Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Murraya: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. Members contain murrayanine, koenine, isomahanine, kwangsine, siamenol, murrayafoline A, murrayaquinone A and other cytotoxic carbazolequinones.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Pelvic Floor: Soft tissue formed mainly by the pelvic diaphragm, which is composed of the two levator ani and two coccygeus muscles. The pelvic diaphragm lies just below the pelvic aperture (outlet) and separates the pelvic cavity from the PERINEUM. It extends between the PUBIC BONE anteriorly and the COCCYX posteriorly.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Mushroom Poisoning: Poisoning from ingestion of mushrooms, primarily from, but not restricted to, toxic varieties.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Fruiting Bodies, Fungal: The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Polyporales: An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Ganoderma: A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).Amanita: A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.Cortinarius: A genus of mushrooms in the family Cortinariaceae. When ingested, species of Cortinarius cause delayed acute RENAL FAILURE.Pinaceae: A plant family of the order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta, known for the various conifers.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.SicilySpores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Douglas' Pouch: A sac or recess formed by a fold of the peritoneum.Frozen FoodsReflex, Babinski: A reflex found in normal infants consisting of dorsiflexion of the HALLUX and abduction of the other TOES in response to cutaneous stimulation of the plantar surface of the FOOT. In adults, it is used as a diagnostic criterion, and if present is a NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATION of dysfunction in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Adenosarcoma: A malignant neoplasm arising simultaneously or consecutively in mesodermal tissue and glandular epithelium of the same part. (Stedman, 25th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).

Comparison of flagellin genes from clinical and environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. (1/637)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen, was isolated from environmental samples and compared to clinically derived strains. While P. aeruginosa was isolated readily from an experimental mushroom-growing unit, it was found only rarely in other environmental samples. A flagellin gene PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the isolates revealed that environmental and clinical P. aeruginosa strains are not readily distinguishable. The variation in the central regions of the flagellin genes of seven of the isolates was investigated further. The strains used included two strains with type a genes (998 bp), four strains with type b genes (1,258 bp), and one strain, K979, with a novel flagellin gene (2,199 bp). The route by which flagellin gene variation has occurred in P. aeruginosa is discussed.  (+info)

LB-AUT7, a novel symbiosis-regulated gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor, is functionally related to vesicular transport and autophagocytosis. (2/637)

We have identified LB-AUT7, a gene differentially expressed 6 h after ectomycorrhizal interaction between Laccaria bicolor and Pinus resinosa. LB-Aut7p can functionally complement its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, which is involved in the attachment of autophagosomes to microtubules. Our findings suggest the induction of an autophagocytosis-like vesicular transport process during ectomycorrhizal interaction.  (+info)

Ultrastructure of an indigotin-producing dome mutant of Schizophyllum commune. (3/637)

Electron microscopic observations of an indigotin-producing dome mutant of Schizophyllum commune Fr. have shown that large wall ingrowths occur within the hyphae. These ingrowths are coupled with morphological abnormalities produced by the dome mutation. The pigment indigotin appears to be produced by progressive condensation within vacuoles and to a lesser extent within the wall ingrowths. Cytochemical techniques have shown that the wall ingrowths are similar in structure to the hyphal walls. there was no evidence for the passage of condensed indigotin into the medium; the pigment granules found in the medium must therefore form outside the hyphae.  (+info)

Studies on basidiospore development in Schizophyllum commune. (4/637)

The time required for synthesis of the spore components and the effect of different environmental conditions on basidiospore production were studied in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Both exogenous glucose and storage materials were used in the synthesis of spore components, which took 40 to 45 h to complete. A temperature of 30 degrees C, the presence of 5% CO2, a continuous supply of glucose, or a lack of exogenous glucose, had no effect on the rate of spore production. Light, however, was required for sporulation. Darkness inhibited sporulation between karyogamy and the initiation of meiosis: complete inhibition occurred after 48 h in the dark. Spores were produced 5 h after release from dark inhibition.  (+info)

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). (5/637)

We report five cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among workers cultivating Tricholoma conglobatum (shimeji). After having worked for 5 to 20 years, they began to notice symptoms of cough, sputum, and dyspnea. They were diagnosed as having a hypersensitivity pneumonitis based on clinical features, bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial lung biopsy. By the double immunodiffusion test, precipitating lines between shimeji spore antigen and sera were observed in all of the patients. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the antibody activities against shimeji and three species of fungi (Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium frequentans, and Scopulariopsis species) were significantly higher in the sera of the patients than in those of normal subjects who were cultivating shimeji. Although it is not clear what causes this disease, these findings may be helpful in determining the specific antigen.  (+info)

Purification and characterization of an anti-(A+B) specific lectin from the mushroom Hygrophorus hypothejus. (6/637)

A lectin (HHL) was isolated from the fruiting body of the mushroom Hygrophorus hypothejus by a combination of affinity chromatography on stromas of group B erythrocytes embedded in polyacrylamide gel, and DEAE-trisacryl and gel filtration chromatography. Its molecular mass, as determined by gel filtration, is estimated to be 68000 kDa and its structure is tetrameric with four identical subunits assembled with non-covalent bonds. HHL agglutinates specifically A and B blood group erythrocytes and in hemagglutination inhibition assays, exhibits sugar-binding specificity toward lactose, the anomeric alpha form being more effective than the beta form.  (+info)

Striking activation of oxidative enzymes suspended in nonaqueous media. (7/637)

