AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.MADS Domain Proteins: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cyclamen: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE that contains triterpenoid saponins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Trichomes: Hair-like extensions on specialized epidermal surfaces of plants which protect against damage from insects, animals, light degradation and fungal infection. Trichomes may also occur on certain unicellular EUKARYOTES.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.GlucuronidaseTobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.

HUA1 and HUA2 are two members of the floral homeotic AGAMOUS pathway. (1/85)

The identities of the four floral organ types in an Arabidopsis flower are specified by the combinatorial activities of the floral homeotic A, B, and C function genes; AGAMOUS is the only known C function gene. We have identified two genes that interact with AG in the specification of floral structure, HUA1 and HUA2, from a screen for enhancers of a weak ag allele, ag-4. HUA1 and HUA2 are involved in all aspects of AG function. HUA2 encodes a novel protein that contains nuclear localization signals and signature motifs that suggest HUA2, like AG, may be a transcription factor. Molecular analyses suggest that HUA2 (and possibly HUA1) acts to facilitate AG action at the same hierarchical level as AG.  (+info)

CRABS CLAW and SPATULA, two Arabidopsis genes that control carpel development in parallel with AGAMOUS. (2/85)

To help understand the process of carpel morphogenesis, the roles of three carpel development genes have been partitioned genetically. Mutants of CRABS CLAW cause the gynoecium to develop into a wider but shorter structure, and the two carpels are unfused at the apex. Mutants of a second gene, SPATULA, show reduced growth of the style, stigma, and septum, and the transmitting tract is absent. Double mutants of crabs claw and spatula with homeotic mutants that develop ectopic carpels demonstrate that CRABS CLAW and SPATULA are necessary for, and inseparable from, carpel development, and that their action is negatively regulated by A and B organ identity genes. The third carpel gene studied, AGAMOUS, encodes C function that has been proposed to fully specify carpel identity. When AGAMOUS function is removed together with the A class gene APETALA2, however, the organs retain many carpelloid properties, suggesting that other genes are also involved. We show here that further mutant disruption of both CRABS CLAW and SPATULA function removes remaining carpelloid properties, revealing that the three genes together are necessary to generate the mature gynoecium. In particular, AGAMOUS is required to specify the identity of the carpel wall and to promote the stylar outgrowth at the apex, CRABS CLAW suppresses radial growth of the developing gynoecium but promotes its longitudinal growth, and SPATULA supports development of the carpel margins and tissues derived from them. The three genes mostly act independently, although there is genetic evidence that CRABS CLAW enhances AGAMOUS and SPATULA function.  (+info)

The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER gene is required for flower formation. (3/85)

A screen for mutations affecting flower formation was carried out and several filamentous flower (fil) alleles were identified. In fil mutants, floral primordia occasionally give rise to pedicels lacking flowers at their ends. This defect is dramatically enhanced in fil rev double mutants, in which every floral primordium produces a flowerless pedicel. These data suggest that the FIL and REV genes are required for an early step of flower formation, possibly for the establishment of a flower-forming domain within the floral primordium. The FIL gene is also required for establishment of floral meristem identity and for flower development. During flower development, the FIL gene is required for floral organ formation in terms of the correct numbers and positions; correct spatial activity of the AGAMOUS, APETALA3, PISTILLATA and SUPERMAN genes; and floral organ development.  (+info)

Activation of a floral homeotic gene in Arabidopsis. (4/85)

The patterned expression of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis depends on the earlier action of meristem-identity genes such as LEAFY, which encodes a transcription factor that determines whether a meristem will generate flowers instead of leaves and shoots. The LEAFY protein, which is expressed throughout the flower, participates in the activation of homeotic genes, which are expressed in specific regions of the flower. Analysis of a LEAFY-responsive enhancer in the homeotic gene AGAMOUS indicates that direct interaction of LEAFY with this enhancer is required for its activity in plants. Thus, LEAFY is a direct upstream regulator of floral homeotic genes.  (+info)

Non-AUG initiation of AGAMOUS mRNA translation in Arabidopsis thaliana. (5/85)

The MADS box organ identity gene AGAMOUS (AG) controls several steps during Arabidopsis thaliana flower development. AG cDNA contains an open reading frame that lacks an ATG triplet to function as the translation initiation codon, and the actual amino terminus of the AG protein remains uncharacterized. We have considered the possibility that AG translation can be initiated at a non-AUG codon. Two possible non-AUG initiation codons, CUG and ACG, are present in the 5' region of AG mRNA preceding the highly conserved MADS box sequence. We prepared a series of AG genomic constructs in which these codons are mutated and assayed their activity in phenotypic rescue experiments by introducing them as transgenes into ag mutant plants. Alteration of the CTG codon to render it unsuitable for acting as a translation initiation site does not affect complementation of the ag-3 mutation in transgenic plants. However, a similar mutation of the downstream ACG codon prevents the rescue of the ag-3 mutant phenotype. Conversely, if an ATG is introduced immediately 5' to the disrupted ACG codon, the resulting construct fully complements the ag-3 mutation. The AG protein synthesized in vitro by initiating translation at the ACG position is active in DNA binding and is of the same size as the AG protein detected from floral tissues, whereas AG polypeptides with additional amino-terminal residues do not appear to bind DNA. These results indicate that translation of AG is initiated exclusively at an ACG codon and prove that non-AUG triplets may be efficiently used as the sole translation initiation site in some plant cellular mRNAs.  (+info)

Redundant enhancers mediate transcriptional repression of AGAMOUS by APETALA2. (6/85)

The floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS specifies stamen and carpel fate in the central whorls of Arabidopsis flowers. Transcription of AGAMOUS RNA is restricted to the center of developing flowers by several, partially redundant negative regulators, one of which is the homeotic gene APETALA2. We have identified regulatory elements that mediate transcriptional repression of AGAMOUS by APETALA2 and found that several redundant elements respond independently to loss of APETALA2 activity. Thus, redundancy at the level of cis-regulatory sequences is independent of redundancy at the level of trans-regulators. We have also found that only the early, but not the late, effects of APETALA2 on AGAMOUS require the meristem-identity protein LEAFY, a positive regulator of AGAMOUS.  (+info)

