Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A republic in central Africa south of CHAD and SUDAN, north of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, and east of CAMEROON. The capital is Bangui.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A sometimes fatal ASFIVIRUS infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The transferring of patient care responsibility from one health-care professional to another.
Controlled vocabulary thesaurus produced by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. It consists of sets of terms naming descriptors in a hierarchical structure that permits searching at various levels of specificity.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Terms or expressions which provide the major means of access by subject to the bibliographic unit.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Any enhancement of a motivated behavior in which individuals do the same thing with some degree of mutual stimulation and consequent coordination.
The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)

Identification of DNA polymorphisms associated with the V type alpha1-antitrypsin gene. (1/5501)

alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is a highly polymorphic protein. The V allele of alpha1-AT has been shown to be associated with focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS) in Negroid and mixed race South African patients. To identify mutations and polymorphisms in the gene for the V allele of alpha1-AT in five South African patients with FGS nephrotic syndrome DNA sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the coding exons were carried out. Four of the patients were heterozygous for the BstEII RFLP in exon III [M1(Val213)(Ala213)] and one patient was a M1(Ala213) homozygote. The mutation for the V allele was identified in exon II as Gly-148 (GGG)-->Arg (AGG) and in all patients was associated with a silent mutation at position 158 (AAC-->AAT). The patient who was homozygous for (Ala213) also had a silent mutation at position 256 in exon III (GAT-->GAC) which was not present in any of the other four patients. Although the V allele of alpha1-AT is not associated with severe plasma deficiency, it may be in linkage disequilibrium with other genes on chromosome 14 that predispose to FGS. Furthermore, the associated silent mutation at position 158 and the Ala213 polymorphism are of interest, as these could represent an evolutionary intermediate between the M1(Ala213) and M1(Val213) subtypes.  (+info)

NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction in salt-sensitive African Americans: antipressor and hemodynamic effects of potassium bicarbonate. (2/5501)

In 16 African Americans (blacks, 14 men, 2 women) with average admission mean arterial pressure (MAP, mm Hg) 99.9+/-3.5 (mean+/-SEM), we investigated whether NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction attends salt sensitivity and, if so, whether supplemental KHCO3 ameliorates both conditions. Throughout a 3-week period under controlled metabolic conditions, all subjects ate diets containing 15 mmol NaCl and 30 mmol potassium (K+) (per 70 kg body wt [BW] per day). Throughout weeks 2 and 3, NaCl was loaded to 250 mmol/d; throughout week 3, dietary K+ was supplemented to 170 mmol/d (KHCO3). On the last day of each study week, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using renal clearances of PAH and inulin. Ten subjects were salt sensitive (SS) (DeltaMAP >+5%) and 6 salt resistant (SR). In NaCl-loaded SS but not SR subjects, RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2) decreased from 920+/-75 to 828+/-46 (P<0.05); filtration fraction (FF, %) increased from 19. 4+/- to 21.4 (P<0.001); and renal vascular resistance (RVR) (10(3)xmm Hg/[mL/min]) increased from 101+/-8 to 131+/-10 (P<0.001). In all subjects combined, DeltaMAP varied inversely with DeltaRBF (r =-0.57, P=0.02) and directly with DeltaRVR (r = 0.65, P=0.006) and DeltaFF (r = 0.59, P=0.03), but not with MAP before NaCl loading. When supplemental KHCO3 abolished the pressor effect of NaCl in SS subjects, RBF was unaffected but GFR and FF decreased. The results show that in marginally K+-deficient blacks (1) NaCl-induced renal vasoconstrictive dysfunction attends salt sensitivity; (2) the dysfunction varies in extent directly with the NaCl-induced increase in blood pressure (BP); and (3) is complexly affected by supplemented KHCO3, GFR and FF decreasing but RBF not changing. In blacks, NaCl-induced renal vasoconstriction may be a pathogenetic event in salt sensitivity.  (+info)

Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study. (3/5501)

The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (4/5501)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody in white and black patients with diabetes mellitus. (5/5501)

The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg) and antibody (anti-HBS) was determined in 531 white and 519 black diabetic outpatients and in appropriate white and black control populations. There was no difference between the prevalence of either HBSAg or anti-HBS in either the white or black diabetics and that in the white and black controls. These findings make it unlikely that the vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus have either an increased susceptibility to infection by the hepatitis B virus or an impaired ability to clear the virus once they are infected.  (+info)

Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction. (6/5501)

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

The effect of race and sex on physicians' recommendations for cardiac catheterization. (7/5501)

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies have reported differences in the use of cardiovascular procedures according to the race and sex of the patient. Whether the differences stem from differences in the recommendations of physicians remains uncertain. METHODS: We developed a computerized survey instrument to assess physicians' recommendations for managing chest pain. Actors portrayed patients with particular characteristics in scripted interviews about their symptoms. A total of 720 physicians at two national meetings of organizations of primary care physicians participated in the survey. Each physician viewed a recorded interview and was given other data about a hypothetical patient. He or she then made recommendations about that patient's care. We used multivariate logistic-regression analysis to assess the effects of the race and sex of the patients on treatment recommendations, while controlling for the physicians' assessment of the probability of coronary artery disease as well as for the age of the patient, the level of coronary risk, the type of chest pain, and the results of an exercise stress test. RESULTS: The physicians' mean (+/-SD) estimates of the probability of coronary artery disease were lower for women (probability, 64.1+/-19.3 percent, vs. 69.2+/-18.2 percent for men; P<0.001), younger patients (63.8+/-19.5 percent for patients who were 55 years old, vs. 69.5+/-17.9 percent for patients who were 70 years old; P<0.001), and patients with nonanginal pain (58.3+/-19.0 percent, vs. 64.4+/-18.3 percent for patients with possible angina and 77.1+/-14.0 percent for those with definite angina; P=0.001). Logistic-regression analysis indicated that women (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) and blacks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.02) were less likely to be referred for cardiac catheterization than men and whites, respectively. Analysis of race-sex interactions showed that black women were significantly less likely to be referred for catheterization than white men (odds ratio, 0.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.2 to 0.7; P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the race and sex of a patient independently influence how physicians manage chest pain.  (+info)

Genetic polymorphism and interethnic variability of plasma paroxonase activity. (8/5501)

A method for determining plasma paroxonase activity using an auto-analyser is described. Frequency distributions for British and Indian subjects show bimodality. A study of 40 British families confirms the presence of a genetic polymorphism with regard to plasma paroxonase activity. Two phenotypes can be defined, controlled by two alleles at one autosomal locus. The frequency of the low activity phenotype is less in the Indian population than in the British population. Malay, Chinese, and African subjects fail to show obvious bimodality.  (+info)

To better understand the impact of the African Diaspora in the Western Hemisphere on genetic diversity, Northwestern Medicine scientists collaborated with scientists as part of the Consortium on Asthma Among African-Ancestry Populations in the Americas (CAAPA), which examined data from the largest whole-genome sequencing study on populations with African ancestry in the Americas, in research published in Nature Communications.. The African Diaspora populations across North, Central and South America are the result of a forced migration, with varying contributions of ancestral populations to the current-day diaspora populations in these countries, said co-author Rajesh Kumar, MD, associate professor of Pediatrics in the Division of Allergy and Immunology. This effort, led by Dr. Barnes, the senior author and a professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, is the first whole-genome sequencing of African-admixed individuals in the Americas on this scale. It will serve as ...
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The University Senate at Columbia University has unanimously voted to establish a department of African-American and African Diaspora studies, according to the Columbia Daily Spectator. If approved by the board of trustees, the department will become the first independent department dedicated to African studies in Columbias history. Currently, courses on the subject exist only within […]
Reported findings on the relationship between adiposity and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) risk in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are contradictory and originate in developed populations. Approximately 80% of ACVD now occurs in developing countries. We aimed to ascertain the associations of clinical obesity measures with metabolic cardiovascular risk and atherosclerosis in African women with RA from a developing black and developed Caucasian population. The associations of body mass index (BMI) as an indicator of overall adiposity and waist circumference and waist-to-height and waist-to-hip ratios as abdominal obesity indices with metabolic risk factors and high resolution B-mode ultrasound-determined carotid artery atherosclerosis were assessed in multivariate regression models in 203 African women with established RA; 108 were black and 95 Caucasian. BMI and waist-to-height ratio were higher in African black compared to Caucasian women (29.9 (6.6) versus 25.3 (4.9) kg/m2, P = 0.002 and 0.59
Humble Beginnings Nubian Heritage is the brainchild of two New York street vendors. In 1992, fresh out of college and without jobs, Rich and Nyema embarked on a mission to produce luxurious natural products from traditional African recipes with fair trade ingredients. Today Nubian Heritage offers culturally ancient healing philosophies. Although Nubian Heritage products are no longer made in bath tubs, little else has changed; the company still makes its own products, still uses fair trade ingredients and still invests in community commerce.. Heritage. For centuries, African Black Soap has been used in Africa to cleanse and care for the skin. Historical references to Shea Butter, a staple of African pharmacology, date back to the reported Shea Butter caravans of Cleopatras Egypt. Complementing the ingredients detoxifying properties, our package pattern symbolizes purity and commemorates the strong community identity textiles have in Africa with each community have their own unique designs. ...
In comparison to healthy white children, healthy Black children are more likely to suffer complications and deaths after surgery, a new study finds.
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As part of the Global Village, the institute will partner with the African Black Diaspora Global Network on HIV/AIDS (ABDGN), will sponsor question-and-answer sessions with several plenary speakers at the conference and will publish a roadmap, or guide, highlighting speaking sessions, performances, video presentations and panel discussions on HIV/AIDS geared toward members of the African Diaspora, communities with common links to African heritage. Baran says, more often than not, black communities across the globe have shared experiences of higher rates of HIV, higher incidences of poverty and less access to health care. Conference attendees receiving current, accurate information about HIV/AIDS, Baran explains, can take that information back to their communities and serve as authorities who can combat myths or misinformation that persist in some communities worldwide, whether its erroneous information about whos at risk or various conspiracy theories. We are constantly trying to move ...
