African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/63)

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes.  (+info)

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (2/63)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (3/63)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (4/63)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Identification of antigenic regions on VP2 of African horsesickness virus serotype 3 by using phage-displayed epitope libraries. (5/63)

VP2 is an outer capsid protein of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) and is recognized by serotype-discriminatory neutralizing antibodies. With the objective of locating its antigenic regions, a filamentous phage library was constructed that displayed peptides derived from the fragmentation of a cDNA copy of the gene encoding VP2. Peptides ranging in size from approximately 30 to 100 amino acids were fused with pIII, the attachment protein of the display vector, fUSE2. To ensure maximum diversity, the final library consisted of three sub-libraries. The first utilized enzymatically fragmented DNA encoding only the VP2 gene, the second included plasmid sequences, while the third included a PCR step designed to allow different peptide-encoding sequences to recombine before ligation into the vector. The resulting composite library was subjected to immunoaffinity selection with AHSV-specific polyclonal chicken IgY, polyclonal horse immunoglobulins and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) known to neutralize AHSV. Antigenic peptides were located by sequencing the DNA of phages bound by the antibodies. Most antigenic determinants capable of being mapped by this method were located in the N-terminal half of VP2. Important binding areas were mapped with high resolution by identifying the minimum overlapping areas of the selected peptides. The MAb was also used to screen a random 17-mer epitope library. Sequences that may be part of a discontinuous neutralization epitope were identified. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions on VP2 of serotype 3 were compared with corresponding regions on three other serotypes, revealing regions with the potential to discriminate AHSV serotypes serologically.  (+info)

Variation of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 in southern Africa. (6/63)

NS3 protein sequences of recent African horsesickness virus (AHSV) field isolates, reference strains and current vaccine strains in southern Africa were determined and compared. The variation of AHSV NS3 was found to be as much as 36.3% across serotypes and 27.6% within serotypes. NS3 proteins of vaccine and field isolates of a specific serotype were found to differ between 2.3% and 9.7%. NS3 of field isolates within a serotype differed up to 11.1%. Our data indicate that AHSV NS3 is the second most variable AHSV protein, the most variable being the major outer capsid protein, VP2. The inferred phylogeny of AHSV NS3 corresponded well with the described NS3 phylogenetic clusters. The only exception was AHSV-8 NS3, which clustered into different groups than previously described. No obvious sequence markers could be correlated with virulence. Our results suggest that NS3 sequence variation data could be used to distinguish between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine strains of the same serotype.  (+info)

Membrane association of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 determines its cytotoxicity. (7/63)

The smallest RNA genome segment of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) encodes the nonstructural protein NS3 (24K). NS3 localizes in areas of plasma membrane disruption and is associated with events of viral release. Conserved features in all AHSV NS3 proteins include the synthesis of a truncated NS3A protein from the same open reading frame as that of NS3, a proline-rich region, a region of strict sequence conservation and two hydrophobic domains. To investigate whether these features are associated with the cytotoxicity of NS3 or altered membrane permeability, a series of mutants were constructed and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus-expression system. Our results indicate that mutations in either of the two hydrophobic domains do not prevent membrane targeting of the mutant proteins but abolish their membrane anchoring. This prevents their localization to the cell surface and obviates their cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxicity of NS3 is therefore dependent on its membrane topography and thus involves both hydrophobic domains. NS3 has many of the characteristics of lytic viral proteins that play a central role in viral pathogenesis through modifying membrane permeability.  (+info)

Definition of neutralizing sites on African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP2 at the level of peptides. (8/63)

The antigenic structure of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 capsid protein VP2 has been determined at the peptide level by PEPSCAN analysis in combination with a large collection of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. VP2, the determinant for the virus serotype and an important target in virus neutralization, was found to contain 15 antigenic sites. A major antigenic region containing 12 of the 15 sites was identified in the region between residues 223 and 400. A second domain between residues 568 and 681 contained the three remaining sites. These sites were used for the synthesis of peptides, which were later tested in rabbits. Of the 15 synthetic peptides, three were able to induce neutralizing antibodies for AHSV-4, defining two neutralizing epitopes, 'a' and 'b', between residues 321 and 339, and 377 and 400, respectively. A combination of peptides representing both sites induced a more effective neutralizing response. Still, the relatively low neutralization titres make the possibility of producing a synthetic vaccine for AHSV unlikely. The complex protein-protein interaction of the outer shell of the viral capsid would probably require the presence of either synthetic peptides in the correct conformation or peptide segments from the different proteins VP2, VP5 and VP7.  (+info)

*Orbivirus

Lebombo virus Pata virus African horse sickness virus (Serotypes 1-9) African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus (serotypes ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Palyam virus CSIRO Village virus Pata virus Peruvian horse sickness virus Elsey virus St Croix river virus Umatilla virus ... African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ...

*Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Stone-Marschat M, Carville A, Skowronek A, Laegreid WW (March 1994). "Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse ... 2010). "A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus". Virol. J. ... RT-PCR is commonly used in studying the genomes of viruses whose genomes are composed of RNA, such as Influenzavirus A and ... September 2002). "Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 ...

*Sedoreovirinae

Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ... Included: Rice dwarf virus, Rice gall dwarf virus and Wound tumor virus. Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in ... Sedoreovirinae (sedo = smooth) is a subfamily of the Reoviridae family of viruses. Viruses in this subfamily are distinguished ... Included: Banna virus, Kadipiro virus and Liao ning virus. http://ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp[full citation needed] https ...

*Culicoides imicola

... is a biting midge which transmits the bluetongue virus and the African horse sickness virus. This particular ... species has been recorded so far in Africa, Asia and Europe. Other suspected BTV vectors are Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris ...

