African Swine Fever Virus: The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.African Swine Fever: A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).Classical swine fever virus: A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.Iridoviridae: A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.Classical Swine Fever: An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Asfarviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.Ornithodoros: A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Hemadsorption: A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)Polyproteins: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.Rift Valley fever virus: A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.ArtiodactylaBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Yellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rift Valley Fever: An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Pestivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Iridovirus: A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.ArchivesUterine Inversion: A complication of OBSTETRIC LABOR in which the corpus of the UTERUS is forced completely or partially through the UTERINE CERVIX. This can occur during the late stages of labor and is associated with IMMEDIATE POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE.Cautery: The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Financial Support: The provision of monetary resources including money or capital and credit; obtaining or furnishing money or capital for a purchase or enterprise and the funds so obtained. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed.)Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (1/269)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

Nuclear and nucleolar localization of an African swine fever virus protein, I14L, that is similar to the herpes simplex virus-encoded virulence factor ICP34.5. (2/269)

PCR analysis of the genomes of 18 different African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates showed that the I14L open reading frame (ORF) was present as either a long form or short form in all of the isolates. Sequencing of the ORF from eight isolates confirmed that both forms of the ORF were well conserved. Antisera raised against the I14L protein identified the long form of the protein as a 21 kDa protein expressed late during ASFV infection. Immunofluorescent analysis of transiently expressed haemagglutinin-tagged forms of the I14L protein showed that the long form of the protein localized predominantly to the nucleus and within the nucleoli. In contrast, although the short form of the protein was also present predominantly in the nucleus, it did not localize to the nucleoli. Deletion of the N-terminal 14 amino acids from the long form of the I14L protein, which includes a high proportion of basic Arg/Lys residues, abolished the specific nucleolar localization of the protein, although the protein was still present in the nucleus. Addition of this 14 amino acid sequence to beta-galactosidase or replacement of the N-terminal 14 amino acids of the I14L short form with those from the long form directed both of these modified proteins to the nucleolus. This indicates that this 14 amino acid sequence contains all the signals required for nucleolar localization.  (+info)

Modulation of monocytic cell activity and virus susceptibility during differentiation into macrophages. (3/269)

A major component of innate immune responses relies on monocytes and macrophages, virus infection of which will pose a particular problem for immunological defense. Consequently, the monocytic cell differentiation pathway was analyzed in terms of cellular modulations therein and their relation to monocytotropic virus infection. Differentiation was characterized by down-regulation of CD14, MHC Ags, the monocytic SWC1 marker, and p53; concomitant up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker, a putative porcine CD80 (detected with anti-human CD80 Ab), and acid phosphatase secretion were also characteristic. Elevated phagocytic and endocytic activities as well as endosomal/lysosomal acidification were identified as being important to the macrophage. In contrast, monocytes possessed high accessory activity. This was multifactorial, concomitantly requiring 1) high MHC Ag expression; 2) enzyme activity of esterase, peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and 5' nucleotidase in preference to glucosidase, galactosidase, and glucuronidase; and 3) elevated capacity for spontaneous IL-1 production. Only with all parameters was efficient stimulation of Ag-specific lymphocytes possible. These results point to a continuous process during differentiation, involving inter-related characteristics linking the more accessory monocyte to the scavenger macrophage, both in vitro and in vivo. Of particular interest was how these characteristics related to monocytotropic virus infection, and how a particular virus could show a clear preference for the differentiating macrophages. Such results not only further our understanding of porcine immunology, but also provide evidence and a potential model for the determination and characterization of monocytotropic virus-host cell interactions.  (+info)

The biological effects induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by African swine fever virus, are mediated by interleukin-4 and also to a lesser extent by interleukin-10. (4/269)

We have previously presented indirect evidence that both specific immunosuppression and lymphocyte mitogenicity induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by porcine monocytes infected by African swine fever virus, were consistent with a Th2-driven response. Here we show: (1) Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression in the spleen and thymus of C57BL/6 mice were displayed early after p36 inoculation. The expression of thymic IL-10 mRNA occurred, however, later than that of IL-4 mRNA. (2) Increased serum levels of these two cytokines were also soon detected after the protein inoculation. (3) Both immunosuppressive and mitogenic effects of p36 were absent in IL-4 gene-targeted mice and partially abrogated in mice depleted of IL-4 by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (4) IL-10 depletion abrogated the immunosuppressive but not the p36 lymphocyte mitogenic biological effects. (5) The increase in the serum concentrations of both IL-4 and IL-10 were lower in thymectomized than in non-thymectomized mice. (6) The expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA was weakly or not at all induced in p36-treated mice. Taken together, these results are in agreement with the promotion of a Th2 immune response induced by p36.  (+info)

Replication of African swine fever virus DNA in infected cells. (5/269)

We have examined the ultrastructural localization of African swine fever virus DNA in thin-sections of infected cells by in situ hybridization and autoradiography. Virus-specific DNA sequences were found in the nucleus of infected Vero cells at early times in the synthesis of the viral DNA, forming dense foci localized in proximity to the nuclear membrane. At later times, the viral DNA was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic autoradiography of African swine fever virus-infected macrophages showed that the nucleus is also a site of viral DNA replication at early times. These results provide further evidence of the existence of nuclear and cytoplasmic stages in the synthesis of African swine fever virus DNA. On the other hand, alkaline sucrose sedimentation analysis of the replicative intermediates synthesized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected macrophages showed that small DNA fragments ( approximately 6-12S) were synthesized in the nucleus at an early time, whereas at later times, larger fragments of approximately 37-49S were labeled in the cytoplasm. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these fragments are precursors of the mature cross-linked viral DNA. The formation of dimeric concatemers, which are predominantly head-to-head linked, was observed by pulsed-field electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analysis at intermediate and late times in the replication of African swine fever virus DNA. Our findings suggest that the replication of African swine fever virus DNA proceeds by a de novo start mechanism with the synthesis of small DNA fragments, which are then converted into larger size molecules. Ligation or further elongation of these molecules would originate a two-unit concatemer with dimeric ends that could be resolved to generate the genomic DNA by site-specific nicking, rearrangement, and ligation as has been proposed in the de novo start model of Baroudy et al. (B. M. Baroudy, S. Venkatesam, and B. Moss, 1982, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 723-729) for the replication of vaccinia virus DNA.  (+info)

