African Swine Fever Virus
African Swine Fever
Classical swine fever virus
Classical Swine Fever
Viral Structural Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Open Reading Frames
Amino Acid Sequence
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Modulation of monocytic cell activity and virus susceptibility during differentiation into macrophages. (1/107)A major component of innate immune responses relies on monocytes and macrophages, virus infection of which will pose a particular problem for immunological defense. Consequently, the monocytic cell differentiation pathway was analyzed in terms of cellular modulations therein and their relation to monocytotropic virus infection. Differentiation was characterized by down-regulation of CD14, MHC Ags, the monocytic SWC1 marker, and p53; concomitant up-regulation of the SWC9 macrophage marker, a putative porcine CD80 (detected with anti-human CD80 Ab), and acid phosphatase secretion were also characteristic. Elevated phagocytic and endocytic activities as well as endosomal/lysosomal acidification were identified as being important to the macrophage. In contrast, monocytes possessed high accessory activity. This was multifactorial, concomitantly requiring 1) high MHC Ag expression; 2) enzyme activity of esterase, peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and 5' nucleotidase in preference to glucosidase, galactosidase, and glucuronidase; and 3) elevated capacity for spontaneous IL-1 production. Only with all parameters was efficient stimulation of Ag-specific lymphocytes possible. These results point to a continuous process during differentiation, involving inter-related characteristics linking the more accessory monocyte to the scavenger macrophage, both in vitro and in vivo. Of particular interest was how these characteristics related to monocytotropic virus infection, and how a particular virus could show a clear preference for the differentiating macrophages. Such results not only further our understanding of porcine immunology, but also provide evidence and a potential model for the determination and characterization of monocytotropic virus-host cell interactions. (+info)
African swine fever virus: a B cell-mitogenic virus in vivo and in vitro. (2/107)The two major characteristics of pathogenesis in African swine fever virus (ASFV) infections of domestic pigs are massive B-cell apoptosis and haemorrhage. The effects of ASFV on porcine B cells have therefore been systematically examined in vivo, by using virus-infected pigs and SCID-Beige mice reconstituted with porcine bone marrow, and in vitro, by using porcine B-cell lines and B cells from normal and ASFV-infected pigs. Secretion of porcine Ig was stimulated by ASFV both in vivo and in bone marrow cultures in vitro, with the virulent Malawi isolate of ASFV being the most effective. Stimulation of Ig secretion in vitro depended on the presence of ASFV-infected macrophages and did not occur with supernatants from ASFV-infected macrophages. Although the virus alone did not stimulate proliferation of purified B cells in vitro, it was co-stimulatory with CD154 (CD40 ligand). The B cells recovered from ASFV-infected porcine lymphoid tissue were of activated surface marker phenotypes and, interestingly, expressed diminished levels of the B-cell co-stimulatory surface molecule CD21. In addition, they were highly sensitive to IL-4 and CD154. These results may be integrated into a model of pathogenesis in which those B cells activated indirectly as a result of virulent ASFV infection of macrophages are not rescued from apoptosis through interaction with CD154, due to the drastic depletion of T cells that occurs early in infection. The consequently diminished specific anti-ASFV antibody response would favour survival of the virus, with the non-specific hypergammaglobulinaemia being perhaps another example of pathogen-mediated immune deviation. (+info)
African swine fever virus replication in the midgut epithelium is required for infection of Ornithodoros ticks. (3/107)Although the Malawi Lil20/1 (MAL) strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV) was isolated from Ornithodoros sp. ticks, our attempts to experimentally infect ticks by feeding them this strain failed. Ten different collections of Ornithodorus porcinus porcinus ticks and one collection of O. porcinus domesticus ticks were orally exposed to a high titer of MAL. At 3 weeks postinoculation (p.i.), <25% of the ticks contained detectable virus, with viral titers of <4 log(10) 50% hemadsorbing doses/ml. Viral titers declined to undetectability in >90% of the ticks by 5 weeks p.i. To further study the growth defect, O. porcinus porcinus ticks were orally exposed to MAL and assayed at regular intervals p.i. Whole-tick viral titers dramatically declined (>1,000-fold) between 2 and 6 days p.i., and by 18 days p.i., viral titers were below the detection limit. In contrast, viral titers of ticks orally exposed to a tick-competent ASFV isolate, Pretoriuskop/96/4/1 (Pr4), increased 10-fold by 10 days p.i. and 50-fold by 14 days p.i. Early viral gene expression, but not extensive late gene expression or viral DNA synthesis, was detected in the midguts of ticks orally exposed to MAL. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that progeny virus was rarely present in ticks orally exposed to MAL and, when present, was associated with extensive cytopathology of phagocytic midgut epithelial cells. To determine if viral replication was restricted only in the midgut epithelium, parenteral inoculations into the hemocoel were performed. With inoculation by this route, a persistent infection was established although a delay in generalization of MAL was detected and viral titers in most tissues were typically 10- to 1,000-fold lower than those of ticks injected with Pr4. MAL was detected in both the salivary secretion and coxal fluid following feeding but less frequently and at a lower titer compared to Pr4. Transovarial transmission of MAL was not detected after two gonotrophic cycles. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated that, when injected, MAL replicated in a number of cell types but failed to replicate in midgut epithelial cells. In contrast, ticks injected with Pr4 had replicating virus in midgut epithelial cells. Together, these results indicate that MAL replication is restricted in midgut epithelial cells. This finding demonstrates the importance of viral replication in the midgut for successful ASFV infection of the arthropod host. (+info)
African swine fever virus dUTPase is a highly specific enzyme required for efficient replication in swine macrophages. (4/107)The African swine fever virus (ASFV) gene E165R, which is homologous to dUTPases, has been characterized. A multiple alignment of dUTPases showed the conservation in ASFV dUTPase of the motifs that define this protein family. A biochemical analysis of the purified recombinant enzyme showed that the virus dUTPase is a trimeric, highly specific enzyme that requires a divalent cation for activity. The enzyme is most probably complexed with Mg(2+), the preferred cation, and has an apparent K(m) for dUTP of 1 microM. Northern and Western blotting, as well as immunofluorescence analyses, indicated that the enzyme is expressed at early and late times of infection and is localized in the cytoplasm of the infected cells. On the other hand, an ASFV dUTPase-deletion mutant (vDeltaE165R) has been obtained. Growth kinetics showed that vDeltaE165R replicates as efficiently as parental virus in Vero cells but only to 10% or less of parental virus in swine macrophages. Our results suggest that the dUTPase activity is dispensable for virus replication in dividing cells but is required for productive infection in nondividing swine macrophages, the natural host cell for the virus. The viral dUTPase may play a role in lowering the dUTP concentration in natural infections to minimize misincorporation of deoxyuridine into the viral DNA and ensure the fidelity of genome replication. (+info)
Intermediate stages in monocyte-macrophage differentiation modulate phenotype and susceptibility to virus infection. (5/107)The kinetics of monocyte-macrophage differentiation was analysed using two Swine Workshop Cluster (SWC) CD molecules: SWC1 and SWC9. Myeloid cells were selected by labelling for the common myeloid antigen, SWC3. Confirmation of macrophage identification used acid phosphatase and phagocytosis activities. During differentiation, SWC1 was gradually lost. SWC9 was absent on monocytes but up-regulated early. Consequently, monocytes were SWC1+ SWC9- and macrophages were SWC1- SWC9+. An additional, intermediate, cell population was identified as SWC1+ SWC9+. Size and granularity characteristics mirrored the monocyte, macrophage and intermediate-cell phenotypes. Overall, SWC9 up-regulation was central in macrophage differentiation and dependent on plasma factors. The concomitant loss of SWC1 was independent of these factors, but always associated with mature macrophages. Upon up-regulation of SWC9, the SWC1+ SWC9+ intermediate monocytic cells became susceptible to African swine fever virus infection. These results demonstrate the heterogeneity of monocytic cell differentiation and the importance of these characteristics for interaction with monocytotropic viruses. (+info)
An African swine fever virus ORF with similarity to C-type lectins is non-essential for growth in swine macrophages in vitro and for virus virulence in domestic swine. (6/107)An African swine fever virus (ASFV) ORF, 8CR, with similarity to the C-type lectin family of adhesion proteins has been described in the pathogenic isolate Malawi Lil-20/1. The similarity of 8CR to cellular and poxvirus genes associated with cell adhesion, cell recognition and virus infectivity suggested that 8CR may be of significance to ASFV-host cell interactions. Sequence analysis of the 8CR ORF from additional pathogenic ASFV isolates demonstrated conservation among isolates from both pig and tick sources. Northern blot analysis demonstrated 8CR mRNA transcription late in the virus replication cycle. A Malawi Lil-20/1 8CR deletion mutant (delta8CR) was constructed to analyse 8CR function further. The growth characteristics in vitro of delta8CR in porcine macrophage cell cultures were identical to those observed for parental virus. In domestic swine, delta8CR exhibited an unaltered parental Malawi Lil-20/1 disease and virulence phenotype. Thus, although well conserved among pathogenic ASFV field isolates, 8CR is non-essential for growth in porcine macrophages in vitro and for virus virulence in domestic swine. (+info)
