A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Recombinant antibodies produced in TRANSGENIC PLANTS. The plants serve as BIOREACTORS to produce the antibodies for medical use or industrial processes.

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/63)

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes.  (+info)

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (2/63)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (3/63)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (4/63)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Identification of antigenic regions on VP2 of African horsesickness virus serotype 3 by using phage-displayed epitope libraries. (5/63)

VP2 is an outer capsid protein of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) and is recognized by serotype-discriminatory neutralizing antibodies. With the objective of locating its antigenic regions, a filamentous phage library was constructed that displayed peptides derived from the fragmentation of a cDNA copy of the gene encoding VP2. Peptides ranging in size from approximately 30 to 100 amino acids were fused with pIII, the attachment protein of the display vector, fUSE2. To ensure maximum diversity, the final library consisted of three sub-libraries. The first utilized enzymatically fragmented DNA encoding only the VP2 gene, the second included plasmid sequences, while the third included a PCR step designed to allow different peptide-encoding sequences to recombine before ligation into the vector. The resulting composite library was subjected to immunoaffinity selection with AHSV-specific polyclonal chicken IgY, polyclonal horse immunoglobulins and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) known to neutralize AHSV. Antigenic peptides were located by sequencing the DNA of phages bound by the antibodies. Most antigenic determinants capable of being mapped by this method were located in the N-terminal half of VP2. Important binding areas were mapped with high resolution by identifying the minimum overlapping areas of the selected peptides. The MAb was also used to screen a random 17-mer epitope library. Sequences that may be part of a discontinuous neutralization epitope were identified. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions on VP2 of serotype 3 were compared with corresponding regions on three other serotypes, revealing regions with the potential to discriminate AHSV serotypes serologically.  (+info)

Variation of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 in southern Africa. (6/63)

NS3 protein sequences of recent African horsesickness virus (AHSV) field isolates, reference strains and current vaccine strains in southern Africa were determined and compared. The variation of AHSV NS3 was found to be as much as 36.3% across serotypes and 27.6% within serotypes. NS3 proteins of vaccine and field isolates of a specific serotype were found to differ between 2.3% and 9.7%. NS3 of field isolates within a serotype differed up to 11.1%. Our data indicate that AHSV NS3 is the second most variable AHSV protein, the most variable being the major outer capsid protein, VP2. The inferred phylogeny of AHSV NS3 corresponded well with the described NS3 phylogenetic clusters. The only exception was AHSV-8 NS3, which clustered into different groups than previously described. No obvious sequence markers could be correlated with virulence. Our results suggest that NS3 sequence variation data could be used to distinguish between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine strains of the same serotype.  (+info)

Membrane association of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 determines its cytotoxicity. (7/63)

The smallest RNA genome segment of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) encodes the nonstructural protein NS3 (24K). NS3 localizes in areas of plasma membrane disruption and is associated with events of viral release. Conserved features in all AHSV NS3 proteins include the synthesis of a truncated NS3A protein from the same open reading frame as that of NS3, a proline-rich region, a region of strict sequence conservation and two hydrophobic domains. To investigate whether these features are associated with the cytotoxicity of NS3 or altered membrane permeability, a series of mutants were constructed and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus-expression system. Our results indicate that mutations in either of the two hydrophobic domains do not prevent membrane targeting of the mutant proteins but abolish their membrane anchoring. This prevents their localization to the cell surface and obviates their cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxicity of NS3 is therefore dependent on its membrane topography and thus involves both hydrophobic domains. NS3 has many of the characteristics of lytic viral proteins that play a central role in viral pathogenesis through modifying membrane permeability.  (+info)

Definition of neutralizing sites on African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP2 at the level of peptides. (8/63)

The antigenic structure of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 capsid protein VP2 has been determined at the peptide level by PEPSCAN analysis in combination with a large collection of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. VP2, the determinant for the virus serotype and an important target in virus neutralization, was found to contain 15 antigenic sites. A major antigenic region containing 12 of the 15 sites was identified in the region between residues 223 and 400. A second domain between residues 568 and 681 contained the three remaining sites. These sites were used for the synthesis of peptides, which were later tested in rabbits. Of the 15 synthetic peptides, three were able to induce neutralizing antibodies for AHSV-4, defining two neutralizing epitopes, 'a' and 'b', between residues 321 and 339, and 377 and 400, respectively. A combination of peptides representing both sites induced a more effective neutralizing response. Still, the relatively low neutralization titres make the possibility of producing a synthetic vaccine for AHSV unlikely. The complex protein-protein interaction of the outer shell of the viral capsid would probably require the presence of either synthetic peptides in the correct conformation or peptide segments from the different proteins VP2, VP5 and VP7.  (+info)

African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that primarily affects horses, mules, and donkeys. It is caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which belongs to the family Reoviridae and the genus Orbivirus. There are nine serotypes of AHSV (AHSV-1 to AHSV-9) that have been identified.

The AHSV is transmitted by certain species of Culicoides midges, also known as biting midges or no-see-ums. The virus replicates in the midgut of the insect and then spreads to other tissues, including the salivary glands. When an infected midge bites a susceptible animal, the virus is transmitted through the saliva.

The disease is characterized by fever, respiratory distress, and edema (fluid accumulation) in various parts of the body, including the lungs, belly, and under the skin. The severity of the disease can vary depending on the species and age of the animal, as well as the strain of the virus. In severe cases, the disease can be fatal.

There is no specific treatment for AHS, and prevention relies on vaccination and control of the midge population. The disease is endemic in many parts of Africa, but it has also occurred in other parts of the world, including Spain, Portugal, and South America. It is considered a List B disease by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), which means that it is important to monitor and control its spread in order to protect international trade in animals and animal products.

African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a viral disease that primarily affects horses, donkeys, and mules. It is caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which belongs to the family Reoviridae and the genus Orbivirus. The disease is transmitted through the bite of certain species of midges or mosquitoes, known as Culicoides spp.

The clinical signs of AHS can vary in severity but typically include fever, depression, loss of appetite, and respiratory distress. The disease can manifest in three forms: the acute form, which is characterized by high fever, severe respiratory distress, and a high fatality rate; the subacute form, which features milder respiratory symptoms and a lower fatality rate; and the chronic form, which is marked by intermittent fever and swelling of the limbs and neck.

AHS is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa but has also been reported in the Middle East, North Africa, and parts of Asia. The disease is not found in the Americas or Australia, and strict quarantine measures are in place to prevent its introduction into these regions. There is no specific treatment for AHS, and prevention efforts focus on vaccination and vector control.

Orbivirus is a genus of viruses in the family Sedoreoviridae, order Reovirales. They are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses with an icosahedral symmetry and a genome consisting of 10 segments. Orbiviruses infect various species of animals, including humans, causing a range of diseases such as African horse sickness, blue tongue disease, and Colorado tick fever. The virus is typically transmitted through the bite of arthropod vectors, such as ticks and mosquitoes, or through contact with infected animal secretions or contaminated food and water.