*Culicoides variipennis

Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ... C. variipennis transmits the Bluetongue virus, found in North America from latitude 40° N to 35° S. However, the virus is ... When naturally infected with Bluetongue virus, the C. variipennis contains the Bluetongue Virus in the thorax, and then is ... On average, the virus costs $125 million due to the restriction of movement on livestock to countries that are free of the ...

*Variety Club (horse)

... quarantine period was considered necessary as many countries feared the importation of the African horse sickness virus. In ... champion middle-distance horse and South African Horse of the Year. His trainer Joey Ramsden said "He was great throughout the ... He is my horse but he really belongs to the whole of South Africa." Shortly after his win in the Godolphin Mile, Variety Club ... After the race Ramsden said "It is fantastic for a horse to come all the way from South Africa - to compete, let alone win, is ...

*Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

... and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus is a double-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family ... "PCR detection of North American and Central African isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) based on genome ... VP6 and VP7 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV)". Virus research. 145 (2): 187-99. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.07. ... Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, a family of double- ...

*Equine encephalosis virus

... related to the African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) and the Bluetongue disease virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over ... such as the African horse sickness virus. As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather ... caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating ... of all South African horses. Prior to 2008, the Equine encephalosis virus had been identified and isolated only in South Africa ...

*African horse sickness

Database CIDRAP Overview on African Horse Sickness 3D electron microscopy structures of the African horse sickness virus from ... "Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat". Journal of the South African ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease. It commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. It is ... Mild or horse sickness fever form Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. Infected animals may have ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

... and they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids. Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon ... Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... There are commercially available vaccines to protect animals against bluetongue, and African horse sickness Myiasis: Centers ... Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species ...

*Theiler's disease

... after vaccinating horses against African horse sickness using a live virus vaccine and equine antiserum. It was later described ... Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that the disease can become chronic, with some horses ... African horse sickness, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens ... suggesting that the virus is poorly transmitted horizontally. However, not all horses that tested positive for this virus ...

*Peruvian horse sickness virus

MacLachlan, N.; Guthrie, A. J. (2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases". ... One of the viruses collected from horses that died of the disease was named Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV). The 1997 ... The Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) is a cause of the neurological disorder Peruvian horse sickness resulting in ... "ICTV Virus Taxonomy". www.ictvonline.org. Retrieved 2015-12-13. Attoui, H.; et al. (2009). "Peruvian horse sickness virus and ...

*Culicoides

... bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness, bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane ... main vector of bluetongue virus and African Horse Sickness in Southern Europe Culicoides chiopterus - Culicoides dewulfi - ... in 2006, bluetongue virus was first recorded in Northern Europe. In 2007 and 2008, there were huge outbreaks, going as far as ... The main vector of the virus in Southern Europe does not live in Northern Europe, so other species have been screened. Species ...

*Arnold Theiler

... he observed the symptoms of liver disease in animals vaccinated against African horse sickness with a combination of live virus ... This institute under his leadership carried out research on African horse sickness, sleeping sickness, malaria, East Coast ... In 1891 Theiler travelled to South Africa and at first found employment as a farm worker on Irene Estates near Pretoria, owned ... Theiler A (1919) Acute liver-atrophy and parenchymatous hepatitis in horses. The Fifth and Sixth Reports of the Director of ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Shuni virus Simbu virus Tacaiuma virus Tete virus Thimiri virus Timboteua virus Turlock virus Wyeomyia virus Zegla virus ... virus Uganda S virus Usutu virus Wesselsbron virus West Nile virus Yaounde virus Yellow fever virus Yokose virus Zika virus ...

*Reoviridae

African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... Umatilla virus Wad Medani virus Wallal virus Warrego virus Wongorr virus Yunnan orbivirus Genus: Phytoreovirus Rice dwarf virus ... virus Garlic dwarf virus Maize rough dwarf virus Mal de Rio Cuarto virus Nilaparvata lugens reovirus Oat sterile dwarf virus ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... colorado tick fever virus MeSH B04.820.630.550 --- orbivirus MeSH B04.820.630.550.050 --- african horse sickness virus MeSH ... colorado tick fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550 --- orbivirus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550.050 --- african horse sickness virus ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 --- gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 --- gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 --- GB virus C ... torque teno virus MeSH B04.280.049.035 --- african swine fever virus MeSH B04.280.065.249 --- granulovirus MeSH B04.280.065.500 ...

*Biosecurity in the United States

African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Akabane virus Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic) Bluetongue virus ... mouth disease virus Goat pox virus Japanese encephalitis virus Lumpy skin disease virus Malignant catarrhal fever virus ( ... Peste des petits ruminants virus Rinderpest virus Sheep pox virus Swine vesicular disease virus Vesicular stomatitis virus ( ... Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus Diacetoxyscirpenol Ebola virus Lassa fever virus Marburg virus Monkeypox virus ...

*Arbovirus

Family Reoviridae Subfamily Sedoreovirinae Genus Orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV) Bluetongue disease virus (BTV) ... Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) West Nile virus (WNV) Spondweni group Spondweni virus Zika virus (ZIKV) Yellow fever virus ... Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) Mosquito-borne viruses Dengue virus group Dengue virus (DENV) Japanese encephalitis virus ... La Crosse encephalitis virus (LACV) Genus Phlebovirus Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Toscana virus (TOSV) Heartland virus ...

*Select agent

African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic) Classical swine fever virus ... viruses: African VHF viruses: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus* Lassa fever virus Lujo virus Marburg virus* ... Asian VHF viruses: Kyasanur Forest disease virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus South American VHF viruses: Chapare virus ... Hendra virus Nipah virus Rift Valley fever virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (excluding enzootic subtypes ID and IE) ...

