techniques are used to detect antibodies produced in response to a variety of viruses and bacteria, as well as ... A latex fixation test, also called a latex agglutination assay or test (LA assay or test), is an assay used clinically in the ... Agglutination tests, specific to a variety of pathogens, can be designed and manufactured for clinicians by coating microbeads ...
Visible agglutination is indicative of a positive result, and corresponds roughly to a titer of 1:20. Positive results can be ... The Weil-Felix test is an agglutination test for the diagnosis of rickettsial infections. It was first described in 1916. By ... Weil-Felix is a nonspecific agglutination test which detects anti-rickettsial antibodies in patient's serum. Weil-Felix test is ...
For example, molecules in the sample other than virus-specific antibodies can inhibit agglutination between virus and RBC's, as ... similar to the mechanism viruses use to cause agglutination of erythrocytes. The RBC's used in HA and HI assays are typically ... "The quantitative determination of Influenza virus and antibodies by means of red cell agglutination". J Exp Med. 75: 49-64. doi ...
George Siber bibliography
Daum, RS; Siber, GR; Kamon, JS; Russell, RR (Apr 1982). "Evaluation of a commercial latex particle agglutination test for rapid ... Scheifele, DW; Ward, JI; Siber, GR (Dec 1981). "Advantage of latex agglutination over countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in ... Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia: A prospective study demonstrating the utility of latex agglutination for diagnosis. Pediatric ... influenzae type b infections by latex particles agglutination and counterimmunoelectrophoresis. Presented at the Society for ...
George Hirst (virologist)
If agglutination is not obvious by direct vision, blood bank technicians usually check for agglutination with a microscope. If ... The presence of an antigen on the surface of the blood cells is indicated by agglutination. An alternative system for blood ... In these tests, rather than agglutination, a positive result is indicated by decolorization as red blood cells which bind to ... There is an agglutination reaction between similar antigen and antibody (for example, antigen A agglutinates the antibody A and ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Since agglutination is not linked to infectivity, attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay ... For example, if antibodies that bind the A blood group are added and agglutination occurs, the blood is either type A or type ... To determine between type A or type AB, antibodies that bind the B group are added and if agglutination does not occur, the ... Hemagglutination, or haemagglutination, is a specific form of agglutination that involves red blood cells (RBCs). It has two ...
Banchuin, N; Janyapoon, K; Sarntivijai, S; Parivisutt, L (1992). "Re-evaluation of ELISA and latex agglutination test for ... Rose, HM; Ragan, C (1948). "Differential agglutination of normal and sensitized sheep erythrocytes by sera of patients with ... "On the Occurrence of a Factor in Human Serum Activating the Specific Agglutination of Sheep Blood Corpuscles". Acta Pathologica ...
Latex agglutination detects Aspergillus and Penicillium species in foods by attaching antibodies specific for the extracellular ... However, the latter displays an increased ability to detect Fusarium species when compared to the latex agglutination assay. ... Penicillium digitatum is used as a biological tool during the commercial production of latex agglutination kits. ...
... though it does involve agglutination of roots when forming calques. Ithkuil, on the other hand, contains both agglutination in ... The language Newspeak from 1984 is a variant of English derived from the very concept of agglutination. Among engineered ... A further subcategory of agglutinative languages are polysynthetic languages, which take agglutination to a higher level by ... leaning instead toward agglutination), and also guesses that Proto-Tai-Kadai may have been fusional. On the other hand, he ...
Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida
First of all, the use of the agglutination method on slides is required in order to get the antigen formula. The agglutination ... The scheme is used to classify the serovar depending on its antigen formula obtained with the reaction of the agglutination. ... "Determining the serotype of isolated Salmonella strains in the veterinary sector using the rapid slide agglutination test". ...
Hemolytic disease of the newborn (anti-Kell)
Fresh frozen plasma
Agglutination - Wikipedia
... both fusional and isolating languages may use agglutination in the most-often-used constructs, and use agglutination heavily in ... Hungarian uses extensive agglutination in almost all and any part of it. The suffixes follow each other in special order, and ... For Greenberg, agglutination means that the morphs are joined only with slight or no modification. A morpheme is said to be ... The index of agglutination is equal to the average ratio of the number of agglutinative junctures to the number of morph ...
