African Horse Sickness: An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Orbivirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bluetongue virus: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.Digoxigenin: 3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Hemorrhagic Disease Virus, Epizootic: A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Marketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.HistoryArabs: Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Dental Prosthesis Retention: Holding a DENTAL PROSTHESIS in place by its design, or by the use of additional devices or adhesives.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Denture Retention: The retention of a denture in place by design, device, or adhesion.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Northern IrelandIrelandDisease Eradication: Termination of all transmission of infection by global extermination of the infectious agent through surveillance and containment (From Porta, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed).Decontamination: The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Plantibodies: Recombinant antibodies produced in TRANSGENIC PLANTS. The plants serve as BIOREACTORS to produce the antibodies for medical use or industrial processes.Denture Identification Marking: Any system of defining ownership of dentures or dental prostheses.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Surgery, Veterinary: A board-certified specialty of VETERINARY MEDICINE, requiring at least four years of special education, training, and practice of veterinary surgery after graduation from veterinary school. In the written, oral, and practical examinations candidates may choose either large or small animal surgery. (From AVMA Directory, 43d ed, p278)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Books

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (1/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (2/48)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (3/48)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Transmission patterns of African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses in South African donkeys. (4/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) viruses are endemic to southern Africa. AHS virus causes severe epidemics when introduced to naive equine populations, resulting in severe restrictions on the movement of equines between AHS-positive and negative countries. Recent zoning of South Africa has created an AHS-free zone to facilitate equine movement, but the transmission dynamics of these viruses are not fully understood. Here, we present further analyses of serosurveys of donkeys in South Africa conducted in 1983-5 and in 1993-5. Age-prevalence data are used to derive estimates of the force of infection, A. For both viruses, A was highest in the northeastern part of the country and declined towards the southwest. In most of the country, EE virus had a higher transmission rate than AHS. The force of infection increased for EE virus between 1985 and 1993, but decreased for AHS virus. Both viruses showed high levels of variation in transmission between districts within the same province, particularly in areas of intermediate transmission. These data emphasize the focal nature of these viruses, and indicate areas where further data will assist in understanding the geographical variation in transmission.  (+info)

A first full outer capsid protein sequence data-set in the Orbivirus genus (family Reoviridae): cloning, sequencing, expression and analysis of a complete set of full-length outer capsid VP2 genes of the nine African horsesickness virus serotypes. (5/48)

The outer capsid protein VP2 of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) is a major protective antigen. We have cloned full-length VP2 genes from the reference strains of each of the nine AHSV serotypes. Baculovirus recombinants expressing the cloned VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were constructed, confirming that they all have full open reading frames. This work completes the cloning and expression of the first full set of AHSV VP2 genes. The clones of VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 were sequenced and their amino acid sequences were deduced. Our sequencing data, together with that of the published VP2 genes of serotypes 3, 4, 6 and 9, were used to generate the first complete sequence analysis of all the (sero)types for a species of the Orbivirus genus. Multiple alignment of the VP2 protein sequences showed that homology between all nine AHSV serotypes varied between 47.6 % and 71.4 %, indicating that VP2 is the most variable AHSV protein. Phylogenetic analysis grouped together the AHSV VP2s of serotypes that cross-react serologically. Low identity between serotypes was demonstrated for specific regions within the VP2 amino acid sequences that have been shown to be antigenic and play a role in virus neutralization. The data presented here impact on the development of new vaccines, the identification and characterization of antigenic regions, the development of more rapid molecular methods for serotype identification and the generation of comprehensive databases to support the diagnosis, epidemiology and surveillance of AHS.  (+info)

Expression of the major core antigen VP7 of African horsesickness virus by a recombinant baculovirus and its use as a group-specific diagnostic reagent. (6/48)

The major core protein, VP7, of African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4), the aetiological agent of a recent outbreak of the disease in southern Europe, was expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing a cloned copy of the relevant AHSV gene (S7). Analyses of its biochemical and antigenic properties confirmed the authenticity of the protein expressed. The high-level expression of VP7 under the control of the strong polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus induced disc-shaped crystals in infected insect cells. This enabled us to purify the protein by a one-step ultracentrifugation procedure and to utilize it for the detection of antibodies raised in horses to various serotypes of AHSV. A serological relationship between AHSV and two other orbiviruses, bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, was also demonstrated.  (+info)

A large semi-synthetic single-chain Fv phage display library based on chicken immunoglobulin genes. (7/48)

