A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
Recombinant antibodies produced in TRANSGENIC PLANTS. The plants serve as BIOREACTORS to produce the antibodies for medical use or industrial processes.
Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A reagent used for the determination of iron.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.
Any of several Old World finches of the genus Serinus.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
The practice of nursing in the work environment.

Antigenic profile of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP5 and identification of a neutralizing epitope shared with bluetongue virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. (1/63)

African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a fatal disease in horses. The virus capsid is composed of a double protein layer, the outermost of which is formed by two proteins: VP2 and VP5. VP2 is known to determine the serotype of the virus and to contain the neutralizing epitopes. The biological function of VP5, the other component of the capsid, is unknown. In this report, AHSV VP5, expressed in insect cells alone or together with VP2, was able to induce AHSV-specific neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, two VP5-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that were able to neutralize the virus in a plaque reduction assay were generated. To dissect the antigenic structure of AHSV VP5, the protein was cloned in Escherichia coli using the pET3 system. The immunoreactivity of both MAbs, and horse and rabbit polyclonal antisera, with 17 overlapping fragments from VP5 was analyzed. The most immunodominant region was found in the N-terminal 330 residues of VP5, defining two antigenic regions, I (residues 151-200) and II (residues 83-120). The epitopes were further defined by PEPSCAN analysis with 12mer peptides, which determined eight antigenic sites in the N-terminal half of the molecule. Neutralizing epitopes were defined at positions 85-92 (PDPLSPGE) for MAb 10AE12 and at 179-185 (EEDLRTR) for MAb 10AC6. Epitope 10AE12 is highly conserved between the different orbiviruses. MAb 10AE12 was able to recognize bluetongue virus VP5 and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus VP5 by several techniques. These data will be especially useful for vaccine development and diagnostic purposes.  (+info)

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (2/63)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (3/63)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (4/63)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Identification of antigenic regions on VP2 of African horsesickness virus serotype 3 by using phage-displayed epitope libraries. (5/63)

VP2 is an outer capsid protein of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) and is recognized by serotype-discriminatory neutralizing antibodies. With the objective of locating its antigenic regions, a filamentous phage library was constructed that displayed peptides derived from the fragmentation of a cDNA copy of the gene encoding VP2. Peptides ranging in size from approximately 30 to 100 amino acids were fused with pIII, the attachment protein of the display vector, fUSE2. To ensure maximum diversity, the final library consisted of three sub-libraries. The first utilized enzymatically fragmented DNA encoding only the VP2 gene, the second included plasmid sequences, while the third included a PCR step designed to allow different peptide-encoding sequences to recombine before ligation into the vector. The resulting composite library was subjected to immunoaffinity selection with AHSV-specific polyclonal chicken IgY, polyclonal horse immunoglobulins and a monoclonal antibody (MAb) known to neutralize AHSV. Antigenic peptides were located by sequencing the DNA of phages bound by the antibodies. Most antigenic determinants capable of being mapped by this method were located in the N-terminal half of VP2. Important binding areas were mapped with high resolution by identifying the minimum overlapping areas of the selected peptides. The MAb was also used to screen a random 17-mer epitope library. Sequences that may be part of a discontinuous neutralization epitope were identified. The amino acid sequences of the antigenic regions on VP2 of serotype 3 were compared with corresponding regions on three other serotypes, revealing regions with the potential to discriminate AHSV serotypes serologically.  (+info)

Variation of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 in southern Africa. (6/63)

NS3 protein sequences of recent African horsesickness virus (AHSV) field isolates, reference strains and current vaccine strains in southern Africa were determined and compared. The variation of AHSV NS3 was found to be as much as 36.3% across serotypes and 27.6% within serotypes. NS3 proteins of vaccine and field isolates of a specific serotype were found to differ between 2.3% and 9.7%. NS3 of field isolates within a serotype differed up to 11.1%. Our data indicate that AHSV NS3 is the second most variable AHSV protein, the most variable being the major outer capsid protein, VP2. The inferred phylogeny of AHSV NS3 corresponded well with the described NS3 phylogenetic clusters. The only exception was AHSV-8 NS3, which clustered into different groups than previously described. No obvious sequence markers could be correlated with virulence. Our results suggest that NS3 sequence variation data could be used to distinguish between field isolates and live attenuated vaccine strains of the same serotype.  (+info)

Membrane association of African horsesickness virus nonstructural protein NS3 determines its cytotoxicity. (7/63)

The smallest RNA genome segment of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) encodes the nonstructural protein NS3 (24K). NS3 localizes in areas of plasma membrane disruption and is associated with events of viral release. Conserved features in all AHSV NS3 proteins include the synthesis of a truncated NS3A protein from the same open reading frame as that of NS3, a proline-rich region, a region of strict sequence conservation and two hydrophobic domains. To investigate whether these features are associated with the cytotoxicity of NS3 or altered membrane permeability, a series of mutants were constructed and expressed in the BAC-TO-BAC baculovirus-expression system. Our results indicate that mutations in either of the two hydrophobic domains do not prevent membrane targeting of the mutant proteins but abolish their membrane anchoring. This prevents their localization to the cell surface and obviates their cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxicity of NS3 is therefore dependent on its membrane topography and thus involves both hydrophobic domains. NS3 has many of the characteristics of lytic viral proteins that play a central role in viral pathogenesis through modifying membrane permeability.  (+info)

Definition of neutralizing sites on African horse sickness virus serotype 4 VP2 at the level of peptides. (8/63)

The antigenic structure of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotype 4 capsid protein VP2 has been determined at the peptide level by PEPSCAN analysis in combination with a large collection of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies. VP2, the determinant for the virus serotype and an important target in virus neutralization, was found to contain 15 antigenic sites. A major antigenic region containing 12 of the 15 sites was identified in the region between residues 223 and 400. A second domain between residues 568 and 681 contained the three remaining sites. These sites were used for the synthesis of peptides, which were later tested in rabbits. Of the 15 synthetic peptides, three were able to induce neutralizing antibodies for AHSV-4, defining two neutralizing epitopes, 'a' and 'b', between residues 321 and 339, and 377 and 400, respectively. A combination of peptides representing both sites induced a more effective neutralizing response. Still, the relatively low neutralization titres make the possibility of producing a synthetic vaccine for AHSV unlikely. The complex protein-protein interaction of the outer shell of the viral capsid would probably require the presence of either synthetic peptides in the correct conformation or peptide segments from the different proteins VP2, VP5 and VP7.  (+info)

Introduction. Small biting midges in the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are involved in the epidemiology and transmission of a number of orbiviruses of veterinary importance, including African horse sickness virus (AHSV) with nine known serotypes (Howell 1962). This virus causes an infectious, non-contagious disease, African horse sickness (AHS), which is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and can have a mortality rate of up to 95% in susceptible horses.. Based on its confirmed vector status, wide geographical distribution, abundance and host preference for larger mammals, the Afro-Asiatic Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola Kieffer is considered the principle vector of AHSV in South Africa (Meiswinkel, Venter & Nevill 2004; Nevill, Venter & Edwardes 1992). This species is also the most important vector of orbiviruses across vast geographic regions in Africa, the Mediterranean and southern Europe (Mellor, Boorman & Baylis 2000). Following ingestion by a susceptible midge, AHSV infects and ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
Culicoides-borne orbiviruses, such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), are important pathogens that cause animal epidemic diseases leading to significant loss of domestic animals. This study was conducted to identify Culicoides-borne arboviruses and to investigate the associated infections in local livestock in Yunnan, China. Culicoides were collected overnight in Mangshi City using light traps during August 2013. A virus was isolated from the collected Culicoides and grown using baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), Vero, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. Preliminary identification of the virus was performed by polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) analysis. A full-length cDNA copy of the genome was amplified and sequenced. Serological investigations were conducted in local cattle, buffalo and goat using plaque-reduction neutralization tests. We isolated a viral strain (DH13C120) that caused
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
HYERA, J M K e BAIPOLEDI, E K. A serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2008, vol.79, n.1, pp.44-45. ISSN 2224-9435.. A retrospective serological survey of African horse sickness (AHS) in Botswana covering a 10-year period (1995-2004) is reported. The survey involved horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease; the horses had not been vaccinated against AHS. Over the period surveyed, serological evidence suggestive of infection with AHS virus (AHSV) was found in 99 clinical cases out of which 41.4 % (41/99) cases were found during the 1st half (1995-1999) and 58.6 % (58/99) cases were found in the 2nd half of the survey period (2000-2004). These serological findings are discussed in relation to AHSV serotypes isolated from diseased horses in Botswana before and during the period of this serological survey.. Palavras-chave : African horse sickness (AHS); AHS virus serotypes; Botswana; Culicoides midges; serological survey. ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay and virus isolation (VI). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this AHSV RTqPCR assay and VI were estimated using a 2-test 2-population Bayesian latent class model which made no assumptions about the true infection status of the tested animals and allowed for the possibility of conditional dependence (correlation) in test results. Median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AHSV RT-qPCR were 97.8% and 99.9%, respectively. Median diagnostic specificity of virus isolation was ,99% whereas the estimated diagnostic sensitivity was 44.2%. The AHSV RT-qPCR assay provides for rapid, high-throughput analysis of samples, and is both analytically and diagnostically ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. This is the first report demonstrating the safety and immunogenicity of plant-produced AHS VLPs in horses.
The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting midges, which are very small blood-feeding flying insects about 1/8th of an inch in length, Teel said. The immature stages of these insects complete their portion of the midge life cycle in association with wet habitats ranging from permanent and semi-permanent aquatic areas to very moist soils and decaying organic matter.. He explained these are biological vectors meaning that the virus reproduces inside biting midges after blood meals are taken from infected animals; the resulting infected midges are then able to infect new animals. We have biting midges in the U.S., Teel said. They are involved in the transmission of two similar viruses causing diseases known as blue tongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in livestock and wildlife.. He said Texas has biting midges and both diseases. AgriLife Research entomologists have been involved in studying the taxonomy, ecology and management of biting midges associated ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease spread by biting insects that affects horses, mules, and donkeys but rarely zebras.
BANGKOK (Xinhua): Thailands Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to contain the African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreak.
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. It is characterized...
Although it is not infectious - an infected insect is always the intermediate host - African horse sickness is the most feared of all equine diseases.. There are two forms; the pulmonary form is the most lethal and recovery is rare. A very high temperature quickly leads to severe respiratory distress, a frothy discharge from the nose and then death. The cardiac form results in a more persistent high temperature that gradually leads to swelling of the head, initially above the eyes, but then spreads to the rest of the head and neck. The mortality rate is about 50%, but any haemorrhaging from the eyes and mouth is a poor indicator for survival.. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of African Horse Sickness. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the MSD Vet Manual.