An African swine fever virus ERV1-ALR homologue, 9GL, affects virion maturation and viral growth in macrophages and viral virulence in swine. (7/107)The African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome contains a gene, 9GL, with similarity to yeast ERV1 and ALR genes. ERV1 has been shown to function in oxidative phosphorylation and in cell growth, while ALR has hepatotrophic activity. 9GL encodes a protein of 119 amino acids and was highly conserved at both nucleotide and amino acid levels among all ASFV field isolates examined. Monospecific rabbit polyclonal antibody produced to a glutathione S-transferase-9GL fusion protein specifically immunoprecipitated a 14-kDa protein from macrophage cell cultures infected with the ASFV isolate Malawi Lil-20/1 (MAL). Time course analysis and viral DNA synthesis inhibitor experiments indicated that p14 was a late viral protein. A 9GL gene deletion mutant of MAL (Delta9GL), exhibited a growth defect in macrophages of approximately 2 log(10) units and had a small-plaque phenotype compared to either a revertant (9GL-R) or the parental virus. 9GL affected normal virion maturation; virions containing acentric nucleoid structures comprised 90 to 99% of all virions observed in Delta9GL-infected macrophages. The Delta9GL virus was markedly attenuated in swine. In contrast to 9GL-R infection, where mortality was 100%, all Delta9GL-infected animals survived infection. With the exception of a transient fever response in some animals, Delta9GL-infected animals remained clinically normal and exhibited significant 100- to 10,000-fold reductions in viremia titers. All pigs previously infected with Delta9GL survived infection when subsequently challenged with a lethal dose of virulent parental MAL. Thus, ASFV 9GL gene deletion mutants may prove useful as live-attenuated ASF vaccines. (+info)
Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (8/107)The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined. (+info)
The symptoms of ASF are varied and can include:
* High fever
* Loss of appetite
* Weakness and lethargy
* Reduced productivity and milk production in breeding pigs
* Hemorrhages and skin lesions, which can be severe and fatal.
ASF is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated objects, such as meat products, animal feed, or farming equipment. The virus can also be spread by flies, ticks, and other insects that have fed on infected pigs.
There is no specific treatment for ASF, and control measures are largely focused on preventing the spread of the disease. These include:
* Implementing strict biosecurity measures, such as isolating infected animals, disinfecting equipment and facilities, and using protective clothing and gear.
* Vaccination of pigs, which can help reduce the severity of symptoms and prevent the spread of the disease.
* Culling of infected animals to prevent the spread of the disease and minimize economic losses.
* Implementing trade restrictions and surveillance programs to prevent the spread of ASF to other countries.
ASF has significant economic and social impacts on affected communities, particularly in Africa where it is a major threat to food security and livelihoods. The disease has also had significant impacts on global pork supplies, leading to increased prices and trade restrictions.
The virus is transmitted through contact with infected animals, contaminated objects or people, or through the consumption of contaminated food or water. The disease can be spread quickly in populations of pigs, especially in areas where there are high densities of animals.
Classical Swine Fever is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, loss of appetite, and vomiting, followed by hemorrhagic diarrhea, lethargy, and difficulty breathing. The disease can be fatal in up to 90% of cases, especially in young pigs.
Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and serology. There is no specific treatment for Classical Swine Fever, and control measures focus on preventing the spread of the disease. Vaccination is an important tool in controlling outbreaks, and strict biosecurity measures can help to reduce the risk of transmission.
In addition to its impact on animal health, Classical Swine Fever can also have significant economic and social implications for the swine industry. Outbreaks can lead to significant losses, and the disease can be difficult to control, especially in areas with limited resources and infrastructure.
A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:
1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.
It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.
There are different types of fever, including:
1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.