BACKGROUND: Antibody fragments selected from large combinatorial libraries have numerous applications in diagnosis and therapy. Most existing antibody repertoires are derived from human immunoglobulin genes. Genes from other species can, however, also be used. Because of the way in which gene conversion introduces diversity, the naive antibody repertoire of the chicken can easily be accessed using only two sets of primers. RESULTS: With in vitro diagnostic applications in mind, we have constructed a large library of recombinant filamentous bacteriophages displaying single chain antibody fragments derived from combinatorial pairings of chicken variable heavy and light chains. Synthetically randomised complementarity determining regions are included in some of the heavy chains. Single chain antibody fragments that recognise haptens, proteins and virus particles were selected from this repertoire. Affinities of three different antibody fragments were determined using surface plasmon resonance. Two were in the low nanomolar and one in the subnanomolar range. To illustrate the practical value of antibodies from the library, phage displayed single chain fragments were incorporated into ELISAs aimed at detecting African horsesickness and bluetongue virus particles. Virus antibodies were detected in a competitive ELISA. CONCLUSION: The chicken-derived phage library described here is expected to be a versatile source of recombinant antibody fragments directed against a wide variety of antigens. It has the potential to provide monoclonal reagents with applications in research and diagnostics. For in vitro applications, naive phage libraries based on avian donors may prove to be useful adjuncts to the selectable antibody repertoires that already exist.  (+info)

Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe. (8/48)

Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp.  (+info)

