Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter with strong similarity to CATIONIC AMINO ACID TRANSPORTER 1. The two isoforms of the protein, CAT-2A and CAT-2B, exist due to alternative mRNA splicing. The transporter has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
Cetyltrimethylammonium compounds that have cationic detergent, antiseptic, and disinfectant activities. They are used in pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics as preservatives; on skin, mucous membranes, etc., as antiseptics or cleansers, and also as emulsifiers. These compounds are toxic when used orally due to neuromuscular blockade.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to an ethanolamine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and ethanolamine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A 19-kDa cationic peptide found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin is a RIBONUCLEASE and may play a role as an endogenous antiviral agent.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Relating to the size of solids.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Tree-like, highly branched, polymeric compounds. They grow three-dimensionally by the addition of shells of branched molecules to a central core. The overall globular shape and presence of cavities gives potential as drug carriers and CONTRAST AGENTS.
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to EPITHELIAL CELLS. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
A group of compounds containing the porphin structure, four pyrrole rings connected by methine bridges in a cyclic configuration to which a variety of side chains are attached. The nature of the side chain is indicated by a prefix, as uroporphyrin, hematoporphyrin, etc. The porphyrins, in combination with iron, form the heme component in biologically significant compounds such as hemoglobin and myoglobin.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
DEFENSINS found in azurophilic granules of neutrophils and in the secretory granules of intestinal PANETH CELLS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A class of antimicrobial peptides discovered in the skin of XENOPUS LAEVIS. They kill bacteria by permeabilizing cell membranes without exhibiting significant toxicity against mammalian cells.
A 66-kDa peroxidase found in EOSINOPHIL granules. Eosinophil peroxidase is a cationic protein with a pI of 10.8 and is comprised of a heavy chain subunit and a light chain subunit. It possesses cytotoxic activity towards BACTERIA and other organisms, which is attributed to its peroxidase activity.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Used as a support for ion-exchange chromatography.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.
Polymers of N-SUBSTITUTED GLYCINES containing chiral centers at the a-position of their side chains. These oligomers lack HYDROGEN BONDING donors, preventing formation of the usual intrachain hydrogen bonds but can form helices driven by the steric influence of chiral side chains.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.
Proteins obtained from species in the class of AMPHIBIANS.
Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Conditions characterized by abnormal lipid deposition due to disturbance in lipid metabolism, such as hereditary diseases involving lysosomal enzymes required for lipid breakdown. They are classified either by the enzyme defect or by the type of lipid involved.
Complex compounds in which a dumbbell shaped molecule is encircled by a macrocycle. They are named after rota (wheel) and axis (axle). Notation with a prefix is used to indicate the number of interlocked components. They have potential use in NANOTECHNOLOGY. Rotaxanes have been made with CYCLODEXTRINS and CYCLIC ETHERS.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Salts and esters of CHOLIC ACID.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
DNA analogs containing neutral amide backbone linkages composed of aminoethyl glycine units instead of the usual phosphodiester linkage of deoxyribose groups. Peptide nucleic acids have high biological stability and higher affinity for complementary DNA or RNA sequences than analogous DNA oligomers.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.
A topical bacteriostat that is available as various salts. It is used in wound dressings and mouth infections and may also have antifungal action, but may cause skin ulceration.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An organic cation transporter found in kidney. It is localized to the basal lateral membrane and is likely to be involved in the renal secretion of organic cations.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.