*List of virus species

African green monkey simian foamy virus African horse sickness virus African oil palm ringspot virus African swine fever virus ... virus A Potato virus H Potato virus M Potato virus P Potato virus S Potato virus T Potato virus U Potato virus V Potato virus X ... virus Garlic virus A Garlic virus B Garlic virus C Garlic virus D Garlic virus E Garlic virus X Gayfeather mild mottle virus ... virus Vibrio virus 493 Vibrio virus CTXphi Vibrio virus fs1 Vibrio virus fs2 Vibrio virus K139 Vibrio virus Kappa Vibrio virus ...

*Bluetongue disease

African horse sickness is related to Bluetongue and is spread by the same midges (Culicoides species). It can kill the horses ... The virus makes initial contact with the cell with VP2, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus. The low pH ... African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions, The Merck Veterinary Manual. Introduction to disease in The Merck ... Twenty-six serotypes are now recognised for this virus. The virus particle consists of ten strands of double-stranded RNA ...

*Culicoides bolitinos

... a recently identified vector of African horse sickness". Bull Entomol Res. 90 (6): 509-15. PMID 11107252. Paweska, J. T.; ... bolitinos to oral infection with eight serotypes of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus". Medical and Veterinary Entomology. ... It is considered a possible vector for African horse sickness. Meiswinkel R (1989). "Afrotropical Culicoides: a redescription ... reared from the dung of the African buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in South Africa". Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 56 (1): 23- ...

*Zoonosis

Rabies African sleeping sickness Dirofilariasis Eastern equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis ... The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the ... Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous ... While rare in humans, the main public health worry is that a strain of bird flu will recombine with a human flu virus and cause ...

*Hematophagy

Cow blood mixed with milk, for example, is a mainstay food of the African Maasai. Marco Polo reported that Mongols drank blood ... The phlebotomic action opens a channel for contamination of the host species with bacteria, viruses and blood-borne parasites ... sleeping sickness, St. Louis encephalitis, tularemia, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, West Nile fever, Zika fever, and ... from their horses if necessary. Many places around the world eat Black pudding. Some societies, such as the Moche, had ritual ...

