African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Plantibodies: Recombinant antibodies produced in TRANSGENIC PLANTS. The plants serve as BIOREACTORS to produce the antibodies for medical use or industrial processes.Disease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Reoviridae: A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Heterotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as their nutrient sources. Contrasts with AUTOTROPHIC PROCESSES which make use of simple inorganic substances as the nutrient supply source. Heterotrophs can be either chemoheterotrophs (or chemoorganotrophs) which also require organic substances such as glucose for their primary metabolic energy requirements, or photoheterotrophs (or photoorganotrophs) which derive their primary energy requirements from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; heterotrophy; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Canaries: Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.WashingtonOccupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.PolandOrthobunyavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE containing over 150 viruses, most of which are transmitted by mosquitoes or flies. They are arranged in groups defined by serological criteria, each now named for the original reference species (previously called serogroups). Many species have multiple serotypes or strains.Protein-Losing Enteropathies: Pathological conditions in the INTESTINES that are characterized by the gastrointestinal loss of serum proteins, including SERUM ALBUMIN; IMMUNOGLOBULINS; and at times LYMPHOCYTES. Severe condition can result in HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA or LYMPHOPENIA. Protein-losing enteropathies are associated with a number of diseases including INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIS; WHIPPLE'S DISEASE; and NEOPLASMS of the SMALL INTESTINE.Lymphangiectasis, Intestinal: Dilatation of the intestinal lymphatic system usually caused by an obstruction in the intestinal wall. It may be congenital or acquired and is characterized by DIARRHEA; HYPOPROTEINEMIA; peripheral and/or abdominal EDEMA; and PROTEIN-LOSING ENTEROPATHIES.Hypoproteinemia: A condition in which total serum protein level is below the normal range. Hypoproteinemia can be caused by protein malabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract, EDEMA, or PROTEINURIA.Fontan Procedure: A procedure in which total right atrial or total caval blood flow is channeled directly into the pulmonary artery or into a small right ventricle that serves only as a conduit. The principal congenital malformations for which this operation is useful are TRICUSPID ATRESIA and single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis.Colitis, Collagenous: A subtype of MICROSCOPIC COLITIS, characterized by chronic watery DIARRHEA of unknown origin, a normal COLONOSCOPY but abnormal histopathology on BIOPSY. Microscopic examination of biopsy samples taken from the COLON show larger-than-normal band of subepithelial COLLAGEN.Hypoaldosteronism: A congenital or acquired condition of insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE by the ADRENAL CORTEX leading to diminished aldosterone-mediated synthesis of Na(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE in renal tubular cells. Clinical symptoms include HYPERKALEMIA, sodium-wasting, HYPOTENSION, and sometimes metabolic ACIDOSIS.Pericarditis, Constrictive: Inflammation of the PERICARDIUM that is characterized by the fibrous scarring and adhesion of both serous layers, the VISCERAL PERICARDIUM and the PARIETAL PERICARDIUM leading to the loss of pericardial cavity. The thickened pericardium severely restricts cardiac filling. Clinical signs include FATIGUE, muscle wasting, and WEIGHT LOSS.

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/63)

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes.  (+info)

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (2/63)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (3/63)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (4/63)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Identification of antigenic regions on VP2 of African horsesickness virus serotype 3 by using phage-displayed epitope libraries. (5/63)

VP2 is an outer capsid protein of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) and is recognized by serotype-discriminatory neutralizing antibodies. With the objective of locating its antigenic regions, a filamentous phage library was constructed that displayed peptides derived from the fragmentation of a cDNA copy of the gene encoding VP2. Peptides ranging in size from approximately 30 to 100 amino acids were fused with pIII, the attachment protein of the display vector, fUSE2. To ensure maximum diversity, the final library consisted of three sub-libraries. The first utilized enzymatically fragmented DNA encoding only the VP2 gene, the second included plasmid sequences, while the third included a PCR step designed to allow different peptide-encoding sequences to recombine before ligation into the vector. The resulting composite library was subjected to immunoaffinity selection with AHSV-specific polyclonal chicken IgY, polyclonal horse immunoglobulins and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) known to neutralize AHSV. Antigenic peptides were located by sequencing the DNA of phages bound by the antibodies. Most antigenic determinants capable of being mapped by this method were located in the N-terminal half of VP2. Important binding areas were mapped with high resolution by identifying the minimum overlapping areas of the selected peptides. The MAb was also used to screen a random 17-mer epitope library. Sequences that may be part of a discontinuous neutralization epitope were identified. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions on VP2 of serotype 3 were compared with corresponding regions on three other serotypes, revealing regions with the potential to discriminate AHSV serotypes serologically.  (+info)

