The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of RETICULOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. The values are expressed as a percentage of the ERYTHROCYTE COUNT or in the form of an index ("corrected reticulocyte index"), which attempts to account for the number of circulating erythrocytes.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
## I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Asia, known as Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku in Japanese, and is renowned for its unique culture, advanced technology, and rich history. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Europe. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I would be happy to help answer those!
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is a country in the Middle East and does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is a country and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in Central Europe and is known for its advanced medical research and facilities.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995. (1/11460)

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

A method for calculating age-weighted death proportions for comparison purposes. (2/11460)

OBJECTIVE: To introduce a method for calculating age-weighted death proportions (wDP) for comparison purposes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A methodological study using secondary data from the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil (1980-1994) was carried out. First, deaths are weighted in terms of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years. Then, in order to eliminate distortion of comparisons among proportions of years of potential life lost before the age of 100 years (pYPLL-100), the denominator is set to that of a standard age distribution of deaths for all causes. Conventional death proportions (DP), pYPLL-100, and wDP were calculated. RESULTS: Populations in which deaths from a particular cause occur at older ages exhibit lower wDP than those in which deaths occur at younger ages. The sum of all cause-specific wDP equals one only when the test population has exactly the same age distribution of deaths for all causes as that of the standard population. CONCLUSION: Age-weighted death proportions improve the information given by conventional DP, and are strongly recommended for comparison purposes.  (+info)

The meaning and use of the cumulative rate of potential life lost. (3/11460)

BACKGROUND: The 'years of potential life lost' (YPLL) is a public health measure in widespread use. However, the index does not apply to the comparisons between different populations or across different time periods. It also has the limit of being cross-sectional in nature, quantifying current burden but not future impact on society. METHODS: A new years-lost index is proposed-the 'cumulative rate of potential life lost' (CRPLL). It is a simple combination of the 'cumulative rate' (CR) and the YPLL. Vital statistics in Taiwan are used for demonstration and comparison of the new index with existing health-status measures. RESULTS: The CRPLL serves the purpose of between-group comparison. It can also be considered a projection of future impact, under the assumption that the age-specific mortality rates in the current year prevail. For a rare cause of death, it can be interpreted as the expected years (days) of potential life lost during a subject's lifetime. CONCLUSIONS: The CRPLL has several desirable properties, rendering it a promising alternative for quantifying health status.  (+info)

Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. (4/11460)

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating.  (+info)

Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years. (5/11460)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). RESULTS: Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.  (+info)

Mayaro virus disease: an emerging mosquito-borne zoonosis in tropical South America. (6/11460)

This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological findings on 27 cases of Mayaro virus (MV) disease, an emerging mosquito-borne viral illness that is endemic in rural areas of tropical South America. MV disease is a nonfatal, dengue-like illness characterized by fever, chills, headache, eye pain, generalized myalgia, arthralgia, diarrhea, vomiting, and rash of 3-5 days' duration. Severe joint pain is a prominent feature of this illness; the arthralgia sometimes persists for months and can be quite incapacitating. Cases of two visitors from the United States, who developed MV disease during visits to eastern Peru, are reported. MV disease and dengue are difficult to differentiate clinically.  (+info)

Assessment of complement deficiency in patients with meningococcal disease in The Netherlands. (7/11460)

The frequency of complement deficiency in 176 of 7,732 patients with meningococcal disease in the Netherlands from 1959 through 1992 was assessed. Complement deficiency was found in six patients (3%): 3 (7%) of the patients with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C disease, 1 (2%) of the patients with N. meningitidis serogroup A disease, and 2 (33%) of the patients with infections due to uncommon serogroups and nongroupable strains of N. meningitidis. Of 91 additional patients with meningococcal infections due to uncommon serogroups, 33% also had complement deficiency. Thirty-four of the 36 complement-deficient patients with meningococcal disease who were from 33 families were 5 years of age or older. Twenty-six additional complement-deficient relatives were found. Screening individuals with meningococcal disease due to uncommon serogroups who were 5 years of age or older identified 30 of the 33 complement-deficient families. Only 27% of the complement-deficient relatives had had meningococcal disease. This risk was lower for relatives with properdin deficiency (18%) than for those deficient in the late component of complement (38%). Therefore, pedigree studies are warranted for identifying those complement-deficient persons who require vaccination for meningococcal disease.  (+info)

Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990. (8/11460)

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered.  (+info)

"Age distribution" is a term used to describe the number of individuals within a population or sample that fall into different age categories. It is often presented in the form of a graph, table, or chart, and can provide important information about the demographic structure of a population.

