The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
A species of the PESTIVIRUS genus causing exceedingly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic disease of swine.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
An acute, highly contagious disease affecting swine of all ages and caused by the CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS. It has a sudden onset with high morbidity and mortality.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
A genus of softbacked TICKS, in the family ARGASIDAE, serving as the vector of BORRELIA, causing RELAPSING FEVER, and of the AFRICAN SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.
A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An acute infection caused by the RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS, an RNA arthropod-borne virus, affecting domestic animals and humans. In animals, symptoms include HEPATITIS; abortion (ABORTION, VETERINARY); and DEATH. In humans, symptoms range from those of a flu-like disease to hemorrhagic fever, ENCEPHALITIS, or BLINDNESS.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.

A lipid modified ubiquitin is packaged into particles of several enveloped viruses. (1/269)

An anti-ubiquitin cross-reactive protein which migrates more slowly (6.5 kDa) by SDS-PAGE than ubiquitin was identified in African swine fever virus particles. This protein was extracted into the detergent phase in Triton X-114 phase separations, showing that it is hydrophobic, and was radiolabelled with both [3H]palmitic acid and [32P]orthophosphate. This indicates that the protein has a similar structure to the membrane associated phosphatidyl ubiquitin described in baculovirus particles. A similar molecule was found in vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus particles, suggesting that it may be a component of uninfected cell membranes, which is incorporated into membrane layers in virions during morphogenesis.  (+info)

Nuclear and nucleolar localization of an African swine fever virus protein, I14L, that is similar to the herpes simplex virus-encoded virulence factor ICP34.5. (2/269)

PCR analysis of the genomes of 18 different African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates showed that the I14L open reading frame (ORF) was present as either a long form or short form in all of the isolates. Sequencing of the ORF from eight isolates confirmed that both forms of the ORF were well conserved. Antisera raised against the I14L protein identified the long form of the protein as a 21 kDa protein expressed late during ASFV infection. Immunofluorescent analysis of transiently expressed haemagglutinin-tagged forms of the I14L protein showed that the long form of the protein localized predominantly to the nucleus and within the nucleoli. In contrast, although the short form of the protein was also present predominantly in the nucleus, it did not localize to the nucleoli. Deletion of the N-terminal 14 amino acids from the long form of the I14L protein, which includes a high proportion of basic Arg/Lys residues, abolished the specific nucleolar localization of the protein, although the protein was still present in the nucleus. Addition of this 14 amino acid sequence to beta-galactosidase or replacement of the N-terminal 14 amino acids of the I14L short form with those from the long form directed both of these modified proteins to the nucleolus. This indicates that this 14 amino acid sequence contains all the signals required for nucleolar localization.  (+info)

Modulation of monocytic cell activity and virus susceptibility during differentiation into macrophages. (3/269)

A major component of innate immune responses relies on monocytes and macrophages, virus infection of which will pose a particular problem for immunological defense. Consequently, the monocytic cell differentiation pathway was analyzed in terms of cellular modulations therein and their relation to monocytotropic virus infection. Differentiation was characterized by down-regulation of CD14, MHC Ags, the monocytic SWC1 marker, and p53; concomitant up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker, a putative porcine CD80 (detected with anti-human CD80 Ab), and acid phosphatase secretion were also characteristic. Elevated phagocytic and endocytic activities as well as endosomal/lysosomal acidification were identified as being important to the macrophage. In contrast, monocytes possessed high accessory activity. This was multifactorial, concomitantly requiring 1) high MHC Ag expression; 2) enzyme activity of esterase, peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and 5' nucleotidase in preference to glucosidase, galactosidase, and glucuronidase; and 3) elevated capacity for spontaneous IL-1 production. Only with all parameters was efficient stimulation of Ag-specific lymphocytes possible. These results point to a continuous process during differentiation, involving inter-related characteristics linking the more accessory monocyte to the scavenger macrophage, both in vitro and in vivo. Of particular interest was how these characteristics related to monocytotropic virus infection, and how a particular virus could show a clear preference for the differentiating macrophages. Such results not only further our understanding of porcine immunology, but also provide evidence and a potential model for the determination and characterization of monocytotropic virus-host cell interactions.  (+info)

The biological effects induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by African swine fever virus, are mediated by interleukin-4 and also to a lesser extent by interleukin-10. (4/269)

We have previously presented indirect evidence that both specific immunosuppression and lymphocyte mitogenicity induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by porcine monocytes infected by African swine fever virus, were consistent with a Th2-driven response. Here we show: (1) Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression in the spleen and thymus of C57BL/6 mice were displayed early after p36 inoculation. The expression of thymic IL-10 mRNA occurred, however, later than that of IL-4 mRNA. (2) Increased serum levels of these two cytokines were also soon detected after the protein inoculation. (3) Both immunosuppressive and mitogenic effects of p36 were absent in IL-4 gene-targeted mice and partially abrogated in mice depleted of IL-4 by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (4) IL-10 depletion abrogated the immunosuppressive but not the p36 lymphocyte mitogenic biological effects. (5) The increase in the serum concentrations of both IL-4 and IL-10 were lower in thymectomized than in non-thymectomized mice. (6) The expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA was weakly or not at all induced in p36-treated mice. Taken together, these results are in agreement with the promotion of a Th2 immune response induced by p36.  (+info)

Replication of African swine fever virus DNA in infected cells. (5/269)

We have examined the ultrastructural localization of African swine fever virus DNA in thin-sections of infected cells by in situ hybridization and autoradiography. Virus-specific DNA sequences were found in the nucleus of infected Vero cells at early times in the synthesis of the viral DNA, forming dense foci localized in proximity to the nuclear membrane. At later times, the viral DNA was found exclusively in the cytoplasm. Electron microscopic autoradiography of African swine fever virus-infected macrophages showed that the nucleus is also a site of viral DNA replication at early times. These results provide further evidence of the existence of nuclear and cytoplasmic stages in the synthesis of African swine fever virus DNA. On the other hand, alkaline sucrose sedimentation analysis of the replicative intermediates synthesized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of infected macrophages showed that small DNA fragments ( approximately 6-12S) were synthesized in the nucleus at an early time, whereas at later times, larger fragments of approximately 37-49S were labeled in the cytoplasm. Pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that these fragments are precursors of the mature cross-linked viral DNA. The formation of dimeric concatemers, which are predominantly head-to-head linked, was observed by pulsed-field electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analysis at intermediate and late times in the replication of African swine fever virus DNA. Our findings suggest that the replication of African swine fever virus DNA proceeds by a de novo start mechanism with the synthesis of small DNA fragments, which are then converted into larger size molecules. Ligation or further elongation of these molecules would originate a two-unit concatemer with dimeric ends that could be resolved to generate the genomic DNA by site-specific nicking, rearrangement, and ligation as has been proposed in the de novo start model of Baroudy et al. (B. M. Baroudy, S. Venkatesam, and B. Moss, 1982, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 47, 723-729) for the replication of vaccinia virus DNA.  (+info)