Intensive study and analysis of selected Afro-American problems and issues of limited scope, approached within an interdisciplinary format. Topics will vary, but will ordinarily cut across departmental concentration areas. Summer 2011 Topics RACE, CLASS, AND LITERACY (10570) CRITICAL PERSPECTIVE-WHITENESS (10568 & 10569 ...
What really happens when a White man crosses the color line in the 21st Century by marrying a Black woman | My Black Family and My White Male Privilege Monday, June 17, 2013 on A Safe Place to Talk About Race | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
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T Morrison article discussing black womens indifference to current womens liberation movement says that Weltanschauung (philosophy) of black women is responsible for this indifference; cites black womens distrust of movement because it is largely white dominated and possibly, in opinion of black women, racist; notes that black women have known freedom white women are seeking under different label, responsibility; says black women are unable to understand new mutual interests between white women and black men because of sense of superiority; also attributes reluctance to join liberation movement to black males opposition based on their belief that black womens support of this cause may weaken black liberation struggle; describes womens liberation movement as an attempt by whites to become black without accepting responsibilities of being black; illus
Four out of five black women are seriously overweight. One out of four middle-aged black women has diabetes. With $174 billion a year spent on diabetes-related illness in America and obesity quickly overtaking smoking as a cause of cancer deaths, it is past time to try something new.. What we need is a body-culture revolution in black America. Why? Because too many experts who are involved in the discussion of obesity dont understand something crucial about black women and fat: many black women are fat because we want to be.. The black poet Lucille Cliftons 1987 poem Homage to My Hips begins with the boast, These hips are big hips. She establishes big black hips as something a woman would want to have and a man would desire. She wasnt the first or the only one to reflect this community knowledge. {snip}. {snip}. How many white girls in the 60s grew up praying for fat thighs? I know I did. I asked God to give me big thighs like my dancing teacher, Diane. There was no way I wanted to look ...
ERNEST MORRELL is the Macy Professor of English Education and Director of the Institute for Urban and Minority Education (IUME) at Teachers College, Columbia University. He is also an elected Fellow of the American Educational Research Association a past-president of the National Council of Teachers of English, and an appointed member of the International Literacy Associations Research Panel. In 2016, Ernest was ranked among the top 100 university-based education scholars in the Annual EdWeek RHSU Edu-Scholar Public Influence Rankings. Ernest is also the recipient of the 2017 Divergent Award for Excellence in 21st Century Literacies. His scholarly interests include: (1) Anti-colonial and critical practices in the Teaching of English (2) Literature for Children (3) The African Diaspora as Imagined Community (4) Literature and Popular Culture in the African Diaspora, and (5) critical media pedagogies and youth popular cultural production in the digital age. Ernest has written more than 75 ...
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Hypertension detected in young black women by routine screening in a family planning clinics.: The prevalence of hypertension, defined as a diastolic blood pres
they sre not interested in anything serious i met several men and many other blackwoman have talked aboabout how we can just meet them and they ask us to.go down on them. disgusting. it turns me totsllu off it is not only nasty but disrectful and when i exp lain my position on it they dont care. now men have also told me how some blackwomen dont mind and want the same. while most races are lookn for relationships and assets all most blackmen want to fucc spreading nasty diseases germs. i see women bbeing sexed on the dance floor and how the dance like those women in those ignorant rap videos no self rerespect just dont give a dam. if thats not enough i am shocked about all the so called down low and lesbians we dont talk about that sickness if one dont have to be a rocket scientist to see ...
Ransome Y, Bogart LM, Kawachi I, Kaplan A, Mayer KH, Ojikutu B. Area-level HIV risk and socioeconomic factors associated with willingness to use PrEP among Black people in the U.S. South. Ann Epidemiol. 2020 02; 42:33-41 ...
Claiming that black women are genocidal and violent for our own good is just a continuation of the same overt disrespect we so often encounter from those who claim to want to help us. FYI - this aint the first time yall have tried to make the case that black women are somehow incapable of making decisions whether to have children, how to have children and how to raise the children we have in quite another ...
Claiming that black women are genocidal and violent for our own good is just a continuation of the same overt disrespect we so often encounter from those who claim to want to help us. FYI - this aint the first time yall have tried to make the case that black women are somehow incapable of making decisions whether to have children, how to have children and how to raise the children we have in quite another ...
A study of more than 500 patients with cancer and COVID-19 at a large cancer center in Boston found that Black patients with cancer and COVID-19 were twice as likely to be hospitalized due to complications related to the virus as compared with white patients. Black patients were at greater risk of a visit to the emergency room. The findings will be presented at the upcoming
Between 15 and 20 percent of black people carry a genetic mutation that puts them at risk for certain chronic kidney disease, but only about half of them develop the illness -- a variance that long has puzzled researchers. Now a study has found that the gene mutations toxic effects require higher than normal levels of a protein called suPAR to trigger the onset and progression of the disease.
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American politicians are now eager to disown a failed criminal-justice system thats left the U.S. with the largest incarcerated population in the world. But theyve failed to reckon with history. Fifty years after Daniel Patrick Moynihans report
In Knox County, black men are more likely than white men to die of colon cancer. Black women are more likely than white women to die of breast cancer.
(HealthDay)-Black children are less likely to be prescribed antibiotics and to be diagnosed with conditions that require antibiotics, even when treated by the same doctor, according to research published online March 18 ...
A recent study by the National Council of Negro Women and the Fannie Mae Foundation finds black women are much further along the road to economic power. But obstacles remain.
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White supremacy will reassert itself as it has through history if white people dont sustain their focus and turn the moment into a movement.
While IUI success rates for Black patients seem to track those of Caucasian patients, IVF success rates are roughly half as high. Here well breakdown the data.
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An inspirational list: 20 Bessie Coleman facts: Americas first black female pilot. Bessie Coleman was ahead of her time. Coleman was the very first
It is interesting how small a share of the population these different minority groups make in the UK. Pakistanis make up 1.9% of the population in 2009, Bangladeshis make up 0.7%, and Blacks of all types make up 2.9% (African blacks make up 1.5%). I cant easily find the share for Romani, so I assume that it is very small. I thought that discrimination might be related in someway to their population shares, but that isnt immediately obvious from the data. See the poll data here ...
Darling Nikki explores what many black men are not willing to do during sex as a follow up to what black women are not willing to do.
To connect you with your Congressional District, please enter your street address below. Your street address will not be visible to the public or used for anything other than determining your Congressional District.**. ...
It seems as if more single Black women are speaking out about sex outside marriage. Three sisters open up about the benefits and struggles of self-restraint.
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
Humorous views on interesting, bizarre and amusing articles, submitted by a community of millions of news junkies, with regular Photoshop contests.
When you begin to appreciate my natural kinks and curls instead of paying people to make your straight hair look the same, maybe Ill be quiet.
A new study finds that black people are less likely to keep their viral load down on Atripla -- and that more trouble with side effects may be the reason.
... and equally diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, and also recent immigrant groups from all over the ... Racial categories in Latin America are often linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical ... Nonetheless, European, African, and Amerindian ancestry can be seen all over Brazil. The five racial categories in which the ... Ethnic groups or indigenous individuals are all treated as Peruvian. Casta Race and ethnicity in Colombia Ethnic groups in ...
"Oriental Continental Ancestry Group, "African Continental Ancestry Group" and "European Continental Ancestry Group" for " ... Recent genetic research indicates that the degree of genetic heterogeneity within groups and homogeneity across groups make ... Rushton's book is focused on what he considers the three broadest racial groups, and does not address other populations such as ... Rushton, J. Philippe (January 1985). "Differential K theory: The sociobiology of individual and group differences". Personality ...
... making them the primary European ancestral group. And more French ancestry, due to white French fleeing Haiti after ... This mixture of European (especially Canarian), West African, and Taino, is heavily reflected in the culture. The term is used ... The Spanish Caribbean also has higher Canarian influence compared to continental Latin America, ... Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-56720-138-3. Luis F. Pumarada O'Neill (July 31, 1994), National Register of ...
European Continental Ancestry Group (=012) Asian Continental Ancestry Group (=013) African Continental Ancestry Group (=014) ... Oceanic Ancestry Group (=017) American Native Continental Ancestry Group (=1/=8) Linguistic-cultural groups, ethnic groups, ... Table 1e (=...) Common auxiliaries of human ancestry, ethnic grouping and nationality. Table 1f "..." Common auxiliaries of ... time and ethnic grouping facets are expressed through combination with common auxiliaries of place (Table 1d), ethnic grouping ...
... continental population groups MeSH M01.686.508.100 - african continental ancestry group MeSH M01.686.508.100.100 - african ... european continental ancestry group MeSH M01.686.508.600 - oceanic ancestry group MeSH M01.686.754 - ethnic groups MeSH M01.686 ... american native continental ancestry group MeSH M01.686.508.150.575 - central american indians MeSH M01.686.508.150.600 - north ... asian continental ancestry group MeSH M01.686.508.200.100 - asian americans MeSH M01.686.508.400 - ...
Their ancestry is the combination of continental African Bantu-speaking peoples who migrated from the Eastern coast of mainland ... Africa portal Madagascar portal The Malagasy (French: Malgache) are a mixed race ethnic group native to the island country of ... 70% African ancestry and 30% Asian ancestry. while highlander tribes tend to have lower African ancestry at around 45% .In a ... This study demonstrated that all Malagasy people have mixed African and Asian ancestry. But it exist a difference in term of ...