Europe African Horse Sickness Treatment Market size is poised to reach USD xx million by 2025, to grow at a CAGR of xx.x% from 2020 to 2025. Different countries of Europe covered in this report are United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy and France.
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most important orbiviruses are bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species. The virons are non-enveloped particles that are ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed representing the industry stakeh
African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. The equids most severely affected by the virus are horses, ponies, and European donkeys; mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. as its vector, has drastically increased its range into previously unaffected regions in northern Europe, utilising indigenous vector species, and causing widespread economic damage to the agricultural sector. Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. While the current risk for the
The whole of the literary matter of the Proceedings of the 36th World Veterinary Association Congress is copyright New Zealand Veterinary Association, Downloading this article signifies agreement with the terms and conditions of electronic access.. ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. AHS is endemic to South Africa, and, as a result, affects export and ...
Todd was speaking at a recent workshop attended by the most important decision-makers in the South African horseracing industry and was upbeat about the recent progress made by the team chaired by prominent owner and businessman Chris van Niekerk.. We have been working diligently to fix the issues raised in a 2013 audit by the EU, getting expert advice domestically and internationally, and have verified we are on the right path, said Todd. There remains work to be done before the official EU audit in the middle of next year, but we know weve made real strides in our record keeping, communication and movement control. We are on path to meet or exceed our commitments to upgrade where necessary.. Exports of South African horses have historically taken months because of a equine disease endemic to Africa called African Horse Sickness (AHS). Just like malaria is transferred through a mosquito bite, AHS is transferred by a bite from the Culicoides Midge.. All horses north of Cape Town have to be ...
Commenting on the cases of strangles in Newmarket, British Equine Veterinary Associations (BEVA) Professor Josh Slater echoed the warning issued by Animal Health Trust (AHT) chief executive Dr Peter Webbon. At the British Horseracing Authority (BHA) conference last month, Dr Webbon warned that the health of Britains horse population is in more danger from diseases such as strangles, equine flu and equine herpes virus (EHV) than exotics such as African horse sickness (AHS). We worry greatly about the massive impact exotic diseases would have if they arrived here, but it is easy to overlook what is on our doorstep, Prof Slater said. There are significant welfare and economic problems caused by non-notifiable diseases that are here now.. ...
which this new offence relates are listed in Schedule 2A of the Bill. Further, horse owners should not be concerned about African Horse Sickness ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
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Looking for online definition of cardiac horse sickness in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac horse sickness explanation free. What is cardiac horse sickness? Meaning of cardiac horse sickness medical term. What does cardiac horse sickness mean?
My research interests focus on the dynamic processes represented in all infectious diseases, at scales from the cellular and sub-cellular through to the more traditionally studied epidemiological scales of the population and metapopulation. Mathematical modelling and more traditional epidemiological approaches are combined with detailed molecular studies of pathogen and host in a multidisciplinary framework.. All studies of any infection must also consider the ecology of the host as well as of the infection itself and its pathogenesis. I have particular interests in the epidemiological dynamics of various virus infections of humans and other animals, including bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, African horse sickness, canine rabies and emergent lyssavirus and henipavirus infections and the methods needed to study them. Bovine tuberculosis poses interesting challenges at the interface of science and policy and is an important disease and challenge. Funded studies include the emergence of zoonotic ...
During 2008-2009 in Israel, equine encephalosis virus (EEV) caused febrile outbreaks in horses. Phylogenetic analysis of segment 10 of the virus strains showed that they form a new cluster; analysis of segment 2 showed ≈92% sequence identity to EEV ...
Download The complete farrier, or, Horse doctor: A guide for the treatment of diseases of horses, to which are added valuable hints for choosing a horse, and
Usually after I feel I have somehow been slighted or swindled, I think F*ck you, and the horse you rode in on , but that is not a very kind thought.
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented ...
No. 24102013-00012-EN. During the period 2001 to 2008, a total of 7,872 equine sera were tested at the Centre of Veterinary Institutes of Athens. Antibodies against seven infectious diseases of equids were determined: equine infectious anaemia (EIA), African horse sickness (AHS), equine viral arteritis (EVA), West Nile encephalitis (WNE), glanders, piroplasmosis and dourine. Tests for the four viral diseases found 4.5% seropositivity for EIA, 0% for AHS, 3.3% for EVA and 4% for WNE. All sera tested for glanders antibodies were negative. Tests for piroplasmosis detected antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in 12.9% and 1.3% of the sera, respectively. No sample tested positive for dourine. The results of this epidemiological survey provide strong evidence that Greece is free from the diseases of AHS, glanders and dourine.. Keywords ...
Christopher Weldon is a PeerJ user. Bio: I lead the Flies of Economic Significance Research Group, which conducts research on the behaviour, ecology and physiology of flies (Insecta: Diptera) that affect human activities in southern Africa. Results from these studies inform sustainable management practices that can reduce reliance on pesticides, but may also facilitate the beneficial use of flies. Students that I supervise are pursuing projects on the invasion of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) in southern Africa, mosquitoes that are vectors for Rift Valley Fever, biting midges that transmit African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses, and blow flies that can be used as forensic evidence or for bioconversion of organic waste. I have a research background that encompasses insect behaviour, ecology and physiology. My research has addressed a range of themes using pest fruit flies, particularly the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and more recently, the Mediterranean fruit fly,
Subs - Blake - Dean - Major. Twyford Utd made a stunning last minute comeback from being 2-1 down to snatch a late victory over league leaders Potterspury in the Premier Division trophy. United goalkeeper Colin Piggott pulled out shortly before the game due to a sickness virus with defender Jack Arnold taking Piggotts place in the Twyford goal.. In an evenly balanced game both sides did play attractive passing football. Potterspury midfielder Rick Worsfold unfortunately went off with an ankle injury in just the eighth minute of the game and was replaced by Lewis Blake.. There were limited chances for either side in the first half. Uniteds Ash Peacock had the first clear shot on goal in the 18th minute but his effort was easily saved by Sam Kelly.. Sam Wood also had an effort which went over the bar.. However Potterspury always did look dangerous going forward and in the 25th minute were awarded a penalty when Adam Kelly was fouled in the penalty area. Martin Blackwell neatly slotted away the ...
Horses have been around for millions of years, but how much do you about this great animal? Get your information straight from the horses mouth!
Alle utgavene av Your Horse i aviskiosken vår. Skaff deg abonnement på Your Horse for å få det digitale magasinet på enheten din.
IM, intramuscular; IV, intravenous; PO, by mouth; SQ, subcutaneous; q, ery; h, hour; d, day; wk, week.. It is recommended that the manufacturers literature be checked before a drug is used. Many drugs have not been approved for use in horses.. ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,
What does Medical AHS stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of AHS. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang AHS means Amn Healthcare Services. by AcronymAndSlang.com
We offer a range of horse clippers which includes both mains operated and cordless battery operated clippers. Cordless battery operated horse clippers give the freedom to clip a horse anywhere with no trailing cables, whilst mains operated horse clippers give unlimited clipping time and horse clippers that can be run from mains power and battery pack give the best of both worlds.
If you have an older horse, learn more on senior horse care, senior horse diseases and conditions, and how to care for an older horse.
Hopalong Cassidys horse was named Topper. The horse was discovered on a ranch in 1937 and named Topper by the wife of the actor who played Hopalong Cassidy on film and television. The horse was...
New to Horses, Page 104 - A place where new owners can ask anything & everything, from horse care & maintenance to first show jitters. A place
New to Horses, Page 47 - A place where new owners can ask anything & everything, from horse care & maintenance to first show jitters. A place
Budidinha horse page with past performances, results, pedigree, photos and videos. Budidinha horse rating and status. See who is a fan of Budidinha.
Sohraab horse page with past performances, results, pedigree, photos and videos. Sohraab horse rating and status. See who is a fan of Sohraab.
Smart Horsekeeping aims to provide practical advice for managing horses in a more environmentally friendly way, and on navigating difficult economic times as a hands-on horse owner.
A so-called friend of mine called me up and said her new step-dads ex-wife was giving him some horses they needed somewhere to keep the horses for a...
Find horses for sale that are located near Red Bluff, California. Its also free to list any horses you have for sale on Equine Now.
Find horses for sale that are located near New Braunfels, Texas. Its also free to list any horses you have for sale on Equine Now.
Stone-Marschat M, Carville A, Skowronek A, Laegreid WW (March 1994). "Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse ... 2010). "A duplex real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting H5N1 avian influenza virus and pandemic H1N1 influenza virus". Virol. J. ... RT-PCR is commonly used in studying the genomes of viruses whose genomes are composed of RNA, such as Influenzavirus A, ... September 2002). "Development of a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for type A influenza virus and the avian H5 and H7 ...
Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ... Included: Banna virus, Kadipiro virus, and Liao ning virus. "International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV)". talk. ... Included: Rice dwarf virus, Rice gall dwarf virus, and Wound tumor virus. Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in ... Viruses, International Committee on Taxonomy of; King, Andrew MQ (8 November 2011). Virus Taxonomy: Ninth Report of the ...
Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ... C. variipennis transmits the Bluetongue virus, found in North America from latitude 40° N to 35° S. However, the virus is ... When naturally infected with Bluetongue virus, the C. variipennis contains the Bluetongue Virus in the thorax, and then is ... On average, the virus costs $125 million due to the restriction of movement on livestock to countries that are free of the ...
... es listed by serogroup Lebombo virus Pata virus African horse sickness virus (Serotypes 1-9) African horse sickness ... virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St Croix River virus ... virus Eubenengee virus Palyam virus Wallal virus Warrego virus Corriparta virus Peruvian horse sickness virus Wongorr virus ... African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ...
... and they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids. Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon ... Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... There are commercially available vaccines to protect animals against bluetongue, and African horse sickness Myiasis: Centers ... Culex mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus between birds and horses; they transmit Rift Valley fever virus to livestock species ...
... quarantine period was considered necessary as many countries feared the importation of the African horse sickness virus. In ... champion middle-distance horse and South African Horse of the Year. His trainer Joey Ramsden said "He was great throughout the ... He is my horse but he really belongs to the whole of South Africa." Shortly after his win in the Godolphin Mile, Variety Club ... After the race Ramsden said "It is fantastic for a horse to come all the way from South Africa - to compete, let alone win, is ...