The African swine fever virus prenyltransferase is an integral membrane trans-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase. (6/269)

In a previous study, it was shown that the protein encoded by the gene B318L of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a trans-prenyltransferase that catalyzes in vitro the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to synthesize geranylgeranyl diphosphate and longer chain prenyl diphosphates (Alejo, A., Yanez, R. J., Rodriguez, J. M., Vinuela, E., and Salas, M. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 9417-9423). To investigate the in vivo function of the viral enzyme, we have determined, in this work, its subcellular localization and activity in cell extracts. Two systems were used in these studies: cells infected with ASFV and cells infected with a recombinant pseudo-Sindbis virus carrying the complete B318L gene. In this latter system, the trans-prenyltransferase was found to colocalize with the endoplasmic reticulum marker protein-disulfide isomerase, whereas in cells infected with ASFV, the viral enzyme was present in cytoplasmic viral assembly sites, associated with precursor viral membranes derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, after subcellular fractionation, the viral enzyme partitioned into the membrane fraction. Extraction of membrane proteins with alkaline carbonate and Triton X-114 indicated that the ASFV enzyme behaved as an integral membrane protein. The membrane enzyme synthesized predominantly all-trans-geranylgeranyl diphosphate from farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate. These results indicate that the viral B318L protein is a trans-geranylgeranyl-diphosphate synthase, being the only enzyme of this type that is known to have a membrane localization.  (+info)

African swine fever virus: a B cell-mitogenic virus in vivo and in vitro. (7/269)

The two major characteristics of pathogenesis in African swine fever virus (ASFV) infections of domestic pigs are massive B-cell apoptosis and haemorrhage. The effects of ASFV on porcine B cells have therefore been systematically examined in vivo, by using virus-infected pigs and SCID-Beige mice reconstituted with porcine bone marrow, and in vitro, by using porcine B-cell lines and B cells from normal and ASFV-infected pigs. Secretion of porcine Ig was stimulated by ASFV both in vivo and in bone marrow cultures in vitro, with the virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV being the most effective. Stimulation of Ig secretion in vitro depended on the presence of ASFV-infected macrophages and did not occur with supernatants from ASFV-infected macrophages. Although the virus alone did not stimulate proliferation of purified B cells in vitro, it was co-stimulatory with CD154 (CD40 ligand). The B cells recovered from ASFV-infected porcine lymphoid tissue were of activated surface marker phenotypes and, interestingly, expressed diminished levels of the B-cell co-stimulatory surface molecule CD21. In addition, they were highly sensitive to IL-4 and CD154. These results may be integrated into a model of pathogenesis in which those B cells activated indirectly as a result of virulent ASFV infection of macrophages are not rescued from apoptosis through interaction with CD154, due to the drastic depletion of T cells that occurs early in infection. The consequently diminished specific anti-ASFV antibody response would favour survival of the virus, with the non-specific hypergammaglobulinaemia being perhaps another example of pathogen-mediated immune deviation.  (+info)

African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks. (8/269)

Although the Malawi Lil20/1 (MAL) strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) was isolated from Ornithodoros sp. ticks, our attempts to experimentally infect ticks by feeding them this strain failed. Ten different collections of Ornithodorus porcinus porcinus ticks and one collection of O. porcinus domesticus ticks were orally exposed to a high titer of MAL. At 3 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), <25% of the ticks contained detectable virus, with viral titers of <4 log(10) 50% hemadsorbing doses/ml. Viral titers declined to undetectability in >90% of the ticks by 5 weeks p.i. To further study the growth defect, O. porcinus porcinus ticks were orally exposed to MAL and assayed at regular intervals p.i. Whole-tick viral titers dramatically declined (>1,000-fold) between 2 and 6 days p.i., and by 18 days p.i., viral titers were below the detection limit. In contrast, viral titers of ticks orally exposed to a tick-competent ASFV isolate, Pretoriuskop/96/4/1 (Pr4), increased 10-fold by 10 days p.i. and 50-fold by 14 days p.i. Early viral gene expression, but not extensive late gene expression or viral DNA synthesis, was detected in the midguts of ticks orally exposed to MAL. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that progeny virus was rarely present in ticks orally exposed to MAL and, when present, was associated with extensive cytopathology of phagocytic midgut epithelial cells. To determine if viral replication was restricted only in the midgut epithelium, parenteral inoculations into the hemocoel were performed. With inoculation by this route, a persistent infection was established although a delay in generalization of MAL was detected and viral titers in most tissues were typically 10- to 1,000-fold lower than those of ticks injected with Pr4. MAL was detected in both the salivary secretion and coxal fluid following feeding but less frequently and at a lower titer compared to Pr4. Transovarial transmission of MAL was not detected after two gonotrophic cycles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that, when injected, MAL replicated in a number of cell types but failed to replicate in midgut epithelial cells. In contrast, ticks injected with Pr4 had replicating virus in midgut epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that MAL replication is restricted in midgut epithelial cells. This finding demonstrates the importance of viral replication in the midgut for successful ASFV infection of the arthropod host.  (+info)

The symptoms of ASF are varied and can include:

* High fever
* Loss of appetite
* Vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Weakness and lethargy
* Reduced productivity and milk production in breeding pigs
* Hemorrhages and skin lesions, which can be severe and fatal.

ASF is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated objects, such as meat products, animal feed, or farming equipment. The virus can also be spread by flies, ticks, and other insects that have fed on infected pigs.

There is no specific treatment for ASF, and control measures are largely focused on preventing the spread of the disease. These include:

* Implementing strict biosecurity measures, such as isolating infected animals, disinfecting equipment and facilities, and using protective clothing and gear.
* Vaccination of pigs, which can help reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent the spread of the disease.
* Culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease and minimize economic losses.
* Implementing trade restrictions and surveillance programs to prevent the spread of ASF to other countries.

ASF has significant economic and social impacts on affected communities, particularly in Africa where it is a major threat to food security and livelihoods. The disease has also had significant impacts on global pork supplies, leading to increased prices and trade restrictions.

The virus is transmitted through contact with infected animals, contaminated objects or people, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The disease can be spread quickly in populations of pigs, especially in areas where there are high densities of animals.

Classical Swine Fever is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting, followed by hemorrhagic diarrhea, lethargy, and difficulty breathing. The disease can be fatal in up to 90% of cases, especially in young pigs.

Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. There is no specific treatment for Classical Swine Fever, and control measures focus on preventing the spread of the disease. Vaccination is an important tool in controlling outbreaks, and strict biosecurity measures can help to reduce the risk of transmission.

In addition to its impact on animal health, Classical Swine Fever can also have significant economic and social implications for the swine industry. Outbreaks can lead to significant losses, and the disease can be difficult to control, especially in areas with limited resources and infrastructure.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

There are different types of fever, including:

1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.

The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Elevated body temperature
* Chills
* Sweating
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite

In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.

Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.

In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:

* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.

Preventive measures for fever include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.

Yellow fever is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, with a high mortality rate in unvaccinated individuals. However, it can be prevented through vaccination, which is recommended for all travelers to areas where the virus is present. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) both recommend that travelers to these areas receive a yellow fever vaccine at least 10 days before travel to ensure adequate protection.

Yellow fever is not contagious, meaning it cannot be spread from person to person through casual contact. However, infected mosquitoes can transmit the virus to other animals and humans. The virus is most commonly found in monkeys and other primates, which can become carriers of the disease without showing any symptoms.

There are several strains of the yellow fever virus, with some being more virulent than others. The most common strain is the Asibi strain, which is found in West Africa and is responsible for most outbreaks of the disease. Other strains include the Central African, East African, and South American strains.

Yellow fever was first identified in the 17th century in West Africa, where it was known as "yellow jack" due to the yellowish tint of the skin of infected individuals. The disease spread throughout the Americas during the colonial period, where it caused devastating outbreaks and killed millions of people. In the United States, yellow fever was eradicated in the early 20th century through vaccination and mosquito control measures. However, it still remains a significant public health threat in many parts of the world today.

Prevention of yellow fever is primarily achieved through vaccination, which is recommended for travelers to areas where the disease is common. Vaccines are available in different forms, including injectable and oral versions, and they provide long-lasting protection against the virus. In addition to vaccination, other measures can be taken to prevent the spread of yellow fever, such as using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.

There is no specific treatment for yellow fever, and treatment is primarily focused on managing symptoms and supporting the body's immune response. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intravenous fluids and other supportive care. Antiviral medications may also be used in some cases to help reduce the severity of the disease.

Prevention is key to avoiding yellow fever, and vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this deadly disease. By understanding the causes, symptoms, and prevention methods for yellow fever, individuals can take steps to protect themselves and their loved ones from this potentially deadly illness.

The symptoms of RVF in humans can range from mild to severe and include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and bleeding disorders. In severe cases, RVF can cause hemorrhagic fever, which can lead to death. Pregnant women, the elderly, and young children are at higher risk for developing severe forms of the disease.

RVF is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests such as PCR or ELISA, and serology. Treatment is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting vital organ function, and may include antiviral medications, antibiotics, and blood transfusions.

Prevention of RVF relies on controlling the transmission of the virus by reducing the population of infected mosquitoes through insecticides, eliminating standing water where mosquitoes can breed, and protecting against mosquito bites using personal protective measures such as long sleeves, pants, and insect repellents. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent RVF.

Rift Valley fever is a significant public health concern in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, where it can have a significant impact on human health, animal production, and economic development. Outbreaks of RVF can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, as well as disruption of social and economic activities.

