An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.
A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE infecting a wide range of arthropods and vertebrates including humans. It comprises at least 21 serological subgroups. Transmission is by vectors such as midges, mosquitoes, sandflies, and ticks.
A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.
A species of ORBIVIRUS causing a fatal disease in deer. It is transmitted by flies of the genus Culicoides.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.
Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.

African horse sickness in Portugal: a successful eradication programme. (1/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) was diagnosed for the first time in southern Portugal in autumn 1989, following outbreaks in Spain. AHS virus presence was confirmed by virus isolation and serotyping. An eradication campaign with four sanitary zones was set up by Central Veterinary Services in close collaboration with private organizations. Vaccination began on 6 October. In February 1990, vaccination was extended to all Portuguese equines (170000 animals). There were 137 outbreaks on 104 farms: 206 of the equidae present died (16%) or were slaughtered (14%); 81.5% were horses, 10.7% were donkeys and 7.8% were mules. Clinical AHS occurred more frequently in horses than donkeys and mules. In the vaccinated population, 82 animals (62.2% horses and 37.8% mules and donkeys), died or were slaughtered due to suspected or confirmed AHS. One year after ending vaccination, December 1991, Portugal was declared free of AHS. Cost of eradication was US$1955513 (US$11.5/Portuguese equine).  (+info)

Identification and differentiation of the nine African horse sickness virus serotypes by RT-PCR amplification of the serotype-specific genome segment 2. (2/48)

This paper describes the first RT-PCR for discrimination of the nine African horse sickness virus (AHSV) serotypes. Nine pairs of primers were designed, each being specific for one AHSV serotype. The RT-PCR was sensitive and specific, providing serotyping within 24 h. Perfect agreement was recorded between the RT-PCR and virus neutralization for a coded panel of 56 AHSV reference strains and field isolates. Serotyping was achieved successfully with live and formalin-inactivated AHSVs, with isolates of virus after low and high passage through either tissue culture or suckling mouse brain, with viruses isolated from widely separated geographical areas and with viruses isolated up to 37 years apart. Overall, this RT-PCR provides a rapid and reliable method for the identification and differentiation of the nine AHSV serotypes, which is vital at the start of an outbreak to enable the early selection of a vaccine to control the spread of disease.  (+info)

Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses. (3/48)

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

Transmission patterns of African horse sickness and equine encephalosis viruses in South African donkeys. (4/48)

African horse sickness (AHS) and equine encephalosis (EE) viruses are endemic to southern Africa. AHS virus causes severe epidemics when introduced to naive equine populations, resulting in severe restrictions on the movement of equines between AHS-positive and negative countries. Recent zoning of South Africa has created an AHS-free zone to facilitate equine movement, but the transmission dynamics of these viruses are not fully understood. Here, we present further analyses of serosurveys of donkeys in South Africa conducted in 1983-5 and in 1993-5. Age-prevalence data are used to derive estimates of the force of infection, A. For both viruses, A was highest in the northeastern part of the country and declined towards the southwest. In most of the country, EE virus had a higher transmission rate than AHS. The force of infection increased for EE virus between 1985 and 1993, but decreased for AHS virus. Both viruses showed high levels of variation in transmission between districts within the same province, particularly in areas of intermediate transmission. These data emphasize the focal nature of these viruses, and indicate areas where further data will assist in understanding the geographical variation in transmission.  (+info)

A first full outer capsid protein sequence data-set in the Orbivirus genus (family Reoviridae): cloning, sequencing, expression and analysis of a complete set of full-length outer capsid VP2 genes of the nine African horsesickness virus serotypes. (5/48)

The outer capsid protein VP2 of African horsesickness virus (AHSV) is a major protective antigen. We have cloned full-length VP2 genes from the reference strains of each of the nine AHSV serotypes. Baculovirus recombinants expressing the cloned VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were constructed, confirming that they all have full open reading frames. This work completes the cloning and expression of the first full set of AHSV VP2 genes. The clones of VP2 genes of serotypes 1, 2, 5, 7 and 8 were sequenced and their amino acid sequences were deduced. Our sequencing data, together with that of the published VP2 genes of serotypes 3, 4, 6 and 9, were used to generate the first complete sequence analysis of all the (sero)types for a species of the Orbivirus genus. Multiple alignment of the VP2 protein sequences showed that homology between all nine AHSV serotypes varied between 47.6 % and 71.4 %, indicating that VP2 is the most variable AHSV protein. Phylogenetic analysis grouped together the AHSV VP2s of serotypes that cross-react serologically. Low identity between serotypes was demonstrated for specific regions within the VP2 amino acid sequences that have been shown to be antigenic and play a role in virus neutralization. The data presented here impact on the development of new vaccines, the identification and characterization of antigenic regions, the development of more rapid molecular methods for serotype identification and the generation of comprehensive databases to support the diagnosis, epidemiology and surveillance of AHS.  (+info)

Expression of the major core antigen VP7 of African horsesickness virus by a recombinant baculovirus and its use as a group-specific diagnostic reagent. (6/48)

The major core protein, VP7, of African horsesickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4), the aetiological agent of a recent outbreak of the disease in southern Europe, was expressed in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus containing a cloned copy of the relevant AHSV gene (S7). Analyses of its biochemical and antigenic properties confirmed the authenticity of the protein expressed. The high-level expression of VP7 under the control of the strong polyhedrin promoter of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus induced disc-shaped crystals in infected insect cells. This enabled us to purify the protein by a one-step ultracentrifugation procedure and to utilize it for the detection of antibodies raised in horses to various serotypes of AHSV. A serological relationship between AHSV and two other orbiviruses, bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus, was also demonstrated.  (+info)

A large semi-synthetic single-chain Fv phage display library based on chicken immunoglobulin genes. (7/48)

BACKGROUND: Antibody fragments selected from large combinatorial libraries have numerous applications in diagnosis and therapy. Most existing antibody repertoires are derived from human immunoglobulin genes. Genes from other species can, however, also be used. Because of the way in which gene conversion introduces diversity, the naive antibody repertoire of the chicken can easily be accessed using only two sets of primers. RESULTS: With in vitro diagnostic applications in mind, we have constructed a large library of recombinant filamentous bacteriophages displaying single chain antibody fragments derived from combinatorial pairings of chicken variable heavy and light chains. Synthetically randomised complementarity determining regions are included in some of the heavy chains. Single chain antibody fragments that recognise haptens, proteins and virus particles were selected from this repertoire. Affinities of three different antibody fragments were determined using surface plasmon resonance. Two were in the low nanomolar and one in the subnanomolar range. To illustrate the practical value of antibodies from the library, phage displayed single chain fragments were incorporated into ELISAs aimed at detecting African horsesickness and bluetongue virus particles. Virus antibodies were detected in a competitive ELISA. CONCLUSION: The chicken-derived phage library described here is expected to be a versatile source of recombinant antibody fragments directed against a wide variety of antigens. It has the potential to provide monoclonal reagents with applications in research and diagnostics. For in vitro applications, naive phage libraries based on avian donors may prove to be useful adjuncts to the selectable antibody repertoires that already exist.  (+info)

Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe. (8/48)

Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp.  (+info)

