Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Lyme Disease Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent LYME DISEASE.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Nervous system infections caused by tick-borne spirochetes of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP. The disease may affect elements of the central or peripheral nervous system in isolation or in combination. Common clinical manifestations include a lymphocytic meningitis, cranial neuropathy (most often a facial neuropathy), POLYRADICULOPATHY, and a mild loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Less often more extensive inflammation involving the central nervous system (encephalomyelitis) may occur. In the peripheral nervous system, B. burgdorferi infection is associated with mononeuritis multiplex and polyradiculoneuritis. (From J Neurol Sci 1998 Jan 8;153(2):182-91)Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Peromyscus: A genus of the subfamily SIGMODONTINAE consisting of 49 species. Two of these are widely used in medical research. They are P. leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, and P. maniculatus, or the deer mouse.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Relapsing Fever: An acute infection characterized by recurrent episodes of PYREXIA alternating with asymptomatic intervals of apparent recovery. This condition is caused by SPIROCHETES of the genus BORRELIA. It is transmitted by the BITES of either the body louse (PEDICULUS humanus corporis), for which humans are the reservoir, or by soft ticks of the genus ORNITHODOROS, for which rodents and other animals are the principal reservoirs.Mice, Inbred C3HTick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Bites and StingsTick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.ConnecticutRodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Acrodermatitis: Inflammation involving the skin of the extremities, especially the hands and feet. Several forms are known, some idiopathic and some hereditary. The infantile form is called Gianotti-Crosti syndrome.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various TARSAL BONES. This does not include the ANKLE JOINT which consists of the articulations between the TIBIA; FIBULA; and TALUS.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Doxycycline: A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.PolandIxodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Aminocoumarins: COUMARINS with an amino group, exemplified by NOVOBIOCIN.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.MainePhylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Spirochaetaceae: A family of spiral bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.North AmericaCross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigenic Variation: Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Facial Paralysis: Severe or complete loss of facial muscle motor function. This condition may result from central or peripheral lesions. Damage to CNS motor pathways from the cerebral cortex to the facial nuclei in the pons leads to facial weakness that generally spares the forehead muscles. FACIAL NERVE DISEASES generally results in generalized hemifacial weakness. NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION DISEASES and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause facial paralysis or paresis.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.

*Cat flea

In addition, cat fleas have been found to carry Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, but their ability to ... Cat Specialist Group Sue Paterson (16 March 2009). Manual of Skin Diseases of the Dog and Cat. John Wiley & Sons. p. 122. ISBN ... Cat fleas also may be responsible for disease transmission through humans, and have been suspected as transmission agents of ... Teltow GJ, Fournier PV, Rawlings JA (May 1991). "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas". Am J ...

*Prodigiosin

... the causative agent of Lyme Disease. The biosynthesis of Prodigiosin involves the convergent coupling of three pyrrole type ... Prodigiosin has recently been found to have excellent activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi, ... This intermediate is then modified by methylation (which incorporates a methyl group from L-methionine onto the alcohol at the ... "Identification of new compounds with high activity against stationary phase Borrelia burgdorferi from the NCI compound ...

*Lyme disease microbiology

Montgomery RR, Nathanson MH, Malawista SE (1993). "The fate of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent for Lyme disease, in mouse ... "Expanded diversity among Californian Borrelia isolates and description of Borrelia bissettii sp. nov. (formerly Borrelia group ... Embers ME, Ramamoorthy R, Philipp MT (2004). "Survival strategies of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease ... Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ...

*Allen Steere

Lymerix works on the outer surface protein A (Osp-A) of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme Disease. Osp-A causes ... various Lyme advocacy organizations and a dissident group of doctors called the International Lyme and Associated Diseases ... burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease.[citation needed] By the mid-1990s, Steere had watched Lyme disease gain ... Lyme disease Lyme disease controversy Jorge Benach Willy Burgdorfer Spirochete Weir, William (2013-09-19). "Lyme Disease ...

*Borrelia

... burgdorferi the causative agent of Lyme disease (borreliosis) magnified 400 times. ... 21 are members of the Lyme disease group, 29 belong to the relapsing fever group, and two are members of a third group.[3] ... The major Borrelia species causing Lyme disease are Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia garinii. ... Borrelia brasiliensis ♦ Davis 1952. *Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. 1984 emend. Baranton et al. 1992 (Lyme disease ...

*Spirochaete

2014 Genus Borreliella Adeolu & Gupta 2015 [Borrelia burgdorferi species-group] (Lyme disease Borrelia) Genus Borrelia ... Schwan T (1996). "Ticks and Borrelia: model systems for investigating pathogen-arthropod interactions". Infect Agents Dis. 5 (3 ... containing the members of the Lyme disease Borrelia (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex)". Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. 105 (6 ... which causes leptospirosis Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii, which cause Lyme disease Borrelia recurrentis, ...

*Bacterial taxonomy

... agent or the name of their phylum) e.g. cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) or Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), ... Classification is the grouping of organisms into progressively more inclusive groups based on phylogeny and phenotype, while ... as would imply multiple groups with the same label and not multiple members of that group (by analogy, in English, chairs and ... Bacteria which are the etiological cause for a disease are often referred to by the disease name followed by a describing noun ...

*Amblyomma americanum

Though the primary bacterium responsible for Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, has occasionally been isolated from lone star ... Other disease-causing bacterial agents isolated from lone star ticks include Francisella tularensis, Rickettsia amblyommii, and ... and nymphal ticks have been found on these two groups as well as on small rodents. Adult lone star ticks usually feed on medium ... and transmit Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi) ; J Med Entomol. 1988 September; 25(5):336-9. Amblyomma americanum ...

*Borrelia burgdorferi

... burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia ... The genomic variations of Borrelia burgdorferi contribute to varying degrees of infection and dissemination. Each genomic group ... Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s. ... December 1997). "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-6. Bibcode: ...

*Peromyscus

... were seropositive for Borrelia burgdorferi,[7] the agent of Lyme disease. ... maniculatus group *North American deer mouse − P. maniculatus. *Oldfield mouse or beach mouse - P. polionotus *P. p. allophrys ... Lyme disease[edit]. A recent study in British Columbia of 218 deer mice showed 30% (66) ... eremicus group *Cactus mouse - P. eremicus. *Angel Island mouse - P. guardia - possibly extinct *P. g. guardia - last seen 1991 ...

*Mast cell activation syndrome

It is also found in subset groups of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) and Lyme disease. MCAS is a ... Talkington J, Nickell SP (Mar 1999). "Borrelia burgdorferi Spirochetes Induce Mast Cell Activation and Cytokine Release". ... not necessarily the active agent, so alternative formulations and compounding pharmacies should be considered. Lifestyle ... Afrin, Lawrence B. "A Concise, Practical Guide to Diagnostic Assessment for Mast Cell Activation Disease." WJH World Journal of ...

*Bacteria

Some bacteria, e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi, the cause of Lyme disease, contains a single linear chromosome and several linear and ... and Staphylococcus group together in "bunch of grapes" clusters. Bacteria can also group to form larger multicellular ... Woods GL, Walker DH (1996). "Detection of infection or infectious agents by use of cytologic and histologic stains". Clinical ... "Genomic sequence of a Lyme disease spirochaete, Borrelia burgdorferi". Nature. 390 (6660): 580-586. Bibcode:1997Natur.390..580F ...

*Lyme disease

"Detection of antigens in urine of mice and humans infected with Borrelia burgdorferi, etiologic agent of Lyme disease". J. Clin ... to the Lyme disease group spirochete Borrelia bissettii". J. Parasitol. 92 (4): 691-96. doi:10.1645/GE-738R1.1. PMID 16995383. ... "Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) 2008 case definition". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the ... Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread ...

*Amoxicillin

It is also used to treat Lyme disease in children under eight-years old. Amoxicillin is occasionally used for the treatment of ... Borrelia burgdorferi and Helicobactor pylori. As a derivative of ampicillin, amoxicillin is a member of the same family as ... It has two ionizable groups in the physiological range (the amino group in alpha-position to the amide carbonyl group and the ... Dec 2007). "Introduction: historical perspective and development of amoxicillin/clavulanate". Int J Antimicrob Agents. 30 ( ...

*Parasitism

Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks. ... marking it as the first disease of humans with a known microscopic causative agent.[112] ... Major parasitic animal groups[53] Phylum. Class/Order. No. of. species. Endo-. paras.. Ecto-. paras.. Invert. def. host. Vert. ... Borrelia, the cause of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, is transmitted by a vector, ticks of the genus Ixodes, from the ...

*Bacterial taxonomy

... agent or the name of their phylum) e.g. cholera bacterium (Vibrio cholerae) or Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi), ... Classification is the grouping of organisms into progressively more inclusive groups based on phylogeny and phenotype, while ... Bacteria which are the etiological cause for a disease are often referred to by the disease name followed by a describing noun ... In a similar way, the Bacillus species (=phylum Firmicutes) belonging to the "B. cereus group" (B. anthracis, B. cereus, B . ...

*Arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase

... and decreased survival in experimental models of respiratory syncytial virus disease, Lyme disease, Toxoplasma gondii disease, ... Borrelia burgdorferi, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. In a model of cecum perforation-induced sepsis, ALOX5 gene knockout ... Alox5 and presumably human ALOX5 functions may vary widely depending on the agents stimulating their and types of metabolites ... 4 diene group (i.e. its 5Z,8Z double bonds) to form 5(S)-hydroperoxy-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid (i.e. 5S-HpETE). The ...

*Meningitis

... and Borrelia burgdorferi (known for causing Lyme disease). Meningitis may be encountered in cerebral malaria (malaria infecting ... For instance, while N. meningitides groups B and C cause most disease episodes in Europe, group A is found in Asia and ... Resistance to rifampicin has been noted to increase after use, which has caused some to recommend considering other agents. ... Meningococcus vaccines exist against groups A, B, C, W135 and Y. In countries where the vaccine for meningococcus group C was ...

*ICD-10 Chapter I: Certain infectious and parasitic diseases

Lyme disease Erythema chronicum migrans due to Borrelia burgdorferi (A69.8) Other specified spirochaetal infections (A69.9) ... group A, as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters (B95.1) Streptococcus, group B, as the cause of diseases ... Other specified bacterial agents as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters (B97) Viral agents as the cause of ... HIV disease resulting in cytomegaloviral disease (B20.3) HIV disease resulting in other viral infections (B20.4) HIV disease ...

*Marsh rice rat

Antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease in the United States, have been found in marsh ... the animal has been proposed as a model for research on the disease in humans. The identity of the bacterial agent remains ... the mean genetic distance between the two groups was 11.30%. The marsh rice rats fell into two main groups, differing on ... IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in rodents in Tennessee. Journal of Spirochetal and Tick-Borne Diseases 3(3-4):130-134. ...

*Ixodes holocyclus

The most common name for this spirochaete is Borrelia burgdorferi, but many different Borrelia species cause Lyme Disease ... Hudson B, Conroy W (1995) Tick Alert Group Support, TAGS Inc *^ Cupp EW (1991), Biology of Ticks, Veterinary Clinics of North ... of tick paralysis is mostly achieved by a combination of daily searching and the use of tick-repelling or tick-killing agents. ... Lyme-like spirochaetal disease in Australia[edit]. Erythema migrans, Bullseye or Target lesion - typical of Lyme disease but ...

*Tick

"Lyme Disease Action. Retrieved 24 October 2014.. *^ a b "Tick removal". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved ... the most important reservoir-competent host for Borrelia burgdorferi in the US.[69][70] ... Magnarelli, Louis A. (2009). "Global importance of ticks and associated infectious disease agents". Clinical Microbiology ... Both groups feed rapidly, typically biting painfully and drinking their fill within minutes. None of the species sticks to the ...