Wikispecies has information related to African swine fever virus. Canadian Food Inspection Agency African swine fever ... "African Swine Fever". "Vietnam successfully produces vaccine against African swine fever". Vietnam Plus. June 1, 2022. ... In July, 3 farms discovered African swine fever in Estonia. [...] African swine fever spreads to farmed pigs, 500 animals to be ... Viruses portal Veterinary virology Dixon; et al. (2008). "African Swine Fever Virus". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. ...
Galindo I, Alonso C (May 2017). "African Swine Fever Virus: A Review". Viruses. 9 (5): 103. doi:10.3390/v9050103. PMC 5454416. ... The most notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria are adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus (ASFV ... Many animal viruses in the realm are associated with disease, including adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever ... which are satellite viruses of giant viruses, transpovirons, which are linear plasmid-like DNA molecules found in giant viruses ...
This virus is the cause of African swine fever. Some of the symptoms for this flu include fever, high pulse, fast breathing, ... "African swine fever (ASF) , animal disease". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-12-07. "Iridoviridae-Iridoviridae-dsDNA ... the difference is that the African swine flu can not be cured. There is no vaccine developed to fight this virus. Order ... These viruses infects amoebas and can survive in low temperatures. For years this virus was believed to be frozen, but due to ...
"Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. ... Kit S, Kit M, Qavi H, Trkula D, Otsuka H (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) thymidine ... McDougall JK, Masse TH, Galloway DA (1980). "Location and cloning of the herpes simplex virus type 2 thymidine kinase gene". J ...
... s were experimentally infected with the virus that causes African swine fever. It was found that the warthogs ... with African swine fever virus". Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research. 47 (1): 19-22. ISSN 0030-2465. PMID 7454231. ... During the late nineteenth century, P. aethiopicus became extinct in South Africa. Subsequently, study of mDNA as well as ... The desert warthog is native to the Horn of Africa. Its current range extends from southeastern Ethiopia through western ...
The thymidine kinases from pox viruses, African swine fever virus, Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) and Fish lymphocystis disease virus (FLDV). The major capsid protein of insect iridescent ... "Sequence and evolutionary relationships of African swine fever virus thymidine kinase". Virology. 178 (1): 301-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Genes for virus specific thymidine kinases have been identified in Herpes simplex virus, Varicella zoster virus and Epstein- ...
His research also extended into African swine fever and blue tongue viruses. He prepared the UK for an epidemic of swine ... His studies included the survival of the virus in meat, concluding that the virus made use of the animal meat non-viable, a ... Brooksby, J.B. (1958). "The virus of foot-and-mouth disease". Advances in Virus Research. 5: 1-37. doi:10.1016/s0065-3527(08) ... His advice was taken on an international level, and he played a significant role in disease control in Africa and the Middle ...
The tick transmits the African swine fever virus only in Spain and Portugal. The tick feeds at night, ingesting blood to ... This species carries the pathogenic Qalyub and African swine fever viruses and the spirochetes Borrelia crocidurae and Borrelia ... "Distribution and biology of Ornithodoros erraticus in parts of Spain affected by African swine fever". The Veterinary Record. ... Kurstak, Edouard; R.G. Marusyk; F.A. Murphy & M.H.V. Van Regenmortel (1990). Applied Virology Research, Volume 2: Virus ...
... has been shown to be effective in inactivating African swine fever virus. Treatment of Oral myiasis caused by screwworm ...
"African Swine Fever Virus Causes Microtubule-Dependent Dispersal of trans-Golgi Network" (PDF). Journal of Virology. 80 (22): ...
For African swine fever virus diffusion prevention, Icheon Citizen was decided three match disclaimer. Updated to match(es) ...
Notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria include adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus. Poxviruses ... and the rabies virus, as well as the first virus to be discovered, Tobacco mosaic virus. Reverse transcribing viruses are a ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ... Riboviria mostly contains eukaryotic viruses, and most eukaryotic viruses, including most human, animal, and plant viruses, ...
Notable disease-causing viruses in Varidnaviria include adenoviruses, poxviruses, and the African swine fever virus. Poxviruses ... As such, each virus realm represents at least one instance of viruses coming into existence. Within each realm, viruses are ... DNA viruses constitute two Baltimore groups: Group I: double-stranded DNA viruses, and Group II: single-stranded DNA viruses. ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. ...
Due to the African swine fever virus exceptions for hunting wild boars were made around 2021. Iceland: the use of night-vision ...
... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus". ... A giant virus, sometimes referred to as a girus, is a very large virus, some of which are larger than typical bacteria. All ... The whole list is in the Giant Virus Toplist created by the Giant Virus Finder software. 1Mutator S (MutS) and its homologs are ... Yutin N, Wolf Y, Koonin EV (2014). "Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life ...
Kutish GF, Rock DL, Afonso CL, Borca MV, Irusta P, Carrillo C, Brun A, Sussman M (1994). "An African swine fever virus gene ... CD2 displays structural and functional similarities with African swine fever virus (ASFV) LMW8-DR, a protein that is involved ...
The curated VBRC database contains all publicly available genomic sequences for poxviruses and African Swine Fever Viruses ( ... viral genomics and the global dominance of viruses Bioinformatic Approaches for Comparative Analysis of Viruses [1] Viral ... New Comparative Tools for Large Virus Genomes". Viruses. 10 (11): 637. doi:10.3390/v10110637. PMC 6265842. PMID 30445717. ... The goal of this level is to "allow for quick comparison of similar genes across a given virus family."[self-published source ...
... of a radioimmunoprecipitation assay to immunoblotting and ELISA for detection of antibody to African swine fever virus". J. Vet ...
African swine fever virus, African horse sickness virus and sheeppox virus. Anti-crop pathogens studied and developed included ... The anti-livestock pathogens included: rinderpest virus; foot-and-mouth disease virus; Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent ...
In experimental settings, O. coriaceus has been shown to be capable of transmitting the virus that causes African Swine Fever ... 1980). Experimental transmission of African swine fever virus by Ornithodoros coriaceus, an argasid tick indigenous to the ...
Neilan JG, Lu Z, Kutish GF, Sussman MD, Roberts PC, Yozawa T, Rock DL (March 1993). "An African swine fever virus gene with ... translational and transcriptional control is found in Enterobacteria and viral proteins including the African swine fever virus ...
Salas ML, Andrés G (April 2013). "African swine fever virus morphogenesis". Virus Research. 173 (1): 29-41. doi:10.1016/j. ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ... The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... A viroplasm, sometimes called "virus factory" or "virus inclusion", is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and ...
... caused by infection with the African swine fever virus and carried by O. moubata. In wild members of the family Suidae, the ... It is an ectoparasite and vector of relapsing fever in humans, and African swine fever in pigs. Soft ticks in the family ... African swine fever is a vector-borne disease of domestic pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs, ... Valli, V.E.O.; Wood, R.D. (2016). "African swine fever". Pathology of Domestic Animals. Jubb, Kennedy & Palmer. 3. Archived ...
... which can carry African swine fever virus, from crossing into Denmark. The 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) high, nearly 70 kilometres (43 ... In Danish) Walsh, Alistair (28 January 2019). "Denmark starts building anti-swine border fence". Deutsche Welle. ...
... protests against the government's policy of massive culling of the pork livestock to fight the african swine fever virus. Soon ...