The African swine fever virus prenyltransferase is an integral membrane trans-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase. (6/269)

In a previous study, it was shown that the protein encoded by the gene B318L of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a trans-prenyltransferase that catalyzes in vitro the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to synthesize geranylgeranyl diphosphate and longer chain prenyl diphosphates (Alejo, A., Yanez, R. J., Rodriguez, J. M., Vinuela, E., and Salas, M. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 9417-9423). To investigate the in vivo function of the viral enzyme, we have determined, in this work, its subcellular localization and activity in cell extracts. Two systems were used in these studies: cells infected with ASFV and cells infected with a recombinant pseudo-Sindbis virus carrying the complete B318L gene. In this latter system, the trans-prenyltransferase was found to colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum marker protein-disulfide isomerase, whereas in cells infected with ASFV, the viral enzyme was present in cytoplasmic viral assembly sites, associated with precursor viral membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, after subcellular fractionation, the viral enzyme partitioned into the membrane fraction. Extraction of membrane proteins with alkaline carbonate and Triton X-114 indicated that the ASFV enzyme behaved as an integral membrane protein. The membrane enzyme synthesized predominantly all-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. These results indicate that the viral B318L protein is a trans-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, being the only enzyme of this type that is known to have a membrane localization.  (+info)

African swine fever virus: a B cell-mitogenic virus in vivo and in vitro. (7/269)

The two major characteristics of pathogenesis in African swine fever virus (ASFV) infections of domestic pigs are massive B-cell apoptosis and haemorrhage. The effects of ASFV on porcine B cells have therefore been systematically examined in vivo, by using virus-infected pigs and SCID-Beige mice reconstituted with porcine bone marrow, and in vitro, by using porcine B-cell lines and B cells from normal and ASFV-infected pigs. Secretion of porcine Ig was stimulated by ASFV both in vivo and in bone marrow cultures in vitro, with the virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV being the most effective. Stimulation of Ig secretion in vitro depended on the presence of ASFV-infected macrophages and did not occur with supernatants from ASFV-infected macrophages. Although the virus alone did not stimulate proliferation of purified B cells in vitro, it was co-stimulatory with CD154 (CD40 ligand). The B cells recovered from ASFV-infected porcine lymphoid tissue were of activated surface marker phenotypes and, interestingly, expressed diminished levels of the B-cell co-stimulatory surface molecule CD21. In addition, they were highly sensitive to IL-4 and CD154. These results may be integrated into a model of pathogenesis in which those B cells activated indirectly as a result of virulent ASFV infection of macrophages are not rescued from apoptosis through interaction with CD154, due to the drastic depletion of T cells that occurs early in infection. The consequently diminished specific anti-ASFV antibody response would favour survival of the virus, with the non-specific hypergammaglobulinaemia being perhaps another example of pathogen-mediated immune deviation.  (+info)

African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks. (8/269)

Although the Malawi Lil20/1 (MAL) strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) was isolated from Ornithodoros sp. ticks, our attempts to experimentally infect ticks by feeding them this strain failed. Ten different collections of Ornithodorus porcinus porcinus ticks and one collection of O. porcinus domesticus ticks were orally exposed to a high titer of MAL. At 3 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), <25% of the ticks contained detectable virus, with viral titers of <4 log(10) 50% hemadsorbing doses/ml. Viral titers declined to undetectability in >90% of the ticks by 5 weeks p.i. To further study the growth defect, O. porcinus porcinus ticks were orally exposed to MAL and assayed at regular intervals p.i. Whole-tick viral titers dramatically declined (>1,000-fold) between 2 and 6 days p.i., and by 18 days p.i., viral titers were below the detection limit. In contrast, viral titers of ticks orally exposed to a tick-competent ASFV isolate, Pretoriuskop/96/4/1 (Pr4), increased 10-fold by 10 days p.i. and 50-fold by 14 days p.i. Early viral gene expression, but not extensive late gene expression or viral DNA synthesis, was detected in the midguts of ticks orally exposed to MAL. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that progeny virus was rarely present in ticks orally exposed to MAL and, when present, was associated with extensive cytopathology of phagocytic midgut epithelial cells. To determine if viral replication was restricted only in the midgut epithelium, parenteral inoculations into the hemocoel were performed. With inoculation by this route, a persistent infection was established although a delay in generalization of MAL was detected and viral titers in most tissues were typically 10- to 1,000-fold lower than those of ticks injected with Pr4. MAL was detected in both the salivary secretion and coxal fluid following feeding but less frequently and at a lower titer compared to Pr4. Transovarial transmission of MAL was not detected after two gonotrophic cycles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that, when injected, MAL replicated in a number of cell types but failed to replicate in midgut epithelial cells. In contrast, ticks injected with Pr4 had replicating virus in midgut epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that MAL replication is restricted in midgut epithelial cells. This finding demonstrates the importance of viral replication in the midgut for successful ASFV infection of the arthropod host.  (+info)