*Dog health

Tick-borne diseases are common in dogs. Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and spread by Ixodes ... belongs to the group of methylxanthine alkaloids. Dogs are unable to metabolize theobromine effectively. If they eat chocolate ... pet owners in 2006 found that the most commonly used supplements were multivitamins and chondroprotective agents. Overdoses of ... Other diseases affecting dogs include endocrine diseases, immune-mediated diseases, and reproductive diseases. Diabetes ...

*Rifampicin

... is also recommended as an alternative treatment for infections by the tick-borne pathogens Borrelia burgdorferi and ... and Prevention of Lyme Disease, Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis, and Babesiosis: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious ... There, a research group headed by Piero Sensi and Maria Teresa Timbal discovered a new bacterium. This new species produced a ... Rifampicin is relatively ineffective against spirochetes, which has led to its use as a selective agent capable of isolating ...

*Zoonosis

Lyme disease Borrelia burgdorferi deer, wolves, dogs, birds, rodents, rabbits, hares, reptiles tick bite ... A zoonosis (plural zoonoses, or zoonotic diseases) is an infectious disease caused by a pathogen (an infectious agent, such as ... Such groups probably made contact with other such bands only rarely. Such isolation would have caused epidemic diseases to be ... Bubonic plague is a zoonotic disease,[36] as are salmonellosis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. ...
The 4 Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates obtained from 1. Ricinus ticks collected in the natural foci in Russia and Ukraine, having an unusual RFLP Msel-pattern, were studied using sequencing rrfA-rrlB spacer and rrs gene. The Ir-5215 isolate from the tick collected in southern Ukraine represented recently described genospecies B. spielmanii pathogenic for humans. The three atypical isolates Ir-3519, Ir-4721, and Ir-4812 had 100% identity with the sequence of the atypical European B. burgdorferi sensu stricto strains. They constituted a subgroup of the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto on the grounds of Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). These data can be indicative of the genetic heterogeneity of the current group B. burgdorferi sensu stricto.
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Lyme borreliosis is an emerging infectious human disease caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex of bacteria with reported cases increasing in many areas of Europe and North America. To understand the drivers of disease risk and the distribution of symptoms, which may improve mitigation and diagnostics, here we characterize the genetics, distribution, and environmental associations of B. burgdorferi s.l. genospecies across Scotland. In Scotland, reported Lyme borreliosis cases have increased almost 10-fold since 2000 but the distribution of B. burgdorferi s.l. is so far unstudied. Using a large survey of over 2200 Ixodes ricinus tick samples collected from birds, mammals, and vegetation across 25 sites we identified four genospecies: Borrelia afzelii (48%), Borrelia garinii (36%), Borrelia valaisiana (8%), and ...
Synonyms for Chronic lyme disease in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Chronic lyme disease. 1 synonym for Lyme disease: Lyme arthritis. What are synonyms for Chronic lyme disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia. B. burgdorferi exists in North America and Europe and is the only causative agent of Lyme disease in the United States. Borrelia species are considered diderm (double-membrane) bacteria rather than Gram-positive or negative. Borrelia burgdorferi is named after the researcher Willy Burgdorfer, who first isolated the bacterium in 1982. Borrelia species in the species complex known to cause Lyme disease are collectively called Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) not to be confused with this single species Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in that complex which is responsible for all cases of Lyme ...
Abstract Background In our previous studies on lipoprotein secretion in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, we used monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) fused to specifically mutated outer surface protein A (OspA) N-terminal lipopeptides to gather first insights into lipoprotein sorting determinants. OspA:mRFP1 fusions could be detected by epifluorescence microscopy both in the periplasm and on the bacterial surface. To build on these findings and to complement the prior targeted mutagenesis approach, we set out to develop a screen to probe a random mutagenesis expression library for mutants expressing differentially localized lipoproteins. Results A Glu-Asp codon pair in the inner membrane-localized OspA20:mRFP1 fusion was chosen for mutagenesis since the two negative charges were previously shown to define the phenotype. A library of random mutants in the two codons was generated and expressed in B. ...
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto VlsE IgG ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of VlsE IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. (KA4835) - Products - Abnova
The genes coding for outer surface protein OspC from 22 Borrelia burgdorferi strains isolated from patients with Lyme borreliosis were cloned and sequenced. For reference purposes, the 16S rRNA genes from 17 of these strains were sequenced after being cloned. The deduced OspC amino acid sequences were aligned with 12 published OspC sequences and revealed the presence of 48 conserved amino acids. On the basis of the alignment, OspC could be divided into an amino-terminal relatively conserved region and a relatively variable region in the central portion. The distance tree obtained divided the ospC sequences into three groups. The first group contained ospC alleles from all (n = 13) sensu stricto strains, the second group contained ospC alleles from seven Borrelia afzelii strains, and the third group contained ospC alleles from five B. afzelii and all (n = 9) ...
The distributional area of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.), the primary European vector to humans of Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus, appears to be increasing in Sweden. It is therefore important to determine which environmental factors are most useful to assess risk of human exposure to this tick and its associated pathogens. The geographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden was analysed with respect to vegetation zones and climate. The northern limit of I. ricinus and B. burgdorferi s.l. in Sweden corresponds roughly to the northern limit of the southern boreal vegetation zone, and is characterized climatically by snow cover for a mean duration of 150 days and a vegetation period averaging 170 days. The zoogeographical distribution of I. ricinus in Sweden can be classified as southerly-central, with the centre of the distribution south of the Limes Norrlandicus. Ixodes ...
lyme disease vaccine - MedHelps lyme disease vaccine Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for lyme disease vaccine. Find lyme disease vaccine information, treatments for lyme disease vaccine and lyme disease vaccine symptoms.
In May 1996, 164 pooled and single samples containing 913 larvae, nymphs and adults of Ixodes ricinus from urban, suburban and wooded biotopes of southern Poland were examined for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Ticks were collected by dragging a flag over the vegetation and B....
This blood test is used to aid in the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease). The diagnosis of Lyme disease is most often made by clinical examination combined with evidence of tick bite or exposure in endemic areas. Amplification of Borrelia genomic DNA from blood, fluids or tissues can support the diagnosis.. Lyme disease (LD) is a corkscrew shaped bacterial infection caused by the spirochete known as Borrelia. Lyme Disease knows no borders and is a major health problem worldwide. In 2007, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) that reported Lyme disease cases in the US had more than doubled since the CDC began recording cases in 1991. In 2010, the CDC reported 94% of Lyme disease cases were reported ...
ELISA Followed by WESTERN BLOT: $189 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This common and rapid test to identify Lyme disease antibodies is the most sensitive screening test for Lyme disease.. The Western Blot Test also identifies Lyme disease antibodies and can confirm the results of an ELISA of an Elisa screening test. It is most often done to detect a chronic Lyme disease infection or false or inconclusive readings of the Elisa Test.. What is Lyme disease? Lyme disease is a bacterial illness that is spread by tick bites and can affect the skin, joints, heart, and the nervous system. Some Symptoms of Lyme Disease may include: A characteristic "bulls-eye" rash that spreads from the site of the bite, fever, chills, headache, fatigue and if left untreated the ...
Ticks are very important vectors of pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoans), which may induce serious contagious diseases in humans and in farm animals. The aim of the study was to determine the coincidence of 3 pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma...
Lyme Disease. - The Committee encourages CDC to expand its activities related to developing sensitive and more accurate diagnostic tools and tests for Lyme disease, including the evaluation of emerging diagnostic methods and improving utilization of diagnostic testing to account for the multiple clinical manifestations of acute and chronic Lyme disease; to expand its epidemiological research activities on tick-borne diseases to include an objective to determine the long-term course of illness for Lyme disease; to improve surveillance and reporting of Lyme and other tick-borne diseases in order to produce more accurate data on their prevalence; to evaluate the feasibility of developing a national reporting system on Lyme disease, including laboratory reporting; and to expand prevention of ...
After years of searching for why I was always in pain, I was finally correctly diagnosed with Chronic Lyme Disease when I searched more fervently, once my hands decided not to work anymore. Initially, it was dismissed as early onset osteoarthritis and then lupus. Then, when I was told I had Lyme disease, I thought, "Finally, with the correct diagnosis, I would be better in no time flat.". I was wrong.. If you dont know much about Chronic Lyme Disease, Ill leave the description to having arthritis, lupus, MS, Alzheimers, fibromyalgia, severe chronic fatigue, ADD and dyslexia all rolled into one. I couldnt get out of bed, I had a hard time driving, I couldnt take care of the kids or home, I forgot where I parked at the grocery store, I got lost on the way home, I couldnt find the words to speak and I forgot what I was saying before I even finished a sentence. The best part for my husband was that if we got in ...
Lyme disease is the most common vectorborne illness in the United States, with about 30,000 confirmed and probable cases diagnosed in 2010. Lyme disease also occurs worldwide. In Europe, the tick that causes Lyme disease lives on sheep, not on deer.An estimated 70 to 80 percent of people with Lyme disease develop a characteristic solid or bullseye red rash, called erythema migrans (EM). But Lyme disease should be suspected in anyone who has visited an area where Lyme disease is common, may have had a tick bite, and has other symptoms of early Lyme disease such as:
Doxycycline Dose For Treatment Of Lyme Disease. Lyme Disease Treatment & Management:…29 Jun 2017 Treatment of a tick bite without symptoms of Lyme disease, Doxycycline, 200 mg as a single dose, Doxycycline, 100 mg bid for 20 days. Erythema migrans, Doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime for 14-21 days, Doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime for 28-42 days or azithromycin for at least 21 days.Lyme Disease Treatment Information from Johns Hopkins…31 Jul 2017 The efficacy of treatment was 87 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 25 to 98 percent). Objective extracutaneous signs of Lyme disease did not develop in any subject, and there were no asymptomatic seroconversions. These data suggest that a single 200-mg dose of doxycycline given within 72 hours Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Lyme Disease ...
Lyme disease was first recognized in 1975 in a town, named old Lyme in Connecticut. Now the disease in noticed worldwide. Most of the Lyme disease cases are observed through transmission of spirochete Borrelia bacteria, such as Borrelia burgdorferi through bite of deer ticks or western back legged ticks. Ticks are tiny, blood sucking ectoparasites which vary in color and size. Tick bite can be recognized only as a lump with a small scab on the skin surface. Incubation period of lyme disease is around two weeks. Though the early symptoms are not observed in several cases, the typical skin rash of the disease can be seen. This skin rash should be taken seriously and consulted with the doctor, to avoid further complications. Lyme disease can also be fatal, which affects vital ...
Lyme disease spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, are maintained in zoonotic cycles involving ticks and small mammals. In unfed ticks, the spirochetes produce one outer surface protein, OspA, but not OspC. During infection in mammals, immunological data suggest that the spirochetes have changed their surface, now expressing OspC but little or no OspA. We find by in vitro growth experiments that this change is regulated in part by temperature; OspC is produced by spirochetes at 32-37 degrees C but not at 24 degrees C. Furthermore, spirochetes in the midgut of ticks that have fully engorged on mice now have OspC on their surface. Thus two environmental cues, an increase in temperature and tick feeding, trigger a major alteration of the spirochetal outer membrane. This rapid synthesis of OspC by spirochetes during tick feeding may play an essential role in the capacity of these bacteria to successfully infect mammalian hosts, including ...
