A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
'Anaerobic Bacteria' are types of bacteria that do not require oxygen for growth and can often cause diseases in humans, including dental caries, gas gangrene, and tetanus, among others.
Derived proteins or mixtures of cleavage products produced by the partial hydrolysis of a native protein either by an acid or by an enzyme. Peptones are readily soluble in water, and are not precipitable by heat, by alkalis, or by saturation with ammonium sulfate. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
Esculin is a glucoside of esculetin, a coumarin derivative found in the horse chestnut tree (Aesculus hippocastanum) and some other plants, used in medical research for its anticoagulant properties and as a substrate in susceptibility testing of certain bacteria.
Inflammation of the tongue.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.

The Jun kinase 2 isoform is preferentially required for epidermal growth factor-induced transformation of human A549 lung carcinoma cells. (1/1701)

We have previously found that epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediates growth through the Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated kinase (JNK/SAPK) pathway in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. As observed here, EGF treatment also greatly enhances the tumorigenicity of A549 cells, suggesting an important role for JNK in cancer cell growth (F. Bost, R. McKay, N. Dean, and D. Mercola, J. Biol. Chem. 272:33422-33429, 1997). Several isoforms families of JNK, JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3, have been isolated; they arise from alternative splicing of three different genes and have distinct substrate binding properties. Here we have used specific phosphorothioate oligonucleotides targeted against the two major isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, to discriminate their roles in EGF-induced transformation. Multiple antisense sequences have been screened, and two high-affinity and specific candidates have been identified. Antisense JNK1 eliminated steady-state mRNA and JNK1 protein expression with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of <0.1 microM but did not alter JNK2 mRNA or protein levels. Conversely, antisense JNK2 specifically eliminated JNK2 steady-state mRNA and protein expression with an EC50 of 0.1 microM. Antisense JNK1 and antisense JNK2 inhibited by 40 and 70%, respectively, EGF-induced total JNK activity, whereas sense and scrambled-sequence control oligonucleotides had no effect. The elimination of mRNA, protein, and JNK activities lasted 48 and 72 h following a single Lipofectin treatment with antisense JNK1 and JNK2, respectively, indicating sufficient duration for examining the impact of specific elimination on the phenotype. Direct proliferation assays demonstrated that antisense JNK2 inhibited EGF-induced doubling of growth as well as the combination of active antisense oligonucleotides did. EGF treatment also induced colony formation in soft agar. This effect was completely inhibited by antisense JNK2 and combined-antisense treatment but not altered by antisense JNK1 alone. These results show that EGF doubles the proliferation (growth in soft agar as well as tumorigenicity in athymic mice) of A549 lung carcinoma cells and that the JNK2 isoform but not JNK1 is utilized for mediating the effects of EGF. This study represents the first demonstration of a cellular phenotype regulated by a JNK isoform family, JNK2.  (+info)

Effect of different lots of Mueller-Hinton agar on the interpretation of the gentamicin susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (2/1701)

Population distributions and quality control data for strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested for gentamicin susceptibility on six lots of Mueller-Hinton agar were analyzed. The lots of agar were used in three University of Washington hospitals from April 1975 through October 1977. The analyses indicated that the performance of members of the P. aeruginosa populations in each hospital closely followed the performance of the quality control strain, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, when tested on each lot of Mueller-Hinton medium. The variability of zone diameters with the P. aeruginosa populations and the quality control strain indicated that a fixed indeterminate range (13 to 16 mm) of gentamicin susceptibility was not applicable to these organisms as it was with the Enterobacteriaceae. Variability in gentamicin susceptibility results was demonstrated in both minimal inhibitory concentration and disk diffusion tests when eight selected P. aeruginosa strains and the quality control strain were tested on each lot of medium. This variation in susceptibility to gentamicin was not related to the total Ca(2+), Mg(2+), or Zn(2+) content of each lot of medium. The data demonstrated that a moving indeterminate range of gentamicin susceptibility, 3 to 6 mm below the mean zone diameter of the quality control strain, was a suitable criterion for strains tested on a single medium lot. These results illustrate the importance of defining stringent performance standards for media used in the susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa with gentamicin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics.  (+info)

Diffusion through agar blocks of finite dimensions: a theoretical analysis of three systems of practical significance in microbiology. (3/1701)

A number of experimental methods in biology depend on the kinetics of diffusion of a substance through a gel. This paper reviews the diffusion equations, gives the experimental limitations for some useful cases, and presents computer simulations for cases that cannot be treated analytically. While double diffusion is not considered, three single-diffusion situations are treated. (1) Systems for the study of chemotaxis in the gliding bacterium Myxococcus xanthus. Experimental designs used for this in many cases in the literature were inappropriate and mathematical analysis of these is presented. (2) The development of gradient plates. The time necessary for vertical diffusion to become substantially complete and before diffusion in the direction of the original slant has proceeded significantly is calculated. (3) The application to antimicrobial disk susceptibility tests. The basis of the measurement of antibiotic sensitivities with disks containing antimicrobial agents, as routinely used in clinical microbiological and testing laboratories, is analysed and the limitations are assessed and improvements suggested.  (+info)

Quantitative studies on competitive activities of skin bacteria growing on solid media. (4/1701)

Earlier quantitative investigations of antagonism between skin bacteria were based on the use of liquid cultures, but a more realistic model has now been devised, based on the use of the surfaces of solid media. Pure or mixed inocula were spread evenly over suitable agar media in Petri dishes marked out with a standard grid. Growth curves were constructed from viable counts of the surface bacteria after they had been removed from excised squares of the agar media and dispersed. The method was highly reproducible, and competitive interactions were revealed more clearly than in studies with liquid media. An antibiotic-producing strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis (S6+) readily suppressed strains of Micrococcus, Corynebacterium and Streptococcus species. However, a Staphylococcus aureus strain which was less sensitive to the antibiotic effect of S6+ interacted in a complex manner, depending on the absolute and relative size of the S6+ inoculum.  (+info)

Mad-overexpression down regulates the malignant growth and p53 mediated apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells. (5/1701)

Mad protein has been shown as an antagonist of c-Myc protein in some cell lines. The effect of Mad protein to the malignant phenotype of human hepatoma BEL-7404 cell line was investigated experimentally. An eukarryotic vector pCDNA III containing full ORF fragment of mad cDNA was transfected into targeted cells. Under G418 selection, stable Mad-overexpressed cells were cloned. Studies on the effect of Mad over-expression in cell proliferation and cell cycle revealed that cell morphology of the Mad-overexpressed BEL-7404-M1 cells was significantly different from the parent and control vector transfected cells. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in soft-agar of the mad-transfected cells were partially inhibited in comparison to control cells. Flow Cytometry analysis indicated that mad over-expression might block more transfectant cells at G0/G1 phase, resulting in the retardation of cell proliferation. RT-PCR detected a marked inhibition of the expression of cdc25A, an important regulator gene of G0/G1 to S phase in cell cycle. It was also found that Mad protein overexpression could greatly suppress p53-mediated apoptosis in BEL-7404-M1 cells in the absence of serume. Thus, Mad proteins may function as a negative regulator antagonizing c-Myc activity in the control of cell growth and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7404 cells.  (+info)