Ectopic hypermethylation of flower-specific genes in Arabidopsis. (7/85)

BACKGROUND: Arabidopsis mutations causing genome-wide hypomethylation are viable but display a number of specific developmental abnormalities, including some that resemble known floral homeotic mutations. We previously showed that one of the developmental abnormalities present in an antisense-METHYLTRANSFERASEI (METI) transgenic line resulted from ectopic hypermethylation of the SUPERMAN gene. RESULTS: Here, we investigate the extent to which hypermethylation of SUPERMAN occurs in several hypomethylation mutants, and describe methylation effects at a second gene, AGAMOUS. SUPERMAN gene hypermethylation occurred at a high frequency in several mutants that cause overall decreases in genomic DNA methylation. The hypermethylation pattern was largely similar in the different mutant backgrounds. Genetic analysis suggests that hypermethylation most likely arose either during meiosis or somatically in small sectors of the plant. A second floral development gene, AGAMOUS, also became hypermethylated and silenced in an Arabidopsis antisense-METI line. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ectopic hypermethylation of specific genes in mutant backgrounds that show overall decreases in methylation may be a widespread phenomenon that could explain many of the developmental defects seen in Arabidopsis methylation mutants. This resembles a phenomenon seen in cancer cells, which can simultaneously show genome-wide hypomethylation and hypermethylation of specific genes. Comparison of the methylated sequences in SUPERMAN and AGAMOUS suggests that hypermethylation could involve DNA secondary structures formed by pyrimidine-rich sequences.  (+info)

Specific and heritable genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. (8/85)

We investigated the potential of double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) with gene activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. To construct transformation vectors that produce RNAs capable of duplex formation, gene-specific sequences in the sense and antisense orientations were linked and placed under the control of a strong viral promoter. When introduced into the genome of A. thaliana by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, double-stranded RNA-expressing constructs corresponding to four genes, AGAMOUS (AG), CLAVATA3, APETALA1, and PERIANTHIA, caused specific and heritable genetic interference. The severity of phenotypes varied between transgenic lines. In situ hybridization revealed a correlation between a declining AG mRNA accumulation and increasingly severe phenotypes in AG (RNAi) mutants, suggesting that endogenous mRNA is the target of double-stranded RNA-mediated genetic interference. The ability to generate stably heritable RNAi and the resultant specific phenotypes allows us to selectively reduce gene function in A. thaliana.  (+info)

*Double-flowered

"The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors". Nature. 346 (6279): 35-39. doi: ... In Arabidopsis, which has been used as a model for understanding flower development, the double-flower gene AGAMOUS encodes a ... Agamous is a C class gene, a transcription factor responsible for activating genes involved in stamen and carpel development. ... Mutations affecting flower morphology in Arabidopsis can be described by the ABC model of flower development. In this model, ...

*Arabidopsis thaliana

"The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors". Nature. 346 (6279): 35-39. ... "Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress)". Kew Gardens. [1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis Rensink WA, Buell CR (2004). "Arabidopsis to Rice ... Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory map The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) ... Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia. A. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776.260)

... agamous protein, arabidopsis MeSH D12.776.260.400.249.374 -- deficiens protein MeSH D12.776.260.400.249.875 -- serum response ... ets-domain protein elk-1 MeSH D12.776.260.665.600.300 -- ets-domain protein elk-4 MeSH D12.776.260.713.500.100 -- smad1 protein ... oncogene protein v-maf MeSH D12.776.260.108.500.061.750 -- proto-oncogene proteins c-maf MeSH D12.776.260.108.500.500 -- maf ... ccaat-enhancer-binding protein-alpha MeSH D12.776.260.108.124.750 -- ccaat-enhancer-binding protein-beta MeSH D12.776.260.108. ...

*ABC model of flower development

"Dimerization Specificity of Arabidopsis MADS Domain Homeotic Proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS". Proceedings ... Bowman, JL; Drews, GN; Meyerowitz, EM (August 1991). "Expression of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS is restricted ... "MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell. 15 (11): 2603-11. doi:10.1105/ ... In Arabidopsis this loss results in a flower which is composed of one verticil of carpels, another containing stamens and ...

*Agamous

"The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors". Nature. 346 (6279): 35-9. doi: ... AGAMOUS (AG) is a homeotic gene and MADS-box transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana. The TAIR AGI number is AT4G18960. ... Bowman JL, Drews GN, Meyerowitz EM (August 1991). "Expression of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS is restricted to ... Drews GN, Bowman JL, Meyerowitz EM (June 1991). "Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 ...

*Apetala 2

The Arabidopsis CBF gene family is composed of three genes encoding AP2domain-containing proteins, which are all regulated by ... 2007) Functional domains of the floral regulator AGAMOUS: characterization of the DNA binding domain and analysis of dominant ... 2004) The Arabidopsis CBF gene family is composed of three genes encoding AP2 domain-containing proteins whose expression Is ... 1999) APETALA2 protein, Arabidopsis at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) AP2 family, ERF ...

*MADS-box

AGAMOUS from the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana, DEFICIENS from the snapdragon Antirrhinum majus, SRF from the human Homo ... Two types of MADS-domain proteins are distinguished; the SRF-like or Type I MADS-domain proteins and the MEF2-like (after ... In plants, the MEF2-like MADS-domain proteins are also termed MIKC-type proteins referring to their conserved domain structure ... In Arabidopsis thaliana the MADS box genes SOC1 and Flowering Locus C (FLC) have been shown to have an important role in the ...

*Meristem

Jeong S, Trotochaud AE, Clark S (1999). "The Arabidopsis CLAVATA2 gene encodes a receptor-like protein required for the ... Determination of Arabidopsis Floral Meristem identity by Agamous The Plant Cell, Vol. 9, 393- 408 Lohmann, J. U. et al. (2001) ... These proteins may act as an intermediate between the CLV complex and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), which is often ... Proteins that contain these conserved regions have been grouped into the CLE family of proteins. CLV1 has been shown to ...