Ticks in the Ixodes ricinus-species complex have been implicated as vectors of Lyme disease spirochetes (Borrelia burgdorferi). A variety of other ticks, notably American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) and Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the U.S., appear incapable of transmitting Lyme disease spirochetes despite ingesting these bacteria. In this study, I confirmed that deer ticks, but not dog ticks or Lone Star ticks became infected with Lyme disease spirochetes after feeding on infected hosts. In addition, I assessed several potential physiologic factors that could affect the ability of ticks to acquire, maintain, and transmit B. burgdorferi. One factor in particular, found in tick saliva, appears responsible for preventing spirochete killing in I. scapularis but not D. variabilis or A. americanum. In one study, I assessed anti-microbial ...
Between 1988-1991, a total of 3,141 Ixodes ricinus ticks, 2,740 adults and 401 nymphs, was collected from different localities in 23 of the 25 provinces of Sweden. The ticks were identified, dissected and examined for the presence of Borrelia spirochetes. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed, using an antiserum obtained from rabbits, immunized with sonicated, whole Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes isolated from Swedish Ixodes ricinus ticks. Borrelia-positive I. ricinus were found in all 23 provinces. The prevalence of infection in adults ranged from 3% in Jämtland to 23% in Södermanland. In nymphs, the infection prevalence ranged from 0% in 9 provinces to 15% in Södermanland. A significantly greater proportion of the adult ticks were found to be positive for Borrelia in the southern and central parts of Sweden as compared to the northern part (Norrland). No significant difference in prevalence could be demonstrated ...
To determine whether relapsing fever-like spirochetes associated with hard ticks may infect Ixodes ricinus ticks in central Europe, we screened questing ticks for 16S rDNA similar to that of Asian and American relapsing fever-like spirochetes. We compared the prevalence of these spirochetes to that of Lyme disease spirochetes transmitted by the same vector. Relapsing fever-like spirochetes infect 3.5% of questing vector ticks in our three central European sites near the Rhein Valley. These spirochetes differ genetically from their American and Asian analogs while being relatively homogeneous in the region we sampled. The Lyme disease genospecies most commonly detected in central Europe are distributed broadly, whereas those that are less frequently found appear to be place-specific. The absence of co-infected ticks suggests that relapsing fever-like and Lyme disease spirochetes may not share hosts. Exposure ...
VlsE, the variable surface antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi, consists of two invariable domains at the amino and carboxyl termini and one central variable domain. The latter contains six invariable regions, IR(1) to IR(6), and six variable regions. In the present study, the antigenicity of all of the invariable regions in B. burgdorferi-infected monkeys, humans, and mice was assessed by peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Only one invariable region, IR(6), was antigenic in all animals of the three host species. IR(2) and IR(4) were also antigenic in mice ...
Published June 8 2015. Its common for people with thyroid and autoimmune thyroid conditions to have infections, including H. Pylori, candida, Epstein Barr, Yersenia Enterocolitica, etc. While these and other types of infections can be challenging to treat, Lyme disease and other tick-borne infections can be one of the most difficult infections to overcome. Its challenging enough to restore ones health when dealing with a condition such as Hashimotos Thyroiditis or Graves Disease, but its obviously even more challenging when someone has an autoimmune thyroid condition and also has a condition such as Lyme disease.. Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the United States, as approximately 20,000 cases of Lyme disease are reported annually (1). However, there are also many cases of Lyme disease ...
Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibody conjugated to HRP validated for WB, ELISA, IHC. Immunogen corresponding to tissue, cells or virus
Twenty (1.4%) of 1,421 adult Ixodes pacificus ticks and 2 (20%) of 10 adult Ixodes neotomae ticks collected in five counties of northern California were found to contain spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence examination of their tissues with a polyvalent conjugate. Borreliae isolated from the tissues of nine of these ticks (I. pacificus, 8; I. neotomae, 1) were identified as Borrelia burgdorferi with specific monoclonal antibodies and characterized further by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses. The isolate from I. neotomae was the first to be characterized from a tick other than I. pacificus in western North America. All strains were relatively homogeneous with respect to the kind of OspA proteins they produced, whereas they were heterogeneous with regard to their OspB proteins and to several low-molecular-weight proteins in the 21,500-to-24,000 region. Significant phenotypic variation was observed among isolates ...
Chronic Lyme borreliosis (CLB) can present not only in different organs but also in different patterns. Although many theories exist about the mechanisms leading to CLB, it is known that viable Borrelia burgdorferi can persist for decades and cause late skin manifestations of acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA). Thus, the immunopathogenetci findings in ACA can serve as a model for studying the chronic course of Lyme borreliosis. Recent findings indicate that the most important cell for antigen presentation, the epidermal Langerhans cell (LC), is invaded by B. burgdorferi in early Lyme borreliosis. Therefore, LCs were stained immunohistochemically with different markers to investigate their functional activity. Numbers of CD1a+ LCs were reduced in erythema migrans but normal or slightly elevated in ACA. In both diseases there was also a marked downregulation of major histocompatibility ...
Chronic Lyme Disease Treatment. Let Manual Lymph Drainage support your recovery. Philip Chave - Physical Therapist, The Haven Healing Centre, Blagdon
Download Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic or Read Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic online books in PDF, EPUB and Mobi Format. Click Download or Read Online Button to get Access Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic ebook. Please Note: There is a membership site you can get UNLIMITED BOOKS, ALL IN ONE PLACE. FREE TO TRY FOR 30 DAYS. In order to Download Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic or Read Toxic: Heal Your Body from Mold Toxicity, Lyme Disease, Multiple Chemical Sensitivities, and Chronic book, you need to create an account.. Category: ...
Its important to consult your doctor even if signs and symptoms disappear - the absence of symptoms doesnt mean the disease is gone. Left untreated, Lyme disease can spread to other parts of your body from several months to years after infection, causing arthritis and nervous system problems. Ticks also can transmit other illnesses, such as babesiosis and Colorado tick fever.. In the United States, Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii bacteria, carried primarily by blacklegged or deer ticks. The ticks are brown and, when young, often no bigger than a poppy seed, which can make them nearly impossible to spot.. To contract Lyme disease, an infected deer tick must bite you. The bacteria enter your skin through the bite and eventually make their way into your bloodstream. In most cases, to transmit ...
BY: ALLISON BROWN What do Shania Twain, Avril Lavigne, Alec Baldwin, and former US president George W. Bush have in common? They were all afflicted with Lyme Disease at some point in their life! The disease is irrespective of person. This article will highlight facts about Lyme Disease.. Do you enjoy the outdoors and being in nature? Do you like camping, hiking or biking on trails in the woods? Well, if you do, be mindful of black-legged deer ticks. Ticks bites can occur during mild winters with little snow and during spring, summer and fall. People who like to participate in golfing, hunting, camping, fishing, or hiking should take precautions to prevent tick bites.. Lyme disease is an infection caused by Borrelia Burgdorferi bacteria and its transmitted by ticks that suck the blood of humans and other animals. Interestingly, a tick looks like a small flat ...
Lyme disease is a multisystem tick-borne disorder with dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic manifestations (3, 26, 29). The disease represents the most common vector-borne illness in the Northern Hemisphere and is caused by human-pathogenic members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii, B. afzelii, and the very recently established species B. spielmanii (22, 28). Isolates belonging to the newly delineated genospecies B. spielmanii have hitherto been isolated from patients in The Netherlands, Hungary, Slovenia, and Germany as well as from ticks in France, Germany, Ukraine, and the Czech Republic (6-8, 18, 19, 23, 25, 28). The heterogeneity of borrelial strains is known to impact the variability of Lyme disease manifestations and clearly is a challenge for the development of diagnostic tests ...
Screening:. Age greater than or equal to 13 years old.. Suspect of suffering from Lyme disease.. Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS): For the purposes of this study, PTLDS is defined as occurring in male or female patients age 13 and above who have been diagnosed with confirmed or probable Lyme disease per CDC definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/lyme-disease/case-definition/2017/). Studyphysician will review history to confirm probable cases. They have received recommended antibiotic therapy and have persistent or relapsing symptoms and/or signs for at least six months after therapy. They also should have no other documented explanation for their signs and symptoms.. Lyme arthritis controls: For the purposes of this study, Lyme arthritis is defined as occurring in an otherwise healthy male or female aged 18 and above ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transient worsening of optic neuropathy as a sequela of the jarisch-herxheimer reaction in the treatment of lyme disease. AU - Strominger, Mitchell B.. AU - Slamovits, Thomas L.. AU - Herskovitz, Steven. AU - Lipton, Richard B.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - A 58-year-old woman developed neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations of Lyme disease, including a radiculomyelitis, cranial neuritis and mild right optic neuropathy. Upon treatment with intravenous ceftriaxone a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurred with encephalopathy, mild fever, worsening radiculomyelitis, and deterioration of her visual acuity. Intravenous methyl-prednisolone was given, and the visual acuity recovered over 72 hours. This case suggests that transient worsening of optic neuropathy can develop as a sequela of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in the treatment of Lyme disease.. AB - A 58-year-old woman developed ...
In 475 Borrelia-infected Ixodes ricinus (2155 ticks investigated) from southern Germany the most common Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species was B. garinii (34.3%) followed by B. afzelii (25.1%), B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (22.0%), and B. valaisiana (12.7%). B. spielmanii sp. nov. was detected in 5.9% of the 475 infected ticks. Hints for a focal distribution were found for B. spielmanii sp. nov. and B. garinii OspA type 4. In 242 patient isolates, dominance (66.9%) of B. afzelii for skin could be confirmed, while frequency of B. garinii in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) isolates (51.1%) was comparable to the frequency in nymphal ticks (51.6%). Four patient isolates from southern Germany and two from Slovenia, all isolated from erythema migrans, could be assigned to B. spielmanii sp. nov. Within this new species high sequence identities were found for rrs, fla, and ospA while rrf-rrl, ospC, and dbpA were less conserved: three new ospC and two ...
Of the Bernese Mountain Dogs, 58 percent had developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi, compared with only 15 percent of the control dogs. Factors such as living in a rural area or coat colour did not explain the result, leading the authors to conclude that the breed may be predisposed to B. burgdorferi infection. The authors data did not allow them to reach any conclusions regarding speculation that glomerular disease found in Bernese Mountain Dogs may be caused directly by B. burgdorferi, and the high incidence of B. burgdorferi infection may mean it coincides with glomerulonephritis without being the cause of the disease. ...
Definition of Erythema chronicum migrans with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is caused by tick-borne spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex (Bb) transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe. As in ...
Author Summary Lyme borreliosis displays multifaceted clinical manifestations caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. If insufficiently treated, infection may proceed to inflammatory complications of chronic infection. Th17-like cytokines, foremost IL-17 and IL-22, are crucial for host defense against extracellular bacteria. IL-17/IL-22 secretion by human leukocytes exposed to live Borreliae has not been analyzed. Here we report that B. burgdorferi-activated PBMC lack immediate IL-17 expression despite being highly activated and robust T cell-dependent production of IL-22 that to a large part is mediated by monocyte-derived IL-1. Early innate immunity may shape dermal infection, thus likely affecting bacterial dissemination. Specifically, insufficient neutrophil recruitment/function, supposedly due to insufficient early IL-17 production along with a lack of opsonizing antibodies, may favor the spread of B. ...
The maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi in a population of Peromyscus leucopus was investigated from 202 mark and recapture mice and 61 mice that were removed from a site in Baltimore County, Maryland. Borrelia burgdorferi infection was detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ear tissue, and exposure to the spirochete was quantified by serology. Overall prevalence of B. burgdorferi, as determined by culture and PCR of ear tissue at first capture, was 25% in the longitudinal sample and 42% in the cross-sectional sample. Significantly more juvenile mice were captured in the longitudinal sample (18%) than in the cross-sectional sample (0%). Among 36 captured juvenile mice, only one was infected with B. burgdorferi; this contributed to a significant trend for infection with B. burgdorferi with age. Recovery from infection with B. burgdorferi ...