*Cattle feeding

Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is insect-borne and found in 20% of US cattle, and 60% of US herds. Studies in Sweden and the ... Clinical use of antibiotics refers to the treatment of cattle due to sickness. However, corn-fed cattle draw attention to the ... horses, pigs, etc.). Therefore, at a feed mill mixing feed for pigs, for instance, there is still the possibility of cross- ... Research shows that tissue lipids of North American and African ruminants were similar to pasture-fed cattle, but dissimilar to ...
Introduction. Small biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are involved in the epidemiology and transmission of a number of orbiviruses of veterinary importance, including African horse sickness virus (AHSV) with nine known serotypes (Howell 1962). This virus causes an infectious, non-contagious disease, African horse sickness (AHS), which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and can have a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible horses.. Based on its confirmed vector status, wide geographical distribution, abundance and host preference for larger mammals, the Afro-Asiatic Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer is considered the principle vector of AHSV in South Africa (Meiswinkel, Venter & Nevill 2004; Nevill, Venter & Edwardes 1992). This species is also the most important vector of orbiviruses across vast geographic regions in Africa, the Mediterranean and southern Europe (Mellor, Boorman & Baylis 2000). Following ingestion by a susceptible midge, AHSV infects and ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
Recently a suspected outbreak of African horsesickness in the Western Cape Province resulted in the deaths of four foals and one adult horse. Spleen samples from these animals were subjected to analysis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) which uses F(ab) ₂ fragments of immunoglobulins to detect African horse sickness virus (AHSV) antigens. The results of the immunoassay were compared with those obtained by isolation followed by serotyping as is currently applied by the Reference Centre at the Veterinary Research Institute, Onderstepoort. Samples of spleen tissue from the four foals contained sufficient antigen to be readily detectable by ELISA. A marginally positive signal was obtained with the tissue from the adult horse. This sample was inoculated onto VERO cells and four days were allowed for viral multiplication. Subsequently, when the cell culture was assayed by F(ab)₂ -ELISA, a much higher absorbance value than that obtained with the original spleen sample resulted, thus ...
Introduction. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype virus of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family. Orbiviruses that infect and are transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g. gnats, ticks, mosquitoes, etc.) include viruses that may cause disease in their vertebrate hosts with serious economic consequences in some regions of the world. The BTV group, which consists of at least 24 different serotypes (BTV-1, -2, etc.), infects field and domestic animals (e.g. sheep and cattle), occasionally with high morbidity and mortality but often with almost no apparent clinical symptoms. Other orbiviruses that may cause disease in animals include African horse sickness virus (AHSV; nine serotypes, AHSV-1, -2, etc.) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV; seven serotypes, EHDV-1, -2, etc.) of deer. Although BTV and AHSV were isolated in 1900, and initial morphological and biochemical characterization were reported as early as 1969 (see review article, Gorman, 1990), much of the current knowledge on the
Prof. Peter Mertens studied Virology at Warwick and Oxford Universities, then completed a post-doctoral Fellowship at the University of Guelph in Canada during 1981. He has since worked on the Orbiviruses, particularly Bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses (BTV and AHSV) at the Pirbright Institute (35 years), rising to Head of Group (Arbovirus Molecular Research) and head of Department/Programme (Vector-borne Viral Diseases).. His group was responsible for development of novel diagnostic assays and the epidemiology studies used to identify and track BTV outbreaks across Europe (including the UK from 1998 onwards). Advice and support for Defras Joint Action against Bluetongue (JAB) campaign led to eradication of BTV-8 from the UK and then in northern Europe in 2008-2009. This achievement was recognised by an Innovator of the Year award (2013) from BBSRC. Prof Mertens also played a central role (with colleagues from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics in Oxford) in ...
In an effort to simplify and expand the utility of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) reverse genetics, different plasmid-based reverse genetics systems were developed. Plasmids containing cDNAs corresponding to each of ...
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
HYERA, J M K e BAIPOLEDI, E K. A serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2008, vol.79, n.1, pp.44-45. ISSN 2224-9435.. A retrospective serological survey of African horse sickness (AHS) in Botswana covering a 10-year period (1995-2004) is reported. The survey involved horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease; the horses had not been vaccinated against AHS. Over the period surveyed, serological evidence suggestive of infection with AHS virus (AHSV) was found in 99 clinical cases out of which 41.4 % (41/99) cases were found during the 1st half (1995-1999) and 58.6 % (58/99) cases were found in the 2nd half of the survey period (2000-2004). These serological findings are discussed in relation to AHSV serotypes isolated from diseased horses in Botswana before and during the period of this serological survey.. Palavras-chave : African horse sickness (AHS); AHS virus serotypes; Botswana; Culicoides midges; serological survey. ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay and virus isolation (VI). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this AHSV RTqPCR assay and VI were estimated using a 2-test 2-population Bayesian latent class model which made no assumptions about the true infection status of the tested animals and allowed for the possibility of conditional dependence (correlation) in test results. Median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AHSV RT-qPCR were 97.8% and 99.9%, respectively. Median diagnostic specificity of virus isolation was ,99% whereas the estimated diagnostic sensitivity was 44.2%. The AHSV RT-qPCR assay provides for rapid, high-throughput analysis of samples, and is both analytically and diagnostically ...
A deterministic model for the economic impact of African Horse Sickness (AHS) on the equine breeding industry was developed for South Africa. It was applied to the case of the 2007/2008 outbreak of AHS in the Eastern Cape as a pilot application of the model, using data from breeders in the province. It was concluded that the deterministic models extension to include other areas of equine livelihoods could be effective in exposing the need for further research into the control and treatment of AHS in South Africa. Brooks, Laura
Horse exports from South Africa have been frozen pending the results of tests for African Horse Sickness (AHS), feared to have killed 13 animals in the past month, authorities said. (Yahoo News) Hang in there, whiskeykitten!. Related posts:. Equine herpes outbreak declared "officially over" in Florida. ...
|P>African horse sickness (AHS) has claimed the life of another horse in Lesotho, in southern Africa, raising the death toll to two and the confirmed 2004 case count to 23 as of late April. According to Dr. Malefane Moleko, Chief Veterinary Officer
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most important orbiviruses are bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species. The virons are non-enveloped particles that are ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
Horses! Horses! Horses! Horses! I am absolutely horse mad and cant imagine a life without them. Nothing gives me more joy than being around these magnificent animals. I am currently on a journey to be the best horsewoman I can be :) I have been bitten by the natural horsemanship bug and want to combine it with normal training to create the perfect partnership between horse and rider. My goals are to further my parelli training and to improve my riding :) My end goal will be to have my own equine partner that will follow me where ever I go :p I currently have only one blog, called Forever Horses. In this blog I will post interesting equine things I find. I love learning (I cant help it, lol)!!! If I see or hear something that sounds interesting I google it :p I will be starting up a new blog about my journey :) I will share my equine partners (from my past) with everyone, and, hopefully future equines too ...