A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. Competitive Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (c-ELISA) configuration was employed to determine the presence of AHSV antibodies. The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. The overall apparent seroprevalence of AHSV in three species equine was found to be 46.2 %. Statistical significant (p 0.05) among age groups and sexes for seroprevalence of AHSV. In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
HYERA, J M K e BAIPOLEDI, E K. A serological survey of African horse sickness in Botswana. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2008, vol.79, n.1, pp.44-45. ISSN 2224-9435.. A retrospective serological survey of African horse sickness (AHS) in Botswana covering a 10-year period (1995-2004) is reported. The survey involved horses showing clinical symptoms of the disease; the horses had not been vaccinated against AHS. Over the period surveyed, serological evidence suggestive of infection with AHS virus (AHSV) was found in 99 clinical cases out of which 41.4 % (41/99) cases were found during the 1st half (1995-1999) and 58.6 % (58/99) cases were found in the 2nd half of the survey period (2000-2004). These serological findings are discussed in relation to AHSV serotypes isolated from diseased horses in Botswana before and during the period of this serological survey.. Palavras-chave : African horse sickness (AHS); AHS virus serotypes; Botswana; Culicoides midges; serological survey. ...
GORDON, Stuart et al. Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2013, vol.80, n.1, pp.00-00. ISSN 2219-0635.. A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records , from two private equine practices in Harare for the period 1998-2004. Results indicated a higher prevalence of the disease in horses in Zimbabwe in the late rainy season (March - May). Age of the horse was found to be a significant risk factor, with foals or yearlings appearing to be 1.80 times more likely to contract the disease compared with horses older than two years. The case fatality rate in foals or yearlings was also higher than in older age groups, but this difference was not significant. The vaccination status was an important risk factor, with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated horses therefore seem to be the most susceptible to the disease I ...
[106 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market...
Blood samples collected from 503 suspect cases of African horse sickness (AHS) and another 503 from uninfected, unvaccinated South African horses, as well as 98 samples from horses from an AHS free country, were tested with an AHS virus (AHSV) specific duplex real-time reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay and virus isolation (VI). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this AHSV RTqPCR assay and VI were estimated using a 2-test 2-population Bayesian latent class model which made no assumptions about the true infection status of the tested animals and allowed for the possibility of conditional dependence (correlation) in test results. Median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AHSV RT-qPCR were 97.8% and 99.9%, respectively. Median diagnostic specificity of virus isolation was ,99% whereas the estimated diagnostic sensitivity was 44.2%. The AHSV RT-qPCR assay provides for rapid, high-throughput analysis of samples, and is both analytically and diagnostically ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has introduced specific guidelines for member countries seeking official recognition of disease-free status. Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. We compared the whole genome sequences of 39 AHS viruses (AHSVs) from field AHS cases to determine the source of 3 such outbreaks. Our analysis confirmed that individual outbreaks were caused by virulent revertants of AHSV type 1 live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) and reassortants with genome segments derived from AHSV types 1, 3, and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. Previously, we reported on the immunogenicity of a plant-produced AHS serotype 5 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine, which stimulated high titres of AHS serotype 5-specific neutralizing antibodies in guinea pigs. Here, we report a similar response to the vaccine in horses. This is the first report demonstrating the safety and immunogenicity of plant-produced AHS VLPs in horses.
The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting midges, which are very small blood-feeding flying insects about 1/8th of an inch in length, Teel said. The immature stages of these insects complete their portion of the midge life cycle in association with wet habitats ranging from permanent and semi-permanent aquatic areas to very moist soils and decaying organic matter.. He explained these are biological vectors meaning that the virus reproduces inside biting midges after blood meals are taken from infected animals; the resulting infected midges are then able to infect new animals. We have biting midges in the U.S., Teel said. They are involved in the transmission of two similar viruses causing diseases known as blue tongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease in livestock and wildlife.. He said Texas has biting midges and both diseases. AgriLife Research entomologists have been involved in studying the taxonomy, ecology and management of biting midges associated ...
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease spread by biting insects that affects horses, mules, and donkeys but rarely zebras.
BANGKOK (Xinhua): Thailands Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to contain the African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreak.
African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. It is characterized...
Europe African Horse Sickness Treatment Market size is poised to reach USD xx million by 2025, to grow at a CAGR of xx.x% from 2020 to 2025. Different countries of Europe covered in this report are United Kingdom, Germany, Spain, Italy and France.
Although it is not infectious - an infected insect is always the intermediate host - African horse sickness is the most feared of all equine diseases.. There are two forms; the pulmonary form is the most lethal and recovery is rare. A very high temperature quickly leads to severe respiratory distress, a frothy discharge from the nose and then death. The cardiac form results in a more persistent high temperature that gradually leads to swelling of the head, initially above the eyes, but then spreads to the rest of the head and neck. The mortality rate is about 50%, but any haemorrhaging from the eyes and mouth is a poor indicator for survival.. ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of African Horse Sickness. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the MSD Vet Manual.
Biology Assignment Help, Horse diseases-african horse sickness, African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an Orbivirus (family Reoviridae) and characterized by severe pyrexia, respiratory distress and high mortality (up to 95%). with e
Run by Racing South Africa, the Equine Research Centre & Onderstepoort Veterinary Products. The AHS Trust has been formed representing the industry stakeh
The whole of the literary matter of the Proceedings of the 36th World Veterinary Association Congress is copyright New Zealand Veterinary Association, Downloading this article signifies agreement with the terms and conditions of electronic access.. ...
African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. The equids most severely affected by the virus are horses, ponies, and European donkeys; mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. as its vector, has drastically increased its range into previously unaffected regions in northern Europe, utilising indigenous vector species, and causing widespread economic damage to the agricultural sector. Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. While the current risk for the
African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. AHS is endemic to South Africa, and, as a result, affects export and ...
Todd was speaking at a recent workshop attended by the most important decision-makers in the South African horseracing industry and was upbeat about the recent progress made by the team chaired by prominent owner and businessman Chris van Niekerk.. We have been working diligently to fix the issues raised in a 2013 audit by the EU, getting expert advice domestically and internationally, and have verified we are on the right path, said Todd. There remains work to be done before the official EU audit in the middle of next year, but we know weve made real strides in our record keeping, communication and movement control. We are on path to meet or exceed our commitments to upgrade where necessary.. Exports of South African horses have historically taken months because of a equine disease endemic to Africa called African Horse Sickness (AHS). Just like malaria is transferred through a mosquito bite, AHS is transferred by a bite from the Culicoides Midge.. All horses north of Cape Town have to be ...
Commenting on the cases of strangles in Newmarket, British Equine Veterinary Associations (BEVA) Professor Josh Slater echoed the warning issued by Animal Health Trust (AHT) chief executive Dr Peter Webbon. At the British Horseracing Authority (BHA) conference last month, Dr Webbon warned that the health of Britains horse population is in more danger from diseases such as strangles, equine flu and equine herpes virus (EHV) than exotics such as African horse sickness (AHS). We worry greatly about the massive impact exotic diseases would have if they arrived here, but it is easy to overlook what is on our doorstep, Prof Slater said. There are significant welfare and economic problems caused by non-notifiable diseases that are here now.. ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
After setting off in 2003 to ride from South Africa to Kenya, Horst Hausleitner and Esther Stein suffered through severe weather, survived a mob attack, and endured primitive conditions. Things weren t much better for their horses either. One horse suffered from biliary fever and another nearly died from snakebite.. That s when the third horse became ill.. We were two days away from finishing our journey when our horse Misty became ill at noon. She was dead by sunset, a victim of the most virulent strain of African Horse Sickness. Tsetse Fly. The next time you complain about an annoying house fly buzzing about the room, give a thought to how much worse things might be. Unlike the mosquito, the tsetse fly won t politely buzz in your ear. This belligerent insect will deliberately hunt you down and then drill straight through your clothes in search of blood. Nor does his bite provoke a mild itch. It stings, badly. And he s responsible for killing millions of head of livestock and hundreds of ...
My research interests focus on the dynamic processes represented in all infectious diseases, at scales from the cellular and sub-cellular through to the more traditionally studied epidemiological scales of the population and metapopulation. Mathematical modelling and more traditional epidemiological approaches are combined with detailed molecular studies of pathogen and host in a multidisciplinary framework.. All studies of any infection must also consider the ecology of the host as well as of the infection itself and its pathogenesis. I have particular interests in the epidemiological dynamics of various virus infections of humans and other animals, including bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, African horse sickness, canine rabies and emergent lyssavirus and henipavirus infections and the methods needed to study them. Bovine tuberculosis poses interesting challenges at the interface of science and policy and is an important disease and challenge. Funded studies include the emergence of zoonotic ...
which this new offence relates are listed in Schedule 2A of the Bill. Further, horse owners should not be concerned about African Horse Sickness ...
It is our goal to leave you with a great looking lawn after every visit. We recommend that you become a part of our weekly service for best results [...]. ...
African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. AHSV (nine serotypes) is a member of the genus Orbivirus, with a morphology and coding strategy similar to that of the type member, bluetongue virus. However, these viruses are distinct at the genetic level, in the proteins they encode and in their pathobiology. AHSV infection of horses is highly virulent with a mortality rate of up to 90 %. AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides, a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. As a result, a safe and effective vaccine is sought urgently. As part of a programme to generate a designed highly attenuated vaccine, we report here the recovery of AHSV from a complete set of RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from cDNA clones. We have demonstrated the generation of mutant and reassortant AHSV genomes, their recovery, stable passage, and characterization. Our findings provide a new approach to investigate AHSV
Looking for online definition of cardiac horse sickness in the Medical Dictionary? cardiac horse sickness explanation free. What is cardiac horse sickness? Meaning of cardiac horse sickness medical term. What does cardiac horse sickness mean?
Culicoides-borne orbiviruses, such as bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV), are important pathogens that cause animal epidemic diseases leading to significant loss of domestic animals. This study was conducted to identify Culicoides-borne arboviruses and to investigate the associated infections in local livestock in Yunnan, China. Culicoides were collected overnight in Mangshi City using light traps during August 2013. A virus was isolated from the collected Culicoides and grown using baby hamster kidney (BHK-21), Vero, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) and Aedes albopictus (C6/36) cells. Preliminary identification of the virus was performed by polyacrylamide gel (PAGE) analysis. A full-length cDNA copy of the genome was amplified and sequenced. Serological investigations were conducted in local cattle, buffalo and goat using plaque-reduction neutralization tests. We isolated a viral strain (DH13C120) that caused
The purpose of this project was to define monoclonal antibodies against viral proteins from Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus (EHDV) to be used in quality control of vaccines produced by an industrial partner, and development of tools to identify EHDV. EHDV is an Orbivirus, which also includes Bluetongue Virus and African Horse Sickness, which are all transmitted through arthropod vectors. EHDV causes significant morbidity and mortality in white-tailed deer, but has recently been found to infect cattle. EHDV recently caused significant outbreaks affecting both the farmed and wild cervid industry, however few reagents and tools exist to protect against this disease or define the virus in vitro. To develop new, efficient reagents that can be used to identify EHDV, we identified and tested monoclonal antibodies against two different viral capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5. To do this, predictive algorithms were used to generate immunogenic peptides specific for each protein. Three groups of mice were used,
During 2008-2009 in Israel, equine encephalosis virus (EEV) caused febrile outbreaks in horses. Phylogenetic analysis of segment 10 of the virus strains showed that they form a new cluster; analysis of segment 2 showed ≈92% sequence identity to EEV ...
What does Medical AHS stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of AHS. The Medical Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang AHS means Amn Healthcare Services. by AcronymAndSlang.com
The genus Orbivirus is a member of the Reoviridae family, in the subfamily Sedoreovirinae. Unlike the other reoviruses, orbiviruses are arboviruses. This genus currently contains 22 species (including the type species Bluetongue virus) and at least 130 different serotypes. Orbiviruses can infect and replicate within a wide range of arthropod and vertebrate hosts. Orbiviruses are named after their characteristic doughnut shaped capsomers (Orbi in Latin means ring). Many orbiviruses are transmitted by ticks or haematophagus insect vectors (Culicoides, mosquitoes and sand flies) and have a wide host range that includes cattle, goats and sheep, wild ruminants, equids, camelids, marsupials, sloths, bats, birds, large canine and feline carnivores and humans. The three economically most important orbiviruses are bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus all of which are transmitted by Culicoides species. The virons are non-enveloped particles that are ...