We developed a PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay in which Ehrlichia, B. burgdorferi, andBartonella species can be detected and differentiated. The assay was specific enough to detect single-base-pair changes with immobilized oligonucleotide probes and enabled us to differentiateEhrlichia variants. The reverse line blot technique is a relatively easy and rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of microorganisms in field samples such as ticks. In its present form we can combine the hybridization of PCR products obtained in separate PCRs. We are now developing a multiplex PCR that will enable us to have an even more convenient method for the screening of samples. These samples could be tick lysates but could also be other material such as blood from patients suffering from a febrile disease with an unknown origin.. In the study presented here we used this method to detect and identifyEhrlichia and B. burgdorferi species in ...
Lyme disease is a most common vector borne disease in the US. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with the standard 30 day antibiotic treatment, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, one possibility is that persisting organisms are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. It has been reported in the literature that essential oils have antimicrobial activities and some have been used by patients with persisting symptoms with varying degree of improvement. However, the activity of essential oils on the causative agent Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) has not been studied. Here, we evaluated the activity of a panel of 34 essential oils for activity against B. burgdorferi stationary phase ...
During 2008-2015, a total of 275,589 cases of Lyme disease were reported to CDC (208,834 confirmed and 66,755 probable).. In the report, states were classified for surveillance purposes (state surveillance categories) as high incidence, low incidence, and neighboring. States with an average annual incidence during this reporting period of ≥10 confirmed Lyme disease cases per 100,000 population were classified as high incidence. States that share a border with those states or that are located between areas of high incidence were classified as neighboring states. All other states were classified as low incidence.. Fourteen states, all located in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions, met the criteria for classification as states with high incidence (Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Virginia, and Wisconsin). During ...
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Abstract In order to determine if Peromyscus spp. could become infected with the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi) by direct inoculation and to determine the duration of spirochetemia, 4 P. leucopus and 5 P. maniculatus were inoculated by the intramuscular, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes with an isolate of B. burgdorferi obtained from the blood of a trapped wild P. leucopus from Camp McCoy, Wisconsin. All of the mice developed antibodies to B. burgdorferi which reached a peak indirect immunofluorescent (IFA) geometric mean antibody titer of 10 log2 21 days post-inoculation. B. burgdorferi was recovered from the blood of 1 P. maniculatus 21 days post-inoculation. One uninfected Peromyscus of each species was housed in the same cage with the infected Peromyscus as a contact control. Both of the contact controls developed IFA B. burgdorferi antibodies by ...
Although the Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum) has been shown to transmit Lyme borreliosis (Borrelia americana and Borrelia andersonii), it can transmit other infections such as Ehrlichia and Tularemia.. In addition, victims bitten by the Lone Star Tick will occasionally develop a circular rash, similar to the rash of early Lyme disease. The rash may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms, and this condition has been named "Southern Tick-Associated Rash Illness" (STARI). STARI is treated with oral antibiotics. Newer research is now associating a Lone Star Tick bite to a mammalian meat allergy.. ...
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Aim: Here we investigated the role of complement activation in phagocytosis and the release of cytokines and chemokines in response to two clinical isolates: Borrelia afzelii K78, which is resistant to complement-mediated lysis, and Borrelia garinii LU59, which is complement-sensitive.. Methods: Borrelia spirochetes were incubated in hirudin plasma, or hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. Complement activation was measured as the generation of C3a and sC5b-9. Binding of the complement components C3, factor H, C4, and C4BP to the bacterial surfaces was analyzed. The importance of complement activation on phagocytosis, and on the release of cytokines and chemokines, was investigated using inhibitors acting at different levels of the complement cascade.. Results: 1) Borrelia garinii LU59 induced significantly higher complement activation than did Borrelia afzelii K78. 2) Borrelia afzelii K78 recruited higher ...
Looking for online definition of Bernese Mountain Dog meningitis in the Medical Dictionary? Bernese Mountain Dog meningitis explanation free. What is Bernese Mountain Dog meningitis? Meaning of Bernese Mountain Dog meningitis medical term. What does Bernese Mountain Dog meningitis mean?
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a diverse bacterial group with a worldwide distribution of 20 named and 1 unnamed genospecies. B. burgdorferi sensu stricto seen in North America, B. afzelii and B. garinii in Europe, are the main genospecies (group 1) that cause Lyme disease. A second group of eight genospecies (B. bavariensis, B. bissettii, B. kurtenbachii, B. mayonii, B. miyamotoi, B lusitaniae, B spielmanii, B valisiana) have been shown to have a limited disease potential.
Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. We further expected the nympal infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens that utilize cattle as amplifying hosts, namely Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia sensu stricto, to increase. To test these hypotheses, we compared the densities of questing I. ricinus between twenty pairs of plots in grazed and ungrazed forest areas. The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. Nymphs were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Borrelia ...
I started Buhners protocol in Spring of 2008 by taking first Andrographis, then adding in the Cats Claw a few weeks later, and then a few weeks after that (mid-June), I added the Japanese Knotweed. One week later (end of June), I lost my ability to swallow and it has been a very slow road to recover the ability to eat/drink again. I still cannot swallow liquids, and am maintained on IV nutrition and IV hydration (though we are weaning down the IV nutrition slowly). The LLNDs & LLMDs locally all agree the Japanese Knotweed had something to do with my loss of swallowing (I also have had problems with motility throughout the rest of my digestive system for a long time - believed to be related to Lyme Disease - but the swallowing issue was a new issue as of 2008), but whether the swallowing issue was due to a herx, a Lyme flare, or something else they cannot say for sure. All I know is, I wont be taking Japanese Knotweed anytime soon, and if I ever do again, it ...
The name "Bernese Mountain Dog" is a rough translation of the German "Berner Sennenhund," which literally means "Bernese Alpine herdsmans dog." The Bernese Mountain Dog was rescued from near extinction by Swiss cynologist Franz Schertenlieb in the late 1800s. The modern breed was developed from the dogs found in the countryside near Bern, Switzerland and they are only one of several Swiss breeds. The original Berner Sennenhund was an all-round farm dog used to guard the farm, drive the cows to and from their mountain pastures, and pull carts loaded with milk cans to the dairy. The Bernese Mountain Dog needs lots of human companionship and must be allowed regular interaction with the family. The breed is gentle, calm, affectionate and faithful and makes a great watch dog. They are also very good with children and other animals. The Bernese Mountain dog first came to the United States in 1926. A decade later, two more Bernese Mountain Dogs were imported from Switzerland. In 1937, these two dogs ...
Geographic tongue disease - Is there an association between chronic Lyme disease and geographic tongue? Not particularly. Lyme can cause virtually any symptom and geographic tongue could be one of them, but I have not found geographic tongue to be common in patients with lyme. Common causes of geographic tongue include celiac disease & other food allergies, environmental allergies, vit B12 & zinc deficiencies, hormonal imbalances & imbalances of flora. Of course many people with chronic lyme may also have those issues.
Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral-shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a tick bite. The disease takes its name from Lyme, Connecticut, where the illness was first identified in the United States in 1975.. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lyme disease continues to be a rapidly emerging infectious disease, and is the leading cause of all insect-borne illness in the US. The number of annually reported cases has increased 25-fold since national surveillance began in 1982. About 20,000 people are infected each year in the US. The majority (95 percent) of cases are reported in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey, Maryland, Massachusetts, Maine, Minnesota, New Hampshire, ...
By Miriam Raftery May 14, 2017 (San Diegos East County) - Youve heard of Lyme Disease, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and Rabbit Fever-all diseases spread by ticks, and all have spread to our region after first starting elsewhere in the country. But now theres a tick-borne illness thats much deadlier than those ailments. Its called Powassan, or Pow for short.
To the Editor: The European hedgehog, Erinaceus europaeus, is known to host a variety of tickborne pathogens, including the virus that causes tickborne encephalitis (1) and at least 3 species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato group: B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. afzelii, and B. garinii (2). Members of the B. burgdorferi s. l. group are the most common vectorborne pathogens of humans in central Europe (3). The role of hedgehogs as hosts for these pathogens is, therefore, of considerable epidemiologic interest. Hedgehogs are a common synanthropic species that live in urban, suburban, and rural environments (4) and are known to carry not only the hedgehog tick, Ixodes hexagonus, but also the most common European tick, I. ricinus (2,5). Both of these ticks are known vectors of B. burgdorferi s. l. and tickborne encephalitis virus; I. ricinus is the most important vector of both ...
One of the most striking examples of how Lyme disease co-infections can wreak havoc on the extracellular matrix and connective tissues comes from a 2018 study that looked at the effects of Bartonella infection, rheumatological symptoms and associated joint hypermobility (8). The case study publication concerned a female veterinarian who displayed the clinical symptoms of EDS (Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome), Type 3. Type 3 EDS is considered to be the most severe form of EDS, chiefly affecting the vascular system, and leading to a significantly reduced life expectancy. The patient was identified as having a Beighton hypermobility score of 7/9.. The patient was found to have Bartonella koehlerae and Bartonella henselae infections. Bartonella bacterial infections have a notable and destructive effect on the vasculature and endothelial functions. The patient was treated for bartonella using the longterm use of antibiotics. The treatment resulted in the resolution of the patients ...
What are Blastomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever), Histoplasmosis, Lyme Disease and can you explain them to me?
Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B StrickerInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is ...
Filament formation associated with spirochetal infection: a comparative approach to Morgellons disease Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B StrickerInternational Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Bovine digital dermatitis is an emerging infectious disease that causes lameness, decreased milk production, and weight loss in livestock. Proliferative stages of bovine digital dermatitis demonstrate keratin filament formation in skin above the hooves in affected animals. The multifactorial etiology of digital dermatitis is not well understood, but spirochetes and other coinfecting microorganisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this veterinary illness. Morgellons disease is an emerging human dermopathy characterized by the presence of filamentous fibers of undetermined composition, both in lesions and subdermally. While the etiology of Morgellons disease is unknown, there is ...
The most common human diseases transmitted by Texas ticks include Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human erhlichiosis, and Lyme disease. Lyme disease is caused by a bacterial spirochete. Although present in Texas, Lyme disease is not as prevalent as in the north central and northeastern US. It is thought to be carried by the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a rickettsial bacteria disease, and is carried by both the dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum. It is potentially serious with a 20% fatality rate for people who go untreated. Ehrlichiosis is another bacterial disease, with less than 10 cases reported in Texas each year. It is less likely to have serious consequences than RMSF, but can still make you quite sick. Human ehrlichiosis in Texas is thought to be carried by the lone star tick.. ...
Vaccination of wildlife has been studied for at least 50 years since the earliest attempts at oral vaccination against classical swine fever (CSF) (reviewed by Kaden et al. [32]). Although routine vaccination against CSF is prohibited in domestic pigs within the European Union, emergency vaccination is permitted. Vaccination has become more widely accepted as a potential option for the management of disease in wildlife populations following its successful employment in the control of sylvatic rabies [33]. Although currently very few vaccines for wildlife species have been licensed, work is on-going in a number of areas. Recent examples include experimental vaccination of wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) [34], a reservoir host species of the human Lyme disease agent (Borrelia burgdorferi), American robins (Turdus migratorius) [35], an amplification host for West Nile Virus, and bison (Bison bison) ...