Basic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It contains 26 amino acids, has cytolytic properties, causes contracture of muscle, releases histamine, and disrupts surface tension, probably due to lysis of cell and mitochondrial membranes.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A specialized proteolytic enzyme secreted by intestinal cells. It converts TRYPSINOGEN into its active form TRYPSIN by removing the N-terminal peptide. EC
A polyhedral CARBON structure composed of around 60-80 carbon atoms in pentagon and hexagon configuration. They are named after Buckminster Fuller because of structural resemblance to geodesic domes. Fullerenes can be made in high temperature such as arc discharge in an inert atmosphere.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
PEI is employed as a wet-strength agent in the paper-making process. It is also used as flocculating agent with silica sols and ... PEI is a cationic polymer; the negatively charged outer surfaces of cells are attracted to dishes coated in PEI, facilitating ... Polyethyleneimine finds many applications in products like: detergents, adhesives, water treatment agents and cosmetics. Owing ... Poly(ethylenimine) was the second polymeric transfection agent discovered, after poly-l-lysine. PEI condenses DNA into ...
Retention agents (retention aids) are used in the papermaking industry. These are added in the wet end of the paper machine to ... Retention aids can also be used to improve the retention of other papermaking chemicals, including sizing and cationic starches ... A retention agent is a chemical process that improves the retention of a functional chemical in a substrate. The result is that ...
In the wet part of the papermaking process, generally called the "wet-end", the starches used are cationic and have a positive ... Cationic starches together with other retention and internal sizing agents help to give the necessary strength properties to ... in the presence of an oxidizing agent the solution turns blue, in the presence of reducing agent the blue color disappears ... Textile chemicals from starch: warp sizing agents are used to reduce breaking of yarns during weaving. Starch is mainly used to ...
PDMS is added to many cooking oils (as an antifoaming agent) to prevent oil splatter during the cooking process. As a result of ... PDMS is also used as a component in silicone grease and other silicone based lubricants, as well as in defoaming agents, mold ... This treatment renders the PDMS surface hydrophilic, allowing water to wet it. The oxidized surface can be further ... Amino-modified silicones are cationic and affinitive to hair keratin. They are particularly highly affinitive to damaged hair, ...
... wetting agents, emulsifiers, foaming agents, or dispersants. The word "surfactant" is a blend of surface-active agent, coined c ... surfactants have both cationic and anionic centers attached to the same molecule. The cationic part is based on primary, ... including wetting agents, dispersants, emulsifiers, detergents and foaming agents." "Bubbles, Bubbles, Everywhere, But Not a ... Surfactants play an important role as cleaning, wetting, dispersing, emulsifying, foaming and anti-foaming agents in many ...
These agents include optical brighteners, fabric softeners, and colourants. A variety of perfumes are also components of modern ... Cationic surfactants are normally incompatible with anionic detergents and have poor cleaning efficiency; they are employed ... Laundry detergent, or washing powder, is a type of detergent (cleaning agent) used for cleaning laundry. Laundry detergent is ... by absorption and emulsification of soil into the water and also by reducing the water's surface tension to improve wetting. ...
Fixation agent Albu, Mike; Bui,Nang The Use of Chitosan in Paint Detackification accessed 04/12 A Green Detackifier for Paint ... The common feature of these chemicals is that they are weak polyelectrolytes (sometimes cationic), and they have a tendency to ... purging the problem from the wet-end system. Similar considerations apply to the use of organic detackifiers. In either case, ... water-washed paint spray booths utilize paint detackifying chemical agents. The detackification products are commonly ...
The retention agent is a polymer with high cationic, positively charged groups. An additional feature of a retention agent is ... To enhance the paper's strength, cationic starch is added to wet pulp in the manufacturing process. Starch has a similar ... Optical-brightening agents use fluorescence to absorb invisible radiation from the ultraviolet part of the light spectrum and ... Wet-strength additives ensure that paper retains its strength when it gets wet. This is especially important in tissue paper. ...
Test Method for Evaluation of Wetting Agents by the Skein Test D2284 - 11(2019) Test Method for Acidity of Sulfur Hexafluoride ... 20 Specification for Cationic Emulsified Asphalt D2399 - 12(2017)e1 Practice for Selection of Cutback Asphalts D2402 - 07(2018 ... 19 Test Method for Determination of Retained Blowing Agent in Extruded Polystyrene Foam D7133 - 16 Test Method for Polyurethane ... Wet Blue and Wet White D2872 - 19 Test Method for Effect of Heat and Air on a Moving Film of Asphalt (Rolling Thin-Film Oven ...