Ceratopogonidae is a family of small flies, also known as biting midges or no-see-ums. They are characterized by their slender segmented bodies, feathery antennae, and wings with extensive venation. Some species in this family are known to be vectors of various diseases, such as human and animal forms of filariasis, blue tongue virus in sheep, and several viral diseases in horses. The larvae of these flies are aquatic or semi-aquatic and can be found in a variety of habitats including wet soil, decaying vegetation, and freshwater bodies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "horses" is not a medical term. It is the common name given to the species *Equus ferus caballus*, which are large domesticated mammals used for transportation, work, and recreation. If you have any questions about horses or a related topic that you would like a medical perspective on, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

Equidae is the biological family that includes horses, donkeys, zebras, and their extinct relatives. These mammals are known for their hooves, long faces, and distinctive teeth adapted for grazing on grasses. They are also characterized by a unique form of locomotion in which they move both legs on one side of the body together, a gait known as "diagonal couple-hoofed" or "pacing."

The family Equidae belongs to the order Perissodactyla, which includes other odd-toed ungulates such as rhinos and tapirs. The fossil record of Equidae dates back to the early Eocene epoch, around 56 million years ago, with a diverse array of species that inhabited various habitats across the world.

Some notable members of the family Equidae include:

* Equus: This is the genus that includes modern horses, donkeys, and zebras. It has a wide geographic distribution and includes several extinct species such as the now-extinct American wild horse (Equus ferus) and the quagga (Equus quagga), a subspecies of the plains zebra that went extinct in the late 19th century.
* Hyracotherium: Also known as Eohippus, this is one of the earliest and smallest members of Equidae. It lived during the early Eocene epoch and had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet.
* Mesohippus: This was a slightly larger and more advanced member of Equidae that lived during the middle Eocene epoch. It had four toes on its front feet and three toes on its hind feet, but its middle toe was larger and stronger than in Hyracotherium.
* Merychippus: This was a diverse and successful member of Equidae that lived during the late Miocene epoch. It had a more modern-looking skeleton and teeth adapted for grazing on grasses.
* Pliohippus: This was a transitional form between early members of Equidae and modern horses. It lived during the Pliocene epoch and had a single toe on each foot, like modern horses. Its teeth were also more specialized for grinding grasses.

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an infectious agent that causes Bluetongue disease, a non-contagious viral disease affecting sheep and other ruminants. It is a member of the Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family. The virus is transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species and can infect various animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and wild ruminants.

The virus has a double-stranded RNA genome and consists of ten segments that encode seven structural and four non-structural proteins. The clinical signs of Bluetongue disease in sheep include fever, salivation, swelling of the head and neck, nasal discharge, and respiratory distress, which can be severe or fatal. In contrast, cattle usually show milder symptoms or are asymptomatic, although they can serve as reservoirs for the virus.

Bluetongue virus is an important veterinary pathogen that has a significant economic impact on the global sheep industry. The disease is prevalent in many parts of the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, but has also spread to temperate areas due to climate change and the movement of infected animals. Prevention and control measures include vaccination, insect control, and restricting the movement of infected animals.

Digoxigenin is a steroidal glycoside compound that is derived from the digitalis plant, which includes foxglove species. This compound is known for its cardiotonic properties and has been used in the treatment of various heart conditions, such as congestive heart failure and atrial arrhythmias.

In a medical or scientific context, digoxigenin is often used in research and diagnostic applications due to its ability to bind to specific antibodies or other molecules. This binding property makes it useful for techniques like immunohistochemistry, where it can be used to label and visualize specific proteins or structures within cells or tissues.

It's important to note that digoxigenin itself is not a medication or treatment, but rather a component derived from a plant that has been used in the development of certain medications and research tools.

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) is an orbivirus that primarily affects white-tailed deer and other members of the Cervidae family. It is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides. The virus causes a hemorrhagic disease in deer, characterized by fever, loss of appetite, weakness, and often death within 1-3 days after the onset of clinical signs.

The disease is not considered a significant threat to human health, but it can have significant impacts on wild and farmed cervid populations. There are several serotypes of EHDV, with some being more virulent than others. The virus can survive in the environment for short periods of time outside of its host and midge vector, which can contribute to its spread.

Prevention and control measures for EHDV include reducing exposure to midges through the use of repellents or physical barriers, as well as vaccination of susceptible deer populations. However, there is currently no USDA-approved vaccine available for EHDV in the United States.

Perissodactyla is not a medical term, but rather a taxonomic order in zoology. It includes mammals with an odd number of toes on each foot and a particular type of digestive system called "hindgut fermentation." The order Perissodactyla includes horses, rhinos, and tapirs.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Bluetongue is a viral disease that primarily affects sheep and some species of cattle, goats, and wild ruminants. The disease is named for the bluish discoloration of the tongue that can occur in severe cases. It is transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.) and occurs mainly in tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

The symptoms of Bluetongue include fever, salivation, difficulty breathing, swelling of the head and neck, and lameness. In severe cases, it can cause death. The disease is not contagious between animals and cannot be spread through contact or ingestion of contaminated feed or water.

There are several different serotypes of Bluetongue virus, and immunity to one serotype does not provide cross-protection against other serotypes. Vaccination is available for some serotypes in certain regions, but it may not be effective against all serotypes. Control measures typically focus on reducing exposure to midges through the use of insect repellents, screens, and other barriers.

Insect vectors are insects that transmit disease-causing pathogens (such as viruses, bacteria, parasites) from one host to another. They do this while feeding on the host's blood or tissues. The insects themselves are not infected by the pathogen but act as mechanical carriers that pass it on during their bite. Examples of diseases spread by insect vectors include malaria (transmitted by mosquitoes), Lyme disease (transmitted by ticks), and plague (transmitted by fleas). Proper prevention measures, such as using insect repellent and reducing standing water where mosquitoes breed, can help reduce the risk of contracting these diseases.

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

Motion sickness is a condition characterized by a disturbance in the balance and orientation senses, often triggered by conflicting information received from the eyes, inner ears, and other bodily sensory systems. It's typically brought on by motion such as that experienced during travel in cars, trains, boats, or airplanes, or even while using virtual reality devices. Symptoms can include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and cold sweats.

The inner ear's vestibular system plays a key role in this condition. When the body is in motion but the inner ear remains still, or vice versa, it can cause the brain to receive conflicting signals about the body's state of motion, leading to feelings of disorientation and sickness.

Preventative measures for motion sickness include fixating on a stationary point outside the vehicle, avoiding reading or looking at electronic screens during travel, taking over-the-counter medications like dimenhydrinate (Dramamine) or scopolamine (Transderm Scop), and engaging in relaxation techniques such as deep breathing.

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plantibodies" is not a recognized term in medical science. It seems like it could be a combination of the words "plant" and "antibodies," but without further context, it's difficult to provide an accurate definition. If you're referring to antibodies produced by plants for specific medical or scientific purposes, that would be more accurately referred to as "plant-produced antibodies" or "phyt antibodies." These are antibodies that are generated in genetically modified plants and can be used for various applications, such as diagnostic tools or therapeutic proteins.