To assess the potential risk for other tick-borne diseases, we collected 100 adult Ixodes scapularis in Hunterdon County, a rapidly developing rural county in Lyme disease endemic western New Jersey. We tested the ticks by polymerase chain reaction for Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and the rickettsial agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Fifty-five ticks were infected with at least one of the three pathogens: 43 with B. burgdorferi, five with B. microti, and 17 with the HGE agent. Ten ticks were coinfected with two of the pathogens. The results suggest that county residents are at considerable risk for infection by a tick-borne pathogen after an I. scapularis bite ...
What is Bartonella? When one forays into the world of chronic Lyme disease the word Bartonella immediately comes up. What is it? I have written about it from time to time and treated it for a long time. What do we know? Medical textbooks and published papers are at odds with "Lyme" literature. Bartonella is classified as a new and emerging infectious disease. Clinical infection is largely seen as opportunistic. This means that Bartonella under normal circumstances is unlikely to cause clinical disease: it has low pathogenicity. Commercial laboratories only offer serological tests for two species, B. henselae and B. quintana. Newer information informs us that numerous other species, including: B. koehlerae, B. vinsonii and B. berkhoffi have been found in the blood of Lyme patients. Doctors have known about the prevalence of Bartonella species in some populations for some time. A study published in 1996 looked ...
What is Bartonella? When one forays into the world of chronic Lyme disease the word Bartonella immediately comes up. What is it? I have written about it from time to time and treated it for a long time. What do we know? Medical textbooks and published papers are at odds with "Lyme" literature. Bartonella is classified as a new and emerging infectious disease. Clinical infection is largely seen as opportunistic. This means that Bartonella under normal circumstances is unlikely to cause clinical disease: it has low pathogenicity. Commercial laboratories only offer serological tests for two species, B. henselae and B. quintana. Newer information informs us that numerous other species, including: B. koehlerae, B. vinsonii and B. berkhoffi have been found in the blood of Lyme patients. Doctors have known about the prevalence of Bartonella species in some populations for some time. A study published in 1996 looked ...
The breed was used as an all purpose farm dog for guarding property and to drive dairy cattle long distances from the farm to the alpine pastures. The type was originally called the Dürrbächler, for a small town (Dürrbach) where the large dogs were especially frequent. In the early 1900s, fanciers exhibited the few examples of the large dogs at shows in Berne, and in 1907 a few breeders from the Burgdorf region founded the first breed club, theSchweizerische Dürrbach-Klub, and wrote the first Standard which defined the dogs as a separate breed. By 1910, there were already 107 registered members of the breed. There is a photo of a working Bernese Mountain Dog, dated 1905 at the Fumee Fall rest area in Quinnesec, MI. In the US, the Bernese Mountain Dog is growing in popularity, ranking in 32nd place by the American Kennel Club in 2013.. The Bernese Mountain Dog is a large, strong, sturdy, agile dog. The body is slightly longer than it is tall. The broad head is flat on the top with a moderate ...
Deer tick virus is a virus causing tick-borne encephalitis. Deer tick virus is a flavivirus closely resembling Powassan virus (to which it has 94% amino acid sequence identity). Because they are so related, deer tick virus is thought to be a genotype of Powassan virus, and also called Powassan virus lineage II. In 1997, it was isolated from Ixodes scapularis (the deer tick, formerly Ixodes dammini) collected in Massachusetts and Connecticut. Tick-borne encephalitis virus Lyme disease (caused by a deer-tick bacterium) Tavakoli NP, Wang H, Dupuis M, Hull R, Ebel GD, Gilmore EJ, Faust PL (2009). "Fatal case of deer tick virus encephalitis". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (20): 2099-2107. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0806326. PMC 2847876 . PMID 19439744. Kuno G, Artsob H, Karabatsos N, Tsuchiya KR, Chang GJ (November 2001). "Genomic sequencing of deer tick virus and phylogeny of powassan-related viruses of North America". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 65 (5): 671-6. PMID 11716135. Beasley DW, Suderman MT, ...
Unrecognized and untreated Borrelia infection can progress from localized inflammation (erythema migrans) to early or late generalized stage within weeks to months. Meningoradiculitis, arthritis, multiple erythemas, myositis, and myocarditis of the early generalized stage have a good prognosis after antibiotic treatment, but late manifestations can progress to chronic disease. Phrenic nerve palsy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction and carditis with acute heart failure are among rare manifestations as well as late generalised stage with myelitis. We present a case of a patient with meningoradiculitis, autonomic nervous dysfunction, respiratory failure due to phrenic nerve palsy and acute heart failure with systolic myocardial dysfunction. The diagnosis of Borrelia infection was confirmed by positive serological testing, appropriate response to antibiotic therapy and exclusion of other diseases. Our case suggests that in unexplained ...
Recently some articles have come out on Heart issues with Tick Borne Disease (TBD). Most talk about Lyme; however, as you will see - there are many other players. http://davidjernigan.blogspot.com/2015/05/functional-heart-problems-and-lyme.html The Hansa Center in their blog states that a common symptom of chronic Lyme is Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome or POTS. POTS can cause headaches,…
Radiology is a broad field that involves the use of radiologic medical technology to diagnose, manage, and treat a variety of conditions and diseases. A radiology nurse in Old Lyme CT 06371 is involved with the assessment, planning, and care of patients who undergo diagnostic, interventional, and therapeutic procedures. As such, a radiology nurse in Old Lyme CT 06371, often referred to as a radiological nurse, must have a high level of technical expertise and knowledge of radiologic science.. Although radiology nurses are often hired at the RN level, it is the advanced practice radiology nurse who holds key positions within the field of radiology. Imaging and interventional radiologists often call upon nurse practitioners and clinical nurse specialists to serve as mid-level providers within radiology departments and laboratories.. Radiology nurses in Old Lyme CT 06371 often receive their clinical training and education in the following areas ...
|p|Ticks may be very small and barely noticeable parasites, but they are prevalent and are known to spread a number of serious illnesses. In the Czech Republic, the occurrence of tick-borne diseases is among the highest in Europe.  Some of these diseases include Lyme disease, tick-borne meningoencephalitis and Ehrlichiosis. Although all can be serious, most attention should be paid to Lyme disease and tick-borne meningoencephalitis given the large number of individuals infected each year. We met up with |a href=http://www.cmcpraha.cz/en-US/search?term=Yanov%C3%A1|Dr. Yanová|/a| from Canadian Medical Care ask for some expert advice and to learn more about tick borne illnesses.|/p|
Tick-borne diseases such as Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis pose a risk to dogs in many areas of the country. Because clinical signs are not always apparent, periodic testing is a good way to identify dogs that have been infected. Even dogs that receive year-round tick control products and dont spend a lot of time outside are at risk for exposure to tick-borne diseases. Testing helps identify dogs that need treatment for one of these infections or an adjustment in the type of tick control being used.. Your veterinarian can tell you about the risk of Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis to dogs in your area. In some cases, your veterinarian may not recommend testing for all of the diseases. Even if you live in an area where tick-borne diseases are less common, be sure to ask your veterinarian what tick prevention measures can help protect your dog.. ...
We talk about Lyme disease and the serious threat here in Massachusetts all the time, but its not the only tick-borne illness we should be aware of. Black-legged ticks are very prevalent in South Shore and Fall River, and they can carry several other diseases as well: Anaplasmosis, Babesiosis, Powassan, and now the newest tick disease recognized in this area Borellia miyamotoi, are all transmitted by the deer tick. In an article published by the Herald News, deputy state epidemiologist Dr. Catherine Brown warns of the concerns of these illnesses. Not only from deer ticks but also the Lone Star tick that is "moving this way". Lone Star ticks carry STARI, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever which is rare in Massachusetts but expected to grow. Dr. Brown believes that humans moving out of the cities into the suburbs can be causing the introduction of newer disease. Powassan and B. Miyamotoi are the latest of these ...
Across the United States, Western New York is among the areas most heavily populated by ticks. These small insects have been known to carry several potentially deadly diseases, including:. Lyme disease - A bacterial infection that can affect any organ of the body, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, joints, and the heart. Women infected with Lyme disease from a tick bite may pass the disease to their fetus, in rare cases, resulting in stillbirth.. Tularemia - A bacterial disease whose symptoms can range from mild to severe. Typically accompanied by a high fever, Tularemia may also cause a skin ulcer at the infection site, and swelling of regional lymph glands.. Ehrlichiosis - A bacterial infection that can cause flu-like symptoms that typically appear a week or two after a tick bite.. Babesiosis - A rare, severe, and sometimes fatal tick-borne disease caused by a ...
Youre out enjoying a wonderful picnic supper with your family when - ouch! Youre been bitten by a bug. Suddenly you went from having dinner to becoming dinner. Most insect bites and stings are a mild annoyance, but some mosquitos, ticks, and spiders carry disease, which can lead to serious medical problems. What can you do to protect yourself and, if youre bitten, when should you see your doctor?. Deer Tick. Where: Mainly northeast and upper midwest. May spread: Lyme disease. Prevent it: Deer ticks are transmitted by deer, so avoid tall, grassy, and wooded areas. Wear long pants and sleeves. Use insect repellent such as DEET. Check your entire body for ticks as soon as you go inside, even if youve taken these precautions. A tick needs to be attached to your skin for 36 to 48 hours before the spirochete bacteria enters your body. Prompt removal helps prevent Lyme disease.. Call a doctor if: You see a bite that looks like a ...
The increased weather variability that accompanies climate instability contributed to the emergence of both the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and West Nile virus in the United States. Six years of drought in the Southwest apparently reduced the populations of predators, and early heavy rainfall in 1993 produced a bounty of piñon nuts and grasshoppers for rodents to eat. The resulting legions of white-footed mice heralded the appearance of hantavirus in the Americas. The origin of the 1999 outbreak of West Nile virus in New York City remains a mystery, but city-dwelling, bird-biting Culex pipiens mosquitoes thrive in shallow pools of foul water that remain in drains during droughts. When dry springs yield to sweltering summers, viral development accelerates and, with it, the cycle of mosquito-to-bird transmission. During the hot, arid summer of 2002, West Nile virus traveled across the country, infecting 230 species of animals, including 138 species of birds, along the way. Many of the affected ...
Now that spring is finally here and folks are venturing outdoors again, there is a certain insect that everyone should be aware of: the deer tick. Turkey hunters and anglers are especially vulnerable because they hunt and fish in ideal deer tick habitat. Sitting in the woods with your back against a tree or wading through streamside brush makes both of these outdoor enthusiasts a prime candidate for an encounter with deer ticks.. The deer tick is a tiny hard-bodied insect that can be found throughout the East and northern states of the Midwest. Not much bigger than a pinhead, it is a carrier of several diseases that can infect animals and humans alike, including Lyme disease. Whitetail deer are the primary hosts of this infectious parasite-hence the name-but it is also commonly found on mice, black bears, and wild birds, including turkeys.. Deer ticks are bloodsuckers and like mosquitoes, only the female deer tick bites and parasitizes. She has a two-year ...
This program will review the basic life cycle and ecology of deer ticks, incidence rates and distribution of tick-borne illnesses in addition to a database under development on infection rates of ticks. A three point protection plan will be presented: Protect Yourself, Protect Your Yard and Protect your Pet. Tick-Borne Diseases are preventable. We will do a showing of "Tick Days," as well as a Q&A regarding ticks and Lyme disease.. Presented by Larry Dapsis - Entomologist since age five…B.S. Environmental Science & Biology at Fitchburg State University and M.S. Entomology at the University of Massachusetts - Amherst. Thirty-six years of professional pest management experience including Vegetables, Cranberries and Household Insects. Joined Cape Cod Cooperative Extension in 2011 as Deer Tick Project Coordinator and Entomologist and is a member of the Barnstable County Task Force on Lyme and other Tick-Borne Diseases.. ...