AN estimated 100 horses have died in KwaZulu-Natal from African horse sickness (AHS) since February 20, the African Horse Sickness Trust announced yesterday....
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Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed representing the industry stakeh
The Republic of Ireland (R.O.I.) has a longstanding equine tradition, and it is therefore unsurprising that it has the highest density of sport horses in Europe [60]. A recent estimate valuated the industry in excess of € 1.1 billion per annum [61]. The current national equid population is estimated at approximately 110, 000 animals and it is believed that 53, 000 people are regularly involved in horse riding activities [60]. A conservative figure of the annual expenditure within the industry is estimated at approximately € 400 million [60], while the value of various racing festivals and other meetings to the local economy was valued at € 260 million [61]. Similarly, in Northern Ireland (N.I.), it is estimated that around £ 110 million is spent per annum on equine services and products within the economy, with a further £ 2 million expended outside of N.I. on thoroughbred stud fees. In total, the equid population is estimated at approximately 36, 000 animals with a value of around £ ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. AHS is endemic to South Africa, and, as a result, affects export and ...
Todd was speaking at a recent workshop attended by the most important decision-makers in the South African horseracing industry and was upbeat about the recent progress made by the team chaired by prominent owner and businessman Chris van Niekerk.. "We have been working diligently to fix the issues raised in a 2013 audit by the EU, getting expert advice domestically and internationally, and have verified we are on the right path," said Todd. "There remains work to be done before the official EU audit in the middle of next year, but we know weve made real strides in our record keeping, communication and movement control. We are on path to meet or exceed our commitments to upgrade where necessary.". Exports of South African horses have historically taken months because of a equine disease endemic to Africa called African Horse Sickness (AHS). Just like malaria is transferred through a mosquito bite, AHS is transferred by a bite from the Culicoides Midge.. All horses north of Cape Town have to be ...
which this new offence relates are listed in Schedule 2A of the Bill. Further, horse owners should not be concerned about African Horse Sickness ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
1916 envelope addressed to an officer in the 2nd African Horse Expeditionery Force East Africa. On the reverse is a boxed RETURNED TO POST OFFICE/BY MILITARY AUTHORITIES/AS UNDELIVERABLE and a violet Returned from German east Africa. Undelivered A rare cachet ...
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Looking for online definition of cardiac horse sickness in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac horse sickness explanation free. What is cardiac horse sickness? Meaning of cardiac horse sickness medical term. What does cardiac horse sickness mean?
We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of horses to remove Qatar from the list of regions the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service considers affected with African horse sickness. This action is based on information received from Qatar and is in accordance with the...
Synonyms for encephalosis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for encephalosis. 2 synonyms for encephalopathy: brain disease, brain disorder. What are synonyms for encephalosis?
No. 24102013-00012-EN. During the period 2001 to 2008, a total of 7,872 equine sera were tested at the Centre of Veterinary Institutes of Athens. Antibodies against seven infectious diseases of equids were determined: equine infectious anaemia (EIA), African horse sickness (AHS), equine viral arteritis (EVA), West Nile encephalitis (WNE), glanders, piroplasmosis and dourine. Tests for the four viral diseases found 4.5% seropositivity for EIA, 0% for AHS, 3.3% for EVA and 4% for WNE. All sera tested for glanders antibodies were negative. Tests for piroplasmosis detected antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in 12.9% and 1.3% of the sera, respectively. No sample tested positive for dourine. The results of this epidemiological survey provide strong evidence that Greece is free from the diseases of AHS, glanders and dourine.. Keywords ...
Christopher Weldon is a PeerJ user. Bio: I lead the Flies of Economic Significance Research Group, which conducts research on the behaviour, ecology and physiology of flies (Insecta: Diptera) that affect human activities in southern Africa. Results from these studies inform sustainable management practices that can reduce reliance on pesticides, but may also facilitate the beneficial use of flies. Students that I supervise are pursuing projects on the invasion of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) in southern Africa, mosquitoes that are vectors for Rift Valley Fever, biting midges that transmit African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses, and blow flies that can be used as forensic evidence or for bioconversion of organic waste. I have a research background that encompasses insect behaviour, ecology and physiology. My research has addressed a range of themes using pest fruit flies, particularly the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and more recently, the Mediterranean fruit fly,
Subs - Blake - Dean - Major. Twyford Utd made a stunning last minute comeback from being 2-1 down to snatch a late victory over league leaders Potterspury in the Premier Division trophy. United goalkeeper Colin Piggott pulled out shortly before the game due to a sickness virus with defender Jack Arnold taking Piggotts place in the Twyford goal.. In an evenly balanced game both sides did play attractive passing football. Potterspury midfielder Rick Worsfold unfortunately went off with an ankle injury in just the eighth minute of the game and was replaced by Lewis Blake.. There were limited chances for either side in the first half. Uniteds Ash Peacock had the first clear shot on goal in the 18th minute but his effort was easily saved by Sam Kelly.. Sam Wood also had an effort which went over the bar.. However Potterspury always did look dangerous going forward and in the 25th minute were awarded a penalty when Adam Kelly was fouled in the penalty area. Martin Blackwell neatly slotted away the ...
Fortunately, there is a simple, three step program which serves to cure most of those officers afflicted by this unfortunate, sometimes career-ending
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IM, intramuscular; IV, intravenous; PO, by mouth; SQ, subcutaneous; q, ery; h, hour; d, day; wk, week.. It is recommended that the manufacturers literature be checked before a drug is used. Many drugs have not been approved for use in horses.. ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,
What does Medical AHS stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of AHS. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang AHS means Amn Healthcare Services. by AcronymAndSlang.com
Hopalong Cassidys horse was named Topper. The horse was discovered on a ranch in 1937 and named Topper by the wife of the actor who played Hopalong Cassidy on film and television. The horse was...
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A so-called friend of mine called me up and said her new step-dads ex-wife was giving him some horses they needed somewhere to keep the horses for a...
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Theres no telling (or understanding) what might happen when a supermodel and a horse meet.But luckily Karolina Kurkova used her supermodel powers to…
46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that widespread EEV infections of horses had occurred during the summer of 1967 but that Bluetongue virus, ...
The Ancestral Health Symposium 2012 starts in a few days. Everyone whos anyone in the Paleo world will gather in Boston. My talk from last year is the most viewed one from AHS 2011. Ill attempt to bring something interesting again.
Environment. The way in which a horse is kept will affect the horse. For example, a horse which is left on a field year round with no protection from the weather will tend to age faster and is more prone to potentially fatal illnesses. Conversely, a horse which is kept in a stall all the time will lack the exercise and mental stimulation it requires ...