Use of Dorset egg medium for maintenance and transport of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b. (6/1701)

Studies of bacterial meningitis are hampered by the inability to maintain the viability of etiological agents during transport to reference laboratories. The long-term survival rate of 20 isolates of Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) on Dorset egg medium, supplemented Columbia agar base medium, chocolate agar, and Amies medium was compared with that on 70% GC agar (chocolate) transport medium. N. meningitidis isolates were also inoculated onto 5% horse blood agar, and Hib was inoculated onto Haemophilus test medium. All of the N. meningitidis isolates remained viable on Dorset egg medium for 21 days; viability on the other media was poor after only 7 days. Recovery rates of Hib isolates were similar on Dorset egg and Haemophilus test media (100% after 21 days) and significantly better than on the other media. Dorset egg medium is inexpensive and easy to make and may be invaluable for studies of bacterial meningitis in developing countries.  (+info)

Variation in Microbial Identification System accuracy for yeast identification depending on commercial source of Sabouraud dextrose agar. (7/1701)

The accuracy of the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI, Inc. ) for identification of yeasts to the species level was compared by using 438 isolates grown on prepoured BBL Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and prepoured Remel SDA. Correct identification was observed for 326 (74%) of the yeasts cultured on BBL SDA versus only 214 (49%) of yeasts grown on Remel SDA (P < 0.001). The commercial source of the SDA used in the MIS procedure significantly influences the system's accuracy.  (+info)

Visualization and modelling of the thermal inactivation of bacteria in a model food. (8/1701)

A large number of incidents of food poisoning have been linked to undercooked meat products. The use of mathematical modelling to describe heat transfer within foods, combined with data describing bacterial thermal inactivation, may prove useful in developing safer food products while minimizing thermal overprocessing. To examine this approach, cylindrical agar blocks containing immobilized bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Brochothrix thermosphacta) were used as a model system in this study. The agar cylinders were subjected to external conduction heating by immersion in a water bath. They were then incubated, sliced open, and examined by image analysis techniques for regions of no bacterial growth. A finite-difference scheme was used to model thermal conduction and the consequent bacterial inactivation. Bacterial inactivation rates were modelled with values for the time required to reduce bacterial number by 90% (D) and the temperature increase required to reduce D by 90% taken from the literature. Model simulation results agreed well with experimental results for both bacteria, demonstrating the utility of the technique.  (+info)

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Chromogenic compounds are substances that can be converted into a colored product through a chemical reaction. These compounds are often used in various diagnostic tests, including microbiological assays and immunoassays, to detect the presence or absence of a specific analyte (such as a particular bacterium, enzyme, or antigen).

In these tests, a chromogenic substrate is added to the sample, and if the target analyte is present, it will react with the substrate and produce a colored product. The intensity of the color can often be correlated with the amount of analyte present in the sample, allowing for quantitative analysis.

Chromogenic compounds are widely used in clinical laboratories because they offer several advantages over other types of diagnostic tests. They are typically easy to use and interpret, and they can provide rapid results with high sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, chromogenic assays can be automated, which can help increase throughput and reduce the potential for human error.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Staphylococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and other animals. Many species of Staphylococcus can cause infections in humans, but the most notable is Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for a wide range of illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening conditions such as pneumonia, endocarditis, and sepsis.

Staphylococcus species are non-motile, non-spore forming, and typically occur in grape-like clusters when viewed under a microscope. They can be coagulase-positive or coagulase-negative, with S. aureus being the most well-known coagulase-positive species. Coagulase is an enzyme that causes the clotting of plasma, and its presence is often used to differentiate S. aureus from other Staphylococcus species.

These bacteria are resistant to many commonly used antibiotics, including penicillin, due to the production of beta-lactamases. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly problematic strain that has developed resistance to multiple antibiotics and can cause severe, difficult-to-treat infections.

Proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and environmental cleaning are crucial measures for preventing the spread of Staphylococcus in healthcare settings and the community.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Blood is the fluid that circulates in the body of living organisms, carrying oxygen and nutrients to the cells and removing carbon dioxide and other waste products. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in a liquid called plasma. The main function of blood is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs. It also transports nutrients, hormones, and other substances to the cells and removes waste products from them. Additionally, blood plays a crucial role in the body's immune system by helping to fight infection and disease.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that do not require oxygen to grow and survive. Instead, they can grow in environments that have little or no oxygen. Some anaerobic bacteria can even be harmed or killed by exposure to oxygen. These bacteria play important roles in many natural processes, such as decomposition and the breakdown of organic matter in the digestive system. However, some anaerobic bacteria can also cause disease in humans and animals, particularly when they infect areas of the body that are normally oxygen-rich. Examples of anaerobic bacterial infections include tetanus, gas gangrene, and dental abscesses.

Peptones are not a medical term per se, but they are commonly used in medical and clinical laboratory settings. Peptones are complex organic compounds that result from the partial hydrolysis of proteins. They consist of a mixture of polypeptides, peptides, and free amino acids.

In medical laboratories, peptones are often used as a nutrient source in various culture media for the growth of microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Peptone water is a common liquid medium used to culture and isolate bacteria. It contains peptones, sodium chloride, and other ingredients that provide essential nutrients for bacterial growth.

Peptones are also used in biochemical tests to identify specific microorganisms based on their ability to metabolize certain components of the peptone. For example, in the sulfur-indole-motility (SIM) medium, peptones serve as a source of amino acids and other nutrients that support the growth of bacteria producing enzymes responsible for the production of indole from tryptophan.

Staphylococcus aureus is a type of gram-positive, round (coccal) bacterium that is commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals and humans. It is a facultative anaerobe, which means it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen.

Staphylococcus aureus is known to cause a wide range of infections, from mild skin infections such as pimples, impetigo, and furuncles (boils) to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and sepsis. It can also cause food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome.

The bacterium is often resistant to multiple antibiotics, including methicillin, which has led to the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains that are difficult to treat. Proper hand hygiene and infection control practices are critical in preventing the spread of Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Oxacillin is a type of antibiotic known as a penicillinase-resistant penicillin. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria that are resistant to other types of penicillins. Oxacillin is commonly used to treat infections of the skin, soft tissue, and bone.

Here is the medical definition of oxacillin:

Oxacillin is a semisynthetic antibiotic derived from penicillin that is resistant to staphylococcal penicillinases. It is used to treat infections caused by susceptible strains of staphylococci and some streptococci, including penicillinase-producing staphylococci. Oxacillin is available as a sterile powder for injection or as a oral capsule.

