African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (1/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (2/48)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (3/48)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Transmission patterns of African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses in South African donkeys. (4/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) viruses are endemic to southern Africa. AHS virus causes severe epidemics when introduced to naive equine populations, resulting in severe restrictions on the movement of equines between AHS-positive and negative countries. Recent zoning of South Africa has created an AHS-free zone to facilitate equine movement, but the transmission dynamics of these viruses are not fully understood. Here, we present further analyses of serosurveys of donkeys in South Africa conducted in 1983-5 and in 1993-5. Age-prevalence data are used to derive estimates of the force of infection, A. For both viruses, A was highest in the northeastern part of the country and declined towards the southwest. In most of the country, EE virus had a higher transmission rate than AHS. The force of infection increased for EE virus between 1985 and 1993, but decreased for AHS virus. Both viruses showed high levels of variation in transmission between districts within the same province, particularly in areas of intermediate transmission. These data emphasize the focal nature of these viruses, and indicate areas where further data will assist in understanding the geographical variation in transmission.  (+info)

A first full outer capsid protein sequence data-set in the Orbivirus genus (family Reoviridae): cloning, sequencing, expression and analysis of a complete set of full-length outer capsid VP2 genes of the nine African horsesickness virus serotypes. (5/48)

The outer capsid protein VP2 of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) is a major protective antigen. We have cloned full-length VP2 genes from the reference strains of each of the nine AHSV serotypes. Baculovirus recombinants expressing the cloned VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were constructed, confirming that they all have full open reading frames. This work completes the cloning and expression of the first full set of AHSV VP2 genes. The clones of VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 were sequenced and their amino acid sequences were deduced. Our sequencing data, together with that of the published VP2 genes of serotypes 3, 4, 6 and 9, were used to generate the first complete sequence analysis of all the (sero)types for a species of the Orbivirus genus. Multiple alignment of the VP2 protein sequences showed that homology between all nine AHSV serotypes varied between 47.6 % and 71.4 %, indicating that VP2 is the most variable AHSV protein. Phylogenetic analysis grouped together the AHSV VP2s of serotypes that cross-react serologically. Low identity between serotypes was demonstrated for specific regions within the VP2 amino acid sequences that have been shown to be antigenic and play a role in virus neutralization. The data presented here impact on the development of new vaccines, the identification and characterization of antigenic regions, the development of more rapid molecular methods for serotype identification and the generation of comprehensive databases to support the diagnosis, epidemiology and surveillance of AHS.  (+info)

Expression of the major core antigen VP7 of African horsesickness virus by a recombinant baculovirus and its use as a group-specific diagnostic reagent. (6/48)

The major core protein, VP7, of African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4), the aetiological agent of a recent outbreak of the disease in southern Europe, was expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing a cloned copy of the relevant AHSV gene (S7). Analyses of its biochemical and antigenic properties confirmed the authenticity of the protein expressed. The high-level expression of VP7 under the control of the strong polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus induced disc-shaped crystals in infected insect cells. This enabled us to purify the protein by a one-step ultracentrifugation procedure and to utilize it for the detection of antibodies raised in horses to various serotypes of AHSV. A serological relationship between AHSV and two other orbiviruses, bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, was also demonstrated.  (+info)

A large semi-synthetic single-chain Fv phage display library based on chicken immunoglobulin genes. (7/48)

BACKGROUND: Antibody fragments selected from large combinatorial libraries have numerous applications in diagnosis and therapy. Most existing antibody repertoires are derived from human immunoglobulin genes. Genes from other species can, however, also be used. Because of the way in which gene conversion introduces diversity, the naive antibody repertoire of the chicken can easily be accessed using only two sets of primers. RESULTS: With in vitro diagnostic applications in mind, we have constructed a large library of recombinant filamentous bacteriophages displaying single chain antibody fragments derived from combinatorial pairings of chicken variable heavy and light chains. Synthetically randomised complementarity determining regions are included in some of the heavy chains. Single chain antibody fragments that recognise haptens, proteins and virus particles were selected from this repertoire. Affinities of three different antibody fragments were determined using surface plasmon resonance. Two were in the low nanomolar and one in the subnanomolar range. To illustrate the practical value of antibodies from the library, phage displayed single chain fragments were incorporated into ELISAs aimed at detecting African horsesickness and bluetongue virus particles. Virus antibodies were detected in a competitive ELISA. CONCLUSION: The chicken-derived phage library described here is expected to be a versatile source of recombinant antibody fragments directed against a wide variety of antigens. It has the potential to provide monoclonal reagents with applications in research and diagnostics. For in vitro applications, naive phage libraries based on avian donors may prove to be useful adjuncts to the selectable antibody repertoires that already exist.  (+info)

Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe. (8/48)

Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp.  (+info)

*Orbivirus

Lebombo virus Pata virus African horse sickness virus (Serotypes 1-9) African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus (serotypes ... In 1719, African horse sickness virus caused the first major recorded orbivirus epidemic, killing 1,500 animals. The most ... Other species of Orbiviruses are responsible for other diseases of animals such as African Horse sickness and Equine ... These groups are Midge vector group: African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Chuzan virus Epizootic haemorrhagic disease ...

*African horse sickness

Information Database CIDRAP Overview on African Horse Sickness 3D electron microscopy structures of the African horse sickness ... "Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat". Journal of the South African ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease. It commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. It is ... Mild or horse sickness fever form Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. Infected animals may have ...

*Peruvian horse sickness virus

MacLachlan, N.; Guthrie, A. J. (2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other Orbivirus diseases". ... The Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) is a cause of the neurological disorder Peruvian horse sickness resulting in ... Peruvian horse sickness was described in 1997 when an unexpected number of deaths in horses occurred during the rainy season in ... One of the viruses collected from horses that died of the disease was named Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV). The 1997 ...

*Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Stone-Marschat M, Carville A, Skowronek A, Laegreid WW (March 1994). "Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse ...