The age distribution of a population can be influenced by a variety of factors, including birth rates, mortality rates, migration patterns, and aging. Public health officials and researchers use age distribution data to inform policies and programs related to healthcare, social services, and other areas that affect the well-being of populations.

For example, an age distribution graph might show a larger number of individuals in the younger age categories, indicating a population with a high birth rate. Alternatively, it might show a larger number of individuals in the older age categories, indicating a population with a high life expectancy or an aging population. Understanding the age distribution of a population can help policymakers plan for future needs and allocate resources more effectively.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

A reticulocyte count is a laboratory test that measures the percentage of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood. Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream. They contain residual ribosomal RNA, which gives them a reticular or net-like appearance under a microscope when stained with certain dyes.

The reticulocyte count is often used as an indicator of the rate of red blood cell production in the bone marrow. A higher than normal reticulocyte count may indicate an increased production of red blood cells, which can be seen in conditions such as hemolysis, blood loss, or response to treatment of anemia. A lower than normal reticulocyte count may suggest a decreased production of red blood cells, which can be seen in conditions such as bone marrow suppression, aplastic anemia, or vitamin deficiencies.

The reticulocyte count is usually expressed as a percentage of the total number of red blood cells, but it can also be reported as an absolute reticulocyte count (the actual number of reticulocytes per microliter of blood). The normal range for the reticulocyte count varies depending on the laboratory and the population studied.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

A pandemic is a global outbreak of a disease that spreads easily from person to person across a large region, such as multiple continents or worldwide. It is declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the spread of a disease poses a significant threat to the global population due to its severity and transmissibility.

Pandemics typically occur when a new strain of virus emerges that has not been previously seen in humans, for which there is little or no pre-existing immunity. This makes it difficult to control the spread of the disease, as people do not have natural protection against it. Examples of pandemics include the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic and the more recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

During a pandemic, healthcare systems can become overwhelmed, and there may be significant social and economic disruption as governments take measures to slow the spread of the disease, such as travel restrictions, quarantines, and lockdowns. Effective vaccines and treatments are critical in controlling the spread of pandemics and reducing their impact on public health.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

"Sex distribution" is a term used to describe the number of males and females in a study population or sample. It can be presented as a simple count, a percentage, or a ratio. This information is often used in research to identify any differences in health outcomes, disease prevalence, or response to treatment between males and females. Additionally, understanding sex distribution can help researchers ensure that their studies are representative of the general population and can inform the design of future studies.

Influenza, also known as the flu, is a highly contagious viral infection that attacks the respiratory system of humans. It is caused by influenza viruses A, B, or C and is characterized by the sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, muscle pain, sore throat, cough, runny nose, and fatigue. Influenza can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and ear infections, and can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions. The virus is spread through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can also survive on surfaces for a period of time. Influenza viruses are constantly changing, which makes it necessary to get vaccinated annually to protect against the most recent and prevalent strains.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population growth" is actually a demographic term rather than a medical one. It refers to the increase in the size of a population over time, typically due to births and immigrants exceeding deaths and emigrants. It is commonly used in discussions of societal development, resource management, and environmental impact, among other fields.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those as well!

A measles vaccine is a biological preparation that induces immunity against the measles virus. It contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of the measles virus, which stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies that protect against future infection with the wild-type (disease-causing) virus. Measles vaccines are typically administered in combination with vaccines against mumps and rubella (German measles), forming the MMR vaccine.

The measles vaccine is highly effective, with one or two doses providing immunity in over 95% of people who receive it. It is usually given to children as part of routine childhood immunization programs, with the first dose administered at 12-15 months of age and the second dose at 4-6 years of age.

Measles vaccination has led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of measles worldwide and is considered one of the greatest public health achievements of the past century. However, despite widespread availability of the vaccine, measles remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage or where access to healthcare is limited.

'Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype' is a specific subtype of the influenza A virus that causes flu in humans and animals. It contains certain proteins called hemagglutinin (H) and neuraminidase (N) on its surface, with this subtype specifically having H1 and N1 antigens. The H1N1 strain is well-known for causing the 2009 swine flu pandemic, which was a global outbreak of flu that resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. This subtype can also cause seasonal flu, although the severity and symptoms may vary. It is important to note that influenza viruses are constantly changing, and new strains or subtypes can emerge over time, requiring regular updates to vaccines to protect against them.