It is important to note that the overuse or misuse of antibiotics like oxacillin can lead to the development of antibiotic resistance, which makes infections harder to treat. It's essential to use antibiotics only when necessary and as directed by a healthcare professional.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

'Candida' is a type of fungus (a form of yeast) that is commonly found on the skin and inside the body, including in the mouth, throat, gut, and vagina, in small amounts. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any problems. However, an overgrowth of Candida can lead to infections known as candidiasis or thrush. Common sites for these infections include the skin, mouth, throat, and genital areas. Some factors that can contribute to Candida overgrowth are a weakened immune system, certain medications (such as antibiotics and corticosteroids), diabetes, pregnancy, poor oral hygiene, and wearing damp or tight-fitting clothing. Common symptoms of candidiasis include itching, redness, pain, and discharge. Treatment typically involves antifungal medication, either topical or oral, depending on the site and severity of the infection.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a process in which a normal cell undergoes genetic alterations that cause it to become cancerous or malignant. This process involves changes in the cell's DNA that result in uncontrolled cell growth and division, loss of contact inhibition, and the ability to invade surrounding tissues and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body.

Neoplastic transformation can occur as a result of various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, viral infections, chronic inflammation, and aging. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, which regulate cell growth and division.

The transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells is a complex and multi-step process that involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations. It is characterized by several hallmarks, including sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, enabling replicative immortality, induction of angiogenesis, activation of invasion and metastasis, reprogramming of energy metabolism, and evading immune destruction.

Neoplastic cell transformation is a fundamental concept in cancer biology and is critical for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and progression. It also has important implications for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as identifying the specific genetic alterations that underlie neoplastic transformation can help guide targeted therapies and personalized medicine approaches.

Esculin is a glucoside derived from the bark of willow trees and other plants. It has been used in scientific research as a substrate to test the activity of certain types of bacteria, particularly those that have the ability to produce an enzyme called beta-glucosidase. When esculin comes into contact with this enzyme, it is broken down and forms a chemical compound called esculetin, which can be detected and measured. This reaction is often used as a way to identify and study bacteria that produce beta-glucosidase.

Esculin is not typically used in medical treatments or therapies, but it may have some potential uses in the development of new drugs or diagnostic tools. As with any chemical compound, esculin should be handled with care and used only under the guidance of a trained professional.

Glossitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the tongue. This condition can cause symptoms such as swelling, redness, pain, and smoothness or discoloration of the tongue's surface. Glossitis can have various causes, including nutritional deficiencies (such as vitamin B12 or folate deficiency), allergic reactions, infections (bacterial, viral, or fungal), irritants (such as hot and spicy foods, alcohol, or tobacco), and autoimmune disorders (such as pemphigus vulgaris or lichen planus). Treatment for glossitis depends on the underlying cause.

Cosmetics are defined in the medical field as products that are intended to be applied or introduced to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, and altering the appearance. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), cosmetics include skin creams, lotions, makeup, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, shampoos, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product.

It's important to note that the FDA classifies cosmetics and drugs differently. Drugs are defined as products that are intended to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease, and/or affect the structure or function of the body. Some products, such as anti-dandruff shampoos or toothpastes with fluoride, can be considered both a cosmetic and a drug because they have both cleansing and therapeutic properties. These types of products are subject to regulation by both the FDA's Office of Cosmetics and Colors and its Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Cosmetics must not be adulterated or misbranded, meaning that they must be safe for use under labeled or customary conditions, properly packaged and labeled, and not contain any harmful ingredients. However, the FDA does not have the authority to approve cosmetic products before they go on the market, with the exception of color additives. Manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that their products are safe and properly labeled.

A laboratory (often abbreviated as lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurements may be performed. In the medical field, laboratories are specialized spaces for conducting diagnostic tests and analyzing samples of bodily fluids, tissues, or other substances to gain insights into patients' health status.

There are various types of medical laboratories, including:

1. Clinical Laboratories: These labs perform tests on patient specimens to assist in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. They analyze blood, urine, stool, CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), and other samples for chemical components, cell counts, microorganisms, and genetic material.
2. Pathology Laboratories: These labs focus on the study of disease processes, causes, and effects. Histopathology involves examining tissue samples under a microscope to identify abnormalities or signs of diseases, while cytopathology deals with individual cells.
3. Microbiology Laboratories: In these labs, microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites are cultured, identified, and studied to help diagnose infections and determine appropriate treatments.
4. Molecular Biology Laboratories: These labs deal with the study of biological molecules, such as DNA, RNA, and proteins, to understand their structure, function, and interactions. They often use techniques like PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and gene sequencing for diagnostic purposes.
5. Immunology Laboratories: These labs specialize in the study of the immune system and its responses to various stimuli, including infectious agents and allergens. They perform tests to diagnose immunological disorders, monitor immune function, and assess vaccine effectiveness.
6. Toxicology Laboratories: These labs analyze biological samples for the presence and concentration of chemicals, drugs, or toxins that may be harmful to human health. They help identify potential causes of poisoning, drug interactions, and substance abuse.
7. Blood Banks: Although not traditionally considered laboratories, blood banks are specialized facilities that collect, test, store, and distribute blood and its components for transfusion purposes.

Medical laboratories play a crucial role in diagnosing diseases, monitoring disease progression, guiding treatment decisions, and assessing patient outcomes. They must adhere to strict quality control measures and regulatory guidelines to ensure accurate and reliable results.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Clinical laboratory techniques are methods and procedures used in medical laboratories to perform various tests and examinations on patient samples. These techniques help in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases by analyzing body fluids, tissues, and other specimens. Some common clinical laboratory techniques include:

1. Clinical chemistry: It involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid to measure the levels of chemicals, hormones, enzymes, and other substances in the body. These measurements can help diagnose various medical conditions, monitor treatment progress, and assess overall health.

2. Hematology: This technique focuses on the study of blood and its components, including red and white blood cells, platelets, and clotting factors. Hematological tests are used to diagnose anemia, infections, bleeding disorders, and other hematologic conditions.

3. Microbiology: It deals with the identification and culture of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Microbiological techniques are essential for detecting infectious diseases, determining appropriate antibiotic therapy, and monitoring the effectiveness of treatment.

4. Immunology: This technique involves studying the immune system and its response to various antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, and allergens. Immunological tests are used to diagnose autoimmune disorders, immunodeficiencies, and allergies.

5. Histopathology: It is the microscopic examination of tissue samples to identify any abnormalities or diseases. Histopathological techniques are crucial for diagnosing cancer, inflammatory conditions, and other tissue-related disorders.

6. Molecular biology: This technique deals with the study of DNA, RNA, and proteins at the molecular level. Molecular biology tests can be used to detect genetic mutations, identify infectious agents, and monitor disease progression.