... wetting agents and stabilizers. these surface-active substances are necessary to ensure that the fabric is wet rapidly and ... The dyes are finely ground in the presence of a dispersing agent and sold as a paste, or spray-dried and sold as a powder. ... Basic dyes are water-soluble cationic dyes that are mainly applied to acrylic fibers but find some use for wool and silk. ... Hence, it is called a wet process which usually covers pre-treatment, dyeing, printing, and finishing. The wet process is ...
See Wetting. Antimicrobial activity can be imparted onto a surface through the grafting of functionalized polymers, for example ... This process is typically achieved through a coupling agent that links a handle on the surface to a reactive group on either of ... It was also noted that antimicrobial agents such as Novaron AG 300 (Silver sodium hydrogen zirconium phosphate) do not inhibit ... Like other polymerization methods, SIP can be tailored to follow radical, anionic, or cationic mechanisms and can be controlled ...
ADBACs have three main categories of use: as a biocide, a cationic surfactant, and a phase transfer agent. ADBACs are a mixture ... Personal care products such as hand sanitizers, wet wipes, shampoos, soaps, deodorants and cosmetics. Skin antiseptics and ... doi:10.1111/j.1444-0938.1976.tb01445.x. M Akers, "Consideration in selecting antimicrobial preservative agents for parenteral ... Stearalkonium chloride - Anti-static agent, surfactant and antimicrobial. Polyaminopropyl biguanide - an alternative ...
Ferrocenium, Fe(C 5H 5)+ 2, and other cationic metallocenes. Selectfluor, a fluorination agent, and other N-F electrophilic ... the strongest commercial alkylating agents. NO+ a one-electron oxidizing agent and nitrosylation reagent. NO2+, a nitration ... "Asymmetric Intramolecular Hydroamination of Alkenes in Mild and Wet Conditions-Structure and Reactivity of Cationic Binuclear ... Thus, when using salts of BF− 4, one can usually assume that the cation is the reactive agent and this tetrahedral anion is ...
Wet Mounts- wet mounts are used to view live organisms and can be made using water and certain stains. The liquid is added to ... Propidium iodide is a fluorescent intercalating agent that can be used to stain cells. Propidium iodide is used as a DNA stain ... Acridine orange (AO) is a nucleic acid selective fluorescent cationic dye useful for cell cycle determination. It is cell- ... These are chemical agents which have power of making dyes to stain materials which otherwise are unstainable Mordants are ...
... especially with cationic starch or cationic polyacrylamides (C-PAM) in the ratio ASA to cation of about 2: 1) and with about 1 ... and deposit-control agents There are two types of polyisobutene used for this purpose, and they are commonly known as ... By combining a reducing agent (such as a trialkyl phosphite) with a phenolic antioxidant, a significant lightening and ... the retention or fixation of the ASA emulsion droplets on the wet paper pulp bursting the emulsion droplets via spreading on ...
Most of the soil's CEC occurs on clay and humus colloids, and the lack of those in hot, humid, wet climates, due to leaching ... This is largely what occurs with the addition of cationic fertilisers (potash, lime). As the soil solution becomes more acidic ... Water is a critical agent in soil development due to its involvement in the dissolution, precipitation, erosion, transport, and ... Soils can effectively remove impurities, kill disease agents, and degrade contaminants, this latter property being called ...
... and organic matter is not the primary binding agent in that particular soil. Soil wetting and drying cycles can have both a ... The calcium ion (Ca2+), through its cationic bridging effect on flocculation of clay and organic matter compounds, has a ... Sesquioxides act as stabilizing agents for aggregates because iron and aluminum in solution act as flocculants (i.e., bridging ... A wet sieving apparatus described by Yoder (1936) can be used to determine wet aggregate stability in the following procedure ...