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a highly infectious viral disease that primarily affects the respiratory system. It is caused by the measles virus, which belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and the genus Morbillivirus. The virus is transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or through airborne droplets released during coughing and sneezing.

The classic symptoms of measles include:

1. Fever: A high fever (often greater than 104°F or 40°C) usually appears before the onset of the rash, lasting for about 4-7 days.
2. Cough: A persistent cough is common and may become severe.
3. Runny nose: A runny or blocked nose is often present during the early stages of the illness.
4. Red eyes (conjunctivitis): Inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the white part of the eye, can cause redness and irritation.
5. Koplik's spots: These are small, irregular, bluish-white spots with a red base that appear on the inside lining of the cheeks, usually 1-2 days before the rash appears. They are considered pathognomonic for measles, meaning their presence confirms the diagnosis.
6. Rash: The characteristic measles rash typically starts on the face and behind the ears, then spreads downward to the neck, trunk, arms, and legs. It consists of flat red spots that may merge together, forming irregular patches. The rash usually lasts for 5-7 days before fading.

Complications from measles can be severe and include pneumonia, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), and ear infections. In rare cases, measles can lead to serious long-term complications or even death, particularly in young children, pregnant women, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Vaccination is an effective way to prevent measles. The measles vaccine is typically administered as part of the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine, which provides immunity against all three diseases.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is characterized by intellectual and developmental disabilities, distinctive facial features, and sometimes physical growth delays and health problems. The condition affects approximately one in every 700 babies born in the United States.

Individuals with Down syndrome have varying degrees of cognitive impairment, ranging from mild to moderate or severe. They may also have delayed development, including late walking and talking, and may require additional support and education services throughout their lives.

People with Down syndrome are at increased risk for certain health conditions, such as congenital heart defects, respiratory infections, hearing loss, vision problems, gastrointestinal issues, and thyroid disorders. However, many individuals with Down syndrome live healthy and fulfilling lives with appropriate medical care and support.

The condition is named after John Langdon Down, an English physician who first described the syndrome in 1866.

Gene duplication, in the context of genetics and genomics, refers to an event where a segment of DNA that contains a gene is copied, resulting in two identical copies of that gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as unequal crossing over during meiosis, retrotransposition, or whole genome duplication. The duplicate genes are then passed on to the next generation.

Gene duplications can have several consequences. Often, one copy may continue to function normally while the other is free to mutate without affecting the organism's survival, potentially leading to new functions (neofunctionalization) or subfunctionalization where each copy takes on some of the original gene's roles.

Gene duplication plays a significant role in evolution by providing raw material for the creation of novel genes and genetic diversity. However, it can also lead to various genetic disorders if multiple copies of a gene become dysfunctional or if there are too many copies, leading to an overdose effect.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Japan" is not a medical term. Japan is the name of a country, officially known as Nippon-koku or Nihon-koku in Japanese, and is located in East Asia. It is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean with a population of about 126 million people.

If you have any medical questions or terms that you would like me to define, please let me know!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Wales" is not a medical term. It is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, located in Western Europe. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "France" is not a medical term or concept. France is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe after Russia and Ukraine. It has been a major player in world affairs for centuries, with a significant cultural and artistic influence. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help answer those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Seroepidemiologic studies are a type of epidemiological study that measures the presence and levels of antibodies in a population's blood serum to investigate the prevalence, distribution, and transmission of infectious diseases. These studies help to identify patterns of infection and immunity within a population, which can inform public health policies and interventions.

Seroepidemiologic studies typically involve collecting blood samples from a representative sample of individuals in a population and testing them for the presence of antibodies against specific pathogens. The results are then analyzed to estimate the prevalence of infection and immunity within the population, as well as any factors associated with increased or decreased risk of infection.

These studies can provide valuable insights into the spread of infectious diseases, including emerging and re-emerging infections, and help to monitor the effectiveness of vaccination programs. Additionally, seroepidemiologic studies can also be used to investigate the transmission dynamics of infectious agents, such as identifying sources of infection or tracking the spread of antibiotic resistance.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Israel" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Middle East. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Germany" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country in central Europe. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Population dynamics, in the context of public health and epidemiology, refers to the study of the changes in size and structure of a population over time, as well as the factors that contribute to those changes. This can include birth rates, death rates, migration patterns, aging, and other demographic characteristics. Understanding population dynamics is crucial for planning and implementing public health interventions, such as vaccination programs or disease prevention strategies, as they allow researchers and policymakers to identify vulnerable populations, predict future health trends, and evaluate the impact of public health initiatives.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Statistical models are mathematical representations that describe the relationship between variables in a given dataset. They are used to analyze and interpret data in order to make predictions or test hypotheses about a population. In the context of medicine, statistical models can be used for various purposes such as:

1. Disease risk prediction: By analyzing demographic, clinical, and genetic data using statistical models, researchers can identify factors that contribute to an individual's risk of developing certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop personalized prevention strategies or early detection methods.