... and the African horse sickness virus. This particular species has been recorded in Africa, Asia and Europe. African midges feed ... Culicoides imicola is also known to be the only field vector for the African horse sickness (AHS). In the past, AHS has only ... In Africa, C. imicola is known to feed on horse, cattle, and sheep. Nonetheless, their feeding preferences haven't been studied ... The expansion of C. imicola out of its traditional Old World region of Africa and Asia may be a risk for significant spread ...
... after vaccinating horses against African horse sickness using a live virus vaccine and equine antiserum. It was later described ... Measuring levels of virus in the originally infected horses has shown that the disease can become chronic, with some horses ... African horse sickness, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens ... suggesting that the virus is poorly transmitted horizontally. However, not all horses that tested positive for this virus ...
... bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus, African horse sickness, bovine ephemeral fever (C. osystoma and C. nipponesis), Akabane ... main vector of bluetongue virus and African Horse Sickness in Southern Europe Culicoides chiopterus - Culicoides dewulfi - ... In 2006, bluetongue virus was first recorded in Northern Europe. In 2007 and 2008, there were huge outbreaks, going as far as ... The main vector of the virus in Southern Europe does not live in Northern Europe, so other species have been screened. Species ...
... related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and Bluetongue virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over a hundred years ... such as the African horse sickness virus. As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather ... caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating ... "Investigations on outbreaks of African horse sickness in the surveillance zone in South Africa". Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 25 ...
... he observed the symptoms of liver disease in animals vaccinated against African horse sickness with a combination of live virus ... This institute under his leadership carried out research on African horse sickness, sleeping sickness, malaria, East Coast ... In 1891 Theiler travelled to South Africa and at first found employment as a farm worker on Irene Estates near Pretoria, owned ... Jaff, Fay (1963). "Arnold Theiler - Veterinary Genius and Founder of Onderstepoort". They Came to South Africa. Cape Town: H. ...
... other orbiviruses include equine encephalosis virus and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus's ... "PCR detection of North American and Central African isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) based on genome ... VP6 and VP7 of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV)". Virus Research. 145 (2): 187-99. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2009.07. ... Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus belongs to the family Reoviridae, a family of double- ...
... (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease caused by African horse sickness virus. It commonly ... Database CIDRAP Overview on African Horse Sickness 3D electron microscopy structures of the African horse sickness virus from ... African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions "AFRICAN HORSE SICKNESS" (PDF). OIE - World Organisation for Animal ... "Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat". Journal of the South African ...
... the potential for developing vaccines for Bluetongue virus and the African Horse sickness virus, RNA-RNA interactions and ... vaccines for Bluetongue and African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) and the possibility of other therapeutics relating to these ... The virus that she has dedicated most of her career to is Bluetongue disease that affects sheep and cattle. She became ... After her post-doctoral work, she went to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to begin her own Blue Tongue Virus research ...
MacLachlan, N.; Guthrie, A. J. (2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases". ... One of the viruses collected from horses that died of the disease was named Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV). The 1997 ... The Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) is a cause of the neurological disorder Peruvian horse sickness resulting in ... 2009). "Peruvian horse sickness virus and Yunnan orbivirus, isolated from vertebrates and mosquitoes in Peru and Australia". ...
African horse sickness is related to Bluetongue and is spread by the same midges (Culicoides species). It can kill the horses ... The virus makes initial contact with the cell with VP2, triggering receptor-mediated endocytosis of the virus. The low pH ... African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions, The Merck Veterinary Manual. Introduction to disease in The Merck ... Twenty-six serotypes are now recognised for this virus. The virus particle consists of ten strands of double-stranded RNA ...
Orbivirus African horse sickness virus Bluetongue disease virus Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus Equine encephalosis virus ... Louis encephalitis virus West Nile virus Spondweni virus group Spondweni virus Zika virus Yellow fever virus group Yellow fever ... virus Tick-borne viruses Mammalian tick-borne virus group Kyasanur forest disease virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Family ... Dengue virus group Dengue virus Japanese encephalitis virus group Japanese encephalitis virus Murray Valley encephalitis virus ...
... including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine encephalosis virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. ... the Ebola virus, influenza viruses, the measles virus, and the rabies virus. The first virus to be discovered, tobacco mosaic ... Those three groups are Group III: dsRNA viruses, Group IV: +ssRNA viruses, and Group V: -ssRNA viruses. RNA viruses are ... Rhinoviruses Rift Valley fever phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ...
African horse sickness virus, rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus, herpes simplex virus, hepatitis C virus, bluetongue virus, ... canine distemper virus, feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, equine influenza virus, equine herpes virus, ... Vaccines against several pathogens including avian influenza virus, Newcastle disease virus, cytomegalovirus, ... activity of vaccinia virus recombinants expressing the hepatitis B virus surface antigen and the herpes simplex virus ...
... including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine encephalosis virus, and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. ... phlebovirus Rotavirus Rubella virus Tick-borne encephalitis virus West Nile virus Yellow fever virus Zika virus Animal viruses ... ssRNA viruses, Group V: -ssRNA viruses, Group VI: ssRNA-RT viruses, and Group VII: dsDNA-RT viruses. Realms are the highest ... ebola virus, HIV, influenza viruses, and the rabies virus. These viruses and others have been prominent throughout history, ...
... phlebovirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus ... Foot-and-mouth disease virus Goatpox virus Lumpy skin disease virus Avian avulavirus 1 (formerly Newcastle disease virus) Small ... virus Ebolavirus Lassa mammarenavirus Lujo mammarenavirus Marburg virus Monkeypox virus Reconstructed 1918 influenza virus ... Newly characterized viruses closely related to select agents and/or BSL4 viruses (for example newly discovered henipaviruses or ...
... african horse sickness virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.100 - bluetongue virus MeSH B04.820.630.550.400 - hemorrhagic disease virus, ... colorado tick fever virus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550 - orbivirus MeSH B04.909.777.714.550.050 - african horse sickness virus MeSH ... yellow fever virus MeSH B04.820.250.400 - gb virus a MeSH B04.820.250.405 - gb virus b MeSH B04.820.250.410 - GB virus C MeSH ... torque teno virus MeSH B04.280.049.035 - african swine fever virus MeSH B04.280.065.249 - granulovirus MeSH B04.280.065.500 - ...
African horse sickness virus African swine fever virus Avian influenza virus (highly pathogenic) Classical swine fever virus ... viruses: African VHF viruses: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Ebola virus* Lassa fever virus Lujo virus Marburg virus* ... Asian VHF viruses: Kyasanur Forest disease virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus South American VHF viruses: Chapare virus ... Hendra virus Nipah virus Rift Valley fever virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (excluding enzootic subtypes ID and IE) ...
It is considered a possible vector for African horse sickness. It is closely related to Culicoides imicola. Meiswinkel R (1989 ... bolitinos to oral infection with eight serotypes of epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus". Medical and Veterinary Entomology. ... a recently identified vector of African horse sickness". Bull Entomol Res. 90 (6): 509-15. PMID 11107252. Paweska, J. T.; ... reared from the dung of the African buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in South Africa". Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 56 (1): 23- ...
... a song by Caligula's Horse from the album Bloom "Marigold", a song by It Dies Today from the album The Caitiff Choir "Marigold ... a song by Haken from the album Virus "Marigold", a song by Aimyon, a J-pop singer. "Marigolds" (short story), by Eugenia ... African marigold or Aztec marigold, Tagetes erecta French marigold, Tagetes patula Mexican marigold, Tagetes lucida Signet ... nickname for the character Winston Spencer Churchill in the British television series In Sickness and in Health "Marigold" ( ...
... african horse sickness MeSH C22.488.304 - equine infectious anemia MeSH C22.488.409 - glanders MeSH C22.488.861 - strongyle ... marburg virus disease MeSH C22.735.500.850 - simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome MeSH C22.735.750 - monkeypox MeSH ... african swine fever MeSH C22.905.170 - classical swine fever MeSH C22.905.260 - edema disease of swine MeSH C22.905.323 - ... bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease MeSH C22.196.148 - brucellosis, bovine MeSH C22.196.250 - encephalopathy, bovine ...
Cow blood mixed with milk, for example, is a mainstay food of the African Maasai. Marco Polo reported that Mongols drank blood ... The phlebotomic action opens a channel for contamination of the host species with bacteria, viruses and blood-borne parasites ... sleeping sickness, St. Louis encephalitis, tularemia, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, West Nile fever, Zika fever, and ... from their horses if necessary. Many places around the world eat blood sausage. Some societies, such as the Moche, had ritual ...
The virus (EIAV) is endemic in the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle and Far East, Russia, and South Africa. The virus is a ... According to most veterinarians, horses diagnosed EIA positive usually do not show any sign of sickness or disease. EIA may ... EIA-positive horses are infected for life. Options for the horse include sending the horse to a recognized research facility, ... branding the horse and quarantining it at least 200 yards from other horses for the rest of its life, and euthanizing the horse ...
Sleeping sickness threatens millions of people in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa (WHO) Typhus - Vectors: mites, fleas and ... West Nile virus - Vectors: vary according to geographical area; in the United States Culex pipiens (Eastern US), Culex tarsalis ... There are many insects that bite including Mosquitoes, Biting Midges, Sandflies, Black flies, Horse Flies, Stable flies. ... Houseflies also transmit poliomyelitis by carrying the virus from infected faeces to food or drink. Cholera and hepatitis are ...
A pair of pygmy right whales were retained in an enclosed area (with nets); they were eventually released in South Africa. ... Whales swim in response to sonar and sometimes experience decompression sickness due to rapid changes in depth. Mass strandings ... Piantadosi, C. A.; Thalmann, E. D. (2004). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness". Nature. 428 (6894): 716-718. ... It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa. Humpback whales, among ...
This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... they were able to observe all the typical signs of the sickness. Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new ... Bangui, Central African Republic. *Brussels, Belgium. *Rome, Italy[8]. *São Paulo, Brazil ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of wild animals and domestic livestock transmitted by the bite ... birds, horses mosquito bite Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons mosquito bite, sexual ... Kyasanur Forest disease virus rodents, shrews, bats, monkeys tick bite La Crosse encephalitis La Crosse virus chipmunks, tree ...
In virus classification, influenza viruses are RNA viruses that make up four of the seven genera of the family Orthomyxoviridae ... The main variants named using this convention are: bird flu, human flu, swine flu, horse flu and dog flu. (Cat flu generally ... A 30% sickness rate and a three-week length of illness would decrease the gross domestic product by 5%. Additional costs would ... which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were ...