Modulation of the structure, catalytic activity, and fidelity of African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X by a reversible disulfide switch.
African swine fever virus, illustration. This virus is a member of the iridovirus group that causes African swine fever. Unlike other DNA- containing vertebrate viruses (except the poxviruses), the iridovirus replicates in the host cells cytoplasm (most others replicate in the nucleus). - Stock Image F016/8841
African swine fever is a devastating hemorrhagic fever of pigs, caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). In Africa, the presence of a sylvatic cycle involving warthogs and soft ticks means that the risk of introduction of ASFV into domestic swine is always present. Bushpigs (Potamochoerus larvatus) are nocturnal, susceptible to ASFV and share a natural interface with both warthogs and domestic pigs. The role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of ASFV if any is not understood, yet control strategies of the disease in areas with probable contact between bushpigs and domestic pigs would depend on such information. This study used a molecular and ecological approach to investigate the role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of African swine fever at the wildlife-livestock interface in Uganda. The GPS/GSM tracking collars were used to monitor the movement patterns of free-ranging domestic pigs and bushpigs. Four free-ranging domestic pigs and five bushpigs were collared and their movements ...
The role of the ancestral sylvatic cycle of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is not well understood in the endemic areas of eastern Africa. We therefore analysed the ASF infection status on samples collected from 51 free-ranging warthogs (Phacocherus africanus) and 1576 Ornithodorus porcinus ticks from 26 independent warthog burrows at a single ranch in Kenya. Abattoir samples from 83 domestic pigs without clinical symptoms, originating from specific locations with no recent reported ASF outbreaks were included in this study. All samples were derived from areas of central Kenya, where ASF outbreaks have been reported in the past. Infection with ASFV was confirmed in 22% of O. porcinus pools, 3.22% of adult warthog serum samples and 49% of domestic pig serum samples by using p72-based PCR. All of the warthog sera were positive for anti-ASFV antibodies, investigated by using ELISA, but none of the domestic pig sera were positive. Twenty O. porcinus-, 12 domestic pig- and three warthogderived ...
African swine fever. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs that produces a wide range of clinical signs and lesions that closely resemble those of classical swine fever. Infection, with a highly variable virulence, causes, typically 3-15 days later, high fever, reddening of the skin (visible only in pale-skinned pigs), decreased appetite, listlessness, loss of coordination, vomiting, diarrhoea (sometimes bloody) and eye discharges. Mortality rates can be as high as 100% in domestic pigs and wild boar, with death occurring in less than a week. In some cases, sudden death may be the only clinical sign.. The disease was first described after European settlers brought pigs into areas endemic with ASFV and, as such, is an example of an emerging infection. Although ASFV can be adapted to grow in cells from different species, it does not replicate readily in any species other than swine. Fortunately, African swine fever is not a human health threat.. The virus : ...
We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection in domestic pigs in two contrasting production systems in Kenya. A free range/tethering, low input production system in Ndhiwa District of South-western Kenya is compared with a medium input stall fed production system in Kiambu District of Central Kenya. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) of data derived from cluster analysis showed that number of animals, number of breeding sows and number of weaner pigs were a significant factor in classifying farms in Nhiwa and Kiambu. Analysis of blood and serum samples using a PCR assay demonstrated an average animal level positivity to ASFV of 28% in two independent samplings in South-western Kenya and 0% PCR positivity in Central Kenya. No animals were sero-positive in either study site using the OIE indirect-ELISA and none of the animals sampled exhibited clinical symptoms of ASF. The farms that contained ASFV positive pigs in Ndhiwa ...
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) DP71L protein is present in all isolates as either a short form of 70 to 72 amino acids or a long form of about 184 amino acids, and both of these share sequence similarity to the C-terminal domain of the herpes simplex virus ICP34.5 protein and cellular protein GADD34.
Jouvenet, Nolween, Windsor, Miriam, Rietdorf, Jens, Hawes, Pippa, Monaghan, Paul, Way, Michael and Wileman, Thomas (2006) Induction of filopodia at the plasma membrane by African Swine Fever virus. Cellular Microbiology, 8 (11). pp. 1803-1811. ISSN 1462-5822 Full text not available from this repository. (Request a copy ...
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African swine fever is highly contagious and nearly 100% fatal to swine herds. It occurs among pigs and wild boars, transmitted by ticks and direct contact between animals. There is no vaccine for the disease, but it does not affect humans.. The first outbreak of African swine fever in East Asia was reported in China in early August 2018. Since then, the deadly virus has spread to all Chinese provinces and regions, as well as to other Asian nations, including Vietnam and the Philippines.. South Korea, Asias fourth-largest economy, does not import any pork products or live pigs from China due to Chinas history of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks. It mainly imports from the United States and Germany, and pork imports account for about a third of the countrys total pork supplies.. Although this is the first time African swine fever has hit South Korea, an incidence of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed in March 2018 at a hog farm, the countrys first discovery since February 2017.. South Korea ...
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Gene editing of large DNA viruses, such as African swine fever virus (ASFV), has traditionally relied on homologous recombination of a donor plasmid consisting of a reporter cassette with surrounding homologous viral DNA. However, this homologous recombination resulting in the desired modified virus is a rare event. We recently reported the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to edit ASFV. The use of CRISPR/Cas9 to modify the African swine fever virus genome resulted in a fast and relatively easy way to introduce genetic changes. To accomplish this goal we first infect primary swine macrophages with a field isolate, ASFV-G, and transfect with the CRISPR/Cas9 donor plasmid along with a plasmid that will express a specific gRNA that targets our gene to be deleted. By inserting a reporter cassette, we are then able to purify our recombinant virus from the parental by limiting dilution and plaque purification. We previously reported comparing the traditional homologous recombination methodology with CRISPR/Cas9, which
BEIJING, Oct. 18 (Xinhua) -- Chinese scientists have unraveled the three-dimensional structure of the African swine fever virus, laying a solid foundation for developing effective and safe vaccines against the disease.. The research, jointly conducted by scientists at the Institute of Biophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), ShanghaiTech University and other institutes, was published in the latest issue of the academic journal Science.. Bu Zhigao, director of the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute of CAAS, said China is facing a great challenge in controlling the spread of African swine fever. It is urgent to develop more powerful tools such as a vaccine to prevent the disease.. "The breakthrough in unveiling the fine structure of the virus is important and fundamental research, which will provide clues to explore fundamental mechanisms for the infection, pathogenicity and immunology ...