AbstractThe aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. Culicoides spp. are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). The latter two have been already reported in Polish ruminants recently, while AHSV remains absent, however the risk of its emergence has been increasing in the recent years. In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. Another trap has been placed 7 km away at the cattle farm. The collections were carried over the midge activity season from April until November 2016. The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. Midges belonging to C. obsoletus/scoticus complex were
No. 24102013-00012-EN. During the period 2001 to 2008, a total of 7,872 equine sera were tested at the Centre of Veterinary Institutes of Athens. Antibodies against seven infectious diseases of equids were determined: equine infectious anaemia (EIA), African horse sickness (AHS), equine viral arteritis (EVA), West Nile encephalitis (WNE), glanders, piroplasmosis and dourine. Tests for the four viral diseases found 4.5% seropositivity for EIA, 0% for AHS, 3.3% for EVA and 4% for WNE. All sera tested for glanders antibodies were negative. Tests for piroplasmosis detected antibodies against T. equi and B. caballi in 12.9% and 1.3% of the sera, respectively. No sample tested positive for dourine. The results of this epidemiological survey provide strong evidence that Greece is free from the diseases of AHS, glanders and dourine.. Keywords ...
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are currently the most important biological vectors of livestock arboviruses in Europe. Outbreaks of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) continue to have a significant economic impact through clinical disease and the imposition of animal trade movement restrictions. At least three Culicoides-borne viruses recently identified in Europe possess an unknown origin, hence future outbreaks involving described or undescribed strains or species of Culicoides-borne viruses have a high potential of occurring in the future. These viruses could include further incursions of known arboviruses (including additional species of Culicoides-borne arboviruses such as African horse sickness or Epizootic Haemorhagic Disease Virus) or as yet undescribed species with an unknown pathogenicity to livestock or humans. In this project we will dissect Culicoides vector-arbovirus relationships across multiple ecosystems and species and in unprecedented ...
Christopher Weldon is a PeerJ user. Bio: I lead the Flies of Economic Significance Research Group, which conducts research on the behaviour, ecology and physiology of flies (Insecta: Diptera) that affect human activities in southern Africa. Results from these studies inform sustainable management practices that can reduce reliance on pesticides, but may also facilitate the beneficial use of flies. Students that I supervise are pursuing projects on the invasion of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) in southern Africa, mosquitoes that are vectors for Rift Valley Fever, biting midges that transmit African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses, and blow flies that can be used as forensic evidence or for bioconversion of organic waste. I have a research background that encompasses insect behaviour, ecology and physiology. My research has addressed a range of themes using pest fruit flies, particularly the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and more recently, the Mediterranean fruit fly,
Our group The Non-Vesicular Disease Reference Laboratory Group brings together all the reference laboratories working on non-vesicular diseases at Pirbright. These diseases include bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness, African swine fever, morbilliviruses (peste des petits ruminants and rinderpest - which was declared eradicated in May 2011), and capripox viruses (lumpy skin disease and sheep and goat pox).
The Ancestral Health Symposium 2012 starts in a few days. Everyone whos anyone in the Paleo world will gather in Boston. My talk from last year is the most viewed one from AHS 2011. Ill attempt to bring something interesting again.
AHS205 The Australian Healthcare System within a Global Context Assignment Sample is now available for students of Laureate International Universities on My Assignment Services.
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46 Bluetongue Dating divergence times for bluetongue virus and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus serotypes The nucleotide sequences of Seg-2 from BTV and EHDV provide a basis for the calculation of molecular evolutionary rates (MER) using Bayesian methodologies (Drummond and Rambaut, 2007). Upper and lower limits for the evolutionary rate of Seg-2 were estimated at 10À4 and 10À5 changes/site/year. These values were used to calculate the time at which different BTV serotypes diverged from a common ancestor (using the formula: divergence time = [geneticdistance/2*1/MER]). Nomikou), India (personal communication: Dr. S. , 2004), Taiwan and Indonesia. Equine encephalosis virus Equine encephalosis virus is associated with disease of horses in southern Africa. The virus was first identified in 1967 from horses that died from an unknown peracute illness. Serological investigations revealed that widespread EEV infections of horses had occurred during the summer of 1967 but that Bluetongue virus, ...
Merchandise trade and tariff statistics Stages Of Processing import AHS Weighted Average (%) data by Kenya (KEN) from By Country (by-country) for years 2015 to 2019
Study Flashcards On Griffin tch A&P AHS 101 Chapter 6 (Skeletal) at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Dr Simona Salomon, Deputy Director General, Veterinary Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Food, Ljubljana, informed the OIE that a simulation exercise on transboundary animal diseases (African horse sickness, African swine fever, avian influenza, bluetongue, classical swine fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot and mouth disease, lumpy skin disease, Newcastle disease, peste des petits ruminants, Rift valley fever, rinderpest, sheep pox and goat pox, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis) will take place in Slovenia, from 10 to 11 June 2011.. This simulation exercise has been prepared in collaboration with the Administration of the Republic of Slovenia for civil protection and disaster relief. Representatives of veterinary services, army, police, civil services will practice implementation of measures in case of an outbreak of one of these transboundary diseases, e.g. establishing protection and surveillance zones, setting up the ...
Improve the diversity of AHS, to build a culture that allows for the inclusion of underrepresented groups within the organization, to provide an avenue for reporting of discriminatory action/language at the AHS meetings to facilitate change, and to oversee the Inclusivity and Non-Discrimination Advisory Council ...
Just as the shark hunters in Jaws realized pretty early on that they were going to need a bigger boat, Alberta Health Services (AHS) acknowledged that it needs a bigger, better online immunization booking tool.
Before tonights game at Safeco Field, Torii Hunter and I were talking about Ken Griffey Jr., his greatness and unique style. When I was a young guy, I used to watch everything he did, Hunter said. I loved his swing...
After a brief period as a general practitioner in Reigate, Surrey (1881-83), where he met and married his wife Mary, he entered the Army Medical School in Hampshire at the Royal Victoria Hospital, Netley. He qualified the military examination in 1883 and joined the Army Medical Services (and served till 1919).[2] For his first post he joined the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1884 and was stationed in Valletta, Malta.[8]. Bruce was appointed Assistant Professor of pathology at the Army Medical School in Netley in 1889, and served there for five years.[7] He returned to military field service in 1894 and was posted to Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. He was assigned to investigate the case of cattle and horse sickness (called nagana) in Zululand. On 27 October 1894, he and his wife moved to Ubombo Hill, where the disease was most prevalent. When the Second Boer War broke out in 1899, accompanied by his wife, he ran the field hospital during the Siege of Ladysmith (2 November 1899 until 28 ...
Subs - Blake - Dean - Major. Twyford Utd made a stunning last minute comeback from being 2-1 down to snatch a late victory over league leaders Potterspury in the Premier Division trophy. United goalkeeper Colin Piggott pulled out shortly before the game due to a sickness virus with defender Jack Arnold taking Piggotts place in the Twyford goal.. In an evenly balanced game both sides did play attractive passing football. Potterspury midfielder Rick Worsfold unfortunately went off with an ankle injury in just the eighth minute of the game and was replaced by Lewis Blake.. There were limited chances for either side in the first half. Uniteds Ash Peacock had the first clear shot on goal in the 18th minute but his effort was easily saved by Sam Kelly.. Sam Wood also had an effort which went over the bar.. However Potterspury always did look dangerous going forward and in the 25th minute were awarded a penalty when Adam Kelly was fouled in the penalty area. Martin Blackwell neatly slotted away the ...
Get quick and affordable treatment at AHS Walk-In Clinic, Inc. in Lafayette, LA. View todays hours, insurance accepted and patient reviews.
Haliah, I am in contact with the AHS folks regarding this unique situation, and that is all I will say about that. To you as an attendee I would say this: AHS is not like other conferences youve attended. Before it became clear I would be unable to attend last year, I faced the possibility of not being able to make the entire conference. As such, I was checking the schedule to see if it would be still worth my while if I had to miss the first day and/or leave on Saturday -- I had certain talks in mind to attend. The tentative schedule was missing quite a few names and had new ones vs. the speakers listed back when I purchased my ticket in March, and changed significantly in the final weeks. As did topic titles. There are some presenters this year who still do not have topics listed, I dont know whats up with that. One of the organizers himself backed out of AHS12 fairly late in the game, though he was able to substitute a colleague in his place. If you go to the program site today, they say ...
Any American who has sought refuge from politics by escaping into the world of sports realizes now that there is no escaping politics. In the last few months, it has become completely impossible to follow sports without being lectured about the oppressive ways of the United States, and its failures to achieve the highest of todays cultural goals: inclusion. ...
African horse sickness is related to Bluetongue and is spread by the same midges (Culicoides species). It can kill the horses ... African Horse Sickness - Clinical Findings and Lesions, The Merck Veterinary Manual. Introduction to disease in The Merck ... For many decades bluetongue was thought to be confined to Africa. The first confirmed outbreak outside of Africa occurred in ... In Africa, local breeds of sheep may have no mortality, but in imported breeds it may be up to 90 percent. In cattle, goats and ...
Stone-Marschat M, Carville A, Skowronek A, Laegreid WW (March 1994). "Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse ...
It is considered a possible vector for African horse sickness. It is closely related to Culicoides imicola. Meiswinkel R (1989 ... a recently identified vector of African horse sickness". Bull Entomol Res. 90 (6): 509-15. PMID 11107252. Paweska, J. T.; ... reared from the dung of the African buffalo, blue wildebeest and cattle in South Africa". Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 56 (1): 23- ... Culicoides bolitinos is an African species of bloodsucking fly that breeds in the dung of the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer ...
... which cause various diseases in ruminants and horses, including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine ... Maclachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ (December 2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other orbivirus diseases". ... The vesicular stomatitis virus causes disease in cattle, horses, and pigs. Bats harbor many viruses including ebolaviruses and ... The Experience of African-Born Persons Living With HIV in the US". Pharmacy. 8 (2): E92. doi:10.3390/pharmacy8020092. PMC ...
... which cause various diseases in ruminants and horses, including Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Equine ... Maclachlan NJ, Guthrie AJ (December 2010). "Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other orbivirus diseases". ... The vesicular stomatitis virus causes disease in cattle, horses, and pigs. Bats harbor many viruses including ebolaviruses and ...
South African Horse-sickness: Its Pathology and Methods of Protective Inoculation. Harrison and Sons. 1900b. "South African ... South-African horse-sickness: its pathology and methods of protective inoculation (Thesis). University of Edinburgh. 1900a. hdl ... In 1900 he was awarded a doctorate for his thesis,[citation needed] South-African horse-sickness: its pathology and methods of ... He was president of the first medical congress in South Africa and editor of the South African Medical Journal. ...
Includes: Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, among others. Known ...
... related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV) and Bluetongue virus (BTV). First described in South Africa over a hundred years ... "Investigations on outbreaks of African horse sickness in the surveillance zone in South Africa". Rev Sci Tech Off Int Epiz. 25 ... such as the African horse sickness virus. As with all vector-borne diseases, EEV is not transmissible from host-to-host, rather ... caused great concern primarily due to the similarity of EEV with the African horse sickness virus, one of the most devastating ...
Besides EHDV and BTV, other orbiviruses include equine encephalosis virus and African horse sickness virus. Epizootic ... "PCR detection of North American and Central African isolates of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) based on genome ...
... and the African horse sickness virus. This particular species has been recorded in Africa, Asia and Europe. African midges feed ... Culicoides imicola is also known to be the only field vector for the African horse sickness (AHS). In the past, AHS has only ... In Africa, C. imicola is known to feed on horse, cattle, and sheep. Nonetheless, their feeding preferences haven't been studied ... The expansion of C. imicola out of its traditional Old World region of Africa and Asia may be a risk for significant spread ...
... es listed by serogroup Lebombo virus Pata virus African horse sickness virus (Serotypes 1-9) African horse sickness ... In 1719, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) caused the first major recorded orbivirus epidemic, killing 1,500 animals. The ... Other species of orbiviruses are responsible for other diseases of animals such as African horse sickness and equine ... The genus Orbivirus contains the following species: African horse sickness virus Bluetongue virus Changuinola virus Chenuda ...
In 1886 he was ordered to go to South Africa to investigate a major outbreak of horse sickness. He first undertook courses in ... Reports on African Horse Sickness (1888) Notes on Stable Management in India and the Colonies (1896) Lectures on Saddlery and ... He reached South Africa in January 1887. He proved the disease was malarial in origin. In 1888 he took part in the Zulu ... He returned to South Africa as an Advocate of the Supreme Court of the Transvaal. This move was however short-lived and he ...
Found in North America, C. variipennis transmits Bluetongue virus, African horse sickness virus, akabane virus, and epizootic ...
... were the etiology of the cattle disease lamsiekte and the development of a successful vaccine against African horse sickness. ... During World War II South Africa supplied horsesickness vaccines to the British forces in Egypt and the Middle East, and played ... He contributed to the development of polyvalent horse sickness and bluetongue vaccines, and determined Culicoides spp as ... Du Toit was President of the South African Veterinary Association (SAVA) from 1924 to 1930, President of the South African ...