2013 horse meat scandal. *2017 Brazil weak meat scandal. *2017-18 South African listeriosis outbreak ... IgE antibodies bind to a receptor on the surface of the protein, creating a tag, just as a virus or parasite becomes tagged. ... South Africa does not permit the use of PAL, except when manufacturers demonstrate the potential presence of allergen due to ... and South Africa. Argentina decided to prohibit precautionary allergen labeling since 2010, and instead puts the onus on the ...
Main article: African trypanosomiasis. Human African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosomes ... horses. T. simiae. Africa. G. palpalis. G. fuscipes. G. morsitans. G. tachinoides. G. longipalpis. G. fusca. G. tabaniformis. G ... In 1887, the rinderpest virus was accidentally imported in livestock brought by an Italian expeditionary force to Eritrea. It ... horses. T. vivax. Africa. G. morsitans. G. palpalis. G. tachinoides. G. swynnertoni. G. pallidipes. G. austeni. G. vanhoofi. G ...
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus. horses, donkeys, ... African sleeping sickness. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. range of wild animals and domestic livestock. transmitted by the ... birds, horses. mosquito bite. Zika fever. Zika virus. chimpanzees, monkeys, apes, baboons. mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, ... Influenza A virus. horses, pigs, domestic and wild birds, wild aquatic mammals such as seals and whales, minks and farmed ...
... horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the ... H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. Health experts are ... DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... Further information: Influenza A virus subtype H7N9. Influenza A virus subtype H7N9 is a novel avian influenza virus first ...
Marshall, Joseph (2005) [2004]. The Journey of Crazy Horse, A Lakota History. Penguin Books.. ... We assure you we are Rendered very miserable at Present on Account of a Severe Sickness that has seiz'd almost all our People, ... Although scabs from smallpox patients are thought to be of low infectivity as a result of binding of the virus in fibrin metric ... Africa, Asia, and Europe). The American era of limited disease ended with the arrival of Europeans in the Americas and the ...
This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... The international network is present in the following cities and countries: Algiers, Algeria Bangui, Central African Republic ... they were able to observe all the typical signs of the sickness. Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new ...
Injection of horse serum into humans as used in antitoxin can cause hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as serum sickness. ... Nigeria had become a net exporter of the polio virus to its African neighbors. People in the northern states were also reported ... Analysis by the CDC scientists showed that the measles virus type in this outbreak (B3) was identical to the virus type that ... Because of similarities between the 2009 influenza A subtype H1N1 virus and the 1976 influenza A/NJ virus many countries ...
Jesse and Cesar tell the Winchesters they have bought a horse farm in New Mexico they will retire to and Jesse is also a former ... So far, the only known demons of this type are Samhain, the Seven Deadly Sins, and Acheri, as well as the Croatoan Virus. White ... Unable to wake Charlie with the djinn antidote, Dean uses African dream root to enter her dream state where he manages to get ... He can create and manipulate infestations, plagues, diseases and other sicknesses. Upon Lucifer's rise, Pestilence spreads ...
Rabies African sleeping sickness Dirofilariasis Eastern equine encephalitis Japanese encephalitis Saint Louis encephalitis ... Dangerous animal viruses are those that require few mutations to begin replicating themselves in human cells. These viruses are ... Glanders primarily affects those who work closely with horses and donkeys. Close contact with cattle can lead to cutaneous ... The West Nile virus appeared in the United States in 1999 in the New York City area, and moved through the country in the ...
... viruses have been found in many other animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, cats, and marine mammals. Nearly all ... The 1580 flu pandemic originated in Asia during summer, spread to Africa, then Europe, and finally America. By the end of the ... Other names that have been used for influenza include epidemic catarrh, la grippe from French, sweating sickness, and, ... that contain weakened viruses. There are three types of inactivated vaccines: whole virus, split virus, in which the virus is ...
... called African trypanosomiasis - human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness. An estimated 60-70 million people in ... The usage is not strict and while nagana generally refers to the disease in cattle and horses it is commonly used for any of ... In 1887, the rinderpest virus was accidentally imported in livestock brought by an Italian expeditionary force to Eritrea. It ... Sleeping sickness was dubbed "the best game warden in Africa" by conservationists[citation needed], who assumed that the land, ...
Dourine Dourine (Covering sickness) is a serious protozoal venereal disease of equids, mainly horses, donkeys, and mules, ... by a natural cycle of transmission between warthogs and the soft tick vector O moubata in Africa, but the ASF virus can infect ... If the virus were to enter the US, control measures must be initiated to prevent the spread of the virus and eliminate it as ... The FMD virus is found in all excretions and secretions of an infected animal. Transmission of the virus can be from contact ...
In 2017, Canadian scientists recreated an extinct horse pox virus to demonstrate that the smallpox virus can be recreated in a ... It most likely evolved from a terrestrial African rodent virus between 68,000 and 16,000 years ago. The wide range of dates is ... ISBN 0-521-55203-6. Peter J Dowling, "A Great Deal of Sickness": Introduced diseases among the Aboriginal People of colonial ... While the Dryvax virus was cultured in the skin of calves and freeze-dried, ACAM2000s virus is cultured in kidney epithelial ...
... horse-derived antitoxin is sometimes avoided for fear of infants developing serum sickness or lasting hypersensitivity to horse ... Phosphorus-deficient cattle, especially in southern Africa, are inclined to ingest bones and carrion containing clostridial ... but the gene that encodes for the toxin protein is actually carried by a virus or phage that infects the bacteria. ... Clostridium botulinum type C toxin has been incriminated as the cause of grass sickness, a condition in horses which occurs in ...
The African golden wolf is a descendant of a genetically admixed canid of 72% wolf and 28% Ethiopian wolf ancestry. One African ... Lice, such as Trichodectes canis, may cause sickness in wolves, but rarely death. Ticks of the genus Ixodes can infect wolves ... Pathogens and parasites, notably rabies virus, may infect wolves. The global wild wolf population was estimated to be 300,000 ... an account of the big game of the United States and its chase with horse, hound, and rifle. G. P. Putnam's sons. pp. 179-207. ...
The kola nut was first domesticated in West Africa. Other crops domesticated in West Africa include African rice, yams and the ... Furuse, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Oshitani, H. (2010). "Origin of measles virus: Divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and ... horses, and camels) traction (from oxen, onagers, donkeys, horses, camels, and dogs) guarding and herding assistance (dogs) ... Inadequate sanitary practices and the domestication of animals may explain the rise in deaths and sickness following the ...
He identified the virus as transmitted by the aphid Aphis lilii Takahashi. Following establishing strong government inspection ... horse chestnut, and apple trees. He was to be continuously employed from September 1923, in Bermuda, until he retired, at the ... "sickness" L Ogilvie Transactions of the British Mycological Society Volume XXII, parts III and IV, 1939, pages 308-9 Vegetable ... co-operative investigations in western Europe and northern Africa L Ogilvie and I G Thorpe Science Progress Volume XLIX number ...
... more commonly known as African sleeping sickness) in humans and other animals. The protozoa are transferred via Tsetse flies ... Yellow fever viruses, Dengue fever viruses, and Zika viruses are of the Flavivirus genera and Chikungunya virus is of the ... Dogs, horses: Evidence of infection by human E. coli strains in several dogs and horses across Europe was found, thus ... The animal reservoir of the virus maintains a suitable virus level in the blood to allow the infection of a vector mosquito. A ...
African horse sickness, and many other viral and bacterial infections of livestock. Theiler employed Meyer as pathologist (i.e ... Subsequently, a vaccine for horses was developed. And it turned out that the isolation of the virus by Meyer led to the ... Other microbiologists found related types of viruses in other animals than horses.) - Effective mosquito control was the key to ... Meyer found his first employment in South Africa. The Transvaal Department of Agriculture in the (then) Union of South Africa ...
African Horse Sickness Virus. Rijn, P.A. van Summary. African Horse Sickness is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod-borne ... disease of Equidae caused by African horse sickness virus transmitted by biting culicoides midges. African Horse Sickness is ... Nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus have been recognized showing no or poor cross-protection with each other. ... The mortality is ,90% for naïve domestic horses. In contrast, infected zebra and African donkey display mild or no clinical ...
African Horse Sickness Virus/classification. *African Horse Sickness Virus/genetics*. *African Horse Sickness Virus/ ... Molecular epidemiology of African horse sickness virus based on analyses and comparisons of genome segments 7 and 10.. Zientara ... This paper describes a method to rapidly identify African horse sickness virus (AHSV), using a single tube reverse ... Using sequence analysis of genome segment 10 we were able to classify the virus isolates into three groups: AHSV-1, 2 and 8; ...
... and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent ... Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. ... We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such ... is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has ...
The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus ... Consensus sequence of 27 African horse sickness virus genomes from viruses collected over a 76-year period (1933 to 2009). ... Martin LA, Meyer AJ, OHara RS, Fu H, Mellor PS, Knowles NJ, Phylogenetic analysis of African horse sickness virus segment 10: ...
Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the ... Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). ... causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. Reverse genetics ... Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit ...
... attenuated vaccine viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Genomes Analysis ... African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, ... The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus ...
... vaccine strains of African horse sickness virus serotype 7 in orally infected South African Culicoides species,Medical and ... African Horse Sickness (AHS) Trust, 2012, African horse sickness , viewed 03 January 2012, from http://www.africanhorsesickness ... Circulation of African horse sickness virus in zebra (Equus burchelli) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, as measured ... African horse sickness epidemiology: Vector competence of South African Culicoides species for virus serotypes 3, 5 and 8, ...
... Stassen, Liesel; Huismans, H. (Henk), 1942-; Theron ... Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects ... The basis for this phenomenon has not yet been investigated, but is suggestive of apoptosis being induced following virus ... CPE), but no CPE is observed in infected insect cell cultures despite productive virus replication. ...
... infects all equine species and is often fatal in horses and mules. It is from the family Reoviridae of the genus Orbivirus and ... African horse sickness virus. African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infects all equine species and is often fatal in horses and ... viruses expressing single African horse sickness virus VP2 antigens induced cross-reactive virus neutralising antibodies (VNAb ... African horse sickness is a notifiable disease and should be reported.. Please see the Defra website for advice on how to spot ...
... bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their ... AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common ... African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a ... European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective ...