*Culicoides bolitinos

... a recently identified vector of African horse sickness". Bull Entomol Res. 90 (6): 509-15. PMID 11107252. Paweska, J. T.; ... It is considered a possible vector for African horse sickness. Meiswinkel R (1989). "Afrotropical Culicoides: a redescription ... reared from the dung of the African buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in South Africa". Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 56 (1): 23- ... Culicoides bolitinos is an African fly that habitates dung of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), the blue wildebeest ( ...

*Bluetongue disease

African horse sickness is related to Bluetongue and is spread by the same midges (Culicoides species). It can kill the horses ... African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions, The Merck Veterinary Manual. Introduction to disease in The Merck ... For many decades bluetongue was thought to be confined to Africa. The first confirmed outbreak outside of Africa occurred in ... In Africa, local breeds of sheep may have no mortality, but in imported breeds it may be up to 90 percent. In cattle, goats and ...

*Alexander Edington

In 1900 he was awarded a doctorate for his thesis,[citation needed] South-African horse-sickness: its pathology and methods of ... ISBN 0 902 198 84 X. Alexander, Edington, (1900). South-African horse-sickness: its pathology and methods of protective ... Edington, Alexander (1900). South African Horse-sickness: Its Pathology and Methods of Protective Inoculation. Harrison and ... Edington, Alexander (1900). "South African Horse-Sickness: Its Pathology and Methods of Protective Inoculation". The Lancet. ...

*Sedoreovirinae

Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ...

*Equine encephalosis virus

... related to the African Horse Sickness Virus (AHSV) and the Bluetongue disease virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over ... "Investigations on outbreaks of African horse sickness in the surveillance zone in South Africa". Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 25 ... such as the African horse sickness virus. As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather ... caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating ...

*Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus

Besides EHDV and BTV, other Orbiviruses include Equine encephalosis virus (EEV) and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic ... "PCR detection of North American and Central African isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) based on genome ...

*Culicoides imicola

... is a biting midge which transmits the bluetongue virus and the African horse sickness virus. This particular ... species has been recorded so far in Africa, Asia and Europe. Other suspected BTV vectors are Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris ...

*Culicoides variipennis

Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ...

*Variety Club (horse)

The extended quarantine period was considered necessary as many countries feared the importation of the African horse sickness ... champion middle-distance horse and South African Horse of the Year. His trainer Joey Ramsden said "He was great throughout the ... He is my horse but he really belongs to the whole of South Africa." Shortly after his win in the Godolphin Mile, Variety Club ... After the race Ramsden said "It is fantastic for a horse to come all the way from South Africa - to compete, let alone win, is ...

*Petrus Johann du Toit

... were the etiology of the cattle disease lamsiekte and the development of a successful vaccine against African horse sickness. ... During World War II South Africa supplied horsesickness vaccines to the British forces in Egypt and the Middle East, and played ... He contributed to the development of polyvalent horse sickness and bluetongue vaccines, and determined Culicoides spp as ... Du Toit was President of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA) from 1924 to 1930, President of the South African ...

*Black-backed jackal

... and African horse sickness. Jackals in Etosha National Park may carry anthrax. Black-backed jackals are major rabies vectors, ... In East Africa, during the dry season, they hunt the young of gazelles, impalas, topi, tsessebe, and warthogs. In South Africa ... Kingdon, J. (1977), East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part A: Carnivores, University of Chicago ... South Africa has been using fencing systems to protect sheep from jackals since the 1890s, though such measures have mixed ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

... and they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids. Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon ... Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... There are commercially available vaccines to protect animals against bluetongue, and African horse sickness Myiasis: Centers ... The horse licks at the irritated skin and the larvae transfer to the mouth of horse. The larvae penetrate tissues in the oral ...

*Onager

A disease known as the "South African horse sickness" caused a major decline to the Indian wild ass population in the 1960s. ... Onagers are the most horse-like of wild asses. Onagers are short-legged compared to horses, and their coloring varies depending ... Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1992). Horse Power: A History of the Horse and the Donkey in Human Societies. Boston, Massachusetts, US ... Unlike most horses and donkeys, onagers have never been domesticated. They are among the fastest mammals, as they can run as ...

*Indian wild ass

... the wild ass population was reduced to just 870 after to the outbreak of South African Horse Sickness. Besides disease, the ... The Indian wild ass, as with most other Asian wild ass subspecies, is quite different from the African wild ass species. The ...

*Southern Africa Association for the Advancement of Science

... for his work on trypanosomes and African horse sickness. The British Association Medal (silver), originally funded by a grant ... The Southern Africa Association for the Advancement of Science (S2A3 or S2A3) is a learned society, originally known as the ... The South African Association for the Advancement of Science was founded in 1902 and modeled on the British Association for the ... The South Africa Medal (gold), originally funded by a grant from the British Science Association in 1905, is awarded annually ...

*DMOZ - Health: Animal: Mammals: Equine: Conditions and Diseases

African Horse Sickness Information on this disease, its transmission and spread, its clinical signs and what is being done to ... Horse Diseases In depth information on the causes, signs and treatment of the major disease of the horse with emergency care ... Equine Grass Sickness Fund Charity in the UK raising funds specifically for research into grass sickness. Provides details of ... Headshaking in Horses A informative and site for owners of headshaking horses. Includes a discussion of the possible symptoms, ...

*Theiler's disease

... after vaccinating horses against African horse sickness using a live virus vaccine and equine antiserum. It was later described ... African horse sickness, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens ... Horses are rarely hypoglycemic, but blood glucose monitoring is ideal to indicate which horses may be benefited by glucose ... GGT may remain elevated for weeks even if the horse is recovering. Horses that survive for greater than one week and that ...

*Midge

Some of them spread the livestock diseases blue tongue and African horse sickness - other species though, are at least partly ... Weaving, Alan; Picker, Mike; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland ...