... and African horse sickness. Jackals in Etosha National Park may carry anthrax. Black-backed jackals are major rabies vectors, ... In East Africa, during the dry season, they hunt the young of gazelles, impalas, topi, tsessebe, and warthogs. In South Africa ... Kingdon, J. (1977), East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa, Volume 3, Part A: Carnivores, University of Chicago ... South Africa has been using fencing systems to protect sheep from jackals since the 1890s, though such measures have mixed ...
Among diseases transmitted are the parasitic nematodes Mansonella, bluetongue disease, African horse sickness, epizootic ...
... such as equine influenza and African horse sickness to domestic horses. They also may carry tick fever, which can be passed to ... Horse excrement carcasses that result when feral horses perish add to the negative environmental impact of feral horses in ... Kosciuszko National Park Horse Management Plan, p. 1 Kosciuszko National Park Horse Management Plan, p. 17 "Feral Horse ... who believe feral horses belong to the country. Other horse interest groups resent the labelling of horses as "feral" and are ...
... and they transmit African horse sickness virus between horses and other equids. Culicoides midges transmit Leucocytozoon ... Mellor, P.S. (1995) The transmission and geographical spread of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses Annals of ... There are commercially available vaccines to protect animals against bluetongue, and African horse sickness Myiasis: Centers ... The horse licks at the irritated skin and the larvae transfer to the mouth of horse. The larvae penetrate tissues in the oral ...
... the wild ass population was reduced to just 870 after the outbreak of South African Horse Sickness. Besides disease, the ass's ... The Indian wild ass, as with most other Asian wild ass subspecies, is quite different from the African wild ass species. The ...
A disease known as the "South African horse sickness" caused a major decline to the Indian wild ass population in the 1960s. ... Onagers are the most horse-like of wild asses. They are short-legged compared to horses, and their coloring varies depending on ... Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1992). Horse Power: A History of the Horse and the Donkey in Human Societies. Boston, Massachusetts, US ... Unlike most horses and donkeys, onagers have never been domesticated. They are among the fastest mammals, as they can run as ...
... a devastating epidemic of African horse sickness hit Egypt, killing thousands of horses, including many horses of prized ... Arabian Horse - Bloodlines - "Crabbet Arabians--Desert Roots" Arabian Horse - Bloodlines - "Egyptian Arabians" Derry, Margaret ... Ali Pasha Sherif purchased approximately 30 horses of the original Abbas I Pasha stock, ultimately owning four hundred horses ... Only the horses Ali Pasha Sherif had moved to upper Egypt were saved. As he aged, Ali Pasha Sherif's health failed and he ...
Horse flies, in particular, spread diseases that are lethal to equines such as African horse sickness, equine influenza, equine ... Zebras have been featured in African art and culture for millennia. They are depicted in rock art in Southern Africa dating ... Its origins may lie in the Latin equiferus meaning "wild horse"; from equus ("horse") and ferus ("wild, untamed"). Equiferus ... Kingdon, J. (1988). East African Mammals: An Atlas of Evolution in Africa. 3, Part B: Large Mammals. University of Chicago ...
The extended quarantine period was considered necessary as many countries feared the importation of the African horse sickness ... champion middle-distance horse and South African Horse of the Year. His trainer Joey Ramsden said "He was great throughout the ... He is my horse but he really belongs to the whole of South Africa." Shortly after his win in the Godolphin Mile, Variety Club ... After the race Ramsden said "It is fantastic for a horse to come all the way from South Africa - to compete, let alone win, is ...
... after vaccinating horses against African horse sickness using a live virus vaccine and equine antiserum. It was later described ... African horse sickness, Eastern and Western Equine Encephalitis, Bacillus anthracis, tetanus antitoxin, Clostridium perfringens ... Horses are rarely hypoglycemic, but blood glucose monitoring is ideal to indicate which horses may be benefited by glucose ... GGT may remain elevated for weeks even if the horse is recovering. Horses that survive for greater than one week and that ...
Some of them spread the livestock diseases blue tongue and African horse sickness - other species though, are at least partly ... Weaving, Alan; Picker, Mike; Griffiths, Charles Llewellyn (2003). Field Guide to Insects of South Africa. New Holland ...
Unfortunately, an epidemic of African horse sickness in the 1870s that killed thousands of horses throughout Egypt decimated ... Their war horses were of various oriental types, including both Arabians and the Barb horse of North Africa. Arabian horses ... Derry, Horses in Society, pp. 137-139 Archer, Arabian Horse, pp. 72-73 Archer, Arabian Horse, pp. 73-76 Derry, Horses in ... Horse Genetics. "Roan Horses". The Horse Genetics Web Site. Horse Genetics. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. ...
This institute under his leadership carried out research on African horse sickness, sleeping sickness, malaria, East Coast ... when he observed the symptoms of liver disease in animals vaccinated against African horse sickness with a combination of live ... In 1891 Theiler travelled to South Africa and at first found employment as a farm worker on Irene Estates near Pretoria, owned ... Jaff, Fay (1963). "Arnold Theiler - Veterinary Genius and Founder of Onderstepoort". They Came to South Africa. Cape Town: H. ...
... for his work on trypanosomes and African horse sickness. The British Association Medal (silver), originally funded by a grant ... The Southern Africa Association for the Advancement of Science (S2A3 or S2A3) is a learned society, originally known as the ... The South African Association for the Advancement of Science was founded in 1902 and modelled on the British Association for ... The South Africa Medal (gold), originally funded by a grant from the British Science Association in 1905, is awarded annually ...
... in the Lydda-Ramle district of Mandatory Palestine whose equine population was struck by an epidemic of African horse sickness ... orders preventing the movement of horses outside of town between September and November 1944 and the deaths of 730 horses in ...
Horses - horse manure, roadapple (before motor vehicles became common, horse droppings were a big part of the rubbish ... Heinrich B, Bartholomew GA (1979). "The ecology of the African dung beetle". Scientific American. 241 (5): 146-56. doi:10.1038/ ... as consuming or touching it may result in sickness or infection.[3] Human perception of the odor may be contrasted by a non- ...
Includes losses from sickness and desertion. *^ a b Hinterhoff, Eugene (1984). Persia: The Stepping Stone To India. Marshall ... Scramble for Africa (1880-1914). *Russo-Japanese War (1905). *Tangier Crisis (1905-06) ...
A pair of pygmy right whales were retained in an enclosed area (with nets); they were eventually released in South Africa. ... Whales swim in response to sonar and sometimes experience decompression sickness due to rapid changes in depth. Mass strandings ... Piantadosi, C. A.; Thalmann, E. D. (2004). "Pathology: whales, sonar and decompression sickness". Nature. 428 (6894): 716-718. ... It appears to be a form of play and is most commonly seen off the coast of Argentina and South Africa. Humpback whales, among ...
African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness".. *^ Iliffe, John (1989). "The Origins of African Population Growth". The Journal ... The Scramble for Africa, also called the Partition of Africa or the Conquest of Africa, was the invasion, occupation, division ... "What Caused the Scramble for Africa?" African History (2012). online. *Brantlinger, Patrick. "Victorians and Africans: The ... Rinderpest continued to infect 90% of Africa's cattle. African cattle was severely damaged, destroying the African livelihood, ...
... and the absence of horse sickness. Bloemfontein was the original farm of Johannes Nicolaas Brits born 21 February 1790, owner ... New Africa Books. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-86486-471-0. .. *^ "History of Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa". Bloemfontein Guide ... Statistics South Africa. Retrieved 15 December 2017.. *^ "Bloemfontein , national judicial capital, South Africa". Encyclopedia ... Section 109 of South Africa Act, 1909 *^ The South Africa Act, 1909. The American Journal of International Law. 1 January 1910 ...
The anti-diphtheria serum which was able to agglutinate the bacteria and neutralize the toxin was supplied by a horse ... they were able to observe all the typical signs of the sickness. Roux and Yersin established that they were dealing with a new ... Bangui, Central African Republic. *Brussels, Belgium. *Rome, Italy[8]. *São Paulo, Brazil ... a subscription fund was opened to raise the money needed to provide the Institute the number of horses necessary to produce ...
African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense range of wild animals and domestic livestock transmitted by the bite ... horses, bats exposure to feces, urine, saliva or contact with sick horses ... birds, horses mosquito bite Zika fever Zika virus chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, monkeys, baboons mosquito bite, sexual ... horses, donkeys, zebras, birds mosquito bite Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever) Ebolavirus spp. chimpanzees, gorillas, ...
... the African horse sickness and unsuitable terrain that limited the effectiveness of horses in many parts of Africa, horses were ... Law, Robin (1980). The horse in West African history : the role of the horse in the societies of pre-colonial West Africa. ... One example is the Horse Memorial in Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa.[201] Both horses and mules ... The African slave trade was closely tied to the imports of war horses, and as the prevalence of slaving decreased, fewer horses ...
The main variants named using this convention are: bird flu, human flu, swine flu, horse flu and dog flu. (Cat flu generally ... A 30% sickness rate and a three-week length of illness would decrease the gross domestic product by 5%. Additional costs would ... which began in Russia and spread to Europe via Africa. In Rome, over 8,000 people were killed, and several Spanish cities were ... All known subtypes (HxNy) are found in birds, but many subtypes are endemic in humans, dogs, horses, and pigs; populations of ...
2013 horse meat scandal. *2017 Brazil weak meat scandal. *2017-18 South African listeriosis outbreak ... South Africa does not permit the use of PAL, except when manufacturers demonstrate the potential presence of allergen due to ... and South Africa. Argentina decided to prohibit precautionary allergen labeling since 2010, and instead puts the onus on the ...
Main article: African trypanosomiasis. Human African trypanosomiasis, also called sleeping sickness, is caused by trypanosomes ... horses. T. simiae. Africa. G. palpalis. G. fuscipes. G. morsitans. G. tachinoides. G. longipalpis. G. fusca. G. tabaniformis. G ... horses. T. vivax. Africa. G. morsitans. G. palpalis. G. tachinoides. G. swynnertoni. G. pallidipes. G. austeni. G. vanhoofi. G ... horses. T. congolense. Africa. G. palpalis. G. morsitans. G. austeni. G. swynnertoni. G. pallidipes. G. longipalpis. G. ...
There were few African Americans elected or appointed to national office. African Americans voted for both white and black ... Farms were in disrepair, and the prewar stock of horses, mules, and cattle was much depleted; 40% of the South's livestock had ... The dislocations had a severe negative impact on the black population, with a large amount of sickness and death.[22] ... They were the African Methodist Episcopal Church; the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, both independent black ...
... an epidemic of African horse sickness in the 1870s that killed thousands of horses throughout Egypt decimated much of his herd ... a b Ensminger, Horses and Horsemanship p. 84. *^ Arabian Horse Association. "The Arabian Horse Today". Arabian Horse History & ... Archer, Arabian Horse, pp. 11-15. *^ Arabian Horse Association. "Crabbet Arabians". Arabian Horse - Bloodlines. Arabian Horse ... Horse Genetics. "Roan Horses". The Horse Genetics Web Site. Horse Genetics. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. ...
De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa; and ... In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator,[80] with Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over ... The Falling Sickness: A History of Epilepsy from the Greeks to the Beginnings of Modern Neurology (Baltimore 1971), p 162. ... Thomas Africa thought Syme had recanted this view; see "The Mask of an Assassin: A Psychohistorical Study of M. Junius Brutus ...
Khat is a flowering plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula.[121][122] ... Caffeine may lessen the severity of acute mountain sickness if taken a few hours prior to attaining a high altitude.[82] ... "Ecstasy 'no more dangerous than horse riding'". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 10 December 2015. Retrieved 4 ... "The Orsons of East Africa". Household Words: A Weekly Journal, Volume 14. Bradbury & Evans. p. 176. Retrieved 7 January 2014 ...
One of the bathing chambers had a decorative mosaic floor depicting a driver and chariot pulled by four horses, a woman ... Today, the extent of the Roman bath is revealed at ruins and in archaeological excavations in Europe, Africa, and the Middle ... A general belief developed among the European populace was that frequent bathing promoted disease and sickness. Medieval church ... The European spas provided various other diversions for guests after the bath, including gambling, horse racing, fishing, ...
African sleeping sickness. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. range of wild animals and domestic livestock. transmitted by the ... horses, donkeys. direct contact. Hantavirus. Hantavirus spp.. deer mice, cotton rats and other rodents. exposure to feces, ... horses, donkeys, zebras, birds. mosquito bite. Ebola virus disease (a haemorrhagic fever). Ebolavirus spp.. chimpanzees, ... birds, horses. mosquito bite. Zika fever. Zika virus. chimpanzees, monkeys, apes, baboons. mosquito bite, sexual intercourse, ...
The New York City Draft Riots In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863, by Leslie M. Harris ... Sickness was a much more serious cause of hospitalization or death. In the first few months, men wore low quality uniforms made ... Spencer Jones, "The Influence of Horse Supply Upon Field Artillery in the American Civil War," Journal of Military History, ( ... The Northeast and Midwest provided soldiers, food, horses, financial support, and training camps. Army hospitals were set up ...
Huxley visited East Africa to advise the Colonial Office on education in British East Africa (for the most part Kenya, Uganda ... Can it be scientifically defined? Improvements in biological machinery… the limbs and teeth of grazing horses… the increase in ... the vector for the trypanosome parasite which causes sleeping sickness in humans) prevented human settlement there. He tells ... In Africa he was able to influence colonial administrators about education and wildlife conservation. In Europe, through UNESCO ...
Akwaaba African Travel Market. *Arabian Travel Market. *Festival del Viaggio. *ITB Berlin ...
... where sickness is a crime.[21] ... 2017-18 South African listeriosis outbreak. *2018 Australian ... 2013 horse meat scandal. *2013 Taiwan food scandal. *2014 Taiwan food scandal ...
a b Jim Downs, Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction (2015) ... Horses, mules, oxen, carriages, wagons, and carts had nearly all fallen prey at one time or another to the contending armies. ... The severe dislocations of war and Reconstruction affected the black population, with a large amount of sickness and death.[34] ... citizenship to African Americans) and the 15th Amendment (which extended the right to vote to black males), African Americans ...
Sheep, dogs, horses, and goats are also preyed upon in North Africa, Israel, Iran, Pakistan, and India.[49] ... In Afghanistan and Pakistan striped hyena hair is used either in love magic or as a charm in sickness. Hyena blood has been ... The species may have evolved from H. namaquensis of Pliocene Africa. Striped hyena fossils are common in Africa, with records ... The striped hyena's historical range encompasses Africa north of and including the Sahel zone, eastern Africa south into ...