You can decrease the chances of being bitten by a tick with a few precautions.. Avoid tick-infested areas This is especially important in May, June, and July. Many local health departments and park or extension services have information on the local distribution of ticks. If you are in tick infested areas, walk in the center of trails to avoid contact with overgrown grass, brush, and leaf litter at trail edges.. Use insect repellent Spray insect repellent containing a 20-30% concentration of DEET on clothes and on exposed skin; use 10% DEET for children. You can also treat clothes (especially pants, socks, and shoes) with permethrin, which kills ticks on contact. Permethrin can also be used on tents and some camping gear. Do not use permethrin directly on skin. Always follow the manufacturers instructions when applying any repellents.. Wear protective clothing Long pants and long sleeves help keep ticks off your skin. Light-colored clothing will help you spot ticks more easily. You can even ...
Summary of Tick Testing Results for 1999 Abstract: Summary of Tick Testing Results for 1999 A total of 6971 ticks feeding on humans were submitted for identification in1999. Of these, 6386 were tested for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi,the causative organism of Lyme disease, and 1492 (24%) were found to carry thisorganism. The names of the tick species and numbers of specimens received areshown in the table below. Name of Species Common Name Total Ixodes scapularis Black-legged (deer) Tick 6684 Dermacentor variabilis American Dog Tick 242 Amblyomma americanum Lone Star Tick 37 Amblyomma hebraeum (acquired in South Africa) 1 Ixodes cookei (normally on woodchucks) 6 Ixodes marxi (normally on squirrels) 1 Most of the ticks received by us are the black-legged or deerticks. Below is a table comparing the numbers and infection rates of deer ticksover the past five ...
Each year, the risks of Eastern Equine Encephalitis, West Nile virus and Lyme disease cause concern among residents and prompt response by public health officials. This is especially true this year, as threats of EEE and West Nile virus are above normal, and the incidence of Lyme disease, along with other tick-borne illnesses such as babesiosis, continues to be high.. Because of the increased threats of these diseases this year, the Massachusetts Medical Society, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, and HCAM-TV have collaborated in producing a special edition of Physician Focus to raise awareness of these illnesses and encourage residents to take appropriate steps to protect themselves.. This half-hour program features two experts from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health: Alfred DeMaria, M.D., Medical Director of the Bureau of Infectious Diseases; and Catherine Brown, D.V.M., M.Sc., M.P.H., ...
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The bacterium is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks, and so the
Blacklegged ticks, commonly called "deer ticks", are of chief public health concern as the vector for B. burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease.. Blacklegged ticks have a two-year, three-host life cycle. Eggs are oviposited in the spring, and larvae emerge approximately one month later. Larvae feed once in the summer, usually on birds and small mammals, at which stage they are most likely to become infected with the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria.. Larvae then over-winter, and in the following spring molt into nymphs, which then feed in late spring or early summer.. In the fall, nymphs molt into adults, which usually feed on larger mammals (often the white-tailed deer), on whose bodies they mate. Females die after laying their eggs, whereby the two-year cycle begins again.. Infected nymphs feeding on mice or larger mammals such as deer, dogs, or humans; and adult ticks, whose higher rate of ...
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Сlarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections. This includes strep throat, pneumonia, skin infections, H. pylori infection, and Lyme disease, among others. Clarithromycin can be taken by mouth as a pill or liquid.. Clarithromycin is primarily used to treat a number of bacterial infections including: pneumonia, Helicobacter pylori and as an alternative to penicillin in strep throat. Other uses include: cat scratch disease and other infections due to bartonella, cryptosporidiosis, as a second line agent in Lyme disease and toxoplasmosis. It may also be used to prevent bacterial endocarditis in those who cannot take penicillin. It is effective against upper and lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections and helicobacter pylori infections associated with duodenal ulcers.. Clarithromycin was developed in 1980. It is on the ...
Nerve conduction defects (weakness/paralysis of limbs, loss of reflexes, tingling sensations in the extremities); severe headaches; stiff neck; meningitis; dizziness; fainting; cranial nerve involvement (change in smell/taste; difficulty chewing, swallowing, or speaking; hoarseness or vocal cord problems; facial paralysis known as Bells palsy; drooping shoulders; inability to turn head; double vision); abnormal brain waves or seizures; sleep disorders; cognitive changes (memory problems, confusion, disorientation, decreased concentration); behavioral changes (depression, personality changes, panic attacks); mental illness (sudden onset with no previous history of mental illness).. Heart and Blood Vessels ...
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
The difference is that deer tick virus is carried by the Ixodes scapularis tick -- the black-legged tick -- that also spreads Lyme disease and at least two other tick-borne illnesses in the state. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says the virus can cause encephalitis, inflammation of the brain, and meningitis, inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord. [...] the CDC says those who do become ill can suffer headaches, fever, headache, vomiting, weakness, confusion, loss of coordination, speech difficulties, and seizures. Studies by the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven have found the virus in the two places where researchers collected ticks in Bridgeport and North Branford. Schleiter of Western Connecticut Health Network said Connecticut is in a similar position with eastern equine encephalitis.
On paper, Powassan virus sounds like your basic nightmare. A tick-borne infection with no vaccine and no cure, it kills 1 in 10 people who get it and causes long-term neurological problems in half of reported cases. Fortunately, Powassan virus disease for decades had affected only about one person a year in the U.S.-most likely because it was typically transmitted from woodchucks to humans by a tick that rarely bites people. So back in 1997, when Sam Telford, a professor of infectious disease and global health at Cummings School, found a genetically distinct strain of Powassan virus in deer ticks-the bloodsuckers notorious for spreading Lyme disease-he initially worried about its implications. But despite the fact that he found the virus in 1 out of every 100 deer ticks he sampled, at the time there were no reports of swelling in the brain (called encephalitis) in sites where Lyme disease was common. He and ...
The regulation of innate immune responses to pathogens occurs through the interaction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and the activation of several signaling pathways whose contribution to the overall innate immune response to pathogens is poorly understood. We demonstrate a mechanism of control of murine macrophage responses mediated by TLR1/2 heterodimers through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activity. JNK controls tumor necrosis factor alpha production and TLR-mediated macrophage responses to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and the TLR1/TLR2-specific agonist PAM(3)CSK(4). JNK1, but not JNK2, activity regulates the expression of the tlr1 gene in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7, as well as in primary CD11b(+) cells. We also show that the proximal promoter region of the human tlr1 gene contains an AP-1 binding site that is subjected to regulation by ...
Ticks and mites (subphylum Chelicerata: class Acari) transmit a greater variety of human and animal pathogens than any other arthropod vector. Tick- and mite-borne diseases are global health problems caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens, which are responsible for significant morbidity and thousands of human deaths annually. The incidence of many tick-borne diseases is increasing worldwide - many are emerging zoonoses or exotic diseases that could be introduced to the U.S. The Acari are a diverse and basal group within the phylum Arthropoda, comprised of two lineages; the Acariformes or chigger mites and the Parasitiformes which includes the ticks (suborder Ixodida) and other medically important mites. Despite their impact on human health, little is known about the biology and genetic basis of vector competence in the Acari. The NIH funded Ixodes scapularis (Lyme disease tick) ...
The Tick-Borne Disease That You Have Never Heard Of Can Kill. In many countries around the world, mosquitoes are the most dangerous disease spreading bugs. However, in the United States, mosquitoes are forced to take a back seat to another dangerous bug-ticks. Although ticks are not technically insects, the diseases that they spread to humans and other animals are nevertheless often, and incorrectly, referred to as insect-borne diseases. Ticks are, of course, arachnids. It would be accurate to refer to both mosquito and tick-borne diseases as "vector-borne diseases".. Nearly all adult Americans are familiar with lyme disease. And it is also well known that disease spreading ticks are most active in the northeast region of the US. Despite rarely hearing of people falling victim to tick-borne diseases in western regions of the country, there ...
White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), are a major host for the adult stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, and lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum L. The resurging population of deer in the twentieth century is linked to the emergence of multiple tick-borne pathogens associated with these and other tick species, particularly Lyme disease. Acaricides and parasiticides have long been the principal method for controlling ticks on domestic livestock, applied either topically or orally. The use and development of oral ivermectin and the passive topical treatment deer feeding station called the 4-poster for the control of the blacklegged tick on white-tailed deer is reviewed ...
Summer is nearly here, and its bringing fears of a rare tick-borne disease called Powassan. This potentially life-threatening virus is carried and transmitted by three types of ticks, including the deer tick that transmits Lyme disease. Over the past decade, 75 cases have been reported in the northeastern states and the Great Lakes region, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Though no one can say how many infections will occur this year, warmer winters have led to an increased tick population, so experts predict rising tick-borne infections of many types.. Everyone is at risk for Powassan: Newborns, 20-somethings, the middle-aged, the elderly and the immunocompromised. Anyone bitten by an infected tick can get it, said Dr. Jennifer Lyons, chief of the Division of Neurological Infections and Inflammatory Diseases at Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston. Infections are most likely during late ...
Postdoctoral Fellow Position in Host- Pathogen Interactions University at Buffalo, The State University of New York. Laboratory of Michelle Visser. A postdoctoral fellow position is available immediately to study molecular interactions between Treponema species and the human host.. Spirochetes are a diverse group of bacteria responsible for many important health conditions including periodontal disease, syphilis, Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases. The Visser lab studies how spirochete outer membrane proteins and outer membrane vesicles from various Treponema species modulate inflammation and cellular response during disease as well as the connection with systemic conditions such as atherosclerosis and neurological impairment. Much of the work in the Visser lab focuses on how these virulence factors and their active epitopes modulate neutrophil response. Ongoing projects include understanding the ...
In this research, QX200 Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCRTM) system protocols for the detection of bacterial (Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia miyamotoi) DNA were developed and tested. Existing Ixodes scapularis samples collected from Cape Cod, Massachusetts and previously determined to be 60% positive for B. burgdorferi were utilized to investigate absolute bacterial genome carriage per tick using the ddPCR assays optimized here. The ddPCR technology proved to be a reliable means for detection and absolute quantification of control bacterial DNA with sensitivity as low as 10 spirochetes per μl input DNA. Application of ddPCR revealed an average B. burgdorferi carriage level of 27,239 copies in infected ticks (range: 231- 118,407 copies), 2,197 copies in infected nymphs (range: 231- 4,983 copies), and 45,620 copies in infected adults (range: 5,647- 118,407 copies). This is the first known and validated application of ddPCR for the ...
In the Northeast, the black-legged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) that spread Lyme disease also infect people with other maladies, among them anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and - as a new paper in the journal Parasites and Vectors reports - Powassan encephalitis.
Fleas and ticks are no ones favorite guests, but dealing with these pests is an inevitable part of pet ownership. Fortunately, there are easy ways to get rid of fleas and ticks and prevent them from coming back.. The Problems With Fleas and Ticks. Fleas and ticks are more than just an itchy irritation to cats, dogs and other pets. These are blood-sucking parasites that can cause inflammations, irritations and even open sores on pets with skin sensitivities or flea and tick allergies. Severe infestations of these pests can even lead to fur loss and patchy coats as well as anemia. Fleas and ticks can also transmit diseases not only to the pets they bite, but also to humans, livestock and other animals. The exact diseases transmitted can vary depending on the species of flea or tick, the animal bitten, geography, climate and other factors, but commonly transmitted diseases include Lyme disease, sleeping sickness, myxomatosis, ...