We applied social network analysis to pig trader networks on the Kenya-Uganda border. Social network analysis is a recently developed tool, which is useful for understanding value chains and improving disease control policies. We interviewed a sample of 33 traders about their experiences with trade and African swine fever (ASF), analyzed the networks they generated in purchasing pigs and selling pork and their potential contribution to modulating dissemination of the ASF virus (ASFV). The majority of the traders were aware of clinical signs of ASF and the risk of trade transmitting ASFV. Most said they avoided buying pigs from ASF outbreak villages or sick pigs but their experiences also indicated that inadvertent purchase was relatively common. Traders had early knowledge of outbreaks since they were contacted by farmers who had heard rumours and wanted to sell their pigs to avoid the risk of them dying. Individual traders bought pigs in up to nine villages, and up to six traders operated in a ...
The Bulgarian Food Safety Agency said that it had on January 8 confirmed four new outbreaks of African Swine Fever, one at an industrial farm in the Black Sea district of Varna where there were close to 40 000 pigs.. The outbreaks were confirmed by laboratory tests, the agency said.. The industrial farm where the outbreak was confirmed was in the village of Brestak, in the Vulchi Dol municipality in Varna.. The agency said that some of the pigs at the industrial farm in the village of Nikola Kozlevo, where an outbreak of African Swine Fever was confirmed a few days ago - leading to an order to cull 24 500 pigs, had come from Brestak.. A three-kilometre protection zone has been declared, which includes the villages of Brestak and General Kiselovo. A 10km monitoring zone also has been declared.. A new outbreak was registered at an Eastern Balkan pig breeding farm in the village of Vesselinovo, in the Smyadovo municipality in the district of Shoumen. A total of 125 pigs are on the premises. A three ...
Microarray technology can be useful for pathogen detection as it allows simultaneous interrogation of the presence or absence of a large number of genetic signatures. However, most microarray assays are labour-intensive and time-consuming to perform. This study describes the development and initial evaluation of a multiplex reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and novel accompanying automated electronic microarray assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of seven important viruses that affect swine (foot-and-mouth disease virus [FMDV], swine vesicular disease virus [SVDV], vesicular exanthema of swine virus [VESV], African swine fever virus [ASFV], classical swine fever virus [CSFV], porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus [PRRSV] and porcine circovirus type 2 [PCV2 ...
The Mkuze Game Reserve (MGR), in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa is an African swine fever virus (ASF) controlled area. In a survey conducted in 1978, ASF prevalence in warthogs and Ornithodoros ticks in MGR was determined to be 2% and 0.06%, respectively. These values, acknowledged as being unusually low compared to other East and southern African ASF-positive sylvatic-cycle host populations, have not been assessed since. The availability of a sensitive PCR-based virus detection method, developed specifically for the sylvatic tampan host, prompted a re-evaluation of ASF virus (ASFV) prevalence in MGR ticks. Of the 98 warthog burrows inspected for Ornithodoros presence, 59 (60.2%) were found to contain tampans and tick sampling was significantly male-biased. Whilst gender sampling-bias is not unusual, the 27% increase in infestation rate of warthog burrows since the 1978 survey is noteworthy as it anticipates a concomitant increase in ASFV prevalence, particularly in light of the high
Bushpigs and warthogs are natural reservoir hosts of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in the wild, showing no clinical signs of disease when infected with the same highly virulent isolates of ASFV that induce rapid, haemorrhagic death in domestic pigs. In contrast to domestic pigs, infection of bushpigs with Malawi isolate results in low levels of virus replication and lymphocyte apoptosis within the spleen, and a relatively low spread of virus to other lymphoid tissues. However, at 10 days post-infection, a high degree of apoptosis was seen in B lymphocytes of the B cell follicles in bushpig lymph nodes. Virus infected cells were present amongst the apoptotic B cells of these follicles, suggesting that indirect factors released from ASFV infected macrophages signal surrounding lymphocytes to enter apoptosis. The susceptibility/resistance of domestic pigs/bushpigs to ASFV may serve as a unique veterinary model for the recently emerging haemorrhagic disease of man.
MatMaCorp announced today the successful evaluation of a genetic test to detect African swine fever virus in uncooked pork products.
African swine fever has ravaged Chinas pig population, and the countrys consumers are feeling the pain. Some are even switching to other meats as the dietary staple becomes unaffordable.
Michael S Denyer and Philip J Wilkinson, Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Pirbright, UK. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious acute hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by a large icosahedral DNA virus which produces a wide range of clinical signs. Protective immunity can be stimulated in vivo but classical neutralizing antibodies have not been demonstrated. The complete genome has been sequenced and some proteins that could enable the virus to evade the host immune response have been identified. There is no vaccine.. ...
by Stephen Wagner. The National Pork Producers Councils board of directors has announced its decision to cancel the 2019 World Pork Expo in Iowa out of an abundance of caution as African swine fever (ASF) continues to spread in China and other parts of Asia. The World Pork Expo, held each June at the Iowa State Fairgrounds in Des Moines, hosts approximately 20,000 visitors over three days, including individuals and exhibitors from ASF-positive regions. ASF affects only pigs and presents no human health or food safety risks. There is currently no vaccine to treat the swine disease.. The above paragraph came from a recent press release issued by the NPPC, and was forwarded to me by Penn-Ag Industries Assistant Vice President Jessica Darr. While attending Penn-Ags annual meeting, Darr, and Debbie Reed-Harry, casually mentioned ASF, something I was hearing about for the first time. "How serious is this?" I asked.. "We talk about it every day," Darr said.. When I got home I began a file on it, and ...
... (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that can impact domestic and wild pigs. It is not a human pathogen, but ASF can be devastating to the health of swine and cause significant economic and production losses to farmers and pork processors.
AFRICA - The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has joined with two African organisations to develop a regional strategy for the control of African swine fever (ASF) for the continent.
Abstract: A training and outreach program to increase public awareness of African swine fever (ASF) was implemented by DTRA and the Ministries of Agriculture in Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine. The implementing agency was the company SAFOSO (Switzerland). Integration of this regional effort was administered by subject matter experts for each country. The main teaching effort of this project was to develop a comprehensive regional public outreach campaign through a network of expertise and knowledge for the control and prevention of ASF in four neighboring countries that experience similar issues with this disease. Gaps in disease knowledge, legislation, and outbreak preparedness in each country were all addressed. Because ASF is a pathogen with bioterrorism potential and of great veterinary health importance that is responsible for major economic instability, the project team developed public outreach programs to train veterinarians in the partner countries to accurately and rapidly