The meal consisted of heparinized blood obtained from ovine, bovine, equine (horse and donkey) or canine sources spiked with ... Purified African horse sickness virus (AHSV) was fed, as part of a blood meal, to adult females from a susceptible colony of ... Purified African horse sickness virus (AHSV) was fed, as part of a blood meal, to adult females from a susceptible colony of ... Proteolytic cleavage of VP2, an outer capsid protein of African horse sickness virus, by species-specific serum proteases ...
Test in a suitcase for African horse sickness virus? May 2, 2014. July 31, 2014. Horsetalk.co.nz 1386 Views 0 Comments African ... Horsetalk.co.nz 2039 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak ... Horsetalk.co.nz 5727 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. The virus-like particles of the plant-based vaccine do not carry ... Promising new African Horse Sickness vaccine could free up horse movements May 15, 2019. June 11, 2019. Horsetalk.co.nz 2949 ...
... (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of ... African horse sickness virus. Overview. Top of page African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect ... Donkeys as reservoirs of African horse sickness virus. In: African horse sickness [ed. by Mellor, P. S.\Baylis, M.\Hamblin, C.\ ... African horse sickness in Swaziland. Disease Information, 17(21). OIE, 2004. African horse sickness in Zambia. Disease ...
Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. This is the first report demonstrating the safety and ... Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which ... While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have ... is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. ...
... and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), ... causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. Reverse genetics ... Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit ... although NS1 protein is essential for virus propagation. Improvement of reverse genetics for AHSV was clearly demonstrated by ...
Molecular characterization of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) detected from the March 2020 Thailand outbreak was carried ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease despite availability of vaccines. ... Use of nanopore sequencing to characterize african horse sickness virus (AHSV) from the African horse sickness outbreak in ... Use of nanopore sequencing to characterize african horse sickness virus (AHSV) from the African horse sickness outbreak in ...
A similar problem was encountered previously with bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 (whose structure has been reported), showing that ... The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity ... Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. ... Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. ...
Disinfectant/chemical selections and procedures - African horse sickness; category B virus. Item to be disinfected. ... African horse sickness3 bluetongue. equidae dogs ruminants. insect vectors. B. Rhabdoviridae. medium-sized ssRNA enveloped. ... Disinfectant susceptibilities of viruses. Virus family. Structure1. Diseases. Species affected. Transmission. Category of virus ... Disinfectant/chemical selections and procedures - African swine fever and classical swine fever; category A viruses ...
African Horse Sickness Virus/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Immobilized , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , ... African Horse Sickness Virus / Antibodies, Immobilized Language: English Journal: Journal of Veterinary Science Year: 2013 Type ... African Horse Sickness Virus / Antibodies, Immobilized Language: English Journal: Journal of Veterinary Science Year: 2013 Type ... There is an ongoing need for standardized, easily renewable immunoreagents for detecting African horsesickness virus (AHSV). ...
Chapter 12.1, Infection with African Horse Sickness Virus.. *Chapter 11.8, Infection with Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. Mycoides ( ... Chapter 14.8 Infection with Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPR) An updated chapter was adopted with the inclusion of ... 9. Chapter 10.4 Infection with Avian Influenza (AI) Viruses The terminology of "avian influenza" was changed by removing the ... The text in this chapter was expanded to include embryo transfer as a vehicle of virus transmission from an EVA carrier ...
... may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and ... including Bluetongue virus (BTV). Recently, co-circulation of natural and vaccine BTV variants in Europe, and their ensuing ... 9 of Mediterranean and African origins. Specifically, four viral segments were nearly identical (99.13%-99.47%), with Tunisian ... Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African ...
Further examples of analytes include viruses such as African horse sickness virus; African swine fever virus; Akabane virus; ... Mayaro virus; Menangle virus; Monkeypox virus; Mucambo virus; Newcastle disease virus (VVND); Nipah Virus; Norwalk virus group ... Goat pox virus; Hantaan or other Hanta viruses; Hendra virus; Issyk-kul virus; Koutango virus; Lassa fever virus; Louping-ill ... Potato virus; Powassan virus; Rift Valley fever virus; Rinderpest virus; Rotavirus; Semliki Forest virus; Sheep pox virus; ...
Production of monoclonal antibodies binding to the VP7 protein of African horse sickness virus. ... Author Correction: RNA synthesis is modulated by G-quadruplex formation in Hepatitis C virus negative RNA strand. ...
African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 1 on Horse Farm, Thailand, 2020 [PDF - 3.32 MB - 4 pages] N. Bunpapong et al. View ... African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 1 on Horse Farm, Thailand, 2020. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2021;27(8):2208-2211. doi: ... African Horse Sickness Virus Serotype 1 on Horse Farm, Thailand, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2021;27(8):2208-2211. https://doi.org/ ... To investigate an outbreak of African horse sickness (AHS) on a horse farm in northeastern Thailand, we used whole-genome ...
Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse transcription-PCR. M Stone-Marschat, A Carville, A Skowronek, W W Laegreid ... Application of PCR to detect Norwalk virus in fecal specimens from outbreaks of gastroenteritis. C L Moe, J Gentsch, T Ando, G ... Evaluation of a p21e-spiked western blot (immunoblot) in confirming human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II infection in ... Use of PCR-enzyme immunoassay for identification of influenza A virus matrix RNA in clinical samples negative for cultivable ...
Vets confirmed cases of EHV, influenza, African horse sickness, piroplasmosis, West Nile virus, and more.... Read More ... African Horse Sickness Found in Western Cape. March 19, 2014. Two horses in South Africas Western Cape have tested positive ... Confirmed diseases include equine herpesvirus, West Nile virus, African horse sickness, strangles, influenza, and more.... Read ... African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement.... Read ...
... is a highly infectious and deadly disease spread by biting insects that affects horses, mules, and donkeys but rarely zebras. ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease caused by African horse sickness virus. It commonly ... Australias Risk of African Horse Sickness Outbreak Explained , Horses and People. April 21, 2020. ... AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara Desert in the mid-1600s, with the introduction of horses to southern Africa. ...
Categories: African horse sickness virus Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Viruses. *African horse sickness virus. *African swine fever virus. **Andes virus. *Avian influenza (AI) viruses identified as ... Rabies virus and all other members of the Lyssavirus genus. *1918 pandemic influenza virus - reconstructed replication ... Swine vesicular disease virus. *Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis ... Seoul virus. *SARS-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV). As per BIS guidance, SARS-CoV-2 is not subject to export control regulations ...
Sin Nombre virus Toxoplasma Varroa jacobsoni Wallal virus Yersinia pestis Outcomes. African Horse Sickness Bluetongue ... African horse sickness virus Aphanomyces astaci Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Bluetongue virus Borrelia burgdorferi Distemper ... Hantaan virus Hendra Virus HIV Influenza A Virus, Avian Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Marburg-like Viruses Microspora ... Newcastle disease virus Nipah Virus Parvovirus, Canine Plasmodium Rabies virus Salmonella typhimurium Sarcoptes scabiei ...
  • African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In AHS-endemic temperate regions, such as those occurring throughout much of South Africa, the disease is most prevalent in late summer (7). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Presently, a polyvalent, live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) against AHSV (AHSV-LAV), which is produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (Pretoria, South Africa) and provides broad protection against all 9 AHSV types (10), is used widely in South Africa and adjacent countries. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Western Cape Province of South Africa, at the southern tip of the African continent, has historically been free from AHS, and for this reason, a legislatively defined AHS controlled area was created there in 1997 to facilitate movement of horses from South Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, more than 500 000 Culicoides midges belonging to at least 26 species were collected in 88 light traps at weekly intervals between July 2010 and September 2011 near horses in the Onderstepoort area of South Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • In South Africa, AHS is endemic in the frost-free north-eastern parts of the country, where it is maintained in zebra ( Equus burchelli ) populations that foal throughout the year (Barnard 1993). (scielo.org.za)
  • Epidemiological data from 1955 to 1995 showed that outbreaks occurred nearly every summer in the subtropical northern parts of South Africa, once every 5-10 years in the cooler centre of the country, and only rarely in the Western Cape in the south (Bosman, Brückner & Faul 1995). (scielo.org.za)
  • Agriculture officials in South Africa release annual report. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-vaccination sera were analysed by VP7 indirect ELISA at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute (ARC-OVI) in Pretoria, South Africa to determine prior exposure of the horses to AHS, either by vaccination with the currently used live attenuated vaccine (LAV) mixture produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), or by natural infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Statistical evidence of reassortment within the genomes of African horse sickness (AHS) virus field isolates identified in outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in Western Cape Province, South Africa, 2004-2014. (cdc.gov)
  • However, scientists in South Africa, where AHS is endemic, have been working hard on this problem with the help of tobacco plants and have just reported some encouraging results. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • Developing an energy evaluation protocol for horse feeds in South Africa. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • The purpose of this study was to find the most accurate and reliable method available in South Africa to evaluate equine diets on an energy basis. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Diet selection and foraging efficiency of Nguni goats in the bushveld of Gauteng, South Africa. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Kikuyu is an important summer pasture species in South Africa for animal production, and is seemly suitable for growing out dairy replacement heifers. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • 1). Horses are highly sensitive to some of these viruses and have been used as sentinels for the identification of arboviruses associated with neurologic disease in South Africa (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In January 2009, a crossbreed yearling horse (case SAE 18/09) was found wandering aimlessly in its paddock in the Vaalwater District of Limpopo Province, South Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Throughout the last century, there has been a steady decline in the number of cases of AHS in South Africa, which correlated with a decline in the number of wild zebra due to hunting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, AHS is not considered to be endemic in the greater part of South Africa, with the exception of the North-eastern Lowveld of Mpumalanga Province where seroconversion of AHSV occurs in zebra in every month of the year and virtually all adult animals have specific antibodies to all nine serotypes of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within South Africa, these Culicoides species show a marked difference in their abundances according to altitude, with C. imicola highly abundant in lower altitudes, but being replaced as the dominant species by C. bolitinos in cooler, high-altitude regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This paper describes a method to rapidly identify African horse sickness virus (AHSV), using a single tube reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
  • Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (wur.nl)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal disease of equids that is caused by AHS virus (AHSV), a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although AHS currently occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa, various species of Culicoides midges occur throughout the entire inhabited world, warranting concern that AHSV could spread into areas that are currently free of the virus (1,3-5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The AHS virus (AHSV) is transmitted almost exclusively by Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), of which Culicoides imicola is considered to be the most important vector. (scielo.org.za)
  • The absence of AHSV in the midges during winter can be ascribed to the relatively low numbers collected coupled to low infection prevalence, low virus replication rates and low virus titres in the potentially infected midges. (scielo.org.za)
  • The agent, AHS virus (AHSV), a double-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus in the genus Orbivirus ( Reoviridae ), is enzootic in sub-Saharan Africa. (scielo.org.za)
  • 2009). The geographic distribution and seasonal incidence of AHSV depend not only on the presence of the virus and susceptible equines but also on the presence and abundance of competent vectors (Mellor, Boorman & Baylis 2000). (scielo.org.za)
  • Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects (CPE), but no CPE is observed in infected insect cell cultures despite productive virus replication. (up.ac.za)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infects all equine species and is often fatal in horses and mules. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus , with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides , a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purified African horse sickness virus (AHSV) was fed, as part of a blood meal, to adult females from a susceptible colony of Culicoides variipennis , established in the insectories at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, UK. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The meal consisted of heparinized blood obtained from ovine, bovine, equine (horse and donkey) or canine sources spiked with AHSV serotype 9 (AHSV9). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus ( Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular characterization of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) detected from the March 2020 Thailand outbreak was carried out by whole-genome sequencing using Nanopore with a Sequence-Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA) approach. (cdc.gov)
  • Nucleotide sequence of the whole genome was compared with closest matching AHSV strains using phylogenetic analyses and the AHSV-1 virus shared high sequence identity with isolates from the same outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of 2.8 M urea. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • AHS is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the family Reoviridae of the genus Orbivirus. (cabi.org)
  • AHSV is endemic in the central tropical regions of Africa and regularly spreads to Southern Africa and occasionally to Northern Africa. (cabi.org)
  • There is an ongoing need for standardized, easily renewable immunoreagents for detecting African horsesickness virus (AHSV). (bvsalud.org)
  • In contrast, the one selected with AHSV-8 captured by IgG against AHSV-3 recognized all nine AHSV serotypes but not the Bryanston strain of equine encephalosis virus . (bvsalud.org)
  • are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). (degruyter.com)
  • In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. (degruyter.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists at The Pirbright Institute are confident they have identified a safe and effective vaccination strategy for African horse sickness virus (AHSV) - the battle is now to build a business case persuasive enough to encourage a manufacturer to develop it and finally bring it to market. (beva.org.uk)
  • At least three of these viruses, namely bluetongue (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness (AHSV) viruses, all belonging within the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae), cause diseases of such international significance in livestock that they have been classified as notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The rapid spread of BTV in Europe, outbreaks of AHSV in Spain since 1987 [ 3 ], and recent outbreaks of a novel orthobunyavirus, Schmallenberg virus [ 4 , 5 ], has demonstrated the devastating effect of these viruses on naïve livestock populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • African Horse Sickness is endemic in Africa but outbreaks outside the African continent have been reported. (wur.nl)
  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) is classified as viral hemorrhagic fever and is endemic in East and West Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus is considered endemic to the equatorial, eastern, and southern regions of Africa. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • AHS is known to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and has spread to Morocco, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes an economically important disease of pigs. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Nucleotide sequence of classical swine fever virus strain Alfort/187 and transcription of infectious RNA from stably cloned full-length cDNA. (asm.org)
  • African Horse Sickness is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod-borne disease of Equidae caused by African horse sickness virus transmitted by biting culicoides midges. (wur.nl)
  • The virus is transmitted to horses by biting midges in the genus Culicoides (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Furthermore, the global range of related Culicoides-transmitted orbiviruses, such as bluetongue virus, has expanded recently, probably in part as a result of climate change (6). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • AHS is spread by biting midges ( Culicoides ) and dogs can become infected by eating contaminated horse meat. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • These viruses are spread by specific species of Culicoides biting midges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. (degruyter.com)
  • Culicoides ), the potential vectors of bluetongue virus, in Sweden. (degruyter.com)
  • The biting midge Culicoides imicola was captured at 17 of 27 farms in Spain and Portugal during a survey of its distribution following outbreaks of African horse sickness in Iberia that occurred between 1987 and 1990. (springer.com)
  • Rawlings P, Pro MJ, Pena I, Ortega MD, Capela R (1997) Spatial and seasonal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Iberia in relation to the transmission of African horse sickness virus. (springer.com)
  • Culicoides sonorensis biting midges are vectors of several emerging and re-emerging orbiviruses including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and African horse sickness viruses. (usda.gov)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Identification of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) as a vector of bluetongue virus in central Italy," Veterinary Record , vol. 156, no. 10, pp. 301-304, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is therefore likely that any outbreak of this disease would have serious socio-economic consequences for Ireland due to the high density of vulnerable equids and the prevalence of Culicoides species, potentially capable of vectoring the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The virus is a non-contagious, vector-borne Orbivirus that is transmitted primarily by female Culicoides midges during a blood meal, which they require for reproduction [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Baylis M, Bouayoune H, Touti J, El Hasnaoui H (1998) Use of climatic data and satellite imagery to model the abundance of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, the vector of African horse sickness virus, in Morocco. (springer.com)
  • Baylis M, El Hasnaoui H, Bouayoune H, Touti J, Mellor PS (1997) The spatial and seasonal distribution of African horse sickness and its potential Culicoides vectors in Morocco. (springer.com)
  • Walker AR (1977) Adult lifespan and reproductive status of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Kenya, with reference to virus transmission. (springer.com)
  • Culicoides imicola Kieffer and Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are both of veterinary importance, being vectors of Schmallenberg, bluetongue and African horse sickness (AHS) viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) are OIE listed arthropod borne animal diseases caused by the viruses in the genus Orbivirus , family Reoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is caused by a virus of the genus Orbivirus belonging to the family Reoviridae. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Sedoreovirinae (sedo = smooth) is a subfamily of the Reoviridae family of viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other members of the Reoviridae family, viruses of the Sedoreovirinae subfamily are made of naked, icosahedral capsids containing 10-12 segments of linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gross lesions from horses affected by African horse sickness, Thailand, 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • This study, using virus isolation on cell cultures and a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, confirmed low infection prevalence in field midges and that the detection of virus correlated to high numbers. (scielo.org.za)
  • Researchers found that the insecticide deltamethrin did not appear to prevent midges from feeding on horses. (thehorse.com)
  • Could the midges responsible for the deadly disease African horse sickness ever reach our shores? (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting midges, which are very small blood-feeding flying insects about 1/8th of an inch in length," Teel said. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • The severity of African horse sickness (AHS) is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of the virus it receives from biting midges. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Stabling between 4pm and 10am is very important, particularly for young horses, as this is when midges are active. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Cattle are the most important domestic animals impacted by rabies virus in the New World, leading to thousands of cattle deat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some viruses, such as rabies, African horse sickness and West Nile virus, can be lethal, but most of the viruses we traditionally vaccinate against, such as influenza and herpesvirus, cause only temporary illness. (equisearch.com)
  • One species in Senegal particularly drawn to horses. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. (cabi.org)
  • Trapping mosquitoes on horse premises in different regions of the UK, and identifying species of mosquito found. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • The ability of mosquito species commonly found on UK horse premises to spread a chosen arbovirus (in this case mosquito-borne virus) will be investigated. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection involves domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, deer, most species of African antelope and various other Artiodactyla as vertebrate hosts. (scribd.com)
  • A similar severe disease of wild ruminants is caused by epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), which, like BTV, is a member of the Orbivirus genus, but is classified in a separate species or serogroup. (scribd.com)
  • The serotype of individual viruses in each species is identified on the basis of neutralisation tests and different strains within a serotype are identified by sequence analysis. (scribd.com)
  • Historically, tests such as agar gel immunodiffusion and indirect enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect BTV and EHDV species-specific antibodies, but have the major drawback of being unable to consistently distinguish between antibodies to viruses in the two species. (scribd.com)
  • The species Getah virus (GETV) belongs to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • This hot spell has also "burnt" off many of the pasture grass species horses would normally eat, leading horses to experiment more with weeds that may be irritating. (equisearch.com)
  • Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is an economically significant infection of horses and other equine species caused by the tick-borne protozoa Theileria equi and Babesia caballi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Differences were detected between wild type viruses and vaccine strains that had been attenuated by multiple passage in suckling mouse brain or in tissue cultures. (nih.gov)
  • A live attenuated vaccine is in use in Africa but it is not licensed in Europe, due to safety concerns. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • The virus-like particles of the plant-based vaccine do not carry the risk of a return to virulence. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, besides the inability to differentiate between natural and vaccine-induced immunity (non-DIVA), the LAV is restricted to use within southern Africa and this has significant implications for both the horse export industry as well as the equestrian sporting arena. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to test the safety and immunogenicity of this VLP candidate vaccine in horses, and to consider ways in which the production platform could be scaled up in a cost-effective manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article, we highlight lessons learned from previous efforts to scale up vaccine distribution and offer considerations for policymakers and key stakeholders to use for successful COVID-19 vaccination rollout in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers will develop a novel diagnostic test for feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), also working toward developing a vaccine to prevent FIP emergence. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Full genome characterisation of bluetongue virus serotype 6 from the Netherlands 2008 and comparison to other field and vaccine strains," PLoS ONE , vol. 5, no. 4, article e10323, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Design of primers and use of RT-PCR assays for typing European bluetongue virus isolates: differentiation of field and vaccine strains," Journal of General Virology , vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 2811-2823, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • It may be impossible to determine if your horse's troubles were an allergic response to the vaccine, but it is apparent that your horse is hypersensitive to many things. (equisearch.com)
  • If your horse's reaction to the vaccine worsens each year, you can be even more sure that it is an allergic response. (equisearch.com)
  • A new vaccine for African Horse Sickness has shown promising results in new research. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The article entitled 'Three-year Duration of Immunity for Canine Distemper, Adenovirus, and Parvovirus after Vaccination with a Multivalent Canine Vaccine by Gill et al in Volume IV, Number 2 of the journal contained the following verbiage: 'The present study clearly confirms the 3-year duration of immunity for CDV, CAV2, and CPV fractions in a commercial multivalent modified-live virus vaccine. (jarvm.com)
  • Orbiviruses are non-enveloped virus particles consisting of the subcore protein VP3, surrounded by serogroup specific protein VP7 (core), and the outer shell of the particle is formed by serotype specific protein VP2 and VP5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequencing and pairwise analysis of this Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African reference BTV-6 strain 5011 (93.88% identity). (mdpi.com)
  • He said depending on the serotype of the virus that were to be introduced, "it will be necessary to determine whether the insects we have are competent vectors in the laboratory and capable vectors in the field. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Virus identification traditionally requires isolation and amplification of the virus in embryonated hens' eggs, tissue culture or inoculations of susceptible ruminants and the subsequent application of serogroup- and serotype-specific tests. (scribd.com)