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H. dromedarii can carry the African Horse Sickness Virus. Awad et al. 1981 and Salma et al. 1987 isolated the virus from ... "African Horse Sickness Virus: History, transmission, and current status". Annual Review of Entomology. 62 (1): 343-358. doi: ... Hyalomma dromedarii is widespread in North Africa, the northern regions of West, Central, and East Africa, Arabia, Asia Minor, ... This species is ascribed with spreading the virus that causes the life-threatening Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. The bites ...
Stone-Marschat M, Carville A, Skowronek A, Laegreid WW (March 1994). "Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse ... 2010). "A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus". Virol. J. ... RT-PCR is commonly used in studying the genomes of viruses whose genomes are composed of RNA, such as Influenzavirus A, ... September 2002). "Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 ...
Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ... Included: Banna virus, Kadipiro virus, and Liao ning virus. "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)". talk. ... Included: Rice dwarf virus, Rice gall dwarf virus, and Wound tumor virus. Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in ... Viruses, International Committee on Taxonomy of; King, Andrew MQ (8 November 2011). Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the ...
African horse sickness is a virus transmitted by tiny midges which regularly devastates southern Africa. Epidemiological ... It is also home to several horse-killing diseases, including African horse sickness, nagana and rabies. The domestic horse ( ... Alexander, Kathleen; Kat, Pieter; House, James; House, Carol (1995). "African horse sickness and African carnivores". ... potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): ...
"Sero-epidemioloical survey on African horse sickness virus among horses in Khartoum State, Central Sudan". BMC Veterinary ... Sudan faces equine diseases like African horse sickness and piroplasmosis. The DAD-IS database lists 5 horse breeds currently ... ISBN 0-19-724206-5. Law, Robin (2018-08-16), "Horses and Society in Pre-Colonial West Africa", The Horse in West African ... the Khartoum region is hit by epidemics of African horse sickness, which causes high horse mortality. 85% of the Sudanese ...
... other orbiviruses include equine encephalosis virus and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus's ... Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that includes ... "PCR detection of North American and Central African isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) based on genome ... VP6 and VP7 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV)". Virus Research. 145 (2): 187-99. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.07. ...
MacLachlan, N.; Guthrie, A. J. (2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases". ... One of the viruses collected from horses that died of the disease was named Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV). The 1997 ... The Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) is a cause of the neurological disorder Peruvian horse sickness resulting in ... 2009). "Peruvian horse sickness virus and Yunnan orbivirus, isolated from vertebrates and mosquitoes in Peru and Australia". ...
... es listed by serogroup Lebombo virus Pata virus African horse sickness virus (Serotypes 1-9) African horse sickness ... virus Above Maiden virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Eubenengee virus Palyam virus Wallal virus Warrego virus Corriparta virus Peruvian horse sickness virus Wongorr virus ... African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ...
African swine fever virus, African horse sickness virus and sheeppox virus. Anti-crop pathogens studied and developed included ... The anti-livestock pathogens included: rinderpest virus; foot-and-mouth disease virus; Bacillus anthracis (the causative agent ...
Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ... C. variipennis transmits the Bluetongue virus, found in North America from latitude 40° N to 35° S. However, the virus is ... When naturally infected with Bluetongue virus, the C. variipennis contains the Bluetongue Virus in the thorax, and then is ... On average, the virus costs $125 million due to the restriction of movement on livestock to countries that are free of the ...
... quarantine period was considered necessary as many countries feared the importation of the African horse sickness virus.[ ... champion middle-distance horse and South African Horse of the Year. His trainer Joey Ramsden said "He was great throughout the ... He is my horse but he really belongs to the whole of South Africa." Shortly after his win in the Godolphin Mile, Variety Club ... After the race Ramsden said "It is fantastic for a horse to come all the way from South Africa - to compete, let alone win, is ...
... and they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids. Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon ... Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... There are commercially available vaccines to protect animals against bluetongue, and African horse sickness Myiasis: Centers ... Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species ...
... and the African horse sickness virus. This particular species has been recorded in Africa, Asia and Europe. African midges feed ... Culicoides imicola is also known to be the only field vector for the African horse sickness (AHS). In the past, AHS has only ... In Africa, C. imicola is known to feed on horse, cattle, and sheep. Nonetheless, their feeding preferences haven't been studied ... citation needed] Historically, Culicoides imicola has been found in Africa and southwestern Asia, but their distribution has ...
... after vaccinating horses against African horse sickness using a live virus vaccine and equine antiserum. It was later described ... Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that the disease can become chronic, with some horses ... African horse sickness, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens ... suggesting that the virus is poorly transmitted horizontally. However, not all horses that tested positive for this virus ...
... related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and Bluetongue virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over a hundred years ... such as the African horse sickness virus. As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather ... caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating ... "Investigations on outbreaks of African horse sickness in the surveillance zone in South Africa". Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 25 ...
Aino virus (AINOV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Bozo virus (BOZOV), Bussuquara virus (BSQV), Bunyamwera virus(BUNV), ... Kunjin virus (KUNV), La Crosse virus (LACV), Mayaro virus (MAYV), Marburg virus (MBGV), Marco virus (MCOV), Melao virus (MELV ... Nola virus (NOLV), Ntaya virus (NTAV), Oriboca virus (ORIV), Orungo virus (ORUV), Restan virus (RESV), Rift Valley fever virus ... West Nile virus (WNV), Wesselsbron virus (WSLV), Yaounde virus (YAOV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), Zegla virus (ZEGV), Zika virus ...
... bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness, bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane ... main vector of bluetongue virus and African Horse Sickness in Southern Europe Culicoides chiopterus - Culicoides dewulfi - ... In 2006, bluetongue virus was first recorded in Northern Europe. In 2007 and 2008, there were huge outbreaks, going as far as ... The main vector of the virus in Southern Europe does not live in Northern Europe, so other species have been screened. Species ...
... virus African cassava mosaic virus African eggplant mosaic virus African horse sickness virus African oil palm ringspot virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus V Potato virus X Potato virus Y ... virus East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus East African cassava mosaic virus East ... African Asystasia virus 1 West African Asystasia virus 2 West African Asystasia virus 3 Western chimpanzee simian foamy virus ...
... the potential for developing vaccines for Bluetongue virus and the African Horse sickness virus, RNA-RNA interactions and ... vaccines for Bluetongue and African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the possibility of other therapeutics relating to these ... The virus that she has dedicated most of her career to is Bluetongue disease that affects sheep and cattle. She became ... After her post-doctoral work, she went to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to begin her own Blue Tongue Virus research ...
... bovine ephemeral fever virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness virus, epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, and ... Many adults transmit parasites or diseases that can be debilitating or fatal to humans, such as malaria and West Nile virus. ... Biting midges can transmit an extensive range of pathogens of veterinary importance, including Akabane virus, ... bluetongue virus. The Culicomorpha comprises extant eight families divided into two superfamilies. It was described based on ...