Pork is the primary meat in China, which means African swine fever, sometimes dubbed ASF, has the potential to undermine the countrys food industry and affect global food supplies. There is no vaccine. At the beginning of this month, the virus was detected in the village of Guanfang, in the southwestern province of Yunnan, less than 200 km from Myanmar and Laos.. [Just recently], Thailands Department of Livestock Development reported that ASF had been detected in sausages that Chinese tourists had brought with them on a flight from the city of Chengdu to Chiang Rai, according to Thai media reports. Chiang Rai is located in the north of Thailand, near Myanmar and Laos. The department in September banned the import of pigs and pork products, stationing personnel at borders and in airports to enforce a quarantine, according to earlier news reports.. JeerasakPipattanapongsophon, Deputy Director-General of Thailands Department of Livestock Development, last month admitted the situation is grim. ...
Davao del Norte: Authorities have put Barangay Cagangohan in Panabo City on lockdown after 12 confirmed cases of the African Swine Fever (ASF) in the area.. Governor Edwin Jubahib said stricter quarantine protocol is necessary to prevent the spread of the killer hog disease to other parts of the province.. "We now blocked the entry and exit of live pig and pork products to and from Caganguhan to stop the spread of the disease," the governor explained to the residents during his visit to the area on Wednesday.. The Governor discussed strict quarantine procedures with village officials and residents, together with DA-XI Regional Director Ricardo Onate, Jr., Mayor Jose Relampagos and officials from the police and the military.. Jubahib ordered the immediate culling of all pigs in the area, as he vowed financial assistance to hog raisers.. The DA and provincial and city governments chipped in to raise the indemnification to ₱2,000 per suckling and ₱8,000 per hog. While the virus has no effect on ...
Three new outbreaks of African Swine Fever (ASF) have been detected in the Russian Tver region, reports the Rosselkhoznadzor, the Federal Service for Veterinary and Phytosanitary Surveillance. All of them occurred in wild boars, in different parts of the region.
African Swine Fever (ASF) continues to spread across Russia. Over the last week two major outbreaks were registered in the Volgograd region.
African Swine Fever (ASF) has broken out in China, in what has been described as considered one of the largest animal disorder outbreaks ever seen. The
Keeping African swine fever (ASF) out of Britain is a top priority for the pig sector and a Bpex poster is aimed at helping farmers remind their eastern Eu
Nearly 800 wild boar carcasses infected with African swine fever (ASF) have been found in Estonias forests in 2016, while an additional nearly 700 hunted wild boars have been documented as carrying the disease.
Source: Feedstuffs. Following reports that neighboring Vietnam has culled more than 2.5 million hogs since February, Laos has reported to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) a series of seven cases of African swine fever (ASF) in the southern portion of the Southeast Asian country. ...
African swine fever (ASF), first detected in Germany in a wild boar on 10 September 2020, does not pose a health hazard to humans.
JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) - An outbreak of African swine fever, a severe hemorrhagic disease of pigs, has spread to a fourth province in South Africa, the agricultural ministry said on Monday, following a spate of outbreaks last month.. The ministry said the latest outbreak of the disease was reported in the Heilbron area of the central Free State Province, after the disease was detected in the countrys North West, Mpumalanga and Gauteng provinces last month.. The affected areas have been placed under quarantine and investigations were being carried out to trace the origin of the outbreaks and identify other farms that may be affected, the agriculture, forestry and fisheries ministry said in a statement.. The disease is incurable in pigs but harmless to humans. It has spread to China since last year, causing major losses to the worlds largest hog herd.. (Reporting by Tanisha Heiberg, editing by Louise Heavens) ...
BEIJING (Reuters) - China on Thursday confirmed a new outbreak of African swine fever in the Guangxi Autonomous Region, in the countrys south, as the highly contagious disease spreads through the worlds largest hog herd.. The outbreak in the city of Guigang killed 20 animals on a farm of 3,172 pigs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs said in a statement on its website.. China has reported 111 outbreaks of the disease in 28 of its provinces and regions since August 2018.. The disease is deadly for pigs but does not harm humans.. (Reporting by Hallie Gu and Tom Daly; editing by Christian Schmollinger). ...
SHANGHAI (Reuters) - Four new outbreaks of African swine fever have been reported in Chinas provinces of Jiangxi, Yunnan and Sichuan as well as the municipality of Shanghai, the agriculture ministry said on Saturday.. Ten pigs had died from the disease and 10 others had fallen ill on a farm with 150 hogs in the southeastern province of Jiangxi, the ministry said on its website. Another 348 pigs will be slaughtered in Yunnan province in the southwest, it added.. A farm with 314 pigs in the Jinshan district of Shanghai was affected, the ministry reported. Eleven of the hogs had died while another 50 were infected, it said. ...
SA has detected an outbreak of African swine fever on a farm in North West province, the Paris-based World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) said on Wednesday, citing a report from the SA agriculture ministry.
China has banned imports of pigs, wild boars and related products from Slovakia to prevent the spread of African swine fever from the European country, China
Serum samples taken from recently deceased pigs in Shan State tested positive for African swine fever, marking the virus first confirmed appearance in Myanmar.
The UK government has launched a survey aimed at small-scale pig keepers today as it steps up its campaign to combat the introduction and spread of African swine fever.
Chinas agriculture ministry said on Wednesday it would ban the feeding of kitchen waste to pigs after linking the practice to the majority of the early cases of African swine fever.
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA >> South Korea said Friday that it is investigating more suspected cases of African swine fever in farms near its border with North Korea, as fears grow over the spread of the illness that has decimated pig herds across Asia.. South Koreas Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs and the Gyeonggi provincial government said officials are testing samples of three dead pigs from two farms in Paju, a city where the countrys first case of the disease was confirmed Monday. Test results were expected to come out Friday night.. The two Paju farms, which raise more than 7,000 pigs combined, were also within 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) of a farm in the nearby town of Yeoncheon, where a second case of the disease was confirmed Tuesday, said Park Byeong-hong, an agriculture ministry official.. "We dispatched quarantine officials to the farms to prevent the movement of people, animals and vehicles and to disinfect facilities," Park said in a news conference in Sejong City. "If the ...