Agglutination | Encyclopedia.com
agglutination* The clumping together by antibodies of microscopic foreign particles, such as red blood cells or bacteria, so ... agglutination (clumping) (ă-gloo-tin-ay-shŏn) n. the sticking together of such microscopic antigenic particles as red blood ... agglutination The clumping of cells that is caused by the reaction between antigens on their surfaces and antibodies in their ... Agglutination is a specific reaction, i.e. a particular antigen will only clump in the presence of its specific antibody; it ...
Agglutination (biology) - Wikipedia
Agglutination is the clumping of particles. The word agglutination comes from the Latin agglutinare (glueing to). Agglutination ... Landsteiners agglutination tests and his discovery of ABO blood groups was the start of the science of blood transfusion and ... Agglutination is commonly used as a method of identifying specific bacterial antigens, and in turn, the identity of such ... If agglutination occurs, this indicates that the donor and recipient blood types are incompatible. Leukoagglutination occurs ...
Agglutination | physiology | Britannica.com
Latex agglutination test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Group agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Cold agglutination definition | Drugs.com
Patent US9201065 - Agglutination assay - Google Patents
The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. In particular methods of assaying small ... Agglutination immunoassays are well-known in the art, and rely upon agglutination of particles to which an antigen or antibody ... Such agglutination-based immunoassays are known in the art, and rely upon agglutination of particles to which an antigen or ... detecting agglutination of the hub, second binding partner and analyte in the porous carrier, wherein agglutination indicates ...
How does agglutination occur? | Reference.com
Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell ... Various agglutination tests are used to determine if an antibody is present in a blood sample, including direct agglutination, ... Direct agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies to a particular antigen in a blood sample. Indirect agglutination, ... Agglutination occurs when blood cells or bacteria clump together, and it is often a response to a wound or injury. Blood cell ...
What Is Agglutination? (with pictures)
Agglutination is a situation in which biological particles clump together. Its essential for human health, since its what ... In biology, agglutination refers to the bunching together of particles. This process is especially important as part of the ... Agglutination is one way in which antibodies mark antigens for destruction. Antibodies have at least two sites where an antigen ... If the antibody binds to the red blood cells in a sample, agglutination occurs, and blood type can be confirmed based on which ...
STUDIES IN AGGLUTINATION | JEM
Latex Agglutination Test | Medical Tests | UCSF Health
The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies or antigens in a variety of body fluids. ... The latex agglutination test is a laboratory method to check for certain antibodies. or antigens. in a variety of body fluids ... Latex agglutination results take about 15 minutes to an hour.. How to Prepare for the Test. Your health care provider may tell ...
Tube agglutination test - definition of tube agglutination test by The Free Dictionary
tube agglutination test synonyms, tube agglutination test pronunciation, tube agglutination test translation, English ... 2. A clumped mass of material formed by agglutination. Also called agglutinate . ... dictionary definition of tube agglutination test. n. 1. The act or process of agglutinating; adhesion of distinct parts. ... agglutination. [əˌgluːtɪˈneɪʃən] N → aglutinación f. agglutination. n → Agglutination f (also Ling), → Verklumpung f, → ...
Improved microtechnique for the leptospiral microscopic agglutination test. - PubMed - NCBI
Agglutination Synonyms, Agglutination Antonyms | Thesaurus.com
Synonyms for agglutination at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Find descriptive ... AGGLUTINATION. Thidreks Saga is not an epic, though it is made by an agglutination of ballads. ... Agglutination or aggregation is carried to its widest extent, and words of inordinate length are not uncommon. ... Having utilized the technic devised by Teague, I have had no difficulty in performing the agglutination test in plague. ...