Starch is the most common sizing agent. Cationic starch and hydrophilic agents are also applied, including alkenyl succinic ... Fardim, Pedro (2000). "Paper and Surface Chemistry Part 1- Fiber Surface and Wet End Chemistry". Institute of Quimica: 1-14. ... "Cationic Starch". Hubbe, Martin. "R&D Chemicals: How they Impact Papermaking". Pykonen, M; Johansson, K.; Dubreuil, M.; Strom, ... Co-styrene-maleic anhydride and co-styrene acrylate are common binders associated with a cationic starch pigment in Inkjet ...
It is often generated by the reaction of the resin with a curing agent (catalyst, hardener). Curing results in chemical ... Vinyl ester resins used for wet lay-up laminating, molding and fast setting industrial protection and repair materials. Fusion ... through nucleophilic addition reactions with multifunctional crosslinking agents which are also known as curing agents or ... Epoxy functional resins can be homo-polymerized with anionic or cationic catalysts and heat, or copolymerised ...
Cationic species are believed to selectively localise in the mitochondria.[5] Zinc and copper cationic derivatives have been ... "Single-agent phototherapy system diagnoses and kills cancer cells , KurzweilAI". www.kurzweilai.net. November 2, 2015. ... It has been widely tested for its use in treating skin cancers and received FDA approval in 2000 for the treatment of wet age ... The first evidence that agents, photosensitive synthetic dyes, in combination with a light source and oxygen could have ...
Gastrointestinal alkalizing (acidifying) agents increase the absorption of amphetamine. Urinary alkalizing (acidifying) agents ... Duration of effect varies depending on agent and urine pH. Excretion is enhanced in more acidic urine. Half-life is 7 to 34 ... This effect can be useful in treating bed wetting and loss of bladder control. The effects of amphetamine on the ... Conversely, an acidic pH means the drug is predominantly in a water-soluble cationic (salt) form, and less is absorbed. ...
Chiang H.; Ko Y.; Shih I.; Wen K. "Development of Wine Cake as a Skin-Whitening Agent and Humectant". Journal of Food & Drug ... it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet. It is often a molecule with several hydrophilic groups, most often ... both cationic and ionic ion exchanges, vacuum flash evaporation, thin film distillation, and heating to produce a 100% pure ... http://www.makingcosmetics.com/articles/13-humectants-moisturizing-agents-in-cosmetics.pdf (Accessed 5/10/14[clarification ...
... stabilizing agents are added. Citrate acts both as the reducing agent and colloidal stabilizer. They can be functionalized with ... Goodman CM, McCusker CD, Yilmaz T, Rotello VM (June 2004). "Toxicity of gold nanoparticles functionalized with cationic and ... possibly due to screening of ligand interactions in a wet environment. In many different types of colloidal gold syntheses, the ... NaBH4 is the reducing agent, and TOAB is both the phase transfer catalyst and the stabilizing agent. TOAB does not bind to the ...
Surfactants are used in herbicide formulations as wetting agents, to maximize coverage and aid penetration of the herbicide(s) ... Stauffer Chemical patented the agent as a chemical chelator in 1964 as it binds and removes minerals such as calcium, magnesium ... The most common formulation in agriculture is 360 g/l, either alone or with added cationic surfactants. For 360 g/l ... Surfactants such as polyethoxylated tallow amine (POEA) are added to glyphosate to enable it to wet the leaves and penetrate ...
Mott, R.A (2014). "Dry and Wet Puddling". Transactions of the Newcomen Society. 49: 156-57. doi:10.1179/tns.1977.011.. ... The Fe3+ ion has a large simple cationic chemistry, although the pale-violet hexaquo ion [Fe(H2O)6]3+ is very readily ... Iron(III) chloride finds use in water purification and sewage treatment, in the dyeing of cloth, as a coloring agent in paints ... Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 18. Berlin: de Gruyter GmbH. pp. 437-67. doi:10.1515/ ...