*Arnold Theiler

This institute under his leadership carried out research on African horse sickness, sleeping sickness, malaria, East Coast ... when he observed the symptoms of liver disease in animals vaccinated against African horse sickness with a combination of live ... In 1891 Theiler travelled to South Africa and at first found employment as a farm worker on Irene Estates near Pretoria, owned ... Theiler A (1919) Acute liver-atrophy and parenchymatous hepatitis in horses. The Fifth and Sixth Reports of the Director of ...

*Sarafand al-Kharab

... in the Lydda-Ramle district of Mandatory Palestine whose equine population was struck by an epidemic of African horse sickness ... orders preventing the movement of horses outside of town between September and November 1944 and the deaths of 730 horses in ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda virus Chobar Gorge virus Corriparta virus Epizootic ... East African cassava mosaic Kenya virus East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus East African cassava mosaic virus East African ... virus Eubenangee virus Great Island virus Ieri virus Lebombo virus Orungo virus Palyam virus Peruvian horse sickness virus St ... vein streak virus Vernonia yellow vein virus Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus West African Asystasia virus 1 West African ...

*Geography of South Africa

Before the middle of the 20th century, the Lowveld was also home to the tsetse fly, which transmits sleeping sickness to humans ... and nagana to animals, especially the horses of the travelers trying to reach the Highveld and Witwatersrand Gold Fields from ... Provinces of South Africa Districts of South Africa Municipalities of South Africa List of mountains in South Africa List of ... South Africa occupies the southern tip of Africa, its coastline stretching more than 2,500 kilometres (1,600 miles) from the ...
A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
HYERA, J M K e BAIPOLEDI, E K. A serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2008, vol.79, n.1, pp.44-45. ISSN 2224-9435.. A retrospective serological survey of African horse sickness (AHS) in Botswana covering a 10-year period (1995-2004) is reported. The survey involved horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease; the horses had not been vaccinated against AHS. Over the period surveyed, serological evidence suggestive of infection with AHS virus (AHSV) was found in 99 clinical cases out of which 41.4 % (41/99) cases were found during the 1st half (1995-1999) and 58.6 % (58/99) cases were found in the 2nd half of the survey period (2000-2004). These serological findings are discussed in relation to AHSV serotypes isolated from diseased horses in Botswana before and during the period of this serological survey.. Palavras-chave : African horse sickness (AHS); AHS virus serotypes; Botswana; Culicoides midges; serological survey. ...
GORDON, Stuart et al. Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2013, vol.80, n.1, pp.00-00. ISSN 2219-0635.. A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records , from two private equine practices in Harare for the period 1998-2004. Results indicated a higher prevalence of the disease in horses in Zimbabwe in the late rainy season (March - May). Age of the horse was found to be a significant risk factor, with foals or yearlings appearing to be 1.80 times more likely to contract the disease compared with horses older than two years. The case fatality rate in foals or yearlings was also higher than in older age groups, but this difference was not significant. The vaccination status was an important risk factor, with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated horses therefore seem to be the most susceptible to the disease I ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay and virus isolation (VI). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this AHSV RTqPCR assay and VI were estimated using a 2-test 2-population Bayesian latent class model which made no assumptions about the true infection status of the tested animals and allowed for the possibility of conditional dependence (correlation) in test results. Median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AHSV RT-qPCR were 97.8% and 99.9%, respectively. Median diagnostic specificity of virus isolation was ,99% whereas the estimated diagnostic sensitivity was 44.2%. The AHSV RT-qPCR assay provides for rapid, high-throughput analysis of samples, and is both analytically and diagnostically ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS ...
A deterministic model for the economic impact of African Horse Sickness (AHS) on the equine breeding industry was developed for South Africa. It was applied to the case of the 2007/2008 outbreak of AHS in the Eastern Cape as a pilot application of the model, using data from breeders in the province. It was concluded that the deterministic models extension to include other areas of equine livelihoods could be effective in exposing the need for further research into the control and treatment of AHS in South Africa. Brooks, Laura
Horse exports from South Africa have been frozen pending the results of tests for African Horse Sickness (AHS), feared to have killed 13 animals in the past month, authorities said. (Yahoo News) Hang in there, whiskeykitten!. Related posts:. Equine herpes outbreak declared "officially over" in Florida. ...
|P>African horse sickness (AHS) has claimed the life of another horse in Lesotho, in southern Africa, raising the death toll to two and the confirmed 2004 case count to 23 as of late April. According to Dr. Malefane Moleko, Chief Veterinary Officer
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed representing the industry stakeh
AN estimated 100 horses have died in KwaZulu-Natal from African horse sickness (AHS) since February 20, the African Horse Sickness Trust announced yesterday....
Horses! Horses! Horses! Horses! I am absolutely horse mad and cant imagine a life without them. Nothing gives me more joy than being around these magnificent animals. I am currently on a journey to be the best horsewoman I can be :) I have been bitten by the natural horsemanship bug and want to combine it with normal training to create the perfect partnership between horse and rider. My goals are to further my parelli training and to improve my riding :) My end goal will be to have my own equine partner that will follow me where ever I go :p I currently have only one blog, called Forever Horses. In this blog I will post interesting equine things I find. I love learning (I cant help it, lol)!!! If I see or hear something that sounds interesting I google it :p I will be starting up a new blog about my journey :) I will share my equine partners (from my past) with everyone, and, hopefully future equines too ...
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The Republic of Ireland (R.O.I.) has a longstanding equine tradition, and it is therefore unsurprising that it has the highest density of sport horses in Europe [60]. A recent estimate valuated the industry in excess of € 1.1 billion per annum [61]. The current national equid population is estimated at approximately 110, 000 animals and it is believed that 53, 000 people are regularly involved in horse riding activities [60]. A conservative figure of the annual expenditure within the industry is estimated at approximately € 400 million [60], while the value of various racing festivals and other meetings to the local economy was valued at € 260 million [61]. Similarly, in Northern Ireland (N.I.), it is estimated that around £ 110 million is spent per annum on equine services and products within the economy, with a further £ 2 million expended outside of N.I. on thoroughbred stud fees. In total, the equid population is estimated at approximately 36, 000 animals with a value of around £ ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. AHS is endemic to South Africa, and, as a result, affects export and ...
Todd was speaking at a recent workshop attended by the most important decision-makers in the South African horseracing industry and was upbeat about the recent progress made by the team chaired by prominent owner and businessman Chris van Niekerk.. "We have been working diligently to fix the issues raised in a 2013 audit by the EU, getting expert advice domestically and internationally, and have verified we are on the right path," said Todd. "There remains work to be done before the official EU audit in the middle of next year, but we know weve made real strides in our record keeping, communication and movement control. We are on path to meet or exceed our commitments to upgrade where necessary.". Exports of South African horses have historically taken months because of a equine disease endemic to Africa called African Horse Sickness (AHS). Just like malaria is transferred through a mosquito bite, AHS is transferred by a bite from the Culicoides Midge.. All horses north of Cape Town have to be ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