African horse sickness is related to bluetongue and is spread by the same midges (Culicoides species). It can kill the horses ... The virus makes initial contact with the cell with VP2, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus. The low pH ... Weyer C (October 2021). "African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions". The Merck Veterinary Manual. Takamatsu H, ... Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus is closely related and crossreacts with Bluetongue virus on many blood tests. "Q&A: ...
Orbivirus African horse sickness virus Bluetongue disease virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ...
... including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine encephalosis virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. ... influenza viruses, the measles virus, and the rabies virus, as well as the first virus ever discovered, tobacco mosaic virus. ... Those three groups are Group III: dsRNA viruses, Group IV: +ssRNA viruses, and Group V: -ssRNA viruses. RNA viruses are ... Rhinoviruses Rift Valley fever phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ...
African horse sickness virus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis C virus, bluetongue virus, ... canine distemper virus, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, equine influenza virus, equine herpes virus, ... Vaccines against several pathogens including avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, cytomegalovirus, ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ...
African horse sickness is a viral illness with a mortality close to 90% in horses, and 50% in mules. A midge, Culicoides ... The spillover of Hendra virus from its flying fox hosts to horses is also likely to increase, as future warming would expand ... As of 2019, there are around 17 million horses in the world. Healthy body temperature for adult horses is in the range between ... In hot conditions, horses during three hours of moderate-intersity exercise can loss 30 to 35 L of water and 100g of sodium, ...
African horse sickness is a viral illness with a mortality close to 90% in horses, and 50% in mules. A midge, Culicoides ... The spillover of Hendra virus from its flying fox hosts to horses is also likely to increase, as future warming would expand ... "draft horses" or "work horses". "Hot blooded" breeds include "oriental horses" such as the Akhal-Teke, Arabian horse, Barb, and ... Filly A female horse under the age of four. Mare A female horse four years old and older. Stallion A non-castrated male horse ...
... including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine encephalosis virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. ... phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ... ssRNA viruses, Group V: -ssRNA viruses, Group VI: ssRNA-RT viruses, and Group VII: dsDNA-RT viruses. Realms are the highest ... ebola virus, HIV, influenza viruses, and the rabies virus. These viruses and others have been prominent throughout history, ...
... african horse sickness virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.100 - bluetongue virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.400 - hemorrhagic disease virus, ... colorado tick fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550 - orbivirus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550.050 - african horse sickness virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... torque teno virus MeSH B04.280.049.035 - african swine fever virus MeSH B04.280.065.249 - granulovirus MeSH B04.280.065.500 - ...
African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic) Classical swine fever virus ... viruses: African VHF viruses: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus* Lassa fever virus Lujo virus Marburg virus* ... Asian VHF viruses: Kyasanur Forest disease virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus South American VHF viruses: Chapare virus ... Hendra virus Nipah virus Rift Valley fever virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (excluding enzootic subtypes ID and IE) ...
African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South ... African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and Reversion to Virulence of Live, Attenuated Vaccine Viruses, South ... Statistical evidence of reassortment within the genomes of African horse sickness (AHS) virus field isolates identified in ... South Africa (E. Rossouw); University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa (D.P. Martin); University of California, Davis, CA ...
African horse sickness virus, African horse sickness virus -- Mathematical models, Insects as carriers of disease, African ... Re‐parameterization of a mathematical model of African horse sickness virus using data from a systematic literature search ... 2022) Re‐parameterization of a mathematical model of African horse sickness virus using data from a systematic literature ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Culicoides spp., endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. There ...
In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in ... potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) ... the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other ... The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major ...
"African horse sickness virus" taxonomic term. The additional filters enable you with creating a sub-selection of items of this ... Filter by Virus host type. *Animal virus (9) Apply Animal virus filter ... For tropical and RG4 viruses. In the event of a major biological incident regarding tropical (exotic) viruses or Risk Group 4 ... For other human viruses of medical importance. The Charité University Berlin (CUB) is in charge of our hotline dedicated to ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and often fatal disease caused by African horse sickness virus. It commonly ... "African Horse Sickness". Animal Research Info. Retrieved 29 June 2020. "African Horse Sickness" (PDF). Iowa State University. ... Database CIDRAP Overview on African Horse Sickness 3D electron microscopy structures of the African horse sickness virus from ... The Merck Veterinary Manual - African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions "AFRICAN HORSE SICKNESS" (PDF). OIE - ...
Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. This is the first report demonstrating the safety and ... Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which ... While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have ... is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. ...
A similar problem was encountered previously with bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 (whose structure has been reported), showing that ... The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity ... Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. ... Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. ...
Serious animal pathogens include bluetongue virus of sheep and African horse sickness virus. Antibodies are found in many ... Eyach virus (in Germany and France), isolate S6-14-03 (in California), Banna virus, Beijing virus, and Gansu virus (in China) ... Orungo virus, isolated in Africa, has been implicated in an acute illness with myalgias and headache. Lebombo virus is another ... CTF virus is the prototype species for the genus Coltivirus of the family Reoviridae. CTF virus has a genome that consists of ...
Inference for a spatio-temporal model with partial spatial data: African horse sickness virus in Morocco example  Fairbanks, ...
are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus ... In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the ... biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland. Magdalena Larska, Maria Grochowska, Lech Lechowski, Jan Franciszek ... The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful ...
African horse sickness is a mosquito-borne viral disease of equids with a high mortality rate. It does not occur in Austria. ... The African horse sickness virus is labile to low pH-values and is rapidly destroyed by temperatures of 50-60 °C, by sunlight ... African horse sickness, also known as equine plague, pestis equorum, African horse sickness (AHS) or equine plague, is a ... African horse sickness is a viral disease of equidae transmitted by mosquitoes with a high mortality rate. It is not dangerous ...
... including African horse sickness virus, and potentially both Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and Equine encephalosis virus ... There are also fears that related viruses, such as African horse sickness virus, which can have a fatality rate of more than 95 ... as well as other insect transmitted viruses, many of which can also affect humans. Although the vaccines against BT virus ... However different BT virus types have subsequently arrived in northern Europe which represent further threats to the UK for ...
Horses are susceptible to many infectious diseases including Equine Influenza, Hendra Virus, African Horse Sickness, Japanese ... How will my horse be identified in a horse traceability system? Horses are typically managed on an individual or small group ... What is the difference between horse traceability and horse welfare? In the context of a disease or natural disaster, horse ... What will a horse traceability system mean for me? The proposed NHTS will require that people keeping horses must have a PIC ...
... makes surveillance for viruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and African horse sickness (AHS) challenging, but important. These ... West Nile virus. West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between birds and ... 2010), and phylogenetic studies on WNV strains indicate that the virus has become established in Europe (Calistri et al. 2010; ... The expanding range of many vector-borne viruses, combined with their propensity to evolve and adapt, ...