Many of these people also have African ancestry. A significant minority of early Chinese immigrants to Hawaii, and even fewer ... One group is the New England Hakka Association, which reminds its members not to forget their roots. One example is a blog by ... A small number of Hakka came to the continental US before the 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. Some Hakka also went to Hawaii, where ... There was a communal ban on intermarriages between the two groups for the first generation of migrants. In the middle of the ...
Indirect evidence of an Archaean ancestry for the Bangweulu Block is provided by detrital zircons within the Mporokoso Group, ... and is overlain by a Palaeoproterozoic continental sedimentary succession, the Mporokoso Group, and does not preserve much ... The Bangweulu Block is a cratonic unit that forms part of the Congo craton of central Africa. The Bangweulu Block however ... Post-Eburnian sediments include the Mporokoso Group, the Kasama Formation, the Luitikila and Luapula Beds, and Cenozoic ...
The categorisation was primarily intended to cover people with ancestry from Continental Europe, with the largest represented ... A wide number of religions are represented in the Other White group. In the census, the largest faith group, 63 per cent, ... It may also be that those who identify as white Americans, white South Africans, or white Australians have migrated to the ... The Other White group is largely of working age, with only one in ten aged over 65 and one in seven under 16 at the time of the ...
Mauritius also contains substantial populations from continental Africa, China, France, Great Britain, and the East African ... While the government officially groups Mauritians in four ethnic groups - Hindus, Muslims, Chinese and general population - the ... Nowadays, a significant proportion of them are predominantly black with varying amounts of French and Indian ancestry. ... Mauritian Ethnic groups Mauritians of Indian Origin 65.8%, Mauritians of African Origin 27.7%, Mauritians of Chinese Origin 3 ...
... group 1), who share ancestry with present-day Andamanese Önge, Malaysian Jehai, and the ancient Japanese Ikawazu Jōmon. ... Hokkaido Jōmon samples were found to have 47,6% alleles of ABCC11 gene and 68,9% alleles of EDAR gene, common in continental ... The uniqueness of the Sanganji Jōmon within East Eurasians is consistent with the results including Europeans and Africans. ... Jōmon ancestry used here is a modeled ancestry comparing various Jōmon period samples with modern populations and may not be ...
"Patriclan: Trace Your Paternal Ancestry". African Ancestry. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-15. ... "mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin." Y- ... Genealogical DNA testing may provide a tie to regional African heritage. Melungeons are one of numerous multiracial groups in ... nearly three-quarters of the ancestors of African Americans taken in slavery came from regions of West Africa. The African- ...
When one samples continental groups, the clusters become continental; with other sampling patterns, the clusters would be ... Native American and African ancestry. In Brazil there has been extensive admixture between Europeans, Amerindians and Africans ... or group) corresponds to only one ethnic group. African Americans have an estimated 20-25-percent European genetic admixture; ... among Europeans 15 percent were group B and 40 percent group A. Eastern Europeans and Russians had a higher incidence of group ...
Jamestown has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Winters are cold and snowy, while summers are warm and humid. As of the ... 19.7% were of Italian, 18.1% Swedish, 12.8% German, 9.0% Irish, 8.7% English and 5.5% American ancestry. Hispanic or Latino of ... Regarding ethnicity the largest ethnic group reported in the 2000 Census was Italian and the second largest was Swedish. ... Samuel Teresi, mayor of Jamestown Davis Hanson Waite, 8th Governor of Colorado Walter Washington, first African-American Mayor ...
... from Europe in the same taxonomical unit with other Mid-Pleistocene samples from Africa and continental Asia. Combining the ... On the basis of this morphological affinity, it seems appropriate to group Ceprano with these fossils, and consider them as a ... of a number of archaic traits combined with features that are more derived and independent from any Neandertal ancestry. [...] ... After comparative studies with similar finds in Africa allocation to an African subspecies of H. sapiens was considered most ...
Sub-Saharan Africa comprising speakers of different African language groups which live south of the Sahara). It is important to ... The YHRD defines seven continental Metapopulations following the United Nations classification of geographical regions: Africa ... criterion seems most appropriate to group data by taking the ancestry into account and produce subdatabases with respect to ... Thus, the population groups are more similar within the metapopulation than to groups outside the metapopulation. The concept ...
... many individuals affiliate with two or more continental groups. Thus, the genetically based "biogeographical ancestry" assigned ... This means that all non-African groups are more closely related to each other and to some African groups (probably east ... that some human groups are parental to other groups and that these groups represent paraphyletic groups to their descent groups ... West Africa, East Africa and Southern Africa; the Pygmy populations in Central Africa; and the Khoisan populations in Southern ...
African ancestryEdit. Y-DNA and mtDNA testing may be able to determine with which peoples in present-day Africa a person shares ... "mtDNA-haplogroup membership provides limited information about either continental ancestry or continental region of origin."[28 ... This is usually done by comparing the frequency of each Autosomal DNA marker tested to many population groups.[26] The ... "Patriclan: Trace Your Paternal Ancestry". African Ancestry. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-15.. ...
The Basque region holds the least Eastern Mediterranean and North African ancestry in Iberia. African influence peaks in the ... Spanish Basques and Valencian Spaniards found Iberian populations to cluster the furthest from other continental groups, ... of shared ancestry with north Africans, although the Canary islands are a Spanish exclave located in the African continent, and ... concluding that Spain and Portugal hold significant levels of North African ancestry. Estimates of shared ancestry averaged ...
... group is substantially African, as 70% of African-Americans in this group have less than 15% European ancestry. The 20% of ... Despite a long history of miscegenation within the U.S. political territory and American continental landscape, advocacy for a ... Passing is a term for a person whose ancestry is mostly that of the dominant group with some ancestry of a subordinate group ... President Barack Obama is of European-American and East African ancestry; he identifies as African-American. A 2007 poll, when ...
Black and African Americans make up the second largest group in the United States, but the third largest group after White ... The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the original peoples of ... They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa. Of ... East Africa and Southern Africa (0%-4%). African immigrants may also experience conflict with African Americans. Another ...
... from Europe in the same taxonomical unit with other Mid-Pleistocene samples from Africa and continental Asia. Combining the ... On the basis of this morphological affinity, it seems appropriate to group Ceprano with these fossils, and consider them as a ... of a number of archaic traits combined with features that are more derived and independent from any Neandertal ancestry. [...] ... "The result of this peculiar morphology is that Ceprano clusters in our analysis with other European, African and Asian Mid- ...
Greeks possess none of the lineages denoting North African ancestry within the last 5000 years and have only 2% (3/148) of the ... Antonio Arnaiz-Villena is a Spanish immunologist noted for his controversial research into the genetic history of ethnic groups ... Additionally, in a sample of 366 Greeks from thirteen locations in continental Greece, Crete, Lesvos and Chios, a single ... No sub-Saharan African genes were observed in this population, therefore, non-Caucasoid maternal ancestry in Greece is very low ...
South Africa has enumerated people by race in all of its censuses since 1904. Five population group options are provided in ... It only began counting all people by ethnic ancestry since the 1980 census, though. In addition to a Hispanic/Latino ethnicity ... Before 1970, Alaska and Hawaii had different choices for race on their censuses in contrast to the continental United States. ... The 1969 census asked about language but not ethnic group, and the 1974 census asked about ethnic group, but not language. The ...
... of its ancestry from groups related to those of the local Levant Neolithic, ~26% from groups related to those of the Anatolian ... "Paternal lineages signal distinct genetic contributions from British Loyalists and continental Africans among different ... Central Africa, and South Africa. The clade is borne by a majority of Dir clan Somalis in the Horn of Africa; among Kurru, ... "Dissecting the within-Africa ancestry of populations of African descent in the Americas". PLOS ONE. 6 (1): e14495. Bibcode: ...
According to the American Community Survey, the largest ancestry White American groups were Italian (13.0%), Irish (12.1%), ... The Black or African American population is in a state of flux, as New York is the largest recipient of immigrants from Africa ... Weather in New York is heavily influenced by two continental air masses: a warm, humid one from the southwest and a cold, dry ... The African Burial Ground National Monument in Lower Manhattan is the only national monument dedicated to Americans of African ...
... and implied dual ancestry for each region, involving interbreeding with Africans. Thorne held that there was regional ... though it is also consistent with a mixture of two long isolated groups within Africa; it is not consistent with a recent ... Theory proponents also explain this with the fact that genetic changes occur on a regional basis rather than a continental ... was relatively recent and African seemed to give the upper hand to the proponents of the Out of Africa hypothesis. But in 2002 ...
North African groups share a similar excess of derived alleles with Neanderthals as non-African populations, whereas Sub- ... Denisovan ancestry is shared by Melanesians, Australian Aborigines, and smaller scattered groups of people in Southeast Asia, ... Migration continued Southeast on the coastal route to the straits between Sunda and Sahul, the continental land mass of present ... Expansion to Central Africa by the ancestors of the Central African forager populations (African Pygmies) most likely took ...
In continental southern Africa, the extreme temperatures range from -10 °C (14 °F) for P. succulentum locations to as much as ... There are no fossil records of Pachypodium, a fact that does exclude analysis to determine common ancestry and current ... The broken geological formations of locally xeric landscapes tend to break up populations into smaller groups so that each ... Pachypodium represent the dry flora of continental Africa and Madagascar. The genus grows in areas where there are significant ...
Continental Americans, although small in number in comparison with Caribbean immigrants, have also been part of the Saint Croix ... This effort by a select group of nationalist senators eventually failed after much public outcry and controversy. It was ... Saint Croix's history of migration has sometimes caused tensions between immigrants and Crucians whose ancestry on the island ... it is important to note that persons of both European and African descent from the nearby islands of Anguilla, St. Martin, Sint ...