2. Clinical trial design and analysis: Statistical models are essential tools for designing and analyzing clinical trials. They help determine sample size, allocate participants to treatment groups, and assess the effectiveness and safety of interventions.

3. Epidemiological studies: Researchers use statistical models to investigate the distribution and determinants of health-related events in populations. This includes studying patterns of disease transmission, evaluating public health interventions, and estimating the burden of diseases.

4. Health services research: Statistical models are employed to analyze healthcare utilization, costs, and outcomes. This helps inform decisions about resource allocation, policy development, and quality improvement initiatives.

5. Biostatistics and bioinformatics: In these fields, statistical models are used to analyze large-scale molecular data (e.g., genomics, proteomics) to understand biological processes and identify potential therapeutic targets.

In summary, statistical models in medicine provide a framework for understanding complex relationships between variables and making informed decisions based on data-driven insights.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Epidemiologic methods are systematic approaches used to investigate and understand the distribution, determinants, and outcomes of health-related events or diseases in a population. These methods are applied to study the patterns of disease occurrence and transmission, identify risk factors and causes, and evaluate interventions for prevention and control. The core components of epidemiologic methods include:

1. Descriptive Epidemiology: This involves the systematic collection and analysis of data on the who, what, when, and where of health events to describe their distribution in a population. It includes measures such as incidence, prevalence, mortality, and morbidity rates, as well as geographic and temporal patterns.

2. Analytical Epidemiology: This involves the use of statistical methods to examine associations between potential risk factors and health outcomes. It includes observational studies (cohort, case-control, cross-sectional) and experimental studies (randomized controlled trials). The goal is to identify causal relationships and quantify the strength of associations.

3. Experimental Epidemiology: This involves the design and implementation of interventions or experiments to test hypotheses about disease prevention and control. It includes randomized controlled trials, community trials, and other experimental study designs.

4. Surveillance and Monitoring: This involves ongoing systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data for early detection, tracking, and response to health events or diseases.

5. Ethical Considerations: Epidemiologic studies must adhere to ethical principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes obtaining informed consent, ensuring confidentiality, and minimizing harm to study participants.

Overall, epidemiologic methods provide a framework for investigating and understanding the complex interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors that contribute to the occurrence of health-related events or diseases in populations.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. ClinicalTrials.gov: A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

The term "Theoretical Models" is used in various scientific fields, including medicine, to describe a representation of a complex system or phenomenon. It is a simplified framework that explains how different components of the system interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall behavior of the system. Theoretical models are often used in medical research to understand and predict the outcomes of diseases, treatments, or public health interventions.

A theoretical model can take many forms, such as mathematical equations, computer simulations, or conceptual diagrams. It is based on a set of assumptions and hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms that drive the system. By manipulating these variables and observing the effects on the model's output, researchers can test their assumptions and generate new insights into the system's behavior.