7. Cytogenetics: It involves analyzing chromosomes and genes in cells to diagnose genetic disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Cytogenetic techniques include karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

8. Flow cytometry: This technique measures physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles as they flow through a laser beam. Flow cytometry is used to analyze cell populations, identify specific cell types, and detect abnormalities in cells.

9. Diagnostic radiology: It uses imaging technologies such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound to diagnose various medical conditions.

10. Clinical chemistry: This technique involves analyzing body fluids, such as blood and urine, to measure the concentration of various chemicals and substances. Clinical chemistry tests are used to diagnose metabolic disorders, electrolyte imbalances, and other health conditions.

... -Agar Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine at Agar-Agar.org "Agar-Agar". Botanical.com. Retrieved 22 January 2017. ... They are known in Spanish as Dulce de Agar (Agar sweets) Agar-agar is an allowed nonorganic/nonsynthetic additive used as a ... The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae (Gigartina, Eucheuma, Gracilaria) from which the jelly is ... Agar is often dispensed using a sterile media dispenser. Different algae produce various types of agar. Each agar has unique ...
... (also called Endo's medium) is a microbiological growth medium with a faint pink colour. Originally developed for the ... EMD Chemicals, "ENDO Agar". 2002. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009. v t e (Articles with ... Endo agar typically contains (w/v): 1.0 % peptone 0.25 % dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) 1.0 % lactose 0.33 % anhydrous ... sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) 0.03 % fuchsine 1.25 % agar "Mondofacto". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved April ...
In June 2021, Agar was named in Australia's limited overs squad for their tours of the West Indies and Bangladesh. Agar made ... Agar chose to follow in his father's footsteps and became a fast bowler. Agar played Victorian Premier Cricket for the Monash ... Agar also translated this form to the Big Bash League, taking 17 wickets in 12 matches for the Strikers. Agar's impressive ... "Wes Agar Profile - ICC Ranking, Age, Career Info & State". Cricbuzz.com. Retrieved 5 January 2018. "Wes Agar". cricket.com.au. ...
149 Each dilution plate in agar testing has to be manually inoculated with the pathogen to be tested, so agar dilution testing ... The results of agar dilution are easily reproduced and they can be monitored at a much cheaper cost than what is required of ... Agar dilution is considered to be the gold standard of susceptibility testing, or the most accurate way to measure the ... Agar dilution is one of two methods (along with Broth Dilution) used by researchers to determine the Minimum Inhibitory ...
Stephen Kirwan "Steve" Agar (born 6 June 1968 in Saint George) is a retired track and field athlete who competed for Dominica ... He is the brother of swimmer Francilla Agar. 1Did not finish in the final 2Representing the Americas Outdoor 800 metres - 1: ...
Agar is a village and former Mehwal (petty princely state) in Gujarat, western India. The non-salute state Agar was part of the ... Imperial Gazetteer on DSAL - Rewa Kantha "Agar (521278)". censusindia.gov.in. 22°01′52″N 73°39′40″E / 22.031°N 73.661°E / ...
... a town Agar, South Dakota, a US town Agar Town, a short-lived area in central London Agar's Island, Bermuda Agar (name), a ... Agar is a gelatinous substance with culinary and microbiological uses. Agar may also refer to : Agar, Madhya Pradesh, a city ... pen name Agar Agar (dog) or Magyar agár, a dog breed Agarwood, a fragrant wood used in perfumery Agar gun, an early type of ... Look up Agar or agar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... India Agar, Gujarat, a village and former princely state in ...
Agar failed to advance into the semifinals, as she placed sixty-eighth overall out of 74 swimmers in the prelims. Agar, who has ... She is the sister of sprinter Steve Agar. Agar competed for Dominica in the women's 50 m freestyle at the 2000 Summer Olympics ... Francilla Agar (born January 14, 1975) is a Dominican former swimmer, who specialized in sprint freestyle events. ... I actually choose sometimes not to go back home because it's kind of difficult." "Francilla Agar". 25 June 2013. Archived from ...
The Official John Agar Website John Agar at IMDb John Agar at AllMovie John Agar at Find a Grave Interview with John Agar III ... John George Agar in the U.S., Social Security Applications and Claims Index, 1936-2007 Name: John George Agar [John G Agar] ... They had two sons, Martin Agar and John G. Agar III. In 1950 Agar was fined for reckless driving. In 1951 he was sentenced to ... Name listed as JOHN GEORGE AGAR; 10 Apr 2002: Name listed as JOHN G AGAR p. 14 Agar, John & Van Savage, L.C. On the Good Ship ...
... is a surname, and may refer to: George Agar-Ellis, 1st Baron Dover (1797-1833), English man of letters Henry Agar- ... Ellis This page lists people with the surname Agar-Ellis. If an internal link intending to refer to a specific person led you ... Ellis, 3rd Viscount Clifden (1825-1866), Irish courtier and race horse owner Agar (disambiguation) ...
... is the name of: James Agar, 1st Viscount Clifden (1735-1788), Irish peer and politician James Agar, 3rd Earl of ... Irish politician James Agar (1713-1769), Irish politician James Agar (priest) (1781-1866), Anglican priest in Ireland This ... Normanton (1818-1896), British Conservative Party politician James Agar (1672-1733), ...
"It is doubtful if in Australia there is anything to come up to Miss Agar's work". In 1918 Agar established the Bernice Agar ... Agar was born in Bowen, Queensland, to William and Isabel Agar. She began her career training as a photographer at the Bain ... "Bernice Agar :: biography at :: at Design and Art Australia Online". www.daao.org.au. Retrieved 2023-08-21. Cato, Jack (1979). ... Bernice Agar (1885-1976) was a leading Australian portrait, fashion and society photographer in the late 1910s until the 1930s ...
... g Beef extract 2.5 g Yeast extract 0.5 g Ascorbic acid 0.25 g Magnesium sulfate 19.0 g Disodium-β-glycerophosphate 11.0 g Agar ...
... (also known as Ague Town, Hagar Town, Agar-Town and Agar-town) was a small, historically poor neighbourhood of St ... The name of Agar Town is commemorated by Agar Grove which traces an edge and which was St Paul's Road in Camden Town. ... Pancras Station In 1866 Saint Thomas, Agar Town: Camden "Agar Town, Camden" on hidden-london.com 51°32′20″N 0°7′55″W /  ... Camden History Society website "St Thomas, Agar Town: gone but not quite forgotten ..." Andrewpink.org "Agar Town, Camden - ...
... (Kyrgyz: Ит-Агар) is a village in Jalal-Abad Region of Kyrgyzstan. It is part of the Aksy District. The village's ...
... is a general-purpose solid medium supporting growth of a wide range of non-fastidious organisms. It typically ... Once the dishes hold solidified agar, they are stored upside down and are often refrigerated until used. Inoculation takes ... agar - this gives the mixture solidity 0.5% sodium chloride - this gives the mixture proportions similar to those found in the ... but lacks agar. These ingredients are combined and boiled for approximately one minute to ensure they are mixed and then ...