CHEMICAL STUDIES ON BACTERIAL AGGLUTINATION | JEM
Microplate Agglutination Test for Canine Brucellosis Using Recombinant Antigen-Coated Beads
... Yussaira Castillo,1 Masato ... L. W. George and L. E. Carmichael, "A plate agglutination test for the rapid diagnosis of canine brucellosis," The American ... M. Watarai, S. Kim, J. Yamamoto et al., "A rapid agglutination assay for canine brucellosis using antigen coated beads," The ... M. Kawaguchi, N. Saito, C. Katsukawa, and T. Soma, "Detection of anti-Brucella canis agglutination antibodies by microtiter and ...
Image: Slide Agglutination - Merck Veterinary Manual
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
Agglutination Tests, Latex - Medical Dictionary online-medical-dictionary.org
Latex Agglutination Testing | Thermo Fisher Scientific - FR
Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... Identify a wide range of species and Legionella pneumophila serogroups from culture with a trusted name in latex agglutination. ... Find your identification and confirmation solution from one of the largest portfolios of latex agglutination products in the ... with a complete kit for Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination (RPLA). ...
Thermo Scientific Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test :Testing and Filtration:Food | Fisher Scientific
... large selection of Staphylococcus Aureus Testing products and learn more about Thermo Scientific Staphaurex Latex Agglutination ... Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. 400 Tests/Kit. 2°C to 8°C. Pack of 400 for $688.28 N/A Due to product restrictions, please ... Staphaurex Latex Agglutination Test. 120 Tests/Kit. 2°C to 8°C. Pack of 120 for $249.90 N/A Due to product restrictions, please ... strong agglutination of the latex particles. Proven Performance *Rely on tried-and-true tests with more than 50 years of ...
Agglutination by anti-capsular polysaccharide antibody is associated with protection against experimental human pneumococcal...
D) Flow cytometry agglutination assay comparing the titers at which a 3-fold increase in percent agglutination for strains in ... Flow cytometric agglutination assay comparing the titers at which a 3-fold increase in percent agglutination of pneumococci is ... Percent agglutination is calculated by the sum of events in Q1, Q2 and Q3. Representative images are shown from Amnis ... The baseline percent agglutination was calculated for each individual experiment and ranged from only 2-10%. (E) Passive ...
Cilial agitation prevents sperm agglutination | Science Translational Medicine
Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper - Analyst (RSC Publishing)
In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-load ... Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper Purim Jarujamrus,ab Junfei Tian,a Xu Li,a Atitaya ... In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-loaded paper. We semi- ... Mechanisms of red blood cells agglutination in antibody-treated paper P. Jarujamrus, J. Tian, X. Li, A. Siripinyanond, J. ...
Elevated plasma glycocalicin levels and decreased ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination in hemodialysis patients
Latex Agglutination Test: Technique and Risks
The Latex agglutination test is also called as latex fixation test. Read more about the technique, preparation and risks ... Medical Health Tests Medical Tests Latex Agglutination Test Technique and Risks Associated With Latex Agglutination Test. ... The Latex agglutination technique is used in this test, and it is popular because results can be derived very quickly, in ... Latex Agglutination Test Samples and Preparation. Various types of body fluids such as urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or ...
ASMscience | Bacterial Agglutination
Agglutination Assays | Microbiology
Agglutination Assays. Learning Objectives. *Compare direct and indirect agglutination. *Identify various uses of ... Agglutination of latex beads in indirect agglutination assays can be used to detect the presence of specific antigens or ... Agglutination of Bacteria and Viruses. The use of agglutination tests to identify streptococcal bacteria was developed in the ... This technique is called an indirect agglutination assay (or latex fixation assay), because the agglutination of the beads is a ...
Latex agglutination test legal definition of latex agglutination test
What is latex agglutination test? Meaning of latex agglutination test as a legal term. What does latex agglutination test mean ... Definition of latex agglutination test in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... agglutination. (redirected from latex agglutination test). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, ... Latex agglutination test (LAT) is the most commonly used serological method due to its simplicity in performance (14-17).. ...