Variation of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 in southern Africa. (6/63)

NS3 protein sequences of recent African horsesickness virus (AHSV) field isolates, reference strains and current vaccine strains in southern Africa were determined and compared. The variation of AHSV NS3 was found to be as much as 36.3% across serotypes and 27.6% within serotypes. NS3 proteins of vaccine and field isolates of a specific serotype were found to differ between 2.3% and 9.7%. NS3 of field isolates within a serotype differed up to 11.1%. Our data indicate that AHSV NS3 is the second most variable AHSV protein, the most variable being the major outer capsid protein, VP2. The inferred phylogeny of AHSV NS3 corresponded well with the described NS3 phylogenetic clusters. The only exception was AHSV-8 NS3, which clustered into different groups than previously described. No obvious sequence markers could be correlated with virulence. Our results suggest that NS3 sequence variation data could be used to distinguish between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine strains of the same serotype.  (+info)

Membrane association of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 determines its cytotoxicity. (7/63)

The smallest RNA genome segment of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) encodes the nonstructural protein NS3 (24K). NS3 localizes in areas of plasma membrane disruption and is associated with events of viral release. Conserved features in all AHSV NS3 proteins include the synthesis of a truncated NS3A protein from the same open reading frame as that of NS3, a proline-rich region, a region of strict sequence conservation and two hydrophobic domains. To investigate whether these features are associated with the cytotoxicity of NS3 or altered membrane permeability, a series of mutants were constructed and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus-expression system. Our results indicate that mutations in either of the two hydrophobic domains do not prevent membrane targeting of the mutant proteins but abolish their membrane anchoring. This prevents their localization to the cell surface and obviates their cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxicity of NS3 is therefore dependent on its membrane topography and thus involves both hydrophobic domains. NS3 has many of the characteristics of lytic viral proteins that play a central role in viral pathogenesis through modifying membrane permeability.  (+info)

Definition of neutralizing sites on African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP2 at the level of peptides. (8/63)

The antigenic structure of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 capsid protein VP2 has been determined at the peptide level by PEPSCAN analysis in combination with a large collection of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. VP2, the determinant for the virus serotype and an important target in virus neutralization, was found to contain 15 antigenic sites. A major antigenic region containing 12 of the 15 sites was identified in the region between residues 223 and 400. A second domain between residues 568 and 681 contained the three remaining sites. These sites were used for the synthesis of peptides, which were later tested in rabbits. Of the 15 synthetic peptides, three were able to induce neutralizing antibodies for AHSV-4, defining two neutralizing epitopes, 'a' and 'b', between residues 321 and 339, and 377 and 400, respectively. A combination of peptides representing both sites induced a more effective neutralizing response. Still, the relatively low neutralization titres make the possibility of producing a synthetic vaccine for AHSV unlikely. The complex protein-protein interaction of the outer shell of the viral capsid would probably require the presence of either synthetic peptides in the correct conformation or peptide segments from the different proteins VP2, VP5 and VP7.  (+info)