The spread of African swine fever has not only ravaged the Asian pig population, but also sent international pork prices rocketing and hit animal feed markets such as corn and soybeans.. It has also weighed on results of agricultural commodity groups due to weaker feed demand for hog breeding.. Chinas hog herd was more than 40% smaller in September than a year earlier, its farm ministry said earlier this month. But several in the industry believe the losses are much greater.. Beijing issued a series of policies in September aimed at supporting national hog production and securing meat supplies.. Eloit said the measures were adequate but needed to be fully implemented.. "There is a difference between what is decided on paper - I do not think there is any concern here - and how we actually get to apply them on the ground especially in countries that are very large, which have a wide variety of production," she said. In Europe, the situation is different because outbreaks mainly concern wild ...
SOUTH KOREA - South Korea placed an import ban Thursday (20 February) on pork from Poland after the Eastern European country reported discovery of African swine fever.
African Swine Fever is a hot topic for the pig industry at the moment and in the UK the focus is on preventing its entry into the countrys pig farms.
An outbreak of African swine fever in Poland near the German border has killed 21 wild boar, the agriculture minister said Wednesday.
Veterinary medicines maker ECO Animal Health Group said on Monday its business in China was hit by an outbreak of African swine fever, while the ongoing U.S.-China trade war squeezed margins in the United States.
Complete feed accounts for 42% of hog feed consumption," eFeedLinks Eric Brooks noted. Another eFeedLink analyst, Shi Tao, stated that, "In June 2019, nine (out of 22) provinces slashed the output of complete hog feed by more than 50% compared with June 2018. The output of another nine provinces decreased by more than 20%. Total complete hog feed output fell by 32.4% year-on-year.". Brooks said that the sharp drops in hog feed production is in line with eFeedLinks July 2019 Livestock Tracker, which stated: "Since peaking at 492 million head in January, African swine fever mortality and culling slashed inventories by 7.1%. Expect an additional ASF-induced inventory fall of 20% to 25% from current levels before they stabilise.". This downtrend in feed production could explain the recent losses of Chinese feed maker Beijing Dabeinong Technology Grup Co. Ltd, which produced 4.6 million tonnes of feed - mostly for pigs - last year. On August 21, the company reported a 67.67% drop in first-half net ...
(Reuters Breakingviews) - African swine fever is nudging China towards peak pork. The outbreak, one of the worst recorded, has sent prices of the meat soaring. That is likely to get worse, even if overall inflation is kept in check, due in part to a cooling economy. It means the disease could encourage a lasting shift among the world
"Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. ... Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine ... McDougall JK, Masse TH, Galloway DA (1980). "Location and cloning of the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene". J ...
... s were experimentally infected with the virus that causes African swine fever. It was found that the warthogs ... with African swine fever virus". Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 47 (1): 19-22. ISSN 0030-2465. Child, Graham; ... During the late nineteenth century, P. aethiopicus became extinct in South Africa. Subsequently, study of mDNA as well as ... The desert warthog is native to the Horn of Africa. Its current range extends from southeastern Ethiopia through western ...
His research also extended into African swine fever and blue tongue viruses. He prepared the UK for an epidemic of swine ... His studies included the survival of the virus in meat, concluding that the virus made use of the animal meat non-viable, a ... His advice was taken on an international level, and he played a strong role in disease control both in Africa and the Middle ... The Anti-bodies in Foot-and-Mouth Disease (1949) Studies of the Complement-Fixation Reaction in Virus Systems (1953) Plus many ...
The tick transmits the African swine fever virus only in Spain and Portugal. The tick feeds at night, ingesting blood to ... This species carries the pathogenic Qalyub and African swine fever viruses and the spirochetes Borrelia crocidurae and Borrelia ... "Distribution and biology of Ornithodoros erraticus in parts of Spain affected by African swine fever". The Veterinary Record. ... Kurstak, Edouard; R.G. Marusyk, F.A. Murphy, and M.H.V. Van Regenmortel (1990). Applied Virology Research, Volume 2: Virus ...
"African Swine Fever Virus Causes Microtubule-Dependent Dispersal of trans-Golgi Network" (PDF). Bennett EP, Hassan H, Clausen H ...
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... "Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
Kutish GF, Rock DL, Afonso CL, Borca MV, Irusta P, Carrillo C, Brun A, Sussman M (1994). "An African swine fever virus gene ... CD2 displays structural and functional similarities with African swine fever virus (ASFV) LMW8-DR, a protein that is involved ...
... of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay to immunoblotting and ELISA for detection of antibody to African swine fever virus". J. Vet ...
The viruses in the Asfivirus genus infects swine, resulting in an onset of African swine fever. The name of this family and ... African swine fever and related viruses. Only a single species has been described to date for this genus. This group of viruses ... Group: dsDNA Order: Unassigned Family: Asfarviridae Genus: Asfivirus African swine fever virus The virons consist of an ... Index of Viruses-Asfarviridae (2006). In: ICTVdB-The Universal Virus Database, version 4. Büchen-Osmond, C (Ed), Columbia ...
... and African swine fever virus. In the same study, it was shown that the roots contain flavonoids, anthracenic derivatives, and ... It is used for multiple medical purposes in Africa and is found in the secondary jungle of a forest. Individuals of this ... Cassia sieberiana, drumstick tree, is a tree in the Fabaceae family native to Africa. It ranges from 10-20 metres in height and ... It is also found in East Africa. Cassia sieberiana grows best in well drained, humid soils with an annual rainfall of ...
Apoptosis of thymocytes in experimental African Swine Fever virus infection., Histol Histopathol. jaanuar 2004 ;19(1):77-84., ... Apoptosis of thymocytes in experimental African Swine Fever virus infection., Histol Histopathol. jaanuar 2004 ;19(1):77-84., ... Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chin-Chen Pan, An-Hang Yang, Liang-Shun Wang ja Hung Chiang, Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome ... CD4+CD8+ tümotsüütide polulatsioon oli HPAIV-infektsiooni (Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus infection) korral pea ...
In vitro inhibition of the replication of haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and African swine fever virus (ASFV) by ...
Salas, María L.; Andrés, Germán (2013). "African swine fever virus morphogenesis". Virus Research. 173: 29-41. doi:10.1016/j. ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... The viroplasm could also prevent virus degradation by proteases and nucleases. In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus ( ...
... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus". ... Largest giant viruses with complete sequenced genomes The whole list is in the Giant Virus Toplist created by the Giant Virus ... having the largest capsid diameters of all known viruses. Viral replication in giant viruses occurs within large circular virus ... A giant virus is a very large virus, some of which are larger than typical bacteria. They are giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA ...