Agglutination reaction | definition of agglutination reaction by Medical dictionary
What is agglutination reaction? Meaning of agglutination reaction medical term. What does agglutination reaction mean? ... Looking for online definition of agglutination reaction in the Medical Dictionary? agglutination reaction explanation free. ... agglutination reaction. Also found in: Encyclopedia. agglutination reaction. the formation of an aggregate after the mixing of ... It is known that RF affects immunoassays based on the agglutination reaction because RF accelerates nonspecific agglutination ...
AssayHemagglutinationReactionAssaysReactionsDiagnosisReagentSperm agglutinationDetectionTube agglutination testBACTERIAL AGGLUTINATIONImmune Complexes Agglutination BloodClump togetherPassiveErythrocytesSerologicMicroscopic agglutination testWidalTitreTreponemaOccursTiterProcedureTitersTestsInhibitionSlide AgglutinationParticle agglutination testClumpsBrucellosisCell agglutinationDefinitionSeraToxoplasmaOccurAgglutininsBlood cells
- In the assay, a diluted sample of virus is added to a diluted blood cell sample, and agglutination is allowed to occur for about 30 minutes. (wisegeek.com)
- A rapid agglutination assay for canine brucellosis using antigen coated beads," The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science , vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 477-480, 2007. (hindawi.com)
- We used a flow cytometric assay to quantify antibody-mediated agglutination demonstrating that hyperimmune sera generated against an unencapsulated mutant was poorly agglutinating. (nih.gov)
- The method developed by Lancefield is a direct agglutination assay , since the bacterial cells themselves agglutinate. (lumenlearning.com)
- This technique is called an indirect agglutination assay (or latex fixation assay ), because the agglutination of the beads is a marker for antibody binding to some other antigen (Figure 2). (lumenlearning.com)
- Latex agglutination tests (LATs) first established in 1959 for the assay of serologic rheumatoid factor (2), commonly use latex microspheres with conjugated proteins to magnify effects of antigen-antibody interactions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. (asm.org)
- This assay, called Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP), could be broadly deployed to screen at-risk populations using OF in many settings, including those where cold chain shipping is not available (low-resource settings) and where needles are inconvenient (pediatrics) or unsafe (prisons). (pnas.org)
- Here we report the development of an HIV OF assay based on Antibody Detection by Agglutination-PCR (ADAP) technology. (pnas.org)
- The present invention relates to a reagent and a method for detecting an antigen, antibody or other analyte in a sample, such as human or animal blood, by an agglutination assay. (google.com)
- gondii using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits and indirect agglutination test (ELISA, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences) according to the manufacturer's instructions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The antibody titers were measured by standard tube agglutination test (STAT), microtiter plate agglutination test (MAT), indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) as per standard protocols. (veterinaryworld.org)
- Bacterial culture, agglutination test and ELISA assay were performed to detect Brucella spp. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using 30 bulls with neosporosis diagnosed by modified agglutination test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and 15 healthy bulls, some sperm parameters such as sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology were studied and compared. (readbyqxmd.com)
- We have also developed two methods for nanoparticle agglutination assays (a particle gel agglutination test and a magnetic microparticle [MMP]-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) and two electrochemical biosensors (impedimetric and amperometric) for DNA and antibody detection. (begellhouse.com)
- The autologous red cell agglutination assay reagent consists of an antibody or antibody fragment of a human erythrocyte-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) conjugated to an antigen of interest. (edu.au)
- The aim of the work reported in this article was to explore the production of the agglutination assay reagent as both a single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragment and recombinant full-length mAb, expressed in a secreted form in commonly used mammalian cell lines. (edu.au)
- Various agglutination tests are used to determine if an antibody is present in a blood sample, including direct agglutination, indirect agglutination, hemagglutination and Rh factor testing. (reference.com)
- The most commonly used in clinical tests are the indirect hemagglutination test and the latex agglutination test. (boxstoretoys.com)