*Superman (gene)

The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR). 2006-02-01. Retrieved 2007-01-23. "Clever Arabidopsis gene names". Clever gene ... This protein binds to the DNA through a zinc finger binding motif acts as a regulator of floral homeotic genes, controlling the ... Other important members of the ABC model of flower development include APETALA1, APETALA2, AGAMOUS, and PISTILATA. Superman has ... Arabidopsis thaliana flowers develop in four whorls, which are concentric groups of cells branching off of the growing meristem ...

*Plant evolutionary developmental biology

Arabidopsis thaliana has a gene called AGAMOUS that plays an important role in defining how many petals and sepals and other ... In both plants, the proteins CO and FT are present but in Arabidopsis thaliana CO enhances FT production, while in rice the CO ... Proteins of the HD-ZIPIII family have been implicated in defining the adaxial identity. These proteins deviate some cells in ... Arabidopsis thaliana had begun to be used in some developmental studies. The first collection of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants ...
To help understand the process of carpel morphogenesis, the roles of three carpel development genes have been partitioned genetically. Mutants of CRABS CLAW cause the gynoecium to develop into a wider but shorter structure, and the two carpels are unfused at the apex. Mutants of a second gene, SPATULA, show reduced growth of the style, stigma, and septum, and the transmitting tract is absent. Double mutants of crabs claw and spatula with homeotic mutants that develop ectopic carpels demonstrate that CRABS CLAW and SPATULA are necessary for, and inseparable from, carpel development, and that their action is negatively regulated by A and B organ identity genes. The third carpel gene studied, AGAMOUS, encodes C function that has been proposed to fully specify carpel identity. When AGAMOUS function is removed together with the A class gene APETALA2, however, the organs retain many carpelloid properties, suggesting that other genes are also involved. We show here that further mutant disruption of ...
Looking for online definition of agamous in the Medical Dictionary? agamous explanation free. What is agamous? Meaning of agamous medical term. What does agamous mean?
An orchid (Aranda deborah) mature flower cDNA library was screened with an agamous cDNA probe from Arabidopsis. One positive clone for agamous gene was isolated, cloned and sequenced. This cDNA clone (om1) has a full length open reading frame of 750 bp corresponding to 250 amino acid residues. Comparison of om1 MADS box with that of its counterparts in tomato and Arabidopisis reveals significantly high homology (,95%). Northern analysis indicated this gene is expressed in mature flowers and not in young developing inflorescences or young floral buds. In the mature flowers, it is only expressed in petals and weakly in sepals but not in the column (gynostemium). © 1993 Kluwer Academic Publishers ...
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Author(s): Kim, YunJu | Advisor(s): Chen, Xuemei | Abstract: Forward genetics is a powerful tool to identify genes involved in particular biological processes. In my thesis work, I participated in forward genetic screens to identify genes involved in two biological processes in plants, stem cell maintenance in the floral meristem and small RNA biogenesis/function. First, I characterized a Polycomb (PcG) gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF) as a factor required for floral meristem termination. A mutation in CLF enhances the floral determinacy defects of ag-10, a weak allele in AGAMOUS (AG), a gene essential for floral stem cell termination. CLF acts in the AG pathway to repress the stem cell identity gene, WUSCHEL (WUS) to result in floral stem cell termination. In addition, I show that this role of CLF reflects the role of the PcG complex in the control of floral meristem determinacy. Taken together, I provide a link between epigenetic regulation and stem cell maintenance in the floral meristem. Second, I identified
Organ identity in flowers is specified by homeotic genes with activities in different regions of a developing flower. Three classes of floral homeotic genes are proposed to function in overlapping domains to specify the identity of sepals in whorl one, petals in whorl two, stamens in whorl three, and carpels in whorl four (Bowman et al., 1991; Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991; Meyerowitz et al., 1991). In Arabidopsis, the A class genes APETALA1 (AP1) and APETALA2 (AP2) act to specify sepal and petal development, the B class genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) act to specify petal and stamen development, and the class C gene AGAMOUS (AG) acts to specify stamen and carpel development. In many cases, these gene activities are restricted to particular regions by means of transcriptional regulation. Several genes controlling the establishment or maintenance of such region-specific expression have been described. The floral meristem identity gene LEAFY (LFY) is expressed throughout young floral ...
Homeotic mutations (q.v.) in which one floral organ has been replaced by another. For example, in Arabidopsis thaliana (q.v.) the apetala 2 mutations have sepals converted into carpels and petals into stamens. In apetala 3 mutants, petals are converted into sepals and stamens into carpels. In the agamous mutant, stamens are converted to petals and carpels to sepals. The ingenious "ABC model" illustrated below explains the bizarre phenotypes of the mutant flowers. In the normal flower (matrix I) a class A gene (APETALA 2) produces an A morphogen, a class B gene (APETALA 3) produces a B morphogen, and a Class C gene (AGAMOUS) produces a C morphogen. Whorl 1 (W1) meristems produce sepals when A morphogen is present. Whorl 2 (W2) meristems produce petals when A and B morphogens are present. W3 meristems produce stamens when B and C are present, and W4 meristems produce carpels when only C is present. The apetala 2 mutant lacks morphogen A (matrix II), the apetala 3 mutant lacks morphogen B (matrix ...
Component of SCF(ASK-cullin-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, which may mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins (By similarity). Considered as a meristem identity factor required for normal growth of the young floral meristem. Acts together with LEAFY to positively regulate the B class floral homeotic genes APETALA3 and PISTILLATA. In this way, operates as a region-specific regulator for petal and stamen development. Alternatively, may play a role as a negative regulator of the C class floral homeotic genes. Interacts together with the SKP1-like protein ASK1 to form a ubiquitin E3 ligase complex and could indirectly promote the ubiquitination and degradation of specific proteins controlling the floral primordia development like repressors of B class floral homeotic genes.
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Define carpel: one of the ovule-bearing structures in an angiosperm that comprises the innermost whorl of a flower - carpel in a sentence
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Different plant hormones regulate similar processes through largely nonoverlapping transcriptional responses. A molecular link between stem cell regulation and floral patterning in Arabidopsis
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Arabidopsis plants undergo a transition from vegetative growth, in which the shoot apical meristem produces leaves and axillary buds, to reproductive growth, when the meristem begins to form flowers. The meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and APETALA1 (AP1) are both necessary and sufficient for this transition to reproductive growth and the concomitant formation of flowers. Loss of LFY function leads to leaves and shoots in place of flowers, while constitutive expression of LFY results in precocious floral development (Weigel et al., 1992; Weigel and Nilsson, 1995). Similarly, constitutive AP1 expression also results in premature flowering, and loss of AP1 function results in a partial transformation of flowers to more inflorescence-like structures (Bowman et al., 1993; Irish and Sussex, 1990; Mandel and Yanofsky, 1995).. In turn, the development of floral structures depends on the action of three classes of floral homeotic genes, A, B and C. These ABC floral homeotic genes function in ...
In plants, genome duplication followed by genome diversification and selection is recognized as a major evolutionary process. Rapid epigenetic and genetic changes that affect the transcription of parental genes are frequently observed after polyploidization. The pattern of alternative splicing is also frequently altered, yet the related molecular processes remain largely unresolved. Here, we study the inheritance and expression of parental variants of three floral organ identity genes in allotetraploid tobacco. DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA are B-class genes, and AGAMOUS is a C-class gene. Parental variants of these genes were found to be maintained in the tobacco genome, and the respective mRNAs were present in flower buds in comparable amounts. However, among five tobacco cultivars, we identified two in which the majority of paternal GLOBOSA pre-mRNA transcripts undergo exon 3 skipping, producing an mRNA with a premature termination codon. At the DNA level, we identified a G-A transition at the very ...