In response to an outbreak of African swine fever virus on the island in 1978, U.S. agricultural authorities insisted upon ... The Program for the Eradication of Porcine Swine Fever and for the Development of Pig Raising (PEPPADEP) spread already-serious ... Ebert, Allan (1985). "Porkbarreling Pigs in Haiti: North American 'Swine Aid' an Economic Disaster for Haitian Peasants". ...
"Establishment of a Dual SYBR Green I Fluorescence PCR Assay for African Swine Fever Virus and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 (BVDV-2), Border disease virus (BDV), and Classical swine fever (CSF) virus are the four ... causes Bovine viral diarrhea and Mucosal disease Pestivirus C or Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), causes Classical swine ... "Identification of an NTPase motif in classical swine fever virus NS4B protein". Virology. 411 (1): 41-49. doi:10.1016/j.virol. ...
Borisov's government received further criticism for its handling of African swine fever virus outbreaks which caused the ... "Why Czechia succeeded against the African swine fever and we did not". 28 July 2019. Archived from the original on 28 ... "EU Health Commissioner 'greatly disappointed' by Bulgaria's handling of African Swine Fever". The Sofia Globe. 25 July 2019. ...
... during the 1980s as part of an effort to combat an outbreak of the African swine fever virus. Haiti has been plagued for ... Hjelmgaard, Kim (12 January 2018). "U.N., African countries blast Trump's 'racist' words in angry global backlash". USA TODAY. ... Fram, Alan; Lemire, Jonathan (12 January 2018). "Trump denies he referred to Africa as a 'shithole'". Chicago Tribune. ... slaveowner who only supported manumission of African-Americans from slavery on the condition of voluntary removal to Africa) ...
African swine fever, bluetongue, lumpy skin disease and avian and swine flu farm animals. Understanding of viruses comes from ... On 14 June 2019 the largest stock of the rinderpest virus was destroyed at the Pirbright Institute. Dr John Burns Brooksby 1964 ... The Compton site currently carries out work on endemic (commonplace) animal diseases including some avian viruses and a small ... In 1963 Pirbright became the Animal Virus Research Institute and Compton became the Institute for Research on Animal Diseases. ...
Exposure is therefore most common in Southeast Asia, South America, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Aflatoxin B1 can permeate through ... Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1 has also been reported in swine and poultry production. While aflatoxin B1 contamination ... Symptoms include anorexia, malaise, and low-grade fever. Subacute toxicity Subacute toxicity studies of aflatoxin B1 in animals ... Prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals exposed to aflatoxin, increases with co-infection of hepatitis B virus. ...
"Akibat Virus Corona, 10 DJ Internasional Batal Tampil di We Are Connected Bali, April Ini". Tribun Jabar (in Indonesian). ... "Indonesia Says Suspected Coronavirus Patient Dies of Swine Flu". Jakarta Globe. 27 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020. ... South Africa, and the US as declared by the CDC. The Indonesian government persuaded other countries to bring Indonesians to ... and at least 3 days after no fever or respiratory difficulties. Death is recorded after someone who had been confirmed COVID-19 ...
... termed Pandemic H1N1/09 virus by the World Health Organization (WHO) and colloquially called swine flu. The outbreak was first ... "Istanbul Journal; 'Natasha Syndrome' Brings On a Fever in Turkey". New York Times. 17 April 1993. Retrieved 1 March 2019. ... ", "African disease", or "Natasha disease", so people tend to hide their illness. "According to the United Nations HIV / AIDS ... The virus reached Turkey in May 2009. A U.S. citizen, flying from the United States via Amsterdam was found to be suffering ...
The US swine flu immunization campaign in response to the 1976 swine flu outbreak has become known as "the swine flu fiasco" ... Analysis by the CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that ... It typically occurs two days to one week after the measles rash breaks out and begins with very high fever, severe headache, ... Nigeria had become a net exporter of the poliovirus to its African neighbors. People in the northern states were also reported ...
... of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa ... Most strains of influenza that infect humans are human diseases, although many strains of bird flu and swine flu are zoonoses; ... "Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019. ... Dangerous non-human viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses ...
... parts of North Africa also lie along migratory bird ways, specifically the east Africa-West Asia and Black Sea-Mediterranean ... Influenza viruses sometimes leap from Asia's migratory water fowl after massive migrations congregate near water sources for ... ISBN 978-1-4200-6088-1. A. Mir, Shakil (December 2009). "History of Swine Flu". JK Science. PG Department of Pharmacology, Govt ... Thomson, Theophilus (1852). Annals of Influenza or Epidemic Catarrhal Fever in Great Britain. The Sydenham Society Instituted. ...
Global African Swine Fever Research Alliance Virology, a scientific journal published by Elsevier, is the official journal of ... The society's mission is to strengthen research on viruses affecting humans, animals, plants and other organisms. WSV has more ... "Global African Swine Fever Research Alliance". "Memorandum of understanding (MOU) of the World Society for Virology with the ... First international conference: Tackling global virus epidemics, in June 16-18, 2021, which was held virtually. Emerging and ...
... the Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 from 2004, the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa and onwards. Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842- ... Known as swine flu, due to its indirect source from pigs, it went on to infect over 700 million people. The continuing HIV ... In 1847 in Vienna, Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865), dramatically reduced the death rate of new mothers (due to childbed fever) by ... Rebecca Lee Crumpler (1831-1895) known as the first African-American woman to become a physician. The ABO blood group system ...
Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses of humans appears to be faster than influenza viruses in swine and equines. In wild ... Spanish fever. Influenza research is wide-ranging and includes efforts to understand how influenza viruses enter hosts, the ... The 1580 flu pandemic originated in Asia during summer, spread to Africa, then Europe, and finally America. By the end of the ... that contain weakened viruses. There are three types of inactivated vaccines: whole virus, split virus, in which the virus is ...
... most notably the epidemic of African swine fever virus-which, at the insistence of USAID officials, led to the slaughter of the ... This class occupied a middle status between African slaves and French colonists. Africans who attained freedom also enjoyed ... Some authors wrote that the barbarism of Africa must be expelled, while maintaining African roots. Furthermore, other authors ... African culture thus remained strong among slaves to the end of French rule, in particular the folk-religion of Vodou, which ...
2009 - A new strain of H1N1 virus first detected in Mexico spread to the world, resulting in the 2009 swine flu pandemic. 2006 ... It earned the epithet of "Africa's World War" and the "Great War of Africa." An estimated 3.8 million people died, mostly from ... Puyo Pop Fever, Thunder Force VI, Shenmue II, Phantasy Star Online, Yakuza 2, Gunstar Super Heroes, Astro Boy: Omega Factor, ... The widest interstate war in modern African history, it directly involved nine African nations, as well as about twenty armed ...
... (1932-2013) was a virologist who developed tests for African swine fever and equine infectious anemia. The latter ... "Extraction and Purification of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Antigen," advised by Leroy Coggins, Ph.D. '62, and Dr. Neil ...
However the virus mutates and begins to infect all the children, forcing the Mall Rats to search for the rumoured virus ... The group survives the attack in a fallout shelter but are taken to a future in which Africans rule. "Damnation Alley" is a ... John Mandel's Station Eleven (2014) takes place in the Great Lakes region after a fictional swine flu pandemic, known as the " ... Kyle, Richard G. (2012). Apocalyptic Fever: End-Time Prophecies in Modern America. Wipf and Stock Publishers. ISBN ...