... at the Association of Tennis Professionals Ryan Agar at the International Tennis Federation Ryan Agar at Tennis ... Ryan Agar (born 21 June 1987) is an Australian tennis player playing on the ATP Challenger Tour. On 21 July 2014, he reached ...
... is composed of Mueller-Hinton agar buffered to pH 5.6 to 5.8, with the addition of 0.495 mg/mL PNP. Janda, W.M.; K. ... PNP Agar is an agar medium used in microbiology to identify Staphylococcus species that have phosphatase activity. The medium ...
... or Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) is a type of agar growth medium containing peptones. It is used to cultivate ... Sabouraud agar is commercially available and typically contains: 40 g/L dextrose 10 g/L peptone 20 g/L agar pH 5.6 Clinical ... Sabouraud agar used in combination with additional media, such as Inhibitory Mold Agar (IMA), improves identification of fungal ... Guinea J, Peláez T, Alcalá L, Bouza E (December 2005). "Evaluation of Czapeck agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar for the culture ...
... (Reasoner's 2A agar) is a culture medium developed to study bacteria which normally inhabit potable water. These ... Agar, 1.5% Final pH 7.2 ± 0.2 @ 25 °C van der Linde K, Lim BT, Rondeel JM, Antonissen LP, de Jong GM (October 1999). "Improved ... bacteriological surveillance of haemodialysis fluids: a comparison between Tryptic soy agar and Reasoner's 2A media". Nephrol. ...
Agar had many pleasant memories of sports, swimming, boating and picnics during this period. Agar served at sea in a number of ... Agar worked hard in this role from November 1940 to July 1941 when he was given a new seagoing command. Agar was appointed ... During this period, Agar became a gunnery expert. Agar was aboard Hibernia when the First World War broke out in August 1914, ... Agar was taken aboard the Paladin. During the engagement Agar had been wounded in the leg by shrapnel. This wound turned septic ...
Agar ... If is a 1977 Bollywood crime thriller film directed by Esmayeel Shroff. Bombay-based Anil Agarwal lives a very wealthy ... the man who tells day and time Maqsood as inspector in the graveyard Agar... If at IMDb v t e (Articles lacking sources from ...
Agar is a founding member of the Future Cattle Producers of Wyoming. Agar is a Christian. According to Ballotpedia, Agar's term ... Agar was born in Weiser, Idaho on October 2, 1981. Agar is a rancher and partner in the Durbin Creek Ranch outside of ... Agar received a 100% rating from the National Federation of Independent Business between 2017 and 2018. Agar has a wife and ... "Wyatt Agar's Ratings and Endorsements". Vote Smart. Retrieved May 14, 2023. "Wyatt Agar's Biography". Vote Smart. Retrieved May ...
Agar, Herbert (1942-01-01). A Time for Greatness. Little, Brown. Agar, Herbert (1952-01-01). Abraham Lincoln. Collins. Agar, ... Herbert Sebastian Agar was born September 29, 1897, in New Rochelle, New York to John G. Agar and Agnes Louis Macdonough. He ... Agar, Herbert (1935-01-01). Land of the Free. Houghton Mifflin. Agar, Herbert; Tate, Allen (1999-01-01). Who Owns America?: A ... HERBERT AGAR TO MARRY IN LONDON". Retrieved 2016-11-30. Agar, Herbert (1933-01-01). The People's Choice: From Washington to ...
... is a town located in the state of Maharashtra, on the west coast of India. It is located approximately 60 miles ...
Agar coached France to the World Cup Quarter-Final On 2 June 2014, Agar quit his job with Wakefield Trinity Wildcats with ... "Warrington Wolves: Richard Agar to join Tony Smith's staff". BBC Sport. BBC. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014. "Agar ... He is the son of the rugby league footballer and coach; Allan Agar. Agar played for Featherstone Rovers, Dewsbury Rams and ... On 21 March 2022, Agar announced he would step down as Leeds head coach with immediate effect. On 3 August 2022, Agar was ...
... Agar's personal webpage Review of Agar, N: 2013, 'Truly Human Enhancement: A Philosophical Defense of Limits' Med ... Nicholas Agar (born 1965) is a New Zealand professor of ethics at the University of Waikato. Agar has a BA from the University ... Agar responds to the challenge from automation and artificial intelligence to human work and agency. Agar argues for a hybrid ... In his 2013 book Truly Human Enhancement Agar presented too much enhancement as an instance of transformative change. Agar ...
... (15 July 1850 - 12 May 1934) was an Australian lawyer and politician. He began his career in the Victorian ... "Agar Wynne". Re-Member: a database of all Victorian MPs since 1851. Parliament of Victoria. Retrieved 12 February 2019. ... Bennet, Darryl (1990). "Wynne, Agar (1850-1934)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian ...
Agar has performed at the National Theatre in The Man of Mode as Harriet, alongside Tom Hardy and Hayley Atwell. Other stage ... Amber Agar at IMDb Website v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from ... Agar is producer for her company Cheeky Maggot Productions CMP. Showcasing new writing at the Hampstead Theatre, Soho Theatre, ... Amber Agha, also credited as Amber Agar or Amber Aga, is an English actress, best known for her role in the British television ...
... typically contains (w/v): 1.0% peptone 1.0% beef extract 0.4% yeast extract 2.0% glucose 0.5% sodium acetate ... MacConkey agar (culture medium designed to grow Gram-negative bacteria and differentiate them for lactose fermentation). EMD ... De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe agar, often abbreviated to MRS, is a selective culture medium designed to favour the luxuriant growth of ... agar pH adjusted to 6.2 at 25 °C The yeast/meat extracts and peptone provide sources of carbon, nitrogen, and vitamins for ...
Agar-Agar Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine at Agar-Agar.org "Agar-Agar". Botanical.com. Retrieved 22 January 2017. ... They are known in Spanish as Dulce de Agar (Agar sweets) Agar-agar is an allowed nonorganic/nonsynthetic additive used as a ... The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae (Gigartina, Eucheuma, Gracilaria) from which the jelly is ... Agar is often dispensed using a sterile media dispenser. Different algae produce various types of agar. Each agar has unique ...
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Tryptic soy agar, tryptic soy agar blood base, or trypticase soy agar [soybean-casein digest agar (M152)] may be used as the ... Commercially available sheep blood agar plates are satisfactory. Blood agar base is available from Difco, BBL, and Oxoid. ... Autoclave 15 min at 121°C. Cool to 50°C. Add 5 ml defibrinated sheep red blood cells to 100 ml melted agar. Mix and pour 20 ml ...
See formulation under modified cellobiose-polymyxin B-colistin (mCPC) agar (M98).. Original Source: Bacteriological Analytical ...
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Growth on the agar with antifungals would indicate resistance. ... an agar plate assay that includes antifungal drugs in the agar ... Add 15g agar to 400mL molecular grade H2O and autoclave for 20 minutes. A stir bar should be added prior to autoclaving. ... Growth on the agar with antifungals would indicate resistance.. This assay is based on the recommended European Committee on ... Add autoclaved agar solution to sterilized RPMI solution; adjust final volume to 1L with sterile distilled H2O on stir plate. ...