... and the large eukaryal DNA viruses: the African swine fever virus (Asfarviridae), Chlorella viruses (Phycodnaviridae) and ... fish lymphocystis disease virus (Iridoviridae) and chlorella virus (Phycoviridae). The pol genes of the African swine fever ... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus". ... human adenovirus infection Family Ampullaviridae Family Ascoviridae Family Asfarviridae-includes African swine fever virus ...
... during the 1980s as part of an effort to combat an outbreak of the African swine fever virus. Haiti has been plagued for ... Hjelmgaard, Kim (12 January 2018). "U.N., African countries blast Trump's 'racist' words in angry global backlash". USA TODAY. ... Fram, Alan; Lemire, Jonathan (12 January 2018). "Trump denies he referred to Africa as a 'shithole'". Chicago Tribune. ... and African countries, Donald Trump said "Why are we having all these people from shithole countries come here". After the ...
African swine fever, bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. Understanding of viruses comes from ... The Compton site currently carries out work on endemic (commonplace) animal diseases including some Avian Viruses and a small ... In 1963 Pirbright became the Animal Virus Research Institute and Compton became the Institute for Research on Animal Diseases. ... The Pirbright Institute carries out research, diagnostics and surveillance viruses carried by animals, such as foot-and-mouth ...
... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus. ... The type species is Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus 01. The virus has an isosahedral capsid ~200 nanometers in diameter. ... Dinodnavirus is a genus of viruses that infect dinoflagellates. This genus belongs to the clade of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA ... During replication virions emerge from a specific cytoplasm compartment - the 'viroplasm' - which is created by the virus. The ...
... a car wax chemical African swine fever virus (ASFV), the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF) Alaska Satellite Facility ... an aviation security division in Pakistan African Standby Force, an international peace force controlled by the African Union ...
... torque teno virus MeSH B04.280.049.035 --- african swine fever virus MeSH B04.280.065.249 --- granulovirus MeSH B04.280.065.500 ... torque teno virus MeSH B04.909.204.102 --- asfarviridae MeSH B04.909.204.102.035 --- african swine fever virus MeSH B04.909. ... classical swine fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.411 --- hepatitis delta virus MeSH B04.909.777.415 --- hepatitis e virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ...
They include a wide range of risks in agricultural insurance (e.g. coverage of losses related to African swine fever virus), ...
... it plays a role in transmitting the virus causing African swine fever which in 2013 was found 35 km north of Pretoria. A ... Charrel, RN; Fagbo, S; Moureau, G; Alqahtani, MH; Temmam, S; de Lamballerie, X (2007). "Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus in ... and is a carrier of a flavivirus causing Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHFV). The closely related Kyasanur Forest disease virus ( ... Occurring in semi-desert areas of Africa, Saudi Arabia and other parts of the Persian Gulf, India, Sri Lanka and into Asia, it ...
... for example Arboviruses such as dengue fever, West Nile virus, or African swine fever virus. Clinical signs and pathology may ... It is not known whether the ISA virus can reproduce itself in the sea louse, although this is a possibility as viruses can use ... ISA is caused by the infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV). ISAV, a RNA virus, is the only species in the genus "Isavirus" ... There are several distinct strains of the virus. The most common are a European strain and a North American strain. ISA virus ...
... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus. ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Klassisches Schweinepest-Virus - en. Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) oder Hog cholera virus ...
African swine fever virus Family: Baculoviridae Genus: Alphabaculovirus Adoxophyes honmai nucleopolyhedrovirus Agrotis ipsilon ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ... Bujaru virus Candiru virus Chilibre virus Frijoles virus Punta Toro virus Rift Valley fever virus Salehabad virus Sandfly fever ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ...
Indian swine flu (2015). *South Korean MERS (2015). *Angolan yellow fever (2016) ... "Origin of measles virus: divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries.", Virol. J., 7 (52). ... Darfur yellow fever (2012). *Swansea measles (2013). *Western African Ebola (2013-2016) ... He described the plague as "great" and of long duration, and mentioned fever, diarrhea, and pharyngitis as well as a skin ...
This virus is a member of the iridovirus group that causes African swine fever. Unlike other DNA- containing vertebrate viruses ... African swine fever virus, illustration. This virus is a member of the iridovirus group that causes African swine fever. Unlike ... Keywords: 3 dimensional, 3d, african swine fever virus, artwork, biological, biology, cgi, digitally generated, dna virus, ... swine, three dimensional, viral, virion, virology, virus ... African swine fever virus, illustration. F016/8841 Royalty Free ...
"Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions, Archives of Virology" ... The African swine fever virus proteins p54 and p30 are involved in two distinct steps of virus attachment and both contribute ... Identification of the principal serological immunodeterminants of African swine fever virus by screening a virus cDNA library ... Molecular epidemiology of African swine fever virus studied by analysis of four variable genome regions. Nix, R. J.; Gallardo, ...
Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of Kenyan African swine fever virus isolates within p72 genotypes IX and ... Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of Kenyan African swine fever virus isolates within p72 genotypes IX and ... Comparative analysis of the complete genome sequences of Kenyan African swine fever virus isolates within p72 genotypes IX and ... Largest genetic study of mosquitoes reveals spread of insecticide resistance across Africa ...
Induction of filopodia at the plasma membrane by African Swine Fever virus ... Induction of filopodia at the plasma membrane by African Swine Fever virus. Cellular Microbiology, 8 (11). pp. 1803-1811. ISSN ...
We describe a horizontal survey of African swine fever virus (ASFV) prevalence and risk factors associated with virus infection ... Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central ... Comparison of African swine fever virus prevalence and risk in two contrasting pig-farming systems in South-west and Central ... The data therefore indicated a potential role for the bushpig in virus transmission in South-western Kenya, but there was no ...
... and fidelity of African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X by a reversible disulfide switch. ... African swine fever virus polymerase X (pol X) is the smallest DNA polymerase known (174 amino acids), and its tertiary ... Modulation of the structure, catalytic activity, and fidelity of African swine fever virus DNA polymerase X by a reversible ... African swine fever virus polymerase X (pol X) is the smallest DNA ... ...
African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and ... African swine fever viruses with two different genotypes, both of which occur in domestic pigs, are associated with ticks and ... The role of the ancestral sylvatic cycle of the African swine fever virus (ASFV) is not well understood in the endemic areas of ... The data from this and earlier studies suggest transfer of viruses of at least two different p72 genotypes, from wild to ...