The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:
* Elevated body temperature
* Muscle aches
* Loss of appetite
In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.
Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.
In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:
* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.
Preventive measures for fever include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.
Synonyms: tick bites, tick infestations, tick-borne illnesses, tick-transmitted diseases.
Types of Tick Infestations:
1. Lyme disease: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a distinctive skin rash.
2. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
3. Tick-borne relapsing fever: Caused by the bacterium Borrelia duttoni, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected soft tick (Ornithodoros moenia). Symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash with small purple spots.
4. Babesiosis: Caused by the parasite Babesia microti, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, chills, and fatigue.
5. Anaplasmosis: Caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). Symptoms include fever, headache, and muscle aches.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Exposure to ticks: The risk of developing tick-borne diseases is high in areas where ticks are common, such as wooded or grassy areas with long grass or leaf litter.
2. Warm weather: Ticks are most active during warm weather, especially in the spring and summer months.
3. Outdoor activities: People who engage in outdoor activities, such as hiking, camping, or gardening, are at higher risk of exposure to ticks.
4. Poor tick awareness: Not knowing how to protect yourself from ticks or not being aware of the risks of tick-borne diseases can increase your likelihood of getting sick.
5. Lack of tick prevention measures: Failing to use tick repellents, wear protective clothing, or perform regular tick checks can increase your risk of exposure to ticks and tick-borne diseases.
Prevention and Treatment:
1. Tick awareness: Learn how to identify ticks, the risks of tick-borne diseases, and how to protect yourself from ticks.
2. Use tick repellents: Apply tick repellents to your skin and clothing before going outdoors, especially in areas where ticks are common.
3. Wear protective clothing: Wear long sleeves, pants, and closed-toe shoes to cover your skin and make it harder for ticks to attach to you.
4. Perform regular tick checks: Check yourself, children, and pets frequently for ticks when returning indoors, especially after spending time outdoors in areas where ticks are common.
5. Remove attached ticks: If you find a tick on your body, remove it promptly and correctly to reduce the risk of infection.
6. Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear: Treating your clothing and gear with permethrin can help repel ticks and reduce the risk of infection.
7. Vaccination: There are vaccines available for some tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, which can help protect against these illnesses.
8. Early treatment: If you suspect that you have been bitten by a tick and develop symptoms of a tick-borne disease, seek medical attention promptly. Early treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes.
It's important to note that not all ticks carry diseases, but it's always better to be safe than sorry. By following these tips, you can reduce your risk of tick bites and the potential for tick-borne illnesses.
The disease is primarily transmitted through inhalation of infected particles, such as dust or aerosols, which contain the bacterium. People working in close contact with animals, such as veterinarians and farmers, are at higher risk of contracting Q fever.
Symptoms of Q fever typically develop within 2-3 weeks after exposure and may include fever, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, and respiratory symptoms such as cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the heart, liver, and other organs, leading to life-threatening complications.
Diagnosis of Q fever is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and epidemiological investigations. Laboratory confirmation of the disease requires the isolation of Coxiella burnetii from blood or other bodily fluids.
Treatment of Q fever typically involves antibiotics, which can effectively cure the infection if administered early. However, treatment is not always necessary for mild cases, and some people may recover without any treatment.
Prevention of Q fever primarily involves avoiding exposure to infected animals or their tissues, as well as practicing good hygiene practices such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling animals or their tissues. Vaccination is also available for high-risk groups, such as veterinarians and farmers.
Overall, Q fever is an important zoonotic disease that can cause significant illness in humans and a range of animal species. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are critical to preventing complications and ensuring effective management of the disease.