... nuclear movement and launched several exorcisms and protests to remove the waste they claim has resulted in deaths and sickness ... Horses in East Asian warfare. *Miyamoto Musashi. *Sun Tzu. *The Art of War ...
In 2005, the WHO reported that 55,000 people died in Asia and Africa from rabies, a disease for which dogs are the most ... This use of dogs in these cultures often persisted after the introduction of the horse to North America.[135] ... Research has, however, pointed to significantly less absenteeism from school through sickness among children who live with pets ... However, Western, South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern cultures, in general, regard consumption of dog meat as taboo. In ...
Horses. Main article: Respiratory system of the horse. Horses are obligate nasal breathers which means that they are different ... Tyson, P.D.; Preston-White, R.A. (2013). The weather and climate of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. pp. 3- ... This is one contributor to high altitude sickness. On the other hand, if the switch to oxygen homeostasis is incomplete, then ...
10 horses and nine dogs.[2] ... Commercial diver registration in South Africa. *Divers ... Decompression sickness *Isobaric counterdiffusion. *Taravana. *Dysbaric osteonecrosis. *High-pressure nervous syndrome. * ...
H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. Health experts are ... horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. Out of the ... Africa, the Pacific, Europe, and the Middle East, though over 60 countries have been affected.[10][13] ...
African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness".. *^ Iliffe, John (1989). "The Origins of African Population Growth". The Journal ... Christians from south and central Europe operated trading routes that supplied Persian and Arab horses to the armies of all ... Africa (see Europeans in Africa) *South Africa (European South African): 10% of the population[89] ... From an African view-point, that amounted to consistent expatriation of surplus produced by African labour out of African ...
Hilda turns in times of sickness, took a generous gulp of the sherry she always pours him when he visits our mansion flat, ( ...
... horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) caused by an orbivirus called AHSV (family Reoviridae) that is transmitted by arthropods, ... www.britannica.com/science/African-horse-sickness", "title": "African horse sickness", "documentGroup": "TOPIC PAGINATED SMALL ... African horse sickness (AHS), also called equine plague, disease of Equidae (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) caused by an ... The disease persists in southern and equatorial Africa, and outbreaks have also occurred in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa ...
... (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of ... African horse sickness virus. Overview. Top of page African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect ... African horse sickness in Swaziland. Disease Information, 17(21). OIE, 2004. African horse sickness in Zambia. Disease ... Donkeys as reservoirs of African horse sickness virus. In: African horse sickness [ed. by Mellor, P. S.\Baylis, M.\Hamblin, C.\ ...
African Horse Sickness Virus. Rijn, P.A. van Summary. African Horse Sickness is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod-borne ... African Horse Sickness is endemic in Africa but outbreaks outside the African continent have been reported. The disease is ... Nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus have been recognized showing no or poor cross-protection with each other. ... The mortality is ,90% for naïve domestic horses. In contrast, infected zebra and African donkey display mild or no clinical ...
African Horse Sickness Found in Western Cape. March 19, 2014. Two horses in South Africas Western Cape have tested positive ... African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement.... Read ... African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement. ... New African Horse Sickness Diagnostic Test Developed. June 26, 2017. The new test takes just four hours to complete. Previous ...
Tropical diseases: African horse sickness Horse & Hound 16 July, 2009 15:19. ... African horse sickness - are horses in the UK at risk? *H&H Plus*. ... covering both African horse sickness and West Nile virus, see the current issue of Horse & Hound (16 July, 09)?, ... African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp). As a result of global warming, for the first ...
Thailands Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to ... The African Horse Sickness has already killed nearly 200 horses in Thailand. - AFP ... on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to contain the African Horse Sickness (AHS ... Some horse farm owners have told the department that they suspect zebras imported from Africa are the most likely source of the ...
... a variant of the Bluetongue virus of sheep which is principally carried and transmitted to horses by Culicoides species midges. ... African Horse Sickness - what is it? April 29, 2012. May 15, 2019. Horsetalk.co.nz 13101 Views 1 Comment African Horse Sickness ... African Horse Sickness. South Africa is set to benefit from revisions to the African horse sickness rules adopted at the recent ... Horsetalk.co.nz 2422 Views 3 Comments African Horse Sickness. Annual vaccinations against African horse sickness urged to curb ...
Horsetalk.co.nz 2039 Views 0 Comments African Horse Sickness. Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak ... Test in a suitcase for African horse sickness virus? May 2, 2014. July 31, 2014. Horsetalk.co.nz 1386 Views 0 Comments African ... Promising new African Horse Sickness vaccine could free up horse movements May 15, 2019. June 11, 2019. Horsetalk.co.nz 2949 ... Suspected case of African Horse Sickness in South Africas suveillance zone April 9, 2016. April 20, 2016. Horsetalk.co.nz 2058 ...
Disease Images: African Horse Sickness. Additional resources for African Horse Sickness. Enlarge Photo Description:. Horse. ... African Swine Fever. • Avian Influenza. • Classical Swine Fever. • Foot and Mouth Disease. • Heartwater. • Methicillin ... Horse. The lung exhibits severe interlobular edema. There are petechiae on the pulmonary pleura and the splenic capsule. ... Horse, heart. The pericardial sac contains excessive, slightly turbid straw-colored fluid (hydropericardium). ...
African Horse Sickness (AHS) is highly infectious viral disease which frequently proves fatal. Find out more about how to ... You are here: Home , Advice & Information , Horse Health & Sickness , African Horse Sickness (AHS) ... African Horse Sickness (AHS) is highly infectious viral disease which frequently proves fatal. There have never been any cases ... of African Horse Sickness in the UK and, for many years, it was barely been considered a threat to British horses. ...
Vaccine breakthrough for African horse sickness *H&H Plus* Horse & Hound 31 January, 2020 12:12. ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a serious, often fatal virus disease of horses in the southern hemisphere, which may well ... African Horse Sickness: why a British outbreak would be deadly *H&H VIP* Could the midges responsible for the deadly disease ... Peter Green MRCVS shares news of an encouraging development in the battle against African horse sickness ...
Staff publications is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research. Staff publications contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.. Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.. Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.. We have a manual that explains all the features ...
A study of the prevalence of African horse sickness in horses was conducted, using records , from two private equine practices ... This study highlights the importance of adequately protecting horses against African horse sickness by providing immunisation ... GORDON, Stuart et al. Descriptive epidemiology of African horse sickness in Zimbabwe. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2013 ... with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. Young, unvaccinated ...
Molecular epidemiology of African horse sickness virus based on analyses and comparisons of genome segments 7 and 10.. Zientara ... African Horse Sickness Virus/classification. *African Horse Sickness Virus/genetics*. *African Horse Sickness Virus/ ... This paper describes a method to rapidly identify African horse sickness virus (AHSV), using a single tube reverse ... African Horse Sickness/diagnosis. *African Horse Sickness/epidemiology. *African Horse Sickness/virology ...
African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreaks in South Africa. South Africa has reported three outbreaks of African Horse Sickness ( ... Online sales of horses need closer scrutiny says Blue Cross. *A third of horses recorded with health problems are lame reveals ... New simple health checklist for horse owners helps ensure responsible horse care ... Major outbreak of equine herpesvirus [EHV] among sport horses in Eastern France ...
... and 4 from a LAV used in South Africa. These findings show that despite effective protection of vaccinated horses, polyvalent ... Since 1997, South Africa has maintained an AHS controlled area; however, sporadic outbreaks of AHS have occurred in this area. ... is a hemorrhagic viral fever of horses. It is the only equine disease for which the World Organization for Animal Health has ... LAV may, paradoxically, place susceptible horses at risk for AHS. ... African Horse Sickness Caused by Genome Reassortment and ...
The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses. Equine Vet J. 2013;45:117-9. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Guthrie AJ, Coetzee P, Martin DP, Lourens CW, Venter EH, Weyer CT, Complete genome sequences of the four African horse sickness ... Martin LA, Meyer AJ, OHara RS, Fu H, Mellor PS, Knowles NJ, Phylogenetic analysis of African horse sickness virus segment 10: ...
Requirements and comparative analysis of reverse genetics for bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV). ... Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the ... causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. Reverse genetics ...
... is a highly infectious and deadly disease spread by biting insects that affects horses, mules, and donkeys but rarely zebras. ... African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease caused by African horse sickness virus. It commonly ... Australias Risk of African Horse Sickness Outbreak Explained , Horses and People. April 21, 2020. ... Mellor P.S. & Hamblin C. (2004). - African Horse Sickness: Review Article. Vet. Res., 35, 445-466.. Spickler, A.R. & Roth, J.A ...
South Africa, 2004-2014. by Emerging Infectious Diseases; Health, general Genomes Analysis Genomics Vaccination Vaccines ... African horse sickness caused by genome reassortment and reversion to virulence of live, attenuated vaccine viruses, ... The 2011 outbreak of African horse sickness in the African horse sickness controlled area in South Africa. J S Afr Vet Assoc. ... Vaccination of horses with a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) expressing African horse sickness (AHS) virus ...
African horse sickness is one of the most agonising sicknesses a horse can get and having lived in Botswana for almost 10 years ... What is African Horse Sickness?. African horse sickness is one of the most agonising sicknesses a horse can get and having ... In this blog, Louise Carelsen of Limpopo Valley Horse Safaris talks about their struggles with African horse sickness (AHS), a ... Most of what we were seeing was something our vet calls African Horse Sickness Fever usually presenting as just a medium to ...
In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market... ... Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. ... Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Research Report 2017 Table of Contents. Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines ... 2.5.1 African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Share of Top 3 ...
This report studies African Horse Sickness Vaccines in Global market,... ... Check for Discount on Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 report by QYResearch Group ... 7.3.1 Horses of African Horse Sickness Vaccines Growth Driving Factor Analysis. 7.3.2 Mules of African Horse Sickness Vaccines ... Global African Horse Sickness Vaccines Market Professional Survey Report 2018 Table of Contents. Global African Horse Sickness ...
The severity of African horse sickness is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of the ... The severity of African horse sickness (AHS) is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of ... Vaccination is crucial for all horses older than six months, and horses should be vaccinated between 1 June and 1 October ... If the horse survives the first stage (the lung stage), it may start showing cardiac signs, and the vet will start to treat ...
What is African horse sickness. African horse sickness is considered a Tier 3 disease by the National Bio and Agro-Defense ... Texas A&M expertise on African horse sickness. "The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting ... Horses would be at risk if African horse sickness makes it into the U.S. (Texas A&M AgriLife photo by Kay Ledbetter). Federal ... Horses would be at risk if African horse sickness makes it into the U.S. (Texas A&M AgriLife photo by Kay Ledbetter). ...
Seroprevalence of African Horse Sickness at Central Highland of Ethiopia. Haji Ende, Habtamu Tassew, Endale Balcha Gurmu, ... In this study, all age groups as well as male and female populations were equally affected by African horse sickness disease. ... A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and ... Questionnaire survey also indicated the presence of African horse sickness disease in the study areas. Therefore, control ...
Im concerned that my horses may contract African horse sickness. What steps have the government taken to protect horse ... African horse sickness is transmitted by a midge vector called Culicoides (midge) that can still be active at temperatures ... African horse sickness is a non-contagious, infectious, insect-borne disease of equids. Although zebras and donkeys rarely ... The presence of these two vectors places a major portion of SA at risk to outbreaks of African horse sickness. Yes, its ...
... Stassen, Liesel; Huismans, H. (Henk), 1942-; Theron ... Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects ...
African horse sickness African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness Discussions Write discussion on Horse diseases-african horse sickness. Your posts are ... Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Assignment Help, Ask Question on Horse diseases-african horse sickness, Get Answer, ... African horse sickness. African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly fatal insect born viral disease of equidae caused by an ...
... MacLachlan, N.J. (James); Guthrie, Alan John ... Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other orbivirus diseases. Login ... African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are ... nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus. ...
  • African horse sickness (AHS) , also called equine plague , disease of Equidae (horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras) caused by an orbivirus called AHSV (family Reoviridae) that is transmitted by arthropods, notably biting midges ( Culicoides imicola ). (britannica.com)
  • AHS is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), a member of the family Reoviridae of the genus Orbivirus. (cabi.org)
  • AHSV is endemic in the central tropical regions of Africa and regularly spreads to Southern Africa and occasionally to Northern Africa. (cabi.org)
  • This paper describes a method to rapidly identify African horse sickness virus (AHSV), using a single tube reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