"The size of the African swine fever virus is huge, it is the largest one among the viruses unraveled by Chinese scientists. Its ... dollars for swine production worldwide. The African swine fever virus is stable in the environment and transmits rapidly and ... said the five-layer structure of the African swine fever virus is very rare and more complicated than other viruses. ... Scientists successfully isolated the epidemic strain of the African swine fever virus, which is spreading in China. It took the ...
The virus : one of a kind. The virus belongs to the Asfarviridae family - also known as the African swine fever-like viruses - ... African swine fever. African swine fever. African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious hemorrhagic disease of pigs that ... it does not replicate readily in any species other than swine. Fortunately, African swine fever is not a human health threat. ... The overarching piece of legislation providing the tool for the control of African swine fever in the EU is Council Directive ...
The use of CRISPR/Cas9 to modify the African swine fever virus genome resulted in a fast and relatively easy way to introduce ... such as African swine fever virus (ASFV), has traditionally relied on homologous recombination of a donor plasmid consisting of ... To accomplish this goal we first infect primary swine macrophages with a field isolate, ASFV-G, and transfect with the CRISPR/ ... By inserting a reporter cassette, we are then able to purify our recombinant virus from the parental by limiting dilution and ...
The first outbreak of African swine fever in East Asia was reported in China in early August 2018. Since then, the deadly virus ... African swine fever is highly contagious and nearly 100% fatal to swine herds. It occurs among pigs and wild boars, transmitted ... Although this is the first time African swine fever has hit South Korea, an incidence of foot-and-mouth disease was confirmed ... "We will make all efforts to stop the spread of African swine fever through swift disinfection measures," Kim said. ...
African swine fever is a devastating hemorrhagic fever of pigs, caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). In Africa, the ... The role of the bushpigs in the epidemiology of African swine fever at the wildlife-livestock interfaces in Uganda. You are ... used a molecular and ecological approach to investigate the role of the bushpig in the epidemiology of African swine fever at ... presence of a sylvatic cycle involving warthogs and soft ticks means that the risk of introduction of ASFV into domestic swine ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Virus Source (all VERTEBRATE isolates). Blood (LV), heart (LV), lung (LV), liver (LV), spleen (LV), kidney (LV), nasopharyngeal ... Lab Methods of Virus Recovery (ALL ISOLATIONS). Normal pigs, primary and continuous porcine cell cultures ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: African swine fever Abbreviation: ASFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. ...
China reported another outbreak of deadly African swine fever late on Monday, its third new case in two days, as the highly ... HONG KONG/BEIJING (Reuters) - China reported another outbreak of deadly African swine fever late on Monday, its third new case ... The latest case, the eighth since the virus was first reported in the country a month ago, was found in the city of Wuxi, the ... The virus is transmitted by ticks and direct contact between animals, and can also travel via contaminated food, animal feed ...
China detected African swine fever in pigs being transported to Guangxi region from outside provinces, the agriculture ministry ... The deadly African swine fever disease is much more severe than officially reported in China, leading to the death or killing ... BEIJING (Reuters) - China detected African swine fever in pigs being transported to Guangxi region from outside provinces, the ...
ARS scientists have identified a new way to detect the presence of live African Swine Fever Virus that minimizes the need for ... samples from live animals and provides easier access to veterinary labs that need to diagnose the virus ... Commercially Available Cell Line Rapidly Detects African Swine Fever Virus. By Autumn Canaday. July 28, 2020 ... "This is a critical breakthrough and a tremendous step for African Swine Fever Virus diagnostics." ...
Government and academic investigators have developed a vaccine against African swine fever that appears to be far more ... which has been devastating the swine industry in Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly ... New experimental vaccine for African swine fever virus shows promise. American Society for Microbiology ... The 2007 outbreak was also the genesis of the African swine fever that has been spreading through Eastern Europe and east Asia ...
The ends of African swine fever virus genome are formed by a 37 nucleotide-long hairpin loop composed, almost entirely, of ... Hairpin loop structure of African swine fever virus DNA.. González A, Talavera A, Almendral JM, Viñuela E. ... The hairpin loops of African swine fever and vaccinia virus DNAs had no homology, but both DNAs had a 16 nucleotide-long ... An analysis of African swine fever virus replicating DNA showed head-to-head and tail-to-tail linked molecules that may be ...
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the causative agent of African swine fever (ASF). The virus causes a haemorrhagic fever ... In July, 3 farms discovered African swine fever in Estonia. [...] African swine fever spreads to farmed pigs, 500 animals to be ... Viruses portal Animal viruses Denyer, M. S.; Wilkinson, P. J. (1998). "African Swine Fever". Encyclopedia of Immunology. p. 54 ... 2008). "African Swine Fever Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-22-6. Dixon, L ...
... is a highly lethal haemorrhagic disease in domestic and wild swine that has acquired great importance in sub-Saharan Africa ... African swine fever virus evasion of host defences.. African swine fever virus causes a haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs and ... African swine fever: an unprecedented disaster and challenge to China.. African swine fever (ASF), caused by African swine ... Summary of "Genetic characterization of African swine fever virus in Cameroon, 2010-2018.". African swine fever (ASF) is a ...
African swine fever virusAgricultureAlan MilburnAquAdvantage salmonFood and Drug AdministrationGenetically modified organism ... "African swine fever virus". MARTHA ROSENBERG - Brave New Food: GEs and Clones are Heading to the Dinner Table Consumers, safety ...
Nuclear export of African swine fever virus p37 protein occurs through two distinct pathways and is mediated by three ... Nuclear Export of African Swine Fever Virus p37 Protein Occurs through Two Distinct Pathways and Is Mediated by Three ... Nuclear Export of African Swine Fever Virus p37 Protein Occurs through Two Distinct Pathways and Is Mediated by Three ... Nuclear Export of African Swine Fever Virus p37 Protein Occurs through Two Distinct Pathways and Is Mediated by Three ...
Browse by Exposure: African Swine Fever Virus (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
ASF is caused by a large DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV), and there is currently no vaccine against it. A major ... Developing Genetic Tools to Manipulate African Swine Fever Virus and Generate Attenuated Strains. ... Developing Genetic Tools to Manipulate African Swine Fever Virus and Generate Attenuated Strains. ... Developing Genetic Tools to Manipulate African Swine Fever Virus and Generate Attenuated Strains ...
  • 2018). This increase, in recombination using CRISPR/Cas9, allows for easier production and purification of recombinant viruses from the parental wild-type. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The data therefore indicated a potential role for the bushpig in virus transmission in South-western Kenya, but there was no evidence of a direct sylvatic virus transmission cycle in Central Kenya. (cgiar.org)
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