... , Ponies and Colts Horses are one of the more powerful animals which appear in my dreams. Dreams in which horses have appeared: ...
Did you know your horses skin is the largest organ in the whole body, comprising 12-24% of their body weight? And did you also know that it serves many purposes, some of which you might never have thought of? For ...
After a brief period as a general practitioner in Reigate, Surrey (1881-83), where he met and married his wife Mary, he entered the Army Medical School in Hampshire at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley. He qualified the military examination in 1883 and joined the Army Medical Services (and served till 1919).[2] For his first post he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1884 and was stationed in Valletta, Malta.[8]. Bruce was appointed Assistant Professor of pathology at the Army Medical School in Netley in 1889, and served there for five years.[7] He returned to military field service in 1894 and was posted to Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. He was assigned to investigate the case of cattle and horse sickness (called nagana) in Zululand. On 27 October 1894, he and his wife moved to Ubombo Hill, where the disease was most prevalent. When the Second Boer War broke out in 1899, accompanied by his wife, he ran the field hospital during the Siege of Ladysmith (2 November 1899 until 28 ...
How to Buy a Horse. Buying a horse is a big investment, and owning one takes a lot of time and money. There are a lot of pitfalls that can appear when buying a horse that may not only be expensive, but heartbreaking. Because of this, it is...
Not every senior horse is a schoolmaster, and not every schoolmaster is a senior horse. But in many cases seniors and schoolmasters are one in the same. I recently learned firsthand that these horses are worth their weights in gold.
Cough Free is a natural supplement for the management of horse coughing. Check out the complete supply of horse supplements at SmartPak.
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Our group The Non-Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory Group brings together all the reference laboratories working on non-vesicular diseases at Pirbright. These diseases include bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness, African swine fever, morbilliviruses (peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest - which was declared eradicated in May 2011), and capripox viruses (lumpy skin disease and sheep and goat pox).
Looking for online definition of orbiviruses in the Medical Dictionary? orbiviruses explanation free. What is orbiviruses? Meaning of orbiviruses medical term. What does orbiviruses mean?
Horse racing: www.racingpulse.in is a one stop website for complete horse racing information like Horse Race Handicaps, Horse race Acceptances, Horse race Racecards, Horse Race Live Odds, Horse Race Night Odds, Horse Race Opening Odds, Horse Race Selections, Horse Race Videos, Horse race Audions, Horse Race Statistics, Horse Race Results, Horse Race Live Result, Horse Race News, Horse Racing Fantasy Games, Horse Race Live Video, Horse Racing Blogs, Horse Race Photo Gallery, Horse Race Archives, Horse Media Tips, Horse Racing One To One statistics, Horse Race Public Pulse, Stud Farm Profiles, Horse racing Professional Profiles, Horse Profiles, Horse race Reviews, Horse race Preview, Horse Race Indian Classics, McDowell Indian Derby, 1000 and 2000 Guineas, Trackwork details, Mock Races details and much more. Racing Masters like Jockeys, Trainers, Owners and Professionals, Horse Racing Special Profiles, Horse Racing Mastres, Horse Racing Professionals, Horse Racing Fixtures , Horse Racing Fixture , Horse
Bluetongue virus, type 10 ATCC ® VR-1231AF™ Designation: Bluetongue virus type 10 immune ascitic fluid [V-519-701-562] Application:
Study Flashcards On Griffin tch A&P AHS 101 Chapter 6 (Skeletal) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
... - Wares of the Wild West is an equestrian news resource for people interested in horse care, riding, horse health, etc. Learn about horses, read stories, and find out how much horses have done for our kind.
Horses are amongst the favorite animals of many people. In this article, we have provided a number of fun facts and some interesting information on horses.
Omoguard for Horses is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Omoguard for Horses is available on the Drugs.com website.
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These unique vinyl decals are specially made for the horse enthusiast. My love for horses in almost all disciplines led me to create custom designs fo
A DISEASE which threatened the lives of more than 30 horses on Llantrisant Common has been contained, according to the overseer of the common.
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Hi! This is my first post here so i hope you go easy on me I got my first real real camera about 2 weeks ago and before that i have only had worthless
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Jeggo, M. H., Wardley, R. C., Brownlie, J. and Corteyn, A. H. 1986, Serial inoculation of sheep with two bluetongue virus types, Research in veterinary science, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 386-392. ...
Get quick and affordable treatment at AHS Walk-In Clinic, Inc. in Lafayette, LA. View todays hours, insurance accepted and patient reviews.
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How to Fatten up a Horse. Fattening a horse, also called conditioning, is a long process, but one that can improve your horses health. Your horse may be underweight for a variety of reasons, like wintering in harsh conditions, not getting...
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Sorry but I would have shot the horse weeks ago, if its not healing its not fair on the horse to keep treating it either. Youve done more than...
The outer-coat proteins, VP2 and VP5, of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are important for host cell binding during the initiation of infection. They are also known to determine virus serotype. This study presents a complete genetic and phylogenetic analysis of these proteins (and the genes that code for them) to allow comparison of the selective pressures acting on each and the correlation of genetic sequence data with serotype. Accession numbers, gene and protein sizes, ORF positions, G+C contents, terminal hexanucleotides, start and stop codons and phylogenetic relationships are all presented. The results show that VP2 is highly variable, is under great pressure to adapt and can be correlated with serotype. While also variable, VP5 appears to be under less adaptive pressure than VP2 but still shows some correlation with serotype. Seven serotypes of EHDV have been defined in this study, although the results do show that some serotypes are extremely closely related--and highlight ...
The #1 Horse Information Resource. Horse Trainers give horse training advice and horse product manufacturers provide horse product and horse health information.
Before tonights game at Safeco Field, Torii Hunter and I were talking about Ken Griffey Jr., his greatness and unique style. When I was a young guy, I used to watch everything he did, Hunter said. I loved his swing...
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Former event horse diagnosed with kissing spine which has been treated with injections and does not appear to be an issue. Well behaved outside, does not like the indoor ring, suitable as a companion, possible trail horse or low level eventer.Currently turned out and barefoot. Not mean in any way, but needs an experienced rider/handler. Excellent home only.. ...
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A horse rescue in Carroll County said it has taken in an emaciated horse found abandoned in Anne Arundel County, and theyre looking for donations to help with his care.
Matt Brocklebank looks ahead to the Betfair Hurdle at Newbury and recommends antepost bets at 14/1 and 20/1, including Jamie Snowdens novice Thebannerkingrebel. ...
Matt Brocklebank looks ahead to the Betfair Hurdle at Newbury and recommends antepost bets at 14/1 and 20/1, including Jamie Snowdens novice Thebannerkingrebel. ...
Note: Spellings of quotations are reproduced as they appear in the novel. Part I The action of All the Pretty Horses takes place in 1949 and 1950.
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There are 59 racecourses spread throughout Britain and meetings are held throughout the year including many Sundays and evenings.

Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng,...Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng,...

... vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species,Medical and ... African Horse Sickness (AHS) Trust, 2012, African horse sickness , viewed 03 January 2012, from http://www.africanhorsesickness ... Circulation of African horse sickness virus in zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, as measured ... African horse sickness epidemiology: Vector competence of South African Culicoides species for virus serotypes 3, 5 and 8, ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100028&lang=en

Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng,...Culicoides species abundance and potential over-wintering of African horse sickness virus in the Onderstepoort area, Gauteng,...

... vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species,Medical and ... African Horse Sickness (AHS) Trust, 2012, African horse sickness , viewed 03 January 2012, from http://www.africanhorsesickness ... Circulation of African horse sickness virus in zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, as measured ... African horse sickness epidemiology: Vector competence of South African Culicoides species for virus serotypes 3, 5 and 8, ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1019-91282014000100028&lng=en&nrm=iso

Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness...Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness...

... unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus ( ... accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness virus. ... accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness virus. ... Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/39837

Recovery of African horse sickness virus from synthetic RNA | Microbiology SocietyRecovery of African horse sickness virus from synthetic RNA | Microbiology Society

... bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their ... AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common ... African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a ... European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.055905-0

Abundance and species composition of Culicoides spp. biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland : Acta...Abundance and species composition of Culicoides spp. biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland : Acta...

are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus ... In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the ... The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful ... horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ap.2017.62.issue-4/ap-2017-0089/ap-2017-0089.xml

Seroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia -  - ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical ArticlesSeroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia - - ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical Articles

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and ... Seroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia. Haji Ende, Habtamu Tassew, Endale Balcha Gurmu, ... In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. ... Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
more infohttp://www.scopemed.org/?mno=36879

Horse diseases-african horse sickness, BiologyHorse diseases-african horse sickness, Biology

African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an ... Virus isolation is done from infected whole blood and spleen tissues collected after PM examination using tissue culture (BHK ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness Discussions Write discussion on Horse diseases-african horse sickness. Your posts are ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Get Answer, ...
more infohttp://www.expertsmind.com/questions/horse-diseases-african-horse-sickness-30112959.aspx

African horse sickness virus induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cellsAfrican horse sickness virus induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells

... Stassen, Liesel; Huismans, H. (Henk), 1942-; Theron ... Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects ... The basis for this phenomenon has not yet been investigated, but is suggestive of apoptosis being induced following virus ... CPE), but no CPE is observed in infected insect cell cultures despite productive virus replication. ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/18383

Western Australian Organism List | Agriculture and FoodWestern Australian Organism List | Agriculture and Food

african horse sickness virus Family: Reoviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: African horse ... african swine fever virus Family: Asfarviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: African swine ... apis iridescent virus Family: Iridoviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: Apis iridescent virus ... arkansas bee virus. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: Arkansas bee virus. ...
more infohttps://www.agric.wa.gov.au/organisms?search_string=%2A&%3Bamp%3Bregion=123%2C85&%3Bper-page=20&%3Bsort-by=taxon&%3Border-by=asc&%3Bpage=2®ion=103%2C58&classification=10

Western Australian Organism List | Page 5 | Agriculture and FoodWestern Australian Organism List | Page 5 | Agriculture and Food

african horse sickness virus Family: Reoviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: African horse ... african swine fever virus Family: Asfarviridae. Declared Pest, Prohibited - s12 (C1 Prohibited). Common name: African swine ...
more infohttps://www.agric.wa.gov.au/organisms?search_string=%2A&%3Bamp%3Bregion=133%2C16&%3Bregion=130®ion=123%2C128&per-page=20&sort-by=taxon&order-by=asc&page=4

Federal Register
       :: 
      International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting ActivitiesFederal Register :: International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

Chapter 12.1, Infection with African Horse Sickness Virus.. *Chapter 11.8, Infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides ( ... Chapter 14.8 Infection with Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPR) An updated chapter was adopted with the inclusion of ... 9. Chapter 10.4 Infection with Avian Influenza (AI) Viruses The terminology of "avian influenza" was changed by removing the ... The text in this chapter was expanded to include embryo transfer as a vehicle of virus transmission from an EVA carrier ...
more infohttps://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2014/02/04/2014-02274/international-sanitary-and-phytosanitary-standard-setting-activities

African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South...African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South...

... attenuated vaccine viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Genomes Analysis ... African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, ... The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/African+horse+sickness+caused+by+genome+reassortment+and+reversion+to+...-a0474042469

Bioagent ExportBioagent Export

Viruses. *African horse sickness virus. *African swine fever virus. **Andes virus. *Avian influenza (AI) viruses identified as ... Rabies virus and all other members of the Lyssavirus genus. *1918 pandemic influenza virus - reconstructed replication ... Swine vesicular disease virus. *Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis ... Note: Avian influenza viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype that do not have either of the characteristics described above should be ...
more infohttp://www.ehs.ufl.edu/programs/bio/shipping/export_control/

BMC Veterinary Research | Epidemiology, public health and modellingBMC Veterinary Research | Epidemiology, public health and modelling

Sero-epidemioloical survey on African horse sickness virus among horses in Khartoum State, Central Sudan African horse sickness ... Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Bovine Herpes Virus 1 (BHV 1), Leptospirosis and Neosporosis, and associated ... Bovine respiratory syncytial virus seroprevalence and risk factors in non-vaccinated dairy cattle herds in Brazil The cattle ... Comparison of the virulence of three H3N2 canine influenza virus isolates from Korea and China in mouse and Guinea pig models ...
more infohttps://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/sections/epidemiology-public-health-and-modelling

Viruses | The Pirbright InstituteViruses | The Pirbright Institute

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infects all equine species and is often fatal in horses and mules. It is from the family ... African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an economically important disease of pigs. It is a large complex DNA virus and is the ... Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infects mainly chickens but can also infect pheasants, partridges and quail. It belongs to the ... Avian influenza (AI) viruses, commonly known as bird flu, infect a wide range of hosts, including humans and swine. The natural ...
more infohttp://www.pirbright.ac.uk/viruses-page/a

Patent US8211279 - Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence with a single ... - Google PatentsPatent US8211279 - Electrochemistry and electrogenerated chemiluminescence with a single ... - Google Patents

Further examples of analytes include viruses such as African horse sickness virus; African swine fever virus; Akabane virus; ... Mayaro virus; Menangle virus; Monkeypox virus; Mucambo virus; Newcastle disease virus (VVND); Nipah Virus; Norwalk virus group ... Goat pox virus; Hantaan or other Hanta viruses; Hendra virus; Issyk-kul virus; Koutango virus; Lassa fever virus; Louping-ill ... Potato virus; Powassan virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Rinderpest virus; Rotavirus; Semliki Forest virus; Sheep pox virus; ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US8211279?dq=5,072,412