No data available that match "agent is cationic wetting agents"

  • Surfactants are classified as anionic, cationic, zwitterionic/amphoteric and nonionic. (marketresearch.com)
  • Anionic, cationic, and amphoteric wetting agents ionize when mixed with water. (libretexts.org)
  • Amphoteric wetting agents can act as either anions or cations, depending on the acidity of the solution. (libretexts.org)
  • The nature of the hydrophilic head group determines the type of the surfactant: nonionic, anionic, cationic, or amphoteric, as illustrated in Figure 3. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The market is segmented by product type into anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric. (researchnester.com)
  • They have the ability to be anionic (negatively charged), cationic (positively charged) or nonionic (no charge) in solution, depending on the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the water. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • A sizing composition for textile glass fibers comprising a starch, a textile softener, a lubricant and 100 to 150 percent by weight of combined nonionic wetting agents based upon the weight of said lubricant. (patentgenius.com)
  • Nonionic wetting agents do not ionize in water. (libretexts.org)
  • A possible advantage for using a nonionic wetting agent is that it does not react with other ions in the water, which could lead to formation of a precipitate. (libretexts.org)
  • Alkyl betaines, and amine oxides are pH sensitive zwitterionics, displaying anionic or nonionic properties above the isoelectric point, and cationic below the isoelectric point. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The nonionic segment is anticipated to register the highest market share on the back of several benefits of nonionic natural surfactants over the other product types, coupled with the increasing utilization of nonionic natural surfactants in detergents, solubilizers, emulsifiers and wetting agents amongst others. (researchnester.com)
  • Sodium n-octyl sulfate is a useful chemical to study the selective enrichment of albumin in biological samples and to determine the mixed solution of a glycerin-modified cationic surfactant and an anionic surfactant. (fishersci.ca)
  • he term surfactant is derived from the words surface active agent. (scribd.com)
  • Surfactant is Surface Active Agent, is a substance that enable two liquids to combine on a chemical level. (marketresearch.com)
  • Product introduction】: This product is the polymer of cationic quaternary ammonium surfactant, and the appearance is colorless to pale yellow viscose liquid. (nccecojustice.org)
  • Surfactants are adjuvants that facilitate and accentuate the emulsifying, dispersing, spreading, wetting, or other surface modifying properties of liquids. (uga.edu)
  • Surfactants, also known as wetting agents, lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • By lowering the surface tension of water, surfactants enable the cleaning solution to wet a surface (e.g., clothes, dishes, countertops) more quickly, so soil can be readily loosened and removed (usually with the aid of mechanical action). (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Surfactants are also known as wetting agents. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Surfactants are used in aqueous cleaners to provide detergency, emulsification, and wetting action. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Surfactants have several roles: they modify or 'wet-out' the surface being cleaned or the soil being removed, and they help form an emulsion of solvent in water for cleaning or of soil in water for flushing away. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Cationic surfactants have a positive charge in aqueous solution and are considered to be poor cleaners. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Depending on the number of ethylene oxides and the number of carbon atoms, the synthetic surfactants can be classified as a wetting agent, a detergent, or an emulsifier. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Cationic surfactants are used in fabric softeners and in fabric-softening laundry detergents. (greatvistachemicals.com)
  • Non ionic wetting agentis proprietary blend of proven Anionic Ammonium Salt Surfactants suitable for Water based Coatings.It is ideally suitable for Water Borne Systems, especially Pearl Pigments to make Water based Metallic Effect Paints where Grinding or high Sheer is not desirous. (exportersindia.com)
  • Surfactants provide remarkable benefits in many textile wet processes. (scribd.com)