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ArboCat Virus: African swine fever (ASFV)
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- A) Ticks fed on African swine fever virus (ASFV) strain OUR T88/1 at 4 log 10 50% hemadsorbing doses (HAD 50 )/mL. (cdc.gov)
- African Swine Fever (ASF) caused by the African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious and fatal disease of feral and domestic swine that has recently caused worldwide economic and food security concerns. (careerramblings.com)
- African swine fever (ASF) is an acute, highly contagious, and highly contagious disease caused by ASFV, which is infected by pigs and wild boars. (yeasenbiotech.com)
- African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes a devastating hemorrhagic disease with worldwide circulation and no widely available therapeutic prevention. (bvsalud.org)
- African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a contagious hemorrhagic disease of wild and domestic pigs. (cornell.edu)
- ASFV is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and several outbreaks have been observed in Asia and Europe. (cornell.edu)
- African swine fever virus (ASFV) encodes more than 150 proteins, most of them of unknown function. (bvsalud.org)
- African swine fever virus (ASFV) infectious cycle starts with the viral adsorption and entry into the host cell. (bvsalud.org)
- The Chinese government issued a rare admission of failure Wednesday, saying that there had been " weaknesses " in the handling of an African swine fever epidemic which has now spread to all of China's 25 provinces. (cnn.com)
- As African swine fever has been spreading rapidly through Eastern Europe and now threatens to make inroads to the west, a cohort of Ukrainian lab technicians is now trained in the latest and most effective methods for diagnosing the disease and containing the epidemic, reports FAO. (thepigsite.com)
- Among laboratory detection technologies, qPCR is an important tool for routine diagnosis of African swine fever recommended by OIE, and it is also the preferred detection technology in China at the current stage of the African swine fever epidemic. (yeasenbiotech.com)
- Since being first detected in China in August 2018, swine fever has spread to other countries in the Asia region. (cnn.com)
- A recent study in the journal Conservation Letters warns that African swine fever, responsible for millions of pig deaths in mainland Asia since 2018, now endangers 11 wild pig species living in Southeast Asia. (mongabay.com)
- Since the 2018 emergence of African swine fever in China, the viral disease has torn through Asia, leaving behind a trail of economic devastation. (mongabay.com)
- China's demand for imported pork has accelerated as African Swine Fever (ASF) spread throughout China during 2018-19. (agequipmentintelligence.com)
- Fever could kill a third of China's pigs. (cnn.com)
- Some farms have been entirely wiped out by the disease, losing as many as 20,000 pigs to the fever or to the culling. (cnn.com)
- African swine fever is a viral disease that causes high fevers and haemorrhaging in pigs and wild boars. (thepigsite.com)
- Pig farmers are being advised to feed their pigs with feeds that can be purchased in local poultry supplies and to stop feeding their pigs with kaning baboy or swill feeds," ang pahayag at paliwanag ni Tobiano tungkol sa dreaded African Swine Fever. (pep.ph)
- Brett Stuart, president of the market research and analysis firm Global AgriTrends, estimates that about two-thirds of China's swine herd has been lost to the disease and contrary to official government reports of recovery, more pigs are dying every day as ASF continues to spread. (investmentwatchblog.com)
- African Swine Fever is not harmful to humans, but the vast majority of the pigs that catch it end up dead. (endoftheamericandream.com)
- Bulgarian veterinarians reported an outbreak of African swine fever at an industrial farm with 13,000 pigs in the village of Apriltsi. (theanimalreader.com)
- African swine fever is an infectious viral disease in domestic and wild pigs. (theanimalreader.com)
- At the beginning of August, the Dominican Republic killed thousands of pigs after African swine fever outbreaks in eleven provinces. (theanimalreader.com)
- African swine fever virus CD2v protein ELISA antibody detection kit can be used for the differential diagnosis of pigs infected with African swine fever virus wild strains and CD2v gene deletion strains by detecting African swine fever virus CD2v protein specific antibodies in pig serum. (hwtai.com)
- Aizawl: The highly contagious African Swine Fever (ASF), which created havoc last year in Mizoram killing over 33,000 pigs, has reappeared in few districts of the bordering state, officials said. (telanganatoday.com)
Outbreak of African swine2
- At a press briefing Thursday, Yu Kangzhen, China's vice minister of agriculture and rural affairs claimed the outbreaks of African swine fever had "slowed," and said progress was being made on a vaccine. (cnn.com)
- Since it was first detected last August, there have been 116 officially reported outbreaks of African Swine Fever in China, and since that time it has rapidly spread to surrounding nations such as Cambodia and Vietnam. (endoftheamericandream.com)
- U.S. hog prices have surged the past few weeks on signs that Chinese buyers have turned to the U.S. to make up for the dwindling of China's pig herds because of African swine fever (ASF), said a Wall Street Journal ( WSJ ) article on March 27. (endoftheamericandream.com)