- Because the clumping reaction occurs quickly and is easy to produce, agglutination is an important technique in diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Austrian physician Karl Landsteiner found another important practical application of the agglutination reaction in 1900. (wikipedia.org)
- The other name of agglutination, which I think is a difficult word, is the Gruber-Durham reaction. (wisegeek.com)
- Except in this single matter of agglutination reaction, no constant distinction between these varieties has been demonstrated. (thesaurus.com)
- Regarding the 10% prevalence of ASA (IgG) in infertile men who have no other problems, sperm mixed agglutination reaction (MAR) should be considered as a routine test in the semen analysis of patients with varicocele (23). (thefreedictionary.com)
- The concentration of HA with a dilution 1/64 showed that the agglutination reaction between the protein immunogenic VNN 45 kDa and erythrocytes of Humpback grouper showed levels of sensitivity to concentrations are 0,015625. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is known that RF affects immunoassays based on the agglutination reaction because RF accelerates nonspecific agglutination via hydrophobic binding. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In some studies, however, the more viscous fluid from SF was treated with hyaluronidase to make the fluid clearer and the agglutination reaction easier to read. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Fibrinogen can transform fibrin through an agglutination reaction, finally forming fibrin polymer with grid structure. (mdpi.com)
- The density and viscosity of the reaction system changes drastically during the course of agglutination. (mdpi.com)
- In this research, we apply an independently-developed piezoelectric agglutination sensor to detect the fibrinogen agglutination reaction in patients with coronary heart diseases. (mdpi.com)
- The terminal judgment method of determining plasma agglutination reaction through piezoelectric agglutination sensor was established. (mdpi.com)
- The test was first introduced by F. Widal in 1896 [ 2 ] and is based on a macroscopically visible serum - mediated agglutination reaction between S. typhi somatic lipopolysacharide O antigens (TO) and flagellar H antigens (TH). (biomedcentral.com)
- This reaction is termed agglutination. (edu.ly)
- Basic type of agglutination reaction that is performed on a slide. (microbenotes.com)
- After incubation, antigen-antibody reaction is indicated visible clumps of agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
- If the same antigen is present in the specimen, the agglutination reaction is inhibited. (boxstoretoys.com)
- This is called reverse indirect agglutination inhibition reaction. (boxstoretoys.com)
- Cooperative agglutination reaction is also suitable for direct detection of bacteria. (boxstoretoys.com)
- The formation of lot of soluble antibody and antigen molecules is required for the visibility of a precipitation reaction, it is lesser sensitive than agglutination reaction. (vspages.com)
- A precipitation reaction can be converted into agglutination reaction by attaching soluble antigens to large latex beads or erythrocytes which are large carriers. (vspages.com)
- This means that if a person is to be tested for a bacterial infection then agglutination reaction can be used effectively. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination is a more sensitive reaction in comparison to precipitation. (vspages.com)
- The invention relates to agglutination assays and related kits, reagents and devices. (google.com.au)
- Agglutination assays are usually quick and easy to perform on a glass slide or microtiter plate (Figure 1). (lumenlearning.com)
- For the agglutination tests, micro- and nanoparticles were coupled with flamentous bacteriophages displaying the selected mimotopes on their surfaces, which has favored the formation of the antigen-antibody or peptide-protein complexes, amplifying the optical detection in ELISA assays or after the chromatographic separation of the microagglutinates. (begellhouse.com)
- Microtiter plates have an array of wells to hold small volumes of reagents and to observe reactions (e.g., agglutination) either visually or using a specially designed spectrophotometer. (lumenlearning.com)
- PEGylation effectively masks the Rh(D) antigen, (5,6) therefore by quantifying agglutination reactions with anti-D sera before, during and after subjecting the PEGylated RBCs to each simulated condition above, a standardized determination of dePEGylation can be established. (thefreedictionary.com)
- To evaluate any change in PEGylation, microscopic agglutination reactions were graded, in quadruplicate, on a hemocytometer for each RBC type and each simulated condition. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The analysis of 4450 toxoplasma serology results showed that 59 (1.3%) latex agglutination reactions were not confirmed in the dye test. (bmj.com)
- The latex agglutination test is useful as a screen for toxoplasma infection but false positive reactions do occur. (bmj.com)
- So-called cross reactions may occur, however, in agglutination tests with specimens of blood from some of the patients with these infections. (jamanetwork.com)