which this new offence relates are listed in Schedule 2A of the Bill. Further, horse owners should not be concerned about African Horse Sickness ...
1916 envelope addressed to an officer in the 2nd African Horse Expeditionery Force East Africa. On the reverse is a boxed RETURNED TO POST OFFICE/BY MILITARY AUTHORITIES/AS UNDELIVERABLE and a violet Returned from German east Africa. Undelivered A rare cachet ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
Looking for online definition of cardiac horse sickness in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac horse sickness explanation free. What is cardiac horse sickness? Meaning of cardiac horse sickness medical term. What does cardiac horse sickness mean?
Prof. Peter Mertens studied Virology at Warwick and Oxford Universities, then completed a post-doctoral Fellowship at the University of Guelph in Canada during 1981. He has since worked on the Orbiviruses, particularly Bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses (BTV and AHSV) at the Pirbright Institute (35 years), rising to Head of Group (Arbovirus Molecular Research) and head of Department/Programme (Vector-borne Viral Diseases).. His group was responsible for development of novel diagnostic assays and the epidemiology studies used to identify and track BTV outbreaks across Europe (including the UK from 1998 onwards). Advice and support for Defras Joint Action against Bluetongue (JAB) campaign led to eradication of BTV-8 from the UK and then in northern Europe in 2008-2009. This achievement was recognised by an Innovator of the Year award (2013) from BBSRC. Prof Mertens also played a central role (with colleagues from the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics in Oxford) in ...
In an effort to simplify and expand the utility of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) reverse genetics, different plasmid-based reverse genetics systems were developed. Plasmids containing cDNAs corresponding to each of ...
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,
We are amending the regulations concerning the importation of horses to remove Qatar from the list of regions the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service considers affected with African horse sickness. This action is based on information received from Qatar and is in accordance with the...
Synonyms for encephalosis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for encephalosis. 2 synonyms for encephalopathy: brain disease, brain disorder. What are synonyms for encephalosis?
What does Medical AHS stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of AHS. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang AHS means Amn Healthcare Services. by AcronymAndSlang.com
Fortunately, there is a simple, three step program which serves to cure most of those officers afflicted by this unfortunate, sometimes career-ending
Introduction. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the prototype virus of the Orbivirus genus in the Reoviridae family. Orbiviruses that infect and are transmitted by arthropod vectors (e.g. gnats, ticks, mosquitoes, etc.) include viruses that may cause disease in their vertebrate hosts with serious economic consequences in some regions of the world. The BTV group, which consists of at least 24 different serotypes (BTV-1, -2, etc.), infects field and domestic animals (e.g. sheep and cattle), occasionally with high morbidity and mortality but often with almost no apparent clinical symptoms. Other orbiviruses that may cause disease in animals include African horse sickness virus (AHSV; nine serotypes, AHSV-1, -2, etc.) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV; seven serotypes, EHDV-1, -2, etc.) of deer. Although BTV and AHSV were isolated in 1900, and initial morphological and biochemical characterization were reported as early as 1969 (see review article, Gorman, 1990), much of the current knowledge on the
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most important orbiviruses are bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species. The virons are non-enveloped particles that are ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
No. 24102013-00012-EN. During the period 2001 to 2008, a total of 7,872 equine sera were tested at the Centre of Veterinary Institutes of Athens. Antibodies against seven infectious diseases of equids were determined: equine infectious anaemia (EIA), African horse sickness (AHS), equine viral arteritis (EVA), West Nile encephalitis (WNE), glanders, piroplasmosis and dourine. Tests for the four viral diseases found 4.5% seropositivity for EIA, 0% for AHS, 3.3% for EVA and 4% for WNE. All sera tested for glanders antibodies were negative. Tests for piroplasmosis detected antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in 12.9% and 1.3% of the sera, respectively. No sample tested positive for dourine. The results of this epidemiological survey provide strong evidence that Greece is free from the diseases of AHS, glanders and dourine.. Keywords ...
Christopher Weldon is a PeerJ user. Bio: I lead the Flies of Economic Significance Research Group, which conducts research on the behaviour, ecology and physiology of flies (Insecta: Diptera) that affect human activities in southern Africa. Results from these studies inform sustainable management practices that can reduce reliance on pesticides, but may also facilitate the beneficial use of flies. Students that I supervise are pursuing projects on the invasion of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) in southern Africa, mosquitoes that are vectors for Rift Valley Fever, biting midges that transmit African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses, and blow flies that can be used as forensic evidence or for bioconversion of organic waste. I have a research background that encompasses insect behaviour, ecology and physiology. My research has addressed a range of themes using pest fruit flies, particularly the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and more recently, the Mediterranean fruit fly,
Our group The Non-Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory Group brings together all the reference laboratories working on non-vesicular diseases at Pirbright. These diseases include bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness, African swine fever, morbilliviruses (peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest - which was declared eradicated in May 2011), and capripox viruses (lumpy skin disease and sheep and goat pox).
The Ancestral Health Symposium 2012 starts in a few days. Everyone whos anyone in the Paleo world will gather in Boston. My talk from last year is the most viewed one from AHS 2011. Ill attempt to bring something interesting again.
46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that widespread EEV infections of horses had occurred during the summer of 1967 but that Bluetongue virus, ...
Study Flashcards On Griffin tch A&P AHS 101 Chapter 6 (Skeletal) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Before tonights game at Safeco Field, Torii Hunter and I were talking about Ken Griffey Jr., his greatness and unique style. When I was a young guy, I used to watch everything he did, Hunter said. I loved his swing...
After a brief period as a general practitioner in Reigate, Surrey (1881-83), where he met and married his wife Mary, he entered the Army Medical School in Hampshire at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley. He qualified the military examination in 1883 and joined the Army Medical Services (and served till 1919).[2] For his first post he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1884 and was stationed in Valletta, Malta.[8]. Bruce was appointed Assistant Professor of pathology at the Army Medical School in Netley in 1889, and served there for five years.[7] He returned to military field service in 1894 and was posted to Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. He was assigned to investigate the case of cattle and horse sickness (called nagana) in Zululand. On 27 October 1894, he and his wife moved to Ubombo Hill, where the disease was most prevalent. When the Second Boer War broke out in 1899, accompanied by his wife, he ran the field hospital during the Siege of Ladysmith (2 November 1899 until 28 ...