  • These procedures can augment the classical virological techniques to provide information on virus serogroup, serotype and topotype. (scribd.com)
  • Procedures to determine the serotype-specificity of antibodies in sera are more complex and time-consuming because they assess whether the sera inhibit the infectivity of panels of known virus serotypes in neutralisation tests. (scribd.com)
  • Differences in the susceptibility of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to modified heparin compounds suggest serotype differences in viral entry. (asm.org)
  • A similar problem was encountered previously with bluetongue virus (BTV) VP7 (whose structure has been reported), showing that the connections between the top and the bottom domains are rather weak for these two distinct orbiviruses. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • other important orbiviruses are the bluetongue viruses of sheep and the viruses that cause African horse sickness. (google.it)
  • Before the 2014 outbreak, these outbreaks were assumed to be caused by illegal movement of viremic animals into the controlled area, although the source was established for only 2 of these outbreaks: a type 7 virus for the 1999 outbreak in the surveillance zone and a type 5 virus for the 2006 outbreak in the PZ (Figure 1) (18,19). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • There is no specific treatment available other than supportive treatment and therefore measures to control exposure of horses to biting insects are essential to prevent an outbreak from spreading. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak in UK. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Timely diagnosis of influenza A virus infections is critical for outbreak control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This information would be essential in helping to control and eradicate a mosquito-borne arboviral disease outbreak in horses, and in minimising the numbers of horses that develop disease. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is currently predicted, that a widespread outbreak of this disease would have a devastating effect on the horse industry of any country affected [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease was first recognised around 60 years after the initial introduction of horses to Africa in 1657, and the first major outbreak occurred in 1719. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BANGKOK (Xinhua): Thailand's Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to contain the African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreak. (thestar.com.my)
  • Recovery of infectious bluetongue virus from RNA. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Development of reverse genetics systems for bluetongue virus: recovery of infectious virus from synthetic RNA transcripts. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, notifiable viral disease which poses a substantial challenge to horse owners in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to structural proteins VP1-7, at least four non-structural proteins NS1 - 4 are expressed after infection of mammalian and insect cells but these are not present in the infectious virus particle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease despite availability of vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • In order to eliminate disease viruses/agents from clothing, vehicles, tools, carcasses or the environment, there must be a good understanding of the general properties of each infectious agent and the subtle ways each may persist in the environment and infect other animals. (fao.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease caused by African horse sickness virus. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Due to its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity, RT-PCR is used in a wide range of applications from experiments as simple as quantification of yeast cells in wine to more complex uses as diagnostic tools for detecting infectious agents such as the avian flu virus and SARS-CoV-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here a novel BacMam was constructed containing a frameshift mutation within fp25, which results in virus stocks with higher infectious titres. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • There will be a session called Exotic and on our Doorstep, when Brigadier Paul Jepson and James Wood will address the threats and control of African Horse Sickness and West Nile Virus, in the light of other unexpected outbreaks of infectious disease. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • Two types of hepatitis are recognized: 'infectious' (hepatitis A virus, HAV) and 'serum' (hepatitis B virus, HBV). (thebodypro.com)
  • Genomic quasispecies associated with the initiation of infection and disease in ponies experimentally infected with equine infectious anemia virus. (asm.org)
  • African horse sickness virus causes a non-contagious, infectious disease of equids. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Optimization of reverse genetics enlarge the possibilities to rescue virus mutants and reassortants, and will greatly benefit the control of these important diseases of livestock and companion animals. (wur.nl)
  • The viruses/disease agents responsible for serious/emergency diseases can be categorized according to their size and whether or not they contain lipid. (fao.org)
  • The OIE has described management "pillars" to keep most diseases at bay for high-health, high-performance horses. (thehorse.com)
  • Find out which foreign animal diseases North American horse owners need to keep an eye on and why. (thehorse.com)
  • During the seasonal occurrence of common vector-borne diseases such as African horse sickness and equine encephalosis, many horses have febrile, neurologic, and fatal infections for which the etiology remains undetermined. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Key topics include all-new coverage of the latest developments in imaging, biosecurity strategies for individual horse owners and owners of commercial farms and stables, diseases affecting horses at various ages, and a review of colic and other GI tract conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • These are known to play a role in the transmission of diseases such as West Nile, Schmallenberg and African Horse Sickness viruses. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • A discussion of the exotic diseases threatening to affect the British horse industry will take place as part of the 2007 Thoroughbred Racing and Breeding Seminar, at Cheltenham racecourse on Thursday, 15 November. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • The charities which will benefit include The Redwings Horse Sanctuary and the Equine Rescue Fund, which aims to improve the standard of veterinary care to horses in emergency situations.Topics covered during the talks included the emergence of new diseases such as West Nile Virus and African Horse Sickness and how to care for elderly horses. (northdevongazette.co.uk)
  • Sellers RF (1980) Weather, host and vector - their interplay in the spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases. (springer.com)
  • As the early history of these horses was not well documented, blood samples were drawn from the animals prior to vaccination (day 0) in order to ascertain the pre-vaccination immune status of the selected animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, providing COVID-19 vaccination can be used to promote the adoption of universal healthcare, especially in sub-Saharan Africa countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Williams V, Edem B, Calnan M, Otwombe K, Okeahalam C. Considerations for Establishing Successful Coronavirus Disease Vaccination Programs in Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers will work to improve an immunotherapy (allergy shots) as a treatment and preventive vaccination for insect-bite hypersensitivity in horses. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Learn how vaccinations work to protect your horse and view two sample vaccination schedules, for the pleasure horse & performance horse. (equisearch.com)
  • Outbreaks of hepatitis occur in humans after vaccination against yellow fever and efforts to vaccinate against Western equine encephalomyelitis virus (using attenuated virus and human serum). (thebodypro.com)
  • Testing for passive transfer of immunity in foals, and an evaluation of the African horse sickness vaccination schedule. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Vaccination is crucial for all horses older than six months, and horses should be vaccinated between 1 June and 1 October annually. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • We report a case in which a virus isolated in cell culture from the brain of a euthanized horse that had severe encephalitis was identified as Shuni virus (SHUV), a member of the family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, serogroup Simbu. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Vaccines triggered strong immune responses in ponies that protected them completely against the virus. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • New vaccines open way to tell infected horses from inoculated ones. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • However, challenges exist to deploying these vaccines, especially in resource-limited sub-Saharan Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Influenza Virus and SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines. (amedeo.com)
  • The innnocuity team at the Australian Animal Health Laboratory (AAHL) offers a range of tests to detect or exclude the presence of adventitious agents in veterinary vaccines, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma. (www.csiro.au)
  • Testing is generally done on seeds for veterinary vaccines, for example, seed cell lines, seed virus or bacteria on permissive cell lines over three to four passages followed by immunodetection or molecular testing. (www.csiro.au)
  • The symptoms passed, but I wonder if this was an allergic reaction to the vaccines and if I should vaccinate him against any viruses. (equisearch.com)
  • Learn how vaccines and dewormers work, how to make the most of them and what type of rotation schedule to use to keep your horse healthy. (equisearch.com)
  • Vaccines are among the most effective weapons for protecting horses against the ravages of disease. (equisearch.com)
  • The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful tool in the AHS risk assessment in the nonendemic part of Europe. (degruyter.com)
  • In contrast to the hostile mammalian immunological environment we hypothesized would confront any bite-transmitted virus particles, effects on the dermal vasculature and lymphoid tissues in response to midge feeding led to a local, then systemic immunological state highly favorable for orbivirus infection and dissemination. (usda.gov)
  • African horse sickness is caused by a virus, more specifically an Orbivirus , which is transmitted by certain insects. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Riyadh An ancient sculpted rock, depicting camelids (even-toed ungulate mammals) and equids (a mammal of the horse family), has been found in the northern Saudi province of Al Jawf. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Three of four equids on one premises have tested positive for vesicular stomatitis virus. (thehorse.com)
  • Climate and environmental data were used to estimate the risk of testing positive for antibodies to bluetongue (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease viruses (EHDV) in cattle in Illinois and western Indiana over three transmission seasons (2000-2002). (ajtmh.org)
  • Folding, assembly, and intracellular trafficking of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein analyzed with monoclonal antibodies recognizing maturational intermediates. (asm.org)
  • The basis for this phenomenon has not yet been investigated, but is suggestive of apoptosis being induced following virus infection of the mammalian cells. (up.ac.za)
  • Structural insight into African horsesickness virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Evaluation of a p21e-spiked western blot (immunoblot) in confirming human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I or II infection in volunteer blood donors. (asm.org)
  • Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Virus populations are renowned for their diversity, and many viruses adopt infection strategies to ensure that part of that diversity is present in individual infected hosts ( Hurst 2000 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • GETV infection in horses has been reported in Japan and India, and causes great economic losses. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study first determined and described the disease course of horse infected with GETV in China, sequenced and characterized the genome of the field horse-derived GETV strain, and therefore presented an unequivocal report of GETV infection in horses in China. (frontiersin.org)
  • mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For virus pathogens (microparasites) of multicellular organisms, transmission occurs in two phases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • SHUV-specific primers were designed and used to perform reverse transcription PCRs (RT-PCRs) on specimens from an additional 111 horses with fever and nervous disease that had been screened for the more common pathogens over 18 months. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A cytopathic agent isolated from the brain of the horse could not be identified as one of the common horse pathogens, but electron microscopic examination of negative-stained preparations of culture fluid and resin sections of infected cells showed 80-nm to 100-nm particles resembling bunyaviruses (Figure 1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Blood samples were collected from the sick horse, and PCR/RT-PCR analysis was performed to screen for equine viral pathogens associated with fever. (frontiersin.org)
  • duck virus enteritis, duck plague herpesvirus, Duck plague. (wa.gov.au)
  • Nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus have been recognized showing no or poor cross-protection with each other. (wur.nl)
  • This disease can be caused by any of the nine serotypes of this virus. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay based on primer-probe energy transfer for the detection of all serotypes of bluetongue virus," Journal Virological Methods , vol. 167, pp. 165-171, 1970. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular epidemiology of African horse sickness virus based on analyses and comparisons of genome segments 7 and 10. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and characterization of the structural and nonstructural proteins of African horsesickness virus and determination of the genome coding assignments. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Development and initial evaluation of a real-time RT-PCR assay to detect bluetongue virus genome segment 1," Journal of Virological Methods , vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 115-126, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Identification of a highly conserved sequence element at the 3' terminus of hepatitis C virus genome RNA. (asm.org)