Theoretical models are useful for medical research because they allow scientists to explore complex systems in a controlled and systematic way. They can help identify key drivers of disease or treatment outcomes, inform the design of clinical trials, and guide the development of new interventions. However, it is important to recognize that theoretical models are simplifications of reality and may not capture all the nuances and complexities of real-world systems. Therefore, they should be used in conjunction with other forms of evidence, such as experimental data and observational studies, to inform medical decision-making.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Rosen, Judith (16 April 2012). "Distribution in a Digital Age". Publishers Weekly. ProQuest 1002661729. Archived from the ... Digital distribution, also referred to as content delivery, online distribution, or electronic software distribution, among ... Unrelated to the above, the term "digital distribution" is also used in film distribution to describe the distribution of ... Online content distribution, Digital rights management, Film distribution, Non-store retailing, Streaming media systems, Music ...
"Textbook distribution begins". New Age. Retrieved 20 March 2021. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Willes Little Flower ... "Teachers, guardians complain about AL men's irregularities". New Age. Retrieved 20 March 2021. "Contact Us". Willes Little ...
"Kelshall Age Distribution Statistics". ilivehere. Retrieved 14 July 2015. "Marital Status, 2001". Neighbourhood Statistics. ... According to the 2011 Census, there are 87 economically active people in Kelshall, aged between 16-74. Only 22.3% of the total ... The population of Kelshall, on average, is actually older than the average age of Hertfordshire, also "The population of ...
"Sutton Age Distribution Statistics". I Live Here. "Sutton Historical Industry Statistics". Vision of Britain. Retrieved 23 ... In the 2011 census there were also 122 people living in sutton from the ages of 30-74 with 52 residents aged from 45 to 59 and ... The average age of the population of Sutton as a whole, is older than the national average and the Cambridgeshire average, ... In the 2001 census 122 of 190 residents were aged between 30 and 74, showing a majority working population. ...
"Guston Age Distribution Statistics". ILiveHere. Retrieved 26 March 2017. "Guston General Health Statistics". ILiveHere. ... Out of a population of 1,740 people only 1,087 people are above the age of 16. Furthermore, in total 20.1% of people in the ... the nearest secondary school is called The Duke of York's Royal Military School which teaches children from age 11 to 18. Due ... area are retired and over the age of 65. Therefore, it is clear that there is quite a high young population and elderly ...
... distribution, age, and paleoclimate. Bulletin no. 206, United States Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia. Bernard, H.A., and ... techniques has yielded ages ranging from ~109,000 to ~2,000 years ago, but most ages from the sand rims range from ~40,000 to ~ ... Charcoal samples within the 0.94 m thick unit of quartz sand yielded radiocarbon ages of ~4,500 to 2,500 years BP. A core (P25 ... Basal peat bog sediment within this Carolina bay yielded an age of ~8,600 radiocarbon years ago. In a study of several Carolina ...
Sharpe, F. R. & Lotka, A. J. (1911). A problem in age distribution. Philosophical Magazine, 21: 435-438. A. J. Lotka (1912) ... As noted by W. G. Poitier in 1981: "The Lotka distribution is based on an inverse square law where the number of authors ... Loth, A. J. (1926) "The Frequency Distribution of Scientific Productivity". Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 16( ...
Age distribution is also uneven; nearly one-half of Togolese are less than fifteen years old. French, the official language, is ... The proportion of children below the age of 15 in 2010 was 39.6%, 56.9% was between 15 and 65 years of age, while 3.4% was 65 ... Population distribution is very uneven due to soil and terrain variations. The population is generally concentrated in the ... The demographics of Togo include ethnicity, population density, age, education level, health, economic status and religious ...
The age distribution was: 29.2% ... The median age in the town was 36 years. 28.4% of residents ... were under the age of 18; 6.8% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.8% were from 25 to 44; 24.1% were from 45 to 64, and 12% ... Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.0%. Of the 7,948 households, 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, ... 22.4% of households were one person and 8.5% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the ...
Gene Wolf (2000-12-01). "Electricity Through the Ages". Transmission & Distribution World. John Tyner, Rick Bush and Mike Eby ( ... Electric power distribution engineering covers those elements of a power system from a substation to the end customer. Power ... Power Engineering deals with the generation, transmission, distribution and utilization of electricity as well as the design of ... distribution, and utilization of electric power, and the electrical apparatus connected to such systems. Although much of the ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (31.5%), the CVP (19.9%) and the Green Party (6.5%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 178 people or 8.4% are 65-79 years old, 54 or 2.5% are 80-89 years old and 6 people or ... In Büron about 61.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (25.5%), the FDP (18.9%) and the Green Party (12.5%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 161 people or 7% are 65-79 years old, 42 or 1.8% are 80-89 years old and 3 people or 0.1 ... In Geuensee about 64.5% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