  • Throughout the last century, there has been a steady decline in the number of cases of AHS in South Africa, which correlated with a decline in the number of wild zebra due to hunting. (
  • Currently, AHS is not considered to be endemic in the greater part of South Africa, with the exception of the North-eastern Lowveld of Mpumalanga Province where seroconversion of AHSV occurs in zebra in every month of the year and virtually all adult animals have specific antibodies to all nine serotypes of the virus. (
  • While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. (
  • Pre-vaccination sera were analysed by VP7 indirect ELISA at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute (ARC-OVI) in Pretoria, South Africa to determine prior exposure of the horses to AHS, either by vaccination with the currently used live attenuated vaccine (LAV) mixture produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), or by natural infection. (
  • A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa. (
  • A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia. (
  • AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara Desert in the mid-1600s, with the introduction of horses to southern Africa. (
  • The first recorded reference of AHS occurred in 1327 in Yemen [ 10 ], but it is most likely that the virus originated on the African continent where it could have been transmitted in the natural zebra population [ 2 ]. (
  • I have particular interests in the epidemiological dynamics of various virus infections of humans and other animals, including bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, African horse sickness, canine rabies and emergent lyssavirus and henipavirus infections and the methods needed to study them. (
  • Moreover, besides the inability to differentiate between natural and vaccine-induced immunity (non-DIVA), the LAV is restricted to use within southern Africa and this has significant implications for both the horse export industry as well as the equestrian sporting arena. (
  • DTS Hayman, AD Luis, O Restif, KS Baker, AR Fooks, C Leach, (2018) Maternal antibody and the maintenance of a lyssavirus in populations of seasonally breeding African bats. (
  • Housing horses, especially from dusk to dawn when the insects are most active, together with the use of DEET-based insect repellents , can make a difference. (
  • The aim of the present study was to test the safety and immunogenicity of this VLP candidate vaccine in horses, and to consider ways in which the production platform could be scaled up in a cost-effective manner. (
  • While the chances of African horse sickness reaching the UK immediately are slim, the risk continues to escalate and it is crucial that we stay vigilant and are well prepared. (
  • I also remember how we had to vaccinate all 30 horses 2 doses 3 weeks apart as it's a live attenuated vaccine we had to keep it cool all the way from the vet to us, inject it as quickly as possible sub-cutaneous and then rest the horse during the middle week after each vaccine. (
  • A live attenuated vaccine is in use in Africa but it is not licensed in Europe, due to safety concerns. (
  • The key market players that are involved in the African horse sickness treatment market include Veterinary Serum and Vaccine Research Institute and Onderstepoort Biological Products SOC Ltd. (
  • Researchers at the University of Cape Town's ​Biopharming Research Institute (BRU)​ have created a promising new vaccine candidate to help prevent the devastating effects of African Horse Sickness (AHS). (
  • When we tested the plant-produced vaccine in healthy horses, we saw an immune response at the same level as the live vaccine," she says. (
  • Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. (
  • Moreover, besides the inability to differentiate between natural and vaccine-induced immunity (non-DIVA), the LAV is restricted to use within southern Africa and this has significant implications for both the horse export industry as well as the equestrian sporting arena. (
  • The aim of the present study was to test the safety and immunogenicity of this VLP candidate vaccine in horses, and to consider ways in which the production platform could be scaled up in a cost-effective manner. (
  • A similar strategy was used to make a prototype vaccine for African horse sickness. (
  • A new vaccine for African Horse Sickness has shown promising results in new research. (
  • AHS manifests itself in four different forms: the pulmonary form, the cardiac form, a mild (horse sickness fever) form, and a mixed form. (
  • While I was there one of the horses did indeed get the mild non dangerous form of it and I remember vividly as everyone monitored him carefully and treated him symptomatically. (
  • Marked subcutaneous oedema and hydropericardium are the lesions observed in the cardiac form.In Mild or 'horse sickness fever' form of infection, the clinical signs consist of influenza-like symptoms and a transient fever up to 40 C can occur for 2-3 days. (
  • acute or pulmonary, subacute or cardiac, mixed, and a mild type known as horse sickness fever. (
  • Horses suffering from this form usually present with fever that worsens in the evenings, other symptoms may include mild anorexia and facial swelling. (
  • AHS is transmitted to a horse by the bite of an infected female midge. (
  • However, when horses are in close proximity, the likelihood of a midge biting an infected horse and then going on to bite and infect a healthy animal is obviously increased. (
  • Of course we take other precautions, as well: We turn our horses out later in the day and bring them in before sundown during buggy months, avoiding dusk and dawn when midge activity is at its highest. (
  • The tiny biting midge, as seen here compared to a mosquito, right, is a vector for African horse sickness. (
  • The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. (
  • After a 3-5 day incubation period the horse experiences an acute febrile reaction that may last only 24-48 hr with temperatures as high as 40 degrees C. the fever is followed by respiratory signs associated with pulmonary edema which include tachypnoea, paroxysms of coughing and frothy nasal discharge is voluminous and at the time of death a bubbly liquid may flow from the horse's mouth. (
  • In one fatal human case the clinical syndrome resembled in general that observed in horses while in a second case death occurred after a prolonged clinical course including signs of central nervous system dysfunction one year after infection. (
  • African horse sickness symptoms are the same as those associated with respiratory and circulatory impairment. (
  • The most common organisms associated with pneumonia in horses are opportunistic bacteria originating from the resident microflora of the upper respiratory tract. (
  • S equi equi , the causative agent of strangles (see Strangles in Horses ), is a primary bacterial pathogen of the upper respiratory tract and is capable of mucosal invasion without predisposing factors. (
  • This is in contrast to the original C.imicola vector which is limited to North Africa and the Mediterranean. (
  • African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement. (
  • Climate change is creating conducive conditions for African horse sickness to spread further than it has in the past. (
  • Spread of African horse sickness: Is the answer blowin' in the wind? (
  • AHS is known to be endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, and has spread to Morocco, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan. (
  • It's also crucial to owners that Thailand identifies the source of the sickness and stops the spread as quickly as possible. (
  • It fits with Herodotus' depiction of Scythian funerary rituals, whereby sacrificed horses represented gifts from allied tribes spread across the steppes", says Dr. Pablo Librado, post-doctoral researcher at the Centre for GeoGenetics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and co-leading author of the study. (
  • This is because it is capped by a 1400 m thick layer of erosion resistant lava which welled up and spread across most of Southern Africa when it was still part of Gondwana. (
  • However, with climate change and an increase in the international movement of horses there is a possibility that AHS could reach Britain, although the risk is not presently considered to be high. (
  • The Western Cape Province of South Africa, at the southern tip of the African continent, has historically been free from AHS, and for this reason, a legislatively defined AHS controlled area was created there in 1997 to facilitate movement of horses from South Africa. (
  • The importance of the effects of AHS on historical events is highlighted, with the limited movement of horses during the AHS seasons being an imperative historical precaution. (
  • Two horses in South Africa's Western Cape have tested positive for African horse sickness. (
  • In January 2013, after his victory in South Africa's prestigious Queen's Plate, Variety Club's owners, Markus and Ingrid Jooste, petitioned the Dubai Racing Club for special dispensation from quarantine rules so the horse could ship directly to Dubai for the Godolphin Mile or the Dubai Duty Free. (
  • The organization's plan includes six studies focused on equine influenza, African horse sickness, and glanders. (
  • If the horse has been infected with the fever form prognosis is good, however, recovery following pulmonary or cardiac infection is rarer. (