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Germ cells are indispensable carriers of genetic information from one generation to the next. In contrast to the well-understood process in animals, information on the mechanism of germ cell initiation in plants is very limited. SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE was previously identified as an essential regulator of diploid germ cell (archesporial cell) differentiation in the stamens and ovules of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Although SPOROCYTELESS (SPL) transcription is activated by the floral organ identity regulator AGAMOUS and epigenetically regulated by SET DOMAIN GROUP2, little is known about the regulation of the SPL protein. Here, we report that the protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 can both interact with SPL in vitro and in vivo and can phosphorylate the SPL protein in vitro. In addition, phosphorylation of the SPL protein by MPK3/6 is required for SPL function in the Arabidopsis anther, as measured by its effect on archesporial cell differentiation. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation ...
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A short, slightly barrel-shaped, dextral shell with the penultimate whorl slightly but noticeably broader than the last (body) whorl. Colour a distinctive yellow to pale brown with distinctive regular striations on the upper whorls. Aperture with 5-6 fine denticles: 2 parietal; 1-2 columellar; 2 palatal. No other species has the combination of pale colour, broad penultimate whorl and regular striations. Widespread. ...
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Of small-medium to medium size, having the general form of Ectinochilus. Protoconch helicoid-trochoid, consisting of about four smooth, moderately convex whorls. Spire gently cyrtoconoid; last whorl slightly more than half the height of the shell. Whorls only slightly convex, sutures distinct; five to six spire whorls. An incised line separates a narrow juxtasutural band which is always crenulated or beaded in the early stages; later, the band is either smooth or beaded, and may be vaguely bifid. Last whorl oval, base declivous; neck short, not swollen. Rostrum short, scarcely projecting, inclined gently to the right, with a broad, very shallow notch to its right, the notchlimited externally by a short, sharp spine. Aperture oval, rather small, with a long, narrow, callous posterior sinus which curves over and slightly down on to the suture of the last whorl, extending only a short distance back. On those specimens which have a heavily beaded juxtasutural thread, the upper part of the ...
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Numerous typical whorl formations (A) and small cells with a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (B) were observed in the tumor. Spontaneous necrosis was occasionall
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If a plant is exposed to periods of light and darkness long enough to promote flowering, it is said to be photoperiodically induced, and the minimum duration of light needed to initiate floral primordia is called inductive cycle photoperiod. It was observed that if a short-day plant growing under long-short conditions is temporarily transferred to short day conditions and then returned to long day environment again flowering will initiate. This is photoperiodic induction. The number of 24-hours cycles required to induce floraI primordia is called photo-inductive cycle.. The number of cycles required to induce flowering differs widely among different species. For example, cocklebur (Xanthium pennsylvanictim), a long day plant, needs to receive 25 photo-inductive cycles, it will flower even if it is returned to photo-inductive cycles.. Partial induction has been observed both in short-day plants and long-day plants. For example, short-day plant Impatiens balsamina requires only three ...
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Endress, Peter K (2015). Patterns of angiospermy development before carpel sealing across living angiosperms: diversity, and morphological and systematic aspects. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 178(4):556-591. ...
Description: Ascending shrub to 100 cm high, stems stout. Leaves linear, 5-10 mm long, c. 1 mm wide, apex mucronate and without a tuft of hairs, margins revolute, lamina scabrous with small tubercles, otherwise glabrous. Flowers terminal. Sepals c. 5 mm long, glabrous. Petals 7-8 mm long. Stamens c. 6, on 1 side of carpels. Carpels 2, glabrous. ...
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Human serum response factor (SRF) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein important for cell proliferation and differentiation. SRF function is essential for transcriptional regulation of numerous growth-factor-inducible genes, such as c-fos oncogene and muscle-specific actin genes. A core domain of around 90 amino acids is sufficient for the activities of DNA-binding, dimerisation and interaction with accessory factors. Within the core is a DNA-binding region, designated the MADS box [(PUBMED:7637780)], that is highly similar to many eukaryotic regulatory proteins: among these are MCM1, the regulator of cell type-specific genes in fission yeast; DSRF, a Drosophila trachea development factor; the MEF2 family of myocyte-specific enhancer factors; and the Agamous and Deficiens families of plant homeotic proteins.. In SRF, the MADS box has been shown to be involved in DNA-binding and dimerisation [(PUBMED:3203386)]. Proteins belonging to the MADS family function as dimers, the primary DNA-binding element ...
Prunet, N., Morel, P., Champelovier, P., Thierry, A.-M., Negrutiu, I., Jack, T., and Trehin, C. (2015). SQUINT promotes stem cell homeostasis and floral meristem termination in Arabidopsis through APETALA2 and CLAVATA signaling. J. Ex. Bot. 66, 6905-6916.. Wellmer, F., Bowman, J. L., Davies, B., Ferrandiz, C., Fletcher J. C., Franks, R. G., Graciet, E., Gregis, V., Ito, T., Jack, T. P., Jiao, Y., Kater, M. M., Ma, H., Meyerowitz, E. M., Prunet, N., and Riechmann, J. L. (2014). Flower Development: Open Questions and Future Directions. In Methods in Molecular Biology - Flower Development: Methods and Protocols (F. Wellmer and J.-L. Riechmann editors), 103-124.. Prunet, N. and Jack, T. (2014). Flower development in Arabidopsis - theres more to it than learning your ABCs. In Methods in Molecular Biology - Flower Development: Methods and Protocols (F. Wellmer and J.-L. Riechmann editors), 3-33.. Biology Education Publications. Brancaccio-Taras, L., Pape-Lindstrom, P. A., Peteroy-Kelly, M., Aguirre, ...
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Over the past 30 years, the flower development has been one of the main model to study the genetic control of organogenesis in higher plants. The work on Arabidopsis thaliana has led to the proposal of the ABC model of flower development. This model states the interaction of three classes of the genes that encode transcription factors specifying the four types of organs in the flower, i.e, sepals, petals, stamens and carpels. While the activities of these master regulators have been extensively characterized in recent years, comparatively little is known about the functions of the target genes of these regulators. One of the genes that is acting downstream of AGAMOUS (AG) ? the transcription factor that specifies the formation of a carpel, is KNUCKLES (KNU). It has been reported that KNU is directly activated by AG and is believed to be a repressor of WUSCHEL (WUS) activity in the meristematic cells. To fully understand functions of KNU in the stem cells, several transgenic lines were generated. ...
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The Comparative - Phylogenetic Method of Reconstructing Evolutionary History. Kramer, Elena M [1]. A molecular perspective on the reconstruction of morphological evolution.. JUST as understanding morphological evolution requires a clear picture of taxonomic relationships, a complete understanding of developmental evolution is dependent on reconstructing the evolution of gene lineages. Therefore, the first step in studying the evolution of genetic pathways that underlie morphological change is analyzing the phylogenetic relationships among the genes that participate in these pathways. The importance of this type of analysis will be discussed in the context of the floral organ identity program and the MADS box genes which play critical roles in this program. In particular, the evolutionary history of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene lineages in the Ranunculales has the potential to shed light on the morphological diversification of this group. Current evidence suggests that duplications which ...
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A Closer Listen. Tim Catlin & Machinefabrieks third collaboration is also their first in four years. The gap in time is clearly responsible for a shift in sound. Whorls is as dynamic and exciting as Patina was soft and calm. When the latter was released in 2011, the label called it a work of "gentle nuance". The new work is more an album of powerful contrast. The return to shorter works (the last album included two side-long halves) recalls the duos 2009 debut, Glisten, but that one was even quieter, content for the most part to luxuriate in the dust of sunbeams, save for the finale of "Haul".. The compositional method is the only constant. First, Catlin records the initial sounds (guitar on Glisten, plus sitar on Patina, plus piano and zither on Whorls). Then Machinefabriek (Rutger Zuydervelt) moves the whole thing around and adds new layers (similar to his technique on the recently reviewed Sneeuwstorm).. This knowledge still doesnt prepare the listener for what amounts to a Whitman box of ...
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Forward Genetic Studies Towards the Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Floral Meristem Determinacy and Small...Forward Genetic Studies Towards the Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Floral Meristem Determinacy and Small...