  • For virus pathogens (microparasites) of multicellular organisms, transmission occurs in two phases. (
  • SHUV-specific primers were designed and used to perform reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs) on specimens from an additional 111 horses with fever and nervous disease that had been screened for the more common pathogens over 18 months. (
  • A cytopathic agent isolated from the brain of the horse could not be identified as one of the common horse pathogens, but electron microscopic examination of negative-stained preparations of culture fluid and resin sections of infected cells showed 80-nm to 100-nm particles resembling bunyaviruses (Figure 1). (
  • Blood samples were collected from the sick horse, and PCR/RT-PCR analysis was performed to screen for equine viral pathogens associated with fever. (
  • Vaccines triggered strong immune responses in ponies that protected them completely against the virus. (
  • New vaccines open way to tell infected horses from inoculated ones. (
  • The innnocuity team at the Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) offers a range of tests to detect or exclude the presence of adventitious agents in veterinary vaccines, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma. (
  • Testing is generally done on seeds for veterinary vaccines, for example, seed cell lines, seed virus or bacteria on permissive cell lines over three to four passages followed by immunodetection or molecular testing. (
  • For various preventive vaccines in the research and development activities, African horse sickness treatment (AHS) market will prove beneficial thus contributing to the growth of the market. (
  • Rift Valley fever virus in wild ruminants in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, 2011. (
  • Several mosquito-borne alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses, including West Nile, Rift Valley fever, and chikungunya viruses, with zoonotic potential have emerged from Africa to cause major outbreaks in previously unaffected areas. (
  • Based on the clinical forms, the global market is segregated into Dikkop or cardiac form, horse sickness fever, Dunkop or pulmonary form, and mixed form. (
  • So you can imagine what we thought when my sister's pony---a little mare called Chilli---developed a fever and swelling in the depressions just above both eyes, which is a classic sign of African horse sickness. (
  • Two days later when I went to the paddock to bring in the horses, I noticed that my own horse, Peter Pan, had developed the same swelling above his eyes and fever. (
  • Omsk virus See Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. (
  • acute or pulmonary, subacute or cardiac, mixed, and a mild type known as horse sickness fever. (
  • After a 3-5 day incubation period the horse experiences an acute febrile reaction that may last only 24-48 hr with temperatures as high as 40 degrees C. the fever is followed by respiratory signs associated with pulmonary edema which include tachypnoea, paroxysms of coughing and frothy nasal discharge is voluminous and at the time of death a bubbly liquid may flow from the horse's mouth. (
  • Horse sickness fever is the mildest form of AHS. (
  • Horses suffering from this form usually present with fever that worsens in the evenings, other symptoms may include mild anorexia and facial swelling. (
  • Avian influenza viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype that do not have either of the characteristics described above should be sequenced to determine whether multiple basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule (HAO). (
  • Avian influenza (AI) viruses, commonly known as bird flu, infect a wide range of hosts, including humans and swine. (
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infects mainly chickens but can also infect pheasants, partridges and quail. (
  • 1918 pandemic influenza virus - reconstructed replication competent forms containing any portion of the coding regions of all 8 gene segments. (
  • Plasmid-like replicative intermediates of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of DNA replication. (
  • These areas are important for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that may be used by related viruses, which include viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, thus providing the basis for developing strategies for intervention or prevention. (
  • Folding, assembly, and intracellular trafficking of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein analyzed with monoclonal antibodies recognizing maturational intermediates. (
  • It also produces neutralising antibodies when administered to healthy horses. (
  • There are at least 24 serotypes of Bluetongue virus (BTV). (
  • Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay based on primer-probe energy transfer for the detection of all serotypes of bluetongue virus," Journal Virological Methods , vol. 167, pp. 165-171, 1970. (
  • However, outer capsid protein VP2 and outer capsid protein VP5 shared only 43.1 and 79.3% identity, respectively, indicating that the DH13C120 virus belongs to TIBOV, and it may represent different serotypes with XZ0906. (
  • Molecular epidemiology of African horse sickness virus based on analyses and comparisons of genome segments 7 and 10. (
  • Development and initial evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay to detect bluetongue virus genome segment 1," Journal of Virological Methods , vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 115-126, 2007. (
  • Identification of a highly conserved sequence element at the 3' terminus of hepatitis C virus genome RNA. (
  • Sequences regulating tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 for brain capillary endothelial cells map to a unique region on the viral genome. (
  • In general, viral oncogenes are transduced genetic sequences found in the genome of acutely transforming viruses which have cellular homologs (proto-oncogenes) from which they were derived. (
  • Evolutionary changes in the virus genome have led in some cases to considerable differences between the products of the viral oncogenes and their cellular homologs, but their relationship can be clearly seen at the genetic level. (
  • The horse became progressively ataxic and, when recumbent, was referred to the hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. (
  • Nine British veterinary specialists raise funds to vaccinate hundreds of horses in a remote South African region. (
  • High throughput detection of bluetongue virus by a new real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: application on clinical samples from current Mediterranean outbreaks," Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation , vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7-17, 2006. (
  • Short communication: a simple and rapid method for detection of African horse sickness virus serogroup in cell cultures using RT-PCR," Veterinary Research Communications , vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 319-324, 2006. (
  • Cubillo, C. Rubio, E. Romero, and M. A. Jiménez-Clavero, "Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of African horse sickness virus," Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 325-328, 2008. (
  • Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse transcription-PCR. (
  • Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GZ201808 clustered in Group III, and was located in an independent branch distant from other horse-derived GETV strains, indicating a unique evolutionary pattern of GZ201808. (
  • Immunogenicity of MVA-VP2(9) All horses were sero-negative at the beginning of the study and developed serum VNAb upon inoculation with MVA-VP2(9). (
  • however, confirmation of the type of infecting virus is possible only by detection of a fourfold or greater rise in virus-specific neutralizing antibody titers in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum by performing the plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT) with several flaviviruses (Johnson et al. (
  • The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. (
  • Of course we take other precautions, as well: We turn our horses out later in the day and bring them in before sundown during buggy months, avoiding dusk and dawn when midge activity is at its highest. (
  • The virus localizes in the salivary glands and is sent when the midge feeds on susceptible animals. (