"2018 Cosmetic Surgery Age Distribution" (PDF). American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 ... "2010 Cosmetic Surgery Age Distribution" (PDF). American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 ... Rhytidectomy ("face lift"): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face Neck lift: tightening of lax tissues in the ... Marie K, Thomas MC (2013). "33". Fast Living Slow Ageing: How to age less, look great, live longer, get more (4th ed.). ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (25.9%), the FDP (13.6%) and the Green Party (9.5%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 13 people or 3.7% are 65-79 years old, 5 or 1.4% are 80-89 years old and no one is over ... In Honau about 76.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (32.8%), the FDP (20.5%) and the SPS (6%). The age distribution in Inwil is; ... The senior population distribution is 191 people or 8.9% are 65-79 years old, 53 or 2.5% are 80-89 years old and 13 people or ... In Inwil about 78.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (32.8%), the FDP (22.8%) and the Green Party (4.9%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 108 people or 11.4% are 65-79 years old, 32 or 3.4% are 80-89 years old and 3 people or ... In Aesch about 71.5% of the population (between age 25 and 64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (29.2%), the FDP (26.5%) and the Green Party (6.6%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 203 people or 8% are 65-79 years old, 26 or 1% are 80-89 years old and 4 people or 0.2% ... In Schenkon about 81.7% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (25.7%), the FDP (21.8%) and the SPS (9.3%). The age distribution in Hochdorf ... The senior population distribution is 930 people or 11.1% are 65-79 years old, 349 or 4.2% are 80-89 years old and 56 people or ... In Hochdorf about 67.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (26%), the CVP (23.3%) and the Green Party (11.3%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 225 people or 10.6% are 65-79 years old, 40 or 1.9% are 80-89 years old and 5 people or ... In Udligenswil about 79.1% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education ...
The next three most popular parties were the FDP (27.2%), the SVP (24%) and the Green Party (7.2%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 185 people or 10.9% are 65-79 years old, 41 or 2.4% are 80-89 years old and 4 people or ... In Knutwil about 74% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the SVP (25.3%), the FDP (20.3%) and the SPS (5.9%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 187 people or 10.3% are 65-79 years old, 71 or 3.9% are 80-89 years old and 13 people or ... In Hildisrieden about 83.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education ...
The next three most popular parties were the FDP (24.1%), the CVP (23.7%) and the Green Party (10.9%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 176 people or 13.7% are 65-79 years old, 52 or 4% are 80-89 years old and 9 people or 0.7 ... In Vitznau about 70.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
ISBN 978-0-521-71405-1. Westerlund, Bengt E. (1997). "The Age Distribution of Cloud Clusters". The Magellanic Clouds. Cambridge ... Occurrence, mass distribution and orbital properties of super-Earths and Neptune-mass planets". arXiv:1109.2497 [astro-ph.EP]. ... Unusually, it has cohorts of globular clusters of three distinct ages suggesting bouts of post-starburst formation following a ... Dutch celestial cartography in the Age of Discovery, Astronomy in the Dutch Republic, 1590s in the Dutch Republic). ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (26%), the FDP (23.2%) and the SPS (7.7%). The age distribution in Pfeffikon ... The senior population distribution is 121 people or 16.8% are 65-79 years old, 34 or 4.7% are 80-89 years old and 6 people or ... In Pfeffikon about 68.2% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The median age was 42.8 years. The age distribution was as follows; 24.9% were under the age of 19, 14.9% were between 20 years ... The area had an income distribution in which 1.16% of households earned less than $25,000 annually; 15.19% of households earned ... and 39 years, 43.6% were between 40 years and 64 years, and 16.6% were over the age of 65 years. The median household income ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (26.5%), the FDP (21%) and the SPS (14.3%). The age distribution in Littau was ... The senior population distribution is 1,786 people or 10.6% are 65-79 years old, 451 or 2.7% are 80-89 years old and 61 people ... In Littau about 56.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (33.6%), the FDP (18.1%) and the SPS (6.6%). The age distribution in Ballwil ... The senior population distribution is 203 people or 8.3% are 65-79 years old, 57 or 2.3% are 80-89 years old and 12 people or ... In Ballwil about 74.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the CVP (30.8%), the SVP (21.4%) and the Green Party (4.8%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 112 people or 9.8% are 65-79 years old, 22 or 1.9% are 80-89 years old and 4 people or ... In Neudorf about 72.3% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the FDP (23.5%), the CVP (22.5%) and the SPS (16%). The age distribution in Buchrain ... The senior population distribution is 502 people or 9.1% are 65-79 years old, 119 or 2.2% are 80-89 years old and 15 people or ... In Buchrain about 73.8% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or ...