A mutation in CLF enhances the floral determinacy defects of ag-10, a weak allele in AGAMOUS (AG), a gene essential for floral ... In sap mutants, the mRNA and protein levels of several miRNA target genes are reduced despite no changes in miRNA accumulation ... the Understanding of the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Floral Meristem Determinacy and Small RNA Function in Arabidopsis ... A mutation in CLF enhances the floral determinacy defects of ag-10, a weak allele in AGAMOUS (AG), a gene essential for floral ...
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The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors.  - PubMed - NCBIThe protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. - PubMed - NCBI

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors.. Yanofsky MF1, Ma H, Bowman JL, ... Cloning and sequence analysis of agamous suggest that it encodes a protein with a high degree of sequence similarity to the DNA ... Mutations in the homeotic gene agamous of the plant Arabidopsis cause the transformation of the floral sex organs. ... The agamous gene therefore probably encodes a transcription factor that regulates genes determining stamen and carpel ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1973265?dopt=Abstract

AGL16 - Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL16 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AGL16 gene & proteinAGL16 - Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL16 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AGL16 gene & protein

Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL16Add BLAST. 240. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across ... sp,A2RVQ5,AGL16_ARATH Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL16 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana OX=3702 GN=AGL16 PE=1 SV=1 ... "miR824-regulated AGAMOUS-LIKE16 contributes to flowering time repression in Arabidopsis.". Hu J.Y., Zhou Y., He F., Dong X., ... "miR824-regulated AGAMOUS-LIKE16 contributes to flowering time repression in Arabidopsis.". Hu J.Y., Zhou Y., He F., Dong X., ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A2RVQ5

AGL3 - Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL3 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AGL3 gene & proteinAGL3 - Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL3 - Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) - AGL3 gene & protein

"Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein.". ... Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL3Add BLAST. 258. Proteomic databases. PaxDb, a database of protein abundance averages across ... Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL3. Alternative name(s):. Protein SEPALLATA 41 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information ... sp,P29383,AGL3_ARATH Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL3 OS=Arabidopsis thaliana OX=3702 GN=AGL3 PE=1 SV=2 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P29383

The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules  - CSHL...The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules - CSHL...