  • Sequences regulating tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 for brain capillary endothelial cells map to a unique region on the viral genome. (asm.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS), an arthropod-borne viral disease affecting all equines, is considered to be the most lethal viral disease of horses. (scielo.org.za)
  • African horse sickness is a notifiable disease and should be reported. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Animals such as camels, African elephants and black and white rhinos may also be susceptible, but are unlikely to be involved in sustained transmission of the disease. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Blot hybridization and reassortment in vitro of epizootic haemorrhagic disease serogroup, bluetongue type 10 and Pata viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The use of sequencing technologies, such as Nanopore with SISPA, has enabled rapid detection, identification and detailed genetic characterization of the AHS virus for informed decision-making and implementation of disease control measures. (cdc.gov)
  • Do Donkeys Pose a Disease Threat to Horses at Events? (thehorse.com)
  • Researchers found no evidence that donkeys pose more of a disease threat than horses at mixed-equine events. (thehorse.com)
  • Dogs usually contract the disease by eating infected horse meat, a recent report has been made of the disease occurring in dogs with no known horse-meat ingestion. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a serious, often fatal virus disease of horses in the southern hemisphere, which may well spread to Europe as a result of climate change. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • In addition, there is currently no way to distinguish between horses infected with the disease and those that have been vaccinated. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • There is not only the potential of a few of these viruses to cause human disease, but also to reduce the supply of crops and livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Donaldson AI (1972) The influence of relative humidity on the aerosol stability of different strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus suspended in saliva. (springer.com)
  • Researchers will assess the extent to which agricultural landscapes influence the parasitic disease Toxoplasma gondii in wild African mammals, focusing on how these infections impact the behavior and health of wild spotted hyenas. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Shuni virus as cause of neurologic disease in horses. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • At a mesolevel, disease is changing in terms of space and host, which is illustrated by bluetongue, Lyme disease, and West Nile virus, and it is also emerging, as illustrated by highly pathogenic avian influenza and others. (pnas.org)
  • The most serious incursions involved strains of bluetongue virus (BTV), which cause bluetongue (BT) disease. (plos.org)
  • Texas A&M AgriLife faculty, various state and federal agencies and the U.S. horse industry are already monitoring the situation, ensuring surveillance and determining practices to prevent the deadly horse disease from crossing our borders. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • There is a real risk that this foreign animal disease could be introduced to the Western Hemisphere, including North America, where we have insects that will likely serve as effective vectors of this virus," Teel said. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • African horse sickness is considered a Tier 3 disease by the National Bio and Agro-Defense Facility , NBAF, because of the potential negative impact on animal health. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Theiler's disease: Arnold Theiler, a prominent veterinarian, notices that horses are experiencing hepatitis after being vaccinated for African horse sickness (using immune serum and live virus). (thebodypro.com)
  • Owing to the potential of this virus to cause widespread death and debilitating disease in naïve equid populations, it is listed as a notifiable equine disease by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), which makes outbreaks of the disease compulsorily notifiable to the OIE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease has already killed nearly 200 horses in the country. (thestar.com.my)
  • Horse trainers, owners and breeders now have reliable advice on equine disease control at their fingertips thanks to a new, free App launched by the Horserace Betting Levy Board (HBLB). (beva.org.uk)
  • In the meantime, your vet can treat the symptoms, using anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the fluid in the lungs, or treating piroplasmosis, Lyme disease or babesiosis if the horse is anaemic, shows fever, or has a positive blood smear. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • East Coast fever (ECF) is a devastating disease of cattle and a significant constraint to improvement of livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Use of PCR-enzyme immunoassay for identification of influenza A virus matrix RNA in clinical samples negative for cultivable virus. (asm.org)
  • Due to their rapidity and other logistical advantages, lateral flow immunoassays can support influenza A virus surveillance pr. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This product has demonstrated effectiveness against influenza A virus and is expected to inactivate all influenza A viruses including Pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus. (drugs.com)
  • Avian influenza viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype that do not have either of the characteristics described above should be sequenced to determine whether multiple basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule (HAO). (ufl.edu)
  • Avian influenza (AI) viruses, commonly known as bird flu, infect a wide range of hosts, including humans and swine. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Avian leukosis virus (ALV) infects mainly chickens but can also infect pheasants, partridges and quail. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Substitution analysis revealed non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions in the VP2 gene as compared to circulating South African strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Similarly, the geographical features of the Mediterranean basin, which spans over portions of three continents, may facilitate the appearance of clinically relevant reassortants via co-circulation of BTV strains of African, Asian and European origins. (mdpi.com)
  • Both virus strains induced a low-level viremia, capable of infecting a small fraction of vector mosquitoes. (bioone.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GZ201808 clustered in Group III, and was located in an independent branch distant from other horse-derived GETV strains, indicating a unique evolutionary pattern of GZ201808. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nine British veterinary specialists raise funds to vaccinate hundreds of horses in a remote South African region. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • The horse became progressively ataxic and, when recumbent, was referred to the hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • High throughput detection of bluetongue virus by a new real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction: application on clinical samples from current Mediterranean outbreaks," Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation , vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 7-17, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Short communication: a simple and rapid method for detection of African horse sickness virus serogroup in cell cultures using RT-PCR," Veterinary Research Communications , vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 319-324, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • Cubillo, C. Rubio, E. Romero, and M. A. Jiménez-Clavero, "Real-time fluorogenic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of African horse sickness virus," Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation , vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 325-328, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Outbreaks have occurred outside Africa, including in the Near and Middle East, Spain, Portugal and Morocco. (cabi.org)
  • Several outbreaks have occurred in the Equidae throughout Africa and elsewhere. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Together with replication proteins VP1, 4 and 6, and VP3, replication complexes are formed in virus inclusion bodies, and synthesize dsRNA in subcore particles which become core particles by addition of VP7 and virions by assembly of outer shell proteins VP2 and VP5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intact BAV-Ch virus particles contain seven structural proteins, two of which (VP4 and VP9) form the outer coat. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • chitinase and cathepsin, and the trafficking of virus proteins and particles through insect cells using a range of bioimaging techniques. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • The vaccinia virus 4c and A-type inclusion proteins are specific markers for the intracellular mature virus particle. (asm.org)
  • A study of the Culcoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) vectors of African horse sickness to enhance current practical control measures and research methods. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Israel, with implications for bluetongue virus transmission and a comparison of the parous rate in C. imicola from Israel and Zimbabwe. (springer.com)
  • Mellor PS, Boorman JPT, Wilkinson PJ, Martinez-Gomez F (1983) Potential vectors of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses in Spain. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, incorporating a truncated vesicular stomatitis virus G protein increased transduction efficacy and production of EGFP and BCL2 in human kidney (HK-2) and pancreatic islet β cells (EndoC βH3). (brookes.ac.uk)
  • McDonald is the state's newest vesicular stomatitis virus-infected county. (thehorse.com)
  • Riley joins growing list of Kansas counties with vesicular stomatitis virus outbreaks. (thehorse.com)
  • AHS usually affects horses, donkeys, mules and zebras. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • In African donkeys and zebras mortality is rare. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • But it has escaped the African continent several times, most recently into Thailand, where it is believed to have been introduced by importation of infected zebras. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Equines including horses, mules, donkeys and zebras are moved all over the world for competitions, trade, breeding, zoologic and conservation purposes," said Pete Teel, Ph.D., Texas A&M AgriLife Research entomologist with the Texas A&M Department of Entomology , College Station. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • African donkeys and zebras very rarely display clinical symptoms, despite high virus titers in blood, and are thought to be the natural reservoir of the virus. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Thus, it is thought the virus was transported to Thailand through asymptomatic zebras. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Some horse farm owners have told the department that they suspect zebras imported from Africa are the most likely source of the virus. (thestar.com.my)
  • The organization's plan includes six studies focused on equine influenza, African horse sickness, and glanders. (thehorse.com)
  • Viruses of Equine herpes virus Type 1 and Type 3 and Equine Influenza. (drugs.com)
  • Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse transcription-PCR. (asm.org)
  • Researchers will establish a drug discovery process to treat deadly equine viruses, including African horse sickness. (morrisanimalfoundation.org)
  • Reassortment contributes to the evolution of RNA viruses with segmented genomes, including Bluetongue virus (BTV). (mdpi.com)
  • A hidden Markov model-based approach (BURT-HMM) was used to classify individual nucleotides within each of the 10 segments of individual AHS virus isolates into 3 different categories: 1/Lab/ZAF/98/OBP-116-like (green), 3/Lab/ZAF/98/OBP-116-like (blue), and 4/Lab/ZAF/98/OBP-116-like (red). (cdc.gov)
  • If the amino acid motif is similar to that observed for other HPAI isolates, then the isolate being tested should be considered HPAI and the virus is controlled for export. (ufl.edu)
  • Diversity of the envelope glycoprotein among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates of clade E from Asia and Africa. (asm.org)
  • Assessing the impact of climate change on vector-borne viruses in the EU through the elicitation of expert opinion. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 1918 pandemic influenza virus - reconstructed replication competent forms containing any portion of the coding regions of all 8 gene segments. (ufl.edu)
  • Plasmid-like replicative intermediates of the Epstein-Barr virus lytic origin of DNA replication. (asm.org)
  • Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus). (ufl.edu)
  • The African Horse Sickness has already killed nearly 200 horses in Thailand. (thestar.com.my)
  • Rift Valley fever virus in wild ruminants in the Etosha National Park, Namibia, 2011. (fao.org)
  • Several mosquito-borne alphaviruses, flaviviruses, and orthobunyaviruses, including West Nile, Rift Valley fever, and chikungunya viruses, with zoonotic potential have emerged from Africa to cause major outbreaks in previously unaffected areas. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Her research has focused on understanding the biology of insect viruses and on their exploitation in agriculture, medicine and biotechnology. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • I have published more than 90 papers in peer-reviewed journals, reviews and book chapters, and until recently was Insect Virus Editor for The Journal of General Virology. (brookes.ac.uk)
  • Virus-like particles (VLPs) are non-replicating protein assemblies identical in size and shape to the intact virus with which they share certain key features [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to translation, these mRNAs act as template for dsRNA synthesis after recruitment from the cytoplasm into nascent virus particles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complete BTV particles are double-shelled icosahedral double-stranded RNA virus. (scribd.com)
  • Inhibition of human and simian immunodeficiency virus protease function by targeting Vpx-protease-mutant fusion protein into viral particles. (asm.org)