- Agglutination reactions where the antigens are found naturally on a particle are known as direct agglutination. (microbenotes.com)
- Precipitation reactions and agglutination reactions are the two most popular serological reactions which are used in diagnosing the antigen and antibody reactions in our body. (vspages.com)
- Antigens are soluble molecules in precipitation reactions while they are large and insoluble molecules in case of agglutination. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination reactions are used in typing blood cells for blood transfusion. (vspages.com)
- Agglutination reactions are classified as direct, indirect (passive) and reverse passive agglutination reactions. (microbenotes.com)
- For example, the Widal test , used for the diagnosis of typhoid fever , looks for agglutination of Salmonella enterica subspecies typhi in patient sera. (lumenlearning.com)
- The microscopic agglutination test (MAT) is commonly used for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. (wiley.com)
- The diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense relies on an initial serologic screening with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for T. b. gambiense, followed by parasitologic confirmation in most endemic areas. (msf.org)
- The current diagnosis of Brucellosis predominantly relies on the traditional bacterial culture and serum agglutination test. (biomedcentral.com)
- An evaluation of the reactivity of the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) reagent in the Fontem sleeping sickness focus, Cameroon. (msf.org)
- If agglutination occurs, it means that the same antigen does not exist in the specimen, and the antibody reagent is not bound, so it still acts with the antigen on the carrier. (boxstoretoys.com)
- The last slide blood group is B -ve as you can see clumping/agglutination with Anti-B reagent and no agglutination with rest 2 Considerations There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). (casting-calls.info)
- Sperm agglutination symptoms Since 15 November 2007 Agglutination mixte directe MAR. Assisted Semen Analysis ou CASA 389 anastomose 341, 503. (savemarket.site)
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- aureus by conventional susceptibility (oxacillin disc diffusion and oxacillin MIC) and molecular methods (PCR) and to evaluate latex agglutination test for the detection of PBP 2a and to compare the results of these tests for its sensitivity, specificity and rapidity. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Modified latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in cerebrospinal fluid and direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Identification was confirmed by detection of penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) by latex agglutination test (PBP2' Test Kit, Oxoid, Hants, UK). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Latex agglutination is a rapid latex test technology with qualitative and semi-quantitative detection to help your core lab, hospital lab, reference lab, or physician's office lab run more efficiently. (meridianbioscience.com)
- The results indicate the close correlation between the STAGO paramagnetic particle method and the method of piezoelectric agglutination sensor for the detection of Fibrinogen. (mdpi.com)
- invasion in positive culture or a single standard tube agglutination test (STA) against Brucella spp. (thefreedictionary.com)
- We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. (biomedcentral.com)
- We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the Widal tube agglutination test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness and compared our results with those from previous studies. (biomedcentral.com)
- No special preparation is needed for Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood. (practo.com)
- Inform your doctor if you are on any medications or have any underlying medical conditions or allergies before undergoing Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood. (practo.com)
- Immune Complexes Agglutination Blood in Madanpura, Mumbai. (practo.com)
- Indirect agglutination, also called passive agglutination, occurs when an artificial agent is the carrier of the antigen being tested. (reference.com)
- Detect Bacillis cereus or Clostridium perfringens enterotoxins and E. coli verocytotoxin VT1 and VT2 from food or fecal specimens, or detect staphylococcal toxic-shock syndrome toxin (TST) with a complete kit for Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination (RPLA). (thermofisher.com)
- In the presence of a suitable electrolyte, specific agglutination occurs, called indirect agglutination (indirectagglutination) ) Or passive agglutination (passiveagglutination). (boxstoretoys.com)
- Seasonal variation in agglutination of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. (ajtmh.org)
- Agglutination and rosette formation are in vitro characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes, which have been associated with host protective immune responses and also with parasite virulence. (ajtmh.org)