Oxford Listeria Agar Base is used with antimicrobics for the selective isolation of Listeria spp.. ... Oxford Listeria Agar - French Oxford Listeria Agar - French - Canada Oxford Listeria Agar - German Oxford Listeria Agar - ... Oxford Listeria Agar - English - US Oxford Listeria Agar - Chinese Simplified - China Oxford Listeria Agar - Chinese ... Oxford Listeria Agar - Inglês - UE/Reino Unido Oxford Listeria Agar - Italian - Italy Oxford Listeria Agar - Japanese - Japan ...
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BD BBL™ prepared plated media enable the isolation of microorganisms from samples or specimens. Ready for immediate use, they are routinely available in several types of Petri-style dishes, containing a variety of media.. ...
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Agar agar is a product obtained from numerous algae, mainly of the genus Gracilaria, Gelidium and Eucheuma. All of these algae ... Medicinal properties of agar agar. BENEFITS OF AGAR AGAR. What is agar agar?. A picture of the alga Gelidium corneum. Agar agar ... How does agar agar is produced?. The production process of agar-agar from red algae contains the following parts:. *Drying of ... Why do we use the agar agar for?. The properties of agar agar are numerous. It is used primarily in the following areas:. *Food ...
Class 2 Device Recall BBL Trypticase Soy Agar with 5 Sheep Blood *. ... BBL(tm) Trypticase (tm) Soy Agar with 5% Sheep Blood.. Used for culturing microorganisms. ... Class 2 Device Recall BBL Trypticase Soy Agar with 5 Sheep Blood. ... BBL Trypticase Soy Agar with 5% Sheeps blood plus MacConkey II-I plate, part number 221291, lots 2355138 and 2355164; and BBL ...
Discover Agar, a polysaccharide ingredient obtained from seaweed or algae that works as an emulsifier due to its high ... Agar Skincare Benefits: Moisturizing Agar is a polysaccharide ingredient obtained from seaweed or algae, particularly red algae ... Agars jellified texture is highly beneficial in cosmeceutical product development. 1 Similar to carrageenan, agars high ... For this reason, agar is the ideal skincare ingredient to add to moisturizing products. 1 2 3 ...
Unlike other algae, which are consumed fresh or dried, agar agar is an extract of algae, so it has very different properties ... Agar agar is a little special algae, because it does not have the same contraindications as the rest of the algae. ... When not to take agar agar. What is agar agar and what is it used for?. Agar agar is used mainly for the production of ... Agar agar for thyroid problems and for children. Being an extract of algae, agar agar does not have the iodine content so high ...
I heard something about mixing agar with dog food instead of brewers malt and nut. yeast. Has anyone had success useing this ... Re: agar mix? Anonymous. 530. 1 04/19/00 12:00 AM. by Anonymous. Agar help? Tao_Shin_Li. 1,871. 8 01/01/02 08:36 PM. by Suntzu ... best agar mix for azurescens? YouInfoIt. 1,025. 2 09/04/03 04:07 PM. by YouInfoIt. Prefered agar mix? them_26. 5,428. 17 03/27/ ... Agar Culture transfer to Liquid Culture Tek Compiler. 23,935. 11 06/27/03 05:11 PM. by Compiler. Invitro pinning on agar after ...
Ashton Agar(REUTERS). While Agar is some way short of all-rounder status, Finch said the 26-year-old was working hard to get ... Left-arm spinner Agar, who has averaged 13.66 with the bat from 16 T20Is, was named at seven in the batting order in the series ... Australia captain Aaron Finch is hoping spin bowler Ashton Agar can blossom into a swashbuckling "finisher" in the batting ... News / Cricket / Australia skipper Aaron Finch backing Ashton Agar to become T20 finisher ...
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The development of the Online Cenotaph is an ongoing process; updates, new images and records are added weekly. In some cases, records have yet to be confirmed by Museum staff, and there could be mistakes or omissions in the information provided.. ...
Jerry Agar on "facts" Jerry Agar, who is a far-right radio shouter, hates Fight The Right. That, of course, delights me. ... Byline: By Jerry Agar. …The Founders, unlike kings, knew it wasnt their right to take our life and liberty. They set up a ... Agar the right wing hack , originally from Manitoba Canada.. I guess the Americans got tired of his schtick and sent his ass ... Agar, it would be delightful to learn about them. Would like to witness his well deserved comeuppance. ...
Tryptic Soy Agar with Lecithin and Tween 80 is used for the isolation of microorganisms from surfaces sanitized with quaternary ... discovered Tryptic Soy Agar supported excellent growth of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Tryptic Soy Agar is a ... Tryptic Soy Agar with Lecithin and Tween 80 is used for the isolation of microorganisms from surfaces sanitized with quaternary ... Tryptic Soy Agar with Lecithin and Tween 80. Close Product Images Model Popup. ...
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Similar words for Nutrient Agar. Definition: noun. a colloidal extract of algae; used especially in culture media and as a ... The answer is a kind of nutrient agar. 2. Noun Phrase You can make this agar with nutrient agar powder and distilled water. 3. ... The two types of special food used are nutrient agar and blood agar. 4. Noun Phrase Yeast extract can be used as well to make ... 1. agar-agar noun. a colloidal extract of algae; used especially in culture media and as a gelling agent in foods. ...
Agar, 100 g. Flinn Lab Chemicals, Your Safer Source for Science ... Agar, Bacteriological Grade, 100 g Agar, Bacteriological Grade ...
Cara Mengunci File Dokumen Word Agar Tidak Bisa di Edit. Byjauhari Updated On 02/09/2021. 02/09/2021. Sep 2, 2021. Sep 2, 2021 ... Cara Mengunci File Dokumen Word Agar Tidak Bisa di Edit. Dengan mengunci dokumen Word ini, maka orang yang lain yang tidak ... Selain itu, Anda juga bisa mengunci file PDF agar tidak bisa di Edit atau Copy Paste. ... Write a Comment on Cara Mengunci File Dokumen Word Agar Tidak Bisa di Edit ...
We explain how to cook with agar and if you can use it as a vegan substitute for gelatin. ... Learn all about agar aka agar-agar products like flakes and powder. ... Agar-Agar Recipes. Orange Blossom Honey Panna Cotta. Agar-agar powder is used in place of gelatin in this citrusy panna cotta ... Are Gelatin and Agar-Agar the Same?. Agar-agar can often be used as a substitute for gelatin or even cornstarch, another ...
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  • Agar (/ˈeɪɡɑːr/ or /ˈɑːɡər/), or agar-agar, is a jelly-like substance consisting of polysaccharides obtained from the cell walls of some species of red algae, primarily from "ogonori" (Gracilaria) and "tengusa" (Gelidiaceae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The word agar comes from agar-agar, the Malay name for red algae (Gigartina, Eucheuma, Gracilaria) from which the jelly is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar was first subjected to chemical analysis in 1859 by the French chemist Anselme Payen, who had obtained agar from the marine algae Gelidium corneum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar agar is a product obtained from numerous algae, mainly of the genus Gracilaria, Gelidium and Eucheuma . (botanical-online.com)