  • The ability of surfactants to reduce interfacial tension increases its spreading and wetting properties. (marketresearch.com)
  • Surfactants play a vital role in cleaning, wetting, emulsifying and dispersing. (marketresearch.com)
  • Surfactants also act as an anti-foaming agents in various applications. (marketresearch.com)
  • In coatings, especially waterborne, surfactants are used as resin emulsifiers and stabilizers, pigment dispersants, grinding aids, compatibilizers, wetting agents and in defoamer and other additive packages. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The behaviors of surfactants in liquid media contribute to their great importance and tunability in applications like foaming, emulsifying, dispersing, and wetting. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The most common cationic surfactants are the quaternary ammonium salts, typically bromide or chloride. (coatingsworld.com)
  • For zwitterionic surfactants, amines or quaternary ammonium cations make up the cationic part and the anionic portion is commonly a sulfonate or carboxylate. (coatingsworld.com)
  • Natural surfactants, also commonly known as bio-based surfactants, are compounds that have lower surface tension and are used commonly as detergents, dispersants, emulsifiers, foaming agents and wetting agents. (researchnester.com)
  • On the other hand, the increasing trade of non-ionic organic surface-active agents around the globe is also anticipated to drive the growth of the segment in the global natural surfactants market during the forecast period. (researchnester.com)
  • BTMS Conditioning Emulsifier is an excellent cationic self-emulsifier and conditioner for both hair and skin care. (theherbarie.com)
  • BTMS Conditioning Emulsifier offers innovative properties to formulations as both a mild primary emulsifier and an excellent conditioning agent. (theherbarie.com)
  • Because BTMS Conditioning Emulsifier is substantive to hair, it imparts excellent body and spring and improves wet combing. (theherbarie.com)
  • BTMS-Conditioning Emulsifier and BTMS-50 both produce mild and elegant cationic emulsions that are substantive to skin and hair. (theherbarie.com)
  • In structures where the head carries a negative or positive charge, it is called anionic or cationic respectively. (coatingsworld.com)
  • The method comprises adding to the aqueous suspension containing cellulosic fibres, and optional fillers anionic or cationic dressing material for dispersion and dressing material for the promoter, forming and drying the resulting suspension. (russianpatents.com)
  • 0% 공급업체에 문의하기 Cationic polyacrylamide used in textile printing water clarifying chemical Detergent Raw Materials Anionic for Industry Chemical 발송 준비 US$40.00-US$44.00 / 백 20 백 (최소 주문량) 1 YRS (1) 69.2% 공급업체에 문의하기. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Water-based polymer dispersion is a heterogeneous system in which particles of acrylic, styrene-acrylic, vinyl-acetate, butadiene-styrene or other polymers are dispersed in water and stabilized by means of surface-active agents, thickeners and other additives. (macchiaelettrodomestici.it)
  • Processing, Water Treatment), Function (Emulsifiers, Floatation Agents, Dispersants, Chemical Intermediates), Region - Global Forecast to 2024 The Fatty Amines Market is expected to grow from USD 2.9 billion in 2019 to USD 4.0. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Cationic keratin derivatives which are obtained by reacting a part or whole of functional groups of keratin with a cationizing agent which contains in the molecule thereof a specific type of a group or groups and a quaternary nitrogen atom. (google.com)
  • 1. A cationic keratin derivative which is obtained by reacting a part or whole of functional groups of keratin with a cationizing agent which contains in its molecule a group or groups of the formula ##STR20## or CH 2 ═CH-- wherein X represents a halogen atom, and a quaternary nitrogen atom. (google.com)
  • The debonder/softening agents belong to a group of organic chemicals that include several imidazolinium quaternary. (google.ca)
  • Dispersion or emulsion dressing material for agents used for receiving paper to make the paper and cardboard increased resistance to wetting and penetration of liquids. (russianpatents.com)
  • and (d) the gel polymer is a cellulosic or starch polymer and the equilibrating agent is a water soluble anionic polymer of ethylenically unsaturated monomers. (epo.org)