Subs - Blake - Dean - Major. Twyford Utd made a stunning last minute comeback from being 2-1 down to snatch a late victory over league leaders Potterspury in the Premier Division trophy. United goalkeeper Colin Piggott pulled out shortly before the game due to a sickness virus with defender Jack Arnold taking Piggotts place in the Twyford goal.. In an evenly balanced game both sides did play attractive passing football. Potterspury midfielder Rick Worsfold unfortunately went off with an ankle injury in just the eighth minute of the game and was replaced by Lewis Blake.. There were limited chances for either side in the first half. Uniteds Ash Peacock had the first clear shot on goal in the 18th minute but his effort was easily saved by Sam Kelly.. Sam Wood also had an effort which went over the bar.. However Potterspury always did look dangerous going forward and in the 25th minute were awarded a penalty when Adam Kelly was fouled in the penalty area. Martin Blackwell neatly slotted away the ...
Get quick and affordable treatment at AHS Walk-In Clinic, Inc. in Lafayette, LA. View todays hours, insurance accepted and patient reviews.
Any American who has sought refuge from politics by escaping into the world of sports realizes now that there is no escaping politics. In the last few months, it has become completely impossible to follow sports without being lectured about the oppressive ways of the United States, and its failures to achieve the highest of todays cultural goals: "inclusion." ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with AHS 202 L : anatomy at Cal Poly Pomona. Find AHS202 L study guides, notes, and practice tests from Cal Poly.
Here is the best resource for homework help with BIO 1010 1551 : Bio1010 at Academy Of Health Sciences At Prince Georges Community College. Find BIO 10101551
Sleeping Sickness A distant dual-character piece that seems content to just observe its lived-in perfs and impressive location work.
Does anyone else find sickness just comes on randomly throughout the day.. Tuesday was morning, yesterday 8pm and today 4pm! How strange!!
Well its been awhile since I have posted in here, but I figure now is as good a time as any. I seem to be overwhelming myself again, even though I thought I had.....
CLARKSDALE - Its about to go down!. Area bands, drumlines and majorettes will face off during a "Battle of the Bands" competition hosted by the Coahoma Community College and Agricultural High School (CCC/AHS) Band to help raise money for new uniforms.. The competition is scheduled to kick off at 6 p.m. Friday, Nov. 21, in the Pinnacle located on CCCs campus. CCC Director of Band and Music Instructor James McLeod said that proceeds from the event will benefit the CCC/AHS Band.. "This is the first of many fundraisers to help acquire funds for new uniforms for our band. …Our current uniforms have been in use since 1998 and have seen better days," said McLeod. "The Battle of the Bands is a great way for alumni and community members to help support the Band and have a good time doing it.". Featured bands will include Eastside High School of Cleveland, MS; Rosa Fort High School of Tunica, MS; Madison Palmer High School of Marks, MS; and CCC/AHS. The Sparkling Jewels of Clarksdale, MS are also ...
Click here or above to submit an event for the Department of Allied Health Sciences calendar. For a pdf with directions for submitting an event, click here.. ...
A method for separating and purifying the active hematinic species (AHS) present in iron-saccharidic compositions, including AHS such as sodium ferric gluconate complex, ferric hydroxide-sucrose complex and ferric saccharate complex and others of similar form and function. The method separates the AHS from one or more excipients and, preferably, lyophilizes the separated AHS. Separation of the AHS permits its analytical quantification, further concentration, purification and/or lyophilization as well as preparation of new and useful products and pharmaceutical compositions, including those useful for the treatment of humans and animals.
Altitude Sickness - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information.
Fresh discoveries about the parasite that causes sleeping sickness could lead to new avenues of research into treatments for the disease.
Mold sickness is one of the most commonly misdiagnosed health issues in the United States. Due to the large number of pathogenic species of Fungi.
512.246.8670 *******www.ahsconstruction**** AHS Construction, Inc. Your Central Texas Construction Company for Home Improvements, Custom Patio Covers, Remodeling, and Additions.
Complete, objective travel information on thousands of destinations, including photos and reviews. Add your own wiki-style contributions.
Complete, objective travel information on thousands of destinations, including photos and reviews. Add your own wiki-style contributions.
Employee idea boxes seem like an obvious way to foster the ballyhooed notion of `continuous improvement.' So why don't they work?
If you are a hiker or a mountain climber, you probably already know that altitude sickness can be a huge problem. Not everyone suffers from altitude sickness though it is far more common than you might think. Even on a plane, where your atmosphere is provided and recycled by a pressurized system, some people can still suffer from altitude sickness. You dont want something like altitude sickness ruining your skiing trip, your hiking excursion or even a simple commercial plane ride, for business or pleasure. But what is an individual to do, in order to stave off the effects of altitude sickness? All hope is not lost. Here are a few facts about altitude sickness, so that you can become better acquainted with it and its solutions.. ...
Data Collection Notes: The data available for download are not weighted and users will need to weight the data prior to analysis.. This 2002 HADS dataset is based on the 2002 American Housing Survey (AHS) public use files, but only includes selected AHS variables. Users can make use of all the AHS variables by linking the HADS files to the standard AHS public use files. Since the AHS is a longitudinal survey, successive HADS files can be linked in order to examine changes in housing affordability over time, at the housing unit level. For more information on linking files, please refer to the codebook documentation.. Variable names containing more than 16 characters were truncated in order to be compatible with current statistical programs. Therefore, variable names may differ slightly from those listed in the original documentation.. Value labels for the variables SMSA, VACANCY, METRO, FMTMETRO, BUILT and TYPE were added from the codebook documentation of the AMERICAN HOUSING SURVEY, 2002: ...
Download Sickness images and photos. Over 198,791 Sickness pictures to choose from, with no signup needed. Download in under 30 seconds.
Food poisoning sickness, a lot of normally mentioned as sickness, is that the results of ingestion contaminated, spoiled, or nephritic food. The foremost common symptoms of sickness embrace nausea, vomiting, and looseness of the bowels. Although its quite uncomfortable, sickness isnt uncommon. in keeping with the Centers for unwellness management and bar (CDC), one in vi Americans can contract some sort of sickness per annum. SYMPTOMS Food poisoning symptoms If youve got sickness, likelihood is that it wont go unobserved. Symptoms will vary betting on the supply of the infection. The length of your time it takes for symptoms to seem. Additionally depends on the supply of the infection, however it will vary from as very little as one hour .... Read More » ...
Statistics about African Sleeping sickness as a medical condition including prevalence, incidence, death rates, and social and hospital statistics.
EDMONTON - Albertas health leaders say they will slash budgets, freeze salaries, and reduce hiring in the wake of last weeks provincial budget.Alberta Health Services, the delivery arm of the system...
Avoiding Altitude Sickness - This specific particular medical condition is actually also referred to as Acute Mountain Sickness along with has also been referred to as Hypobaropathy.
Question Mites? Sickness? One of my two 2-year-old chickens died of some disease/injury yesterday. It might have given that disease to my last chicken
Any suggestions for awful morning sickness? Mine is all day and night and its so miserable right now! I have tried multiple ways of using B6 (as...

Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in ZimbabweDescriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe

A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records , from two private equine practices ... This study highlights the importance of adequately protecting horses against African horse sickness by providing immunisation ... GORDON, Stuart et al. Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2013 ... with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0030-24652013000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso

A serological survey of African horse sickness in BotswanaA serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana

HYERA, J M K e BAIPOLEDI, E K. A serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. ... Palavras-chave : African horse sickness (AHS); AHS virus serotypes; Botswana; Culicoides midges; serological survey. ... A retrospective serological survey of African horse sickness (AHS) in Botswana covering a 10-year period (1995-2004) is ... The survey involved horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease; the horses had not been vaccinated against AHS. Over the ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.org.za/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1019-91282008000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 : ReportsnReportsGlobal African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 : ReportsnReports

In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market... ... Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. ... Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 Table of Contents. Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines ... 2.5.1 African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Share of Top 3 ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1151724-global-african-horse-sickness-vaccines-market-research-report-2017.html

Horse diseases-african horse sickness, BiologyHorse diseases-african horse sickness, Biology

African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness Discussions Write discussion on Horse diseases-african horse sickness. Your posts are ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Get Answer, ... African horse sickness. African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an ...
more infohttp://www.expertsmind.com/questions/horse-diseases-african-horse-sickness-30112959.aspx

Seroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia -  - ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical ArticlesSeroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia - - ScopeMed.org - Deposit for Medical Articles

Seroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia. Haji Ende, Habtamu Tassew, Endale Balcha Gurmu, ... In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. ... A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and ... Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
more infohttp://www.scopemed.org/?mno=36879

Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness...Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness...

Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness ... Diagnostic accuracy of a duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay for detection of African horse sickness ... Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated ... South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/39837

Recovery of African horse sickness virus from synthetic RNA | Microbiology SocietyRecovery of African horse sickness virus from synthetic RNA | Microbiology Society

AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common ... African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a ... European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective ... Recovery of African horse sickness virus from synthetic RNA * Yuuki Kaname1, Cristina C. P. Celma1, Yuta Kanai1, Polly Roy1 ...
more infohttps://www.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.055905-0

Abundance and species composition of Culicoides spp. biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland : Acta...Abundance and species composition of Culicoides spp. biting midges near cattle and horse in South-Eastern Poland : Acta...

... cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue ... In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the ... The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful ... horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/ap.2017.62.issue-4/ap-2017-0089/ap-2017-0089.xml

African horse sickness | pathology | Britannica.comAfrican horse sickness | pathology | Britannica.com

... horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) caused by an orbivirus called AHSV (family Reoviridae) that is transmitted by arthropods, ... www.britannica.com/science/African-horse-sickness", "title": "African horse sickness", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED SMALL ... African horse sickness (AHS), also called equine plague, disease of Equidae (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) caused by an ... The disease persists in southern and equatorial Africa, and outbreaks have also occurred in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/African-horse-sickness

African Horse Sickness | Subtopics | TheHorse.comAfrican Horse Sickness | Subtopics | TheHorse.com

African Horse Sickness Found in Western Cape. March 19, 2014. Two horses in South Africas Western Cape have tested positive ... African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement.... Read ... African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement. ... New African Horse Sickness Diagnostic Test Developed. June 26, 2017. The new test takes just four hours to complete. Previous ...
more infohttp://www.thehorse.com/subtopics/african-horse-sickness