- M-cholinoreactivity of erythrocytes of non-pregnant and pregnant women evaluated by changes in the rate of erythrocyte agglutination under the influence of acetylcholine. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Antenatal monitoring of anti-D and anti-c: could titre scores determined by column agglutination technology replace continuous flow analyser quantification? (wiley.com)
- This was followed by determining antibody titre in the sera using a direct agglutination test. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is agglutination test performed in tube and standard quantitative technique for determination of antibody titre. (microbenotes.com)
- Agglutination is the process that occurs if an antigen is mixed with its corresponding antibody called isoagglutinin. (wikipedia.org)
- If agglutination occurs, this indicates that the donor and recipient blood types are incompatible. (wikipedia.org)
- When blood of incompatible blood groups (e.g. group A and group B - see ABO system ) is mixed together agglutination of the red cells occurs ( haemagglutination ). (encyclopedia.com)
- For example, agglutination occurs if a person undergoes a blood transfusion with a blood type that doesn't match his own. (reference.com)
- If the antibody binds to the red blood cells in a sample, agglutination occurs, and blood type can be confirmed based on which antibody was used. (wisegeek.com)
- In active agglutination, direct agglutination of particulate antigen with specific antibody occurs. (microbenotes.com)
- In contact with the corresponding antigen, reverse indirect agglutination occurs. (boxstoretoys.com)
- 1. Application of the quantitative agglutination procedure to hemolytic streptococci and their antisera is shown to yield values indicative of the antibody content of the antisera in weight units. (rupress.org)
- Rhesus D typing was done using anti-D serum (Biotec, Ipcswich, UK) agglutination method and the negative results were confirmed using the indirect agglutination test (IAT) procedure. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Agglutination titers are reported for both types of fixed organisms and the combined results are interpreted by comparison of titers. (cdc.gov)
- Furthermore, the heterophil agglutination tests should include absorption with guinea pig kidney and beef cell antigens particularly for titers that are, unabsorbed, within the normal range of 1:56 or lower, or within slightly elevated ranges such as 1:112 or 1:224. (annals.org)
- Pyrogenes serogroup was identified in one third of positive samples from Moheli and was associated with the highest agglutination titers (Figure). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Landsteiner's agglutination tests and his discovery of ABO blood groups was the start of the science of blood transfusion and serology which has made transfusion possible and safer. (wikipedia.org)
- The use of agglutination tests to identify streptococcal bacteria was developed in the 1920s by Rebecca Lancefield working with her colleagues A.R. Dochez and Oswald Avery . (lumenlearning.com)
- Agglutination tests are widely used in underdeveloped countries that may lack appropriate facilities for culturing bacteria. (lumenlearning.com)
- CSF cultures, Gram stain, and latex agglutination tests (Wellcogen Bacterial Antigen Kit, Lenexa, KS, USA) were performed in the local hospitals. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It has been the writer's opinion heretofore that all cases of infectious mononucleosis, if properly studied, would reveal positive heterophil agglutination tests. (annals.org)
- This information shows the various causes of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test , and how common these diseases or conditions are in the general population. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- This is not a direct indication as to how commonly these diseases are the actual cause of Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test , but gives a relative idea as to how frequent these diseases are seen overall. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- The following list of conditions have ' Rheumatoid arthritis particle agglutination test ' or similar listed as a symptom in our database. (rightdiagnosis.com)
- But out of total 45 cases,lg (40oh) were diagnosed as bacterial meningitis by Latex particle agglutination test (LPAT). (banglajol.info)
- In this work we focus on understanding the mechanisms of red blood cell agglutination in the antibody-loaded paper. (rsc.org)
- They involve a rapid increase in intracellular calcium levels that activate tissue transglutaminase (TG2), leading to a rapid actin reorganization that is pivotal in driving cell agglutination. (scienceexchange.com)
- These specific effects of toxic cereals are phenocopied by the gliadin-derived peptide p31-43, which orchestrates the activation of innate response to gliadin in CD.Discussion Our study provides the rationale for the extensive use of K562(S)-cell agglutination as a valuable tool for screening cereal toxicity. (scienceexchange.com)