  • Background: Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus (Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (wur.nl)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a severe, often fatal disease of equids that is caused by AHS virus (AHSV), a member of the genus Orbivirus, family Reoviridae (1). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although AHS currently occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa, various species of Culicoides midges occur throughout the entire inhabited world, warranting concern that AHSV could spread into areas that are currently free of the virus (1,3-5). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Presently, a polyvalent, live, attenuated vaccine (LAV) against AHSV (AHSV-LAV), which is produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (Pretoria, South Africa) and provides broad protection against all 9 AHSV types (10), is used widely in South Africa and adjacent countries. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of African Horse sickness virus (AHSV) antibodies and identify potential risk factors in equine population at selected areas of central high land of Ethiopia from November 2011 to April 2012. (scopemed.org)
  • The apparent prevalence of AHSV was found to be 46 % in horses,61.1 % in mules and 36.4 % in donkeys. (scopemed.org)
  • Infection of mammalian cell cultures with African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is known to result in dramatic cytopathic effects (CPE), but no CPE is observed in infected insect cell cultures despite productive virus replication. (up.ac.za)
  • Orbiviruses are the cause of important and apparently emerging arboviral diseases of livestock, including bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus (AHSV), equine encephalosis virus (EEV), and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) that are all transmitted by haematophagous Culicoides insects. (up.ac.za)
  • Similarly, although there have been somewhat less dramatic recent alterations in the distribution of EHDV, AHSV, and EEV, it is not yet clear what the future holds in terms of these diseases, nor of other potentially important but poorly characterized Orbiviruses such as Peruvian horse sickness virus. (up.ac.za)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infects all equine species and is often fatal in horses and mules. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • AHS is caused by African horse sickness virus (AHSV), which is 55-70 nm in diameter and of the genus Orbivirus in the family Reoviridae. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • In 1959-1961, a major epidemic, caused by AHSV serotype 9, extended from Africa through the Near East and Arabia as far as Pakistan and India, causing the deaths of an estimated 300,000 equids. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Furthermore, dogs, and possibly large African carnivores such as lions and leopards, can be infected by ingestion of meat from AHSV-infected equids. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is an insect-vectored emerging pathogen of equine species. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • AHSV is transmitted by Culicoides , a common European insect, and has the potential to emerge in Europe from endemic countries of Africa. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purified African horse sickness virus (AHSV) was fed, as part of a blood meal, to adult females from a susceptible colony of Culicoides variipennis , established in the insectories at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, UK. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The meal consisted of heparinized blood obtained from ovine, bovine, equine (horse and donkey) or canine sources spiked with AHSV serotype 9 (AHSV9). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) replicates in and injures microvascular endothelial cells. (africanhorsesickness.co.za)
  • Many other factors, such as vaccination status and immunocompetence, are important in individual horse response to AHSV infection. (africanhorsesickness.co.za)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is enzootic in most of Africa south of Sahara. (thevetexpert.com)
  • African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a viral disease transmitted by the biting midge. (wagwalking.com)
  • Your horse's temperature will be taken, if your horse is suffering from AHSV a fever will be expected. (wagwalking.com)
  • The prognosis for a horse infected by AHSV differs depending on numerous factors including underlying conditions, the form the disease takes, and immunity through previous infection or vaccination. (wagwalking.com)
  • The next step is to test the protective power of the vaccine in horses against a challenge with live, virulent AHSV (the so-called live challenge), to see whether this promising vaccine candidate can stand up against the live virus. (rybicki.blog)
  • Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) act as vectors for the transmission of the causative agent, African Horse Sickness virus (AHSV). (nwu.ac.za)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a disease caused by the African horse sickness virus (AHSV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, AHS is not considered to be endemic in the greater part of South Africa, with the exception of the North-eastern Lowveld of Mpumalanga Province where seroconversion of AHSV occurs in zebra in every month of the year and virtually all adult animals have specific antibodies to all nine serotypes of the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is caused by multiple serotypes of the dsRNA AHSV and is a major scourge of domestic equids in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) are distinct arthropod borne virus species in the genus Orbivirus ( Reoviridae family), causing the notifiable diseases Bluetongue and African horse sickness of ruminants and equids, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular characterization of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) detected from the March 2020 Thailand outbreak was carried out by whole-genome sequencing using Nanopore with a Sequence-Independent Single Primer Amplification (SISPA) approach. (cdc.gov)
  • The baculovirus-expressed core protein VP7 of African horse sickness virus serotype 4 (AHSV-4) has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of 2.8 M urea. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • There is an ongoing need for standardized, easily renewable immunoreagents for detecting African horsesickness virus (AHSV). (bvsalud.org)
  • are known vectors of arboviruses including African horse sickness virus (AHSV), bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). (degruyter.com)
  • In order to establish the activity of potential AHSV vector at vicinity of horses, an OVI midge trap has been placed at the horse stables in the southeastern Poland. (degruyter.com)
  • African Horse Sickness is an infectious, non-contagious, arthropod-borne disease of Equidae caused by African horse sickness virus transmitted by biting culicoides midges. (wur.nl)
  • African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted by midges ( Culicoides spp ). (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • Articles on African Horse Sickness, a variant of the Bluetongue virus of sheep which is principally carried and transmitted to horses by Culicoides species midges. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • AHS a Bluetongue virus variant transmitted to horses by Culicoides species midges. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Worldwide niche and future potential distribution of Culicoides imicola , a major vector of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus is transmitted to horses by biting midges in the genus Culicoides (2). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • African horse sickness is transmitted by a midge vector called Culicoides (midge) that can still be active at temperatures below 3°C. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • AHS is spread by biting midges ( Culicoides ) and dogs can become infected by eating contaminated horse meat. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • AHS is transmitted by Culicoides species midges and is not contagious between horses. (nabsnet.com.au)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a viral disease with high mortality rates, vectored by the Culicoides midge and affecting members of the Equidae family. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The biting midge Culicoides imicola was captured at 17 of 27 farms in Spain and Portugal during a survey of its distribution following outbreaks of African horse sickness in Iberia that occurred between 1987 and 1990. (springer.com)
  • Rawlings P, Pro MJ, Pena I, Ortega MD, Capela R (1997) Spatial and seasonal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Iberia in relation to the transmission of African horse sickness virus. (springer.com)
  • Baylis M, Bouayoune H, Touti J, El Hasnaoui H (1998) Use of climatic data and satellite imagery to model the abundance of Culicoides imicola Kieffer, the vector of African horse sickness virus, in Morocco. (springer.com)
  • Baylis M, El Hasnaoui H, Bouayoune H, Touti J, Mellor PS (1997) The spatial and seasonal distribution of African horse sickness and its potential Culicoides vectors in Morocco. (springer.com)
  • The aim of the study was to estimate and compare the distribution of Culicoides biting midges species at farms with different main hosts - cattle and horse. (degruyter.com)
  • Researchers found that the insecticide deltamethrin did not appear to prevent midges from feeding on horses. (thehorse.com)
  • Could the midges responsible for the deadly disease African horse sickness ever reach our shores? (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • The severity of African horse sickness (AHS) is strongly linked to the immunity status of the horse concerned, and the dose of the virus it receives from biting midges. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Stabling between 4pm and 10am is very important, particularly for young horses, as this is when midges are active. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • The primary vectors of African horse sickness are among species of biting midges, which are very small blood-feeding flying insects about 1/8th of an inch in length," Teel said. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • For us, biting midges are more than simply a nuisance---they are a mortal threat to our horses because they can carry the virus that causes African horse sickness (AHS), an untreatable and potentially fatal disease. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The midges are also the main vector and transmitter of AHS and the disease may occur in horses in the Nordic Baltic region during summer or early autumn. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • African horse sickness is transmitted by insects known as midges. (wagwalking.com)
  • A mass vaccination program of horses has begun in Thailand, while neighboring Cambodia is installing finely woven nets to protect stables from the tiny blood-sucking midges that spread the virus in a similar way that mosquitoes transmit diseases such as dengue and malaria. (iol.co.za)
  • Some horse farm owners have told the department that they suspect zebras imported from Africa are the most likely source of the virus. (thestar.com.my)
  • citation needed] The common hosts of this disease are horses, mules, donkeys, and zebras. (wikipedia.org)
  • African donkeys and zebras very rarely display clinical symptoms, despite high virus titres in blood, and are thought to be the natural reservoir of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mild or horse sickness fever form Mild to subclinical disease is seen in zebras and African donkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • In African donkeys and zebras mortality is rare. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • But it has escaped the African continent several times, most recently into Thailand, where it is believed to have been introduced by importation of infected zebras. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Equines including horses, mules, donkeys and zebras are moved all over the world for competitions, trade, breeding, zoologic and conservation purposes," said Pete Teel, Ph.D., Texas A&M AgriLife Research entomologist with the Texas A&M Department of Entomology , College Station. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • I have a few horses on my farm just outside Stutterheim in the Eastern Cape and my neighbour owns a game farm with zebras. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • What steps have the government taken to protect horse breeders or what can we do as I have heard that zebras can't contract horse sickness, but are permanent carriers of the disease. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Although zebras and donkeys rarely exhibit clinical signs, the effects of the disease are devastating in susceptible horses. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Zebras have been considered to be the natural vertebrate hosts and reservoirs of the virus, and are believed to play a significant role in the epidemiology of the disease, especially in Africa. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • The presence of the virus (viraemia) in horses can last for fewer than nine days, while in zebras it can be up to four weeks. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Horses are the most susceptible to this disease, followed by mules, donkeys and zebras in decreasing order of susceptibility.AHS virus is an Orbivirus belonging to family Reoviridae, of which nine antigenic serotypes of different virulence are known. (expertsmind.com)
  • AHS usually affects horses, donkeys, mules and zebras. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • It is observed in donkeys, zebras, and immunized horses. (thevetexpert.com)
  • AHS mainly affects equids - horses, mules, donkeys and zebras, but is also seen in dogs. (wagwalking.com)
  • A highly fatal insect-borne viral disease of horses and mules, and a mild, subclinical disease in donkeys and zebras. (accessscience.com)
  • Blood samples analyzed in England in March confirmed it was African horse sickness, a viral disease not known to harm humans but which is widespread among equines, including zebras, in Africa. (iol.co.za)
  • While a Thai government investigation continues into the origins of the horse disease, evidence points to zebras -- asymptomatic carriers -- that were legally imported without needing blood samples or quarantine. (iol.co.za)
  • 2. Of or belonging to the family Equidae, which includes the horses, asses, and zebras. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Crystal structure of the top domain of African horse sickness virus VP7: comparisons with bluetongue virus VP7. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • New vaccines open way to tell infected horses from inoculated ones. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • In this report, the global African Horse Sickness Vaccines market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (reportsnreports.com)
  • For various preventive vaccines in the research and development activities, African horse sickness treatment (AHS) market will prove beneficial thus contributing to the growth of the market. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • Vaccines against AHS are available in South Africa, and most of us protect our horses with a series of two injections given sometime between July and December. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Presence of guidelines and standard operating procedures for African horse sickness disease, rising in research and development programs for various preventive vaccines, increasing awareness regarding vaccination of horses, rising healthcare infrastructure, increase in disposable income and technology innovations in the medical sector are driving the growth of the market. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • While there are well established commercial live attenuated vaccines produced in South Africa, risks associated with these have encouraged attempts to develop new and safer recombinant vaccines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this article, Dr Euan Laidlaw explains the science behind vaccines and how they help protect, not just your horse, but the horse industry, the economy at large, and in some cases, human health. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease despite availability of vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (subacute, cardica form): oedema of the supraorbital fossa. (cabi.org)
  • A horse infected with African horse sickness virus (acute, pulmonary form): excessive nasal discharge, which will be followed by death from anoxia. (cabi.org)
  • Nine serotypes of African horse sickness virus have been recognized showing no or poor cross-protection with each other. (wur.nl)