The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules ... The MADS Domain Protein DIANA Acts Together with AGAMOUS-LIKE80 to Specify the Central Cell in Arabidopsis Ovules. Plant Cell, ... We investigated two independent T-DNA insertion alleles of the Arabidopsis thaliana type I MADS box gene AGAMOUS-LIKE61 (AGL61 ... An AGL61:green fluorescent protein-{beta}-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the ...
more infohttp://repository.cshl.edu/id/eprint/27563/

A set of Arabidopsis genes involved in the accommodation of the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.A set of Arabidopsis genes involved in the accommodation of the downy mildew pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis.

Agamous Protein, Arabidopsis. A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis ... Arabidopsis. A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species ... Arabidopsis Proteins. Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely ... Home » Topics » Myc the protein encoded by the MYC gene that activates the cell cycle » Research » A set of Arabidopsis genes ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/2422387/A-set-of-Arabidopsis-genes-involved-in-the-accommodation-of-the-downy.html

Frontiers | Application of Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. | Plant ScienceFrontiers | Application of Somatic Embryogenesis in Woody Plants. | Plant Science

Global identification of targets of the Arabidopsis MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like15. Plant Cell 21, 2563-2577. doi: 10.1105/ ... storage proteins and stress related proteins. Up-regulation of stress related proteins was also observed in somatic embryos ( ... Chen, D., Molitor, A., Liu, C., and Shen, W.-H. (2010). The Arabidopsis PRC1-like ring-finger proteins are necessary for ... Wang, H., Caruso, L. V., Downie, A. B., and Perry, S. E. (2004). The embryo MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like 15 directly ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00938/full

Plus itPlus it

2009). Global identification of targets of the Arabidopsis MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like15. Plant Cell 21: 2563-2577. ... 33P-labeled probes (1 μL of each) were incubated with purified proteins (1 μg fusion protein per reaction) in 20-μL mixtures ... 2003). A Bayesian networks approach for predicting protein-protein interactions from genomic data. Science 302: 449-453. ... 2005). Probabilistic model of the human protein-protein interaction network. Nat. Biotechnol. 23: 951-959. ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/25/10/3743

Functional Characterization of Giant Killer in Flower Development and Meristem regulation in Arabidopsis Thaliana | ScholarBank...Functional Characterization of Giant Killer in Flower Development and Meristem regulation in Arabidopsis Thaliana | ScholarBank...

The Arabidopsis homeotic protein AGAMOUS (AG) specifies reproductive organ identity during flower development. GIANT KILLER ( ... The GIK protein contains an AT-hook DNA binding motif that could bind to nuclear matrix attachment regions of DNA elements. ... flower development, organ identity, patterning, differentiation, homeotic protein, nuclear organization. Issue Date: 14-Aug- ... Functional Characterization of Giant Killer in Flower Development and Meristem regulation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. ...
more infohttps://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/12949

Genetic Analysis of incurvata Mutants Reveals Three Independent Genetic Operations at Work in Arabidopsis Leaf Morphogenesis |...Genetic Analysis of incurvata Mutants Reveals Three Independent Genetic Operations at Work in Arabidopsis Leaf Morphogenesis |...

1990 The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS resembles transcription factors. Nature 346: 35-39. ... 1994 Leaf development in Arabidopsis, pp. 379-401 in Arabidopsis, edited by Meyerowitz E. M., Sommerville C. R.. Cold Spring ... 1999 FILAMENTOUS FLOWER, a meristem and organ identity gene of Arabidopsis, encodes a protein with a zinc finger and HMG- ... 1992 Ectopic expression of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants alters floral organ identity. Cell ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/156/3/1363?ijkey=f555531377c4002d8539fdf532fd3e077ecfbf00&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Comparative Mapping Between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica nigra Indicates That Brassica Genomes Have Evolved Through...Comparative Mapping Between Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica nigra Indicates That Brassica Genomes Have Evolved Through...

1990 The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346: 35-39. ... 1992 Introduction to the Arabidopsis genome, pp. 102-118 in Methods in Arabidopsis Research, edited by Koncz C., Chua N., ... 1990 Molecular cloning and characterization of GPA1, a G protein alpha subunit gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc. Natl. Acad ... 1996 Genes encoding homeodomain-leucine zipper proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ph.D. thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala ...
more infohttps://www.genetics.org/content/150/3/1217?ijkey=17a0ae5414ce8148a6dcf08cca210277ab2d3a92&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Frontiers | Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal...Frontiers | Evolution of the fruit endocarp: molecular mechanisms underlying adaptations in seed protection and dispersal...

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346, 35-39. doi: 10.1038/ ... 2003). MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 15, 2603-2611. doi: 10.1105/ ... Western, T. L., and Haughn, G. W. (1999). BELL1 and AGAMOUS genes promote ovule identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 18, ... The role of the REPLUMLESS homeodomain protein in patterning the Arabidopsis fruit. Curr. Biol. 13, 1630-1635. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2014.00284/full

APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact with SEUSS to mediate transcription repression during flower development | DevelopmentAPETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact with SEUSS to mediate transcription repression during flower development | Development

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346,35 -39. ... both MADS box DNA-binding proteins, interacted with SEU. The AP1-SEU protein-protein interaction was supported by synergistic ... Drews, G. N., Bowman, J. L. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1991). Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the ... Liu, Z. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1995). LEUNIG regulates AGAMOUS expression in Arabidopsis flowers. Development 121,975 -991. ...
more infohttps://dev.biologists.org/content/133/16/3159?ijkey=3178fd5161273f2e58f2ef03518368eeba1d9077&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

BABY BOOM ( BBM): a candidate transcription factor gene in plant biotechnology | SpringerLinkBABY BOOM ( BBM): a candidate transcription factor gene in plant biotechnology | SpringerLink

Global identification of targets of the Arabidopsis MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like15. Plant Cell 21:2563-2577CrossRefGoogle ... Lutz KA, Martin C, Khairzada S, Maliga P (2015) Steroid-inducible BABY BOOM system for development of fertile Arabidopsis ... Lutz KA, Azhagiri A, Maliga P (2011) Transplastomics in Arabidopsis: progress towards developing an efficient method. Humana ... Expression of the BBM gene during somatic embryogenesis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biol Plant 56:389-394CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10529-018-2613-5

Genetic Interaction of OsMADS3, DROOPING LEAF, and OsMADS13 in Specifying Rice Floral Organ Identities and Meristem Determinacy...Genetic Interaction of OsMADS3, DROOPING LEAF, and OsMADS13 in Specifying Rice Floral Organ Identities and Meristem Determinacy...