This is a node-based definition (the node being the nearest common ancestor). The group so defined is the crown group, or crown ... AncestryEdit. See also: Evolution of fish. Tetrapods evolved from early bony fishes (Osteichthyes), specifically from the ... "Abrupt and gradual extinction among late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa" (PDF). Science. 307 (5710 ... continental-shelf seas that separated these landmasses.[28][29][30] ...
About 4% of the population is of non-African ancestry. Many are French,[93] Lebanese,[94][95] Vietnamese and Spanish citizens, ... The group has had a major impact on the sub-Saharan region of Africa, particularly Ivory Coast. By 2030, they plan to have ... African Economic Community. *NEPAD. *African Continental Free Trade Area. *Single African Air Transport Market ... Ethnic groups[edit]. Ethnic groups in Ivory Coast include Akan (42.1%), Voltaiques or Gur (17.6%), Northern Mandés (16.5%), ...
The Province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec so that each linguistic group would have its own province. Both ... have a moderate humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic ... although those with French ancestry account for 11 per cent of the population. In relation to natural increase or inter- ... and Africans. Most populations have settled in the larger urban centres. ...
... fossil Altiatlasius from Paleocene Africa.[16] These earliest fossil primates are often divided into two groups, adapiforms[d] ... All of the lorisoids from continental Africa and Asia are nocturnal, a circumstance that minimizes their competition with the ... and omomyiforms.[e] Both appeared suddenly in the fossil record without transitional forms to indicate ancestry,[28] and both ... The latter bears the most ancestral traits, so it is often considered a sister group or stem group of the other adapiforms.[34] ...
... found a large variance in amounts of continental "Germanic" ancestry in different parts of England. In their study, such ... "Africans, Slavery, and Race". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). *^ "Leaving England: The Social Background of Indentured ... Around 300 BC, a group from the Gaulish Parisii tribe apparently took over East Yorkshire, establishing the highly distinctive ... The population may indeed have included a substantial number of people with Germanic ancestry as well as an as yet ...
A group of landscape painters called the Group of Seven developed the first distinctly Canadian style of painting.[123] All ... Seymour Martin Lipset (1991). Continental Divide: The Values and Institutions of the United States and Canada. Psychology Press ... Africa, and the Caribbean.[27] By the end of the 20th century, immigrants were increasingly Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, ... Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-275-97001-7. .. *^ Gil Murray (2003). Nothing on but the radio: a look back at ...
2010). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human ... Africa[edit]. Haplogroup Q is rarely found across North Africa. It is observed in 0.7% (1/147),[88] of Egyptians and in 0.6% (1 ... In Siberian Tatars, the Ishtyako-Tokuz sub-group of Tobol-Irtysh group has a frequency of Q-M242 at 38%.[10] ... "Family Tree DNA - Genetic Testing for Ancestry, Family History & Genealogy".. *^ a b c David K. Faux, 2007, The Genetic Link of ...
"Citizens Financial Group. Retrieved June 6, 2011.. *^ a b "Rhode Island Convention Center - About Us?". Rhode Island Convention ... "Providence-Ancestry & Family History". ePodunk Inc. Retrieved June 19, 2007.. *^ "Jewish Population in the United States, 2010" ... African Americans constitute 16%[47] of the city's population, with their greatest concentrations found in Mount Hope and the ... Providence has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa) with warm summers, cold winters, and high ...
A 2010 study on Jewish ancestry by Atzmon-Ostrer et al. stated "Two major groups were identified by principal component, ... North African Sepharadim and Berber Jews were often looked down upon by Ashkenazim as second-class citizens during the first ... William the Conqueror likewise extended a welcome to continental Jews to take up residence there. Bishop Rüdiger Huzmann called ... In this sense, "Ashkenazic" refers both to a family ancestry and to a body of customs binding on Jews of that ancestry. Reform ...
Another study on African ancestry was also conducted by the University of Buenos Aires in the city of La Plata. In order to ... "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. ... Ethnic groups[edit]. Main articles: Ethnography of Argentina and Immigration to Argentina ... of the population who display notably higher levels of African ancestry.[citation needed] Blacks, Mulattos (mixed Black and ...
The Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That Reveals Our Genetic Ancestry. Bantam, London. ISBN 0-593-04757-5 ... The possibility that groups also travelled to meet and exchange goods or sent out dedicated expeditions to source flint has ... At this time, Southern and Eastern Britain were linked to continental Europe by a wide land bridge (Doggerland) allowing humans ... This period also saw Levallois flint tools introduced, possibly by humans arriving from Africa. However, finds from Swanscombe ...
Ancestry/Ethnicity[edit]. As of 2017 the largest self-identified ancestry groups/ethnic groups in McCall, Idaho were:[18] ... McCall experiences a dry-summer continental climate (Köppen Dsb) with cold, snowy winters and warm, relatively dry summers. The ... African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 3.6% from other races, and 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino ... 19.2% were of German, 17.3% English, 10.6% Irish and 8.2% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 98.3% spoke English and ...
... the diagram omits some extinct groups in order to focus on the ancestry of well-known modern groups of placentals - † marks ... which diverged from an African lineage about 7.6 million years ago.[91] As Pangaea broke up, Africa and South America separated ... and placentals originated in the Northern Hemisphere and were confined to it until continental drift formed land connections ... Some writers restrict the term "mammal" to the crown group mammals, the group consisting of the most recent common ancestor of ...
The Anglo-Saxon law codes follow a pattern found in continental Europe where other groups of the former Roman empire ... He was joined the following year by his colleague Hadrian, a Latin-speaking African by origin and former abbot of a monastery ... ancestry of the English made them racially superior to the colonised peoples. Similar racist ideas were advocated in the 19th- ... Tolkien's major scholarly discovery when he studied a group of texts written in early Middle English called the Katherine Group ...
The population belonged to many ethnic groups, and they spoke many languages. The empire was dominated by one ethnic group, and ... German nationality law defined "German" on the basis of German ancestry, excluding all non-Germans from the people.[citation ... This type of state is not specifically European: such empires existed in Asia, Africa and the Americas. In the Muslim world, ... "continental imperialism", most notably in pan-Germanic and pan-Slavic movements.[26] ...
Wade defines these continental races as follows: Africans are those whose primary ancestry is in sub-Saharan Africa, including ... "continental groups" or "continent of origin," which does, indeed, correspond to the everyday conception of race. When I'm ... Wade puts forth that there are five continental races - Africans, Caucasians, Asians, Pacific Islanders and Native Americans[nb ... Nature Publishing Group. Retrieved 18 February 2013.. (subscription required) *^ "Science-in-Society Journalism Award winners" ...
At its peak, the stud of Ali Pasha Sherif had over 400 purebred Arabians.[105][107] Unfortunately, an epidemic of African horse ... For centuries, the Bedouin tracked the ancestry of each horse through an oral tradition. Horses of the purest blood were known ... They are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, continental Europe, South ... though the cases studied were all of one general bloodline group.[53] Recent research updates suggest that a dominant mode of ...
Almost all wild dogs showed some dingo ancestry,[143][144] with only 3% of dogs showing less than 80% dingo ancestry. This ... This same tactic is used by wolves, African wild dogs, and hyenas. Another tactic shared with African wild dogs is a relay ... The group dynamics of dingoes should have successfully kept devils away from carrion, and since dingoes are able to break bones ... the dispersal of dingoes from their point of landing until they occupied continental Australia is proposed to have taken only ...
The largest ancestry group in Massachusetts are the Irish (22.5% of the population), who live in significant numbers throughout ... Kraft Group, Boston Scientific, and the former Continental Cablevision.[224] ... "Museum of African American History. Retrieved May 29, 2010.. *^ "About Plimoth Plantation". Plimoth Plantation. Archived from ... today the Irish and part-Irish are the largest ancestry group in the state at nearly 25% of the total population. Others ...
The major ancestry groups of Louisiana are African American (30.4%), French (16.8%), American (9.5%), German (8.3%), Irish (7.5 ... wide portion of subsea land of the inner continental shelf in the Gulf of Mexico. Through a peculiarity of the political ... This added another infusion of African culture to the city, as more slaves in Saint-Domingue were from Africa than in the ... The settlers kept importing slaves, which resulted in a high proportion of native Africans from West Africa, who continued to ...
This species is found over the outer continental shelf and upper continental slope, generally near the bottom, though there is ... In August 2017 a group of scientists caught a 1.5 m (4.9 ft) frilled shark in the waters off of Portimão, Portugal. The male ... Ebert, D.A.; Compagno, L.J.V. (2009). "Chlamydoselachus africana, a new species of frilled shark from southern Africa ( ... Because of their ancient ancestry and primitive characteristics, the frilled shark and other members of this lineage have been ...
Africa. *African diaspora in the Americas *Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans *Bahamian Americans ... With the Ainu, there has been research that that group were descendants of the caucasian group. The Ainu people were the key to ... New York City, New York, according to the Japanese Embassy of the USA, over 100,000 persons of Japanese ancestry live in the ... Locations of Japanese day schools (nihonjin gakkō and shiritsu zaigai kyoiku shisetsu) in the continental United States ...
How are they measuring diversity? What groups count? European ancestry groups may be known to the level of regions within a ... I don't know, but I suspect there may be many countries, especially in the Americas and Africa, in which 37 or more ancestry ... Norse artifacts have supposedly been found (veracity unknown) in the continental US, and the unknown location of Vinland (or ... Ethnic groups[edit]. Almost none of the ethnic groups are ethnic groups. Also, "Ethnic Groups By Race and Ethnic groups by ...
Tulsa, OK: Continental Heritage Press. ISBN 978-0-932986-38-2. .. *. Stewart, George (2008). Names on the Land: a Historical ... "Neighborhood notes: Group helps promote Palma Ceia merchants - St. Petersburg Times". Tampa Bay Times. Archived from the ... Busch Gardens Tampa is a 335-acre (1.36 km2) Africa-themed park near the University of South Florida. It features many ... As of 2000, the largest European ancestries in the city were German (9.2%), Irish (8.4%), English (7.7%), Italian (5.6%), and ...