"African Swine Fever Summary sheets" (PDF). "Classical Swine Fever" (PDF). August 2008. "Classical Swine Fever (hog cholera) ... "With high virulent forms of the virus, ASF is characterized by high fever, loss of appetite, hemorrhages in the skin and ... Lesions of classical swine fever are clinico-pathologically indistinguishable from African swine fever; it is essential to send ... Department of State African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious viral disease of pigs, endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, with ...
"2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map, Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever , CDC". CDC. Retrieved 29 October 2016 ... This is a legal designation used only twice before (for the 2009 H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic and the 2014 resurgence of ... Scholia has a topic profile for Western African Ebola virus epidemic. Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa at Wikipedia's sister ... 2013 in Africa, 2014 in Africa, 2015 in Africa, 2016 in Africa, Disease outbreaks in Guinea, Disease outbreaks in Liberia, ...
The international trade in animal products increases the risk of global transmission of virulent diseases such as swine fever, ... Brown, David (October 25, 2009). "Back where virus started, new scrutiny of pig farming". The Washington Post. Food Standards ... In the wake of the spread of BSE from the UK to the continent of Africa, the German Government has appointed an Agriculture ... EU‑AGRINET Archived May 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine article Fighting swine fever in Europe (Project Coordinator: Dr Trevor ...
A Nipah virus infection is a viral infection caused by the Nipah virus. Symptoms from infection vary from none to fever, cough ... August 2012). "A Hendra virus G glycoprotein subunit vaccine protects African green monkeys from Nipah virus challenge". ... Swine diseases, Viral diseases, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate, Zoonoses). ... The Nipah virus (NiV) is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus. The virus normally circulates among some fruit bats. It ...
The virus was injected intradermally or intratumorally and it caused fever in less than half of the treated patients, which ... January 2012). "Sendai virus-based RSV vaccine protects African green monkeys from RSV infection". Vaccine. 30 (5): 959-68. doi ... because antibodies to the virus were often found in their organisms during the swine epidemic in Japan in 1953-1956. High ... Sendai virus was also used as a backbone for vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). This virus (HRSV), is a major ...
Marion Dorsett, discovered in 1903 that swine fever (hog cholera) was caused by a virus; in 1935 he helped develop the crystal ... The case gained much attention on the issue of civil rights for African Americans in the United States. The NAACP and other ... By the 1940 census, the total city population was 10,579; more than 3,000 were African American. After the war, chemical plants ... African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, and 1.46% from two or ...
Symptoms of H1N1 swine flu are like regular flu symptoms and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, ... South Africa had 12631 cases with 91 deaths. The H1N1 virus was a concern for the 2010 FIFA World Cup, which took place in June ... "Swine Flu Symptoms - What Is Swine Flu - H1N1 Influenza A - Swine Flu Treatment". WebMD. "Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 in the African ... 2009 swine flu pandemic by continent, 2009 in Africa, Health disasters in Africa). ...
Cases in Africa began to appear in port cities in late December 1889 and in January 1890, although there may have been an early ... Many people also thought that fasting would 'starve' the fever, based on the belief that the body would not produce as much ... A comparison of two virus strains in the Betacoronavirus 1 species, bovine coronavirus and human coronavirus OC43, indicated ... concerning an advertisement of 1891 for a putative flu remedy Spanish flu Hong Kong flu 2009 swine flu pandemic COVID-19 ...
... sequence similarity between the dinoflagellate-infecting marine girus and the terrestrial pathogen African swine fever virus. ... Aquat Microb Ecol 23:103-111 "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021 ... The only species in the genus is Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus 01. The virus has an icosahedral capsid ~200 nanometers ... Dinodnavirus is a genus of viruses that infect dinoflagellates. This genus belongs to the clade of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA ...
"African Swine Fever enters Davao City". SunStar. February 6, 2020. Retrieved February 6, 2020. "Senate panel endorses criminal ... virus in an egg-producing farm in San Luis, Pampanga. July 30: After 9 years of hiding, former Dinagat Islands congressman ... February 3 - A state of calamity is declared by the provincial government of Davao Occidental, due to the African Swine Fever ... "Davao Occidental declares state of calamity due to African Swine Fever outbreak". MindaNews. February 4, 2020. Retrieved ...
Virus Sections. Virus Name/Prototype. Original Source. Method of Isolation. Virus Properties. Antigenic Relationship. Biologic ... Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. You can get a copy of the PDF viewer by ... Virus Name: African swine fever Abbreviation: ASFV Status. Arbovirus Select Agent. No SALS Level. ...
Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect ... Basto AP, Nix RJ, Boinas F, Mencles S, Silva MJ, Cartaxeiro C, Kinetics of African swine fever virus infection in Ornithodoros ... African swine fever virus infection in the argasid host, Ornithodoros porcinus porcinus. J Virol. 1998;72:1711-24.PubMedGoogle ... African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks. J Virol. 1999; ...
African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever ... Genetic characterization of African swine fever viruses from outbreaks in southern Africa (1973-1999). Vet Microbiol. 2007;121: ... Rowlands RJ, Michaud V, Heath L, Hutchings G, Oura C, Vosloo W, African swine fever virus isolate, Georgia, 2007. Emerg Infect ... Gallardo C, Anchuelo R, Pelayo V, Poudevigne F, Leon T, Nzoussi J, African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX in domestic pigs, ...
The cell-line will not need as many live cell donors because it can be frozen and replicated for use in future tests, making testing easier.
... pigs infected with African swine fever virus wild strains and CD2v gene deletion strains by detecting African swine fever virus ... African swine fever virus CD2v protein ELISA antibody detection kit can be used for the differential diagnosis of ... African swine fever virus CD2v protein ELISA antibody detection kit. African swine fever virus CD2v protein ELISA antibody ... pigs infected with African swine fever virus wild strains and CD2v gene deletion strains by detecting African swine fever virus ...
The African swine fever virus (ASFV) has caused a devastating pandemic in domestic and wild swine, causing economic losses to ... Deletion of DP148R, DP71L, and DP96R Attenuates African Swine Fever Virus, and the Mutant Strain Confers Complete Protection ... Thus, a safe and effective vaccine is important to control African swine fever spread. Here, an ASFV strain with three gene ... IMPORTANCE Ongoing outbreaks of African swine fever (ASF) have considerably damaged the pig industry in affected countries. ...
Titration of African swine fever (ASF) virus.. *L. Enjuanes, Á. Carrascosa, M. Moreno, E. Viñuela ... A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption ...
... that could prove valuable particularly for free-ranging pig populations would be exploitation of innate resistance to the virus ... as it is in the endemic areas in Africa, with free-ranging pig populations and low-biosecurity backyard pig farming. Managing ... which is fully effective in wild African suids and has been observed in some domestic pig populations in areas of prolonged ... The spectacular recent spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe and Asia has been strongly associated, ...
African swine fever virus - variants on the rise. Emerg. Microbes Infect. 12 (1), art. 2146537. Volltext (DOI) ... "Sylvatic yellow fever: development of an agent-based model to investigate the spread of yellow fever virus between fragmented ... High aboveground carbon stock of African tropical montane forests. Nature 596 (7873), 536 - 542. Volltext (DOI) ...
Affecting human e.g., Ebola virus, affecting animal e.g., African swine fever virus (culture only). ...