  • Scientists identify novel virus believed to be behind a form of hepatitis in horses. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious and deadly disease caused by African horse sickness virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • AHS virus was first recorded south of the Sahara Desert in the mid-1600s, with the introduction of horses to southern Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus is considered endemic to the equatorial, eastern, and southern regions of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prevent this disease, the affected horses are usually slaughtered, and the uninfected horses are vaccinated against the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a serious, often fatal virus disease of horses in the southern hemisphere, which may well spread to Europe as a result of climate change. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • Molecular epidemiology of African horse sickness virus based on analyses and comparisons of genome segments 7 and 10. (nih.gov)
  • Statistical evidence of reassortment within the genomes of African horse sickness (AHS) virus field isolates identified in outbreaks in the AHS controlled area in Western Cape Province, South Africa, 2004-2014. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection with African horse sickness virus. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2003 when my husband and I moved to Mashatu as part of Limpopo Valley Horse Safaris I was to become further acquainted with this dreaded virus. (inthesaddle.com)
  • African horse sickness is caused by a virus, more specifically an Orbivirus , which is transmitted by certain insects. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • If African horse sickness does come to the U.S., do we have knowledge of insects that will likely transmit this virus? (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Dogs can contract the virus through eating infected horse meat. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • This disease is caused due to the virus African Horse Sickness Virus (AFSV). (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • Identification and characterization of the structural and nonstructural proteins of African horsesickness virus and determination of the genome coding assignments. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Structural insight into African horsesickness virus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • African horse sickness virus is endemic to Southern Africa. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Hendra virus infection (endemic) and Nipah virus (exotic) are potential differential diagnoses for horses that have an elevated temperature, respiratory or circulatory issues. (nabsnet.com.au)
  • This illness is caused by the animal becoming infected with the virus African Horse Sickness, a member of the genus Orbivirus from the family Reoviridae. (wagwalking.com)
  • Although horses are only symptomatic from 4-8 days the virus can live in the blood for as long as 21 days. (wagwalking.com)
  • Dogs, as well as horses, can be infected by this virus, usually following the consumption of contaminated horse meats. (wagwalking.com)
  • The presence of neutralising antibodies is a strong indication that horses will be protected from the virus," she says. (rybicki.blog)
  • African horse sickness is caused by a virus of the genus Orbivirus belonging to the family Reoviridae which is highly infectious and deadly disease and it commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • This virus is commonly known as the African Horse Sickness Virus. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • The affected horses are slaughtered usually, where the uninfected horses are vaccinated against the virus. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • Development of a protocol for the molecular serotyping of the African horse sickness virus. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first recorded reference of AHS occurred in 1327 in Yemen [ 10 ], but it is most likely that the virus originated on the African continent where it could have been transmitted in the natural zebra population [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV) is a cause of the neurological disorder Peruvian horse sickness resulting in encephalitis in horses and other livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the viruses collected from horses that died of the disease was named Peruvian horse sickness virus (PHSV). (wikipedia.org)
  • PHSV was also isolated from horses showing similar clinical signs in 1999 in the Northern Territory of Australia, though the Australian isolate was called Elsey virus until it was determined to likely be the same species as PHSV. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study of the African horse sickness virus using High Resolution Melt, multivariate and phylogenetic analyses for a potential serotyping assay. (semanticscholar.org)
  • INTERNATIONAL - When horses suddenly started dying in Thailand as the nation locked down to stem the spread of Covid-19, researchers feared the cause was another deadly bat-borne virus that could kill humans. (iol.co.za)
  • Hendra, a related virus, is also known to kill horses. (iol.co.za)
  • The observed mortality rates suggest that at Arbaoua, were 1 000 flies to become infected with African horse sickness virus, at least 330 would live long enough to take 3 or more infective blood meals on hosts. (springer.com)
  • A virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, genus Henipavirus that infects horses and humans and experimentally guinea pigs and cats. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The virus causes fatal illness in horses and humans following 'natural' infection, and of guinea pigs and cats following experimental inoculation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Detection of African horse sickness virus by reverse transcription-PCR. (asm.org)
  • Re-emergence of bluetongue, African horse sickness, and other orbivirus diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Bluetongue (BT), African horse sickness (AHS), and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) are OIE listed arthropod borne animal diseases caused by the viruses in the genus Orbivirus , family Reoviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • a disease in horses in South Africa, caused by an orbivirus, distinct from African horse sickness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The study has shown that the Orbivirus vectors are present at a high abundance at the Polish horse farm, what may be a helpful tool in the AHS risk assessment in the nonendemic part of Europe. (degruyter.com)
  • However, slaughter may be a major part of the African horse sickness disease control programme, as eradication rather than vaccination will be the principal aim. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • citation needed] African horse sickness was diagnosed in Spain in 1987-90 and in Portugal in 1989, but was eradicated using slaughter policies, movement restrictions, vector eradication, and vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vaccination status was an important risk factor, with vaccinated horses 0.12 times less likely to die from the disease compared with unvaccinated horses. (scielo.org.za)
  • This study highlights the importance of adequately protecting horses against African horse sickness by providing immunisation through vaccination and discusses the need to review current vaccination strategies being practiced in Zimbabwe. (scielo.org.za)
  • In vivo cross-protection to African horse sickness serotypes 5 and 9 after vaccination with serotypes 8 and 6. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination is crucial for all horses older than six months, and horses should be vaccinated between 1 June and 1 October annually. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Controlling vectors with insecticides has not been successful for most horse owners, but vaccination has been known to be the best management tool to successfully control the disease. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • The factors that attribute to the market growth in the Asia Pacific regions are developing healthcare infrastructure and rise in the awareness about the vaccination of the horses. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • Vaccination and biosecurity can help keep your horse healthy when you take him off the farm. (thehorse.com)
  • Good vaccination program is the best preventive method for African horse sickness treatment. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • As the early history of these horses was not well documented, blood samples were drawn from the animals prior to vaccination (day 0) in order to ascertain the pre-vaccination immune status of the selected animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pre-vaccination sera were analysed by VP7 indirect ELISA at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute (ARC-OVI) in Pretoria, South Africa to determine prior exposure of the horses to AHS, either by vaccination with the currently used live attenuated vaccine (LAV) mixture produced by Onderstepoort Biological Products (OBP), or by natural infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many horse people will know of one which has had a swelling at the injection site after its vaccination. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Some horses, just like humans, will feel a bit average for a day or two after a vaccination. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • Testing for passive transfer of immunity in foals, and an evaluation of the African horse sickness vaccination schedule. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The OIE has described management "pillars" to keep most diseases at bay for high-health, high-performance horses. (thehorse.com)
  • Find out which foreign animal diseases North American horse owners need to keep an eye on and why. (thehorse.com)
  • Although it is not infectious - an infected insect is always the intermediate host - African horse sickness is the most feared of all equine diseases. (horseandhound.co.uk)
  • If you visit the group, you will find horse lovers and professionals willing to share information, research, prayers, stories, photographs, alternative, herbal, homeopathic and pharmaceutical remedies, healing methodologies and links to help in the fight against AHS and other insect- borne and infectious equine diseases and conditions. (arabhorse.co.za)
  • These type of prevention programs are efficient and cost-effective ways to prevent common infectious diseases in a horse. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • It is considered to be one of the most lethal horse diseases with mortality rates exceeding 80% in susceptible hosts. (nwu.ac.za)
  • Scroll down to read about the common diseases we can vaccinate horses against. (horsesandpeople.com.au)
  • If the horse is not known to carry any diseases transmissible to humans, no CDC regulations would apply. (cdc.gov)
  • Key topics include all-new coverage of the latest developments in imaging, biosecurity strategies for individual horse owners and owners of commercial farms and stables, diseases affecting horses at various ages, and a review of colic and other GI tract conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, non-contagious, insect-transmitted disease affecting all species of Equidae. (cabi.org)
  • African Horse Sickness (AHS) is highly infectious viral disease which frequently proves fatal. (bhs.org.uk)
  • In this blog, Louise Carelsen of Limpopo Valley Horse Safaris talks about their struggles with African horse sickness (AHS), a highly infectious non-contagious, viral disease endemic to the African continent,affecting all species of Equidae. (inthesaddle.com)
  • African horse sickness is a non-contagious, infectious, insect-borne disease of equids. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious, infectious, insect-borne viral disease of equids characterised by fever, oedema of the lungs and subcutaneous tissues, transudation into body cavities and serosal haemorrhages. (africanhorsesickness.co.za)
  • It is not known how long horses are infectious following infection, however this is not spread through contact between horses. (wagwalking.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a highly infectious, notifiable viral disease which poses a substantial challenge to horse owners in sub-Saharan Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It commonly affects horses, mules, and donkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • A total of 546 sera (506 horses, 18 mules and 22 donkeys) were collected randomly. (scopemed.org)
  • African horse sickness can cause a huge death rate in the horses as they are more susceptible to the disease, while mules have fewer chances of contracting the disease, and donkeys are excluded. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • Horses, donkeys and mules are called equines. (fao.org)
  • The mortality rate in immunologically naive horses may be as high as 90%, with donkeys and mules being less susceptible. (africanhorsesickness.co.za)
  • This disease has a mortality rate of 95% in horses, which are most susceptible to the disease, while mules and donkeys are less likely to African horse sickness disease. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of what we were seeing was something our vet calls 'African Horse Sickness Fever' usually presenting as just a medium to high temperature for a few days, treated with Finadyne (Flunixin) or Phenylbutazone. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Typically, the horse presents with signs of depression and listlessness but is usually eating with a fluctuating fever. (inthesaddle.com)
  • In the meantime, your vet can treat the symptoms, using anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the fluid in the lungs, or treating piroplasmosis, Lyme disease or babesiosis if the horse is anaemic, shows fever, or has a positive blood smear. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • Three clinical form of the disease occur, an acute or pulmonary form, a cardiac or sub acute form and a mild form known as 'horse sickness fever'.In the acute form, fever, dyspnoea, increased breathing rate (60-75 per minute), paroxysmal cough and nasal discharge are commonly seen. (expertsmind.com)
  • Marked subcutaneous oedema and hydropericardium are the lesions observed in the cardiac form.In Mild or 'horse sickness fever' form of infection, the clinical signs consist of influenza-like symptoms and a transient fever up to 40 C can occur for 2-3 days. (expertsmind.com)
  • Based on the clinical forms, the global market is segregated into Dikkop or cardiac form, horse sickness fever, Dunkop or pulmonary form, and mixed form. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • So you can imagine what we thought when my sister's pony---a little mare called Chilli---developed a fever and swelling in the depressions just above both eyes, which is a classic sign of African horse sickness. (equusmagazine.com)
  • Two days later when I went to the paddock to bring in the horses, I noticed that my own horse, Peter Pan, had developed the same swelling above his eyes and fever. (equusmagazine.com)
  • acute or pulmonary, subacute or cardiac, mixed, and a mild type known as horse sickness fever. (thevetexpert.com)
  • After a 3-5 day incubation period the horse experiences an acute febrile reaction that may last only 24-48 hr with temperatures as high as 40 degrees C. the fever is followed by respiratory signs associated with pulmonary edema which include tachypnoea, paroxysms of coughing and frothy nasal discharge is voluminous and at the time of death a bubbly liquid may flow from the horse's mouth. (thevetexpert.com)
  • Horse sickness fever is the mildest form of AHS. (thevetexpert.com)
  • Horses suffering from this form usually present with fever that worsens in the evenings, other symptoms may include mild anorexia and facial swelling. (wagwalking.com)
  • If the horse has been infected with the fever form prognosis is good, however, recovery following pulmonary or cardiac infection is rarer. (wagwalking.com)
  • Other animal-bound pestilence, such as bluetongue, avian influenza, and African swine fever have added to the mounting costs of disease. (iol.co.za)
  • There were nine recorded cases of EEE in horses in North Carolina in 2016. (thehorse.com)
  • In 2016 Wisconsin confirmed 19 EEE cases and seven WNV cases in horses. (thehorse.com)
  • African horse sickness is exotic to Australia - but was diagnosed for the first time in southeast Asia in 2020. (nabsnet.com.au)
  • The first case of AHS was confirmed in Thailand in March 2020 followed by another 14 cases in domestic horses in several different localities over the next four months. (nabsnet.com.au)