Others have long been present, at lower levels, in parts of West Asia and Africa. Some authorities have also suggested, more ... "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity".. *. Underhill, Peter A; Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi ... Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans, Nature, 505, 87-91. ... "Genetic affinity among five different population groups in India reflecting a Y-chromosome gene flow". J Hum Genet. 50 (1): 49- ...
For example, when groups left Africa to set up elsewhere (see human evolution). Apparently, we have less variation than would ... The combination of continental drift and evolution can explain what is found in the fossil record. Glossopteris is an extinct ... Steel, Mike; Penny, David (2010). "Origins of life: common ancestry put to the test". Nature 465 (7295): 168-9. doi:10.1038/ ... Evolution through group selection. Blackwell. ISBN 0-632-01541-1 *↑ Maynard Smith, John 1964. Group selection and kin selection ...
"Association of Concerned Africa Scholars. Retrieved 2013-12-28.. *^ a b "Chad Ethnic Groups". Retrieved 2020-05-25. ... Then there are those castes of captive, slave or serf ancestry: the Maccuɗo, Rimmayɓe, Dimaajo, and less often Ɓaleeɓe, the ... the largest nomadic ethnic group in the world and inhabit several territories over an area larger in size than the continental ... Gale Group. ISBN 978-0-8161-1808-3. .. *^ Anthony Appiah; Henry Louis Gates (2010). Encyclopedia of Africa. Oxford University ...
American ancestry. *By Continent: *African Americans. *Asian Americans. *European Americans. *North Americans ... the first citizen sailors put to sea even before the Continental Congress created the Continental Navy, forerunner of today's U ... Family Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance (FSGLI) is a program extended to the spouses and dependent children of members ... In the ensuing years of the American Revolution, the small size of the Continental Navy necessitated the service of citizen ...
"African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those ... In 2015, Asian American earnings were found to exceed all other racial groups when all Asian ethnic groups are grouped as a ... eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed ... Africa. *African Americans *African diaspora in the Americas *Afro-Caribbean / West Indian Americans *Bahamian Americans ...
Longman Group UK Limited, 1994, pp. 53-54 *^ Hassig, Ross. Mexico and the Spanish Conquest. Longman Group UK Limited, 1994, pp ... North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni and Cape Juby) ... was an infantry captain of distinguished ancestry but slender means. Hernán's mother was Catalína Pizarro Altamirano.[2] ... Independence of Spanish continental Americas. *Adams-Onís Treaty. *Liberal constitution. *Carlist Wars ...
This article begins to fill that gap by exploring the situation of 62 women from different parts of Africa receiving treatment ... This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted among Xhosa-speaking adolescent women in South Africa which ... Showing roughness in a beautiful way: talk about love, coercion, and rape in South African youth sexual culture. ... Stature increase is minimal (though seventeenth century Londoners and modern West Africans are shorter than Colonial to Modern ...
Results of search for su:{African Continental Ancestry Group} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently ... by Biesheuvel, S , Scientific Council for Africa South of the Sahara , Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa South of ... Non-infective disease in Africa; the peculiarities of medical non-infective diseases in the indigenous inhabitants of Africa ... Scientific Council for Africa South of the Sahara , Commission for Technical Co-operation in Africa South of the Sahara ...
Continental Population Groups. M1.686.508. African Continental Ancestry Group. M1.686.508.100. African Americans. M1.686. ... Recent genetic research indicates that the degree of genetic heterogeneity within groups and homogeneity across groups make ... Ethnic Groups and Geographic Origins Categories I and M:. The MeSH descriptor Racial Stocks,and its four children (Australoid ... Other revised chemical groups include Xanthones and Flavonoids. Many of the flavones required retreeing to the appropriate area ...
Blacks was a 2003 MeSH Heading that became an entry term to the new 2004 heading African Continental Ancestry Group, but all ... which is treed under the African Continental Ancestry Group. Some additional maintenance was performed as well; citations that ... that were also indexed to countries other than the United States had the new MeSH heading African Continental Ancestry Group ... For 2003 the MeSH heading Actinobacteria Group was deleted and all occurrences of that term in MEDLINE were replaced by the new ...
... unselected African-Americans with Type 2 diabetes, treated intensively using pharmacological agents, education and diet ... African Americans * African Continental Ancestry Group* * Aged * Biomarkers / blood * Blood Glucose / metabolism* ... Near-normoglycaemic remission in African-Americans with Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with recovery of beta cell ... Conclusions: Forty-two per cent of newly diagnosed, unselected African-Americans with Type 2 diabetes, treated intensively ...
This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. ... African Continental Ancestry Group * Aged * Analysis of Variance * Cross-Sectional Studies * Female ... This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. ... South Africa J Urban Health. 2008 Jul;85(4):472-85. doi: 10.1007/s11524-008-9286-7. ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. Schackman BR, Ribaudo HJ, Krambrink A, Hughes V, Kuritzkes DR, Gulick RM. "Racial ... African Americans. Ribaudo HJ, Smith KY, Robbins GK, et al. "Racial differences in response to antiretroviral therapy for HIV ... an AIDS clinical trials group (ACTG) study analysis." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2013;57(11):1607-17. ... an AIDS clinical trials group (ACTG) study analysis." Clin. Infect. Dis.. 2013;57(11):1607-17. ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. Trindade, F., Fiadeiro, T., Torrelo, A., Hennies, Hans C., Hausser, I. and Traupe, H. (2010 ... chemistry Action Potentials Activating Transcription Factor 4 Adipocytes Adolescent Adult African Continental Ancestry Group ... Group by: Date , Creators , Item Type , Uncontrolled Keywords , No Grouping. *Clone Cells 3T3 Cells 5 Untranslated Regions ... Soares, Pedro, Rito, Teresa, Pereira, Luísa and Richards, Martin B. (2016) A Genetic Perspective on African Prehistory. In: ...
African Continental Ancestry Group * Aged * Americas / epidemiology * Cohort Studies * European Continental Ancestry Group ...
Activities of Daily Living • Adaptation, Physiological • Adaptation, Psychological • Adult • African Continental Ancestry Group ... European Continental Ancestry Group • Evolution • Fear • Feeding Behavior • Female • Forearm • Fossils • Gait • Gait Disorders ...
African Continental Ancestry Group*. Child. Contraception / statistics & numerical data. European Continental Ancestry Group*. ... Fully adjusted multiple linear regression models estimated blood lipid changes among these pregnancy groups adjusted for race, ... group differences in black -4.3 [-6.7, -2.0]; P , .001 and white: -4.5 [-8.2, -0.7]; P = .016) and greater increments in ... fasting triglycerides (mg/dL; adjusted mean [95% confidence interval] group differences in black: 10.4 [3.9, 16.8]; P , .001, ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. Blood Pressure*. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage. Dietary Fiber / administration & ... European Continental Ancestry Group. Female. Humans. Hypertension / diet therapy*, ethnology, prevention & control*. Male. ... African-American and other minority groups will comprise 67% of the population. Participants will eat one of the three dietary ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. 1. 2010. 2009. 0.060. Why? African Americans. 1. 2016. 4937. 0.050. Why? ...
... "african continental ancestry group" [MeSH Terms] OR ("African" [All Fields] AND "continental" [All Fields] AND "ancestry" [All ... "african continental ancestry group" [All Fields] OR "blacks" [All Fields]) OR ("african americans" [MeSH Terms] OR ("african" [ ... The following search terms were used: atrial fibrillation, blacks, African American, African continental ancestry group, race, ... Using ancestry informative markers, Marcus et al. observed that increasing European ancestry, as opposed to African ancestry, ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. genetics. Anti-HIV Agents. pharmacokinetics. Benzoxazines. pharmacokinetics. Dose-Response ...
Categories: African Continental Ancestry Group Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
African Continental Ancestry Group. Nollen NL, Mayo MS, Sanderson Cox L, Okuyemi KS, Choi WS, Kaur H, Ahluwalia JS. Predictors ... Predictors of quitting among African American light smokers enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of ... Predictors of quitting among African American light smokers enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of ... Predictors of quitting among African American light smokers enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of ...
African Continental Ancestry Group Child Child Abuse Child Protective Services Child, Preschool Chronic Disease Female Health ... Our objective was to describe a group of children reported to child protective services (CPS) for medical neglect to define ...
MeSH Terms: African Continental Ancestry Group/genetics; Asthma/genetics*; Child; Cohort Studies; Costa Rica; Cytokines/ ... European Continental Ancestry Group/genetics; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology; Genetic Predisposition to ... in African-Americans in the Genomic Research on Asthma in the African Diaspora study, in whites and Hispanics in the Children& ... Significant findings were replicated in whites and African-American participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program, ...
African Continental Ancestry Group/*psychology. Resnicow K, Davis RE, Zhang G, Konkel J, Strecher VJ, Shaikh AR, Tolsma D, ... African Americans. Resnicow K, Jackson A, Blissett D, Wang T, McCarty F, Rahotep S, Periasamy S. Results of the healthy body ... African Americans/*psychology. Resnicow K, Jackson A, Wang T, De AK, McCarty F, Dudley WN, Baranowski T. A motivational ... Dietary change through African American churches: Baseline results and program description of the eat for life trial. Journal ...
MeSH Terms: Adult; African Americans/genetics; Aged; Alleles; Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics; Chromosomes, Human, ... We conducted a GWAS of colorectal cancer (CRC) in 6,597 African Americans (1,894 cases and 4,703 controls) (Stage 1) and ... Title: Novel colon cancer susceptibility variants identified from a genome-wide association study in African Americans. ... The frequency of the G allele was 0.06 in African Americans, compared to ,0.01 in Europeans, Asians and Amerindians in the 1000 ...