1990) The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346: 35-39. ... 2002) Ovule-specific MADS-box proteins have conserved protein-protein interactions in monocot and dicot plants. Mol Genet ... The rice DROOPING LEAF (DL) gene, which is orthologous to Arabidopsis CRABS CLAW (CRC), encodes a YABBY domain protein and ... 1999) CRABS CLAW and SPATULA, two Arabidopsis genes that control carpel development in parallel with AGAMOUS. Development 126: ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/156/1/263.full

Kiwifruit floral gene APETALA2 is alternatively spliced and accumulates in aberrant indeterminate flowers in the absence of...Kiwifruit floral gene APETALA2 is alternatively spliced and accumulates in aberrant indeterminate flowers in the absence of...

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors ... CARPEL FACTORY, a dicer homolog, and HEN1, a novel protein, act in microRNA metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana ... The AP2 domain of APETALA2 defines a large new family of DNA binding proteins in Arabidopsis ... In Arabidopsis, the identity of perianth and reproductive organs are specified by antagonistic action of two floral homeotic ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/kiwifruit-floral-gene-apetala2-is-alternatively-spliced-and-TkilSebsCP

A short history of MADS-box genes in plants, Plant Molecular Biology | 10.1023/A:1006332105728 | DeepDyveA short history of MADS-box genes in plants, Plant Molecular Biology | 10.1023/A:1006332105728 | DeepDyve

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors ... The Arabidopsis MADS-box gene AGL3 is widely expressed and encodes a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein ... Identification and molecular characterization of ZAG1, the maize homolog of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS ... Ectopic expression of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants alters floral organ identity ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/a-short-history-of-mads-box-genes-in-plants-UIJWJQkei0

SUPERWOMAN1 and DROOPING LEAF genes control floral organ identity in rice | DevelopmentSUPERWOMAN1 and DROOPING LEAF genes control floral organ identity in rice | Development

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346, 35-39. ... Drews, G. N., Bowman, J. L. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1991). Negative Regulation of the Arabidopsis Homeotic Gene AGAMOUS by the ... two Arabidopsis genes that control carpel development in parallel with AGAMOUS.Development 126,2377 -2386. ... the maize homolog of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS. Plant Cell 5,729 -737. ...
more infohttp://dev.biologists.org/content/130/4/705

Double-flowered - WikipediaDouble-flowered - Wikipedia

"The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors". Nature. 346 (6279): 35-39. doi: ... In Arabidopsis, which has been used as a model for understanding flower development, the double-flower gene AGAMOUS encodes a ... Agamous is a C class gene, a transcription factor responsible for activating genes involved in stamen and carpel development. ... Mutations affecting flower morphology in Arabidopsis can be described by the ABC model of flower development. In this model, ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-flowered

Bruno-like proteins modulate flowering time via 3′ UTR-dependent decay of SOC1 mRNA - Kim - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley...Bruno-like proteins modulate flowering time via 3′ UTR-dependent decay of SOC1 mRNA - Kim - 2013 - New Phytologist - Wiley...

The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. Genes & Development 14: 2366-2376. ... Protein expression analysis. Total soluble proteins were extracted from Arabidopsis using an extraction buffer (125 mM Tris-HCl ... S1 Phylogenetic analysis of Bruno proteins, and predicted Bruno-like proteins in Arabidopsis. ... Vernalization in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by the PHD finger protein VIN3. Nature 427: 159-164.. *CrossRef , ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.12181/full?globalMessage=0

K-homology Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins Regulate Floral Organ Identity and Determinacy in Arabidopsis | proLékaře.czK-homology Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins Regulate Floral Organ Identity and Determinacy in Arabidopsis | proLékaře.cz

1990) The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature 346: 35-39. doi: ... The homeotic protein AGAMOUS controls late stamen development by regulating a jasmonate biosynthetic gene in Arabidopsis. Plant ... Cheng Y, Kato N, Wang W, Li J, Chen X (2003) Two RNA binding proteins, HEN4 and HUA1, act in the processing of AGAMOUS pre-mRNA ... 2004) A new Arabidopsis gene, FLK, encodes an RNA binding protein with K homology motifs and regulates flowering time via ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-genetics/2015-2/k-homology-nuclear-ribonucleoproteins-regulate-floral-organ-identity-and-determinacy-in-arabidopsis-55081

Role of Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinases (SERKs) in Cell-to-Embryo Transitional Activity: Key at Novel Assorted...Role of Plant Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinases (SERKs) in Cell-to-Embryo Transitional Activity: Key at Novel Assorted...

Global Identification of Targets of the Arabidopsis MADS Domain Protein AGAMOUS-Like15. The Plant Cell, 21, 2563-2577.. http:// ... Arabidopsis Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase Protein Serves Brassinosteroid-Dependent and Independent Signalling Pathway. ... exclusively in SERK proteins was assumed to perceive external stress-induced signals that may lead to rapid protein folding. In ... short linear motifs and O-glycosylation sites exclusively in SERK proteins than SERK-like proteins. Comparative temporal ...
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=50852

W.-E. Lönnig: ZUR HOMOLOGIEFRAGE DER BLÜTENORGANEW.-E. Lönnig: ZUR HOMOLOGIEFRAGE DER BLÜTENORGANE

The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factons. Nature 346, 35 - 39. ... Because the MADS-box gene PLENA in Antirrhinum (and the homologous gene AGAMOUS in Arabidopsis) is essential for turning on the ... Mizukami, Y., and Ma, H. (1992). Ectopic expression of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants alters ... Jack, T., Brockmann, L.L., and Meyerowitz, E.M. (1992). The homeotic gene APETALA3 of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a MADS box ...
more infohttp://www.weloennig.de/Goeasy.html