  • Agar is a polysaccharide ingredient obtained from seaweed or algae, particularly red algae (Gelidium). (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Furthermore, as a derivative of marine algae, agar is speculated to provide improved moisture-retention, which may help to reduce skin dryness. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Does agar agar have the same contraindications as other algae? (botanical-online.com)
  • Agar agar is a little special algae, because it does not have the same contraindications as the rest of the algae . (botanical-online.com)
  • Unlike other algae, which are consumed fresh or dried, agar agar is an extract of algae, so it has very different properties and does not share the majority of contraindications of algae. (botanical-online.com)
  • Being an extract of algae, agar agar does not have the iodine content so high that other algae do, being therefore a much more suitable food for children and for people with thyroid problems . (botanical-online.com)
  • The good news is that there is a vegan substitute for gelatin called agar-agar, which is a product derived from algae. (food52.com)
  • Tryptic soy agar, tryptic soy agar blood base, or trypticase soy agar [ soybean-casein digest agar (M152) ] may be used as the basal medium. (fda.gov)
  • Australia captain Aaron Finch is hoping spin bowler Ashton Agar can blossom into a swashbuckling "finisher" in the batting lineup to give the team more flexibility ahead of next year's T20 World Cup. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Heat with agitation to dissolve agar. (fda.gov)
  • OR dissolve 0.8 g in 100 ml water in a 100 ml volumetric flask, filter and add 4 ml to agar. (fda.gov)
  • You use it the same way you would gelatin, too: Dissolve and hydrate the agar in warm liquid and let set. (food52.com)
  • Blood agar base is available from Difco, BBL, and Oxoid. (fda.gov)
  • The Aspergillus screening plates contain four quadrants with RPMI 1640 2% glucose agar: one growth control well with no antifungal powder, one voriconazole well, one itraconazole well, and one posaconazole well. (cdc.gov)
  • The mucilage or jelly, once harvested and dried, is sold in powder, filaments, rods or flakes in what is called Agar-Agar. (botanical-online.com)
  • Swallow Globe Brand Agar Agar Powder Red Color (Bubuk Agar Agar warna merah) in 1oz (7g) Pack. (efooddepot.com)
  • Swallow Agar-Agar powder contains 84% Fiber and is the best sources of natural food fiber, obtained from pure seaweed extract. (efooddepot.com)
  • Agar, which you can buy in health food or Asian specialty food stores (usually in either powder or flake form), is a thickening and gelling agent, and most use it to make a firm, Jell-O- like food. (food52.com)
  • Selain itu, Anda juga bisa mengunci file PDF agar tidak bisa di Edit atau Copy Paste . (jauhari.net)
  • 2. Kedua, terapkan aturan no gadget at home agar anggota keluarga bisa fokus quality time di rumah. (powtoon.com)
  • Cara agar tidak stres selama pandemi COVID-19 serta menjaga pikiran agar tetap tenang, kamu bisa melakukan meditasi, sadar akan setiap tindakan (mindfulness), berolahraga minimal 30 menit sehari untuk mengeluarkan hormon endorfin yang bisa meminimalisir kecemasan, atau makan makanan enak untuk membangkitkan gairah dan semangat. (powtoon.com)
  • Setiap mesin slot Online juga pastinya sudah di setting agar bisa membagikan kemenangan atau pun kekalahan. (cityofnatchez.net)
  • gunakan juga opsi registrasi smf agar menggunakan cara aktivasi email yang valid, ini akan mengurangi aktivitas spammer, terakhir gunakan fitur capcha bagi user yang akan melakukan posting. (simplemachines.org)
  • Lihat juga daftar harga, serta review produk STUDiLMU Senantiasa Belajar Agar Terus Bertumbuh terbaru lainnya. (bhinneka.com)
  • Prepare as described for broth for final concentration of 32 mg/liter , adding 6.4 ml to agar. (fda.gov)
  • Use 4 ml/liter agar. (fda.gov)
  • Agar quickly supplanted gelatin as the base of microbiological media, due to its higher melting temperature, allowing microbes to be grown at higher temperatures without the media liquefying. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agar-agar looks and acts similar to gelatin, but it's made without any animal products at all, making it just right for any home cook or baker. (food52.com)
  • Ahead, find out exactly what agar is and how to use it in place of gelatin. (food52.com)
  • Are Gelatin and Agar-Agar the Same? (food52.com)
  • Agar-agar can often be used as a substitute for gelatin or even cornstarch, another popular thickening agent. (food52.com)
  • It should be noted that agar-agar does have a couple of major differences from gelatin: A liquid set with agar won't be a perfect replica of one set with gelatin. (food52.com)
  • told me over the phone, agar gel "bonds horizontally and cleaves vertically," resulting in a gel that is rubbery one way and flakey the next (unlike gelatin gel, which will jiggle softly and consistently until it's down your gullet). (food52.com)
  • in my blackberry juice experiments, I tried to follow Amanda's recipe, simply subbing agar-agar for gelatin 1:1, as some advise. (food52.com)
  • 8 Cara efektif agar tidak stress selama covid-19 KKN TEMATIK COVID-19 KEL. (powtoon.com)
  • One way to screen isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus for azole resistance is to use an agar plate assay that includes antifungal drugs in the agar. (cdc.gov)
  • Nutrients must be added to agar for microbial growth. (flinnsci.com)
  • The addition of agar provides a solid medium for microbial growth. (thomassci.com)
  • Agar was first described for use in microbiology in 1882 by the German microbiologist Walther Hesse, an assistant working in Robert Koch's laboratory, on the suggestion of his wife Fanny Hesse. (wikipedia.org)
  • With its newfound use in microbiology, agar production quickly increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercially available sheep blood agar plates are satisfactory. (fda.gov)
  • BBL(tm) Trypticase (tm) Soy Agar with 5% Sheep Blood. (fda.gov)
  • and BBL CDC Anaerobe 5% Sheep blood agar, lot 2361003. (fda.gov)
  • Autoclave 15 min at 121°C. Cool to 50°C. Add 5 ml defibrinated sheep red blood cells to 100 ml melted agar. (fda.gov)
  • Add 15g agar to 400mL molecular grade H2O and autoclave for 20 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • Lactose-Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) and Blood agar plates, and incubated aerobically at 37oC for 24 hours. (who.int)
  • Pneumococci are fastidious microorganisms that require catalase to grow on agar plates. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As found in nature, agar is a mixture of two components, the linear polysaccharide agarose and a heterogeneous mixture of smaller molecules called agaropectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tryptic Soy Agar with Lecithin and Tween 80 is used for the isolation of microorganisms from surfaces sanitized with quaternary ammonium compounds and is not intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions in humans. (neogen.com)