Ancestry was estimated by grouping data for populations sampled in Europe, Africa and Native Americans into three continental ... We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among ... The position of each blue dot on the triangle plot indicates the proportion of European, Native American and African ancestry ... The populations have been ordered left to right based on decreasing autosomal European ancestry. The values of these ancestry ...
African Continental Ancestry Group Medicine & Life Sciences 29% * Informatics Medicine & Life Sciences 18% ...
The Tibetan and Yi languages belong to the Tibeto-Bruman language group and their ancestries can be traced back to an ancient ... The PCA plot for world-wide samples showed that populations within a continental/regional group were clearly separated from one ... "out of Africa" theory. Tibetans are clustered within EA populations, in agreement with the results of ancestry analysis (Figure ... Ancestry analysis. We inferred individual ancestry proportions with the frappe program [44] for 30 individuals of our Tibetan ...
African Americans * Medicaid * Delivery of Health Care * Poverty * African Continental Ancestry Group ...
African Continental Ancestry Group * Health * Occupational Noise * European Continental Ancestry Group * Occupational Exposure ...
African Continental Ancestry Group ; Anthropometry ; Child ; Cohort Studies ; Female ; Humans ; Infant ; Linear Models ; Male ... Approaches for assessing the role of household socioeconomic status on child anthropometric measures in urban South Africa. ... Data from the 1990 Birth-to-Twenty cohort study set in Johannesburg-Soweto, South Africa, were used (n = 888). Linear ... Approaches for assessing the role of household socioeconomic status on child anthropometric measures in urban South Africa. ...
3) West African (broad geographical region). 4) Non-European (i.e. Amerindian - continental group) ... West Africans in Haiti, Cuba, Ohio, Canada, and Senegal do not share a social identity, they do share genes and ancestry. ... "West African" is not just a social construct, because West Africans are not an ethnic group. ... If Lewontin wants to argue that Japanese, West-African, and Amerindian "ancestry" is informative about genetic differences ( ...
  • Forty-two per cent of newly diagnosed, unselected African-Americans with Type 2 diabetes, treated intensively using pharmacological agents, education and diet developed near-normoglycaemic remission. (
  • In a broad sweep of subjects in the general population and hospitalized patients, the prevalence of AF in African Americans is consistently lower than in Caucasians. (
  • Although these epidemiologic findings seem consistent, a counterpoint contends that an underdiagnosis of AF among different racial groups may be the contributing factor to account for the AF disparity seen in African Americans [ 10 ]. (
  • Novel colon cancer susceptibility variants identified from a genome-wide association study in African Americans. (
  • We conducted a GWAS of colorectal cancer (CRC) in 6,597 African Americans (1,894 cases and 4,703 controls) (Stage 1) and followed up the most promising markers in a replication set of 2,041 participants of African descent (891 cases and 1,150 controls) (Stage 2). (
  • Ancestry was estimated by grouping data for populations sampled in Europe, Africa and Native Americans into three continental population samples. (
  • This review demonstrates that current HbA1c cutoffs overestimate glycem- risk of false positives compared with White populations, regard- ic status in African Americans and underestimate glycemic status in Afro- less of glycemic status. (
  • This review demonstrates that current HbA 1c cutoffs overestimate glycemic status in African Americans and underestimate glycemic status in Afro-Caribbeans and Africans. (
  • Three studies of African Americans found that HbA 1c of 5.7% to less than 6.5% or HbA 1c of 6.5% or higher generally increased risk of overdiagnosis compared with OGTT or previous diagnosis. (
  • Native Americans are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. (
  • In the United States the term is generally used for Americans with Sub-Saharan African ancestry. (
  • What they dont know is that there are many hundreds of groups native to the Americas and some were even white with red hair, others were DARK skinned native Americans and that the facial features they describe are not unique to Africa. (
  • This is different from the case of Latin Americans , where Amerindians have been largely absorbed in the Mestizo population, but populations with minimal European or African admixture persist. (
  • Caucasian respondents tended to be older, married, nonsmokers, with annual incomes over dollar 10,000, and had higher educational attainment than African Americans. (
  • After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, clinic site, and site-ethnicity interactions, SF-36 scores for physical function, role physical, bodily pain, and vitality were greater for African Americans than caucasians, while adjusted scores were significantly lower for role emotional. (
  • For the SAQ, overall adjusted physical function summary scores and disease stability scores were significantly greater for African Americans than caucasians. (
  • Adjusted summary satisfaction scores for provider satisfaction were not significantly lower for African Americans overall but were significant at two of six sites. (
  • Similarly, on the SAQ, adjusted treatment satisfaction scores were significantly lower for African Americans at half of the sites and minimally but not clinically significant overall. (
  • We analyzed a total of 347 admixed Latin American genomes along with 1102 putative ancestral source genomes from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans. (
  • African Americans had higher mean ideal (p = 0.07) and ideal mother (p = 0.001) BIs compared with whites. (
  • 14 Using these genetic markers, it is possible to see the ancestral components of Indigenous, European and African ancestors in modern day Mexicans and Mexican Americans. (
  • For example, a recent study of U.S. "Latinos" in the San Francisco Bay Area including Mexican Americans demonstrated that approximately 55% of the ancestry among Mexican Americans is European, approximately 40% is Indigenous American and approximately 5% is African. (
  • A new effort to catalog genetic diversity among people in Mexico-who along with other Latin Americans have a unique ancestry-could shed light on diseases that affect these groups disproportionately, and on why some drugs may work more or less effectively in these populations. (
  • A new effort to study genetic diversity in Latin Americans, specifically in Mexico, could shed light on diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, that strike this group disproportionately. (
  • However, the original HapMap almost entirely excluded Native Americans, largely due to political opposition from indigenous groups. (
  • About 5,000 Jackson-area volunteers were included in a group of nearly 30,000 African-Americans whose genetic information the scientists used to create the map. (
  • The new map is the first built in African-Americans. (
  • The world's best genetic map is now built in African-Americans," said David Reich, professor of genetics at Harvard Medical School, who co-led the study with Simon Myers, a lecturer in statistics at the University of Oxford. (
  • This map, built in 30,000 African-Americans who are from studies of heart disease and cancer, has a resolution so high it is now the world's most accurate map. (
  • For example, studies have shown certain diseases, such as hypertension, affect African-Americans at greater rates than whites, even with other variables like age, weight and socioeconomic level accounted for. (
  • The landscape of recombination has shifted in African-Americans compared with Europeans," said Anjali Hinch, the study's first author and a post-graduate student at the Oxford University's Wellcome Trust Centrefor Human Genetics. (
  • African-Americans are a genetically distinguishable group from other continental populations," he said. (
  • African-Americans differ from their African ancestors in that most of them also have genes from European ancestors. (
  • Over half of African-Americans carry a version of the biological machinery for recombination that is different to that in Europeans. (
  • As a result, African-Americans experience recombination where it almost never occurs in Europeans," Myers said. (
  • This is the first study to examine cross-cancer pleiotropic associations for lung cancer in African Americans. (
  • A comparison among, say, East Africans and Native Americans can yield vital clues to human ancestry and to the inexorable progression of colonizations from continent to continent. (
  • And, there were probably older, pre-Neolithic, episodes of admixture, as well, when different groups of modern humans expanded across the globa and mixed with older groups of modern humans, or, as it seems increasingly likely, with archaic humans as well. (
  • After heading north out of Africa, humans spread to the east and west, populating Melanesia, Asia, and Europe, and eventually made their way across the Bering Strait into the Americas ~ 20,000 years ago. (
  • This pattern of human evolution was turned upside down upon the arrival of Columbus in the New World a mere 500 years ago, which is less than 1% of the elapsed time since humans emerged from Africa. (
  • In humans today there are not multiple biological groups called "races. (
  • When I was but a wee cup o' broth a half-century ago in a little working-class town outside of Philadelphia, we referred to blacks as "colored people," which to me suggested that humans are all identical Barbie and Ken dolls coming down the same assembly line until a certain group gets shunted away to receive coloring. (
  • That is just one theory for how modern humans first left Africa. (
  • Those first trekkers out of Africa brought with them the physical and behavioral traits-the large brains and the capacity for language-that characterize fully modern humans. (
  • They reported that humans from different populations all descended from a single female in Africa who lived about 200,000 years ago-a finding that immediately made headlines trumpeting the discovery of the "Mitochondrial Eve. (
  • This paper presents the findings of a qualitative study conducted among Xhosa-speaking adolescent women in South Africa which revealed male violent and coercive practices to dominate their sexual relationships. (
  • The old descriptor ANIMALS will be changed to ANIMAL POPULATION GROUPS. (
  • Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. (
  • African-American and other minority groups will comprise 67% of the population. (
  • In subgroup analyses, African American race was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AF in the general population, those hospitalized or greater than 60 years old, postcoronary artery bypass surgery patients, and subjects with heart failure. (
  • An admixture analysis allowing for Native American population subdivision revealed a differentiation of the Native American ancestry amongst Mestizos. (
  • Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between SES (individual and index measures) during infancy and anthropometric measures at age 7/8 years, controlling for sex, age, and population group. (
  • HbA 1c of 6.5% or higher for type 2 diabetes), determined from predominantly White population cohorts (4-8), may perform suboptimally in evaluating glycemic status in this diverse population of African American, Afro-Caribbean, and African populations (9-12). (
  • Mean FST values for common putatively functional variants were significantly higher than FST values for nonfunctional variants.Thus, putative functional SNPs in genes in etiologic pathways for CVD show greater population differentiation than non-functional SNPs and a significant variance of FST values was noted among pairwise population comparisons for different biological processes.These results suggest a possible basis for varying susceptibility to CVD among ethnic groups. (
  • We investigated patterns of population differentiation (FST) of a set of genes in etiologic pathways of CVD among 3 ethnic groups: Yoruba in Nigeria (YRI), Utah residents with European ancestry (CEU), and Han Chinese (CHB) + Japanese (JPT). (
  • Being an island population with an MANY international ports on each Island, the native people dont exist anymore after prolonged mixing with everyone from Africans to Europeans. (
  • For this study, we characterized the impact of ancestry and admixture on genetic variants that underlie health- and disease-related phenotypes in population genomic samples from Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Puerto Rico. (