Viruses. *African horse sickness virus. *African swine fever virus. *Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus ... Andes virus. *[1]Avian influenza (AI) viruses1 identified as having high pathogenicity (HP), as follows: *AI viruses that have ... Rabies virus and all other members of the Lyssavirusgenus. *1918 pandemic influenza virus - reconstructed replication competent ... Swine vesicular disease virus. *Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis ...
... often fatal disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. ... ELISA test detects antibodies to the African Horse Sickness ... African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a serious, often fatal disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. The virus is spread by infected ... The ELISA test detects antibodies to the African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV). ... African horse sickness has not occurred in the United States.. *AHS does not affect humans, so there are no human or public ...
African horse sickness virus. African Horse Sickness Virus. Anellovirus. Anelloviridae. Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis ... Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. Feline panleukopenia virus. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ...
African horse sickness virus. African Horse Sickness Virus. Anellovirus. Anelloviridae. Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis ... Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. Feline panleukopenia virus. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ...
African horse sickness virus. African Horse Sickness Virus. Anellovirus. Anelloviridae. Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis ... Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. Feline panleukopenia virus. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ...
African horse sickness virus. African Horse Sickness Virus. Anellovirus. Anelloviridae. Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis ... Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. Feline panleukopenia virus. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ...
African horse sickness virus. African Horse Sickness Virus. Anellovirus. Anelloviridae. Avian leukosis virus. Avian Leukosis ... Avian Myeloblastosis Virus. Feline panleukopenia virus. Feline Panleukopenia Virus. Minute virus of mice. Minute Virus of Mice ... Pseudocowpox virus. Pseudocowpox Virus. Simian immunodeficiency virus. Simian Immunodeficiency Virus. B01 - Eukaryota. Adhatoda ...
Viruses. African horse sickness virus. African swine fever virus. Andes virus. Avian influenza virus[2]. Bluetongue virus. ... Junin virus. Kyasanur Forest disease virus. Laguna Negra virus. Lassa virus. Louping ill virus. Lujo virus. Lumpy skin disease ... Reconstructed 1918 influenza virus. Rift Valley fever virus. Rinderpest virus. Rocio virus. Sabia virus. Seoul virus. Severe ... Choclo virus. Classical swine fever virus (Hog cholera virus). Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus. Dobrava-Belgrade virus. ...
... bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, bovine viral diarrhea, calf enteritis, chronic ... African Horse Sickness Virus AHSV-VP7. African Horse Sickness Virus NSP (NS-3) ... Equine/Horse encephalitis virus/Eastern and Western EE virus Glycoproteins E1. Equine/Horse encephalitis virus/Eastern and ... Infectious Bronchitis Virus - Variant 4/91 spike glycoprotein, S3 subunit. Infectious Bronchitis Virus - Variant Arkansas S-1 ...
... viruses that cause epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer and African Horse sickness. Bluetongue virus replicates in both ... Virus isolation from blood of a viremic animal is the most definitive means of BTV diagnosis. Virus isolation can be labor ... Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in some areas with cattle and wild ruminants serving as reservoirs for the virus. Epizootics ... Bluetongue is an orbivirus which cross-reacts with many antigenically related viruses including Palyam virus and the ...
African horse sickness virus Ab [Titer] in Serum. Value Set Concept Status. Retired. ... African horse sickness virus Ab [Titer] in Serum. Date Created. 12/15/2017. ...
... such as African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The spread of EEV from South Africa to central Africa, the Middle East and India ... such as African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The spread of EEV from South Africa to central Africa, the Middle East and India ... such as African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The spread of EEV from South Africa to central Africa, the Middle East and India ... such as African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The spread of EEV from South Africa to central Africa, the Middle East and India ...
Biting midges (livestock): bluetongue, Smallenbergh virus, African horse sickness.. FIGURE 1.1: VECMAP The Movie ...
equine encephalomyelitis virus (1,041). *Streptococcus (1,002). *Equid herpesvirus 4 (977). *African horse sickness virus (971) ... infections in horses and donkeys from Nigeria, West Africa. The protozoan parasites Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, ... The first report of genetic and structural diversities in the SPRN gene in the horse, an animal resistant to prion disease. ... Prion diseases have been reported in an extensive number of species but not in horses up to now; therefore,... ...
African horse sickness virus (1,272). *ruminants (1,272). *Babesia (1,256). *Cestoda (1,252). *salmonella (1,174) ... The Chakouyi horse is an ancient Chinese indigenous horse breed distributed in Gansu Province in northwestern China, and is ... Horse housing on Prince Edward Island, Canada: attitudes and experiences related to keeping horses outdoors and in groups. ... Over a 2 year period, 11 horses with diagnosed bone spavin were treated with HILT as a monotherapy. The horses chosen for this ...
  • Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of 2.8 M urea. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1067\1050\AAB29954.1\African horse sickness virus 9\VP7 antigen [African horse sickness virus AHSV9, serotype 9,Genomic RNA, 1167 nt]. (or.jp)
  • The outbreak (the largest on record) caused by Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), which started in the Netherlands and Belgium during 2006, has since spread to most European countries, including the UK in August and September 2007. (thebeefsite.com)
  • All Bluetongue serotypes share a common antigenic determinant called antigen protein P7, while the antigen protein Ps is variable and is used to determine the specific serotype of a virus (1-25). (purdue.edu)
  • Breard E, Sailleau C, Nomikou K, Hamblin C, Mertens PP, Mellor PS, El Harrak M, Zientara S (2007): Molecular epidemiology of bluetongue virus serotype 4 isolated in Mediterranean Basin between 1979 and 2004. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Prognosis - poor to grave - mortality is related to species of equidae affected and the serotype/strain of virus. (vetacademy.org)
  • In West Africa AHS serotype 9, 7 and 2 are found. (europa.eu)
  • Examples of the occasional outbreaks that have occurred outside sub-Saharan Africa are the pandemic in certain countries of the Middle East up to India and Turkey (1959-1961), the outbreaks in Spain (serotype 9, 1966) and the epidemic caused by serotype 4 in Spain (1987-1990), Portugal (1989) and Morocco (1989). (europa.eu)
  • Indeed, the vaccines are based on a live serotype of the AHS virus and therefore carry a risk that they could revert to virulence. (animalresearch.info)
  • When the serotype or lineage of the virus needs to be determined, it can be done using a series of serotype-specific PCR tests or genome sequencing, and can be confirmed by virus neutralisation tests. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to the African horse sickness virus (AHSV), Culicoides may also transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), equine encephalitis virus (EEV), Akabane virus, bovine ephemeral fever virus and viruses in the Palyam group [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A similar problem was encountered previously with bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 (whose structure has been reported), showing that the connections between the top and the bottom domains are rather weak for these two distinct orbiviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Serious animal pathogens include bluetongue virus of sheep and African horse sickness virus. (medscape.com)
  • We have seen outbreaks caused by twelve strains, from nine distinct serotypes of bluetongue virus, which have arrived in Europe via at least four different routes since 1998', said Professor Mertens, 'This indicates that there has been a fundamental shift in bluetongue epidemiology, linked to climate change. (thebeefsite.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is endemic in some areas with cattle and wild ruminants serving as reservoirs for the virus. (purdue.edu)
  • Epizootics of Bluetongue virus killing approximately 179,000 sheep within 4 months have threatened the livestock industry in recent years. (purdue.edu)
  • Bluetongue virus replicates in both arthropod and mammalian host cells. (purdue.edu)