  • The promoter contains a cationic organic polymer with one or more aromatic groups and anionic polymer with aromatic groups, which stepped polymer, polysaccharide and natural aromatic polymer. (russianpatents.com)
  • 2. A composition according to claim 1, wherein the external crosslinking agent is selected from the group consisting of a blocked polyisocyanate, a β-hydroxycarbamic acid ester of a polyamine, a malonic acid ester, a malonic acid ester derivative, methylolmelamine and methylolurea. (google.com)
  • Stone floor surfaces, such as, marble and terrazzo, are treated with an acid conditioner followed by buffing with a crystallizing agent whereby a durable, high gloss finish is produced in situ on the floor surface. (google.ca)
  • e) a stannic chloride compound in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 percent by total weight of the acid conditioning composition, wherein the acid conditioning composition has a pH of from about 0.1 to about 2.0, and wherein the stone surface is a marble or terrazzo stone floor surface, whereby the acid conditioning composition improves the action of a crystalizing agent when applied over the acid conditioning composition. (google.ca)
  • 7. The acid conditioning composition of claim 1 further comprising a dust absorbing agent. (google.ca)
  • 8. The acid conditioning composition of claim 7 wherein the dust absorbing agent is a glycol ether. (google.ca)
  • We want to introduce our company POPLONCHEMIE as an ISO 9001:2008 certified company started in 2002 in INDIA which is into manufacturing and exports of LEATHER TANNING CHEMICALS around the world with our dealer network and agents. (go4worldbusiness.com)
  • The drainage additive or wet web strength additive or wet strength aid holds the cellulose fibers together tightly and is not wasted on the filler particles. (google.ch)
  • Ethoxylation is a common process used to generate a range of products for emulsification and wetting, including ethoxylated alcohols, carboxylic acids and esters. (coatingsworld.com)
  • According to the statistics by the International Trade Centre, the exports of non-ionic organic surface-active agents globally increased from USD 4510957 thousands in the year 2015 to USD 5286988 thousands in the year 2018. (researchnester.com)
  • The invention provides a method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength, increasing sheet wet strength and enhancing filler retention in a papermaking process The method improves the efficiency of drainage aids or wet web strength aids or wet strength aid by coating at least. (google.ch)
  • The invention provides a method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength, increasing sheet wet strength and enhancing filler retention in a papermaking process The method improves the efficiency of drainage aids or wet web strength aids or wet strength aid by coating at least some of the filler particles with a material that prevents the filler materials form adhering to a those additives. (google.ch)
  • The sizing composition may also contain wetting agents, coupling agents, cationic lubricants, bactericides and the like. (google.com.au)
  • A substance is referred to as a wetting agent if it lowers the surface tension of a liquid and thus allows it to spread more easily. (libretexts.org)
  • Wetting agents are substances that reduce the surface tension of water to allow it to spread drops onto a surface, increasing the spreading abilities of a liquid. (libretexts.org)
  • One method of knowing whether or not a liquid has a wetting agent in it is to spread the liquid on a surface that is coated in grease. (libretexts.org)
  • If the liquid does not contain a wetting agent, the its cohesive forces would overpower adhesive forces, causing the liquid to for droplets on the surface (Figure \(\PageIndex{2}\), left). (libretexts.org)
  • If the liquid does contain a wetting agent, the grease would be dissolved and the surface tension of the liquid would be lowered, causing the adhesive forces to overpower the cohesive forces. (libretexts.org)
  • If the liquid contains a wetting agent, its adhesive forces are stronger than cohesive forces, which means the liquid molecules are more inclined to stick to the surface than other liquid molecules. (libretexts.org)
  • If the liquid does not contain a wetting agent and is naturally very cohesive, like mercury, it forms a convex meniscus. (libretexts.org)
  • The first step demands a cleaning agent with an excellent wetting power to reduce the surface tension of the cleaning medium and to help the cleaning liquid to penetrate into the soil and surface pores. (hyfoma.com)