  • SNPs that exist in any given Latin American population at a higher frequency than expected based on the population's genetic ancestry profile. (
  • Genes from both the innate and adaptive immune system were found to be regulated by ancestry-enriched SNPs with population-specific regulatory effects. (
  • Distinct continental population groups - African, Asian, and European in particular - are the most obvious examples of this evolutionary process. (
  • 8 Historically, Mexico has included an Indigenous population, Spanish migrants and African migrants, originally brought as slaves. (
  • Even something thought to be so ubiquitous as skin color works only in a limited way as dark or light skin tells us only about a human's amount of ancestry relative to the equator, not anything about the specific population or part of the planet they might be descended from. (
  • HL activity at baseline was significantly higher in our population compared with an age-matched control group without type 2 diabetes (406 +/- 150 vs. 357 +/- 118 units/l). (
  • Strong identification with an ethnic minority group may be a potential contributory factor of the high rates of psychosis in the BME population, the effects of which may be explained by perceptions of disadvantage. (
  • The Population Finder analysis was relatively non-specific, particularly for people with European Ancestry. (
  • Overall, D . folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. (
  • Hispanics are a relatively young-about 500-year-old-amalgam of three major continental groups-European, Native American, and African-and make up about 15 percent of the world's population. (
  • Apolipoprotein E genotype, vascular risk and early cognitive impairment in an African Caribbean population. (
  • In order to clarify possible reasons for this, we examined the association between APOE genotype and early cognitive impairment in a community-based African Caribbean UK population aged 55-75 years. (
  • West African" is not just a social construct, because West Africans are not an ethnic group. (
  • We are interested in studying how combinations of genetic ancestry in admixed Latin American populations may impact genomic determinants of health and disease. (
  • We characterized the genetic ancestry, relatedness, and admixture patterns for each of the admixed Latin American genomes, finding a spectrum of ancestry proportions within and between populations. (
  • Using genetic markers, it is possible to estimate the genetic ancestry of a group or of an individual. (
  • Admixture analysis (more properly known as biogeographical ancestry analysis) is a method of inferring someone's geographical origins based on an analysis of their genetic ancestry . (
  • Admixture calculations provide genetic ancestry analysis to individuals tested for high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. (
  • As races evolved following divergent migrations out of Africa, their social behavior diverged and became written in their genes. (
  • The researchers also compare women of African-American or European ancestry to pinpoint the location of genes associated with decreased bone mineral density, a measure of osteoporosis. (
  • Coyne has a second post on More on genes and geography: diagnosing your ancestry from your DNA , showing how easy it is to distinguish various human populations based on the frequency of alleles they contain. (
  • For example, all four populations show ancestry-enriched SNPs in multiple genes from immune system pathways, such as the cytokine receptor interaction, T cell receptor signaling, and antigen presentation pathways. (
  • La investigación en cáncer de mama ha dado varios resultados importantes incluyendo los genes fuertemente susceptibles, BRCA1 y BRCA2, y más recientemente 19 genes y loci genéticos que confieren un riesgo moderado. (
  • There are no genes that make blacks in the USA more susceptible to high blood pressure, just as there are no genes for particular kinds of cancers that can be assigned to only one racial grouping. (
  • Investigators have questioned the impact of race on the epidemiology of AF based on issues relating to the imperfect methodology for AF detection, coupled with the suspicion that AF is unequally diagnosed among racial groups [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • The consistent finding of higher prevalence of hypertension in US blacks compared to whites has led to speculation that African-origin populations are particularly susceptible to this condition. (
  • These data demonstrate that not only is there a wide variation in hypertension prevalence among both racial groups, the rates among blacks are not unusually high when viewed internationally. (
  • The enormous attention focused on this observation has resulted in a dichotomous view of hypertension risk: whereby populations of African origin are considered more susceptible than all other continental groupings and a strong genetic hypothesis of inherent predisposition to hypertension among blacks has become the conventional wisdom [ 3 - 5 ]. (
  • Data on the prevalence of hypertension in other genetically-related populations of African and European descent constitute important evidence but have so far not been considered in the debate. (
  • We report here on the patterns of hypertension prevalence in a sample of 3 such surveys among blacks from Africa, the Caribbean and the US and 8 surveys among whites from the US, Canada and Europe. (
  • Oh another wrench to throw into their gears is to ask them how they distinguish between continental Africans whom they hate for selling them to Europeans as slaves and colonial slaves that made it to the new world. (
  • They mixed to a lesser extent but still profusely with Europeans from all over Europe and African slaves. (
  • Asians and Africans consistently aggregate at opposite ends, with Europeans intermediate, on a continuum that includes over 60 anatomical and social variables. (
  • The modern human species - Homo sapiens sapiens - originated in sub-Saharan Africa ~ 200,000 years ago and began to migrate out of Africa and spread throughout the world starting ~ 70,000 years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • However, in the context of frequent ECG repolarization anomalies in black athletes, the potential for erroneous diagnosis of arrhythmogenic RV cardiomyopathy is considerably greater in this ethnic group. (
  • An ethnic group is normally defined by having a degree of cultural and linguistic similarity and often an ideology of shared roots. (
  • Data were collected on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, perceptions of disadvantage, and identification with one's own ethnic group. (
  • Chi-square tests, t tests, and one-way analysis of covariance were used to analyze racial/ethnic group differences. (
  • Racial/ethnic group differences were minimal compared with the overall high prevalence of risk factors such as smoking and obesity. (
  • In Wade's telling, the Caucasian and East Asian races comprise the richest and most powerful nations in the world because they are genetically better adapted to success in modern capitalist systems than are Africans and the other racial groups, who remain steeped in tribalism, the "default" human condition. (
  • A simple finding of physical difference (even beyond superficial differences) would not suffice to show that racial groups of any sort are natural kinds (inherent, fixed, etc. (
  • If people who are classified in different racial groups have different diets, are exposed to different environmental toxins, etc., they may have different biological - but acquired - characteristics. (
  • Because we are forced to parrot the transparent inanity that the only difference between us is "skin color," whenever we hear about any statistical disparities between racial groups in America, we are only permitted to publicly blame such differences on "racism. (
  • Modern Latin American populations were formed via genetic admixture among ancestral source populations from Africa, the Americas and Europe. (
  • Both the used datasets (regional, continental, worldwide) and the ancestral components (number, age) are very diverse depending on the used setup and analysis method. (
  • The Ancestry Composition feature offers a map view which displays one's ancestral components from various regions of the world as of 500 years ago, a split view for those who also have one or both parents who have been tested by 23andMe, and a breakdown by chromosome. (
  • Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. (
  • We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. (
  • For example, if a certain disease is much more common in one ancestral group, scientists need only screen the DNA inherited from that group in a person of mixed ancestry. (
  • Accessible Version: timally in evaluating glycemic status among African descent groups. (
  • Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects African descent groups, yet con- ing glycemic status. (
  • To ensure early type 2 diabetes of 6.5% or higher detected fewer type 2 diabetes cases because of detection, heterogeneity within African descent groups must be recog- a greater risk of false negatives. (
  • heterogeneous African descent populations. (
  • Research is needed to African descent populations in the United States have high rates of determine optimal HbA1c cutoffs or other test strategies that ac- type 2 diabetes and are incorrectly represented as a single group. (
  • Type 2 diabetes disproportionately affects African descent groups, yet contributing factors are often overlooked. (
  • To ensure early type 2 diabetes detection, heterogeneity within African descent groups must be recognized, and more reliable testing strategies must be identified. (
  • African descent populations in the United States have high rates of type 2 diabetes and are incorrectly represented as a single group. (
  • 6.5% for type 2 diabetes) may perform suboptimally in evaluating glycemic status among African descent groups. (
  • HbA 1c criteria inadequately characterizes glycemic status among heterogeneous African descent populations. (
  • prevalence is higher in African descent populations, 14%, compared with White populations of European descent (White populations), 9% (1). (
  • Additionally, African descent populations are represented as a single group, despite being comprised of African American (91%), Afro-Caribbean (4.7%), and African (3.7%) people (2,3). (
  • It is well-known that bone mineral density is higher in individuals with a higher percentage of African descent. (
  • But, women of African-American descent also get osteoporosis. (
  • The study also looks at a subset of women identified as being of European descent to determine whether European ancestry puts women at higher risk of hip fracture. (
  • But the vast majority of that research has focused on people of European, Asian, and African descent. (
  • Ethnicity is often constructed either as an amalgam national identity or as something reserved for the indigenous groups so that ethnic identity is something that members of indigenous groups have in addition to their national identity. (
  • Racial and ethnic discrimination is common in Latin America where socio-economic status generally correlates with perceived whiteness, and indigenous status and perceived African ancestry is generally correlated with poverty, and lack of opportunity and social status. (
  • An African American is a person in the United States whose ancestors , usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa . (
  • The indigenous peoples of Africa are those peoples from the African region whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalisation within modern African states. (
  • Researchers are now using the map to analyze Mexican ancestry-the country is home to 65 indigenous groups-and to run genome-wide association studies of cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and age-related macular degeneration. (
  • A reduced association between epsilon4 and later AD in populations of African origin is unlikely to be explained by reduced cognitive effects or by differential mortality. (
  • Specifically, the most common ancestry groupings were Oceanic (Melanesian and Papuan) and Eastern Asian (specifically Han Chinese). (
  • A recent debate over the usefulness and relevance of the widely used Biological Species Concept, based on reproductive isolation, versus the Phylogenetic Species Concept, which is centred around identifying the smallest group with common ancestry, has raised concerns that changing nomenclatural foundations might result in the appearance of previously unrecognized patterns of biodiversity. (
  • One aspect of the "person in the street" view of race is that it reflects common ancestry, which produces correlated physical and social traits. (