  • According to the report, the Europe African Horse Sickness Treatment Market is valued at USD xx Billion in 2020 and is projected to reach USD xx Billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx.x% during the forecast period 2020-2025. (marketdataforecast.com)
  • Midge gene study an important step in fight against African horse sickness. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • AHS is transmitted to a horse by the bite of an infected female midge. (bhs.org.uk)
  • However, when horses are in close proximity, the likelihood of a midge biting an infected horse and then going on to bite and infect a healthy animal is obviously increased. (bhs.org.uk)
  • In endemic regions of Africa, the appearance of AHS may be preceded by seasons of heavy rain that alternate with hot and dry climatic conditions, which favor transmission by the insect (biting midge) vector. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Of course we take other precautions, as well: We turn our horses out later in the day and bring them in before sundown during buggy months, avoiding dusk and dawn when midge activity is at its highest. (equusmagazine.com)
  • The tiny biting midge, as seen here compared to a mosquito, right, is a vector for African horse sickness. (tamu.edu)
  • The midge abundances at both sites were comparable with the total numbers of insects trapped of 43,153 and 34,829 at the cattle and horse farm, respectively. (degruyter.com)
  • BANGKOK (Xinhua): Thailand's Ministry of Agriculture on Wednesday issued an order to ban the movement of all horses for 90 days in a bid to contain the African Horse Sickness (AHS) outbreak. (thestar.com.my)
  • Screens could be used in event of African horse sickness outbreak in UK. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Sinclair M , Bührmann G , Gummow B . An epidemiological investigation of the African horsesickness outbreak in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in 2004 and its relevance to the current equine export protocol. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are still experiencing a disease outbreak in your area, the African Horse Sickness Trust has been established to monitor and take samples from suspected cases. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • There is no specific treatment available other than supportive treatment and therefore measures to control exposure of horses to biting insects are essential to prevent an outbreak from spreading. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • During one outbreak the disease extended to Pakistan and India, and was estimated to kill at least 300,000 horses. (wagwalking.com)
  • It is currently predicted, that a widespread outbreak of this disease would have a devastating effect on the horse industry of any country affected [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The disease was first recognised around 60 years after the initial introduction of horses to Africa in 1657, and the first major outbreak occurred in 1719. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 1997 outbreak was considered an epizootic outbreak that involved a variety of domestic animals including horses, cattle, donkeys, and sheep. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 79% of horses that contracted the disease in the 1997 Peru outbreak died, and survivors took about three months to recover. (wikipedia.org)
  • The South African racing industry has long maintained tight rules to prevent an outbreak. (nytimes.com)
  • More than 500 horses have died since the outbreak appeared in late February. (iol.co.za)
  • No one was thinking of a disease from Africa," said Siraya Chunekamrai, a Bangkok-based veterinarian involved in efforts to contain the outbreak. (iol.co.za)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is an insectborne, viral disease of equids that is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Young, unvaccinated horses therefore seem to be the most susceptible to the disease I and have greater chances of fatality. (scielo.org.za)
  • Animals such as camels, African elephants and black and white rhinos may also be susceptible, but are unlikely to be involved in sustained transmission of the disease. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • In susceptible horses, the disease is characterized by depression, respiratory and circulatory impairment. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • While I was there one of the horses did indeed get the mild non dangerous form of it and I remember vividly as everyone monitored him carefully and treated him symptomatically. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Horses can also be infected with a combination of the above two types, the disease then shows itself initially by mild respiratory signs followed by the typical swellings of the cardiac form. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Affected horses show signs of both the pulmonary and cardiac forms of AHS. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the horse survives the first stage (the lung stage), it may start showing cardiac signs, and the vet will start to treat symptomatically with a different range of drugs to improve heart function. (farmersweekly.co.za)
  • A study of the Culcoides (Diptera: ceratopogonidae) vectors of African horse sickness to enhance current practical control measures and research methods. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • No, the disease is not directly contagious between horses, even when they are kept in close contact. (bhs.org.uk)
  • Find out how veterinarians diagnose this highly contagious disease in both acute cases and long-term carrier horses. (thehorse.com)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is a non-contagious viral disease transmitted by an arthropod vector and is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • In 2011, the European Union began requiring South African horses to undergo the quarantine - across four countries and two hemispheres - in response to African horse sickness, a vector-born disease, similar to malaria in humans, that is not contagious. (nytimes.com)
  • It is epizootic to sub-Saharan Africa and parts of the Middle East. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Lubroth J (1988) African horse sickness and the epizootic in Spain 1987. (springer.com)
  • In general, the pattern observed for daily mortality rate, combined with the relative population sizes of C. imicola in Morocco, agree well with the observed distribution of African horse sickness in the country during the 1989-1991 epizootic. (springer.com)
  • The market for the African horse sickness treatment is globally fragmented into clinical forms and diagnosis. (zionmarketresearch.com)
  • With an early diagnosis and prompt treatment, horses can improve significantly and could return to normal activity. (thehorse.com)
  • Effective immediately, and until further notice, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is placing restrictions on the importation of equine from Thailand, based on the diagnosis of African Horse Sickness (AHS) in multiple equine species of different ages and sexes. (equinediseasecc.org)
  • However, your veterinarian might suspect amyloidosis if your horse has a chronic infection or inflammation and develops kidney or liver failure. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In one fatal human case the clinical syndrome resembled in general that observed in horses while in a second case death occurred after a prolonged clinical course including signs of central nervous system dysfunction one year after infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Several outbreaks have occurred in the Equidae throughout Africa and elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Noninfectious respiratory disease is a common, performance-limiting condition that affects adult horses of various ages. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Equines are the members of the horse family and have single hoofed feet. (fao.org)
  • The equines are the horse, donkey, mule and hinny. (fao.org)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is an acute insect-borne viral disease of horses and other equines causing depression, respiratory and circulatory impairment. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • It is an acute or sub-acute insect-borne viral disease of horses and other equines. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • The disease occurs during summer, immediately after rainfall and is endemic in South Africa. (expertsmind.com)
  • In endemic areas of Africa, AHS occurs periodically during hot weather following heavy rains. (thevetexpert.com)
  • African horse sickness occurs in sub-Saharan Africa, but incursions outside Africa have been documented. (accessscience.com)
  • A paralytic syndrome also occurs but usually in horses that are reinfected or, in a few instances, have been vaccinated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Outbreaks have occurred outside Africa, including in the Near and Middle East, Spain, Portugal and Morocco. (cabi.org)
  • The disease, which is not usually fatal to indigenous zebra herds, is often fatal in horses. (britannica.com)
  • a fatal disease of horses recorded in Queensland, Australia in 1994. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it is rapidly fatal in horses, and close contact is necessary for disease transmission. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • African horse sickness symptoms are the same as those associated with respiratory and circulatory impairment. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • A further epidemic of the same serotype in 1965-1966 centered on northwest Africa (Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) but also extended briefly into southern Spain. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • AHS outbreaks continue to occur in endemic regions of southern and eastern Africa, and in 2007, AHS serotype 2 was reported in West Africa (Nigeria and Senegal), and serotype 7 in Senegal. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Sequencing and pairwise analysis of this Israeli BTV-6 isolate revealed the closest sequence homology of its serotype-defining Segment 2 was with that of South African reference BTV-6 strain 5011 (93.88% identity). (mdpi.com)
  • Although it has a less than 5% mortality rate, it unfortunately lowers the resistance of the horse to other viruses like AHS. (inthesaddle.com)
  • Mellor PS, Boorman JPT, Wilkinson PJ, Martinez-Gomez F (1983) Potential vectors of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses in Spain. (springer.com)
  • Concerns in South Africa mount over vaccinated animals contracting the deadly disease. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • Texas A&M AgriLife faculty, various state and federal agencies and the U.S. horse industry are already monitoring the situation, ensuring surveillance and determining practices to prevent the deadly horse disease from crossing our borders. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • The disease persists in southern and equatorial Africa, and outbreaks have also occurred in the Iberian Peninsula , North Africa , and parts of the Middle East . (britannica.com)
  • This is in contrast to the original C.imicola vector which is limited to North Africa and the Mediterranean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission depends on infected horses developing a sufficient viraemia to infect insect vectors. (nabsnet.com.au)
  • The mortality rate of this disease may vary depending on the form taken, however horses who are showing symptoms suggestive of this disease should be seen by a veterinarian and quarantined from other animals. (wagwalking.com)
  • AHS is known to be endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, and has spread to Morocco, the Middle East, India, and Pakistan. (wikipedia.org)
  • African horse sickness comes out of Africa and is common from Morocco down to the middle of the continent. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • Dyspnoea may be observed, but horses rarely present frothy nasal discharge. (thevetexpert.com)
  • Nine British veterinary specialists raise funds to vaccinate hundreds of horses in a remote South African region. (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • I also remember how we had to vaccinate all 30 horses 2 doses 3 weeks apart as it's a live attenuated vaccine we had to keep it cool all the way from the vet to us, inject it as quickly as possible sub-cutaneous and then rest the horse during the middle week after each vaccine. (inthesaddle.com)
  • African Horse Sickness is endemic in Africa but outbreaks outside the African continent have been reported. (wur.nl)
  • The Western Cape Province of South Africa, at the southern tip of the African continent, has historically been free from AHS, and for this reason, a legislatively defined AHS controlled area was created there in 1997 to facilitate movement of horses from South Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The disease was confined to the African continent until 1944 when it spread to Palestine, Syria, and Jordan. (thevetexpert.com)
  • This dreadful disease has caused losses of great economic and emotional value for as long as horses have been on the African continent. (nwu.ac.za)
  • Subsequently, there has been at least an additional 10 major (and several lesser) outbreaks of AHS on the African continent [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like much of the African continent south of the Sahara, South Africa's landscape is dominated by a high Central Plateau surrounded by coastal lowlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • African horse sickness has the potential to spread due to climate change and increased international horse movement. (thehorse.com)
  • Climate change is creating conducive conditions for African horse sickness to spread further than it has in the past. (thehorse.com)
  • Spread of African horse sickness: Is the answer blowin' in the wind? (horsetalk.co.nz)
  • It's also crucial to owners that Thailand identifies the source of the sickness and stops the spread as quickly as possible. (iol.co.za)
  • This is because it is capped by a 1,400 m thick layer of erosion resistant lava which welled up and spread across most of Southern Africa when it was still part of Gondwana. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, with climate change and an increase in the international movement of horses there is a possibility that AHS could reach Britain, although the risk is not presently considered to be high. (bhs.org.uk)
  • Given the extent of the international movement of horses, AHS could be introduced anywhere in the world, mainly if an animal is imported from an affected country where the disease has not been diagnosed. (thevetexpert.com)
  • The importance of the effects of AHS on historical events is highlighted, with the limited movement of horses during the AHS seasons being an imperative historical precaution. (nwu.ac.za)
  • S equi equi , the causative agent of strangles (see Strangles in Horses ), is a primary bacterial pathogen of the upper respiratory tract and is capable of mucosal invasion without predisposing factors. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • A live attenuated vaccine is in use in Africa but it is not licensed in Europe, due to safety concerns. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • Per APHIS regulation, imported horses undergo inspection prior to export. (theplaidhorse.com)
  • It also produces neutralising antibodies when administered to healthy horses. (rybicki.blog)
  • Two horses in South Africa's Western Cape have tested positive for African horse sickness. (thehorse.com)
  • In January 2013, after his victory in South Africa's prestigious Queen's Plate, Variety Club's owners, Markus and Ingrid Jooste, petitioned the Dubai Racing Club for special dispensation from quarantine rules so the horse could ship directly to Dubai for the Godolphin Mile or the Dubai Duty Free. (nytimes.com)
  • South Africa has reported three outbreaks of African Horse Sickness (AHS) in free roaming horses in Mamre area of Western Cape Province within the AHS control zone surveillance area. (beva.org.uk)
  • African horse sickness is a notifiable disease and should be reported. (pirbright.ac.uk)
  • African horse sickness (AHS) is listed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) as a notifiable disease. (nordic-ilibrary.org)
  • The Unit comprises research groups led by Professor Ed Rybicki, Associate Professor Inga Hitzeroth and Dr Ann Meyers, and boasts the largest portfolio of biotechnology patents at UCT, as well as the largest molecular biotechnology portfolio in South Africa. (rybicki.blog)