- African swine fever (ASF) is an infectious and notifiable disease of domestic and wild animals of the family Suidae ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- 14. Antiviral Role of IFITM Proteins in African Swine Fever Virus Infection. (nih.gov)
- Currently, there is no vaccine or effective treatment for African swine fever. (yeasenbiotech.com)
- While the disease poses no danger to human health or to other animals, it threatens the entire European swine industry, jeopardising livelihoods, food security and nutrition. (thepigsite.com)
- African Swine Fever is an incurable disease that is currently spreading between pig populations in Africa, Asia and Europe. (foodmatterslive.com)
- The disease does not pose a risk to human health but is characterized by high morbidity and mortality rates in the swine. (cornell.edu)
- The event was organized to allay consumers' unfounded fears about African Swine Fever, and to prove that locally produced pork is safe for human consumption. (pep.ph)
- Ang Celebrity Lechon Boodle Fiesta ang suporta ni Tobiano sa Filipino Pork Farmers na naapektuhan ang negosyo ng takot ng publiko na bumili ng pork meat dahil sa African Swine Fever. (pep.ph)
- Long before we ever heard of this new coronavirus, African Swine Fever was devastating pork farms from one end of China to the other. (investmentwatchblog.com)
- Video of people fighting over pork at Chinese meat counters will likely become more common as the fallout from the African swine fever outbreak in China progresses. (investmentwatchblog.com)
- He is head of the WHO collaborating center on arbovirus and hemorrhagic fever virus research at USAMRIID and a member of the Committee on Return of Biological Samples of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board. (nih.gov)
- His research interests include epidemiology of virus diseases, especially viral hemorrhagic fevers and new, emerging and reemerging diseases. (nih.gov)
- His research has included work on arboviruses, viral hemorrhagic fevers, bubonic plague, and other zoonotic diseases. (nih.gov)
- In addition, he served as the chairman of U.S. delegations on hemorrhagic fevers to the Soviet Union in 1965 and 1969. (nih.gov)
- Last week, the Minnesota Board of Animal Health announced a new 10-day quarantine requirement for dogs imported into Minnesota from countries that have had a recent outbreak of, or are endemic for, African Swine Fever (ASF). (akc.org)
- It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros). (nih.gov)
- So far, authorities worldwide kill entire pig populations when African swine fever is detected. (theanimalreader.com)
- BEIJING (Reuters) - The African swine fever spreading rapidly in China is "here to stay", the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization said on Friday, adding that it was almost certain to spread to other Asian countries. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Vietnam's prime minister has called for "drastic measures" to fight the spread of African swine fever in the Southeast Asian country, state media reported on Tuesday. (endoftheamericandream.com)
- After a hiatus of three months, Mizoram has again reported fresh cases of African Swine Fever (ASF), an official said. (zoramnews.com)
- Former Soviet countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) are taking desperate measures to tackle African Swine Fever (ASF), which is causing devastation to pig herds in the region. (nationalhogfarmer.com)
- The fever was first detected in China in early August and has been found in 18 farms or abattoirs in six provinces, with many cases more than a 1,000 kms (621 miles) apart, the FAO said in a statement. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The Philippine Department of Health said a 44-year-old Chinese man from Wuhan was admitted on Jan. 25 after experiencing a fever, cough, and sore throat. (investmentwatchblog.com)
- First described in Kenya in 1921, ASF was territorially restricted to Africa only until 1957, when it spread from Angola to Lisbon. (cdc.gov)
- In case a person might have eaten meat that may have African Swine fever, there is no danger nor threat to the safety and health of the person. (pep.ph)
- For the past two weeks, there were reported cases of African Swine Fever or ASF in the Philippines. (pep.ph)
- The Foundation for Food & Agriculture Research recently awarded a $150,000 Rapid Outcomes from Agriculture Research grant to Kansas State University to help with the development of vaccines for African swine fever virus. (k-state.edu)
- The technicians, coming from veterinary medicine laboratories across Ukraine, were trained to accurately and efficiently diagnose African swine fever using molecular genetics and serological research methods. (thepigsite.com)
- According to the World Organisation for Animal Health's World Animal Health Information System , those countries are located in Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia. (akc.org)
- UKRAINE - FAO reports that training sessions in Kiev in October have helped the country to improve control of African swine fever. (thepigsite.com)
- There are many weaknesses in the live pig management inspection chain … Live hog transportation isn't strict enough, there is insufficient capacity to test for African swine fever in slaughterhouses, basic animal quarantine isn't comprehensive and the ability to prevent epidemics is weak," the report said. (cnn.com)