  • Seldin's previous work found that European populations actually represent two genetically distinct Southern and Northern groups. (
  • By analyzing the variation segregating among 241 mite sequences isolated from 70 human hosts, we showed that hosts with different regional ancestries harbor distinct lineages of mites and that these associations can persist despite generations spent in a new geographic region. (
  • Wilson said the African-American genome has become distinct because of recombination in the U.S. during the past two to three centuries. (
  • Beginning in the 1950s, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza started formalizing the study of genetic differences among populations by examining distinct blood group proteins. (
  • Similar biological diversity and geology suggest that the continent of South America was once a part of Africa. (
  • South America eventually broke off of the African mainland (through a geologic process called continental drift ), and over the course of millions of years, migrated to its present position. (
  • Unfortunately, the separation between South America and Africa occurred over 100 Mya ago, which is much earlier than the first primate fossils on either continent. (
  • Using samples taken from WHI participants, the researchers first determine part of each woman's genotype, or genetic fingerprint, using high through-put assays that specifically examine ancestry. (
  • It has been observed that African American race is associated with a lower prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to Caucasian race. (
  • The aim of the present study was to systematically quantify the association between African American race and prevalence of AF in a wide range of patient populations. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher prevalence of cardiac risk factors, African-American patients with CAD who were treated in the VA system appeared to have a greater level of physical functioning, vitality, and angina stability. (
  • Since a relatively limited number of autosomal SNPs are available in the Geno 2.0 data for analysis, the biogeographical ancestry analysis is somewhat limited relative to other similar tools, particularly relative to Ancestry Composition. (
  • A somewhat limited number of autosomal SNPs are included in the All My Ancestry dataset which limits the specificity of the biogeographical ancestry analysis relative to 23andMe's Ancestry Composition. (
  • Biogeographical ancestry (BGA) is particularly useful forensic intelligence that can be gained from DNA and my research is aimed at increasing the accuracy of prediction and understanding the legal, policy and privacy frameworks. (
  • We found extensive variation in Native American and European ancestry (and generally low levels of African ancestry) among populations and individuals, and evidence that admixture across Latin America has often involved predominantly European men and both Native and African women. (
  • The populations have been ordered left to right based on decreasing autosomal European ancestry. (
  • Heterozygosity vs. Proportion of European Ancestry in Mestizo Populations. (
  • We also found SNPs with excess African or European ancestry that are associated with ancestry-specific gene expression patterns and play crucial roles in the immune system and infectious disease responses. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. (
  • Almost every prior genetic map was developed in people of European ancestry. (
  • Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East London first episode psychosis study. (
  • The study of human genetic variation-a kind of historical Global Positioning System-goes back to World War I, when two physicians working in the Greek city of Thessaloníki found that soldiers garrisoned there had a differing incidence of a given blood group depending on their nationality. (
  • Racial categories in Latin America are often linked to both continental ancestry or mixture as inferred from phenotypical traits, but also to socio-economic status. (
  • When thinking about this approach to race, most sociologists adopt the constructivist view which says that: (a) the way we group people together reflects our historical moment, not a genuine grouping of people with shared traits and (b) the only physical differences between people are superficial. (
  • Namely, to make the strong constructivist argument, you would need (a) a definition of which traits matter, (b) a systematic measurement of those traits from a very large sample of people, (c) criteria for clustering people based on data, and (d) a clear test that all (or even most) reasonable clustering methods show a single group of people. (
  • Before May 8, 1968, several social work related advocacy groups comprised of people of African ancestry had been addressing issues of racism and poverty in America. (
  • What we ought to ask on medical questionnaires is not racial identification, but ancestry. (
  • We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. (
  • Racial differences in response to antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: an AIDS clinical trials group (ACTG) study analysis. (
  • If Lewontin wants to argue that Japanese, West-African, and Amerindian "ancestry" is informative about genetic differences (with varying levels of resolution) then there isn't much of substance to argue about, though we can quibble about whether we want a trendy euphemism to describe this differentiation that exists below the species level. (
  • Once that myth was shattered, they fell back on the position that there are differences if you pick the right groups (e.g. comparing the average native citizen of Lanzhou and Uppsala) but this is unfair. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in self-reported health status and satisfaction between African-American and caucasian veterans with ischemic heart disease (IHD). (
  • Differences in duration of untreated psychosis for racial and ethnic minority groups with first-episode psychosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • Understanding the cultural, biological, and lifestyle factors that vary between White, African American, and ethnic subgroups of Asian American women may help explain these survival differences. (
  • Mongoloids, caucasoids, and negroids can be distinguished on the basis of obvious differences in skeletal morphology, hair and facial features, as well by blood groups and DNA fingerprints. (
  • As researchers begin to parse those differences, a crucial tool is a genetic map, as it determines how some groups of genetic differences tend to be inherited together. (
  • The ethno-racial composition of modern-day Latin American nations combines diverse Amerindian populations, with influence from Iberian and other European colonizers, and equally diverse African groups brought to the Americas as slave labor, and also recent immigrant groups from all over the world. (
  • The conquest and colonization of the Americas, along with the trans-Atlantic slave trade, brought African, European, and Native American populations into close and sustained contact for the first time. (
  • Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. (
  • Very generally speaking ethno-racial relations can be arranged on an axis between the two extremes of European and Amerindian cultural and biological heritage, this is a remnant of the colonial Spanish caste system which categorized individuals according to their perceived level of biological mixture between the two groups. (
  • Identifying 1,572 biological species defined in the African 'Atlas of Speciation' and 2,098 phylogenetic species, the study found that large-scale patterns of species richness and endemisms were remarkably robust to changes in species concepts. (
  • There is not a single biological element unique to any of the groups we call white, black, Asian, Latino, etc. (
  • Ancestry Proportions in 13 Mestizo Populations. (
  • Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) are commonly used to estimate overall admixture proportions efficiently and inexpensively [4] . (
  • The construction of race in Latin America is different from, for example, the model found in the United States, possibly because race mixing has been a common practice since the early colonial period, whereas in the United States it has generally been avoided or severely sanctioned.Moreover, phenotypical appearance determines racial classification more than strict ancestry. (
  • Unlike the United States where ancestry is used to define race, Latin American scholars came to agree by the 1970s that race in Latin America could not be understood as the "genetic composition of individuals" but instead "based upon a combination of cultural, social, and somatic considerations. (
  • In Latin America, a person's ancestry is quite irrelevant to racial classification. (
  • Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. (
  • The search was limited to published studies in English conducted in the United States, which clearly defined the presence of AF in African American and Caucasian subjects. (
  • To address this objective, we performed a meta-analysis of available published studies among different patient subgroups which addressed the presence of AF in subjects of African American and Caucasian race. (
  • And most Hispanics are part Native American-a recent study in Mexico City found that 70 percent of participants' ancestry was Native American, says Burchard. (
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. (
  • The objectives of this article were to compare the variance explained in anthropometric outcomes when using individual measures of socioeconomic status (SES) versus different approaches to create SES indices within the urban African context, and to examine the influence of SES measured during infancy on child anthropometric outcomes at 7/8 years. (
  • Ancestry Finder provides a breakdown of one's ancestry by country. (
  • The sheer number and diversity of the women who took part in the WHI study will also allow Seldin and his colleagues to determine the impact of ancestry on disease-risk. (
  • HbA1c Performance in African American, Afro-Caribbean, and African people. (
  • Caribbean, and African people living in the United States. (
  • We conducted a scoping review of US-based evidence documenting HbA 1c performance to assess glycemic status among African American, Afro-Caribbean, and African people. (
  • Research is needed to determine optimal HbA 1c cutoffs or other test strategies that account for risk profiles unique to African American, Afro-Caribbean, and African people living in the United States. (
  • For example, in a study of five Hispanic/Latino ethnic groups, Puerto Ricans and Dominicans showed the largest proportion of African ancestry, while Mexicans had a significantly larger proportion of Native American ancestry than the other groups [2] . (
  • 9 Such estimates are most efficiently made with a set of markers that are selected to be specifically informative for continental ancestry, 10-13 but can also be ascertained from dense whole genome polymorphism data from SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) arrays. (
  • African-American patients reported significantly fewer cardiac procedures (33% vs. 52%, p (
  • A reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with the apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon4 allele is reported in populations of African origin. (
  • A recent study, published in the journal Ecography evaluates this suggestion on a continental scale for the first time, using a dataset that encompasses the entire bird fauna of sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Ethnicity on the other hand is a system that classifies groups of people according to cultural, linguistic and historic criteria. (
  • Whereas ethnicity is often seen as a system of social organization where membership is established through mutual identification between a group and its members. (
  • We then identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with anomalous ancestry-enrichment patterns, i.e. (
  • For this set of ancestry-enriched SNPs, we inspected their phenotypic impact on disease, metabolism, and the immune system. (
  • Ancestry-enriched SNPs in Latin American populations have a substantial effect on health- and disease-related phenotypes. (
  • The concordant impact observed for same phenotypes across populations points to a process of adaptive introgression, whereby ancestry-enriched SNPs with specific functional utility appear to have been retained in modern populations by virtue of their effects on health and fitness. (
  • Inheritance was autosomal codominant in family studies and the distribution of types in random unrelated populations fit the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all groups. (