Multiple AGAMOUS Homologs from Cucumber and Petunia Differ in Their Ability to Induce Reproductive Organ Fate | Plant CellMultiple AGAMOUS Homologs from Cucumber and Petunia Differ in Their Ability to Induce Reproductive Organ Fate | Plant Cell

1990). The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcriptional factors. Nature 346, 35-39. ... One of the first isolated MADS box genes is the Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) gene (Yanofsky et al., 1990), which encodes the C ... 1991). Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 product. Cell 65, 991-1002. ... The C function in Arabidopsis, which specifies stamen and carpel identity, is represented by a single gene called AGAMOUS (AG ...
more infohttp://www.plantcell.org/content/10/2/171.full

Arabidopsis thaliana - WikipediaArabidopsis thaliana - Wikipedia

"The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors". Nature. 346 (6279): 35-39. ... "Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress)". Kew Gardens. [1] TAIR: About Arabidopsis Rensink WA, Buell CR (2004). "Arabidopsis to Rice ... Arabidopsis transcriptional regulatory map The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) ... Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia. A. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabidopsis_thaliana
  • We have shown that icu1 mutations are alleles of the Polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF ( CLF ) and that the leaf phenotype of the icu2 mutant is suppressed in an agamous background, as is known for clf mutants. (genetics.org)
  • Ectopic expression of AGAMOUS and APETALA3 was observed in clf and icu2 , but not in icu3, icu4 , and icu5 mutants. (genetics.org)
  • Wax constituents on the inflorescence stems of double eceriferum mutants in Arabidopsis reveal complex gene interactions. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, splicing defects at the flowering regulator FLOWERING LOCUS KH DOMAIN ( FLK ) in atprmt5 mutants reduce its functional transcript and protein levels, resulting in the up-regulation of a flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C ( FLC ) and consequently late flowering. (pnas.org)
  • It was proposed that four different multimeric protein complexes consisting of A/E, A/B/E, B/C/E and C/E protein combinations control the four organ type-specific development ( Theissen and Saedler, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
  • AtPRMT5, an Arabidopsis homolog of human PRMT5, was defined as a type II enzyme for its ability to symmetrically dimethylate histone H4, H2A, and myelin basic protein in vitro ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • Furthermore, a direct in vivo association of SEU proteins with the AG cis-regulatory element was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation. (biologists.org)
  • Two related methods that allow in vivo identification of transcription factor binding sites are chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and chromatin affinity purification (ChAP). For ChAP, the protein of interest is tagged with a peptide or protein, which can be used for affinity purification of the protein-DNA complex and hence, the identification of the target gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Feng JX, Liu D, Pan Y, Gong W, Ma LG, Luo JC, Deng XW, Zhu YX (2005) An annotation update via cDNA sequence analysis and comprehensive profiling of developmental, hormonal or environmental responsiveness of the Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP transcription factor gene family. (springer.com)
  • In Arabidopsis, the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) specifically mediates the histone H3 Lys-27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) that plays extensive regulatory roles in various developmental stages, including flowering ( Holec and Berger, 2012 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Mutation in an Arabidopsis symmetric arginine dimethyltransferase, AtPRMT5, causes pleiotropic developmental defects, including late flowering, but the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. (pnas.org)
  • AtPRMT5 deficiency causes pleiotropic phenotypes, including delayed flowering, growth retardation, dark green and curled leaves, and reduced sensitivity to vernalization ( 22 - 24 ), implying a critical role for AtPRMT5 in regulating essential developmental processes in Arabidopsis . (pnas.org)
  • Perception of the Arabidopsis danger signal peptide 1 involves the pattern recognition receptor AtPEPR1 and its close homologue AtPEPR2. (labome.org)
  • The identification of intrinsic disordered regions (IDRs) exclusively in SERK proteins was assumed to perceive external stress-induced signals that may lead to rapid protein folding. (scirp.org)
  • The Bruno RNA-binding protein (RBP) has been shown to initially repress the translation of oskar mRNA during Drosophila oogenesis and later to be involved in a broad range of RNA regulation. (wiley.com)
  • Protein arginine methylation, one of the most abundant and important posttranslational modifications, is involved in a multitude of biological processes in eukaryotes, such as transcriptional regulation and RNA processing. (pnas.org)
  • An AGL61:green fluorescent protein-{beta}-glucoronidase fusion protein localizes exclusively to the polar nuclei and the secondary nucleus of the central cell. (cshl.edu)
  • A reduced-function allele reveals that EARLY FLOWERING3 repressive action on the circadian clock is modulated by phytochrome signals in Arabidopsis. (labome.org)
  • The GIK protein contains an AT-hook DNA binding motif that could bind to nuclear matrix attachment regions of DNA elements. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Structure prediction results identified novel transmembrane topologies, short linear motifs and O-glycosylation sites exclusively in SERK proteins than SERK-like proteins. (scirp.org)
  • In mammalian cells, PRMT5 localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus, and methylates multiple histone and nonhistone proteins ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Overall, AtBRNs repress SOC1 activity in a 3′ UTR-dependent manner, thereby controlling the flowering time in Arabidopsis. (wiley.com)
  • be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein. (uniprot.org)
  • Such methylation can increase the binding affinity of these Sm proteins for the downstream recipient, Survival Motor Neuron, the spinal muscular atrophy disease gene product ( 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
  • Subsequently, the PRMT5- and Survival Motor Neuron-complexes cooperate to load the Sm proteins onto U snRNAs, forming U snRNPs ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • All earlier known RNA recognition motif (RRM)- and K homology (KH)-type RBPs involved in flowering, for example, Flowering Time Control protein A (FCA), FPA and FLOWERING LOCUS K (FLK), act as flowering activators (Macknight et al . (wiley.com)
  • Here we show that AtPRMT5 methylates a wide spectrum of substrates, including some RNA binding or processing factors and U snRNP AtSmD1, D3, and AtLSm4 proteins, which are involved in RNA metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, AGL61 and AGL80 appear to function together to differentiate the central cell in Arabidopsis. (cshl.edu)