The next three most popular parties were the FDP (27.1%), the SVP (24.8%) and the SPS (8.6%). The age distribution in ... The senior population distribution is 466 people or 7.9% are 65-79 years old, 128 or 2.2% are 80-89 years old and 35 people or ... In Neuenkirch about 74.4% of the population (between age 25-64) have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education ...
Population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship--except for refugees not permanently settled in the country of asylum, who are generally considered part of the population of the country of origin. More info » ...
Premium Statistic Age distribution of cruise passengers in Hong Kong 2021. * Premium Statistic Age distribution of cruise ... 2021). Distribution of passengers from mainland China taking a cruise vacation in 2020, by age group. Statista. Statista Inc.. ... "Distribution of Passengers from Mainland China Taking a Cruise Vacation in 2020, by Age Group." Statista, Statista Inc., 27 Apr ... Distribution of passengers from mainland China taking a cruise vacation in 2020, by age group ...
AGE DISTRIBUTION. When drawn as a "population pyramid," age distribution can hint at patterns of growth. A top heavy pyramid, ...
17] The age-specific prevalence was 3.3% in white men (aged 18-29 y); this rate increased to 13.2% in the group aged 30-39 ... Age Distribution for Hypertension. The ACCORD study was equally powered it may demonstrated benefit of the intensive control ... The SBP rises into the eighth or ninth decade, whereas the DBP remains constant or declines after age 40 years. [3] Until age ... The prevalence further increased to 22% in the group aged 40-49 years, to 37.5% in the group aged 50-59 years, and to 51% in ...
The following table gives the approximate age distribution in the United States from the 2000 census. Age Population 19 & under ... Age distribution in the United States. 1. The following table gives the approximate age distribution in the United States from ... Normal Distributions, Central Limit Theorem using EXCEL. How does it compare with the mean age in the United States? Does this ... Probability: Age Distribution in the United States. Not what youre looking for? ...
Distribution in The InsurTech Age News InsuranceMarkets / CoveragesMergers and AqcuisitionsTechnology Connected things to reach ... Ryan Spinner, head of innovation with Aviva Canada, was speaking during a panel discussion titled Distribution in the InsurTech ...
This report describes emergency department visits made by adults by age and chronic conditions. ... This report describes emergency department visits made by adults by age and chronic conditions. ... among patients aged 18-44 years to 20.8% among patients aged ≥75 years with two conditions and from 7.1% among patients aged 18 ... QuickStats: Distribution* of Emergency Department Visits† Made by Adults, by Age and Number of Chronic Conditions§ - United ...
Age distribution of patients with confirmed cases of avian influenza (H5N1), December 2003-May 2006 (4,5). Box-and-whisker ... Variability in age is shown by plotting the first and third quartiles (Q1 and Q3) of the ages as the outer limits of the shaded ... Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Age Distribution in Humans Matthew Smallman-Raynor*. and Andrew D. Cliff† ... Whiskers encompass all ages that satisfy the criteria Q1 - 1.5(Q3 - Q1) (lower limit) and Q3 + 1.5(Q3 - Q1) (upper limit). ...
Home » Age-Friendly Practices » Distribution of tables for senior citizen centers and village halls ... Distribution of tables for senior citizen centers and village halls. Status: Ongoing Naju City Republic of Korea ... Age-friendly practice in detail (click to expand):. Engaging the wider community ... In 2022 Naju City completed the distribution of standing tables and chairs to 115 village halls and senior citizens centers, ...
Explore the geographic distribution and demographics of Americas major religious groups. ... Age distribution among pentecostals in the Evangelical Tradition by views about homosexuality (2014) Switch to: Views about ... Age distribution among pentecostals in the Evangelical Tradition by views about homosexuality ... Politics & PolicyInternational AffairsImmigration & MigrationRace & EthnicityReligionAge & GenerationsGender & LGBTQFamily & ...
Age. 3 and 4. 8,118. (32.1). 100.0. (†). 93.9. (0.13). 85.9. (0.22). 8.0. (0.17). 6.1. (0.13). 7,795. (32.7). 100.0. (†). 96.7 ... Number of children ages 3 to 18 living in households1 (in thousands). Percentage distribution of children, by home internet ... Number of children ages 3 to 18 living in households1 (in thousands). Percentage distribution of children, by home internet ... Percentage distribution of children ages 3 to 18, by whether they have home internet access, whether they have access through ...
The Coming of Age of the Education Doctorate Series The Importance of the Dissertation in Practice (DiP) A Resource Guide for ... The Coming of Age of the Education Doctorate Series Innovation and Impact The Origins and Elements of EdD Program Excellence. ... The Coming of Age of the Education Doctorate Series Challenges in (Re)designing EdD Programs Supporting Change with Learning ... The Coming of Age of the Education Doctorate Series Reclaiming the Education Doctorate A Guidebook for (re)Designing EdD ...
Content and distribution of cyanogenic compounds in cassava roots and leaves in association with physiological age ... Content and distribution of cyanogenic compounds in cassava roots and leaves in association with physiological age. 17 sl. ...