The catalytic activity of four lyophilized oxidative enzymes-horseradish peroxidase, soybean peroxidase, Caldariomyces fumago chloroperoxidase, and mushroom polyphenol oxidase-is much lower when directly suspended in organic solvents containing little water than when they are introduced into the same largely nonaqueous media by first dissolving them in water and then diluting with anhydrous solvents. The lower the water content of the medium, the greater this discrepancy becomes. The mechanism of this phenomenon was found to arise from reversible denaturation of the oxidases on lyophilization: because of its conformational rigidity, the denatured enzyme exhibits very limited activity when directly suspended in largely nonaqueous media but renatures and thus yields much higher activity if first redissolved in water. Two independent means were discovered for dramatically minimizing the lyophilization-induced inactivation, both involving the addition of certain types of excipients to the aqueous enzyme solution before lyophilization. The first group of excipients consists of phenolic and aniline substrates as well as other hydrophobic compounds; these presumably bind to the hydrophobic pocket of the enzyme active site, thereby preventing its collapse during dehydration. The second group consists of general lyoprotectants such as polyols and polyethylen glycol that apparently preserve the overall enzyme structure during dehydration. The activation effects of such excipients can reach into the tens and hundreds of fold. Moreover, the activations afforded by the two excipient groups are additive, resulting in up to a complete protection against lyophilization-induced inactivation when representatives of the two are present together.  (+info)

Multi-specificity of a Psathyrella velutina mushroom lectin: heparin/pectin binding occurs at a site different from the N-acetylglucosamine/N-acetylneuraminic acid-specific site. (8/637)

An N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)/N-acetylneuraminic acid-specific lectin from the fruiting body of Psathyrella velutina (PVL) is a useful probe for the detection and fractionation of specific carbohydrates. In this study, PVL was found to exhibit multispecificity to acidic polysaccharides and sulfatides. Purified PVL and a counterpart lectin to PVL in the mycelium interact with heparin neoproteoglycans, as detected by both membrane analysis and solid phase assay. The pH-dependencies of the binding to heparin and GlcNAc5-6 differ. The heparin binding of PVL is inhibited best by pectin, polygalacturonic acid, and highly sulfated polysaccharides, but not by GlcNAc, colominic acid, or other glycosaminoglycans. Sandwich affinity chromatography indicated that PVL can simultaneously interact with heparin- and GlcNAc-containing macromolecules. Extensive biotinylation was found to suppress the binding activity to heparin while the GlcNAc binding activity is retained. On the other hand, biotinyl PVL binds to sulfatide and the binding is not inhibited by GlcNAc, N-acetylneuraminic acid, or heparin. These results indicate that PVL is a multi-ligand adhesive lectin that can interact with various glycoconjugates. This multispecificity needs to be recognized when using PVL as a sugar-specific probe to avoid misleading information about the nature of glycoforms.  (+info)

  • There was also during the workshop the distribution and demonstration of use of the booklet Instructions for collection of macrofungo Agaricales and Gasteroides. (
  • Some notable fungi with gill-like structures, such as chanterelles, have long been recognized as being substantially different from usual Agaricales. (
  • The term agaric had traditionally referred to Agaricales, which were defined as exactly those fungi with gills. (
  • While many Agaricales acquire sustenance by decomposing dead organic matter (as saprotrophs), others parasitize plants or other fungi, and a few capture or parasitize vertebrates or invertebrates. (
  • 1997). Likewise, multiple lineages of "gasteromycetes" (puffballs, bird's nest fungi, false truffles), species that produce spores in an enclosed fruiting structure, have evolved independently among the Agaricales (Peintner et al. (
  • 2005) have shown that some non-gilled fungi, including reduced or cup-like (cyphelloid) forms and crustose or resupinate forms, share their evolutionary histories with numerous lineages of Agaricales, including some lineages that evolved in aquatic or marine environments (Binder et al. (
  • ECM fungi include, though are not limited to, about 5000 described species of Agaricales from numerous, independently evolved lineages. (
  • Of the 10,000 specimens, the identified taxa include 350 species of Agaricales, 145 species of Aphyllophorales and Tremellales, about 125 species of Ascomycotina, 60 species of Gastromycetes, 55 of coprophilous fungi and 67 of Myxomycetes. (
  • At least 11 origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit appear to have evolved in the Agaricales, with possibly as many as nine origins in the Agaricoid plus Tricholomatoid clade alone. (
  • These and other studies demonstrated that a broad concept of Agaricales (Singer 1986), including boletes, some polypores, and the genera Russula , Lactarius and their allies, does not form a monophyletic group. (
  • Thus, the clade containing predominantly genera and families from the suborder Agaricineae (Singer 1986) was labeled the euagarics clade and represents what we currently regard as the Agaricales (Moncalvo et al. (
  • Molecular phylogenetics research has demonstrated that the euagarics clade is roughly equivalent to Singer's Agaricales sensu stricto. (
  • Here, we present the genome sequences of the white-rot fungus Cylindrobasidium torrendii and the brown-rot fungus Fistulina hepatica both members of Agaricales, combining comparative genomics and wood decay experiments. (
  • Se reporta por primera vez su presencia en Argentina en bosques de Nothofagus de la Patagonia andina como resultado de la invasión de especies forestales introducidas como recurso maderero. (
  • While we demonstrate support for asynchronous origins of ECM Agaricales, the timing of such events appears to have occurred more recently than suggested by the first hypothesis, first during the Cretaceous and later during the Palaeogene. (
  • We are also unable to reject models of rate constancy, which suggests that the diversity of ECM Agaricales is not a consequence of convergent rapid radiations following evolutionary transitions from saprotrophic to ECM habits. (
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