Interpretive Summary: African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease in swine, called African swine fever (ASF ... Technical Abstract: African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease of swine currently spread from Central Europe ... in the process of virus replication and in swine virulence Author. RAMIREZ-MEDINA, ELIZABETH - University Of Connecticut ... lacking the KP177R gene as a tool to evaluate p22 role in virus replication and virulence in swine. The recombinant ASFV-G- ...
Categories: African Swine Fever Virus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Recently, the USDA put out warnings and resources for protecting pigs from African Swine Fever - a deadly virus affecting pigs ... On a positive note, this virus is NOT yet in the United States, but is spreading in Europe, Haiti, Dominican Republic and ... Africa and Asia will raise funds, raise awareness about their work, and compete for prizes throughout the day. ... Africa. Public health measures are being taken to prevent it from spreading to other countries. ...
African horse sickness virus B4.909.777.714.550.50 (Replaced for 2015 by African Horse Sickness Virus) African Swine Fever ... Classical swine fever virus B4.909.777.310.700.400 Clerodendrum B1.650.940.800.575.100.960.155 B1.650.940.800.575.100.583.520. ... Rift Valley fever virus B4.909.777.147.710.700 Rinderpest virus B4.909.777.455.600.650.500.675 RING Finger Domains G2.111. ... Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Rabbit B4.909.777.162.500.380 Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo B4.909.777.147.565.400 Hendra ...
African swine fever virus p54 protein, E183L (p54); ASFV p54Alternates names: Envelope protein p54; African swine fever virus ...
Risk of African swine fever virus introduction into the United States through smuggling of pork in air passenger luggage. ... Evaluating the sensitivity of US surveillance system for tier-1 foreign animal diseases of swine.. Perez, A. M. & Perez ... A near-real time global surveillance system for swine diseases. Perez Aguirreburualde, M. S. & Perez, A. M. ... Bayesian assessment of the accuracy of a PCR-based rapid diagnostic test for bovine tuberculosis in swine. Barandiaran, S., ...
Yeast 01022704850 at Gentaur African swine fever virus DNA ligase (War-110) Yeast ... Order African swine fever virus DNA ligase War-110 - ...
African Swine Fever Virus - Preferred Concept UI. M0000546. Scope note. The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects ... infection = AFRICAN SWINE FEVER: see note there. Allowable Qualifiers:. CH chemistry. CL classification. DE drug effects. EN ... Virus, Wart-Hog Disease Wart Hog Disease Virus Wart-Hog Disease Virus ... African Swine Fever Virus Entry term(s). ... African Swine Fever Virus [B04.280.049.035] African Swine Fever ...
... virus in Carcar City.Dr. Mary Rose Vincoy, provincial veterinarian, said... ... and pork-related products from Negros Island after the detection of the African swine fever (ASF) ... after the detection of African swine fever virus from pigs that co-comingled with other pigs from the neighboring island. (PNA ... and pork-related products from Negros Island after the detection of the African swine fever (ASF) virus in Carcar City. ...
Egan Brockhoff, veterinarian with Prairie Swine Health Services, sheds light on the African swine fever virus and its threat to ... Between the Rows Podcast: Swine Virus on the Horizon, Serving Up Suds via Blockchain and Canola Renews its Slide. Tuesday, ...
African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV): Biology, Genomics and Genotypes Circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa  Njau, Emma; Machuka, ... African swine fever (ASF) is a highly infectious and fatal haemorrhagic disease of pigs that is caused by a complex DNA virus ... The virus has claimed over 3,782,490 lives (as of 12 June 2021), with the figure expected to rise due to the ... ... African nightshades (Solanum nigrum complex): The potential contribution to human nutrition and livelihoods in sub-Saharan ...
... and the epidemic of African swine fever, including determination of the three-dimensional structure of the virus particle. ... TWiV 582: This little virus went to market. This Week in Virology / By Vincent Racaniello ...
African Swine Fever Virus IDEXX RealPCR* ASFV DNA Test can be used in domestic and wild pigs in early stages of infection in ...
African Swine Fever Virus was discovered, and in order to stop the contagion, death was rained down on the pigs. On the farm. ... and the point can be made even stronger with viruses. no one has ever died from a virus in all of human history. viruses are ... Is this virus real? Its a good probability that there is a virus making people sick, but it could also be a new strain of flu ... viruses are not harmful. everyone has them - without them you would die. anyone chasing a virus as a threat is an ignoramus. ...
African Swine Fever virus. Complies with Red Tractor Farm Assured Poultry Scheme for broiler flocks and the disinfectant ... ️ Proven effective against African Swine Fever at a market leading dilution rate of 1:800. ▪️ DEFRA approved (DoP, FMD, SVD and ... Independently laboratory tested with proven rapid action against bacteria, viruses, fungi and spores:. ▪️ Independently tested ...
African swine fever (ASF) leads to high mortality in domestic pigs and wild boar and is caused by the African swine fever virus ... Differential expression of porcine microRNAs in African swine fever virus infected pigs: a proof-of-concept study African swine ... African swine fever in the Lithuanian wild boar population in 2018: a snapshot The first cases of African swine fever (ASF) ... The recombinant pseudorabies virus expressing African swine fever virus CD2v protein is safe and effective in mice ...
"Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus". Virus Res 173(1):191-7. 4/2013. ... "Quantitative Risk Assessment for the Introduction of African Swine Fever Virus into the European Union by Legal Import of Live ... VISAVET-UCM is OIE reference laboratory for African horse sickness and African swine fever, and European Union Reference ... "Modular framework to assess the risk of African swine fever virus entry into the European Union". BMC Vet Res. 10(1):145. 7/ ...
What is African Swine Fever?. African Swine Fever (ASF) caused by the African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious ... The virus is hardy, and so there are many potential ways the virus could come to the US. Of course, there is the potential for ... There is no effective treatment or cure, and so the protocol used to stop the spread of the virus is to cull the pigs within a ... Viruses have surface proteins which bind to host cells. Since the identification of ASFV more than 100 years ago, Craig Mosman ...
  • African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and deadly hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a double-strand DNA virus of the family Asfarviridae and genus Asfivirus ( 1 ). (
  • Historically, all ASFV p72 genotypes have been circulating in eastern and southern Africa, and genotype I has been circulating in Europe, South America, the Caribbean, and western Africa ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Spread of ASFV beyond traditional geographic boundaries occurred with incursion of p72 genotype II into the Republic of Georgia and its subsequent spread into Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Russia ( 4 , 5 ) and incursion of genotype IX into western Africa ( 6 ). (
  • A) Ticks fed on African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain OUR T88/1 at 4 log 10 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD 50 )/mL. (
  • Ticks that fed on blood containing 6 log 10 HAD 50 ASFV on average had virus titers 2.15 log 10 HAD 50 higher than those for ticks that fed on blood containing 4 log 10 HAD 50 /mL. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating hemorrhagic disease with worldwide circulation and no widely available therapeutic prevention. (
  • African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious, and highly contagious disease caused by ASFV, which is infected by pigs and wild boars. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease in swine, called African swine fever (ASF), that is currently spreading across Europe and Asia. (
  • In this study we were able to delete a structural protein in ASFV, however deletion of this structural protein did not have any effect on virus replication or virulence. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating disease of swine currently spread from Central Europe to Asia. (