  • Few reports of clinical Bluetongue virus (BTV) infections have been described in dogs. (scielo.org.za)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne World Organization for Animal Health (founded as the OIE) listed disease, primarily affecting ruminants, caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV), which belongs to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae (OIE 2019). (scielo.org.za)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants disseminated in the tropics and sub-tropics. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Brewer AW, MacLachlan NJ (1992): Ultrastructural characterization of the interaction of bluetongue virus with bovine erythrocytes in vitro. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • DeMaula CD, Leutenegger CM, Jutila MA, MacLachlan NJ (2002): Bluetongue virus-induced activation of primary bovine lung microvascular endothelial cells. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Guirakhoo F, Catalan JA, Monath TP (1995): Adaptation of bluetongue virus in mosquito cells results in overexpression of NS3 proteins and release of virus particles. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Han Z, Harty RN (2004): The NS3 protein of bluetongue virus exhibits Viroporin-like properties. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Hyatt AD, Gould AR, Coupar B, Eaton BT (1991): Localization of the non-structural protein NS3 in bluetongue virus-infected cells. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Mellor PS, Wittmann EJ (2002): Bluetongue virus in the Mediterranean Basin 1998-2001. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Mertens PPC, Maan NS, Prasad G, Samuel AR, Shaw AE, Potgieter AC, Anthony SJ, Maan S (2007): Design of primers and use of RT-PCR assays for typing European bluetongue virus isolates: differentiation of field and vaccine strains. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Nikolakaki SV, Nomikou K, Koumbati M, Mangana O, Papanastassopoulou M, Mertens PPC, Papadopoulos O (2005): Molecular analysis of the NS3/NS3A gene of Bluetongue virus isolates from the 1979 and 1998-2001 epizootics in Greece and their segregation into two distinct groups. (ankara.edu.tr)
  • Bluetongue is a haemorrhagic disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV) and spread by biting midges. (veterinary-practice.com)
  • The disease is caused by an Orbivirus ( the same family as the bluetongue virus ) from the family Reoviridae, is vector-borne and is spread by biting midges from the Culicoides family. (animalresearch.info)
  • A great example of this is bluetongue virus in Europe, which attacks ruminants (cattle, sheep, etc. (farnam.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Culicoides spp. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biological vector of the virus is the Culicoides (midges) species, but this disease can also be transmitted by species of mosquitoes including Culex, Anopheles, and Aedes including A. aegypti, and species of ticks such as Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus transmission between horses, donkeys and zebras occurs via small insect vectors known as midges (Culicoides species). (equigerminal.shop)
  • It is caused by EE virus (EEV), an Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family transmitted by Culicoides. (iucc.ac.il)
  • this group of Culicoides of the subgenus Avaritia includes C. imicola the most important vector of the viruses of bluetongue (BT) and African horsesickness (AHS) known in the Old World. (up.ac.za)
  • by hierdie groep Culicoides van die subgenus Avaritia word C. imicola wat as die mees belangrikste vektor van bloutong-(BT) en perdesiekte (AHS) virus in die Ou Wereld beskou word, ingesluit. (up.ac.za)
  • 2003 was a particularly rainy year and as the virus is transmitted by a tiny midge, either Culicoides imicola or C. bolitinos (you can fit 10 on the head of a match that's how small it is) which is active in wet/humid areas we soon had a stable full of fevers. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Occasionally, fevers may also have been due to another virus called Equine Encephalosis which is caused by an orbivirus related to AHSV, and again spread mainly by the culicoides midge. (inthesaddle.com)
  • This protocol would demand that South African horses are exported only at the low-risk time of year (the winter months when the culicoides midge that transmits African horse sickness is inactive) and that the horses are exported from the African horse sickness free zone of the Western Cape, which has never had a recorded outbreak of the virus. (mikedekockracing.com)
  • In experiments, a single bite from a fully infected midge can transmit the virus and as midges are blown across Europe 'like aerial plankton' it is almost impossible to prevent them getting to the United Kingdom. (thebeefsite.com)
  • The virus is spread by infected insects (biting midges) and causes fever and, heart and respiratory (breathing) problems in affected animals. (equigerminal.shop)
  • Biting midges (livestock): bluetongue, Smallenbergh virus, African horse sickness. (esa.int)
  • Black flies, Biting midges (No-see-ums), Horse flies, Deer flies and Stable flies are all biting flies Many of these species require a blood meal in order to lay eggs. (fishingiseasy.com)
  • Biting midges are important vectors of viruses, protozoans, and nematodes, all of which can lead to illness or death. (horsenation.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ELISA test detects antibodies to the African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV). (equigerminal.shop)
  • Although EEV normally does not cause severe clinical disease, it should be considered important since it may indicate the possible spread of other related, much more pathogenic viruses, such as African horse sickness virus (AHSV). (iucc.ac.il)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a kind of animal disease caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which mainly infects equines and is transmitted by insects such as Culicoid. (ivdc.org.cn)
  • The serogroup-specific protein VP7 of AHSV is the main component of the inner coat protein of the virus. (ivdc.org.cn)
  • Antibodies to AHSV have also been reported in a number of other species, although there are sometimes inconsistencies between studies, such as hyenas, jackals, African wild dogs, cheetahs, lions and large-spotted hyenas, which might be exposed by feeding on infected zebras. (animalresearch.info)
  • endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The virus is considered endemic to the equatorial, eastern, and southern regions of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • AHS is known to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and has spread to Morocco, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this blog, Louise Carelsen of Limpopo Valley Horse Safaris talks about their struggles with African horse sickness (AHS), a highly infectious non-contagious, viral disease endemic to the African continent,affecting all species of Equidae. (inthesaddle.com)
  • The virus also has been isolated from the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sanguineus , and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii during the winter in southern Egypt, where the disease is endemic. (animalresearch.info)
  • The vaccines are used in many parts of Africa to help control this endemic disease but they are not licensed in Europe, due to safety concerns. (animalresearch.info)
  • Everglades virus (EVEV) is subtype II of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) complex (Togaviridae: Alphavirus), endemic to Florida, USA. (bioone.org)
  • Vaccines are also needed for other related viruses, including African horse sickness virus, and potentially both Epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus and Equine encephalosis virus. (thebeefsite.com)
  • This disease can be caused by any of the nine serotypes of this virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inactivated vaccines (containing killed virus) are only readily available for two serotypes (BTV-4 and BTV-8) so considering the current situation, demand is high. (veterinary-practice.com)
  • The virus is classified as an Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family of which there are 9 serotypes. (inthesaddle.com)
  • There are 9 different types (serotypes) of the 55-70 nm in diameter virus. (animalresearch.info)
  • All serotypes (1-9) are distributed throughout South Africa, although there is a variation in their temporal distribution. (animalresearch.info)
  • The spread of EEV from South Africa to central Africa, the Middle East and India is an example of the possible emergence of new pathogens in new niches, as was seen in the case of West Nile virus, and should be a reminder not to limit the differential list when facing a possible outbreak or a cluster of clinical cases. (iucc.ac.il)
  • The Cape Colony, part of modern South Africa, was established by the Dutch East India Company in 1652, with the founding of Cape Town. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • One of the deadliest viruses, African horse sickness (C. imicola), (AHS) is currently found in Africa, Middle East, India, Europe, and Asia and could potentially reach the United States as horses from Europe and Middle East are entering the county for thoroughbred racing and equine events. (horsenation.com)
  • African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious, highly fatal viral disease that primarily occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, but outbreaks have occurred in Egypt, the Middle East, Pakistan, India, Morocco, Spain and Portugal. (animalresearch.info)