  • discovered Tryptic Soy Agar supported excellent growth of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. (neogen.com)
  • However, with the outbreak of World War II, many nations were forced to establish domestic agar industries in order to continue microbiological research. (wikipedia.org)
  • agar agar is one of the main culture media for microbiological research. (botanical-online.com)
  • The consumption of agar agar has been considered medicinal, given the properties of soluble fiber ( mucilage ) to lower cholesterol . (botanical-online.com)
  • Cool and add sodium cefoperazone ( 6.4 ml if using broth preparation or 4 ml of the agar preparation[below]), 4 ml rifampicin, 4 ml amphotericin B, and 50 ml lysed horse blood. (fda.gov)
  • E. coli growing on blood agar. (cdc.gov)
  • Agar agar is used mainly for the production of vegetable gelatins (suitable for vegetarians). (botanical-online.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of repair materials of endodontic use MTA/Bio Angelus®, white Portland cement, white MTA Angelus® and white MTA ProRoot® on Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by the agar diffusion test and the direct contact test. (bvsalud.org)
  • Oxford Listeria Agar Base is used with antimicrobics for the selective isolation of Listeria spp. (neogen.com)
  • For bacterial culture, specimens were cultured in parallel on 2 media: the non- selective classic Columbia agar and the selective modified Columbia urea agar (MCUA). (who.int)
  • Melt 1.2% Agar (molecular biology grade, low melt temp), cool in 42°C water bath. (iu.edu)
  • Melt 0.6% Agar (molecular biology grade, low melt temp), cool in 42°C waterbath (it is important not to exceed 42°C, otherwise cells will be killed). (iu.edu)
  • The processing of food-grade agar removes the agaropectin, and the commercial product is essentially pure agarose. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEO sederhananya adalah teknik agar ranking website naik hingga halaman 1 mesin pencari seperti Google. (simplemachines.org)
  • MCUA showed a higher isolation rate than classic Columbia agar (67.6% versus 44.1% of patients), and the results were obtained faster (24 hours versus 5-7 days) with more clear-cut identification. (who.int)
  • Oxford Listeria Agar is prepared according to the formulation of Curtis et al. (neogen.com)
  • The application of agar as a food additive in Japan is alleged to have been discovered in 1658 by Mino Tarōzaemon (美濃 太郎左衞門), an innkeeper in current Fushimi-ku, Kyoto who, according to legend, was said to have discarded surplus seaweed soup (Tokoroten) and noticed that it gelled later after a winter night's freezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, a food consumption could be between 2 and 10 g. of agar agar a day. (botanical-online.com)
  • I heard something about mixing agar with dog food instead of brewers malt and nut. (shroomery.org)
  • The agar you can get from any health food store will be just fine. (shroomery.org)
  • Pour the hot water over the dog food and agar. (shroomery.org)
  • Although agar-agar has been used for centuries in Asian cooking (it was discovered in Japan in the 17th century), it has been seeing popularity elsewhere, especially in vegan cooking (see: the raindrop cake's debut at Brooklyn food festival Smorgasburg , where it goes for a cool $8 a pop). (food52.com)
  • Oxford Listeria Agar Base is not intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions in humans. (neogen.com)
  • Tryptic Soy Agar is a nutritious base and a variety of supplements are added to enhance the medium, including Lecithin and Tween 80. (neogen.com)
  • For each 35 mm dish, mix 750 µL of cells in 2x medium + 750 µL of 0.6% agar to give you 1.5 mL of 0.3% agar in 1x medium containing 5000 cells, then immediately plate on top of base agar. (iu.edu)
  • Choose RAPID' Staph Agar Base, based on a Baird-Parker formula, for the identification and enumeration of coagulase-positive staphylococci ( Staphylococcus aureus and other spp. (bio-rad.com)
  • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 8. Fokus untuk tetap tenang Yang tak kalah penting dalam masa ini ialah menjaga pikiran agar tetap tenang. (powtoon.com)
  • For this reason, agar is the ideal skincare ingredient to add to moisturizing products. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Put the autoclaved agar solution in the 50⁰C hot water bath and let cool down to 50⁰C. (cdc.gov)
  • If the agar starts to cool, place back in the 50⁰C water bath. (cdc.gov)
  • With expansive water views and a spacious modern homestead, 540 Agar Rd is indeed a rare find. (commercialrealestate.com.au)
  • Agar agar should be considered as a fiber supplement, which has the property of slowing gastric emptying and absorption of substances . (botanical-online.com)
  • Beginning in the late 19th century, agar began to be used as a solid medium for growing various microbes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mix equal volumes of two solutions to give 0.6% agar + 1x medium + 10% FBS + 1x antibiotics. (iu.edu)
  • 200-5000 cells/35mm plate are required, therefore adjust number of cells to add into 750 µL of 2x medium (remember this medium with cells will be diluted 1:2 when mixed with 0.6% agar). (iu.edu)
  • There's even a product called agar gel, which is surprisingly quite firm! (food52.com)
  • We begin with the agar preparation itself, then advance through the steps most folks are likely to need, in the order they will likely be encountered. (shroomery.org)
  • Mix it well, and heat it a bit more until the agar is dissolved. (shroomery.org)
  • Growth on the agar with antifungals would indicate resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • Agar has been used as an ingredient in desserts throughout Asia and also as a solid substrate to contain culture media for microbiological work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Working with agar can be an effective and rewarding approach to both microbiological culture and mycology. (shroomery.org)
  • Potassium-clavulanate-supplemented modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (C-mCCDA) that was described in our previous study was compared with original mCCDA for the enumeration of Campylobacter in pure culture and chicken carcass rinse. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Concernant la culture bactérienne, les échantillons ont été mis en culture en parallèle dans deux milieux : la gélose Columbia classique non sélective et la gélose Columbia sélective modifiée à l'urée. (who.int)
  • You may also recognize agar-agar from your chem lab days: The stuff folks cook with is the same stuff that's poured into Petri dishes for culturing bacteria. (food52.com)
  • Left-arm spinner Agar, who has averaged 13.66 with the bat from 16 T20Is, was named at seven in the batting order in the series-opener against Sri Lanka on Sunday but went unused as Australia's top order dominated in the 134-run victory. (hindustantimes.com)
  • Around the time of World War II, approximately 2,500 tons of agar were produced annually. (wikipedia.org)
  • A friend was thinking of killing two birds with one stone and pc'ing rye jars as well as agar at the same time. (shroomery.org)