  • Wetting agents which are present in a liquid in dissolved or dispersed form, reduce the surface tension or the interracial tension, and thus increase the wetting capacity of the liquid. (wipo.int)
  • In this way, wetting agents permit a surface to be readily wetted by a liquid. (wipo.int)
  • Sulfonated lignin is a very good dispersing agent for solids in water and finds textile applications mainly as a dispersing agent in specialty chemicals and dyes. (scribd.com)
  • This causes surface tension, which can prevent many things from going into solution and getting wet. (uga.edu)
  • Surface active agents interfere with the ability of the molecules of a substance to interact with one another and, thereby, lower the surface tension of the substance. (scribd.com)
  • The present invention relates to a cationic keratin derivative, a process of its preparation and hair treating cosmetics containing it. (google.com)
  • WO 0023651 relates to anionic and cationic dressing material for dispersions containing ketene dimer and at least anionic dispersing agent. (russianpatents.com)
  • The present invention provides a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising: I! (google.com)
  • EP 984101 describes a dressing material for compositions comprising a ketene dimer or anhydrides of acids and complexing agent selected from aminoalkanoic acids, N-bis - or Tris-((1.2-dicarboxylate)ethyl)amines and phosphonic acids. (russianpatents.com)
  • 2. The sizing composition of claim 1 that contains about 1.5 percent to 20 percent by weight of a coupling agent. (google.com.au)
  • A method for achieving a reproducible hair shape is disclosed in which a composition is applied to the hair which comprises at least one active agent which, alone or in combination with other materials, can give hair a form memory effect after application to the hair and after carrying out the method. (google.com.au)
  • 5. The sizing composition according to claim 1, further comprising an optical brightening agent. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Oxidising agents which can convert a compound of formula (I) into the N-oxide of formula (I) include aqueous hydrogen peroxide. (justia.com)
  • The aqueous suspension is served in the pressure vessel, eject the suspension on the grid, which produce a wet layer of paper. (russianpatents.com)
  • left) A water droplet is sitting on a brass surface while being immersed in oil as an example of poor wetting. (libretexts.org)
  • It is an alcohol derived from the Guerbet process and may be used as a coupling agent and humectant in water soluble metalworking formulations and as a replacement for glycols. (ulprospector.com)
  • It is used in boiler water treatment compound and as a mud-thinning agent in oil drilling. (go4worldbusiness.com)
  • The increased number of added dressing material for agent often improves the dressing, but it causes an increase in cost, and increased accumulation of dressing material for agents in purified from fibrous mass of water. (russianpatents.com)
  • US 5595629 describes a method of producing paper comprising forming water, pulp, paper pulp, and add to it the cationic and anionic polymers to improve retention and/or drainage. (russianpatents.com)
  • Methods: A virus suspension of known concentration (with or without a soil load) was deposited onto stainless steel discs under wet or dry load conditions and exposed to defined concentrations of the disinfectant/cleaning agent for 1, 5 or 10 minute contact time using the quantitative carrier test (QCT-2) method. (ubc.ca)
  • The chemical treatment process used to treat the surface of the microporous structure utilizes a synergistic interaction between a cationic material. (shorelinechurch.co.za)
  • Styrene-acrylic sizing agents with different formulations were compared with the traditional epoxy sizing agent in terms of protection and thermal stability. (macchiaelettrodomestici.it)
  • In addition, ISOFOL 12 can also be used as a feedstock for ethoxylated compounds with excellent low temperature stability along with good wetting and emulsifying properties. (ulprospector.com)
  • The hair is given a particular (permanent) form and said permanent form is fixed by inducing a chemical or physical transition in the applied agents, whereby after a desired or undesired deformation of the memory form, the original memory form may be regenerated by means of a physical stimulation. (google.com.au)
  • The invention consists of soft, bulky tissue products that result from the presence of a debonder/softening agent in the outer layers of the tissue and creping under 'closed' pocket conditions. (google.ca)