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Wisconsin Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesRocky Mountain Spotted Fever | Wisconsin Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases

Tick-borne Diseases *Borreliosis or Lyme Disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi or B. mayonii) *Infection rates: blacklegged (deer) ... One can cause very serious disease, the other does not.. Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria-the causative agent of Rocky Mountain ... Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) and the Spotted Fever Group (SFG) rickettsias. ... Hazin R, Abuzetun JY, Sukur M. (2009). Lyme Disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever: diagnosis, prevention and management. ...
more infohttp://labs.russell.wisc.edu/wisconsin-ticks/rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-rmsf/

Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. emend. Baranton et al. ATCC ®Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson et al. emend. Baranton et al. ATCC ®

Borrelia burgdorferi ATCC ® 35210™ Designation: B31 TypeStrain=True Application: Emerging infectious disease research Vector ... Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov.: Etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34: 496-497, 1984. ... Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme borreliosis ... Absence of lipopolysaccharide in the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect. Immun. 55: 2311-2313, 1987. PubMed ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Global/Products/F/6/2/2/35210.aspx?p=1&rel=%7B0%7D

Genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct...Genomic fingerprinting by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct...

The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, was first identified by Burgdorfer et al. in 1982 (W. Burgdorfer, A ... burgdorferi. Group I strains have been identified in both North America and Eurasia, while strains belonging to Borrelia groups ... by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction resolves Borrelia burgdorferi into three distinct phyletic groups.. Welsh J1, ... These same three groups have also been delineated by Baranton et al. (G. Baranton, D. Postic, I. Saint Girons, P. Boerlin, J.-C ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1503971?dopt=Abstract

A Novel Gene Inactivation System Reveals Altered Periplasmic Flagellar Orientation in a Borrelia burgdorferi fliL Mutant |...A Novel Gene Inactivation System Reveals Altered Periplasmic Flagellar Orientation in a Borrelia burgdorferi fliL Mutant |...

Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease and belongs to a group of bacteria called spirochetes. B. ... The Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi requires BB0690, a Dps homologue, to persist within ticks. Mol. Microbiol. 63:694- ... Genetic transformation of the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi with coumarin-resistant gyrB. J. Bacteriol. 176:6045-6049 ... including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Motility and chemotaxis genes comprise 5 to 6% of the ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/193/13/3324?ijkey=f7d70f6ee0203e0e0f9e1bb25ed1d26969eb89a6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Nursing gerbils unravel benefit of multiple mothers in collective mammalsNursing gerbils unravel benefit of multiple mothers in collective mammals

Ecologists have long hypothesized that allosuckling lets newborns stockpile antibodies to various diseases, but the ... In mammals such as rodents that raise their young as a group, infants will nurse from their mother as well as other females, a ... and a vaccine for Borrelia burgdorferi - the bacterial agent of Lyme disease - to another group. Once impregnated, female ... In mammals such as rodents that raise their young as a group, infants will nurse from their mother as well as other females, a ...
more infohttps://www.princeton.edu/news/2013/01/10/nursing-gerbils-unravel-benefit-multiple-mothers-collective-mammals?from=2004-12-01&to=2005-01-01

Nursing gerbils unravel benefit of multiple mothers in collective mammalsNursing gerbils unravel benefit of multiple mothers in collective mammals

Ecologists have long hypothesized that allosuckling lets newborns stockpile antibodies to various diseases, but the ... In mammals such as rodents that raise their young as a group, infants will nurse from their mother as well as other females, a ... and a vaccine for Borrelia burgdorferi - the bacterial agent of Lyme disease - to another group. Once impregnated, female ... In mammals such as rodents that raise their young as a group, infants will nurse from their mother as well as other females, a ...
more infohttps://www.princeton.edu/news/2013/01/10/nursing-gerbils-unravel-benefit-multiple-mothers-collective-mammals?from=2011-11-01&to=2011-12-01

Erol Fikrig, MD Research Abstract | HHMI.orgErol Fikrig, MD Research Abstract | HHMI.org

... and looking for ways to interrupt those relationships to prevent or treat disease. ... and looking for ways to interrupt those relationships to prevent or treat disease. ... For example, much of our initial effort focused on Borrelia burgdorferi - the causative agent of Lyme disease, and a common ... My group is studying whether these paradigms - initially established with B. burgdorferi - are applicable to other arthropod- ...
more infohttps://www.hhmi.org/research/vector-pathogen-host-interactions

Functional Significance of Factor H Binding to Neisseria meningitidis | The Journal of ImmunologyFunctional Significance of Factor H Binding to Neisseria meningitidis | The Journal of Immunology

... an outer membrane lipoprotein expressed by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (9, 10). ... The contrasting mechanisms of serum resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B Neisseria meningitidis. Mol. Immunol. 36: ... The complement regulator factor H binds to the surface protein OspE of Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 8427-8435. ... Complement regulator-acquiring surface protein 1 imparts resistance to human serum in Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Immunol. 175: ...
more infohttps://www.jimmunol.org/content/176/12/7566?ijkey=a86f2737e18c6d7275e35b5837a9cce7a1d506f4&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Lyme Disease Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDCLyme Disease Spotlight - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC

Find articles about Lyme Disease from the Emerging Infectious Diseases journal at CDC. ... Borrelia burgdorferi and the Causative Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis in Deer Ticks, Delaware Kathleen L. Curran et ... Typing of Borrelia Relapsing Fever Group Strains Jonas Bunikis et al. (Volume 10, Number 9) Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia ... Lyme Disease. Lyme borreliosis is caused by various species of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, which is ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/page/lyme-disease-spotlight

TickNET-A Collaborative Public Health Approach to Tickborne Disease Surveillance and Research - Volume 21, Number 9-September...TickNET-A Collaborative Public Health Approach to Tickborne Disease Surveillance and Research - Volume 21, Number 9-September...

... and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on surveillance and prevention of tickborne diseases. Research activities ... The most common tickborne disease in the United States is Lyme disease, caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. With , ... US cases of Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and spotted-fever group rickettsioses reported to the Centers ... New agents of tickborne disease are described regularly, and known agents are spreading to new areas. ...
more infohttp://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/21/9/15-0301_article

An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins | The Journal of ImmunologyAn Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins | The Journal of Immunology

... and Borrelia burgdorferi (the causative agent of Lyme disease). In mycobacteria, for example, up to 40% of the cell wall may be ... and group 2, containing only CD1d. Surprisingly, however, the mouse contains no group 1 CD1 genes but has two group 2 CD1d ... CD1-restricted adaptive immune responses to Mycobacteria in human group 1 CD1 transgenic mice. J. Exp. Med.206: 2497-2509. ... An Alternative Path for Antigen Presentation: Group 1 CD1 Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/184/7/3303

Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to the 44-Kilodalton Major Outer Membrane Protein of the Human Granulocytic...Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to the 44-Kilodalton Major Outer Membrane Protein of the Human Granulocytic...

... which is also the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease (9, 13). Human coinfection with the HGE agent andB ... Each group of mice was inoculated again on the 2nd day with the same antibody. DNAs were prepared from the blood of all mice at ... Uninfected HL-60 cells, purified HGE agent 13, 1 mM PMSF-treated HGE agent, and the OMP fraction of the HGE agent were ... 1994) Identification of a granulocytotrophic Ehrlichia species as the etiological agent of human disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/36/11/3278?ijkey=3fe754b706193d6fcacfb19f77825f7c9506aff3&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Article | DangTrangIntegrativeBiologyFirstArrivedTakes.pdf | ID: 70795927b | ScholarsArchive@OSUArticle | DangTrangIntegrativeBiologyFirstArrivedTakes.pdf | ID: 70795927b | [email protected]

We investigated the within-host interactions among strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, using ... We used a fully crossed-design with three distinct strains, each group of hosts receiving two sequential inoculations. We used ... First arrived takes all: inhibitory priority effects dominate competition between co-infecting Borrelia burgdorferi strains ... RESULTS: The infection and transmission data strongly indicate a competitive interaction among B. burgdorferi strains within a ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/articles/70795927b

Genetic Diversity of ospC in a Local Population of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto | GeneticsGenetic Diversity of ospC in a Local Population of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto | Genetics

The outer surface protein, OspC, is highly variable in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease. We have ... 1992 Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS 461 associated with Lyme ... 1994 Use of recombinant OspC from Borrelia burgdorferi for serodiagnosis of early Lyme disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32: 1733- ... LYME disease is the most important tick-borne disease in the United States (Barbour and Fish 1993). The causative agent is ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/node/329258.full.print

Borrelia burgdorferi expression of the bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73 genes in tissues during persistent infection in mice.  -...Borrelia burgdorferi expression of the bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73 genes in tissues during persistent infection in mice. -...

Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease in humans, is vectored between mammalian hosts in nature by Ixodes ... Experimental evidence has shown that a group of genes (formerly classified as paralogous gene family 54) contiguously localized ... Borrelia burgdorferi expression of the bba64, bba65, bba66, and bba73 genes in tissues during persistent infection in mice.. ... Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3150 Rampart Rd, Fort Collins, CO ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18848981?dopt=Abstract

Welcome to CDC stacksWelcome to CDC stacks

We investigated the within-host interactions among strains of Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, using ... We used a fully crossed-design with three distinct strains, each group of hosts receiving two sequential inoculations. We used ... The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by the slow-feeding ixodid tick Ixodes scapularis, whereas ... Lyme borreliosis is caused by multiple species of the spirochete bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The spirochetes are ...
more infohttps://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/32345

Genetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks from Mainland Portugal | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyGenetic Diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato in Ticks from Mainland Portugal | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

1984) Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov.: etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34:496-497. ... 1997) Distribution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genomic groups in Europe, a review. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 13:951-957. ... Borrelia garinii,Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia valaisiana,Borrelia lusitaniae, Borrelia andersonii,Borrelia bissettii, Borrelia ... In 1982 the etiological agent of Lyme disease was identified as a spirochete (2) which was later named Borrelia burgdorferi (13 ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/38/6/2128?ijkey=492c62ea1460e2ad223d8d784fdf9fd0702e3e44&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Ecological Factors Characterizing the Prevalence of Bacterial Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Pastures and...Ecological Factors Characterizing the Prevalence of Bacterial Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Pastures and...

Pathophysiology of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in Ixodid ticks. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:S1442-S1450. ... Ixodes ricinus: vector of hitherto undescribed spotted fever group agent in Switzerland. Acta Trop. 36:357-367. ... Efficiency of transovarial transmission of the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in the western blacklegged tick, ... These include pathogenic species of the complex Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme borreliosis, the most ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/76/13/4413?ijkey=ae644ca56cc5f5263c4c08ddae613e8fe4e61514&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

biologybiology

... and a vaccine for Borrelia burgdorferi - the bacterial agent of Lyme disease - to another group. Once impregnated, female ... Tagged biology, disease, dolphins, ecology, ecology and evolutionary biology, epidemics, human health, modeling Conservation ... Infectious diseases kill millions of people each year, but the search for treatments is hampered by the fact that laboratory ... Dolphin-disease outbreak shows how to account for the unknown when tracking epidemics (Journal of the Royal Society Interface) ...
more infohttps://blogs.princeton.edu/research/tag/biology/

Frontiers | Transposon mutagenesis as an approach to improved understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and biology | Cellular and...Frontiers | Transposon mutagenesis as an approach to improved understanding of Borrelia pathogenesis and biology | Cellular and...