African Horse SicknessAfrican Horse Sickness

Horsetalk.co.nz 2039 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak ... Test in a suitcase for African horse sickness virus? May 2, 2014. July 31, 2014. Horsetalk.co.nz 1386 Views 0 Comments African ... Promising new African Horse Sickness vaccine could free up horse movements May 15, 2019. June 11, 2019. Horsetalk.co.nz 2949 ... Suspected case of African Horse Sickness in South Africas suveillance zone April 9, 2016. April 20, 2016. Horsetalk.co.nz 2058 ...
more infohttps://www.horsetalk.co.nz/tag/african-horse-sickness/

Lessons learned from the African Horse Sickness exercise SLEIPNIRLessons learned from the African Horse Sickness exercise 'SLEIPNIR'

Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
more infohttp://library.wur.nl/WebQuery/wurpubs/444223

African horse sickness - WikipediaAfrican horse sickness - Wikipedia

Information Database CIDRAP Overview on African Horse Sickness 3D electron microscopy structures of the African horse sickness ... "Occurrence of African horse sickness in a domestic dog without apparent ingestion of horse meat". Journal of the South African ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease. It commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. It is ... Mild or horse sickness fever form Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. Infected animals may have ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/African_horse_sickness

African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreaks in South Africa | NewsAfrican Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreaks in South Africa | News

African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreaks in South Africa. South Africa has reported three outbreaks of African Horse Sickness ( ... Online sales of horses need closer scrutiny says Blue Cross. *A third of horses recorded with health problems are lame reveals ... New simple health checklist for horse owners helps ensure responsible horse care ... Major outbreak of equine herpesvirus [EHV] among sport horses in Eastern France ...
more infohttps://www.beva.org.uk/News-Archive/entryid/43/African-Horse-Sickness-AHS-outbreaks-in-South-Africa

What is African horse sickness?What is African horse sickness?

The severity of African horse sickness is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of the ... The severity of African horse sickness (AHS) is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of ... Vaccination is crucial for all horses older than six months, and horses should be vaccinated between 1 June and 1 October ... If the horse survives the first stage (the lung stage), it may start showing cardiac signs, and the vet will start to treat ...
more infohttps://www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/horses/what-is-african-horse-sickness/

Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 : ReportsnReportsGlobal African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 : ReportsnReports

This report studies African Horse Sickness Vaccines in Global market,... ... Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group ... 7.3.1 Horses of African Horse Sickness Vaccines Growth Driving Factor Analysis. 7.3.2 Mules of African Horse Sickness Vaccines ... Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 Table of Contents. Global African Horse Sickness ...
more infohttp://www.reportsnreports.com/reports/1343451-global-african-horse-sickness-vaccines-market-professional-survey-report-2018.html

African Horse Sickness: From a First Hand Point of View - In The SaddleAfrican Horse Sickness: From a First Hand Point of View - In The Saddle

African horse sickness is one of the most agonising sicknesses a horse can get and having lived in Botswana for almost 10 years ... What is African Horse Sickness?. African horse sickness is one of the most agonising sicknesses a horse can get and having ... In this blog, Louise Carelsen of Limpopo Valley Horse Safaris talks about their struggles with African horse sickness (AHS), a ... Most of what we were seeing was something our vet calls African Horse Sickness Fever usually presenting as just a medium to ...
more infohttps://www.inthesaddle.com/african-horse-sickness-from-a-first-hand-point-of-view/

Stop African horse sickness in its tracks | Farmers WeeklyStop African horse sickness in its tracks | Farmer's Weekly

Im concerned that my horses may contract African horse sickness. What steps have the government taken to protect horse ... African horse sickness is transmitted by a midge vector called Culicoides (midge) that can still be active at temperatures ... African horse sickness is a non-contagious, infectious, insect-borne disease of equids. Although zebras and donkeys rarely ... The presence of these two vectors places a major portion of SA at risk to outbreaks of African horse sickness. Yes, its ...
more infohttps://www.farmersweekly.co.za/animals/horses/stop-african-horse-sickness-in-its-tracks/

African horse sickness virus induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cellsAfrican horse sickness virus induces apoptosis in cultured mammalian cells

... Stassen, Liesel; Huismans, H. (Henk), 1942-; Theron ... Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects ...
more infohttps://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/18383

African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South...African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South...

South Africa, 2004-2014. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Genomes Analysis Genomics Vaccination Vaccines ... African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, ... The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus ...
more infohttps://www.thefreelibrary.com/African+horse+sickness+caused+by+genome+reassortment+and+reversion+to+...-a0474042469

Arab Horse Articles | African Horse SicknessArab Horse Articles | African Horse Sickness

Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed ... African Horse Sickness Go Back. Author: AHS Trust Date Published: 09 November 2017. Facebook Twitter Google + ... All the information comes to us through our group, AHS African Horse Sickness - the equine challenge, http://www.facebook.com/ ... Please can we ask horse owners to share the following link with owners of horses that may have had AHS this season, and that we ...
more infohttp://www.arabhorse.co.za/a1/general/african-horse-sickness.html

Global African Horse Sickness Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast, 2016 - 2024Global African Horse Sickness Treatment Market Analysis and Forecast, 2016 - 2024

African horse sickness treatment (AHS) market will prove beneficial thus contributing to the growth of the market. ... African Horse Sickness Treatment Market: Overview. African horse sickness (AHS) mainly affects equine species; it is a mild or ... African Horse Sickness Treatment Market: Segmentation. The market for the African horse sickness treatment is globally ... African Horse Sickness Treatment Market: Regional Analysis. Regional diversification of the African horse sickness treatment ...
more infohttps://www.zionmarketresearch.com/report/african-horse-sickness-treatment-market

Canary Database: Browse by Outcome: African Horse SicknessCanary Database: Browse by Outcome: African Horse Sickness

Browse by Outcome: African Horse Sickness (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
more infohttp://podcast.canarydatabase.org/browse/outcome/1748

Surviving African Horse Sickness - The Horse Owners ResourceSurviving African Horse Sickness - The Horse Owner's Resource