  • There are also fears that related viruses, such as African horse sickness virus, which can have a fatality rate of more than 95 per cent and shares the same insect vectors as bluetongue, could also be introduced. (thebeefsite.com)
  • With each bite or sip of body fluid, mosquitos and flies serve as mechanical vectors to infect your horse with disease-like little syringes or sponges. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Several outbreaks have occurred in the Equidae throughout Africa and elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory diagnosis of AHS, based on the identification of infectious virus, virus nucleic acid, viral antigens or specific antibodies, is of great importance, as the characteristic clinical signs and lesions can be confused with those of other diseases. (europa.eu)
  • In 1959, Sabin proposed the name reovirus to reflect the fact that viruses of this group had been isolated from the respiratory and enteric tracts and were orphan (reo) viruses without known associated disease. (medscape.com)
  • African Horse Sickness can cause respiratory (lung) disease, cardiac (heart) disease, or a cyclic fever. (equigerminal.shop)
  • Horses can also be infected with a combination of the above two types, the disease then shows itself initially by mild respiratory signs followed by the typical swellings of the cardiac form. (inthesaddle.com)
  • The respiratory system of the donkey is in most respects similar to that of any small horse. (ivis.org)
  • infections in horses and donkeys from Nigeria, West Africa. (cabi.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, notifiable viral disease which poses a substantial challenge to horse owners in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a noncontagious viral disease affecting all species of equidae. (europa.eu)
  • Both are referred to as "sleeping sickness" and are life-threatening viral diseases that attack the central nervous system. (farnam.com)
  • West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between birds and mosquitoes, but incidental infection of humans and horses can lead to neuroinvasive disease (Work et al. (ivis.org)
  • Mosquitoes are pests of horses , but mosquito trap efficacy data, especially the ability of traps to protect horses , are lacking. (cabi.org)
  • They arrive around the same time that other flying insects are active, such as horse and deer flies, filth flies, gnats, and mosquitoes. (horsenation.com)
  • EEE and WEE are spread when infected mosquitoes bite horses after having picked up the virus, usually by feeding on an infected bird. (farnam.com)
  • While we want to protect against as many of these diseases as possible with vaccination and good property management, horse owners also need to deter flies and mosquitoes from getting on and biting their horses. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Culiseta melanura mosquitoes transmit it to horses, causing serious neurologic disease with 90% fatality. (equusmagazine.com)
  • However, this virus is still found in birds and mosquitoes in this geographical area. (equusmagazine.com)
  • There are a number of ways to protect your horse from biting mosquitoes and the diseases they can transmit. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Another effective way to combat mosquitoes is with repellents that can be sprayed either directly on the horse or around the stable and/or paddock. (equusmagazine.com)
  • However, the serendipitous discovery of a large imicola-free zone in South Africa indicates that edaphic conditions likely play an even more important role than Man and climate in determining the prevalence and abundance of C. imicola. (up.ac.za)
  • These diseases include bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness, African swine fever, peste des petits ruminants, rinderpest (which was declared eradicated in May 2011), lumpy skin disease, sheep pox and goat pox. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • It commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] The common hosts of this disease are horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Horse Traceability Working Group (Working Group) is a non-statutory committee set up by the then Agriculture Ministers' Forum in 2020 to provide advice on the design and introduction of a traceability system for horses, donkeys and mules in Australia. (vic.gov.au)
  • African Horse Sickness (AHS) is a serious, often fatal disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. (equigerminal.shop)
  • It is caused by a virus of the genus Orbivirus belonging to the family Reoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virions of Reoviridae family viruses measure 60-80 nm in diameter and possess 2 concentric capsid shells, each of which is icosahedral. (medscape.com)
  • Reoviruses (which also are called orthoreoviruses to avoid confusion with the family Reoviridae) are nonenveloped viruses. (medscape.com)
  • Hence asinines (donkeys) share many features with other Equidae, such as equines (horses). (ivis.org)
  • The genetic closeness of the Equidae family is reflected in the ability to produce viable (non-fertile) offspring such as the mule, hinny and zebronkey from matings between donkeys, horses and zebras. (ivis.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and often fatal disease caused by African horse sickness virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The double-shelled particle is the complete infectious form of the virus. (medscape.com)
  • African donkeys and zebras very rarely display clinical symptoms, despite high virus titres in blood, and are thought to be the natural reservoir of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The group also carries out applied research related to the development and validation of new diagnostic assays and vaccines, as well as the epidemiology and control of the exotic non-vesicular viruses within its portfolio. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, besides the inability to differentiate between natural and vaccine-induced immunity (non-DIVA), the LAV is restricted to use within southern Africa and this has significant implications for both the horse export industry as well as the equestrian sporting arena. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to test the safety and immunogenicity of this VLP candidate vaccine in horses, and to consider ways in which the production platform could be scaled up in a cost-effective manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-vaccination sera were analysed by VP7 indirect ELISA at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute (ARC-OVI) in Pretoria, South Africa to determine prior exposure of the horses to AHS, either by vaccination with the currently used live attenuated vaccine (LAV) mixture produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), or by natural infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • I also remember how we had to vaccinate all 30 horses 2 doses 3 weeks apart as it's a live attenuated vaccine we had to keep it cool all the way from the vet to us, inject it as quickly as possible sub-cutaneous and then rest the horse during the middle week after each vaccine. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV)**: HDCV is an inactivated virus vaccine prepared from fixed rabies virus grown in WI-38 or MRC-5 human diploid cell culture. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccinia vaccine is made of live vaccinia virus derived from plaque purification cloning of Dryvax® (calf lymph vaccine, New York City Board of Health Strain) and grown in African Green Monkey kidney (Vero) cells and tested to be free of adventitious agents. (cdc.gov)
  • These events demonstrate that the whole region is now at risk from further incursions of BT virus, as well as other insect transmitted viruses, many of which can also affect humans. (thebeefsite.com)
  • While so far, the disease has only been found in humans and primates, it makes sense for horse owners to wonder if Zika could pose a problem in equines. (farnam.com)
  • Warmer weather increases the rate of infection and virus replication in the midge itself, and increases their activity in more northern areas. (thebeefsite.com)
  • The hispid cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus and cotton mouse Peromyscus gossypinus are important EVEV hosts, based on natural infection (virus isolation and high seropositivity), host competence (experimental infections), and frequency of contact with the vector. (bioone.org)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) infection does not always cause clinical signs but has a 35% fatality rate when it does. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Bluetongue was considered an exotic disease prior to the massive outbreak during 2006 to 2009, which represented the first incursion of the virus in northern latitudes. (veterinary-practice.com)
  • In accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2020/2002 Member States shall notify the Commission and the other Member States of confirmation of any outbreak in their territory of African horse sickness. (europa.eu)
  • TRAGICALLY, as it stands, not many South African racehorses will be able to compete at the Dubai World Cup Carnival next year due to the restrictions imposed on South African exports after an outbreak in the African horse sickness in the control area of the Western Cape earlier this year, reports NICCI GARNER. (mikedekockracing.com)