... including Lyme disease Borrelia. In this review, progress to date in the application of transposon mutagenesis to the study of ... In this review, progress to date in the application of transposon mutagenesis to the study of Borrelia burgdorferi is reported ... Borrelia burgdorferi is reported. An effective Himar1-based transposon vector has been developed and used to acquire a sequence ... burgdorferi B31 derivative 5A18NP1. Analysis of these transposon mutants using signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) and Tn-seq ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcimb.2014.00063/full

PublicationsPublications

Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with Lyme disease by the polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Pathol. 44: 610-611 ( ... Borrelia burgdorferi as an etiologic agent in chronic heart failure? Scand J Infect Dis Suppl. 77: 85-87 (1991) ... Laboratory support for the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis: a position paper of ESGBOR, the ESCMID study group for Lyme ... Aseptic meningitis in the decennium of Borrelia burgdorferi infection (Lyme disease). Pediatrics. 87: 268-269 (1991) ...
more infohttps://www.meduniwien.ac.at/hp/en/hai/research-groups/immunology-of-infection-and-microbiology/publications/

Swiss Medical Weekly - Update of the Swiss guidelines on post-treatment Lyme disease syndromeSwiss Medical Weekly - Update of the Swiss guidelines on post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), 2011 Case Definition. http://wwwncdcgov/nndss/conditions/lyme-disease/case-definition/2011 ... Lyme disease in children in southeastern Connecticut. Pediatric Lyme Disease Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1996;335(17):1270-4. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995;39(3):661-7. 101 Luft BJ, Dattwyler RJ, Johnson RC, Luger SW, Bosler EM, Rahn DW, et al. ... The Psychology of "Post-Lyme Disease Syndrome" and "Not Lyme". In: Halperin JJ, editor. Lyme disease: An Evidence-based ...
more infohttps://smw.ch/article/doi/smw.2016.14353/

Differential Transmission of the Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato by Game Birds and Small Rodents in England |...Differential Transmission of the Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato by Game Birds and Small Rodents in England |...

... burgdorferi sensu stricto,Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii are causative agents of Lyme disease in humans (38), while the ... 1992) Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii sp. nov., and group VS461 associated with Lyme ... 1984) Borrelia burgdorferi sp. nov.: etiologic agent of Lyme disease. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 34:496-497. ... 1989) Incompetence of catbirds as reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete (Borrelia burgdorferi). J. Parasitol. 75:66-69. ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/64/4/1169.full

ASMscience | Comparative PathogenomicASMscience | Comparative Pathogenomic

Borrelia burgdorferi, causative agent of Lyme disease, and related species; and Leptospira species, responsible for ... from many of the other well-studied pathogens that are principally found in the proteobacteria and gram-positive groups. ... The genus Borrelia comprises spirochetes with loose wavelike coils that survive exclusively by transmission back and forth ... The chromosome of B. burgdorferi encodes most of the housekeeping genes required for in vitro survival and growth, as ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/book/10.1128/9781555815530.ch06

Lyme is a Biowarfare Issue | DailyStrengthLyme is a Biowarfare Issue | DailyStrength

The world of Lyme disease medicine is split into two camps the US government-backed.... ... lyme-rage.info/bwsept06.html A brief history by Elena Cook Introduction ... The Borrelia genus of bacteria, which. encompasses the Borrelia burgdorferi species-group (to which Lyme. disease is attributed ... Lyme disease is not usually fatal, and it is sometimes argued that,. with rapidly lethal agents like smallpox and plague ...
more infohttps://www.dailystrength.org/group/lyme-disease/discussion/lyme-is-a-biowarfare-issue
  • A bacterial genome in flux: the twelve linear and nine circular extrachromosomal DNAs in an infectious isolate of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. (atcc.org)
  • Arthropod-borne infectious diseases are an international public health concern. (hhmi.org)
  • My group is studying whether these paradigms - initially established with B. burgdorferi - are applicable to other arthropod-borne infectious agents, including A. phagocytophilum , West Nile virus and Plasmodium. (hhmi.org)
  • We are also assessing whether colonization of arthropods by specific infectious agents is a mutualistic, rather than parasitic, relationship. (hhmi.org)
  • Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. (asm.org)
  • Ecological modifications are recognized as one of the main forces behind the emergence of infectious diseases ( 37 ). (asm.org)
  • An effective Himar1 -based transposon vector has been developed and used to acquire a sequence-defined library of nearly 4500 mutants in the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi B31 derivative 5A18NP1. (frontiersin.org)
  • While some of these barriers have been at least partially overcome, transformation of low-passage, infectious B. burgdorferi remains a challenge. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infectious diseases kill millions of people each year, but the search for treatments is hampered by the fact that laboratory mice are not susceptible to some human viruses, including killers like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (princeton.edu)
  • Humanized mice have been used in infectious disease research since the late 1980s. (princeton.edu)
  • In 2005, the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases published a case definition for PTLDS. (smw.ch)
  • The Guidelines of the Swiss Society of Infectious Diseases offer an evidence based, diagnostic and therapeutic framework for physicians caring for patients suffering from presumptive PTLDS in Switzerland. (smw.ch)
  • The Infectious Diseases Society of America proposed a case definition for PTLDS in 2006 (table 1) . (smw.ch)
  • The infectious B31strain of B. burgdorferi used in this study, obtained from American Type Tissue Collection(ATCC# 35210), was culturedin 5% CO2 at 34 oC, in Barbour-Stoener-Kelly H (BSK H) medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum (Sigma, St. Louis, Missouri) to midlogarithmic stage (2 × 107 cells/ml). (townsendletter.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of a linear plasmid of Borrelia burdorferi reveals similarities to those of circular plasmids of other prokaryotes. (atcc.org)
  • The chromosome of B. burgdorferi encodes most of the housekeeping genes required for in vitro survival and growth, as demonstrated by strain B. burgdorferi B313, which has lost most of the plasmids. (asmscience.org)
  • The genome of Borrelia species consists of a 1-Mb linear chromosome ( 13 , 25 ) complemented by a large number of linear plasmids (lp's) and circular plasmids (cp's) 10 to 60 kb in size ( 7 , 46 , 56 , 61 ). (asm.org)
  • As lp's and the chromosome appear to have exchanged genetic information ( 21 ) and some of the cp's carry genes usually found on chromosomes of other prokaryotes ( 36 ), Borrelia plasmids have been likened to minichromosomes ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • By minimizing in vitro selection, PCR-based typing tools provide more accurate methods for assessing the natural genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato populations. (asm.org)
  • Together, these data indicate that Bdr proteins constitute a family of cross-reactive Borrelia proteins which are expressed in the course of Lyme disease and in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Motility and chemotaxis genes comprise 5 to 6% of the genome of B. burgdorferi , yet the functions of most of those genes remain uncharacterized, mainly due to the paucity of a nonpolar gene inactivation system. (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, however, the mouse contains no group 1 CD1 genes but has two group 2 CD1d genes, whereas the rat contains only one CD1d, and other rodents and mammals may contain 8-12 group 1 CD1 genes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses of various genes have suggested that the population structure of B. burgdorferi sensu lato is clonal ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Erol Fikrig is studying the relationship between pathogens, the vectors that carry them, and the hosts they infect, and looking for ways to interrupt those relationships to prevent or treat disease. (hhmi.org)
  • My laboratory studies the relationship between pathogens, the vectors that carry them, and the hosts they infect, to identify new ways to prevent disease. (hhmi.org)
  • Biased t-cell antigen receptor repertoire in lyme arthritis. (atcc.org)
  • M90084 Borrelia burgdorferi 22 kD antigen. (atcc.org)
  • Diagnosis is often made by a retrospective immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test with the HGE agent or E. equi antigen ( 1-4 , 6 , 8 , 11 , 13 , 14-17 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, we cloned and expressed a 44-kDa major antigen of the HGE agent and demonstrated that this recombinant antigen (rP44) may be more specific for serodiagnosis of HGE than whole organism-infected cells due to the absence of heat shock proteins or other antigenically cross-reactive proteins ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Saving Lives, Protecting People Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • TickNET, a public health network, was created in 2007 to foster greater collaboration between state health departments, academic centers, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on surveillance and prevention of tickborne diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • 37,000 cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 2013, Lyme disease ranks fifth among all nationally notifiable conditions ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the diagnosis of Lyme disease was done according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria and all of the cases have recovered following treatment with antibiotics (cefuroxime axetil or sulbactam ampicillin or amoxicillin clavulanic acid). (prohealth.com)
  • As vectors and wildlife are very sensitive to environmental conditions, ecological changes are expected to have a particular impact on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases and those with a wildlife origin ( 29 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. (dailystrength.org)
  • Sequence analysis and characterization of a 40-kilodalton Borrelia hermsii glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase homolog. (atcc.org)
  • Since its initial discovery and culture in 1981, B. burgdorferi has been the subject of intensive study in an attempt to better understand the biology of this organism and thereby identify properties useful in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of Lyme disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Differential diagnosis of these infections is of critical value since early appropriate therapy is important to prevent the development of serious complications in both of the disease settings. (prohealth.com)
  • In this communication, we describe the development of a novel gene inactivation methodology to target B. burgdorferi fliL , a putative periplasmic flagellar gene located in a large motility operon and transcribed by RNA polymerase containing σ 70 . (asm.org)
  • In order to further explore the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi sensu lato from this region, 55 I. ricinus and 27 Hyalomma marginatum questing adults, collected during the spring of 1998 from a sylvatic habitat south of Lisbon, Portugal, were analyzed. (asm.org)
  • The clinical features of tickborne illness range from mild to life-threatening, and collectively, tickborne diseases constitute a substantial and growing public health problem in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • 8 One possible explanation for this clinical observation is the presence of different morphological forms of B. burgdorferi, which mayprotect it from the antibacterial therapy. (townsendletter.com)
  • There is an alternative clinical treatment option gaining wide use, called Cowden Condensed Support Program, that utilizes several herbal extracts designed to eliminate microbes in Lyme disease patients. (townsendletter.com)
  • These sequences, combined with 40 GenBank sequences, allow us to define 19 major ospC groups. (genetics.org)
  • Western blot results with the OMP fraction of the six isolates were consistent with results with the whole HGE agent. (asm.org)
  • Similar cp32s or variants thereof have been found in other B. burgdorferi sensu lato isolates ( 24 , 28 , 37 , 47 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Factors such as the reportedly sparse distribution of B. burgdorferi in hosts, the fastidious growth requirements, and the relatively slow growth rate of this spirochete compound the problems associated with aseptic primary isolations. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Consequently, B. burgdorferi may efficiently bore through host tissues, leading to pathogenesis in the joints, nervous system, and heart ( 19 , 30 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Despite this pattern of pathogenesis, B. burgdorferi produces no known toxins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Once impregnated, female gerbils from each vaccine group were paired and, as the gerbils do in nature, kept separate from the male gerbils to birth and rear their young. (princeton.edu)
  • This led to an FDA-approved human Lyme disease vaccine. (hhmi.org)
  • Richard Horowitz, MD, president of the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Educational Foundation (ILADEF), has prescribed this protocol for over 2000 of his patient and reports that it has been effective for more than 70% of them. (townsendletter.com)
  • Tickborne diseases pose special challenges for clinicians and public health agencies alike. (cdc.gov)
  • Although tickborne diseases occur throughout the United States, the distribution of any given disease can be highly focal ( Figure 1 ), and this information must be known and considered by health care providers when assessing patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite decades of education about these measures, case reports for the more common tickborne diseases continue to increase ( Figure 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To foster greater coordination on surveillance, research, education, and prevention of tickborne diseases, CDC established TickNET during 2007. (cdc.gov)