African Horse SicknessAfrican Horse Sickness

Test in a suitcase for African horse sickness virus? May 2, 2014. July 31, 2014. Horsetalk.co.nz 1386 Views 0 Comments African ... Horsetalk.co.nz 2039 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak ... Horsetalk.co.nz 5727 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. The virus-like particles of the plant-based vaccine do not carry ... Promising new African Horse Sickness vaccine could free up horse movements May 15, 2019. June 11, 2019. Horsetalk.co.nz 2949 ...
more infohttps://www.horsetalk.co.nz/tag/african-horse-sickness/

Ventura M[au] - PubMed - NCBIVentura M[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Production of monoclonal antibodies binding to the VP7 protein of African horse sickness virus. ... Author Correction: RNA synthesis is modulated by G-quadruplex formation in Hepatitis C virus negative RNA strand. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Ventura+M%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Intercalated BSc Comparative Pathology - Intercalated BSc Comparative Pathology - Undergraduate - Study - Royal Veterinary...Intercalated BSc Comparative Pathology - Intercalated BSc Comparative Pathology - Undergraduate - Study - Royal Veterinary...

"How do equine cells respond to infection with African Horse Sickness Virus?". ... Ryan Waters - "Transmission and persistence of foot-and-mouth virus in the ovine foetus" - supervised by Prof Joe Brownlie at ... Kathryn Cosgrove - "Adaptation of viruses when they cross the species-barrier" - supervised at the University of Bristol, ... "Genotyping of BVD viruses to improve biosecurity on the Isle of Man". ...
more infohttps://www.rvc.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/intercalated-bsc-comparative-pathology

Browsing Masters Degrees (Animal and Poultry Science) by TitleBrowsing Masters Degrees (Animal and Poultry Science) by Title

Development of a protocol for the molecular serotyping of the African horse sickness virus.  Groenink, Shaun Reinder. (2009) ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting ... Developing an energy evaluation protocol for horse feeds in South Africa.  Lindsay, Elaine. (2014-11-28) ... Diet selection and foraging efficiency of Nguni goats in the bushveld of Gauteng, South Africa.  Werekeh, Fomum Sylvester. ( ...
more infohttp://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/xmlui/handle/10413/6571/browse?rpp=20&order=ASC&sort_by=1&etal=-1&type=title&starts_with=D

A review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland | Irish Veterinary Journal | Full TextA review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland | Irish Veterinary Journal | Full Text

African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). The disease affects horses, ponies ... Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs: African Horse Sickness in horses in South Africa. Preliminary Outbreak ... African horse sickness epidemiology: vector competence of South African Culicoides species for virus serotypes 3, 5 and 8. Med ... Transmission patterns of African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses in South African donkeys. Epidemiol Infect. ...
more infohttps://irishvetjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2046-0481-65-9

Innocuity testing - CSIROInnocuity testing - CSIRO

Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vero monolayers CpE, IFAT African horse sickness virus Vero monolayers CpE ... Equine arteritis virus RK-13 monolayers CpE, IFAT Equine encephalitis viruses (WEE, EEE VEE) Vero monolayers CpE, IFAT, PCR ( ... Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGE) and porcine respiratory corona virus (PRCV) Primary pig kidney monolayers ... Pseudorabies virus (Aujeszkys disease) PK-15A monolayers CpE, IFAT, PCR Brucella suis See Brucella abortus See Brucella ...
more infohttps://www.csiro.au/en/Research/Facilities/AAHL/Diagnostic-services-and-emergency-response/Innocuity-testing

The relationship between climate and the distribution of Culicoides imicola in Iberia | Springer for Research & DevelopmentThe relationship between climate and the distribution of Culicoides imicola in Iberia | Springer for Research & Development

... at 17 of 27 farms in Spain and Portugal during a survey of its distribution following outbreaks of African horse sickness in ... Mediterranean Basin Automatic Weather Station High Summer Temperature Bluetongue Virus African Horse Sickness Virus These ... Potential vectors of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses in Spain. Vet Rec 112: 229-230Google Scholar ... In: Mellor P.S., Baylis M., Hamblin C., Mertens P.P.C., Calisher C.H. (eds) African Horse Sickness. Springer, Vienna. * DOI ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-7091-6823-3_10

Vero  ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normalVero ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normal

The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African green monkey on March 27, 1962, by Y. Yasumura and Y ... Ozawa Y. Studies on the replication of African horse-sickness virus in two different cell line cultures. Arch. Gesamte ... Pixuna virus Ross River virus Semliki Forest virus Kokobera virus Modoc virus Guaroa virus Tacaribe virus , Tacaribe virus. SV- ... Ozawa Y. Studies on the replication of African horse-sickness virus in two different cell line cultures. Arch. Gesamte ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/By_Tissue/Kidney/CCL-81.aspx

Vero  ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normalVero ATCC ® CCL-81™ Cercopithecus aethiops kidney normal

The Vero cell line was initiated from the kidney of a normal adult African green monkey on March 27, 1962, by Y. Yasumura and Y ... Ozawa Y. Studies on the replication of African horse-sickness virus in two different cell line cultures. Arch. Gesamte ... Pixuna virus Ross River virus Semliki Forest virus Kokobera virus Modoc virus Guaroa virus Tacaribe virus , Tacaribe virus. SV- ... Ozawa Y. Studies on the replication of African horse-sickness virus in two different cell line cultures. Arch. Gesamte ...
more infohttps://www.atcc.org/Global/Products/8/3/5/8/CCL-81.aspx
  • The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful tool in the AHS risk assessment in the nonendemic part of Europe. (degruyter.com)
  • The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. (degruyter.com)
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