Volume 19 - Article 30 , Keywords: compression of mortality, distribution of deaths, life table modal age at death, mortality ... Changes in the age-at-death distribution in four low mortality countries: A nonparametric approach. By Nadine Ouellette, Robert ... Since the beginning of the twentieth century, important transformations have occurred in the age-at-death distribution within ... modal age of death, old-age mortality compression, P-spline smoothing, shifting mortality ...
Neobyte Solutions is a dynamic software company of skilled professionals trying to reach the highest performance for all the projects we are working on. Founded in 2001, we accumulated great experience in web design and development, creating websites and online applications for various customers from US, Australia, Canada and Western Europe. ...
We modeled variation with age, and standardized estimates to allow direct comparison across age groups and countries. Attack ... was seen only in younger age groups. Pandemic attack rate variation with age was estimated to be similar across four pandemics ... For the latter pandemic, mortality rates in four countries increased for younger age groups but only in the season following ... Pandemic influenza does not shift mortality to younger age groups; rather, the mortality level is reset by the virulence of ...
We demonstrate a relationship between performance in a spatial reference memory task and NGF distribution in the aged rat brain ... In addition, exogenous NGF restored endogenous NGF distribution in cognitively impaired aged rats. These data suggest that NGF ... Alzheimers disease and normal aging may impair retrograde transport of nerve growth factor (NGF) from cortical areas to basal ... administration restores utilization of endogenous growth factor in the brain of cognitively impaired aged rats. ...
... of the population is over the age of 65. 68.33% are of working age (18-64). 20.61% are under 18, and 7.71% are under 5 years ... In the report area in 2015-2019, 11.06% of the population is over the age of 65. 68.33% are of working age (18-64). 20.61% are ...
New Distribution, Preservation Standards for the Digital Age. By Debra Kaufman. April 10, 2019 ... MovieLabs senior vice president of digital distribution Craig Seidel reported his group has developed a suite of de facto ... "Our solution is MovieLabs Digital Distribution Framework that represents a consensus of studios, retailers, streaming platforms ... distribution, and consumption of entertainment content. As an organization within the USC School of Cinematic Arts, ETC helps ...
ABC/OBC Age Distribution in the 2000 Census. Posted inChinese Churches 2 Comments on ABC/OBC Age Distribution in the 2000 ... I spent a little more time with the U.S. Census Data Ferret, and came up with an interesting comparison of the age distribution ... see the chart in my post on ABC Age Structure and English Ministry). The contrast with OBC age structure is striking. Since ... In a culture that respects age and values experience this can pose a problem. It is difficult for the Chinese Ministry (CM) ...
By Age Distribution. (Source: similarweb.com). *According to the Scooter Statistics by the demographic state, the highest ... And 11.16% of users are contributing from the age group of 18 years to 24 years. ... There are 18.84% of scooter users aged between 35 and 44 years. ... Through Channels For Marketing and Distribution. (Reference: ...
Age distribution, 2013. Under 15. * Northland: 21.6%. * New Zealand: 20.4%. 15-64. * Northland: 60.1% ... Figures are for workers aged 15 and over, in selected industries in which the regions employment pattern is most distinctive) ...
Supply Age & Distribution. Long-term holders are holding longer, as evidenced by evaluating Bitcoins supply by age ... we can expect a large portion of distributions to be paid out upon the early distribution date, slated for September 2023. ... The process for distribution of claims, while fluid, is as follows: Holders were given the option to elect on March 10 whether ... we expect most BTC will not be sold upon distribution. Selling of distributed BCH is more likely. Further, there will likely be ...
The distribution of births by gestational age changed between 1990 and 2005. The percentage of preterm births (,37 completed ... QuickStats: Distribution of Births, by Gestational Age --- United States, 1990 and 2005. ...
Age Distribution The age distribution of those with disabilities differed substantially from those who reported no disabilities ... Employment Distribution Among working-age adults (aged 18-64 years), persons with disabilities were far less likely to be ... Race/Ethnicity Distribution The distribution of racial/ethnic categories did not vary greatly across disability subgroups, with ... Gender Distribution The gender distribution within disability subgroups was similar for those with no disabilities (51.4% ...
... get https://example.com/fec/v1. /age_distribution/committee ... Returns gender and age distribution for a name and a reference date.get ... Returns gender and age distribution for a name and a reference date.get ... age and gender*Returns gender and age estimates for a JSON file with names and reference datespost ...
Preterm birth rates declined for all age groups and overall from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births. ... Preterm birth rates declined for all age groups and overall from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births. ... age distribution and age-specific rate components (Table). The change in age distribution contributed to the preterm birth rate ... In contrast, the age distribution component for mothers aged ≥25 years, and especially for mothers aged ≥30 years, offset this ...

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