The threat of African horse sickness looms large in some parts of the world. Heres the story of how my gelding battled and ... African horse sickness virus is endemic to Southern Africa. Although it is not contagious, AHS is one of the deadliest equine ... they are a mortal threat to our horses because they can carry the virus that causes African horse sickness (AHS), an ... The threat of African horse sickness looms large in some parts of the world. Heres the story of how my gelding battled and ...
more infohttps://equusmagazine.com/diseases/african-horse-sickness-survivor

African Horse Sickness in Horses - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, CostAfrican Horse Sickness in Horses - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Recovery, Management, Cost

This disease is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, however outbreaks have been seen in Egypt, the Middle East and Southern Arabia ... African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a viral disease transmitted by the biting midge. ... Treatment of African Horse Sickness in Horses. Unfortunately, there is no cure for African horse sickness, however supportive ... Causes of African Horse Sickness in Horses. AHS mainly affects equids - horses, mules, donkeys and zebras, but is also seen in ...
more infohttps://wagwalking.com/horse/condition/african-horse-sickness
  • The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful tool in the AHS risk assessment in the nonendemic part of Europe. (degruyter.com)
  • The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. (degruyter.com)
  • AHS manifests itself in four different forms: the pulmonary form, the cardiac form, a mild (horse sickness fever) form, and a mixed form. (wikipedia.org)
  • While I was there one of the horses did indeed get the mild non dangerous form of it and I remember vividly as everyone monitored him carefully and treated him symptomatically. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Horses can also be infected with a combination of the above two types, the disease then shows itself initially by mild respiratory signs followed by the typical swellings of the cardiac form. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Three clinical form of the disease occur, an acute or pulmonary form, a cardiac or sub acute form and a mild form known as 'horse sickness fever'.In the acute form, fever, dyspnoea, increased breathing rate (60-75 per minute), paroxysmal cough and nasal discharge are commonly seen. (expertsmind.com)
  • Marked subcutaneous oedema and hydropericardium are the lesions observed in the cardiac form.In Mild or 'horse sickness fever' form of infection, the clinical signs consist of influenza-like symptoms and a transient fever up to 40 C can occur for 2-3 days. (expertsmind.com)
  • Horses suffering from this form usually present with fever that worsens in the evenings, other symptoms may include mild anorexia and facial swelling. (wagwalking.com)
  • Of course we take other precautions, as well: We turn our horses out later in the day and bring them in before sundown during buggy months, avoiding dusk and dawn when midge activity is at its highest. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The market for the African horse sickness treatment is globally fragmented into clinical forms and diagnosis. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • Information on this disease, its transmission and spread, its clinical signs and diagnosis, and what horse owners can do to help control it. (dmoztools.net)
  • Offers detailed information on the diagnosis and treatment of common diseases affecting the skin, hoofs and digestive system of horses. (dmoztools.net)
  • It was found that several major historical events played a role, since the introduction of horses to southern Africa with AHS influenced the outcomes of some of these events. (nwu.ac.za)
  • The disease was first recognised around 60 years after the initial introduction of horses to Africa in 1657, and the first major outbreak occurred in 1719. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak in UK. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • If you are still experiencing a disease outbreak in your area, the African Horse Sickness Trust has been established to monitor and take samples from suspected cases. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • In the meantime, your vet can treat the symptoms, using anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the fluid in the lungs, or treating piroplasmosis, Lyme disease or babesiosis if the horse is anaemic, shows fever, or has a positive blood smear. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • A source of scientifically-based information about equine colic, its causes, prevention and treatment, for use by both horse owners and veterinary surgeons. (dmoztools.net)
  • Nine British veterinary specialists raise funds to vaccinate hundreds of horses in a remote South African region. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • The key market players that are involved in the African horse sickness treatment market include Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute and Onderstepoort Biological Products SOC Ltd. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • I also remember how we had to vaccinate all 30 horses 2 doses 3 weeks apart as it's a live attenuated vaccine we had to keep it cool all the way from the vet to us, inject it as quickly as possible sub-cutaneous and then rest the horse during the middle week after each vaccine. (inthesaddle.com)
  • It also produces neutralising antibodies when administered to healthy horses. (rybicki.blog)
  • African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, South Africa, 2004-2014. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The importance of the effects of AHS on historical events is highlighted, with the limited movement of horses during the AHS seasons being an imperative historical precaution. (nwu.ac.za)
  • For any horse to develop good immunity against all serotypes you need at least three to four successful vaccinations in a period of 18 to 24 months. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • The mortality rate of this disease may vary depending on the form taken, however horses who are showing symptoms suggestive of this disease should be seen by a veterinarian and quarantined from other animals. (wagwalking.com)
  • The OIE has described management "pillars" to keep most diseases at bay for high-health, high-performance horses. (thehorse.com)
  • Find out which foreign animal diseases North American horse owners need to keep an eye on and why. (thehorse.com)
  • If you visit the group, you will find horse lovers and professionals willing to share information, research, prayers, stories, photographs, alternative, herbal, homeopathic and pharmaceutical remedies, healing methodologies and links to help in the fight against AHS and other insect- borne and infectious equine diseases and conditions. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • It is considered to be one of the most lethal horse diseases with mortality rates exceeding 80% in susceptible hosts. (nwu.ac.za)
  • Indeed, vets are now obliged to take a blood sample from a live horse, or a spleen specimen at post-mortem, if they suspect AHS. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • For more information contact the African Horse Sickness Trust's Douglas Welsh on 082 965 4082 or Dr Dave Mullins on 082 822 6049. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Although it has a less than 5% mortality rate, it unfortunately lowers the resistance of the horse to other viruses like AHS. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Our daily routines do, however, revolve around the need to protect our horses from insects, and we are on constant alert for signs of AHS. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Prophylactic strategies in the control of African horse sickness. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Please can we ask horse owners to share the following link with owners of horses that may have had AHS this season, and that we may not be aware of. (arabhorse.co.za)