  • The group was instrumental in diagnosing the first ever incursion of BT into northern Europe in 2006, the first outbreak of BT in England in September 2007 and the first outbreak of African swine fever in Georgia in 2007. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mild or horse sickness fever form Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • Affected horses show signs of both the pulmonary and cardiac forms of AHS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Else RW, Holmes JR: Cardiac pathology in the horse. (equineinfectiousdiseases.com)
  • Signs - four classical clinical forms: pulmonary, cardiac, mixed and horse sickness fever. (vetacademy.org)
  • AHS virus cannot be transmitted directly from horse to horse (or directly between any equine animals). (equigerminal.shop)
  • All suspected cases of African horse sickness in equine animals must be investigated and appropriate measures in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/429 ("Animal Health Law") and the rules for the prevention and control of certain diseases laid down in Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2020/687 , including in particular its Annex III, have to be taken in case of confirmation. (europa.eu)
  • Innes JR, Berger J, Francis J: Subacute bacterial endocarditis with pulmonary embolism in a horse associated with Shigella equirulis . (equineinfectiousdiseases.com)
  • Pace LW, Wirth NR, Foss RR, et al: Endocarditis and pulmonary aspergillosis in a horse. (equineinfectiousdiseases.com)
  • Virus isolation from blood of a viremic animal is the most definitive means of BTV diagnosis. (purdue.edu)
  • Currently, PCR is taking over previous methods of virus isolation. (purdue.edu)
  • Equine encephalosis (EE) is an arthropod-borne, noncontagious, febrile disease of horses. (iucc.ac.il)
  • As arboviruses (arthropod borne viruses) are present in the blood of infected animals, the group uses blood samples to detect both antibody to the virus and the virus itself. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • In much of the world, including most of Asia and all of Africa and Latin America, the dog remains the major source of human exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • The lack of clinical signs reported has led to a reduced appetite for vaccination and has allowed the virus to spread, albeit slowly, since that time. (veterinary-practice.com)
  • While the disease is usually fatal in horses, other equine species and their crossbreds may display only mild clinical signs. (europa.eu)
  • Donkeys are considerably less susceptible and generally show mild to no clinical signs of the disease and Zebra mostly act as a reservoir host for the virus and rarely display any signs of the disease. (animalresearch.info)
  • About 40% of the horses that recover from clinical signs of WNV will continue to experience neurologic deficit. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The lack of clinical information on the donkey often means it is treated as if it were a small horse. (ivis.org)
  • It is clear that BTV-8 can also be transmitted directly between cattle, providing an overwintering mechanism for the virus to survive from one midge season to the next. (thebeefsite.com)
  • There are three mosquito-borne diseases that every horse owner should recognize and vaccinate against: Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE), Western Equine Encephalitis (WEE) and West Nile Virus (WNV). (farnam.com)
  • Other than West Nile, which most horse owners are now aware of, we must also remain committed to continued vaccination against the 'older' mosquito-borne encephalitis viruses," cautions Mallicote. (farnam.com)
  • While less likely to result in death to the horse than encephalitis, WNV can require extensive veterinary treatment and affected horses may suffer long-lasting neurologic deficits. (farnam.com)
  • Horses with encephalitis appear sleepy, hence the moniker "sleeping sickness. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) causes death in 20-80% of infected horses. (equusmagazine.com)
  • It is possible that other signs of encephalitis, such as seen with EEE, WEE or VEE, will develop in a horse infected with WNV: head pressing, aimless wandering, seizures, hyper-excitability and coma. (equusmagazine.com)
  • 3. Nipah virus encephalitis. (advocatekhoj.com)
  • Queensland is also leading a review of the suitability of the existing Australian Animal Welfare Standards and Guidelines for the Land Transport of Livestock in relation to horses. (vic.gov.au)
  • This has obvious implications for the transmission of viruses, especially where indigenous herbivores are run with domesticated livestock. (up.ac.za)
  • Animals with this horse sickness fever form of AHS will typically recover. (equigerminal.shop)
  • The group works very closely with the African Swine Fever Virus Group , Orbivirus Research Group , Large DNA Viruses Group and the Entomology Group . (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • The mortality rate due to AHS can reach 90% in susceptible horses [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • the current locations of animals, both horses and other susceptible species, that were with or near an affected animal or location. (vic.gov.au)
  • The disease is usually fatal to horses, the most susceptible species of all, killing up to 90 percent of infected horses. (animalresearch.info)
  • Stabling horses in insect-proof housing, particularly between dusk and dawn when the insects are most active, can help prevent exposure. (equigerminal.shop)
  • I told him I was medical and veterinary entomologist, and that I'm interested in pest insects of horses. (horsenation.com)
  • Both insects transmit deadly pathogens that can lead to illness or death in people and horses. (horsenation.com)
  • As the early history of these horses was not well documented, blood samples were drawn from the animals prior to vaccination (day 0) in order to ascertain the pre-vaccination immune status of the selected animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It's important to discuss vaccination with your veterinarian to come up with a vaccination schedule that fits your particular horse and where you live. (farnam.com)
  • Strategic vaccination is very effective when it comes to protecting horses and ensuring immunity to these diseases is at its best during mosquito season. (farnam.com)
  • Sadly, horses like South Africa's triple champion Igugu, who is co-owned by Dubai Sheikh Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, are not likely to compete at the Carnival because no agreement has been reached to allow South African horses to fly directly into Dubai. (mikedekockracing.com)
  • Negotiations for a direct export route after a quarantine period are still underway between South African and various international veterinary authorities and Racing South Africa's Peter Gibson said on Tuesday that he had not given up hope that a deal could be struck before the beginning of October when horses being aimed at the Carnival would have to be put into quarantine. (mikedekockracing.com)
  • Towards 1925, BTV was introduced into Senegal through infected sheep that were imported from South Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indeed, testing in retrospect sera samples revealed that EEV had already been circulating outside of South Africa since 2001. (iucc.ac.il)
  • A 3.5-year-old pregnant intact female Rottweiler was presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH), Pretoria, South Africa, with a three-day history of progressive lethargy, weakness and inappetence with acute onset dyspnoea. (scielo.org.za)
  • Pretoria is a city located in the northern part of Gauteng Province, South Africa. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • However, the two diseases with the greatest veterinary impact among these are undoubtedly bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • They also have to cope with different climatic conditions, food, water and handling at every stop, and the veterinary facilities in both South Africa and Dubai are superior to those in Mauritius, which does not have an equine hospital. (mikedekockracing.com)
  • The treatment we have used here in Botswana has evolved over the years and our vet, (based 5 hours away in Johannesburg - S.Africa) is always very generous with her time and advice to us. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Bluetongue is an orbivirus which cross-reacts with many antigenically related viruses including Palyam virus and the viruses that cause epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer and African Horse sickness. (purdue.edu)
  • The first cases of this mosquito-borne disease that is related to West Nile Virus (WNV) and dengue fever, were diagnosed in the United States in 2015. (farnam.com)
  • Even if Zika never becomes an issue in the equine population, there are already enough mosquito-borne diseases that do infect horses. (farnam.com)
  • Horses owners shouldn't be worried about mosquito-borne diseases, but they should be concerned, aware and proactive. (farnam.com)
  • 2010), and phylogenetic studies on WNV strains indicate that the virus has become established in Europe (Calistri et al. (ivis.org)
  • The use of each will depend on the virus strains circulating in the area. (animalresearch.info)
  • The cheetah is a large-sized feline inhabiting most of Africa and parts of the Middle East. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • With the spread of the African horse sickness in Southeast Asia, the risk of the epidemic spreading to our country has increased. (ivdc.org.cn)
  • Although it has a less than 5% mortality rate, it unfortunately lowers the resistance of the horse to other viruses like AHS. (inthesaddle.com)