  • ASFV is a large, structurally complex virus with a large dsDNA genome encoding for more than 160 genes, most of them still uncharacterized. (
  • p22, encoded by ASFV gene KP177R, is a structural virus protein located in the inner envelope of the ASFV particle. (
  • Here we describe the development of a recombinant ASFV (ASFV-G-'KP177R) lacking the KP177R gene as a tool to evaluate p22 role in virus replication and virulence in swine. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes more than 150 proteins, most of them of unknown function. (
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) infectious cycle starts with the viral adsorption and entry into the host cell. (
  • African Swine Fever (ASF) caused by the African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious and fatal disease of feral and domestic swine that has recently caused worldwide economic and food security concerns. (
  • Since the identification of ASFV more than 100 years ago, Craig Mosman of Idaho acknowledges that there has not been a recorded case where this complex virus mutated and infected humans. (
  • Given the fact that ASFV is in this hemisphere, the hardiness of the virus, and the many methods…intentional and unintentional…that ASFV could travel to the US, it is likely that the US will experience an outbreak of ASFV in the next 12-18 months. (
  • Previous studies suggest that it takes 3-4 weeks for ticks to completely digest and clear ingested blood and that virus isolated after this period is due to viral replication ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • By using magnetic beads with a unique separation function and carefully optimized buffer system to efficiently capture the released nucleic acid, it can be used to isolate and purify high-quality viral DNA / RNA from various swabs and virus culture supernatants. (
  • African swine fever is a viral disease that causes high fevers and haemorrhaging in pigs and wild boars. (
  • Since that time, researchers around the world have identified thousands of different viruses, many of which still cause massive morbidity and mortality, despite intense global efforts to create anti-viral therapies. (
  • African swine fever virus CD2v protein ELISA antibody detection kit can be used for the differential diagnosis of pigs infected with African swine fever virus wild strains and CD2v gene deletion strains by detecting African swine fever virus CD2v protein specific antibodies in pig serum. (
  • African swine fever is a highly contagious virus that causes high death rates in pigs. (
  • Recently, the USDA put out warnings and resources for protecting pigs from African Swine Fever - a deadly virus affecting pigs. (
  • Cebu Provincial Veterinarian Dr. Rose Vincoy on Monday (March 6, 2023) said Governor Gwendolyn Garcia has issued an executive order implementing a temporary ban on the entry of live hogs, sows, piglets, boar semen, pork, and pork-related products from Negros Island, after the detection of African swine fever virus from pigs that co-comingled with other pigs from the neighboring island. (
  • There is no effective treatment or cure, and so the protocol used to stop the spread of the virus is to cull the pigs within a 2 mile radius of any outbreak. (
  • It survives in soil and water, and studies have noted the spread of the virus in trucks used to transport pigs, and in clothes, equipment, or footwear that has come in contact with the virus. (
  • Among laboratory detection technologies, qPCR is an important tool for routine diagnosis of African swine fever recommended by OIE, and it is also the preferred detection technology in China at the current stage of the African swine fever epidemic. (
  • TWiV provides updates on the new coronavirus causing respiratory disease in China, the current influenza season, and the epidemic of African swine fever, including determination of the three-dimensional structure of the virus particle. (
  • As African swine fever has been spreading rapidly through Eastern Europe and now threatens to make inroads to the west, a cohort of Ukrainian lab technicians is now trained in the latest and most effective methods for diagnosing the disease and containing the epidemic, reports FAO. (
  • The recombinant African swine fever virus CD2v protein was pre-coated on the wells of the microplate strip. (
  • Currently, there is no vaccine or effective treatment for African swine fever. (
  • Largely because there is no treatment or vaccine, the US remains defenseless to the virus. (
  • IRP researchers have developed an Ebola vaccine, which is under clinical trials in Africa. (
  • CEBU CITY - The provincial government of Cebu has banned the entry of live hogs, sows, piglets, boar semen, pork, and pork-related products from Negros Island after the detection of the African swine fever (ASF) virus in Carcar City. (
  • The spectacular recent spread of African swine fever (ASF) in Eastern Europe and Asia has been strongly associated, as it is in the endemic areas in Africa, with free-ranging pig populations and low-biosecurity backyard pig farming. (
  • Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. (
  • Evaluating the sensitivity of US surveillance system for tier-1 foreign animal diseases of swine. (
  • ORF-Interrupting Mutations in Monkeypox Virus Genomes from Washington and Ohio, 2022. (
  • On October 11th, GFAS will once again host Giving Day for Apes, a 24-hour event in which ape sanctuaries and rescue centers throughout North America, Africa and Asia will raise funds, raise awareness about their work, and compete for prizes throughout the day. (
  • The Foundation for Food & Agriculture Research recently awarded a $150,000 Rapid Outcomes from Agriculture Research grant to Kansas State University to help with the development of vaccines for African swine fever virus. (
  • A plaque assay for ASF virus adapted to grow in VERO cells gives a titre similar to that obtained using the haemadsorption microtest, and in both the micromethod and the plaque assay infection may be produced by a single infective particle. (
  • 17. Inhibition of BET Family Proteins Suppresses African Swine Fever Virus Infection. (
  • While the disease poses no danger to human health or to other animals, it threatens the entire European swine industry, jeopardising livelihoods, food security and nutrition. (
  • The concept of a virus, an infectious particle that is generally much smaller than most bacteria, would not be published until 1892, five years after the NIH was established. (
  • We need to have a new strategy of therapeutics and prophylactics that will stop the replication and spread of this deadly virus. (
  • Particularly with the virus appearing in this hemisphere, there is also an increased potential for unintentional spread of the virus. (
  • It survives cooking, and live virus could be spread through importing packaged food. (
  • Ebola virus, affecting animal e.g. (
  • First, he would want to know, "Do researchers there have an actual biological specimen of this new virus? (
  • You can't just lay a specimen of a virus on a table and shine a light on it. (
  • According to her, authorities detected the presence of the ASF virus in blood samples of hogs in the southern city of Carcar on March 1. (
  • A Custom Hepatitis A Virus Assay for Whole-Genome Sequencing. (
  • Andriy Rozstalnyy, an animal health expert based at FAO's regional office in Budapest, explained: "The key to curbing the outbreak is identifying the virus and isolating all infected livestock quickly. (
  • The technicians, coming from veterinary medicine laboratories across Ukraine, were trained to accurately and efficiently diagnose African swine fever using molecular genetics and serological research methods. (
  • Virus titers were estimated on porcine bone marrow cells ( 7 ) and expressed as log 10 HAD 50 per tick. (
  • On a positive note, this virus is NOT yet in the United States, but is spreading in Europe, Haiti, Dominican Republic and Africa. (
  • In the past few years this virus has already traveled quickly from Europe, across Russia, into China, throughout Southeast Asia, to India, and jumped the Atlantic to arrive in the Dominican Republic and Haiti. (
  • UKRAINE - FAO reports that training sessions in Kiev in October have helped the country to improve control of African swine fever. (
  • She said so far, the other tests have returned negative for the ASF virus. (
  • Similar to other viruses, ASF virion is then internalized and incorporated into the endocytic pathway. (
  • Click on the PDF icon to the left to view a copy of this virus entry in PDF format. (
  • Why do bat viruses keep infecting people? (